[Title 7 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - January 1, 1998 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]


[[Page i]]

          7



          Agriculture



          PARTS 53 TO 209

                         Revised as of January 1, 1998

          CONTAINING
          A CODIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
          OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY
          AND FUTURE EFFECT
          AS OF JANUARY 1, 1998

          With Ancillaries
          Published by
          the Office of the Federal Register
          National Archives and Records
          Administration
          as a Special Edition of
          the Federal Register



[[Page ii]]

                                      




                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON : 1998



               For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office
 Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328



[[Page iii]]




                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 7:
      Subtitle B--Regulations of the Department of 
                                                                                Agriculture--Continued:


    Chapter I--Agricultural Marketing Service (Standards, 
        Inspections, Marketing Practices), Department of 
        Agriculture (Continued)...............................       5
  Finding Aids:
    Material Approved for Incorporation by Reference..........     395
    Table of CFR Titles and Chapters..........................     397
    Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR........     413
    List of CFR Sections Affected.............................     423



[[Page iv]]


      


----------------------------------------------------------------

   Cite this Code:  CFR

   To cite the regulations in this volume use title, part and
   section number. Thus,  7 CFR 53.1 refers to title 7, part
   53, section 1.

----------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page v]]



                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1
    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    The Code of Federal Regulations is kept up to date by the individual 
issues of the Federal Register. These two publications must be used 
together to determine the latest version of any given rule.
    To determine whether a Code volume has been amended since its 
revision date (in this case, January 1, 1998), consult the ``List of CFR 
Sections Affected (LSA),'' which is issued monthly, and the ``Cumulative 
List of Parts Affected,'' which appears in the Reader Aids section of 
the daily Federal Register. These two lists will identify the Federal 
Register page number of the latest amendment of any given rule.

EFFECTIVE AND EXPIRATION DATES

    Each volume of the Code contains amendments published in the Federal 
Register since the last revision of that volume of the Code. Source 
citations for the regulations are referred to by volume number and page 
number of the Federal Register and date of publication. Publication 
dates and effective dates are usually not the same and care must be 
exercised by the user in determining the actual effective date. In 
instances where the effective date is beyond the cut-off date for the 
Code a note has been inserted to reflect the future effective date. In 
those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register 
states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be 
inserted following the text.

OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
amendments to existing regulations in the CFR. These OMB numbers are 
placed as close as possible to the applicable recordkeeping or reporting 
requirements.

OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

    Provisions that become obsolete before the revision date stated on 
the cover of each volume are not carried. Code users may find the text 
of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
appropriate numerical list of sections affected. For the period before 
January 1, 1986, consult either the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1949-
1963, 1964-1972, or 1973-1985, published in seven separate volumes. For 
the period beginning January 1, 1986, a ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected'' is published at the end of each CFR volume.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

    What is incorporation by reference? Incorporation by reference was 
established by statute and allows Federal agencies to meet the 
requirement to publish regulations in the Federal Register by referring 
to materials already published elsewhere. For an incorporation to be 
valid, the Director of the Federal Register must approve it. The legal 
effect of incorporation by reference is that the material is treated as 
if it were published in full in the Federal Register (5 U.S.C. 552(a)). 
This material, like any other properly issued regulation, has the force 
of law.
    What is a proper incorporation by reference? The Director of the 
Federal Register will approve an incorporation by reference only when 
the requirements of 1 CFR part 51 are met. Some of the elements on which 
approval is based are:
    (a) The incorporation will substantially reduce the volume of 
material published in the Federal Register.
    (b) The matter incorporated is in fact available to the extent 
necessary to afford fairness and uniformity in the administrative 
process.
    (c) The incorporating document is drafted and submitted for 
publication in accordance with 1 CFR part 51.
    Properly approved incorporations by reference in this volume are 
listed in the Finding Aids at the end of this volume.
    What if the material incorporated by reference cannot be found? If 
you have any problem locating or obtaining a copy of material listed in 
the Finding Aids of this volume as an approved incorporation by 
reference, please contact the agency that issued the regulation 
containing that incorporation. If, after contacting the agency, you find 
the material is not available, please notify the Director of the Federal 
Register, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC 
20408, or call (202) 523-4534.

CFR INDEXES AND TABULAR GUIDES

    A subject index to the Code of Federal Regulations is contained in a 
separate volume, revised annually as of January 1, entitled CFR Index 
and Finding Aids. This volume contains the Parallel Table of Statutory 
Authorities and Agency Rules (Table I), and Acts Requiring Publication 
in the Federal Register (Table II). A list of CFR titles, chapters, and 
parts and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR are 
also included in this volume.
    An index to the text of ``Title 3--The President'' is carried within 
that volume.
    The Federal Register Index is issued monthly in cumulative form. 
This index is based on a consolidation of the ``Contents'' entries in 
the daily Federal Register.

[[Page vii]]

    A List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA) is published monthly, keyed to 
the revision dates of the 50 CFR titles.

REPUBLICATION OF MATERIAL

    There are no restrictions on the republication of material appearing 
in the Code of Federal Regulations.

INQUIRIES

    For a legal interpretation or explanation of any regulation in this 
volume, contact the issuing agency. The issuing agency's name appears at 
the top of odd-numbered pages.
    For inquiries concerning CFR reference assistance, call 202-523-5227 
or write to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408 or e-mail 
[email protected],nara.gov.

SALES

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) processes all sales and 
distribution of the CFR. For payment by credit card, call 202-512-1800, 
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a day. For payment by check, write to the Superintendent of Documents, 
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ELECTRONIC SERVICES

    The texts of the Code of Federal Regulations, The United States 
Government Manual, the Federal Register, Public Laws, Weekly Compilation 
of Presidential Documents and the 1995 Privacy Act Compilation are 
available in electronic format at www.access.gpo.gov/nara/index.html. 
For more information, contact Electronic Information Dissemination 
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293-6498 (toll-free). E-mail, [email protected]
    The Office of the Federal Register maintains a free electronic 
bulletin board service, FREND (Federal Register Electronic News 
Delivery), for public law numbers, Federal Register finding aids, and 
related information. To access by modem: phone, 202-275-0920.
    In addition, the Federal Register's public inspection list and table 
of contents are also available on the National Archives and Records 
Administration's Fax-on-Demand system. Phone, 301-713-6905.

                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

January 1, 1998.



[[Page ix]]



                               THIS TITLE

    Title 7--Agriculture is composed of fifteen volumes. The parts in 
these volumes are arranged in the following order: parts 1-26, 27-52, 
53-209, 210-299, 300-399, 400-699, 700-899, 900-999, 1000-1199, 1200-
1599, 1600-1899, 1900-1939, 1940-1949, 1950-1999, and part 2000 to end. 
The contents of these volumes represent all current regulations codified 
under this title of the CFR as of January 1, 1998.

    The Food and Consumer Service current regulations in the volume 
containing parts 210-299, include the Child Nutrition Programs and the 
Food Stamp Program. The regulations of the Federal Crop Insurance 
Corporation are found in the volume containing parts 400-699.

    All marketing agreements and orders for fruits, vegetables and nuts 
appear in the one volume containing parts 900-999. All marketing 
agreements and orders for milk appear in the volume containing parts 
1000-1199. Part 900--General Regulations is carried as a note in the 
volume containing parts 1000-1199, as a convenience to the user.

    Redesignation tables appear in the Finding Aids section of the 
volumes containing parts 210-299 and parts 1600-1899.

    For this volume, Gregory R. Walton was Chief Editor. The Code of 
Federal Regulations publication program is under the direction of 
Frances D. McDonald, assisted by Alomha S. Morris.

[[Page x]]





[[Page 1]]



                          TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE




                  (This book contains parts 53 to 209)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Part

  SUBTITLE B--Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued):


Chapter i--Agricultural Marketing Service (Standards, 
  Inspections, Marketing Practices), Department of 
  Agriculture (Continued)...................................          53

[[Page 3]]

  Subtitle B--Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)

[[Page 5]]



CHAPTER I--AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE \1\ (STANDARDS, INSPECTIONS, MARKETING PRACTICES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)



---------------------------------------------------------------------------


  \1\ Including matters within the responsibilities of the Federal Grain 
Inspection Service.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

SUBCHAPTER C--REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING 
                        ACT OF 1946--(CONTINUED)
Part                                                                Page
53              Livestock (grading, certification, and 
                    standards)..............................           7
54              Meats, prepared meats, and meat products 
                    (grading, certification, and standards).          13
55              Voluntary inspection of egg products and 
                    grading.................................          32
56              Grading of shell eggs and U.S. standards, 
                    grades, and weight classes for shell 
                    eggs....................................          48
58              Grading and inspection, general 
                    specifications for approved plants and 
                    standards for grades of dairy products..          67
59              Inspection of eggs and egg products (Egg 
                    Products Inspection Act)................         143
60

[Reserved]

61              Cottonseed sold or offered for sale for 
                    crushing purposes (inspection, sampling 
                    and certification)......................         192
70              Voluntary grading of poultry products and 
                    rabbit products and U.S. classes, 
                    standards, and grades...................         198
75              Regulations for inspection and certification 
                    of quality of agricultural and vegetable 
                    seeds...................................         216
         SUBCHAPTER D--EXPORT AND DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS
80              Fresh Irish potatoes........................         224
81

[Reserved]

           SUBCHAPTER E--COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS
90              Introduction................................         228
91              Services and general information............         230

[[Page 6]]

92              Tobacco.....................................         245
93              Processed fruits and vegetables.............         248
94              Poultry and egg products....................         251
95

[Reserved]

96              Cottonseed sold or offered for sale for 
                    crushing purposes (Chemical Analysis and 
                    United States Official Grade 
                    Certification)..........................         255
97              Plant variety and protection................         262
98              Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MRE's), meats, and meat 
                    products................................         281
99-109

[Reserved]

110             Recordkeeping on restricted use pesticides 
                    by certified applicators; surveys and 
                    reports.................................         284
111-159

[Reserved]

                       SUBCHAPTER F--NAVAL STORES
160             Regulations and standards for naval stores..         296
                       SUBCHAPTERS G-H [RESERVED]
                     SUBCHAPTER K--FEDERAL SEED ACT
201             Federal Seed Act regulations................         315
202             Federal Seed Act rules of practice..........         388
203-209

[Reserved]

       SUBCHAPTER L--REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO PURCHASES [RESERVED]

[[Page 7]]



SUBCHAPTER C--REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946--(Continued)





PART 53--LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Regulations

                               Definitions

Sec.
53.1  Meaning of words.
53.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing 
          Act.

                             Administration

53.3  Authority.

                                 Service

53.4  Kind of service.
53.5  Availability of service.
53.8  How to obtain service.
53.9  Order of furnishing service.
53.10  When request for service deemed made.
53.11  Withdrawal of application or request for service.
53.12  Authority of agent.
53.13  Denial or withdrawal of service.
53.14  Financial interest of official grader.
53.15  Accessibility to livestock.
53.16  Official certificates.
53.17  Advance information concerning service rendered.

                           Charges for Service

53.18  Fees and other charges for service.
53.19  Payment of fees and other charges.

                              Miscellaneous

53.20  Identification.
53.21  Errors in service.

                          Subpart B  [Reserved]

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621-1627.

    Source:  42 FR 53902, Oct. 4, 1977, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Regulations

                               Definitions



Sec. 53.1  Meaning of words.

    Words used in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to 
import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. For the 
purposes of such regulations, unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall be construed, respectively, to mean:
    Acceptance service. The service established and conducted under the 
regulations for the determination and certification or other 
identification of the compliance of livestock with specifications.
    Act. The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (Title II of the act of 
Congress approved August 14, 1946, 60 Stat. 1087, as amended by Pub. L. 
272, 84th Cong., 69 Stat. 553, 7 U.S.C. 1621-1627).
    Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, or any officer or employee of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Agricultural Marketing Service. The Agricultural Marketing Service 
of the Department.
    Applicant. Any person who has applied for service under the 
regulations.
    Branch. The Livestock Market News Branch of the Division.
    Chief. The Chief of the Branch, or any officer or employee of the 
Branch to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Class. A subdivision of livestock based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same kind 
of species.
    Compliance. Conformity of livestock to the specifications under 
which the livestock was purchased or sold, with particular reference to 
the weight, quality or other characterics of livestock.
    Cooperative agreement. A cooperative agreement between the 
Agricultural Marketing Service and another Federal agency or a State 
agency, or other agency, organization or person as specified in the 
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended, for conducting the 
service.

[[Page 8]]

    Department. The United States Department of Agriculture.
    Director. The Director of the Division or any officer or employee of 
the Division to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Division. Livestock, Poultry, Grain and Seed Division.
    Financially interested person. Any person having a financial 
interest in the livestock involved, including but not limited to the 
shipper, receiver, producer, seller, buyer, or carrier of the livestock 
or products.
    Grade. (1) As a noun, this term means an important commercial 
subdivision of livestock based on certain definite and preference 
determining factors, such as, but not limited to, conformation, finish, 
and muscling in livestock.
    (2) As a verb, this term means to determine the class, grade, or 
other quality of livestock according to applicable standards for such 
livestock in subpart B of this part.
    Grading service. The service established and conducted under the 
regulations for the determination and certification or other 
identification of the class, grade, or other quality of livestock under 
standards.
    Legal holiday. Those days designated as legal public holidays in 
title 5, United States Code, section 6103(a).
    Livestock. Cattle, sheep, swine, or goats.
    Official grader. An employee of the Department or other person 
authorized by the Department to determine and certify or otherwise 
identify the class, grade, other quality, or compliance of livestock 
under the regulations.
    Person. Any individual, partnership, corporation, or other legal 
entity, or Government agency.
    Regulations. The regulations in this subpart.
    Service. Grading service or acceptance service.
    Specifications. Description with respect to the class, grade, other 
quality, quantity or condition of livestock approved by the 
Administrator, and available for use by the industry regardless of the 
origin of the descriptions.
    Standards. The standards of the Department contained in subpart B of 
this part.
    Supervisor. An official person designated by the Director or Chief 
to supervise and maintain uniformity and accuracy of service under the 
regulations.



Sec. 53.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks or other identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the inspection or grading of 
agricultural products under said section. For the purposes of said 
subsection and the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall 
have the respective meanings specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, including that prescribed in Sec. 53.16, used under 
the regulations to certify with respect to the inspection, class, grade, 
quality, size, quantity, or condition of livestock with applicable 
specifications.
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of grading, determining compliance, 
or inspecting, pursuant to the regulations, any processing or plant-
operation report made by an authorized person in connection with 
grading, determining compliance, inspecting, or sampling under the 
regulations, and any report made by an authorized person of services 
performed pursuant to the regulations.
    (c) Official mark or other official identification means any form of 
mark or other identification, used under the regulations in marking 
livestock thereof, to show inspection, class, grade, quality, size, 
quantity, or condition of the livestock (including the compliance of 
livestock with applicable specifications), or to maintain the

[[Page 9]]

identity of livestock for which service is provided under the 
regulations.

                             Administration



Sec. 53.3  Authority.

    The Director is charged with the administration of the regulations 
and the Act insofar as they relate to livestock.

                                 Service



Sec. 53.4  Kind of service.

    Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the 
determination and certification and other identification, upon request 
by the applicant, of the class, grade, or other quality of livestock 
under applicable standards in subpart B of this part. Class, grade and 
other quality may be determined under said standards for livestock. 
Acceptance service under the regulations shall consist of the 
determination of the conformity of livestock to specifications approved 
by the Director or Chief and the certification and other identification 
of such livestock in accordance with specifications, upon request by the 
applicant.



Sec. 53.5  Availability of service.

    Service under these regulations may be made available with respect 
to livestock shipped or received in interstate commerce, and with 
respect to the livestock not so shipped or received if the Director or 
Chief determines that the furnishing of service for such livestock would 
facilitate the marketing, distribution, processing, or utilization of 
agricultural products through commercial channels. Also, such service 
may be made available under a cooperative agreement. Service under these 
regulations shall be provided without discrimination as to race, color, 
sex, creed, or national origin.



Sec. 53.8  How to obtain service.

    (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for 
service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the 
applicant is financially interested. The application shall be made on a 
form approved by the Director.
    (b) Notice of eligibility for service. The applicant for service 
will be notified whether his application is approved.
    (c) Request by applicant for service-- (1) Noncommitment. Upon 
notification of the approval on an application for service, the 
applicant may, from time to time as desired, make oral or written 
requests for service under the regulations with respect to specific 
livestock for which the service is to be furnished under such 
application. Such requests shall be made at a market news office either 
directly or through any employee of the Agricultural Marketing Service 
who may be designated for such purposes.



Sec. 53.9  Order of furnishing service.

    Service under the regulations shall be furnished to applicants in 
the order in which requests therefor are received, insofar as consistent 
with good management, efficiency and economy. Precedence will be given, 
when necessary, to requests made by any government agency or any regular 
user of the service.



Sec. 53.10  When request for service deemed made.

    A request for service under the regulations shall be deemed to be 
made when received by a market news office. Records showing the date and 
time of the request shall be made and kept in such office.



Sec. 53.11  Withdrawal of application or request for service.

    An application or a request for service under the regulations may be 
withdrawn by the applicant at any time before the application is 
approved or prior to performance of service, upon payment, in accordance 
with Secs. 53.18 and 53.19, of any expenses already incurred by the 
Agricultural Marketing Service in connection therewith.



Sec. 53.12  Authority of agent.

    Proof of the authority of any person making an application or a 
request for service under the regulations on behalf of any other person 
may be required at the discretion of the Director or Chief or the 
official in charge of the market news office or other employee receiving 
the application or request under Sec. 53.8.

[[Page 10]]



Sec. 53.13  Denial or withdrawal of service.

    (a) For misconduct--(1) Bases for denial or withdrawal. An 
application or a request for service may be rejected, or the benefits of 
the service may be otherwise denied to, or withdrawn from, any person 
who, or whose employee or agent in the scope of his employment or 
agency: (i) Has willfully made any misrepresentation or has committed 
any other fraudulent or deceptive practice in connection with any 
application or request for service under the regulations; (ii) has given 
or attempted to give, as a loan or for any other purpose, any money, 
favor, or other thing of value, to any employee of the Department 
authorized to perform any function under the regulations; (iii) has 
interfered with or obstructed, or attempted to interfere with or to 
obstruct, any employee of the Department in the performance of his 
duties under the regulations by intimidation, threats, assaults, abuse, 
or any other improper means; (iv) has knowingly falsely made, issued, 
altered, forged, or counterfeited any official certificate, memorandum, 
mark, or other identification; (v) has knowingly uttered, published, or 
used as true any such falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or 
counterfeited certificate, memorandum, mark, identification, or device; 
(vi) has knowingly obtained or retained possession of any such falsely 
made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited certificate, memorandum, 
mark, identification, or device, or of any livestock bearing any such 
falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited mark or 
identification; or (vii) has in any manner not specified in this 
paragraph violated subsection 203(h) of the Act: Provided, That 
paragraph (a)(1)(vi) of this section shall not be deemed to be violated 
if the person in possession of any item mentioned therein notifies the 
Director or Chief without delay that he has possession of such item and, 
surrenders it to the Director or Chief or destroys it or brings it into 
compliance with the regulations by obliterating or removing the 
violative features under supervision of the Director or Chief: And 
provided, further, That paragraph (a)(1)ii) through (vi) of this section 
shall not be deemed to be violated by any act committed by any person 
prior to the making of an application for service under the regulations 
by the principal person. An application or a request for service may be 
rejected, or the benefits of the service may be otherwise denied to, or 
withdrawn from, any person who, or whose employee or agent in the scope 
of his employment or agency, has committed any of the offenses specified 
in paragraph (a)(1) (i) through (vii) of this section after such 
application was made. Moreover, an application or a request for service 
made in the name of a person otherwise eligible for service under the 
regulations may be rejected, or the benefits of the service may be 
otherwise denied to, or withdrawn from, such a person (a) in case the 
service is or would be performed at an establishment operated (1) by a 
corporation, partnership, or other person from whom the benefits of the 
service are currently being withheld under this paragraph, or (2) by a 
corporation, partnership, or other person having an officer, director, 
partner, or substantial investor from whom the benefits of the service 
are currently being withheld and who has any authority with respect to 
the establishment where service is or would be performed, or (b) in case 
the service is or would be performed with respect to any livestock in 
which any corporation, partnership, or other person within paragraph 
(a)(1)(vii)(a)(1) of this section has a contract or other financial 
interest.
    (2) Procedure. All cases arising under this paragraph shall be 
conducted in accordance with the Rules of Practice Governing Formal 
Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary Under Various 
Statutes set forth in Secs. 1.130 through 1.151 of this title and the 
Supplemental Rules of Practice in part 50 of this chapter.
    (b) For miscellaneous reasons. An application or a request for 
service may be rejected, or the benefits of the service may be otherwise 
denied to, or withdrawn from, any person, without a hearing, by the 
official in charge of the appropriate market news office with the 
concurrence of the Director or Chief: (1) For administrative reasons 
such as the nonavailability of personnel to perform the service; (2) for 
the

[[Page 11]]

failure to pay for service; (3) for other noncompliance with the 
conditions on which service is available as provided in the regulations, 
except matters covered by paragraph (a) of this section; or (4) in case 
the person is a partnership, corporation, or other person from whom the 
benefits of the service are currently being withheld under paragraph (a) 
of this section. Notice of such denial or withdrawal, and the reasons 
therefor, shall promptly be given to the person involved.
    (c) Filing of records. The final orders in formal proceedings under 
paragraph (a) of this section to deny or withdraw the service under the 
regulations (except orders required for good cause to be held 
confidential and not cited as precedents) and other records in such 
proceedings (except those required for good cause to be held 
confidential) shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and shall be 
available for inspection by persons having a proper interest therein.
[42 FR 53902, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 60 FR 8464, Feb. 14, 1995]



Sec. 53.14  Financial interest of official grader.

    No official grader shall grade or determine compliance of any 
livestock in which he or any of his relatives by blood or marriage is 
directly or indirectly financially interested.



Sec. 53.15  Accessibility to livestock.

    (a) The applicant shall cause livestock, with respect to which 
service is requested, to be made easily accessible for examination and 
to be so placed, with adequate illuminating facilities, as to disclose 
their class, grade, other quality, and compliance. Supervisors and other 
employees of the Department responsible for maintaining uniformity and 
accuracy of service under the regulations shall have access to all parts 
of establishments covered by approved applications for service under the 
regulations, for the purpose of examining all livestock in the 
establishments which have been or are to be graded or examined for 
compliance with specifications.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 53.16  Official certificates.

    (a) Required; exception. The official grader shall prepare, sign, 
and issue a livestock acceptance certificate covering livestock for 
which compliance has been determined.
    (b) Where weight is certified, the word ``Not'' shall be deleted 
from the phrases ``Weights Not Verified.''
    (c) Distribution. The original certificate, and not to exceed two 
copies, shall be delivered or mailed to the applicant or other person 
designated by him. The remaining copies shall be forwarded as required 
by agency, division, and branch instructions. Additional copies will be 
furnished to any person financially interested in livestock involved 
with the concurrence of the applicant and upon payment of fees, as 
provided in Sec. 53.18(d).



Sec. 53.17  Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of 
any certificate issued to him under the regulations, or other 
notification concerning the determination of class, grade, other 
quality, or compliance of livestock for such applicant may be 
transmitted by telegraph or telephone to him, or to any person 
designated by him, at his expense.

                           Charges for Service



Sec. 53.18  Fees and other charges for service.

    Fees and other charges equal as nearly as may be to the cost of the 
services rendered shall be assessed and collected from applicants in 
accordance with the following provisions unless otherwise provided in 
the cooperative agreement under which the services are furnished, or as 
provided in Sec. 53.8.
    (a) Fees based on hourly rates. Except as otherwise provided in this 
section, fees for service shall be based on the time required to render 
the service, calculated to the nearest 15-minute period, including time 
required for the preparation of certificates and travel of the official 
grader in connection with the performance of service. A minimum charge 
for 1 hour shall be made for service pursuant to each request 
notwithstanding that the time

[[Page 12]]

required to perform service may be less than 60 minutes. The base hourly 
rate shall be $29.40 per hour for work performed between the hours of 6 
a.m. and 6 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on legal holidays; $32.80 
per hour for work performed before 6 a.m. or after 6 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, and anytime Saturday or Sunday except on legal holidays; 
and $58.80 per hour for all work performed on legal holidays.
    (b) Travel charges. When service is requested at a place so distant 
from an official grader's headquarters, or place of prior assignment on 
a circuitous routing that a total of one-half hour or more is required 
for the grader to travel to such place and back to the headquarters, or 
to the next place of assignment on a circuitous routing, the charge for 
such service shall include a mileage charge administratively determined 
by the Chief, and travel tolls, if applicable, for such travel prorated 
against all the applicants furnished the service involved on an 
equitable basis, or where the travel is made by public transportation 
(including hired vehicle), a fee equal to the actual cost thereof. 
However, the applicant will not be charged a new mileage rate without 
notification before the service is rendered.
    (c) Per diem charges. When service is requested at a place away from 
the official grader's headquarters, the fee for such service shall 
include a per diem charge if the employee performing the service is paid 
per diem in accordance with existing travel regulations. Per diem 
charges to applicants will cover the same period of time for which the 
grader receives per diem reimbursement. The per diem rate will be 
administratively determined by the Chief. However, the applicant will 
not be charged a new per diem rate without notification before the 
service is rendered.
    (d) Fees for extra copies of certificates. In addition to copies of 
certificates furnished under Sec. 53.16, any financially interested 
person may obtain not to exceed three copies of any such certificate 
within 1 year from its date of issuance upon payment of a fee of $1.00, 
and not to exceed three copies of any such certificate at any time 
thereafter, while a copy of such certificate is on file in the 
Department, upon payment of a fee of $5.00.
    (e) Other charges. When costs, other than costs specified in 
paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section, are involved in 
providing the services, the applicant will be charged for these costs. 
The amount of these charges will be determined administratively by the 
Chief. However, the applicant will not be charged for such cost without 
notification before the service is rendered of the charge for such item 
of expense.
[42 FR 53902, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 47 FR 54927, Dec. 7, 1982; 48 
FR 16874, Apr. 20, 1983]



Sec. 53.19  Payment of fees and other charges.

    Fees and other charges for service shall be paid in accordance with 
the following provisions unless otherwise provided in the cooperative 
agreement under which the service is furnished. Upon receipt of billing 
for fees and other charges for service the applicant shall remit by 
check, draft, or money order, made payable to the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, U.S.D.A., payment for the service in accordance with directions 
on the billing, and such fees and charges shall be paid in advance if 
required by the official grader or other authorized official.

                              Miscellaneous



Sec. 53.20  Identification.

    All official graders and supervisors shall have their Agricultural 
Marketing Service identification cards in their possession at all times 
while they are performing any function under the regulations and shall 
identify themselves by such cards upon request.



Sec. 53.21  Errors in service.

    When an official grader, supervisor, or other responsible employee 
of the Branch has evidence of misgrading, or of incorrect certification 
or other incorrect determination or identification as to the class, 
grade, other quality, or compliance of livestock, he shall report the 
matter to his immediate supervisor. The supervisor will investigate the 
matter and, if he deems advisable, will report it to the owner or his 
agent. The supervisor shall take appropriate action to correct errors 
found in the

[[Page 13]]

determination or identification of class, grade or other quality or 
compliance of livestock if the livestock is still owned by the person 
who owned them when, and are still located at the establishment where, 
the incorrect service was rendered and if such service was rendered by a 
grader under the jurisdiction of such supervisor, and the supervisor 
shall take adequate measures to prevent the recurrence of such errors.



                          Subpart B  [Reserved]



PART 54--MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Regulations

                               Definitions

Sec.
54.1  Meaning of words.
54.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.

                             Administration

54.3  Authority.

                                 Service

54.4  Kind of service.
54.5  Availability of service.
54.6  How to obtain service.
54.7  Order of furnishing service.
54.8  When request for service deemed made.
54.9  Withdrawal of application or request for service.
54.10  Authority of agent.
54.11  Denial or withdrawal of service.
54.12  Financial interest of official grader.
54.13  Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to 
          establishments.
54.14  Official certificates.
54.15  Advance information concerning service rendered.
54.16  Marking of products.
54.17  Official identifications.
54.18  Custody of identification devices.

                             Appeal Service

54.19  What is appeal service; marking products on appeal; requirements 
          for appeal; certain determinations not appealable.
54.20  Request for appeal service.
54.21  When request for appeal service may be withdrawn.
54.22  Denial or withdrawal of appeal service.
54.23  Who shall perform appeal service.
54.24  Appeal certificates.
54.25  Superseded certificates.
54.26  Application of other regulations to appeal service.

                           Charges for Service

54.27  Fees and other charges for service.
54.28  Payment of fees and other charges.

                              Miscellaneous

54.29  Identification.
54.30  Errors in service.
54.31  Uniforms.

                          Subpart B  [Reserved]

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621-1627.

    Source:  42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981.



                         Subpart A--Regulations

                               Definitions



Sec. 54.1  Meaning of words.

    Words used in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to 
import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. For the 
purposes of such regulations, unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall be construed, respectively, to mean:
    Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, or any officer or employee of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service to whom authority has heretofore been delegated or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Agricultural Marketing Service. The Agricultural Marketing Service 
of the Department.
    Animals. Cattle, sheep, swine, or goats.
    Applicant. Any person who has applied for service under the 
regulations.
    Branch. The Meat Grading Branch of the Division.
    Carcass. The commercially prepared or dressed body of any animal 
intended for human food.
    Carcass Data Service. The service established and conducted under 
the regulations to provide producers and other interested persons with 
data on carcass characteristics.

[[Page 14]]

    Certification service. The service established and conducted under 
the regulations for the determination and certification or other 
identification of the compliance of products with specifications.
    Chief. The Chief of the Branch, or any officer or employee of the 
Branch to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Class. A subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same kind 
of species.
    Compliance. Conformity of a product to the specifications under 
which the product was purchased or sold, with particular reference to 
the quality, cleanliness, state of refrigeration, method of processing, 
and trim of products.
    Contract verification service. A program allowing institutions or 
other large purchasers of commodity products to have those products 
compared to contractual requirements.
    Cooperative agreement. A cooperative agreement between the 
Agricultural Marketing Service and another Federal agency or a State 
agency, or other agency, organization or person as specified in the 
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended, for conducting the 
service.
    Department. The United States Department of Agriculture.
    Director. The Director of the Division, or any officer or employee 
of the Division to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to 
whom authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Division. The Meat Quality Division of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service.
    Fabricating. Cutting into wholesale or retail cuts, dicing or 
grinding.
    Federal Meat Inspection. The meat inspection system conducted under 
the Federal Meat Inspection Act as amended by the Wholesome Meat Act (21 
U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations thereunder (9 CFR chapter III, 
subchapter A).
    Financially interested person. Any person having a financial 
interest in the products involved, including but not limited to the 
shipper, receiver, producer, seller, buyer, or carrier of the products.
    Grade. (1) As a noun, this term means an important commercial 
subdivision of a product based on certain definite and preference 
determining factors, such as, but not limited to, conformation, finish, 
and quality in meats.
    (2) As a verb, this term means to determine the class, grade, or 
other quality of a product according to applicable standards for such 
product in subpart B of this part.
    Grading Service. The service established and conducted under the 
regulations for the determination and certification or other 
identification of the class, grade, or other quality of products under 
standards.
    Immediate container. The carton, can, pot, tin, casing, wrapper, or 
other receptacle or covering constituting the basic unit in which 
products are directly contained or wrapped when packed in the customary 
manner for delivery to the meat trade or to consumers.
    Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications. Specifications 
describing various meat cuts, meat products, and meat food products 
derived from all livestock species, commonly abbreviated ``IMPS'', and 
intended for use by any meat procuring activity. For labeling purposes, 
only product certified by the Meat Grading and Certification Branch may 
contain the letters ``IMPS'' on the product label.
    Legal Holiday. Those days designated as legal public holidays in 
title 5, United States Code, section 6103(a).
    Livestock. Bovine, ovine, porcine.
    Meat. The edible part of the muscle of an animal, which is skeletal, 
or which is found in the tongue, in the diaphragm, in the heart, or in 
the esophagus, and which is intended for human food, with or without the 
accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of bone, skin, sinew, 
nerve, and blood vessels which normally accompany the muscle tissue and 
which are not separated from it in the process of dressing. This term 
does not include the muscle found in the lips, snout, or ears.
    Meat by-products. All edible parts (other than meat and prepared 
meats) intended for human food, derived from one or more animals, and 
including but

[[Page 15]]

not limited to such organs and parts as livers, kidneys, sweetbreads, 
brains, lungs, spleens, stomachs, tripe, lips, snouts, and ears.
    Meat food products. Any articles intended for human food (other than 
meat, prepared meats, and meat by-products) which are derived or 
prepared in whole or in substantial and definite part, from any portion 
of any animal, except such articles as organotherapeutic substances, 
meat juice, meat extract, and the like, which are only for medicinal 
purposes and are advertised only to the medical profession.
    Office of grading. The office of an official grader.
    Official grader. An employee of the Department or other person 
authorized by the Department to determine and certify or otherwise 
identify the class, grade, other quality, or compliance of products 
under the regulations.
    Person. Any individual, partnership, corporation, or other legal 
entity, or Government agency.
    Prepared meats. The products intended for human food which are 
obtained by subjecting meat to drying, curing, smoking, cooking, 
grinding, seasoning, or flavoring, or to any combination of such 
procedures, and to which no considerable quantity of any substance other 
than meat or meat byproducts has been added.
    Processing. Drying, curing, smoking, cooking, seasoning, or 
flavoring or any combination of such processes, with or without 
fabricating.
    Products. Meats, prepared meats, meat by-products, or meat food 
products.
    Quality. A combination of the inherent properties of a product which 
determines its relative degree of excellence.
    Quality grade. A designation based on those characteristics of meat 
which predict the palatability characteristics of the lean.
    Quality Systems Certification Program. A multifaceted program 
allowing all aspects of the livestock industry to have quality systems, 
or processes within quality systems, verified by AMS agent(s) to 
effectuate use of such quality systems to meet contractual requirements, 
or as a marketing tool.
    Service. Grading service or acceptance service.
    Shipping container. The receptacle or covering in which one or more 
immediate containers of products are packed for transportation.
    Specifications. Descriptions with respect to the class, grade, other 
quality, quantity or condition of products, approved by the 
Administrator, and available for use by the industry regardless of the 
origin of the descriptions.
    Standards. The standards of the Department contained in subpart B of 
this part.
    Supervisor of grading. An official grader or other person designated 
by the Director or Chief to supervise and maintain uniformity and 
accuracy of service under the regulations.
    The Act. The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (Title II of the act 
of Congress approved August 14, 1946, 60 Stat. 1087, as amended by Pub. 
L. 272, 84th Cong., 69 Stat. 553, 7 U.S.C. 1621-1627).
    The regulations. The regulations in this subpart.
    Yield grade. A designation which reflects the estimated yield of 
retail cuts that may be obtained from a beef, lamb, yearling mutton, or 
mutton carcass.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 45 FR 51762, Aug. 5, 1980. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 61 FR 11505, Mar. 21, 1996]



Sec. 54.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks or other identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the inspection or grading of 
agricultural products under said section. For the purposes of said 
subsection and the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall 
have the respective meanings specified:

[[Page 16]]

    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, used under the regulations to certify with respect 
to the inspection, class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition 
of products (including the compliance of products with applicable 
specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of grading, determining compliance, 
inspecting, or sampling pursuant to the regulations, any processing or 
plant-operation report made by an authorized person in connection with 
grading, determining compliance, inspecting, or sampling under the 
regulations, and any report made by an authorized person of services 
performed pursuant to the regulations.
    (c) Official mark or other official identification means any form of 
mark or other identification, including those prescribed in Sec. 54.17; 
used under the regulations in marking any products, or the immediate or 
shipping containers thereof, to show inspection class, grade quality, 
size quantity, or condition of the products (including the compliance of 
products with applicable specifications), or to maintain the identity of 
products for which service is provided under the regulations.
    (d) Official device means any roller, stamp, brand or other device 
used under the regulations to mark any products or the immediate or 
shipping containers, thereof, with any official mark or other official 
identification.

                             Administration



Sec. 54.3  Authority.

    The Chief is charged with the administration, under the general 
supervision and direction of the Director, of the regulations and the 
Act insofar as they relate to products.

                                 Service



Sec. 54.4  Kind of service.

    Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the 
determination and certification and other identification, upon request 
by the applicant, of the class, grade, or other quality of products 
under applicable standards in subpart B of this part. Class, grade, and 
other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle, 
sheep, or swine in carcass form only, except upon approval by the 
Director upon his determination of good cause and provided that the meat 
can be identified in conformance with the standards. Certification 
service under the regulations shall consist of the determination of the 
conformity of products to specifications approved by the Director or 
Chief and the certification and other identification of such livestock 
or products in accordance with specifications, upon request by the 
applicant. Determination as to product compliance with specifications 
for ingredient content or method of preparation may be based upon 
information received from the inspection system having jurisdiction over 
the products involved. The Carcass Data Service, under the regulations, 
shall consist of the evaluation of carcass characteristics, in 
accordance with applicable official United States Standards which appear 
in subpart B of this part, of carcasses of animals identified with the 
official eartag as shown in Sec. 54.17, the recording of such data, and 
transmittal of the data to, or as directed by, the applicant for the 
service. The Contract Verification Service, under the regulations, 
provides wholesale buyers of noncertified commodity products a method of 
determining whether procurement(s) meet contractually specified 
requirements. The Quality Systems Certification Program, under the 
regulations, provides meatpackers, processors, producers, or other 
businesses in the livestock and meat trade the ability to have special 
processes or documented quality management systems verified.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 45 FR 51762, Aug. 5, 1980. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 61 FR 11506, Mar. 21, 1996]



Sec. 54.5  Availability of service.

    Service under these regulations may be made available with respect 
to products shipped or received in interstate commerce, and with respect 
to the products not so shipped or received if the Director or Chief 
determines that the furnishing of service for such products would 
facilitate the marketing,

[[Page 17]]

distribution, processing, or utilization of agricultural products 
through commercial channels. Also, such service may be made available 
under a cooperative agreement. Service under these regulations shall be 
provided without discrimination as to race, color, sex, creed, or 
national origin. Service will be furnished for products only if they 
were derived from animals slaughtered in federally inspected 
establishments or operated under State meat inspection in a State other 
than one designated in 9 CFR 331.2. Service under these regulations will 
be furnished for imported meat only if it is marked so that the name of 
the country of origin appears on most of the major retail cuts. The mark 
of foreign origin shall be imprinted by roller brand or handstamp and 
shall be applied so that the imprint is at least 2 inches from the 
backbone of lamb, 3 inches from the backbone of veal and calf, and 4 
inches from the backbone of beef carcasses. The mark of foreign origin 
shall be repeated parallel to the backbone of the carcass so as to 
appear on each round, rump, full loin, rib, and chuck of each bovine and 
ovine carcass in letters at least one-fourth of an inch high, with no 
more than three-fourths of an inch space between impressions. Imprints 
of each such brand shall be submitted to the Chief for the determination 
of compliance with these regulations prior to use of the brand on meats 
offered for Federal grading. It shall be the responsibility of the 
applicant to notify the meat grade performing the service whenever 
imported meat is offered for grading.



Sec. 54.6  How to obtain service.

    (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for 
service under the regulations with respect to products in which the 
applicant is financially interested. The application shall be made on a 
form approved by the Director. In any case in which the service is 
intended to be furnished at an establishment not operated by the 
applicant, the application shall be approved by the operator of such 
establishment and such approval shall constitute an authorization for 
any employees of the Department to enter the establishment for the 
purpose of performing their functions under the regulations. The 
application shall state:
    (1) The name and address of the establishment at which service is 
desired; (2) the name and post office address of the applicant; (3) the 
financial interest of the applicant in the products, except where 
application is made by an official of a Government agency in his 
official capacity; and (4) the signature of the applicant (or the 
signature and title of his representative). The application shall 
indicate the legal status of the applicant as an individual, 
partnership, corporation, or other form of legal entity. Any change in 
such status, at any time while service is being received, shall be 
promptly reported to the Director or Chief by the person receiving the 
service.
    (b) Notice of eligibility for service. The applicant for service at 
any establishment will be notified whether his application is approved.
    (c) Request by applicant for service--(1) Noncommitment. Upon 
notification of the approval on an application for service, the 
applicant may, from time to time as desired, make oral or written 
requests for service under the regulations with respect to specific 
products for which the service is to be furnished under such 
application. Such requests shall be made at an office for grading either 
directly or through any employee of the Agricultural Marketing Service 
who may be designated for such purposes.
    (2) Commitment. If desired, the applicant may request to enter into 
an agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service for the furnishing 
of service on a weekly commitment basis, whereby the applicant agrees to 
pay for 8 hours of service per day, 5 days per week, Monday through 
Friday, excluding Federal legal holidays occurring Monday through Friday 
on which no grading and certification services are performed, as 
provided in Sec. 54.27(b), and the Agricultural Marketing Service agrees 
to make an official grader available to perform such service for the 
applicant. However, the Agricultural Marketing Service reserves the 
right to use any grader assigned to a plant under such a commitment to 
perform service for other applicants when, in the opinion of the Chief, 
the grader is

[[Page 18]]

not needed to perform service for the commitment applicant. An applicant 
who terminates a commitment, and within 1 year after cancellation is 
granted a new commitment at his request, shall pay for the moving costs 
actually incurred by the Agricultural Marketing Service to cover the 
transfer of the grader who will service the applicant's new commitment. 
If more than one applicant is involved in the reapplication for a 
canceled meat grading and certification commitment requiring the 
transfer of the grader, the moving costs will be prorated among the 
applicants according to each applicant's committed portion of the 
grader's services. However, the moving costs will be charged only to 
those applicants who were parties to the previously canceled commitment. 
An applicant may, for periods of 3 months or less, enter into an 
agreement by memorandum with the Agricultural Marketing Service for the 
furnishing of service on a weekly basis. In the latter case, transfer of 
graders would not be involved and charges will be made in accordance 
with Sec. 54.27.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, 
as amended at 47 FR 44704, Oct. 12, 1982]



Sec. 54.7  Order of furnishing service.

    Service under the regulations shall be furnished to applicants in 
the order in which requests therefor are received, insofar as consistent 
with good management, efficiency and economy. Precedence will be given, 
when necessary, to requests made by any government agency or any regular 
user of the service, and to requests for appeal service under 
Sec. 54.20.



Sec. 54.8  When request for service deemed made.

    A request for service under the regulations shall be deemed to be 
made when received by an office of grading. Records showing the date and 
time of the request shall be made and kept in such office. However, in 
the case of the Carcass Data Service, the purchase of official USDA 
eartags shall constitute a request for such service and the requisition 
form used to purchase the eartags shall be kept in the designated office 
of record.



Sec. 54.9  Withdrawal of application or request for service.

    An application or a request for service under the regulations may be 
withdrawn by the applicant at any time before the application is 
approved or prior to performance of service, upon payment, in accordance 
with Secs. 54.27 and 54.28, of any expenses already incurred by the 
Agricultural Marketing Service in connection therewith.



Sec. 54.10  Authority of agent.

    Proof of the authority of any person making an application or a 
request for service under the regulations on behalf of any other person 
may be required at the discretion of the Director or Chief or the 
official in charge of the office of grading or other employee receiving 
the application or request under Sec. 54.6.



Sec. 54.11  Denial or withdrawal of service.

    (a) For misconduct--(1) Bases for denial or withdrawal. An 
application or a request for service may be rejected, or the benefits of 
the service may be otherwise denied to, or withdrawn from, any person 
who, or whose employee or agent in the scope of his employment or 
agency:
    (i) Has wilfully made any misrepresentation or has committed any 
other fraudulent or deceptive practice in connection with any 
application or request for service under the regulations;
    (ii) Has given or attempted to give, as a loan or for any other 
purpose, any money, favor, or other thing of value, to any employee of 
the Department authorized to perform any function under the regulations;
    (iii) Has interfered with or obstructed, or attempted to interfere 
with or to obstruct, any employee of the Department in the performance 
of his duties under the regulations by intimidation, threats, assaults, 
abuse, or any other improper means;
    (iv) Has knowingly falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or 
counterfeited any official certificate, memorandum, mark, or other 
identification, or device for making any such mark or identification;
    (v) Has knowingly uttered, published, or used as true any such 
falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited

[[Page 19]]

certificate, memorandum, mark, identification, or device;
    (vi) Has knowingly obtained or retained possession of any such 
falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited certificate, 
memorandum, mark, identification, or device, or of any such official 
device, or of any product bearing any such falsely made, issued, 
altered, forged, or counterfeited mark or identification, or of any 
carcass or wholesale or retail cut bearing any designation specified in 
paragraph (a)(1)(vii) of this section which has not been federally 
graded or derived from a carcass graded as being of the indicated grade;
    (vii) Has applied the designation ``Prime,'' ``Choice,'' ``Select,'' 
``Good,'' ``Standard,'' ``Commercial,'' ``Utility,'' ``Cutter,'' 
``Canner,'' ``Cull,'' ``Medium,'' ``No. 1,'' ``No. 2,'' ``No. 3,'' ``No. 
4,'' ``Yield Grade 1,'' ``Yield Grade 2,'' ``Yield Grade 3,'' ``Yield 
Grade 4,'' or ``Yield Grade 5'' by stamp, or brand directly on any 
carcass, wholesale cut, or retail cut of any carcass, as part of a grade 
designation;
    (viii) Has applied to immediate containers or shipping containers of 
carcasses, wholesale cuts, or retail cuts, grade designations specified 
in paragraph (a)(1)(vii) of this section, when such carcasses, wholesale 
cuts, or retail cuts contained therein have not been federally graded;
    (ix) Has knowingly used, moved, or otherwise altered, in any manner, 
meat or meat products identified by an official product control device, 
mark, or other identification as specified in Sec. 54.17, or has removed 
such official device, mark, or identification from the meat or meat 
products so identified without the express permission of an authorized 
representative of the USDA; or
    (x) Has in any manner not specified in this paragraph violated 
subsection 203(h) of the AMA: Provided, That paragraph (a)(1)(vi) of 
this section shall not be deemed to be violated if the person in 
possession of any item mentioned therein notifies the Director or Chief 
without such delay that he has possession of such item and, in the case 
of an official device, surrenders it to the Chief, and, in the case of 
any other item, surrenders it to the Director or Chief or destroys it or 
brings it into compliance with the regulations by obliterating or 
removing the violative features under supervision of the Director or 
Chief: And provided further, That paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) through (ix) of 
this section shall not be deemed to be violated by any act committed by 
any person prior to the making of an application of service under the 
regulations by the principal person. An application or a request for 
service may be rejected or the benefits of the service may be otherwise 
denied to, or withdrawn from, any person who operates an establishment 
for which he has made application for service if, with the knowledge of 
such operator, any other person conducting any operations in such 
establishment has committed any of the offenses specified in paragraphs 
(a)(1) (i) through (x) of this section after such application was made. 
Moreover, an application or a request for service made in the name of a 
person otherwise eligible for service under the regulations may be 
rejected, or the benefits of the service may be otherwise denied to, or 
withdrawn from, such a person (A) in case the service is or would be 
performed at an establishment operated (1) by a corporation, 
partnership, or other person from whom the benefits of the service are 
currently being withheld under this paragraph, or (2) by a corporation, 
partnership, or other person having an officer, director, partner, or 
substantial investor from whom the benefits of the service are currently 
being withheld and who has any authority with respect to the 
establishment where service is or would be performed; or (B) in case the 
service is or would be performed with respect to any product in which 
any corporation, partnership, or other person within paragraph 
(a)(1)(x)(A)(1) of this section has a contract or other financial 
interest.
    (2) Procedure. All cases arising under this paragraph shall be 
conducted in accordance with the Rules of Practice Governing Formal 
Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary Under Various 
Statutes set forth in Secs. 1.130 through 1.151 of this title and the 
Supplemental Rules of Practice in part 50 of this chapter.

[[Page 20]]

    (b) For miscellaneous reasons. An application or a request for 
service may be rejected, or the benefits of the service may be otherwise 
denied to, or withdrawn from, any person, without a hearing by the 
official in charge of the appropriate office of grading, with the 
concurrence of the Director or Chief (1) for administrative reasons such 
as the nonavailability of personnel to perform the service; (2) for the 
failure to pay for service; (3) in case the application or request 
relates to products which are not eligible for service under Sec. 54.5 
or which are unclean or are in an unclean establishment; (4) for other 
noncompliance with the conditions on which service is available as 
provided in the regulations, except matters covered by paragraph (a) of 
this section; or (5) in case the person is a partnership, corporation, 
or other person from whom the benefits of the service are currently 
being withheld under paragraph (a) of this section. Notice of such 
denial or withdrawal, and the reasons therefor, shall promptly be given 
to the person involved.
    (c) Filing of records. The final orders in formal proceedings under 
paragraph (a) of this section to deny or withdraw the service under the 
regulations (except orders required for good cause to be held 
confidential and not cited as precedents) and other records in such 
proceedings (except those required for good cause to be held 
confidential) shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and shall be 
available for inspection by persons having a proper interest therein.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, 
and amended at 50 FR 14366, Apr. 12, 1985; 52 FR 35683, Sept. 23, 1987; 
60 FR 8464, Feb. 14, 1995]



Sec. 54.12  Financial interest of official grader.

    No official grader shall grade or determine compliance of any 
products in which he or any of his relatives by blood or marriage is 
directly or indirectly financially interested.



Sec. 54.13  Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    (a) The applicant shall cause products, with respect to which 
service is requested, to be made easily accessible for examination and 
to be so placed, with adequate illuminating facilities, as to disclose 
their class, grade, other quality, and compliance. Supervisors of 
grading and other employees of the Department responsible for 
maintaining uniformity and accuracy of service under the regulations 
shall have access to all parts of establishments covered by approved 
applications for service under the regulations, for the purpose of 
examining all products in the establishments which have been or are to 
be graded or examined for compliance with specifications or which bear 
any marks of grade or compliance.
    (b) Grading service will only be furnished for meat that a USDA 
grader determines is chilled so that grade factors are developed to the 
extent that a proper grade determination can be made in accordance with 
the official standards (subpart B of part 54 (7 CFR 54.102 et seq.)). To 
be eligible for grading, beef carcasses must be ribbed at least 10 
minutes prior to being offered for grading. Meat that is presented in a 
frozen condition shall not be eligible for a grade determination. Meat 
of all eligible species shall be graded only in the establishment where 
the animal was slaughtered or initially chilled (except for veal and 
calf carcasses, which shall be graded only after the hide is removed and 
only in the establishment where such removal occurs). The Director may 
grant prior approval for grading at a location other than the 
establishment of slaughter or initial chill upon notification to the 
Division if the Branch was unable to provide grading service in a timely 
manner and that the meat can be identified in conformance with the 
standards.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 45 FR 51762, Aug. 5, 1980. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 54.14  Official certificates.

    (a) Agricultural Products Certificate Form LS-5-3 (Figure 1) is the 
official certificate for products under the regulations. The official 
grader shall prepare, sign, and issue an Agricultural Products 
Certificate Form LS-5-3 covering products for which that grader 
determined final specification compliance. Where weight or count is 
verified,

[[Page 21]]

the grader shall initial in the block titled ``Weights and Total Count 
Verified.''
    (b) Applicant Charges Certificate Form LS-5-5 (Figure 2) will be 
used to reduce paperwork for applicants assigned multiple graders. 
Assigned graders will complete one Form LS-5-5. Each grader will enter 
their code letters and signature in the appropriate location(s) to 
indicate certificate completion.

[[Page 22]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.000


[[Page 23]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.001

3410-02-C
    (c) Distribution. The original certificate, and not to exceed two 
copies, shall be delivered or mailed to the applicant or other person 
designated by him. The remaining copies shall be forwarded as required 
by agency, division,

[[Page 24]]

 and branch instructions. Additional copies will be furnished to any 
person financially interested in the products involved with the 
concurrence of the applicant and upon payment of fees, as provided in 
Sec. 54.27.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, 
and amended at 51 FR 590, Jan. 7, 1986; 61 FR 11506, Mar. 21, 1996]



Sec. 54.15  Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of 
any certificate issued to him under the regulations, or other 
notification concerning the determination of class, grade, other 
quality, or compliance of products for such applicant may be transmitted 
by telegraph or telephone to him, or to any person designated by him, at 
his expense.



Sec. 54.16  Marking of products.

    All products for which class and grade under the standards in 
Subpart B of this part, or compliance, is determined under the 
regulations, or the immediate and shipping containers thereof, shall be 
stamped, branded, or otherwise marked with an appropriate official 
identification: Provided, That except as otherwise directed by the 
Chief, such marking will not be required when an applicant only desires 
official certificates. The marking of products, or their containers, as 
required by this section shall be done by official graders or under 
their immediate supervision.



Sec. 54.17  Official identifications.

    (a) A shield enclosing the letters ``USDA'' and code identification 
letters of the grader performing the service, as shown below, 
constitutes a form of official identification under the regulations for 
preliminary grade of carcasses.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.002

    (b) A shield enclosing the letters ``USDA'' as shown in Figure 1 
with the appropriate quality grade designation ``Prime,'' ``Choice,'' 
``Select,'' ``Good,'' ``Standard,'' ``Commercial,'' ``Utility,'' 
``Cutter,'' ``Canner,'' or ``Cull,'' as provided in the official United 
States Standards for Grades of Beef, Veal and Calf, Lamb, Yearling 
Mutton, and Mutton Carcasses and accompanied by the class designation 
``Bullock,'' ``Veal,'' ``Calf,'' ``Lamb,'' ``Yearling Mutton,'' or 
``Mutton,'' constitutes a form of official identification under the 
regulations to show the quality grade, and where necessary the class, 
undersaid standards, of steer, heifer, and cow beef, veal, calf, lamb, 
yearling mutton and mutton. The code identification letters of the 
grader performing the service will appear intermittently outside the 
shield.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.003

    (c) A shield enclosing the letters ``USDA'' and the words ``Yield 
Grade,'' as in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation 
``1,'' ``2,'' ``3'', ``4,'' or ``5'' as provided in the Official United 
States Standards for Grades of Fresh Beef Carcasses and the Official 
United States Standards for Grades of Lamb, Yearling Mutton, and Mutton 
Carcasses constitutes a form of official identification under the 
regulations to

[[Page 25]]

show the yield grade under said standards. When yield graded, bull and 
bullock carcasses will be identified with the class designation ``Bull'' 
and ``Bullock,'' respectively. The code identification letters of the 
grader performing the service will appear outside the shield.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.007

    (d) Under the regulations, for carcass grade identification purposes 
only, a shield enclosing the letters ``USDA'' with the appropriate yield 
grade designation number of ``1,'' ``2,'' ``3,'' ``4,'' or ``5'' between 
the ``US'' and ``DA'', with the appropriate quality grade designation of 
``Prime'', ``Choice,'' or ``Select,'' below both as shown in Figure 1. 
The code identification letters for the grader performing the service 
will appear outside underneath the shield.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.008

    (e) Under the regulations, for yield grade identification purposes 
only, a shield enclosing the letters ``US'' on one side and ``DA'' on 
the other, with the appropriate Yield Grade designation number ``1,'' 
``2,'' ``3,'' ``4,'' or ``5'' as shown in Figure 1. The code 
identification letters for the grader performing the service will appear 
outside underneath the shield.

[[Page 26]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.009

    (f) Under the regulations, for quality grade identification only, a 
shield enclosing the letters ``US'' on one side and ``DA'' on the other 
with the appropriate Quality Grade designation of ``Prime,'' ``Choice,'' 
or ``Select'' as shown in Figure 1. The code identification letters for 
the grader performing the service will appear outside underneath the 
shield.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.010

    (g) The letters ``USDA'' with the appropriate grade designation 
``1,'' ``2,'' ``3,'' ``4,'' ``Utility,'' or ``Cull'' enclosed in a 
shield as shown in Figure 1, as provided in the Official United States 
Standards for Grades of Pork Carcasses, constitutes a form of official 
identification under the regulations to show the grade under said 
standards of barrow, gilt, and sow pork carcasses.

[[Page 27]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.011

    (h) The following constitute forms of official identification under 
the regulations to show compliance of products:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.004

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.005

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.006

    Note:  The letters ``RWX'', and ``UF'' shown in figures 1, and 2 are 
examples, respectively, of the code identification letters of the 
official grader performing the service.

    (i) The following, as shown in Figure 1, constitutes official 
identification to show quality system certification:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.007

    (j) A shield-shaped ear tag enclosing the letters ``USDA'', the 
words ``Carcass Data Service,'' as shown below (Figure 1), and a serial 
number constitutes a form of official identification under the 
regulations for livestock and carcasses. Other information may appear on 
the backside of the ear tag at the option of the purchasers.

[[Page 28]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.008

    (k)(1) One device used by USDA graders is a rectangular, serially 
numbered, orange tag on which a shield encloses the letters ``USDA'' and 
the words ``Product Control'' as shown in Figure 1, constitutes a form 
of official identification under the regulations for meat and meat 
products.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR21MR96.015

    (2) Official graders and supervisors of grading may use ``Product 
Control'' tags or other methods and devices as approved by the 
Administrator for the identification and control of meat and meat 
products which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held 
pending the results of an examination. Any such meat or meat product so 
identified shall not be used, moved, or

[[Page 29]]

 altered in any manner; nor shall official control identification be 
removed, without the express permission of an authorized representative 
of the USDA.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 45 FR 51762, Aug. 5, 1980. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 50 FR 14367, 
Apr. 12, 1985; 52 FR 35683, Sept. 23, 1987; 61 FR 11509, Mar. 21, 1996]



Sec. 54.18  Custody of identification devices.

    (a) All identification devices used in marking products or the 
containers thereof under the regulations, including those indicating 
compliance with specifications approved by the Chief, shall be kept in 
the custody of the Branch, and accurate records shall be kept by the 
Branch of all such devices. Each office of grading shall keep a record 
of the devices assigned to it. Such devices shall be distributed only to 
persons authorized by the Department, who shall keep the devices in 
their possession or control at all times and maintain complete records 
of such devices.
    (b) Upon request, applicants shall provide a metal cabinet(s) or 
locker(s) for the secure storage of official meat grading equipment and 
identification devices for each Federal meat grader assigned to their 
establishment. Such cabinet(s) or locker(s) shall be capable of being 
locked with a special Government-owned lock and shall be placed in an 
easily accessible and reasonably secure location within the applicant's 
establishment.

                             Appeal Service



Sec. 54.19  What is appeal service; marking products on appeal; requirements for appeal; certain determinations not appealable.

    (a) Appeal service is a redetermination of the class, grade, other 
quality, or compliance of product when the applicant for the appeal 
service formally challenges the correctness of the original 
determination. Only a person who has title to, or is a party to a 
contract for the sale of, a product may request appeal service with 
respect to such product and if the original determination of class, 
grade, other quality or compliance is found on appeal to have been in 
error all incorrect marks of class, grade, other quality and compliance 
will be removed from the product, and if the person having title to the 
product so requests, correct marks as determined on the appeal will be 
applied to the product. Examination requested to determine the class, 
grade, other quality, or compliance of a product which has been altered 
or has undergone a material change since the original service, or 
examination of product requested for the purpose of obtaining an up-to-
date certificate and not involving any question as to the correctness of 
the original service for the product involved shall be considered 
equivalent to original service and not appeal service.
    (b) Grade determinations cannot be appealed for any lot or product 
consisting of less than 10 similar units. Moreover, appeal service will 
not be furnished with respect to product that has been altered or has 
undergone any material change since the original service.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as amended at 45 FR 51762, Aug. 5, 1980. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 54.20  Request for appeal service.

    Except as otherwise provided in Sec. 54.19, a request for appeal 
service with respect to any product under the regulations may be made by 
any person who is financially interested in the product when he 
disagrees with the determination as to class, grade, other quality, or 
compliance of the product as shown by the markings on the product or its 
containers, or as stated in the applicable certificate. A request for 
appeal service shall be filed with the Chief, directly or through the 
official grader who performed the original service or the official in 
charge of the office of grading to which such grader was assigned at the 
time of the service, or through the nearest office of grading. The 
request shall state the reasons therefor and may be accompanied by a 
copy of any previous certificate or report, or any other information 
which the applicant may have received regarding the product at the time 
of the original service. Such request may be made orally (including by 
telephone) or in writing (including by telegram). If made orally, the 
person receiving the

[[Page 30]]

request may require that it be confirmed in writing. Requests for appeal 
service received through an official grader or an office of grading 
shall be transmitted promptly to the Chief for instructions.



Sec. 54.21  When request for appeal service may be withdrawn.

    A request for appeal service may be withdrawn by the applicant at 
any time before the appeal service has been performed, upon payment of 
any expenses already incurred under the regulations by the Branch in 
connection therewith.



Sec. 54.22  Denial or withdrawal of appeal service.

    A request for appeal service may be rejected or such service may be 
otherwise denied to or withdrawn from any person, without a hearing, in 
accordance with the procedure set forth in Sec. 54.11(b), if it shall 
appear that the person or product involved is not eligible for appeal 
service under Sec. 54.19, or that the identity of the product has been 
lost; or for any of the causes set forth in Sec. 54.11(b). Appeal 
service may also be denied to, or withdrawn from, any person in any case 
under Sec. 54.11(a), in accordance with the procedure set forth in said 
section.



Sec. 54.23  Who shall perform appeal service.

    Appeal service for products shall be performed by official graders 
designated by the Chief or by the official in charge of an office of 
grading when so authorized by the Chief, and shall be conducted jointly 
by two official graders, or more when practicable. No official grader 
shall perform appeal service for any product for which he previously 
performed the service.



Sec. 54.24  Appeal certificates.

    Immediately after appeal service has been performed for any 
products, a certificate designated as an ``appeal certificate'' shall be 
prepared, signed, and issued referring specifically to the original 
certificate and stating the class, grade, other quality, or compliance 
of the products as shown by the appeal service.



Sec. 54.25  Superseded certificates.

    The appeal certificate shall supersede the original certificate 
which, thereupon, shall become null and void and shall not thereafter be 
deemed to show the class, grade, other quality, or compliance of the 
products described therein. However, the fees charged for the original 
service shall not be remitted. If the original and all copies of the 
superseded certificate are not delivered to the official with whom the 
request for appeal service is filed, the official graders issuing the 
appeal certificate shall forward notice of such issuance and of the 
cancellation of the original certificate to such persons as they may 
deem necessary to prevent fraudulent use of the superseded certificate.



Sec. 54.26  Application of other regulations to appeal service.

    The regulations in Secs. 54.1 through 54.18 and Secs. 54.27 through 
54.30 shall apply to appeal service except insofar as they are 
manifestly inapplicable.

                           Charges for Service



Sec. 54.27  Fees and other charges for service.

    Fees and other charges equal as nearly as may be to the cost of the 
services rendered shall be assessed and collected from applicants in 
accordance with the following provisions unless otherwise provided in 
the cooperative agreement under which the services are furnished, or as 
provided in Sec. 54.6.
    (a) Fees for Service on Noncommitment Basis (Hourly Rates). Except 
as otherwise provided in this section, fees for service shall be based 
on the time required to render the service, calculated to the nearest 
15-minute period, including official grader's travel and certificate(s) 
preparation time in connection with the performance of service. A 
minimum charge of one-half hour shall be made for service pursuant to 
each request notwithstanding that the time required to perform service 
may be less than 30 minutes. The base hourly rate for noncommitment 
applicants shall be $39.00 per hour for 8 hours or less of work 
performed between the hours of 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except on legal holidays; $44.60 per hour for work performed in excess 
of 8

[[Page 31]]

hours per day for each assigned official grader and for work performed 
before 6 a.m. and after 6 p.m., Monday through Friday, and any time 
Saturday or Sunday, except on Federal legal holidays; and $73.20 per 
hour for all work performed on Federal legal holidays.
    (b) Fees for Service on Commitment Basis. Minimum fees for service 
performed under a commitment agreement or an agreement by memorandum 
shall be on the basis of 8 hours per day, Monday through Friday, 
excluding Federal legal holidays occurring Monday through Friday on 
which no grading and certification services are performed. The base 
hourly rate for service performed under such agreements shall be $36.60 
per hour for 8 consecutive hours or less of work performed between the 
hours of 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on Federal 
legal holidays; $44.60 per hour for work performed in excess of 8 hours 
per day for each assigned official grader and for work performed before 
6 a.m. and after 6 p.m., Monday through Friday, and any time Saturday or 
Sunday, except on Federal legal holidays; and $73.20 per hour for all 
work performed on Federal legal holidays. The Agency reserves the right 
under such a commitment agreement or agreement by memorandum to use any 
grader assigned to the plant on a commitment basis to perform service 
for other applicants, as provided in Sec. 54.6(c), crediting the 
commitment applicant with the number of hours charged to the other 
applicant, provided the allowable credit hours plus hours actually 
worked for the applicants do not exceed 8 hours on any day, Monday 
through Friday, excluding legal holidays.
    (c) Travel charges. When service is requested at a place so distant 
from an official grader's headquarters, or place of prior assignment on 
a circuitous routing that a total of one-half hour or more is required 
for the grader to travel to such place and back to the headquarters, or 
to the next place of assignment on a circuitous routing, the charge for 
such service shall include a mileage charge administratively determined 
by the Chief, and travel tolls, if applicable, for such travel prorated 
against all the applicants furnished the service involved on an 
equitable basis, or where the travel is made by public transportation 
(including hired vehicles), a fee equal to the actual cost thereof. 
However, the applicant will not be charged a new mileage rate without 
notification before the service is rendered.
    (d) Per diem charges. When service is requested at a place away from 
the official grader's headquarters, the fee for such service shall 
include a per diem charge if the employee performing the service is paid 
per diem in accordance with existing travel regulations. Per diem 
charges to applicants will cover the same period of time for which the 
grader receives per diem reimbursement. The per diem rate will be 
administratively determined by the Chief. However, the applicant will 
not be charged a new per diem rate without notification before the 
service is rendered.
    (e) Fees for appeal service. Fees for appeal service shall be 
determined on the basis of the time, of two official graders, required 
to render the service, calculated to the nearest fifteen-minute period, 
including the time required for the preparation of certificates and 
travel of such graders in connection with the performance of the 
service, at the applicable hourly rate prescribed in paragraph (a) of 
this section, plus any travel charges and per diem for such graders 
ordinarily chargeable under paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section: 
Provided, That when on appeal it is found that there was error in the 
original determination equal to or exceeding ten percent of the total 
number of similar units of the products involved, no charge will be made 
for the appeal service unless a special agreement therefor was made with 
the applicant in advance.
    (f) Fees for extra copies of certificates. In addition to copies of 
certificates furnished under Sec. 54.14, any financially interested 
person may obtain not to exceed three copies of any such certificate 
within one year from its date of issuance upon payment of a fee of 
$1.00, and not to exceed three copies of any such certificate at any 
time thereafter, while a copy of such certificate is on file in the 
Department, upon payment of a fee of $5.00.

[[Page 32]]

    (g) Other charges. When costs, other than costs specified in 
paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section, are 
involved in providing the services, the applicant will be charged for 
these costs. The amount of these charges will be determined 
administratively by the Chief. However, the applicant will not be 
charged for such cost without notification before the service is 
rendered of the charge for such item of expense.
[42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, 
and amended at 47 FR 44704, Oct. 12, 1982; 51 FR 21135, June 11, 1986; 
54 FR 21401, May 18, 1989; 55 FR 20443, May 17, 1990; 57 FR 11427, Apr. 
3, 1992; 58 FR 48592, Sept. 17, 1993; 58 FR 64670, Dec. 9, 1993; 59 FR 
1890, Jan. 13, 1994; 59 FR 13643, Mar. 23, 1994]



Sec. 54.28  Payment of fees and other charges.

    Fees and other charges for service shall be paid in accordance with 
the following provisions unless otherwise provided in the cooperative 
agreement under which the service is furnished. Upon receipt of billing 
for fees and other charges for service the applicant shall remit by 
check, draft, or money order, made payable to the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, USDA, payment for the service in accordance with directions on 
the billing, and such fees and charges shall be paid in advance if 
required by the official grader or other authorized official.

                              Miscellaneous



Sec. 54.29  Identification.

    All official graders and supervisors of grading shall have their 
Agricultural Marketing Service identification cards in their possession 
at all times while they are performing any function under the 
regulations and shall identify themselves by such cards upon request.



Sec. 54.30  Errors in service.

    When an official grader, supervisor of grading, or other responsible 
employee of the Branch has evidence of misgrading, or of incorrect 
certification or other incorrect determination or identification as to 
the class, grade, other quality, or compliance of a product, he shall 
report the matter to his immediate supervisor. The supervisor of grading 
will investigate the matter and, if he deems advisable, will report it 
to the owner or his agent. The supervisor of grading shall take 
appropriate action to correct errors found in the determination or 
identification of class, grade or other quality or compliance of 
products if the products are still owned by the person who owned them 
when, and are still located at the establishment where, the incorrect 
service was rendered and if such service was rendered by a grader under 
the jurisdiction of such supervisor, and the supervisor of grading shall 
take adequate measures to prevent the recurrence of such errors.



Sec. 54.31  Uniforms.

    All meat graders and their supervisory personnel are required to 
wear clean, white, well-maintained outer frocks while performing any 
function under these regulations involving contact with or the handling 
of any meat or meat product.
[45 FR 19214, Mar. 25, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



                          Subpart B  [Reserved]



PART 55--VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS AND GRADING--Table of Contents




            Subpart A--Inspection and Grading of Egg Products

                               Definitions

Sec.
55.1  Meaning of words.
55.2  Terms defined.
55.5  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.

                             Administration

55.10  Authority.
55.11  Nondiscrimination.

                                 General

55.20  Kinds of services available.
55.22  Where service is offered.
55.24  Basis of service.
55.25  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.

                         Performance of Services

55.30  Licensed graders and inspectors.
55.40  Suspension of license; revocation.

[[Page 33]]

55.50  Cancellation of license.
55.60  Surrender of license.
55.70  Identification.
55.80  Political activity.
55.90  Authority and duties of inspectors performing service on a 
          resident inspection basis.
55.95  Facilities and equipment to be furnished for use of graders and 
          inspectors in performing service on a resident inspection 
          basis.
55.96  Schedule of operation of official plants.

                         Application for Service

55.100  Who may obtain service.
55.120  Authority of applicant.
55.130  How application for service may be made; conditions of resident 
          service.
55.140  Application for inspection in official plants; approval.
55.150  When application may be rejected.
55.160  When application may be withdrawn.
55.170  Order of service.
55.180  Suspension of plant approval.

                            Denial of Service

55.200  Debarment.
55.220  Other applicable regulations.
55.240  Report of violations.
55.260  Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

                    Identifying and Marking Products

55.300  Approval of official identification.
55.310  Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.
55.320  Products that may bear the inspection mark.
55.330  Unauthorized use or disposition of approved labels.
55.340  Supervision of marking and packaging.
55.350  Accessibility of product.
55.360  Certificates.
55.370  Certificate issuance.
55.380  Disposition of certificates.
55.390  Advance information.

                                 Appeals

55.400  Who may request an appeal grading or inspection or review of a 
          grader's or inspector's decision.
55.410  Where to file an appeal.
55.420  How to file an appeal.
55.430  When an application for an appeal grading or inspection may be 
          refused.
55.440  Who shall perform the appeal.
55.450  Procedures for selecting appeal samples.
55.460  Appeal certificates.

                            Fees and Charges

55.500  Payment of fees and charges.
55.510  Fees and charges for services other than on a continuous 
          resident basis.
55.530  Travel expenses and other charges.
55.560  Charges for continuous inspection and grading service on a 
          resident basis.
55.570  Fees for service performed under cooperative agreement.

                  Sanitary and Processing Requirements

55.600  General.
55.650  Inspection and grading.

  Subpart B--Official U.S. Standards for Palatability Scores for Dried 
                               Whole Eggs

55.800  Preparation of samples for palatability test.
55.820  Palatability scores for dried whole eggs.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621-1627.

    Source:  36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977 and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.



            Subpart A--Inspection and Grading of Egg Products

                               Definitions



Sec. 55.1  Meaning of words.

    Under the regulations in this part words in the singular shall be 
deemed to import the plural and vice versa, as the case may demand.



Sec. 55.2  Terms defined.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this part, unless the context 
otherwise requires, the following terms shall be construed, 
respectively:
    Act means the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), or any other Act of 
Congress conferring like authority.
    Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service (AMS) of the Department or any other officer or employee of the 
Department to whom there has heretofore been delegated, or to whom there 
may hereafter be delegated the authority to act in his stead.
    Applicant means any interested party who requests any grading or 
inspection service, or appeal grading or appeal inspection, with respect 
to any product.
    Chief of the Grading Branch means the Chief of the Poultry Grading 
Branch, Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing Service.

[[Page 34]]

    Class means any subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same 
kind, species, or method of processing.
    Condition means any condition (including, but not being limited to, 
the state of preservation, cleanliness, soundness, wholesomeness, or 
fitness for human food) of any product which affects its 
merchantability; or any condition, including, but not being limited to, 
the processing, handling, or packaging which affects such product.
    Department means the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    Eggs of Current Production means shell eggs which have moved through 
the usual marketing channels since the time they were laid and are not 
in excess of 60 days old.
    Holiday or Legal holiday shall mean the legal public holidays 
specified by the Congress in paragraph (a) of section 6103, Title 5, of 
the United States Code.
    Inspection/grading means (1) the act of determining, according to 
the regulations, the class, quality, quantity, or condition of any 
product by examining each unit thereof or a representative sample drawn 
by a grader; (2) the act of issuing a certificate; or (3) the act of 
identifying, when requested by the applicant, any product by means of 
official identification pursuant to the Act and this part.
    Inspection and grading certificate or certificate means a statement, 
either written or printed, issued by a grader or inspector pursuant to 
the Act and this part, relative to the class, quality, quantity, and 
condition of products.
    Inspector/grader means any employee of the Department authorized by 
the Secretary, or any other person to whom a license has been issued by 
the Secretary, to investigate and certify, in accordance with the Act 
and this part, to shippers of products and other interested parties the 
class, quality, quantity, and condition of such products.
    Interested party means any person financially interested in a 
transaction involving any grading, inspection, or appeal grading or 
inspection of any product.
    National Supervisor means (1) the officer in charge of the service 
of AMS, and (2) such other employee of AMS as may be designated by him.
    Office of grading means the office of any grader or inspector.
    Official plant means any plant in which the facilities and methods 
of operation therein have been found by the Administrator to be suitable 
and adequate for grading service or inspection in accordance with this 
part and in which such service is carried on.
    Person means any individual, partnership, association, business 
trust, corporation, or any organized group of persons, whether 
incorporated or not.
    Product or products means eggs (whether liquid, frozen, or dried), 
egg products and any food product which is prepared or manufactured and 
contains eggs as an ingredient.
    Quality means the inherent properties of any product which determine 
its relative degree of excellence.
    Regional Director means any employee of the Department in charge of 
the service in a designated geographical area.
    Regulations means the provisions in this part.
    Sampling means the act of taking samples of any product for grading 
or inspection.
    Secretary means the Secretary of the Department or any other officer 
or employee of the Department to whom there has heretofore been 
delegated, or to whom there may hereafter be delegated, the authority to 
act in his stead.
    Service means (1) any grading or inspection, in accordance with the 
Act and the regulations in this part, of any product, (2) supervision, 
in any official plant, of the preparation or packaging of any product, 
or (3) any appeal grading or appeal inspection of any previously graded 
or inspected product.
    Shell eggs means the shell eggs of the domesticated chicken, turkey, 
duck, goose, and guinea.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 36 FR 19301, Oct. 2, 1971; 37 
FR 17816, Sept. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
amended at 43 FR 60137, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46069, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 
3, 1982]

[[Page 35]]



Sec. 55.5  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks or other identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said Act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the inspection or grading of 
agricultural products under said section. For the purposes of said 
subsection and the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall 
have the respective meanings specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, used under this part to certify with respect to the 
sampling, inspection, class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or 
condition of products (including the compliance of products with 
applicable specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of grading, inspecting, or sampling 
pursuant to this part, any processing or plant-operation report made by 
an authorized person in connection with grading, inspecting, or sampling 
under this part and any report made by an authorized person of services 
performed pursuant to this part.
    (c) Official mark means the grade mark, inspection mark, and any 
other mark or symbol formulated pursuant to the regulations in this 
part, stating that the product was graded or inspected, or for the 
purpose of maintaining the identity of the product.
    (d) Official identification means any United States (U.S.) standard 
designation of class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition 
specified in this part or any symbol, stamp, label, or seal indicating 
that the product has been officially graded or inspected and/or 
indicating the class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition of 
the product approved by the Administrator and authorized to be affixed 
to any product, or affixed to or printed on the packaging material of 
any product.
    (e) Official device means a printed label, or other method as 
approved by the Administrator for the purpose of applying any official 
mark or other identification to any product of the packaging material 
thereof.

                             Administration



Sec. 55.10  Authority.

    The Administrator shall perform, for and under the supervision of 
the Secretary, such duties as the Secretary may require in the 
enforcement or administration of the provisions of the Act and this 
part. The Administrator is authorized to waive for a limited period any 
particular provisions of the regulations in this part to permit 
experimentation so that new procedures, equipment, and processing 
techniques may be tested to facilitate definite improvements and at the 
same time to determine full compliance with the spirit and intent of the 
regulations in this part. The Agricultural Marketing Service and its 
officers and employees shall not be liable in damages through acts of 
commission or omission in the administration of this part.
[42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 55.11  Nondiscrimination.

    The conduct of all services and the licensing of graders and 
inspectors under these regulations shall be accomplished without 
discrimination as to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or 
disability.
[40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995]

                                 General



Sec. 55.20  Kinds of services available.

    The regulations in this part provide for the following kinds of 
services:
    (a) Inspection of the processing of products containing eggs in 
official plants.
    (b) Sampling of products.

[[Page 36]]

    (c) Quantity and condition inspection of products.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 
1993]



Sec. 55.22  Where service is offered.

    Any product may be graded or inspected wherever a grader or 
inspector is available and the facilities and the conditions are 
satisfactory for the conduct of the service.



Sec. 55.24  Basis of service.

    (a) Products shall be graded or inspected in accordance with such 
standards, methods, and instructions as may be issued or approved by the 
Administrator. All service shall be subject to supervision at all times 
by the applicable State supervisor, egg products supervisor, Regional 
Director, and National Supervisor. Whenever the supervisor of a grader 
or inspector has evidence that such grader or inspector incorrectly 
graded or inspected a product, such supervisor shall take such action as 
is necessary to correct the grading or inspection and to cause any 
improper official identification which appears on the product or 
containers thereof to be corrected prior to shipment of the product from 
the place of the initial grading or inspection.
    (b) Whenever service is performed on a sample basis, such sample 
shall be drawn in accordance with the instructions as issued by the 
Administrator.



Sec. 55.25  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    (a) Purpose. This section collects and displays the control numbers 
assigned to information collection requirements by the Office of 
Management and Budget contained in 7 CFR part 55 pursuant to the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-511.
    (b) Display.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Current OMB
       7 CFR section where identified and described            control  
                                                               number   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sec.  55.10...............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.24(a)............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.30(a)............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.40...............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.90(b)............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.95(b)............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.96...............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.120..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.130(a)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.130(b)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.130(c)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.140..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.150..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.160..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.200(a)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.240..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.300..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.340(c)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.370(a)...........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.380..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.390..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.400..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.420..............................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.560(a)(1)........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.560(b)(1)........................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.560(b)(3)(ii)....................................     0581-0146
Sec.  55.600..............................................     0581-0146
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[49 FR 2880, Jan. 24, 1984, as amended at 55 FR 23421, June 8, 1990]

                         Performance of Services



Sec. 55.30  Licensed graders and inspectors.

    (a) Any person who is a Federal or State employee, the employee of a 
local jurisdiction, or the employee of a cooperating agency possessing 
proper qualifications as determined by an examination for competency and 
who is to perform grading service under this part, may be licensed by 
the Secretary as a grader or inspector.
    (b) All licenses issued by the Secretary are to be countersigned by 
the officer-in-charge of the service of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service or by any other official of AMS designated by such officer.
    (c) No person may be licensed to grade or inspect any product in 
which he is financially interested.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 12918, June 30, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 55.40  Suspension of license; revocation.

    Pending final action by the Secretary, any person authorized to 
countersign a license to perform service may, whenever he deems such 
action necessary to assure that any grading or inspection services are 
properly performed, suspend any license to perform

[[Page 37]]

grading or inspection service issued pursuant to this part, by giving 
notice of such suspension to the respective licensee, accompanied by a 
statement of the reasons therefor. Within 7 days after the receipt of 
the aforesaid notice and statement of reasons, the licensee may file an 
appeal in writing, with the Secretary, supported by any argument or 
evidence that he may wish to offer as to why his license should not be 
further suspended or revoked. After the expiration of the aforesaid 7-
day period and consideration of such argument and evidence, the 
Secretary will take such action as he deems appropriate with respect to 
such suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within the 
prescribed 7 days, the license to perform grading or inspection service 
is revoked.



Sec. 55.50  Cancellation of license.

    Upon termination of his services as a grader or inspector, each 
licensee shall surrender his license immediately for cancellation.



Sec. 55.60  Surrender of license.

    Each license which is canceled, suspended, or revoked shall 
immediately be surrendered by the licensee to the office of the service 
in the region in which he is located.



Sec. 55.70  Identification.

    All graders, inspectors, and supervisors shall have in their 
possession at all times while on duty and present upon request the means 
of identification furnished by the Department to such person.



Sec. 55.80  Political activity.

    All graders and inspectors are forbidden during the period of their 
respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political 
management or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, 
county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in 
behalf of any party or candidate is prohibited, except as authorized by 
law or regulation of the Department. This applies to all appointees, 
including, but not being limited to, temporary and cooperative employees 
and employees on leave of absence with or without pay. Willful violation 
of this section will constitute grounds for dismissal in the case of 
appointees and revocation of licenses in the case of licensees.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 55.90  Authority and duties of inspectors performing service on a resident inspection basis.

    (a) Each inspector is authorized:
    (1) To make such observations and inspections as he deems necessary 
to enable him to certify that products have been prepared, processed, 
stored, and otherwise handled in conformity with the regulations in this 
part;
    (2) To supervise the marking of packages containing products which 
are eligible to be identified with official identification;
    (3) To retain in his custody, or under his supervision, labels with 
official identification, marking devices, samples, certificates, seals, 
and reports of inspectors;
    (4) To deface or remove, or cause to be defaced or removed under his 
personal supervision, any official identification from any package 
containing products whenever he determines that such products were not 
processed in accordance with the regulations in this part or are not fit 
for human food;
    (5) To issue a certificate upon request on any product processed in 
the official plant; and
    (6) To use retention tags or other devices and methods as may be 
approved by the Administrator for the identification and control of 
products which are not in compliance with the regulations in this part 
or are held for further examination, and any equipment, utensils, rooms 
or compartments which are found to be unclean or otherwise in violation 
of any of the regulations in this part. No product, equipment, utensil, 
room or compartment shall be released for use until it has been made 
acceptable. Such identification shall not be removed by anyone other 
than inspector or grader.

[[Page 38]]

    (b) Each inspector shall prepare such reports and records as may be 
prescribed by the officer-in-charge of the service.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 55.95  Facilities and equipment to be furnished for use of graders and inspectors in performing service on a resident inspection basis.

    (a) Facilities and equipment for proper sampling, weighing, 
examination of products and monitoring processing procedures shall be 
furnished by the official plant for use by inspectors and graders. Such 
facilities and equipment shall include but not be limited to a room or 
area suitable for sampling product, and acceptable candling light, 
flashlight, heavy duty, high speed drill with an eleven sixteenths-inch 
or larger bit of sufficient length to reach the bottom of containers 
used for frozen eggs, metal stem thermometer(s), test thermometer(s), 
stop watch, test weighing scale(s) and test weight(s), test kit for 
determining the bactericidal strength of sanitizing solutions, and 
stationary or adequately secured storage box or cage (capable of being 
locked only by the inspector) for holding official samples.
    (b) Acceptable furnished office space and equipment, including but 
not being limited to, a desk, lockers or cabinets (equipped with a 
satisfactory locking device) suitable for the protection and storage of 
supplies, and with facilities for inspectors and graders to change 
clothing.
[60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 55.96  Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Grading operating schedules for services performed pursuant to 
Sec. 55.560 shall be requested in writing and be approved by the 
Administrator. Normal operating schedules for a full week consist of a 
continuous 8-hour period per day (excluding not to exceed 1 hour for 
lunch), 5 consecutive days per week, within the administrative workweek, 
Sunday through Saturday, for each shift required. Less than 8-hour 
schedules may be requested and will be approved if a grader is 
available. Clock hours of daily operations need not be specified in the 
request, although as a condition of continued approval, the hours of 
operation shall be reasonably uniform from day to day. As an 
alternative, the normal operating schedule shall consist of a continuous 
10-hour period per day (excluding not to exceed 1 hour for lunch), 4 
consecutive days per week, within the administrative workweek, Sunday 
through Saturday for each full shift required. Graders are to be given 
reasonable advance notice by management of any change in the hours that 
grading service is requested.
[48 FR 20682, May 9, 1983, as amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995]

                         Application for Service



Sec. 55.100  Who may obtain service.

    (a) An application for service may be made by any interested person, 
including, but not being limited to, the United States, any State, 
county, municipality, or common carrier, and any authorized agent of the 
foregoing.
    (b) Where service is offered: Any product may be graded or 
inspected, wherever a grader or inspector is available and the 
facilities and the conditions are satisfactory for the conduct of the 
service.



Sec. 55.120  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of the authority of any person applying for any service may be 
required at the discretion of the Administrator.



Sec. 55.130  How application for service may be made; conditions of resident service.

    (a) On a fee basis. An application for any service may be made in 
any office of grading, or with any grader or inspector at or nearest the 
place where the service is desired. Such application for service may be 
made orally (in person or by telephone), in writing or by telegraph. If 
an application for grading service is made orally, the office of 
grading, grader or inspector with whom such application is made, or the 
Administrator may require that the application be confirmed in writing.
    (b) On a resident inspection basis. An application for inspection on 
a resident

[[Page 39]]

inspection basis to be rendered in an official plant must be made in 
writing on forms approved by the Administrator and filed with the 
Administrator. Such forms may be obtained at the national, regional, or 
State grading office. In making application, the applicant agrees to 
comply with the terms and conditions of the regulations in this part 
(including, but not being limited to, such instructions governing 
grading and inspection of products as may be issued from time to time by 
the Administrator). No member of or delegate to Congress or Resident 
Commissioner, shall be admitted to any benefit that may arise from such 
service unless derived through service rendered a corporation for its 
general benefit.
    (c) Form of application. Each application for grading or inspecting 
a specified lot of any product shall include such information as may be 
required by the Administrator in regard to the product and the premises 
where such product is to be graded or inspected.



Sec. 55.140  Application for inspection in official plants; approval.

    Any person desiring to process products under inspection service 
must receive approval of such plant and facilities as an official plant 
prior to the installation of such service. The initial survey, drawings, 
and specifications to be submitted, changes and revisions in the 
official plant, and final survey and procedure for plant approval shall 
be in accordance with and conform with the applicable provisions of 
Sec. 59.146 of this chapter, regulations governing the inspection of 
eggs and egg products.
[40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 55.150  When application may be rejected.

    Any application for service may be rejected by the Administrator (a) 
whenever the applicant fails to meet the requirements of the regulations 
in this part prescribing the conditions under which the service is made 
available; (b) whenever the product is owned by or located on the 
premises of a person currently denied the benefits of the Act; (c) where 
any individual holding office or a responsible position with or having a 
substantial financial interest or share in the applicant is currently 
denied the benefits of the Act or was responsible in whole or in part 
for the current denial of the benefits of the Act to any person; (d) 
where the Administrator determines that the application is an attempt on 
the part of a person currently denied the benefits of the Act to obtain 
service; (e) whenever the applicant, after an initial survey has been 
made in accordance with Sec. 55.140, fails to bring the plant, 
facilities, and operating procedures into compliance with the 
regulations in this part within a reasonable period of time; (f) 
notwithstanding any prior approval whenever, before inauguration of 
service, the applicant fails to fulfill commitments concerning the 
inauguration of the service; (g) when it appears that to perform the 
services specified in this part would not be to the best interests of 
the public welfare or of the Government; or (h) when it appears to the 
Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate 
rejection of the application. Each such applicant shall be promptly 
notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection. A written 
petition for reconsideration of such rejection may be filed by the 
applicant with the Administrator if postmarked or delivered within 10 
days after receipt of notice of the rejection. Such petition shall state 
specifically the errors alleged to have been made by the Administrator 
in rejecting the application. Within 20 days following the receipt of 
such a petition for reconsideration, the Administrator shall approve the 
application or notify the applicant by registered mail of the reasons 
for the rejection thereof.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 46069, Oct. 15, 
1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 55.160  When application may be withdrawn.

    An application for service may be withdrawn by the applicant at any 
time before the service is performed upon payment, by the applicant, of 
all expenses incurred by AMS in connection with such application.

[[Page 40]]



Sec. 55.170  Order of service.

    Service shall be performed, insofar as practicable, in the order in 
which applications therefor are made except that precedence may be given 
to any application for an appeal.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 55.180  Suspension of plant approval.

    (a) Any plant approval pursuant to the regulations in this part may 
be suspended for (1) failure to maintain plant and equipment in a 
satisfactory state of repairs; (2) the use of operating procedures which 
are not in accordance with the regulations in this part; or (3) 
alterations of buildings, facilities, or equipment which cannot be 
approved in accordance with the regulations in this part.
    (b) During such period of suspension, inspection service shall not 
be rendered. However, the other provisions of the regulations in this 
part pertaining to providing service on a resident basis will remain in 
effect unless service is terminated in accordance with the terms 
thereof. If the plant facilities or methods of operation are not brought 
into compliance within a reasonable period of time to be specified by 
the Administrator, the application and service shall be terminated. Upon 
termination of service in an official plant pursuant to the regulations 
in this part, the plant approval shall also become terminated and all 
labels, seals, tags, or packaging material bearing official 
identification shall, under the supervision of a person designated by 
the Administrator, either be destroyed, or the official identification 
completely obliterated, or sealed in a manner acceptable to the 
Department.

                            Denial of Service



Sec. 55.200  Debarment.

    (a) The following acts or practices or the causing thereof may be 
deemed sufficient cause for the debarment by the Administrator, of any 
person, including any agents, officers, subsidiaries, or affiliates of 
such person, from any or all benefits of the Act for a specified period. 
The rules of practice governing withdrawal of inspection and grading 
services in formal adjudicatory proceedings instituted by the Secretary 
(7 CFR, part 1, subpart H) shall be applicable to such a debarment 
action:
    (1) Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any 
willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice 
found to be made or committed by any person in connection with:
    (i) The making or filing of an application for any service or 
appeal;
    (ii) The making of the product accessible for sampling, grading or 
inspection;
    (iii) The making, issuing or using or attempting to issue or use any 
certificate, symbol, stamp, label, seal, or identification authorized 
pursuant to the regulations in this part;
    (iv) The use of the terms ``United States,'' ``U.S.,'' ``Government 
Graded,'' ``Federal-State Graded,'' ``U.S. Inspected,'' ``Government 
Inspected,'' or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising 
of any product;
    (v) The use of any official stamp, symbol, label, seal, or 
identification in the labeling or advertising of any product.
    (2) Use of facsimile forms. Using or attempting to use a form which 
simulates in whole or in part any certificate, symbol, stamp, label, 
seal, or identification authorized to be issued or used under the 
regulations in this part.
    (3) Willful violation of the regulations. Any willful violation of 
the regulations in this part or the Act.
    (4) Interfering with a grader, inspector, or employee of AMS. Any 
interference with or obstruction or any attempted interference or 
obstruction of or assault upon any grader, licensee, inspector or 
employee of AMS in the performance of his duties. The giving or 
offering, directly or indirectly, of any money, loan, gift, or anything 
of value to an employee of AMS, or the making or offering of any 
contribution to or in any way supplementing the salary, compensation or 
expenses of an employee of AMS, or the offering or entering into a 
private contract or agreement with an employee of AMS for any services 
to be rendered while employed by AMS.

[[Page 41]]

    (5) Miscellaneous. The existence of any of the conditions set forth 
in Sec. 55.150 constituting the basis for the rejection of an 
application for grading or inspection service.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60137, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 55.220  Other applicable regulations.

    Compliance with the regulations in this part shall not excuse 
failure to comply with any other Federal or any State or municipal 
applicable laws or regulations.



Sec. 55.240  Report of violations.

    Each grader and inspector shall report, in the manner prescribed by 
the Administrator, all violations and noncompliance under the Act and 
this part of which such grader or inspector has knowledge.



Sec. 55.260  Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

    The reuse, by any person, of containers bearing official 
identification is prohibited unless such identification is applicable in 
all respects to product being packed therein. In such instances, the 
container and label may be used provided the packaging is accomplished 
under the supervision of an inspector or grader and the container is in 
clean, sound condition and lined with a suitable inner liner.

                    Identifying and Marking Products



Sec. 55.300  Approval of official identification.

    Labeling procedures, required information on labels, and method of 
label approval, shall be in accordance with and conform with the 
applicable provisions of Sec. 59.411 of this chapter, regulations 
governing the inspection of eggs and egg products, except where ``egg 
product(s)'' is used in Sec. 59.411, the word ``product(s)'' shall be 
substituted and used for this part 55.
[40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 55.310  Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    (a) The shield set forth in Figure 1, containing the letters 
``USDA,'' shall be the official identification symbol for the purposes 
of this part and when used, imitated, or simulated in any manner in 
connection with a product shall be deemed to constitute a representation 
that the product has been officially inspected for the purpose of 
Sec. 55.5.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.010

    (b) The inspection marks which are permitted to be used on products 
shall be contained within the outline of a shield and with the wording 
and design set forth in Figure 2 of this section, except the plant 
number may be preceded by the letter ``P'' in lieu of the word 
``plant''. Alternatively, it may be omitted from the official shield if 
applied on the container's principal display panel or other prominent 
location and preceded by the letter ``P'' or the word ``Plant''.

[[Page 42]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.011

[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 55.320  Products that may bear the inspection mark.

    Products which are permitted to bear the inspection mark shall be 
processed in an official plant from edible shell eggs or other edible 
egg products eligible to bear the inspection mark and may contain other 
edible ingredients. The official mark, when used, shall be printed or 
lithographed and applied as a part of the principal display panel of the 
container, but shall not be applied to a detachable cover.



Sec. 55.330  Unauthorized use or disposition of approved labels.

    (a) Containers or labels which bear official identification approved 
for use pursuant to Sec. 55.300 shall be used only for the purpose for 
which approved. Any unauthorized use or disposition of approved 
containers or labels which bear any official identification may result 
in cancellation of the approval and denial of the use of containers or 
labels bearing official identification or denial of the benefits of the 
Act pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 55.200;
    (b) The use of simulations or imitations of any official 
identification by any person is prohibited;
    (c) Upon termination of inspection service in an official plant 
pursuant to the regulations in this part, all labels or packaging 
material bearing official identification to be used to identify product 
packed by the plant shall either be destroyed, or have the official 
identification completely obliterated under the supervision of a USDA 
representative, or, if to be used at another location, modified in a 
manner acceptable to the Service.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975; 42 
FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 55.340  Supervision of marking and packaging.

    (a) Evidence of label approval. No grader or inspector shall 
authorize the use of official identification on any inspected product 
unless he has on file evidence that such official identification or 
packaging material bearing such official identification has been 
approved in accordance with the provisions of Sec. 55.300.
    (b) Affixing of official identification. No official identification 
may be affixed to or placed on or caused to be affixed to or placed on 
any product or container thereof except by a grader or inspector or 
under the supervision of a grader or inspector or other person 
authorized by the Administrator. All such products shall have been 
inspected in accordance with the regulations in this part. The grader or 
inspector shall have supervision over the use and handling of all 
material bearing any official identification.
    (c) Labels for products sold under Government contract. The grader 
or inspector-in-charge may approve labels for containers of product sold 
under a contract specification to governmental agencies when such 
product is not offered for resale to the general public: Provided, That 
the contract specifications include complete specific requirements with 
respect to labeling, and are made available to the grader or inspector.



Sec. 55.350  Accessibility of product.

    Each product for which service is requested shall be so placed as to 
disclose fully its class, quality, quantity, and condition as the 
circumstances may warrant.

[[Page 43]]



Sec. 55.360  Certificates.

    Certificates (including appeal certificates) shall be issued on 
forms approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 55.370  Certificate issuance.

    (a) Resident service. Certificates will be issued only upon a 
request therefor by the applicant or AMS. When requested, an inspector 
shall issue a certificate covering product inspected by him. In 
addition, an inspector may issue a certificate covering product 
inspected in whole or in part by another inspector when the inspector 
has knowledge that the product is eligible for certification based on 
personal examination of the product or official inspection records.
    (b) Other than resident service. Each inspector shall, in person or 
by his authorized agent, issue a certificate covering each product 
inspected by him. An inspector's name may be signed on a certificate by 
a person other than the inspector, if such person has been designated as 
the authorized agent of such inspector by the National Supervisor: 
Provided, That the certificate is prepared from an official memorandum 
of inspection signed by the inspector: And provided further, That a 
notarized power of attorney authorizing such signature has been issued 
to such person by the inspector and is on file in the office of the 
service. In such case, the authorized agent shall sign both his own and 
the inspector's name, e.g., ``John Doe by Richard Roe.''



Sec. 55.380  Disposition of certificates.

    The original and a copy of each certificate, issued pursuant to 
Sec. 55.370 and not to exceed two additional copies thereof if requested 
by the applicant prior to issuance, shall, immediately upon issuance, be 
delivered or mailed to the applicant or person designated by him. Other 
copies shall be filed and retained in accordance with the disposition 
schedule for inspection program records.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 46069, Oct. 15, 
1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 55.390  Advance information.

    Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any 
certificate issued to such applicant may be telephoned or telegraphed to 
him, or to any person designated by him, at his expense.

                                 Appeals



Sec. 55.400  Who may request an appeal grading or inspection or review of a grader's or inspector's decision.

    An appeal grading or inspection may be requested by any interested 
party who is dissatisfied with the determination by a grader or 
inspector of the class, quality, quantity, or condition of any product, 
as evidenced by the USDA inspection mark and accompanying label, or as 
stated on a certificate and a review may be requested by the operator of 
an official plant with respect to a grader's or inspector's decision or 
on any other matter related to grading or inspection in the official 
plant.



Sec. 55.410  Where to file an appeal.

    (a) Appeal of resident grader's or inspector's grading or decision 
in an official plant. Any interested party who is not satisfied with the 
determination of the class, quality, quantity, or condition of product 
which was graded or inspected by a grader or inspector in an official 
plant and has not left such plant, and the operator of any official 
plant who is not satisfied with a decision by a grader or inspector on 
any other matter relating to grading or inspection in such plant may 
request an appeal grading or inspection or review of the decision by the 
grader or inspector by filing such request with the grader's or 
inspector's immediate supervisor.
    (b) All other appeal requests. Any interested party who is not 
satisfied with the determination of the class, quality, quantity, or 
condition of product which has left the official plant where it was 
graded or inspected or which was graded or inspected other than in an 
official plant may request an appeal grading or inspection by filing 
such request with the Regional Director in the region

[[Page 44]]

where the product is located or with the Chief of the Grading Branch.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 55.420  How to file an appeal.

    The request for an appeal grading or inspection or review of a 
grader's or inspector's decision may be made orally or in writing. If 
made orally, written confirmation may be required. The applicant shall 
clearly state the identity of the product, the decision which is 
questioned, and the reason(s) for requesting the appeal service. If such 
appeal request is based on the results stated on an official 
certificate, the original and all copies of the certificate available at 
the appeal grading or inspection site shall be provided to the appeal 
grader or inspector assigned to make the appeal grading or inspection.
[60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 55.430  When an application for an appeal grading or inspection may be refused.

    When it appears to the official with whom an appeal request is filed 
that the reasons given in the request are frivolous or not substantial, 
class, quality, quantity, or that the condition of the product has 
undergone a material change since the original grading or inspection, or 
that the original lot has changed in some manner, or the Act or the 
regulations in this part have not been complied with, the applicant's 
request for the appeal grading or inspection may be refused. In such 
case, the applicant shall be promptly notified of the reason(s) for 
refusal.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 55.440  Who shall perform the appeal.

    (a) An appeal grading or inspection or review of a decision 
requested under Sec. 55.410(a) shall be made by the grader's or 
inspector's immediate supervisor or by a licensed grader or inspector 
assigned by the immediate supervisor other than the grader or inspector 
whose grading or inspection or decision is being appealed.
    (b) Appeal gradings or inspections requested under Sec. 55.410(b) 
shall be performed by a grader or inspector other than the grader or 
inspector who originally graded or inspected the product.
    (c) Whenever practical, an appeal grading or inspection shall be 
conducted jointly by two graders or inspectors. The assignment of the 
grader(s) or inspector(s) who will make the appeal grading or inspection 
under Sec. 55.410(b) shall be made by the Regional Director or the Chief 
of the Grading Branch.



Sec. 55.450  Procedures for selecting appeal samples.

    (a) Prohibition on movement of product. Products shall not have been 
moved from the place where the grading or inspection being appealed was 
performed and must have been maintained under adequate refrigeration, 
when applicable.
    (b) Laboratory analyses. The appeal sample shall consist of product 
taken from the original sample containers plus an equal number of 
containers selected at random. When the original sample containers 
cannot be located, the appeal sample shall consist of product taken at 
random from double the number of original sample containers.
    (c) Condition inspection. The appeal sample shall consist of product 
taken from the original sample containers plus an equal number of 
containers selected at random. A condition appeal cannot be made unless 
all originally sampled containers are available.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 55.460  Appeal certificates.

    Immediately after an appeal grading or inspection is completed, an 
appeal certificate shall be issued to show that the original grading or 
inspection was sustained or was not sustained. Such certificate shall 
supersede any previously issued certificate for the product involved and 
shall clearly identify the number and date of the superseded 
certificate. The issuance of the appeal certificate may be withheld 
until any

[[Page 45]]

previously issued certificate and all copies have been returned when 
such action is deemed necessary to protect the interest of the 
Government. When the appeal grader or inspector assigns a different 
class to the lot or determines that a net weight shortage exists, the 
lot shall be retained pending correction of the labeling or approval of 
the product disposition by the National Supervisor.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 
1995]

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 55.500  Payment of fees and charges.

    (a) Fees and charges for any service shall be paid by the interested 
party making the application for such service, in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of this section and Secs. 55.510 through 55.560, 
both inclusive. If so required by the grader or inspector, such fees and 
charges shall be paid in advance.
    (b) Fees and charges for any service shall, unless otherwise 
required pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, be paid by check, 
draft, or money order payable to the Agricultural Marketing Service and 
remitted promptly to AMS.
    (c) Fees and charges for any service under a cooperative agreement 
with any State or person shall be paid in accordance with the terms of 
such cooperative agreement.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 55.510  Fees and charges for services other than on a continuous resident basis.

    (a) Unless otherwise provided in this part, the fees to be charged 
and collected for any service (other than for an appeal) performed, in 
accordance with this part on a fee basis shall be based on the 
applicable rates specified in Secs. 55.510 through 55.560, both 
inclusive.
    (b) Fees for product inspection and sampling for laboratory analysis 
will be based on the time required to perform the services. The hourly 
charge shall be $33.64 and shall include the time actually required to 
perform the sampling and inspection, waiting time, travel time, and any 
clerical costs involved in issuing a certificate.
    (c) Services rendered on Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays shall 
be charged for at the rate of $35.52 per hour. Information on legal 
holidays is available from the Supervisor.
    (d) The cost of an appeal grading, inspection, laboratory analysis, 
or review of a grader's or inspector's decision shall be borne by the 
appellant at an hourly rate of $27.36 for time spent performing the 
appeal and travel time to and from the site of the appeal, plus any 
additional expenses. If the appeal grading, inspection, laboratory 
analysis, or review of a grader's or inspector's decision discloses that 
a material error was made in the original determination, no fee or 
expenses will be charged.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 8, Jan. 2, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981, and amended at 59 FR 52637, Oct. 18, 1994]



Sec. 55.530  Travel expenses and other charges.

    Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other 
expenses incurred by the Department in connection with rendering grading 
service. Such charges shall include the costs of transportation, per 
diem, shipping containers, postage, and any other expenses.
[42 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 8, Jan. 2, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981]



Sec. 55.560  Charges for continuous inspection and grading service on a resident basis.

    Fees to be charged and collected for service on a resident basis 
shall be those provided in this section. The fees to be charged for any 
appeal grading or inspection shall be as provided in Sec. 55.510.
    (a) Charges. The charges for the service shall be paid by the 
applicant and shall include items listed in this section as are 
applicable. Payment for the

[[Page 46]]

full cost of the service rendered to the applicant shall be made by the 
applicant to the Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. Such full costs shall comprise such of the items listed in 
this section as are due and included in the bill or bills covering the 
period or periods during which the grading and inspection service was 
rendered. Bills will be rendered by the 10th day following the end of 
the billing period in which the service was rendered and are payable 
upon receipt.
    (1) An inauguration charge of $310 will be made at the time an 
application for service is signed except when the application is 
required because of a change in name or ownership. If service is not 
installed within 6 months from the date the application is filed, or if 
service is inactive due to an approved request for removal of a 
grader(s) or inspector(s) for a period of 6 months, the application will 
be considered terminated, but a new application may be filed at any 
time. In addition, there will be a charge of $300 if the application is 
terminated at the request of the applicant for reasons other than for a 
change in location, within 12 months from the date of the inauguration 
of service.
    (2) A charge for the salary and other costs, as specified in this 
subparagraph, for each grader or inspector while assigned to a plant, 
except that no charge will be made when the assigned grader or inspector 
is temporarily reassigned by AMS to perform grading or inspection 
service for other than the applicant. Base salary rates will be 
determined on a national average for all official plants operating in 
States under a Federal Trust Fund Agreement where Federal graders, State 
graders, or a combination of Federal and State graders are used, by 
averaging the salary rates paid to each Federal or State grader assigned 
to such plants. Charges to plants are as follows:
    (i) For all regular hours of work scheduled and approved as an 
established tour of duty for a plant, the regular rate charge will be 
made. The regular rate charge will be determined by adding an amount to 
the base salary rate to cover the costs to AMS for such items as the 
Employer's Tax imposed under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.) 
for Old Age and Survivor's Benefits under the Social Security System, 
retirement benefits, groups life insurance, severance pay, sick leave, 
annual leave, additional salary and travel costs for relief grading 
service, accident payments, certain moving costs, and related servicing 
costs.
    (ii) All hours worked by an assigned grader or inspector or another 
grader or inspector in excess of the approved tour of duty, or worked on 
a nonscheduled workday, or actually worked on a holiday in excess of the 
tour of duty, will be considered as overtime. The charge for such 
overtime will be 150 percent of the grader's or inspector's base salary 
rate.
    (iii) For work performed on a holiday which is within the 
established tour of duty approved for a plant, the added charge will be 
the same as the grader's or inspector's base rate.
    (iv) For work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night 
differential charges (for regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked 
during this period) will be at the applicable rates established plus 10 
percent of the base rate.
    (v) For work performed on Sunday, Sunday differential charges (for 
regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked on Sunday) will be at the 
applicable rates established plus 25 percent of the base rate.
    (vi) For all hours of work performed in a plant without an approved 
tour of duty, the charge will be one of the applicable hourly rates in 
Sec. 55.510.
    (3) An administrative service charge equal to 25 percent of the 
grader's or inspector's total salary costs. A minimum charge of $215 
will be made each billing period. The minimum charge also applies where 
an approved application is in effect and no product is handled.
    (b) Other provisions. (1) The applicant shall designate in writing 
the employees of the applicant who will be required and authorized to 
furnish each grader or inspector with such information as may be 
necessary for the performance of the service.
    (2) AMS will provide, as available, an adequate number of graders or 
inspectors to perform the service. The number of graders or inspectors 
required

[[Page 47]]

will be determined by AMS based on the expected demand for service.
    (3) The service shall be provided at designated locations and shall 
be continued until the service is suspended, withdrawn, or terminated 
by:
    (i) Mutual consent;
    (ii) Thirty (30) days' written notice, by either the applicant or 
AMS specifying the date of suspension, withdrawal, or termination;
    (iii) One (1) day's written notice by AMS to the applicant if the 
applicant fails to honor any invoice within thirty (30) days after date 
of invoice covering the cost of the grading and inspection service; or
    (iv) Action taken by AMS pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 55.180 
or Sec. 55.200.
    (4) Graders or inspectors will be required to confine their 
activities to those duties necessary in the rendering of service and 
such closely related activities as may be approved by the Administrator.
    (5) When similar services are furnished to the same applicant under 
part 56 or part 70 of this chapter, the charges listed in this section 
shall not be repeated.
[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting 
Sec. 55.560, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids 
section of this volume.



Sec. 55.570  Fees for service performed under cooperative agreement.

    The fees to be charged and collected for any service performed under 
cooperative agreement shall be those provided for by such agreement.

                  Sanitary and Processing Requirements



Sec. 55.600  General.

    Except as otherwise approved by the Administrator, the sanitary, 
processing, and facility requirements, as applicable, shall be the same 
for the product processed under this part as for egg products processed 
under Secs. 59.500 through 59.580(c) of this chapter and Sec. 55.650.



Sec. 55.650  Inspection and grading.

    Examinations of the ingredients, processing, and the product shall 
be made to assure the production of a wholesome, unadulterated, and 
properly labeled product. Such examinations include, but are not being 
limited to:
    (a) Sanitation checks of plant premises, facilities, equipment, and 
processing operations.
    (b) Checks on ingredients and additives used in products to assure 
that they are not adulterated, are fit for use as human food, and are 
stored, handled, and used in a sanitary manner.
    (c) Examination of the eggs or egg products used in the products to 
assure they are wholesome, not adulterated, and comply with the 
temperature, pasteurization, or other applicable requirements.
    (d) Inspection during the processing and production of the product 
to determine compliance with any applicable standard or specification 
for such product.
    (e) Examination during processing of the product to assure 
compliance with approved formulas and labeling.
    (f) Test weighing and organoleptic examinations of finished product.



  Subpart B--Official U.S. Standards for Palatability Scores for Dried 
                               Whole Eggs



Sec. 55.800  Preparation of samples for palatability test.

    Reconstitute 33 grams of dried whole egg powder as completely as 
possible with 90 grams of distilled water in a suitable, clean 
container. Add the water and mix until the mixture is smooth and free 
from lumps. Place the container in gently boiling water and stir the 
mixture while coagulation takes place. When coagulated to the 
consistency of scrambled eggs, the sample is ready for the palatability 
test.



Sec. 55.820  Palatability scores for dried whole eggs.

    The palatability score of the prepared sample shall be determined by 
a panel of officially qualified graders of

[[Page 48]]

dried eggs of the Agricultural Marketing Service, and shall be rated in 
accordance with the following table:

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Score                        Description of Quality    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8......................................  No detectable off flavor,      
                                          comparable to high quality    
                                          fresh shell eggs.             
7\1/2\.................................  Very slight off flavor.        
7......................................  Slight but not unpleasant off  
                                          flavor.                       
6\1/2\.................................  Definite but not unpleasant off
                                          flavor.                       
6......................................  Pronounced off flavor (slightly
                                          unpleasant).                  
5......................................  Unpleasant off flavor.         
4......................................  Definite unpleasant off flavor.
3......................................  Pronounced unpleasant off      
                                          flavor.                       
2......................................  Repulsive flavor.              
1......................................  Definite repulsive flavor.     
0......................................  Pronounced repulsive flavor.   
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[36 FR 11795, June 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 
1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



PART 56--GRADING OF SHELL EGGS AND U.S. STANDARDS, GRADES, AND WEIGHT CLASSES FOR SHELL EGGS--Table of Contents




                    Subpart A--Grading of Shell Eggs

                               Definitions

Sec.
56.1  Meaning of words and terms defined.
56.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.

                             Administration

56.3  Administration.

                                 General

56.4  Basis of grading service.
56.5  Accessibility and condition of product.
56.6  Supervision.
56.8  Other applicable regulations.
56.9  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.

                            Licensed Graders

56.10  Who may be licensed.
56.11  Authorization to perform limited grading services.
56.12  Suspension of license; revocation.
56.13  Cancellation of license.
56.14  Surrender of license.
56.15  Political activity.
56.16  Identification.
56.17  Facilities and equipment for graders.
56.18  Schedule of operation of official plants.

                         Application for Grading

56.20  Who may obtain grading service.
56.21  How application for service may be made; conditions of service.
56.22  Filing of application.
56.23  Form of application.
56.24  When application may be rejected.
56.25  When application may be withdrawn.
56.26  Authority of applicant.
56.27  Order of service.

                               Violations

56.30  Report of violations.

                            Denial of Service

56.31  Debarment.
56.32  Retention authorities.

                    Identifying and Marking Products

56.35  Authority to use, and approval of official identification.
56.36  Information required on and form of grademark.
56.37  Lot marking of officially identified product.
56.38  [Reserved]

     Prerequisites to Packaging Shell Eggs Identified With Consumer 
                               Grademarks

56.39  Quality assurance inspector required.
56.40  Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with consumer 
          grademarks.
56.41  Check grading officially identified product.
56.42--56.43  [Reserved]

                            Fees and Charges

56.45  Payment for fees and charges.
56.46  On a fee basis.
56.47  Fees for appeal grading or review of a grader's decision.
56.49  Travel expenses and other charges.
56.52  Continuous grading performed on a resident basis.
56.53  Fees or charges for grading service performed under cooperative 
          agreement.
56.54  Charges for continuous grading performed on a nonresident basis.

                          Grading Certificates

56.55  Grading certificates and sampling report forms.
56.56  Grading certificate issuance.
56.57  Disposition of grading certificates.
56.58  Advance information.

                     Appeal of a Grading or Decision

56.60  Who may request an appeal grading or review of a grader's 
          decision.
56.61  Where to file an appeal.
56.62  How to file an appeal.
56.63  When an application for an appeal grading may be refused.
56.64  Who shall perform the appeal.
56.65  Procedures for appeal gradings.
56.66  Appeal grading certificates.

[[Page 49]]

                          Facility Requirements

56.75  Applicability of facility and operating requirements.
56.76  Minimum facility and operating requirements for shell egg grading 
          and packing plants.
56.77  Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621-1627.



                    Subpart A--Grading of Shell Eggs

                               Definitions



Sec. 56.1  Meaning of words and terms defined.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this part, words in the 
singular shall be deemed to import the plural and vice versa, as the 
case may demand, and unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall be construed, respectively, as follows:
    Act means the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), or any other act of 
Congress conferring like authority.
    Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service of the Department or any other officer or employee of the 
Department to whom there has heretofore been delegated, or to whom there 
may hereafter be delegated the authority to act in his stead.
    Applicant means an interested party who requests any grading 
service, appeal grading, or regrading with respect to any product.
    Cage mark means any stain-type mark caused by an egg coming in 
contact with a material that imparts a rusty or blackish appearance to 
the shell.
    Case means, when referring to containers, an egg case, as used in 
commercial practice in the United States, holding 30 dozens of shell 
eggs.
    Chief of the Grading Branch means the Chief of the Poultry Grading 
Branch of the Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing Service.
    Class means any subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same 
kind, species, or method of processing.
    Condition means any condition (including, but not being limited to, 
the state of preservation, cleanliness, soundness, wholesomeness, or 
fitness for human food) of any product which affects its 
merchantability.
    Department means the United States Department of Agriculture.
    Eggs of current production means shell eggs which have moved through 
usual marketing channels since the time they were laid and have not been 
held in refrigerated storage in excess of 30 days. ``Refrigerator or 
storage eggs'' means shell eggs which have been held under refrigeration 
for a period of more than 30 days.
    Grader means any employee of the Department authorized by the 
Secretary, or any other person to whom a license has been issued by the 
Secretary, to investigate and certify, in accordance with the act and 
this part, to shippers of products and other interested parties the 
class, quality, quantity, and condition of such products.
    Grading or grading service means: (1) The act whereby a grader 
determines, according to the regulations in this part, the class, 
quality, quantity, or condition of any product by examining each unit 
thereof or each unit of the representative sample thereof drawn by a 
grader and issues a grading certificate with respect thereto, except 
that with respect to grading service performed on a resident basis the 
issuance of a grading certificate shall be pursuant to a request 
therefor by the applicant or the Service; (2) the act whereby the grader 
identifies, according to the regulations in this part, the graded 
product; (3) continuous supervision, in an official plant, of the 
handling or packaging of any product; and (4) any regrading or any 
appeal grading of a previously graded product.
    Grading certificate means a statement, either written or printed, 
issued by a grader pursuant to the act and this part, relative to the 
class, quantity, quality, or condition of products.
    Holiday or legal holiday shall mean the legal public holidays 
specified by the Congress in paragraph (a) of section 6103, title 5, of 
the United States Code.
    Interested party means any person financially interested in a 
transaction involving any grading, appeal grading, or regrading of any 
product.

[[Page 50]]

    National supervisor means (1) the officer in charge of the shell egg 
grading service of the Agricultural Marketing Service, and (2) such 
other employees of the Service as may be designated by him.
    Nest run eggs means eggs which are packed as they come from the 
production facilities without having been washed, sized and/or candled 
for quality, with the exception that some Checks, Dirties, or other 
obvious undergrades may have been removed.
    Office of grading means the office of any grader.
    Official plant means any plant in which the facilities and methods 
of operation therein have been found by the Administrator to be suitable 
and adequate for grading service in accordance with this part and in 
which grading service is carried on.
    Origin grading is a grading made on a lot of eggs at a plant where 
the eggs are graded and packed.
    Person means any individual, partnership, association, business 
trust, corporation, or any organized group of persons, whether 
incorporated or not.
    Potable water means water that has been approved by the State health 
authority or agency or laboratory acceptable to the Administrator as 
safe for drinking and suitable for food processing.
    Product or products means shell eggs of the domesticated chicken.
    Quality means the inherent properties of any product which determine 
its relative degree of excellence.
    Quality assurance inspector means any designated company employee 
other than the plant owner, manager, foreman, or supervisor, authorized 
by the Secretary to examine product and to supervise the labeling, 
dating, and lotting of officially graded shell eggs and to assure that 
such product is packaged under sanitary conditions, graded by authorized 
personnel, and maintained under proper inventory control until released 
by an employee of the Department.
    Regional director means any employee of the Department in charge of 
the shell egg grading service in a designated geographical area.
    Regulations means the provisions in this part.
    Sampling means the act of taking samples of any product for grading.
    Secretary means the Secretary of the Department or any other officer 
or employee of the Department to whom there has heretofore been 
delegated, or to whom there may hereafter be delegated, the authority to 
act in his stead.
    Service means the Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department.
    Shell eggs means shell eggs of domesticated chickens.
    Shell protected means eggs which have had a protective covering such 
as oil applied to the shell surface. The product used shall be 
acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration.
    Washed ungraded eggs means eggs which have been washed but not sized 
or segregated for quality.
[20 FR 669, Feb. 1, 1955; 20 FR 757, Feb. 4, 1955]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec. 56.1, 
see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of 
this volume.



Sec. 56.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks or other identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the grading of agricultural 
products under said section. For the purposes of said subsection and the 
provisions in this part, the terms listed in this section shall have the 
respective meanings specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, used under this part to certify with respect to the 
sampling, class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition of 
products (including the compliance of products with applicable 
specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of grading or sampling pursuant to 
this

[[Page 51]]

part, any processing or plant-operation report made by an authorized 
person in connection with grading or sampling under this part, and any 
report made by an authorized person of services performed pursuant to 
this part.
    (c) Official mark means the grademark and any other mark, or any 
variations in such marks approved by the Administrator and authorized to 
be affixed to any product, or affixed to or printed on the packaging 
material of any product, stating that the product was graded, or 
indicating the appropriate U.S. grade or condition of the product, or 
for the purpose of maintaining the identity of products graded under 
this part, including but not limited to, those set forth in Sec. 56.36.
    (d) Official identification means any United States (U.S.) standard 
designation of class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition 
specified in this part or any symbol, stamp, label or seal indicating 
that the product has been officially graded and/or indicating the class, 
grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition of the product approved by 
the Administrator and authorized to be affixed to any product, or 
affixed to or printed on the packaging material of any product.
    (e) Official device means a stamping appliance, branding device, 
stencil, printed label, or any other mechanically or manually operated 
tool that is approved by the Administrator for the purpose of applying 
any official mark or other identification to any product or the 
packaging material thereof.
[28 FR 6341, June 20, 1963. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                             Administration



Sec. 56.3  Administration.

    (a) The Administrator shall perform, for and under the supervision 
of the Secretary, such duties as the Secretary may require in the 
enforcement or administration of the provisions of the Act and this 
part. The Administrator is authorized to waive for limited periods any 
particular provisions of the regulations in this part to permit 
experimentation so that new procedures, equipment, and processing 
techniques may be tested to facilitate definite improvements and at the 
same time to determine full compliance with the spirit and intent of the 
regulations in this part. The Agricultural Marketing Service and its 
officers and employees shall not be liable in damages through acts of 
commission or omission in the administration of this part.
    (b) The conduct of all services and the licensing of graders under 
these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to 
race, color, national origin, religion, age, sex, or disability.
[20 FR 670, Feb. 1, 1955, as amended at 38 FR 26798, Sept. 26, 1973; 42 
FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]

                                 General



Sec. 56.4  Basis of grading service.

    (a) Any grading service in accordance with the regulations in this 
part shall be for class, quality, quantity, or condition or any 
combination thereof. Grading service with respect to the determination 
of the quality of products shall be on the basis of the ``United States 
Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes'' as contained in subpart C of 
this part. However, grading service may be rendered with respect to 
products which are bought and sold on the basis of institutional 
contract specifications or specifications of the applicant and such 
service, when approved by the Administrator, shall be rendered on the 
basis of such specifications. The supervision of packaging shall be in 
accordance with such instructions as may be approved or issued by the 
Administrator.
    (b) Whenever grading service is performed on a representative sample 
basis, such sample shall be drawn and consist of not less than the 
minimum number of cases as indicated in the following table. A minimum 
of one hundred eggs shall be examined per sample case. For lots which 
consist of less than 1 case, a minimum of 50 eggs shall be examined. If 
the lot consists of less than 50 eggs, all eggs will be examined.

[[Page 52]]



       Minimum Number of Cases Comprising a Representative Sample       
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Cases in
                         Cases in lot                            sample 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 case.......................................................          1
2 to 10, inclusive...........................................          2
11 to 25, inclusive..........................................          3
26 to 50, inclusive..........................................          4
51 to 100, inclusive.........................................          5
101 to 200, inclusive........................................          8
201 to 300, inclusive........................................         11
301 to 400, inclusive........................................         13
401 to 500, inclusive........................................         14
501 to 600, inclusive........................................         16
------------------------------------------------------------------------


For each additional 50 cases, or fraction thereof, in excess of 600 
cases, one additional case shall be included in the sample.
[20 FR 670, Feb. 1, 1955, as amended at 22 FR 8167, Oct. 16, 1957; 28 FR 
6342, June 20, 1963; 42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 
32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.5  Accessibility and condition of product.

    Each product for which grading service is requested shall be so 
conditioned and placed as to permit a proper determination of the class, 
quality, quantity, or condition of such product.
[20 FR 670, Feb. 1, 1955, as amended at 27 FR 10317, Oct. 23, 1962. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 56.6  Supervision.

    All grading service shall be subject to supervision at all times by 
the applicable State supervisor, regional director and national 
supervisor. Such service shall be rendered where the facilities and 
conditions are satisfactory for the conduct of the service and the 
requisite graders are available. Whenever the supervisor of a grader has 
evidence that such grader incorrectly graded a product, such supervisor 
shall take such action as is necessary to correct the grading and to 
cause any improper grademarks which appear on the product or the 
containers thereof to be corrected prior to shipment of the product from 
the place of initial grading.
[40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.8  Other applicable regulations.

    Compliance with the regulations in this part shall not excuse 
failure to comply with any other Federal, or any State, or municipal 
applicable laws or regulations.
[20 FR 670, Feb. 1, 1955. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.9  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    (a) Purpose. This section collects and displays the control numbers 
assigned to information collection requirements by the Office of 
Management and Budget contained in 7 CFR part 56 pursuant to the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-511.
    (b) Display.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Current OMB
        7 CFR section where identified and described           control  
                                                                number  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
56.3(a)....................................................    0581-0128
56.4(a)....................................................    0581-0128
56.10(a)...................................................    0581-0128
56.11......................................................    0581-0128
56.12......................................................    0581-0128
56.17(b)...................................................    0581-0128
56.18......................................................    0581-0128
56.21(a)...................................................    0581-0128
56.21(b)...................................................    0581-0128
56.23......................................................    0581-0128
56.24......................................................    0581-0128
56.25......................................................    0581-0128
56.26......................................................    0581-0128
56.30......................................................    0581-0128
56.31(a)...................................................    0581-0128
56.35(b)...................................................    0581-0128
56.35(c)...................................................    0581-0128
56.37......................................................    0581-0128
56.52(a)(1)................................................    0581-0128
56.52(a)(4)................................................    0581-0128
56.52(b)(1)................................................    0581-0128
56.52(b)(3)(ii)............................................    0581-0128
56.54(b)(1)................................................    0581-0128
56.54(b)(3)(ii)............................................    0581-0128
56.56(a)...................................................    0581-0128
56.57......................................................    0581-0128
56.58......................................................    0581-0128
56.60......................................................    0581-0128
56.62......................................................    0581-0128
56.76(e)(6)................................................    0581-0128

[[Page 53]]

                                                                        
56.76(g)...................................................    0581-0128
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[48 FR 56565, Dec. 22, 1983, as amended at 52 FR 23935, June 26, 1987]

                            Licensed Graders



Sec. 56.10  Who may be licensed.

    (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, 
any person who is a Federal or State employee, the employee of a local 
jurisdiction, or the employee of a cooperating agency possessing proper 
qualifications as determined by an examination for competency and who is 
to perform grading service under this part, may be licensed by the 
Secretary as a grader.
    (b) All licenses issued by the Secretary shall be countersigned by 
the officer in charge of the poultry grading service of the Agricultural 
Marketing Service or any other designated officer of such Service.
    (c) No person may be licensed to grade or sample any product in 
which he is financially interested.
[20 FR 670, Feb. 1, 1955, as amended at 28 FR 6342, June 20, 1963; 37 FR 
12918, June 30, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 
46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.11  Authorization to perform limited grading services.

    Any person who is employed by any official plant and possesses 
proper qualifications, as determined by the Administrator, may be 
authorized to candle and grade eggs on the basis of the ``U.S. Standards 
for Quality of Individual Shell Eggs,'' with respect to eggs purchased 
from producers or eggs to be packaged with official identification. In 
addition, such authorization may be granted to any qualified person to 
act as a ``quality assurance inspector'' in the packaging and grade 
labeling of products. No person to whom such authorization is granted 
shall have authority to issue any grading certificates, grading 
memoranda, or other official documents; and all eggs which are graded by 
any such person shall thereafter be check graded by a grader.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.12  Suspension of license; revocation.

    Pending final action by the Secretary, any person authorized to 
countersign a license to perform grading service may, whenever he deems 
such action necessary to assure that any grading service is properly 
performed, suspend any license to perform grading service issued 
pursuant to this part, by giving notice of such suspension to the 
respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the reasons therefor. 
Within 7 days after the receipt of the aforesaid notice and statement of 
reasons, the licensee may file an appeal in writing, with the Secretary, 
supported by any argument or evidence that he may wish to offer as to 
why his license should not be further suspended or revoked. After the 
expiration of the aforesaid 7-day period and consideration of such 
argument and evidence, the Secretary will take such action as he deems 
appropriate with respect to such suspension or revocation. When no 
appeal is filed within the prescribed 7 days, the license to perform 
grading service is revoked.
[35 FR 19327, Dec. 22, 1970. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.13  Cancellation of license.

    Upon termination of his services as a grader, each licensee shall 
surrender his license immediately for cancellation.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.14  Surrender of license.

    Each license which is canceled, suspended, or has expired shall 
immediately be surrendered by the licensee to the office of grading 
serving the area in which he is located.
[31 FR 2773, Feb. 16, 1966. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

[[Page 54]]



Sec. 56.15  Political activity.

    All graders are forbidden during the period of their respective 
appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management 
or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, county, State, or 
national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any 
party or candidate, or any measure to be voted upon, is prohibited. This 
applies to all appointees, including, but not being limited to, 
temporary and cooperative employees, and employees on leave of absence 
with or without pay. Willful violation of this section will constitute 
grounds for dismissal in the case of appointees and revocation of 
licenses in the case of licensees.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.16  Identification.

    All graders shall each have in possession at all times, and present 
upon request, while on duty, the means of identification furnished by 
the Department to such person.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.17  Facilities and equipment for graders.

    Facilities and equipment to be furnished by the applicant for use of 
graders in performing service on a resident basis shall include (when 
deemed necessary) the following:
    (a)(1) An accurate metal stem thermometer;
    (2) Scales to weigh individual eggs, cartons of eggs, and bulk eggs. 
Test weights for each type scale used;
    (3) An acceptable candling light.
    (b) Furnished office space, a desk and file or storage cabinets 
(equipped with a satisfactory locking device), suitable for the security 
and storage of official stamps and supplies, and other facilities and 
equipment as may otherwise be required. Such space and equipment must 
meet the approval of the National supervisor.
[32 FR 8230, June 8, 1967. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 39570, Aug. 4, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]



Sec. 56.18  Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Grading operating schedules for services performed pursuant to 
Secs. 56.52 and 56.54 shall be requested in writing and be approved by 
the Administrator. Normal operating schedules for a full week consist of 
a continuous 8-hour period per day (excluding not to exceed 1 hour for 
lunch), 5 consecutive days per week, within the administrative workweek, 
Sunday through Saturday, for each shift required. Less than 8-hour 
schedules may be requested and will be approved if a grader is 
available. Clock hours of daily operations need not be specified in the 
request, although as a condition of continued approval, the hours of 
operation shall be reasonably uniform from day to day. Graders are to be 
notified by management 1 day in advance of any change in the hours 
grading service is requested.
[48 FR 20683, May 9, 1983]

                         Application for Grading



Sec. 56.20  Who may obtain grading service.

    An application for grading service may be made by any interested 
person, including, but not being limited to, the United States, any 
State, county, municipality, or common carrier, and any authorized agent 
of the foregoing.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.21  How application for service may be made; conditions of service.

    (a) Noncontinuous grading service on a fee basis. An application for 
any noncontinuous grading service on a fee basis may be made in any 
office of grading, or with any grader at or nearest the place where the 
service is desired. Such application may be made orally (in person or by 
telephone), in

[[Page 55]]

writing, or by telegraph. If the application for grading service is made 
orally, the office of grading or the grader with whom such application 
is made, or the Administrator, may require that the application be 
confirmed in writing.
    (b) Continuous grading service on a resident basis or continuous 
grading service on a nonresident basis. An application for continuous 
grading service on a resident basis or for continuous grading service on 
a nonresident basis must be made in writing on forms approved by the 
Administrator and filed with the Administrator. Such forms may be 
obtained at the national, regional, or State grading office. In making 
application, the applicant agrees to comply with the terms and 
conditions of the regulations (including, but not being limited to, such 
instructions governing grading of products as may be issued from time to 
time by the Administrator). No member of or Delegate to Congress or 
Resident Commissioner shall be admitted to any benefit that may arise 
from such service unless derived through service rendered a corporation 
for its general benefit.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.22  Filing of application.

    An application for grading or sampling of a specified lot of any 
product shall be regarded as filed only when made pursuant to this part.
[28 FR 6342, June 20, 1963. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.23  Form of application.

    Each application for grading or sampling a specified lot of any 
product shall include such information as may be required by the 
Administrator in regard to the product and the premises where such 
product is to be graded or sampled.
[28 FR 6342, June 20, 1963. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.24  When application may be rejected.

    An application for grading service may be rejected by the 
Administrator (a) whenever the applicant fails to meet the requirements 
of the regulations prescribing the conditions under which the service is 
made available; (b) whenever the product is owned by or located on the 
premises of a person currently denied the benefits of the act; (c) where 
any individual holding office or a responsible position with or having a 
substantial financial interest or share in the applicant is currently 
denied the benefits of the act or was responsible in whole or in part 
for the current denial of the benefits of the act to any person; (d) 
where the Administrator determines that the application is an attempt on 
the part of a person currently denied the benefits of the act to obtain 
grading services; (e) whenever the applicant fails to bring the plant 
facilities, and operating procedures into compliance with the 
regulations within a reasonable period of time; (f) notwithstanding any 
prior approval whenever, before inauguration of service, the applicant 
fails to fulfill commitments concerning the inauguration of the service; 
(g) when it appears that to perform the services specified in this part 
would not be to the best interests of the public welfare or of the 
Government; or (h) when it appears to the Administrator that prior 
commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. 
Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the 
reasons for the rejection. A written petition for reconsideration of 
such rejection may be filed by the applicant with the Administrator if 
postmarked or delivered within 10 days after the receipt of notice of 
the rejection. Such petition shall state specifically the errors alleged 
to have been made by the Administrator in rejecting the application. 
Within 20 days following the receipt of such a petition for 
reconsideration, the Administrator shall approve the application or 
notify the applicant by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection 
thereof.
[28 FR 6342, June 20, 1963, as amended at 42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]

[[Page 56]]



Sec. 56.25  When application may be withdrawn.

    An application for grading service may be withdrawn by the applicant 
at any time before the service is performed upon payment, by the 
applicant, of all expenses incurred by the Service in connection with 
such application.
[20 FR 671, Feb. 1, 1955. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.26  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of the authority of any person applying for any grading 
service may be required at the discretion of the Administrator.
[20 FR 671, Feb. 1, 1955. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.27  Order of service.

    Grading service shall be performed, insofar as practicable, in the 
order in which applications therefor are made except that precedence may 
be given to any application for an appeal grading.
[20 FR 671, Feb. 1, 1955; 20 FR 757, Feb. 4, 1955, as amended at 42 FR 
2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 
46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                               Violations



Sec. 56.30  Report of violations.

    Each grader, shall report in the manner prescribed by the 
Administrator, all violations and noncompliances under the Act and this 
part of which such grader, has knowledge.
[42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                            Denial of Service



Sec. 56.31  Debarment.

    (a) The following acts or practices or the causing thereof may be 
deemed sufficient cause for the debarment by the Administrator, of any 
person, including any agents, officers, subsidiaries or affiliates of 
such person, from all benefits of the act for a specific period. The 
rules of practice governing withdrawal of grading services in formal 
adjudicatory proceedings instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR, part 1, 
subpart H) shall be applicable to such debarment action.
    (1) Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any 
willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice 
found to be made or committed by any person in connection with:
    (i) The making or filing of an application for any grading service 
or appeal service;
    (ii) The making of the product accessible for sampling or grading;
    (iii) The making, issuing, or using or attempting to issue or use 
any grading certificate, symbol, stamp, label, seal, or identification 
authorized pursuant to the regulations in this part;
    (iv) The use of the terms ``United States'' or ``U.S.'' in 
conjunction with the grade of the product;
    (v) The use of any of the aforesaid terms or any official stamp, 
symbol, label, seal, or identification in the labeling or advertising of 
any product; or
    (vi) The use of the terms ``Government Graded,'' ``Federal-State 
Graded'' or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of 
any product.
    (2) Use of facsimile forms. Using or attempting to use a form which 
simulates in whole or in part any certificate, symbol, stamp, label, 
seal or identification authorized to be issued or used under the 
regulations in this part.
    (3) Willful violation of the regulations. Any willful violation of 
the regulations in this part or the act.
    (4) Interfering with a grader or employee of the Service. Any 
interference with or obstruction or any attempted interference or 
obstruction of or assault upon any grader, licensee, or employee of the 
Service in the performance of his duties. The giving or offering, 
directly or indirectly, of any money, loan, gift, or anything of value 
to an employee of the Service or the making or offering of any 
contribution to or in any way supplementing the salary, compensation or 
expenses of an employee of the Service or the offering or entering into 
a private contract or agreement with an employee of the Service for any 
services to be rendered while employed by the Service.

[[Page 57]]

    (5) Misleading labeling. The use of the terms ``Government Graded'', 
``Federal-State Graded'', or terms of similar import in the labeling or 
advertising of any product without stating in the label or advertisement 
the U.S. grade of the product as determined by an authorized grader.
    (6) Miscellaneous. The existence of any of the conditions set forth 
in Sec. 56.24 constituting the basis for the rejection of an application 
for grading service.
[20 FR 9895, Dec. 23, 1955, as amended at 28 FR 6343, June 20, 1963; 35 
FR 5664, Apr. 8, 1970; 42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 
32514, June 27, 1977, and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.32  Retention authorities.

    A grader may use retention tags or other devices and methods as 
approved by the Administrator for the identification and control of 
shell eggs which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held 
for further examination and for any equipment, utensils, rooms or 
compartments which are found unclean or otherwise in violation of the 
regulations. Any such item shall not be released until in compliance 
with the regulations and retention identification shall not be removed 
by anyone other than a grader.
[35 FR 5664, Apr. 8, 1970. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                    Identifying and Marking Products



Sec. 56.35  Authority to use, and approval of official identification.

    (a) Authority to use official identification. Authority to 
officially identify product graded pursuant to this part is granted only 
to applicants who make the services of a grader or quality assurance 
inspector available for use in accordance with this part. Packaging 
materials bearing official identification marks shall be approved 
pursuant to Secs. 56.35 to 56.37, inclusive, and shall be used only for 
the purpose for which approved and prescribed by the Administrator. Any 
unauthorized use or disposition of approved labels or packaging 
materials which bear any official identification may result in 
cancellation of the approval and denial of the use of labels or 
packaging materials bearing official identification or denial of the 
benefits of the Act pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 56.31.
    (b) Approval of official identification. No label, container, or 
packaging material which bears official identification may contain any 
statement that is false or misleading. No label, container, or packaging 
material bearing official identification may be printed or prepared for 
use until the printers' or other final proof has been approved by the 
Administrator in accordance with the regulations in this part, the 
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Fair Packaging and Labeling 
Act, and the regulations promulgated under these acts. The use of 
finished labels must be approved as prescribed by the Administrator. A 
grader may apply official identification stamps to shipping containers 
if they do not bear any statement that is false or misleading. If the 
label is printed or otherwise applied directly to the container, the 
principal display panels of such container shall for this purpose be 
considered as the label. The label shall contain the name, address, and 
ZIP Code of the packer or distributor of the product, the name of the 
product, a statement of the net contents of the container, and the U.S. 
grademark.
    (c) Nutritional labeling. Nutrition information must be included 
with the labeling on each unit container of consumer packaged shell eggs 
in accordance with the provisions of Title 21, Chapter I, Part 101, 
Regulations for the Enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The nutrition information 
included on labels is subject to review by the Food and Drug 
Administration prior to approval by the Department.
[40 FR 20055, May 8, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 2970, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]



Sec. 56.36  Information required on and form of grademark.

    (a) Information required on grademark. (1) Except as otherwise 
authorized, each grademark provided for in this section shall 
conspicuously and legibly indicate the letters ``USDA,'' and the

[[Page 58]]

U.S. grade of the product it identifies, such as ``A Grade'' 
(illustrated in Figure 2). The letters ``USDA'' shall be printed in a 
light color on and surrounded by a dark field, and the U.S. grade 
printed in a dark color on a light field.
    (2) The size or weight class of the product such as ``Large'' and 
such terms as ``Federal-State Graded'' or words of similar import may be 
shown within the grademark (illustrated in Figure 3). This information 
shall be printed in a dark color on a light field. However, such terms 
as ``Federal-State Graded'' need not be shown. The size or weight class 
of the product may be omitted from the grademark, provided, it appears 
prominently on the main panel of the carton.
    (3) The plant number of the official plant preceded by the letter 
``P'' must be shown on each carton or packaging material.
    (b) Form of official identification symbol and grademark. (1) The 
shield set forth in Figure 1 containing the letters ``USDA'' shall be 
the official identification symbol for purposes of this part and when 
used, imitated, or simulated in any manner in connection with shell 
eggs, shall be deemed to constitute a representation that the product 
has been officially graded for the purpose of Sec. 56.2.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.012

    (2) Except as otherwise authorized, the grademark permitted to be 
used to officially identify cartons of shell eggs which are graded 
pursuant to the regulations in this part shall be contained in a shield 
and in the form and design indicated in Figures 2, 3, and 4 of this 
section. The shield shall be of sufficient size so that the print and 
other information contained therein is distinctly legible and in 
approximately the same proportion and size as shown in Figures 2 and 3. 
The grademark shall be printed on the carton.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.013

[28 FR 6343, June 20, 1963, as amended at 32 FR 8230, June 8, 1967; 40 
FR 20055, May 8, 1975; 42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 
32514, June 27, 1977, and amended at 46 FR 39570, Aug. 4, 1981. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]



Sec. 56.37  Lot marking of officially identified product.

    Each carton identified with the grademarks shown in Figures 2, 3, or 
4 of Sec. 56.36 shall be legibly lot numbered on either the carton or 
the consumer package. The lot number shall be the consecutive day of the 
year on which the eggs were packed (e.g., 132), except other lot 
numbering systems may be used when submitted in writing and approved by 
the Administrator.
[35 FR 5664, Apr. 8, 1970. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 39570, Aug. 4, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]

[[Page 59]]



Sec. 56.38  [Reserved]

     Prerequisites to Packaging Shell Eggs Identified With Consumer 
                               Grademarks



Sec. 56.39  Quality assurance inspector required.

    The official identification of any graded product as provided in 
Secs. 56.35 to 56.41, inclusive, shall be done only under the 
supervision of a grader or quality assurance inspector. The grader or 
quality assurance inspector shall have supervision over the use and 
handling of all material bearing any official identification.
[42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 39570, Aug. 4, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.40  Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with consumer grademarks.

    (a) Shell eggs to be identified with the marks illustrated in 
Figures 2, 3, and 4 of Sec. 56.36 must be individually graded by a 
grader or by authorized personnel pursuant to Sec. 56.11 and thereafter 
check graded by a grader.
    (b) Shell eggs not graded in accordance with paragraph (a) of this 
section may be officially graded on a sample basis and the shipping 
containers may be identified with grademarks which contain the words 
``Sample Graded'' and which are approved by the Administrator.
    (c) Shell eggs which are to bear the U.S. consumer grademark shall 
be packed only from eggs of current production. They shall not possess 
any undesirable odors or flavors.
[32 FR 8231, June 8, 1967. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 39571, Aug. 4, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.41  Check grading officially identified product.

    Officially identified shell eggs packed or received in an official 
plant may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment. 
Such product found not to be in compliance with the assigned official 
grade shall be placed under a retention tag until it is regraded to 
comply with the grade assigned or until the official identification is 
removed.
[35 FR 5664, Apr. 8, 1970. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Secs. 56.42--56.43  [Reserved]

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 56.45  Payment for fees and charges.

    (a) Fees and charges for any grading service shall be paid by the 
interested party making the application for such grading service, in 
accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and 
Secs. 56.46 to 56.54, both inclusive; and, if so required by the grader, 
such fees and charges shall be paid in advance.
    (b) Fees and charges for any grading service shall, unless otherwise 
required pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, be paid by check, 
draft, or money order payable to the Agricultural Marketing Service and 
remitted promptly to the Service.
    (c) Fees and charges for any grading service under a cooperative 
agreement with any State or person shall be paid in accordance with the 
terms of such cooperative agreement.
[33 FR 20004, Dec. 31, 1968 and 42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated 
at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.46  On a fee basis.

    (a) Unless otherwise provided in this part, the fees to be charged 
and collected for any service (other than for an appeal grading) 
performed, in accordance with this part, on a fee basis shall be based 
on the applicable rates specified in this section.
    (b) Fees for grading services will be based on the time required to 
perform the services. The hourly charge shall be $38.96 and shall 
include the time actually required to perform the grading, waiting time, 
travel time, and any clerical costs involved in issuing a certificate.
    (c) Grading services rendered on Saturdays, Sundays, or legal 
holidays shall be charged for at the rate of $43.24

[[Page 60]]

per hour. Information on legal holidays is available from the 
Supervisor.
[33 FR 20004, Dec. 31, 1968. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 59 FR 52637, Oct. 18, 
1994; 62 FR 18021, Apr. 14, 1997]



Sec. 56.47  Fees for appeal grading or review of a grader's decision.

    The cost of an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision shall 
be borne by the appellant at an hourly rate of $30.56 for the time spent 
in performing the appeal and travel time to and from the site of the 
appeal, plus any additional expenses. If the appeal grading or review of 
a grader's decision discloses that a material error was made in the 
original determination, no fee or expenses will be charged.
[62 FR 18021, Apr. 14, 1997]



Sec. 56.49  Travel expenses and other charges.

    Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other 
expenses incurred by the service in connection with rendering grading 
service. Such charges shall include the cost of transportation, per 
diem, and any other expenses.
[42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 8, Jan. 2, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981]



Sec. 56.52  Continuous grading performed on a resident basis.

    Fees to be charged and collected for any grading service, other than 
for an appeal grading, on a resident grading basis, shall be those 
provided in this section. The fees to be charged for any appeal grading 
shall be as provided in Sec. 56.47.
    (a) Charges. The charges for the grading of shell eggs shall be paid 
by the applicant for the service and shall include items listed in this 
section as are applicable. Payment for the full cost of the grading 
service rendered to the applicant shall be made by the applicant to 
Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 
(hereinafter referred to as ``AMS''). Such full costs shall comprise 
such of the items listed in this section as are due and included in the 
bill or bills covering the period or periods during which the grading 
service was rendered. Bills will be rendered by the 10th day following 
the end of the period in which the service was rendered and are payable 
upon receipt.
    (1) An inauguration charge of $310 will be made at the time an 
application for service is signed except when the application is 
required because of a change in name or ownership. If service is not 
installed within 6 months from the date the application is filed, or if 
service is inactive due to an approved request for removal of a 
grader(s) for a period of 6 months, the application will be considered 
terminated, but a new application may be filed at any time. In addition 
there will be a charge of $300 if the application is terminated at the 
request of the applicant for reasons other than for a change in 
location, within 12 months from the date of the inauguration of service.
    (2) A charge for the salary and other costs, as specified in this 
paragraph, for each grader while assigned to a plant, except that no 
charge will be made when the assigned grader is temporarily reassigned 
by AMS to perform grading service for other than the applicant. Base 
salary rates will be determined on a national average for all official 
plants operating in States under a Federal Trust Fund Agreement where 
Federal graders, State graders, or a combination of Federal and State 
graders are used, by averaging the salary rates paid to each Federal or 
State grader assigned to such plants. Charges to plants are as follows:
    (i) For all regular hours of work scheduled and approved as an 
established tour of duty for a plant, the regular rate charge will be 
made. The regular rate charge will be determined by adding an amount to 
the base salary rate to cover the costs to AMS for such items as the 
Employer's Tax imposed under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.) 
for Old Age and Survivor's Benefits under the Social Security System, 
retirement benefits, group life insurance, severance pay, sick leave, 
annual leave, additional salary and travel costs for relief grading 
service, accident payments, certain moving costs, and related servicing 
costs.
    (ii) All hours worked by an assigned grader or another grader in 
excess of

[[Page 61]]

the approved tour of duty, or worked on a nonscheduled workday, or 
actually worked on a holiday in excess of the tour of duty, will be 
considered as overtime. The charge for such overtime will be 150 percent 
of the grader's base salary rate.
    (iii) For work performed on a holiday which is within the 
established tour of duty approved for a plant, the added charge will be 
the same as the grader's base rate.
    (iv) For work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night 
differential charges (for regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked 
during this period) will be at the applicable rates established plus 10 
percent of the base rate.
    (v) For work performed on Sunday, Sunday differential charges (for 
regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked on Sunday) will be at the 
applicable rates established plus 25 percent of the base rate.
    (vi) For all hours of work performed in a plant without an approved 
tour of duty, the charge will be one of the applicable hourly rates in 
Sec. 56.46.
    (3) A charge at the hourly rates specified in Sec. 56.46, plus 
actual travel expenses incurred by AMS for intermediate surveys to firms 
without grading service in effect.
    (4) An administrative service charge based upon the aggregate number 
of 30-dozen cases of all shell eggs handled in the plant per billing 
period multiplied by $0.038, except that the minimum charge per billing 
period shall be $225 and the maximum charge shall be $2,250. The minimum 
charge also applies where an approved application is in effect and no 
product is handled.
    (b) Other provisions. (1) The applicant shall designate in writing 
the employees of the applicant who will be required and authorized to 
furnish each grader with such information as may be necessary for the 
performance of the grading service.
    (2) AMS will provide, as available, an adequate number of graders to 
perform the grading service. The number of graders required will be 
determined by AMS based on the expected demand for service.
    (3) The grading service shall be provided at the designated plant 
and shall be continued until the service is suspended, withdrawn, or 
terminated by:
    (i) Mutual consent;
    (ii) Thirty (30) days' written notice, by either the applicant or 
AMS specifying the date of suspension, withdrawal, or termination;
    (iii) One (1) day's written notice by AMS to the applicant if the 
applicant fails to honor any invoice within thirty (30) days after date 
of invoice covering the cost of the grading service; or
    (iv) Action taken by AMS pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 56.31.
    (4) Graders will be required to confine their activities to those 
duties necessary in the rendering of grading service and such closely 
related activities as may be approved by AMS: Provided, That in no 
instance may the graders assume the duties of management.
[34 FR 8232, May 28, 1969]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations to Sec. 56.52, see 
the List of CFR Sections Affected appearing in the Finding Aids section 
of this volume.



Sec. 56.53  Fees or charges for grading service performed under cooperative agreement.

    Fees or charges to be made to an applicant for grading service which 
differ from those listed in Secs. 56.45 through 56.54 shall be provided 
for by a cooperative agreement.
[36 FR 7894, Apr. 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.54  Charges for continuous grading performed on a nonresident basis.

    Fees to be charged and collected for grading service on a 
nonresident grading basis, shall be those provided in this section. The 
fees to be charged for any appeal grading shall be as provided in 
Sec. 56.47.
    (a) Charges. The charges for the grading of shell eggs shall be paid 
by the applicant for the service and shall include items listed in this 
section as are applicable. Payment for the full cost of the grading 
service rendered to the applicant shall be made by the applicant to the 
Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 
(hereinafter referred to as ``AMS''). Such full costs shall comprise 
such of the items listed in this section as are due

[[Page 62]]

and included in the bill or bills covering the period or periods during 
which the grading service was rendered. Bills will be rendered by the 
10th day following the end of the billing period in which the service 
was rendered and are payable upon receipt.
    (1) A charge for the salary and other costs, as specified in this 
paragraph, for each grader while assigned to a plant, except that no 
charge will be made when the assigned grader is temporarily reassigned 
by AMS to perform grading service for other than the applicant. Base 
salary rates will be determined on a national average for all official 
plants operating in States under a Federal Trust Fund Agreement where 
Federal graders, State graders, or a combination of Federal and State 
graders are used, by averaging the salary rates paid to each Federal or 
State grader assigned to such plants. Charges to plants are as follows:
    (i) For all regular hours of work scheduled and approved as an 
established tour of duty for a plant, the regular rate charge will be 
made. The regular rate charge will be determined by adding an amount to 
the base salary rate to cover the costs to AMS for such items as the 
Employer's Tax imposed under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.) 
for Old Age and Survivor's Benefits under the Social Security System, 
retirement benefits, group life insurance, severance pay, sick leave, 
annual leave, additional salary and travel costs for relief grading 
service, accident payments, certain moving costs, and related servicing 
costs.
    (ii) All hours worked by an assigned grader or another grader in 
excess of the approved tour of duty, or worked on a nonscheduled 
workday, or actually worked on a holiday in excess of the tour of duty, 
will be considered as overtime. The charge for such overtime will be 150 
percent of the grader's base salary rate.
    (iii) For work performed on a holiday which is within the 
established tour of duty approved for a plant, the added charge will be 
the same as the grader's base rate.
    (iv) For work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night 
differential charges (for regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked 
during this period) will be at the applicable rates established plus 10 
percent of the base rate.
    (v) For work performed on Sunday, Sunday differential charges (for 
regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked on Sunday) will be at the 
applicable rates established plus 25 percent of the base rate.
    (vi) For all hours of work performed in a plant without an approved 
tour of duty, the charge will be one of the applicable hourly rates in 
Sec. 56.46.
    (2) An administrative service charge equal to 25 percent of the 
grader's total salary costs. A minimum charge of $225 will be made each 
billing period. The minimum charge also applies where an approved 
application is in effect and no product is handled.
    (b) Other provisions. (1) The applicant shall designate in writing 
the employees of the applicant who will be required and authorized to 
furnish each grader with such information as may be necessary for the 
performance of the grading service.
    (2) AMS will provide, as available, an adequate number of graders to 
perform the grading service. The number of graders required will be 
determined by AMS based on the expected demand for service.
    (3) The grading service shall be provided at designated locations 
and shall be continued until the service is suspended, withdrawn, or 
terminated by:
    (i) Mutual consent;
    (ii) Thirty (30) days' written notice, by either the applicant or 
AMS specifying the date of suspension, withdrawal, or termination;
    (iii) One (1) day's written notice by AMS to the applicant if the 
applicant fails to honor any invoice within thirty (30) days after date 
of invoice covering the cost of the grading service; or
    (iv) Action taken by AMS pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 56.31.
    (4) Graders will be required to confine their activities to those 
duties necessary in the rendering of grading service and such closely 
related activities as may be approved by AMS: Provided, That in no 
instance may the graders assume the duties of management.
    (5) When similar nonresident grading services are furnished to the 
same applicant under part 55 or part 70 of this

[[Page 63]]

chapter, the charges listed in this section shall not be repeated.
[35 FR 19327, Dec. 22, 1970]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations to Sec. 56.54, see 
the List of CFR Sections Affected appearing in the Finding Aids section 
of this volume.

                          Grading Certificates



Sec. 56.55  Grading certificates and sampling report forms.

    Grading certificates and sampling report forms shall be issued on 
forms approved by the Administrator.
[20 FR 673, Feb. 1, 1955. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.56  Grading certificate issuance.

    (a) Resident grading basis. Certificates will be issued only upon 
request therefor by the applicant or the Service. When requested, a 
grader shall issue a certificate covering product graded by him. In 
addition, a grader may issue a grading certificate covering product 
graded in whole or in part by another grader when the grader has 
knowledge that the product is eligible for certification based on 
personal examination of the product or official grading records.
    (b) Other than resident grading. Each grader shall, in person or by 
his authorized agent, issue a grading certificate covering each product 
graded by him. A grader's name may be signed on a grading certificate by 
a person other than the grader, if such person has been designated as 
the authorized agent of such grader by the National Supervisor: 
Provided, That the certificate is prepared from an official memorandum 
of grading signed by the grader: And provided further, That a notarized 
power of attorney authorizing such signature has been issued to such 
person by the grader and is on file in the office of grading. In such 
case, the authorized agent shall sign both his own and the grader's 
name, e.g., ``John Doe by Richard Roe.''
[36 FR 9841, May 29, 1971, as amended at 36 FR 10937, June 5, 1971. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 56.57  Disposition of grading certificates.

    The original and a copy of each grading certificate, issued pursuant 
to Sec. 56.56, and not to exceed two additional copies thereof if 
requested by the applicant prior to issuance, shall, immediately upon 
issuance, be delivered or mailed to the applicant or person designated 
by him. Other copies shall be filed and retained in accordance with the 
disposition schedule for grading program records.
[36 FR 9842, May 29, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 
1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 56.58  Advance information.

    Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any 
grading certificate issued to such applicant may be telephoned or 
telegraphed to him, or to any person designated by him, at his expense.
[20 FR 673, Feb. 1, 1955. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                     Appeal of a Grading or Decision

    Source:  Sections 56.60 through 56.66 appear at 35 FR 9918, June 17, 
1970, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 
1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981.



Sec. 56.60  Who may request an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision.

    An appeal grading may be requested by any interested party who is 
dissatisfied with the determination by a grader of the class, quality, 
quantity, or condition of any product as evidenced by the USDA grademark 
and accompanying label, or as stated on a grading certificate and a 
review may be requested by the operator of an official plant with 
respect to a grader's decision or on any other matter related to grading 
in the official plant.



Sec. 56.61  Where to file an appeal.

    (a) Appeal from resident grader's grading or decision in an official 
plant. Any interested party who is not satisfied with the determination 
of the class, quality, quantity, or condition of product which was 
graded by a grader in an

[[Page 64]]

official plant and has not left such plant, and the operator of any 
official plant who is not satisfied with a decision by a grader on any 
other matter related to grading in such plant may request an appeal 
grading or review of the decision by the grader by filing such request 
with the grader's immediate supervisor.
    (b) All other appeal requests. Any interested party who is not 
satisfied with the class, quality, quantity, or condition of product 
which has left the official plant where it was graded or which was 
graded other than in an official plant may request an appeal grading by 
filing such request in the area where the product is located or with the 
Chief of the Grading Branch.



Sec. 56.62  How to file an appeal.

    Any request for an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision 
may be made orally or in writing. If made orally, written confirmation 
may be required. The applicant shall clearly state the reasons for 
requesting the appeal service and a description of the product, or the 
decision which is questioned. If such appeal request is based on the 
results stated on an official certificate, the original and all 
available copies of the certificate shall be returned to the appeal 
grader assigned to make the appeal grading.



Sec. 56.63  When an application for an appeal grading may be refused.

    When it appears to the official with whom an appeal request is filed 
that the reasons given in the request are frivolous or not substantial, 
or that the quality or condition of the product has undergone a material 
change since the original grading, or that the original lot has changed 
in some manner, or the Act or the regulations in this part have not been 
complied with, the applicant's request for the appeal grading may be 
refused. In such case, the applicant shall be promptly notified of the 
reason(s) for such refusal.



Sec. 56.64  Who shall perform the appeal.

    (a) An appeal grading or review of a decision requested under 
Sec. 56.61(a) shall be made by the grader's immediate supervisor, or by 
a licensed grader assigned by the immediate supervisor other than the 
grader whose grading or decision is being appealed.
    (b) Appeal gradings requested under Sec. 56.61(b) shall be performed 
by a grader other than the grader who originally graded the product.
    (c) Whenever practical, an appeal grading shall be conducted jointly 
by two graders. The assignment of the grader(s) who will make the appeal 
grading requested under Sec. 56.61(b) shall be made by the regional 
director or the Chief of the Grading Branch.
[35 FR 9918, June 17, 1970, as amended at 40 FR 20056, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 56.65  Procedures for appeal gradings.

    (a) When all of the originally graded and identified samples are 
available, the appeal sample shall consist of such samples plus an equal 
number of samples.
    (b) When the original samples are not available, the appeal sample 
size for the lot shall consist of double the samples required in 
Sec. 56.4(b).
    (c) Shell eggs shall not have been moved from the original place of 
grading and must have been maintained under adequate refrigeration and 
humidity conditions.
[35 FR 9918, June 17, 1970. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and as amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 
15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 56.66  Appeal grading certificates.

    Immediately after an appeal grading is completed, an appeal 
certificate shall be issued to show that the original grading was 
sustained or was not sustained. Such certificate shall supersede any 
previously issued certificate for the product involved and shall clearly 
identify the number and date of the superseded certificate. The issuance 
of the appeal certificate may be withheld until any previously issued 
certificate and all copies have been returned when such action is deemed 
necessary to protect the interest of the Government. When the appeal 
grader assigns a different grade to the lot, the existing grade mark 
shall be changed or obliterated as necessary. When the appeal grader 
assigns a different class

[[Page 65]]

or quantity designation to the lot, the labeling shall be corrected.

                          Facility Requirements



Sec. 56.75  Applicability of facility and operating requirements.

    The provisions of Sec. 56.76 shall be applicable to any grading 
service that is provided on a resident basis.
[28 FR 6345, June 20, 1963. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 56.76  Minimum facility and operating requirements for shell egg grading and packing plants.

    (a) General requirements for buildings and plant facilities. (1) 
Buildings shall be of sound construction so as to prevent, insofar as 
practicable, the entrance or harboring of vermin.
    (2) Grading and packing rooms shall be of sufficient size to permit 
installation of necessary equipment and the conduct of grading and 
packing in a sanitary manner. These rooms shall be kept reasonably clean 
during grading and packing operations and shall be thoroughly cleaned at 
the end of each operating day.
    (3) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations shall be provided. 
Toilet and locker rooms shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary 
condition. Hot and cold running water shall be provided. Rooms shall be 
ventilated to the outside of the building. Signs shall be posted in the 
rest rooms instructing employees to wash their hands before returning to 
work.
    (4) A separate refuse room or a designated area for the accumulation 
of trash must be provided in plants which do not have a system for the 
daily removal or destruction of such trash.
    (5) Wood benches, platforms, etc., in areas which are subjected to 
moisture and which develop odors shall be replaced with equipment of 
metal construction. Wood walls or partitions which develop odors shall 
be replaced with materials impervious to moisture. Newly constructed 
plants should be equipped with metal benches, platforms, etc., in areas 
which are subjected to moisture.
    (b) Grading room requirements. (1) The egg grading or candling area 
shall be adequately darkened to make possible the accurate quality 
determination of the candled appearance of eggs. There shall be no other 
light source or reflections of light that interfere with, or prohibit 
the accurate quality determination of eggs in the grading or candling 
area.
    (2) The grading and candling equipment shall provide adequate light 
to facilitate quality determinations. Other light sources and equipment 
or facilities shall be provided to permit the detection and removal of 
stained and dirty eggs or other undergrade eggs.
    (3) Adequate facilities, equipment, and light sources shall be 
provided to determine the condition of packing material.
    (4) Egg weighing equipment shall be provided. The egg weighing 
equipment shall be constructed to permit cleaning; operation in a clean, 
sanitary manner; and shall be capable of ready adjustment.
    (5) Adequate ventilation shall be provided.
    (c) Cooler room requirements. (1) Cooler rooms shall have 
refrigeration facilities capable of reducing within 24 hours and holding 
the maximum volume of eggs handled to 60  deg.F. or below. Accurate 
thermometers shall be provided.
    (2) Cooler rooms shall be free from objectionable odors and from 
mold, and shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.
    (3) All shell egg coolers shall be equipped with a hygrometer or 
portable equipment such as a psychrometer shall be available to 
determine the relative humidity. Humidifying equipment capable of 
maintaining a relative humidity which will minimize shrinkage shall be 
provided.
    (d) Shell egg protecting operations. Shell egg protecting (oil 
processing) operations shall be conducted in a manner to avoid 
contamination of the product and maximize conservation of its quality.
    (1) Eggs with excess moisture on the shell shall not be shell 
protected.
    (2) Oil having any off odor, or that is obviously contaminated, 
shall not be used in shell egg protection.
    (3) Processing oil that has been previously used and which has 
become

[[Page 66]]

contaminated shall be filtered and heat treated at 180  deg.F. for 3 
minutes prior to use.
    (4) Shell egg processing equipment shall be washed, rinsed, and 
treated with a bactericidal agent each time the oil is removed. It is 
preferable to filter and heat treat processing oil and clean processing 
equipment daily when in use.
    (5) Adequate coverage and protection against dust and dirt shall be 
provided when the equipment is not in use.
    (e) Shell egg cleaning operations. (1) Shell egg cleaning equipment 
shall be kept in good repair and shall be cleaned after each day's use 
or more frequently, if necessary.
    (2) The temperature of the wash water shall be maintained at 90 
deg.F. or higher, and shall be at least 20  deg.F. warmer than the 
temperature of the eggs to be washed. These temperatures shall be 
maintained throughout the cleaning cycle.
    (3) An approved cleaning compound shall be used in the wash water. 
(The use of metered equipment for dispensing the compound into solution 
is recommended.)
    (4) Wash water shall be changed approximately every 4 hours or more 
often if needed to maintain sanitary conditions, and at the end of each 
shift. Remedial measures shall be taken to prevent excess foaming during 
the egg washing operation.
    (5) Replacement water shall be added continuously to the wash water 
of washers to maintain a continuous overflow. Rinse water, chlorine, or 
quaternary sanitizing rinse may be used as part of the replacement 
water, provided, they are compatible with the washing compound. Iodine 
sanitizing rinse may not be used as part of the replacement water.
    (6) Only potable water may be used to wash eggs. Each official plant 
shall submit certification to the national office stating that their 
water supply is potable. An analysis of the iron content of the water 
supply, stated in parts per million, is also required. When the iron 
content exceeds 2 parts per million, equipment shall be provided to 
correct the excess iron content. Frequency of testing shall be 
determined by the Administrator. When the water source is changed, new 
tests are required.
    (7) Waste water from the egg washing operation shall be piped 
directly to drains.
    (8) The washing and drying operation shall be continuous and shall 
be completed as rapidly as possible. Eggs shall not be allowed to stand 
or soak in water. Immersion-type washers shall not be used.
    (9) Prewetting shell eggs prior to washing may be accomplished by 
spraying a continuous flow of water over the eggs in a manner which 
permits the water to drain away or other methods which may be approved 
by the Administrator. The temperature of the water shall be the same as 
prescribed in this section.
    (10) Washed eggs shall be spray-rinsed with water having a 
temperature equal to, or warmer than, the temperature of the wash water 
and contain an approved sanitizer of not less than 50 p/m nor more than 
200 p/m of available chlorine or its equivalent. Alternate procedures, 
in lieu of a sanitizer rinse, may be approved by the National 
Supervisor.
    (11) Test kits shall be provided and used to determine the strength 
of the sanitizing solution.
    (12) During any rest period, eggs shall be removed from the washing 
and rinsing area of the egg washer and from the scanning area whenever 
there is a buildup of heat.
    (13) Washed eggs shall be reasonably dry before cartoning or casing.
    (14) When steam or vapors originate from the washing operation, they 
shall be continuously and directly removed to the outside of the 
building.
    (f) Requirements for eggs which are to be marked with official U.S. 
identification mark. (1) Shell eggs held in the official plant shall be 
placed under refrigeration of 60  deg.F. or lower promptly after 
packaging. Officially identified shell eggs with an internal temperature 
of 70  deg.F. or higher when shipped from the official plant should be 
transported at a temperature of 60  deg.F. or less.
    (2) Every reasonable precaution shall be exercised to prevent 
``sweating'' of eggs.
    (3) Eggs which are to be officially identified with consumer 
grademarks

[[Page 67]]

shall be packaged only in new or good used cases and packing materials. 
Cases and packing materials must be reasonably clean, free of mold, 
mustiness and off odors and must be of sufficient strength and 
durability to adequately protect the eggs during normal distribution.
    (g) The following substances used in the plant shall be approved and 
handled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions: Pesticides, 
insecticides, rodenticides, cleaning compounds, destaining compounds, 
foam control compounds, sanitizers, and inks and oils coming into 
contact with the product.
[20 FR 674, Feb. 1, 1955, as amended at 22 FR 8168, Oct. 16, 1957; 28 FR 
6346, June 20, 1963; 32 FR 8232, June 8, 1967; 35 FR 5664, Apr. 8, 1970; 
40 FR 20056, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 39571, Aug. 4, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, 
Dec. 3, 1982; 60 FR 12402, Mar. 7, 1995]



Sec. 56.77  Health and hygiene of personnel.

    (a) No person known to be affected by a communicable or infectious 
disease shall be permitted to come in contact with the product.
    (b) Plant personnel coming into contact with the product shall wear 
clean clothing.
[32 FR 8232, June 8, 1967. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



PART 58--GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS1--Table of Contents




   Subpart A--Regulations Governing the Inspection and Grading 
          Services of Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products

                               Definitions
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    1  Compliance with these standards does not excuse 
failure to comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and 
Cosmetic Act.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sec.
58.1  Meaning of words.
58.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, 
          identifications, and devices for purpose of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.

                             Administration

58.3  Authority.

                      Inspection or Grading Service

58.4  Basis of service.
58.5  Where service is offered.
58.6  Supervision of service.
58.7  Who may obtain service.
58.8  How to make application.
58.9  Form of application.
58.10  Filing of application.
58.11  Approval of application.
58.12  When application may be rejected.
58.13  When application may be withdrawn.
58.14  Authority of applicant.
58.15  Accessibility and condition of product.
58.16  Disposition of samples.
58.17  Order of service.
58.18  Inspection or grading certificates, memoranda, or reports.
58.19  Issuance of inspection or grading certificates.
58.20  Disposition of inspection or grading certificates or reports.
58.21  Advance information.

       Appeal Inspection or Grading and Reinstatement of Regrading

58.22  When appeal inspection or grading may be requested.
58.23  How to obtain appeal inspection or grading.
58.24  Record of filing time.
58.25  When an application for appeal inspection or grading may be 
          refused.
58.26  When an application for an appeal inspection or grading may be 
          withdrawn.
58.27  Order in which appeal inspections or gradings are performed.
58.28  Who shall make appeal inspections or gradings.
58.29  Appeal inspection or grading certificate or report.
58.30  Application for reinspection or regrading.
58.31  Reinspection or regrading certificate or report.
58.32  Superseded certificates or reports.

                   Licensing of Inspectors or Graders

58.33  Who may be licensed.
58.34  Suspension or revocation of license.
58.35  Surrender of license.
58.36  Identification.
58.37  Financial interest of licensees.

                            Fees and Charges

58.38  Payment of fees and charges.
58.39  Fees for holiday or other nonworktime.
58.40  Fees for appeal inspection or grading.

[[Page 68]]

58.41  Fees for additional copies of certificates.
58.42  Travel expenses and other charges.
58.43  Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling.
58.45  Fees for continuous resident service.
58.46  Fees for service performed under cooperative agreement.

               Marking, Branding, and Identifying Product

58.49  Authority to use official identification.
58.50  Approval and form of official identification.
58.51  Information required on official identification.
58.52  Time limit for packaging inspected or graded products with 
          official identification.

    Prerequisites to Packaging Products With Official Identification

58.53  Supervisor of packaging required.
58.54  Packing and packaging room and equipment.
58.55  Facilities for keeping quality samples.
58.56  Incubation of product samples.
58.57  Product not eligible for packaging with official identification.

                               Violations

58.58  Debarment of service.

                              Miscellaneous

58.61  Political activity.
58.62  Report of violations.
58.63  Other applicable regulations.
58.64  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.

  Subpart B--General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA 
                     Inspection and Grading Service

                               Definitions

58.100  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.
58.101  Meaning of words.

                                 Purpose

58.122  Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

                             Approved Plants

58.123  Survey and approval.
58.124  Denial or suspension of plant approval.

         Premises, Buildings, Facilities, Equipment and Utensils

58.125  Premises.
58.126  Buildings.
58.127  Facilities.
58.128  Equipment and utensils.

                    Personnel, Cleanliness and Health

58.129  Cleanliness.
58.130  Health.

             Protection and Transport of Raw Milk and Cream

58.131  Equipment and facilities.

                   Quality Specifications for Raw Milk

58.132  Basis for classification.
58.133  Methods for quality and wholesomeness determination.
58.134  Sediment content.
58.135  Bacterial estimate.
58.136  Rejected milk.
58.137  Excluded milk.
58.138  Quality testing of milk from new producers.
58.139  Record of tests.
58.140  Field service.
58.141  Alternate quality control program.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.142  Product quality and stability.
58.143  Raw product storage.
58.144  Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.
58.145  Composition and wholesomeness.
58.146  Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.
58.147  Insect and rodent control program.
58.148  Plant records.
58.149  Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

                  Packaging and General Identification

58.150  Containers.
58.151  Packaging and repackaging.
58.152  General identification.

                       Storage of Finished Product

58.153  Dry storage.
58.154  Refrigerated storage.

             Inspection, Grading and Official Identification

58.155  Grading.
58.156  Inspection.
58.157  Inspection or grading certificates.
58.158  Official identification.

                          Explanation of Terms

58.159  Terms.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
Packaging Nonfat Dry Milk, Instant Nonfat Dry Milk, Dry Whole Milk, and 
                             Dry Buttermilk

                               Definitions

58.205  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.210  Dry storage of product.

[[Page 69]]

58.211  Packaging room for bulk products.
58.212  Hopper or dump room.
58.213  Repackaging room.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.214  General construction, repair and installation.
58.215  Pre-heaters.
58.216  Hotwells.
58.217  Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.
58.218  Surge tanks.
58.219  High pressure pumps and lines.
58.220  Drying systems.
58.221  Collectors and conveyors.
58.222  Dry dairy product cooling equipment.
58.223  Special treatment equipment.
58.224  Sifters.
58.225  Clothing and shoe covers.
58.226  Portable and stationary bulk bins.
58.227  Sampling device.
58.228  Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.
58.229  Filler and packaging equipment.
58.230  Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials

58.231  General.
58.232  Milk.
58.233  Skim milk.
58.234  Buttermilk.
58.235  Modified dry milk products.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.236  Pasteurization and heat treatment.
58.237  Condensed surge supply.
58.238  Condensed storage tanks.
58.239  Drying.
58.240  Cooling dry products.
58.241  Packaging, repackaging and storage.
58.242  Product adulteration.
58.243  Checking quality.
58.244  Number of samples.
58.245  Method of official sample analysis.
58.246  Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and 
          storage bins.
58.247  Insect and rodent control program.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.248  Nonfat dry milk.
58.249  Instant nonfat dry milk.
58.250  Dry whole milk.
58.251  Dry buttermilk and dry buttermilk product.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
                  Packaging Butter and Related Products

                               Definitions

58.305  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.311  Coolers and freezers.
58.312  Churn rooms.
58.313  Print and bulk packaging rooms.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.314  General construction, repair and installation.
58.315  Continuous churns.
58.316  Conventional churns.
58.317  Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.
58.318  Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.
58.319  Printing equipment.
58.320  Brine tanks.
58.321  Cream storage tanks.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material

58.322  Cream.
58.323  [Reserved]
58.324  Butteroil.
58.325  Anhydrous milkfat.
58.326  Plastic cream.
58.327  Frozen cream.
58.328  Salt.
58.329  Color.
58.330  Butter starter cultures.
58.331  Starter distillate.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.332  Segregation of raw material.
58.334  Pasteurization.
58.335  Quality control tests.
58.336  Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and 
          related products.
58.337  Official test methods.
58.338  Composition and wholesomeness.
58.339  Containers.
58.340  Printing and packaging.
58.341  Repackaging.
58.342  General identification.
58.343  Storage of finished product in coolers.
58.344  Storage of finished product in freezer.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.345  Butter.
58.346  Whipped butter.
58.347  Butteroil or anhydrous milkfat.
58.348  Plastic cream.
58.349  Frozen cream.

   Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing and Packaging 
                                 Cheese

                               Definitions

58.405  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.406  Starter facility.
58.407  Make room.
58.408  Brine room.
58.409  Drying room.
58.410  Paraffining room.
58.411  Rindless cheese wrapping area.
58.412  Coolers or curing rooms.
58.413  Cutting and packaging rooms.

[[Page 70]]

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.414  General construction, repair and installation.
58.415  Starter vats.
58.416  Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.
58.417  Mechanical agitators.
58.418  Automatic cheese making equipment.
58.419  Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.
58.420  Hoops, forms and followers.
58.421  Press.
58.422  Brine tank.
58.423  Cheese vacuumizing chamber.
58.424  Monorail.
58.425  Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.
58.426  Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.
58.427  Paraffin tanks.
58.428  Specialty equipment.
58.429  Washing machine.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material

58.430  Milk.
58.431  Hydrogen peroxide.
58.432  Catalase.
58.433  Cheese cultures.
58.434  Calcium chloride.
58.435  Color.
58.436  Rennet, pepsin, or other milk clotting enzymes and flavor 
          enzymes.
58.437  Salt.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.438  Cheese from pasteurized milk.
58.439  Cheese from unpasteurized milk.
58.440  Make schedule.
58.441  Records.
58.442  Laboratory and quality control tests.
58.443  Whey handling.
58.444  Packaging and repackaging.
58.445  General identification.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.446  Quality requirements.

   Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing and Packaging 
                             Cottage Cheese

                               Definitions

58.505  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.510  Rooms and compartments.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.511  General construction, repair and installation.
58.512  Cheese vats or tanks.
58.513  Agitators.
58.514  Container fillers.
58.515  Mixers.
58.516  Starter vats.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material

58.517  General.
58.518  Milk.
58.519  Dairy products.
58.520  Nondairy ingredients.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.521  Pasteurization and product flow.
58.522  Reconstituting nonfat dry milk.
58.523  Laboratory and quality control tests.
58.524  Packaging and general identification.
58.525  Storage of finished product.

  Requirements for Cottage Cheese Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.526  Official identification.
58.527  Physical requirements.
58.528  Microbiological requirements.
58.529  Chemical requirements.
58.530  Keeping quality requirements.

 Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and 
                        Packaging Frozen Desserts

                               Definitions

58.605  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.619  Mix processing room.
58.620  Freezing and packaging rooms.
58.621  Freezing tunnels.
58.622  Hardening and storage rooms.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.623  Homogenizer.
58.624  Freezers.
58.625  Fruit or syrup feeders.
58.626  Packaging equipment.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material

58.627  Milk and dairy products.
58.628  Sweetening agents.
58.629  Flavoring agents.
58.630  Stabilizers.
58.631  Emulsifiers.
58.632  Acid.
58.633  Color.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.634  Assembling and combining mix ingredients.
58.635  Pasteurization of the mix.
58.636  Homogenization.
58.637  Cooling the mix.
58.638  Freezing the mix.
58.639  Addition of flavor.
58.640  Packaging.
58.641  Hardening and storage.
58.642  Quality control tests.
58.643  Frequency of sampling.
58.644  Test methods.
58.645  General identification.

[[Page 71]]

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.646  Official identification.
58.647  Composition requirements for ice cream.
58.648  Microbiological requirements for ice cream.
58.649  Physical requirements for ice cream.
58.650  Requirements for frozen custard.
58.651  Requirements for ice milk.
58.652  Composition requirements for sherbet.
58.653  Microbiological requirements for sherbet.
58.654  Physical requirements for sherbet.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
        Packaging Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products

                               Definitions

58.705  Meaning of words.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.706  General construction, repair and installation.
58.707  Conveyors.
58.708  Grinders or shredders.
58.709  Cookers.
58.710  Fillers.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material

58.711  Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd 
          cheese.
58.712  Swiss.
58.713  Gruyere.
58.714  Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.
58.715  Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.
58.716  Nonfat dry milk.
58.717  Whey.
58.718  Flavor ingredients.
58.719  Coloring.
58.720  Acidifying agents.
58.721  Salt.
58.722  Emulsifying agents.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.723  Basis for selecting cheese for processing.
58.724  Blending.
58.725  Trimming and cleaning.
58.726  Cutting and grinding.
58.727  Adding optional ingredients.
58.728  Cooking the batch.
58.729  Forming containers.
58.730  Filling containers.
58.731  Closing and sealing containers.
58.732  Cooling the packaged cheese.
58.733  Quality control tests.

    Requirements for Processed Cheese Products Bearing USDA Official 
                             Identification

58.734  Official identification.
58.735  Quality specifications for raw materials.

              Quality Specifications For Finished Products

58.736  Pasteurized process cheese.
58.737  Pasteurized process cheese food.
58.738  Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

 Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and 
                Packaging Whey, Whey Products and Lactose

                               Definitions

58.805  Meaning of words.

                         Rooms and Compartments

58.806  General.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.807  General construction, repair and installation.

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials

58.808  Whey.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.809  Pasteurization.
58.810  Temperature requirements.
58.811  General.
58.812  Methods of official sample analysis.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.813  Dry whey.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
  Packaging Evaporated and Condensed Milk or Ultra-Pasteurized Products

                               Definitions

58.905  Meaning of words.

                         Equipment and Utensils

58.912  General construction, repair and installation.
58.913  Evaporators and vacuum pans.
58.914  Fillers.
58.915  Batch or continuous in-container thermal processing equipment.
58.916  Homogenizer.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures

58.917  General.
58.918  Standardization.
58.919  Pre-heat, pasteurization.
58.920  Homogenization.
58.921  Concentration.
58.922  Thermal processing.
58.923  Filling containers.
58.924  Aseptic filling.
58.925  Sweetened condensed.
58.926  Heat stability.

[[Page 72]]

58.927  Storage.
58.928  Quality control tests.
58.929  Frequency of sampling for quality control.
58.930  Official test methods.
58.931  General identification.

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials

58.932  Milk.
58.933  Stabilizers.
58.934  Sugars.
58.935  Chocolate and cocoa.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification

58.936  Milk.
58.937  Physical requirements for evaporated milk.
58.938  Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened 
          condensed milk.

                        Subparts C-V  [Reserved]

  Subpart W--United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice 
                                  Cream

58.2825  United States Standard for ice cream.
58.2826  General identification.
58.2827  Official identification.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621--1627.

    Source:  23 FR 9410, Dec. 5, 1958, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.

    Note: Compliance with these standards does not excuse failure to 
comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.



Subpart A--Regulations Governing the Inspection and Grading Services of 
                Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products

    Source:  37 FR 22363, Oct. 19, 1972, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.1  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to import the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning:
    Act means the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1621-1627) or any other 
act of Congress conferring like authority.
    Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service or any other officer or employee of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service to whom authority has heretofore been delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Agricultural Marketing Service or AMS means the Agricultural 
Marketing Service of the Department.
    Applicant means any interested party who has applied for inspection 
or grading service.
    Approved laboratory means a laboratory in which the facilities and 
equipment used for official testing have been adequate to perform the 
necessary official tests in accordance with this part.
    Approved plant means one or more adjacent buildings, or parts 
thereof, comprising a single plant at one location in which the 
facilities and methods of operation therein have been surveyed and 
approved by the Administrator as suitable and adequate for inspection or 
grading service in accordance with this part.
    Area Supervisor means any employee of the Branch in charge of dairy 
inspection or grading service in a designated geographical area.
    Branch means the Dairy Inspection Branch of the Poultry and Dairy 
Quality Division.
    Chief means the Chief of the Branch, or any officer or employee of 
the Branch to whom authority has been heretofore delegated, or to whom 
authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Class means any subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same kind 
or method of processing.
    Condition of container means the degree of acceptability of the 
container with respect to freedom from defects which affect its 
serviceability, including appearance as well as usability, of the 
container for its intended purpose.
    Condition of product or condition is an expression of the extent to 
which a product is free from defects which affect its usability, 
including but not

[[Page 73]]

limited to, the state of preservation, cleanliness, soundness, 
wholesomeness, or fitness for human food.
    Continuous resident service or resident service is inspection or 
grading service performed at a dairy manufacturing plant or grading 
station by an inspector or grader assigned to the plant or station on a 
continuous, year-round, resident basis.
    Department or USDA means the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    Director means the Director of the Poultry and Dairy Quality 
Division, or any other officer or employee of the Division to whom 
authority has heretofore been delegated or to whom authority may 
hereafter be delegated, to act in his stead.
    Division means the Poultry and Dairy Quality Division of the 
Agricultural Marketing Service.
    Inspection or grading service or service means in accordance with 
this part, the act of (a) drawing samples of any product; (b) 
determining the class, grade, quality, composition, size, quantity, or 
condition of any product by examining each unit or representative 
samples; (c) determining condition of product containers; (d) 
identifying any product or packaging material by means of official 
identification; (e) regrading or appeal grading of a previously graded 
product; (f) inspecting dairy plant facilities, equipment, and 
operations; such as, processing, manufacturing, packaging, repackaging, 
and quality control; (g) supervision of packaging inspected or graded 
product; (h) reinspection or appeal inspection; and (i) issuing an 
inspection or grading certificate or sampling, inspection, or other 
report related to any of the foregoing.
    Inspector or grader means any Federal or State employee to whom a 
license has been issued by the Administrator to perform one or more 
types of inspection or grading services.
    Inspection or grading office means the office of any inspector or 
grader.
    Interested party means any person financially interested in a 
transaction involving any inspection or grading service.
    Licensed plant employee means an employee of an approved plant to 
whom a license is issued by the Administrator to supervise packaging of 
officially inspected or graded product, perform laboratory tests, or 
perform other duties as assigned by the Administrator. A licensed plant 
employee is not authorized to issue any inspection or grading 
certificate.
    Product means butter, cheese (whether natural or processed), milk, 
cream, milk products (whether dried, frozen, evaporated, stabilized, or 
condensed), ice cream, dry whey, dry buttermilk, and any other food 
product, which is prepared or manufactured in whole or in part from any 
of the aforesaid products, as the Administrator may hereafter designate.
    Person means any individual, partnership, association, business, 
trust, corporation, or any organized group of persons, whether 
incorporated or not.
    Plant survey means an appraisal of the plant to determine extent to 
which facilities, equipment, method of operation, and raw material being 
received are in accordance with the provisions of this part. The survey 
shall be used to determine suitability of the plant for inspection or 
grading service.
    Quality means the inherent properties of any product which determine 
its relative degree of excellence.
    Regulations means the provisions of this subpart.
    Sampling report means a statement issued by an inspector or grader 
identifying samples taken by him for inspection or grading service.
    Supervisor of packaging means an employee of the Department or other 
person licensed by the Administrator to supervise the packaging and 
official identification of product or any repackaging of bulk product.

(60 Stat. 1087, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.; 84 Stat. 1620, 21 U.S.C. 1031 et 
seq.)
[37 FR 22363, Oct. 19, 1972, as amended at 38 FR 4381, Feb. 14, 1973. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further amended at 43 FR 
60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 54 FR 
15167, Apr. 17, 1989]



Sec. 58.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, identifications, and devices for purpose of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by

[[Page 74]]

Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for various 
specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, marks 
or identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said Act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the inspection or grading of 
agricultural products under said section. For the purposes of said 
subsection and the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall 
have the respective meanings specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed (including that prescribed in Sec. 58.18) used under 
the regulations in this subpart to certify with respect to the 
inspection of dairy processing plants and the inspection, class, grade, 
quality, size, quantity, or condition of products (including the 
compliance of products and packaging material with applicable 
specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of inspecting, grading, determining 
compliance, or sampling pursuant to the regulations in this subpart, any 
processing or plant-operation report made by an authorized person in 
connection with inspecting, grading, determining compliance, or sampling 
under the regulations in this subpart, and any report made by an 
authorized person of services performed pursuant to the regulations in 
this subpart.
    (c) Official identification or other official marks means any form 
of identification or mark (including, but not limited to, those in 
Secs. 58.49 through 58.51) approved by the Administrator and authorized 
to be affixed to any product, or affixed to or printed on the packaging 
material of any product certifying the inspection, class, grade, 
quality, size, quantity, or condition of the products (including the 
compliance of products with applicable specifications) or to maintain 
the identity of the product for which service is provided under the 
regulations in this subpart.
    (d) Official device means a stamping applicance, branding device, 
stencil, printed label, or any other mechanically or manually operated 
tool that is approved by the Administrator for the purpose of applying 
any official mark or other identification to any product or the 
packaging material thereof.

                             Administration



Sec. 58.3  Authority.

    The Administrator shall perform such duties as may be required in 
the enforcement and administration of the provisions of the Act and this 
part.

                      Inspection or Grading Service



Sec. 58.4  Basis of service.

    Inspection or grading service shall be performed in accordance with 
the provisions of this part, the instructions and procedures issued or 
approved by the Administrator, U.S. standards for grades, Federal 
specifications, and specifications as defined in a specific purchase 
contract. All services provided in accordance with these regulations 
shall be rendered without discrimination on the basis of race, color, 
creed, or national origin.
[39 FR 986, Jan. 4, 1974. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 58.5  Where service is offered.

    Subject to the provisions of this part, inspection or grading 
service may be performed when a qualified inspector or grader is 
available, and when the facilities and conditions are satisfactory for 
the conduct of the service.



Sec. 58.6  Supervision of service.

    All inspection or grading service shall be subject to supervision by 
a supervisory inspector or grader, Area Supervisor, or by the Chief, or 
such other person of the Branch as may be designated by the Chief. 
Whenever there is evidence that inspection or grading service has been 
incorrectly performed, a supervisor shall immediately make a 
reinspection or regrading, and he shall supersede the previous 
inspection or grading certificate or report with a new certificate or 
report showing the corrected information.

[[Page 75]]



Sec. 58.7  Who may obtain service.

    An application for inspection or grading service may be made by any 
interested person, including, but not limited to, the United States, any 
State, county, municipality, or common carrier, or any authorized agent 
of the foregoing.



Sec. 58.8  How to make application.

    (a) On a fee basis. An application for inspection or grading service 
may be made in any inspection or grading office or with any inspector or 
grader. Such application may be made orally (in person or by telephone), 
in writing, or by telegraph. If made orally, written confirmation may be 
required.
    (b) On a continuous basis. Application for inspection or grading 
service on a continuous basis as provided in Sec. 58.45 shall be made in 
writing on application forms as approved by the Administrator and filed 
with the Administrator.



Sec. 58.9  Form of application.

    Each application for inspection or grading service shall include 
such information as may be required by the Administrator in regard to 
the type of service; kind of products and place of manufacture, 
processing, or packaging: and location where service is desired.



Sec. 58.10  Filing of application.

    An application for inspection or grading service shall be regarded 
as filed only when made pursuant to this subpart.



Sec. 58.11  Approval of application.

    An application for inspection or grading service may be approved 
when (a) a qualified inspector or grader is available, (b) facilities 
and conditions are satisfactory for the conduct of the service, and (c) 
the product has been manufactured or processed in a plant approved for 
inspection or grading service in accordance with the provisions of this 
part and instructions issued thereunder.



Sec. 58.12  When application may be rejected.

    An application for inspection or grading service may be rejected by 
the Administrator (a) when the applicant fails to meet the requirements 
of the regulations in this subpart prescribing the conditions under 
which the service is made available; (b) when the product is owned by, 
or located on the premises of, a person currently denied the benefits of 
the Act; (c) when an individual holding office or a responsible position 
with or having a substantial financial interest or share with the 
applicant is currently denied the benefits of the Act or was responsible 
in whole or in part for the current denial of the benefits of the Act to 
any person; (d) when the application is an attempt on the part of a 
person currently denied the benefits of the Act to obtain inspection or 
grading service; (e) when the product was produced from unwholesome raw 
material or was produced under insanitary or otherwise unsatisfactory 
conditions; (f) when the product is of illegal composition or is lacking 
satisfactory keeping quality; (g) when the product has been produced in 
a plant which has not been surveyed and approved for inspection or 
grading service; (h) when fees billed are not paid within 30 days; or 
(i) when there is noncompliance with the Act or this part or 
instructions issued hereunder. When an application is rejected, the 
applicant shall be notified in writing by the Area Supervisor or his 
designated representative, the reason or reasons for the rejection.
[37 FR 22363, Oct. 19, 1972, as amended at 53 FR 20278, June 3, 1988]



Sec. 58.13  When application may be withdrawn.

    An application for inspection or grading service may be withdrawn by 
the applicant at any time before the service is performed upon payment, 
by the applicant, of all expenses incurred by AMS in connection with 
such application.



Sec. 58.14  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of the authority of any person applying for any inspection or 
grading service may be required in the discretion of the Administrator.



Sec. 58.15  Accessibility and condition of product.

    Each lot of product for which inspection or grading service is 
requested

[[Page 76]]

shall be so conditioned and placed as to permit selection of 
representative samples and proper determination of the class, grade, 
quality, quantity, or condition of such product. In addition, if sample 
packages are furnished by the applicant, such samples shall be 
representative of the lot to be inspected or graded and additional 
samples shall be made available for verification. The room or area where 
the service is to be performed shall be clean and sanitary, free from 
foreign odors, and shall be provided with adequate lighting, 
ventilation, and temperature control.



Sec. 58.16  Disposition of samples.

    Any sample of product used for inspection or grading may be returned 
to the applicant at his request and at his expense if such request was 
made at the time of the application for the service. In the event the 
aforesaid request was not made at the time of application for the 
service, the sample of product may be destroyed, disposed of to a 
charitable organization, or disposed of by any other method prescribed 
by the Administrator.



Sec. 58.17  Order of service.

    Inspection or grading service shall be performed, insofar as 
practicable and subject to the availability of qualified inspectors or 
graders, in the order in which applications are made except that 
precedence may be given to any application for an appeal inspection or 
grading.



Sec. 58.18  Inspection or grading certificates, memoranda, or reports.

    Inspection or grading certificates and sampling, plant survey, and 
other memoranda or reports shall be issued on forms approved by the 
Administrator.



Sec. 58.19  Issuance of inspection or grading certificates.

    An inspection or grading certificate shall be issued to cover a 
product inspected or graded in accordance with Instructions issued by 
the Administrator and shall be signed by an inspector or grader. This 
does not preclude an inspector or grader from granting a power of 
attorney to another person to sign in his stead, if such grant of power 
of attorney has been approved by the Administrator: Provided, That in 
all cases any such certificate shall be prepared in accordance with the 
facts set forth in the official memorandum defined in Sec. 58.2(b): And 
provided further, that whenever a certificate is signed by a person 
under a power of attorney the certificate should so indicate. The 
signature of the holder of the power shall appear in conjunction with 
the name of the grader or inspector who personally graded or inspected 
the product.
[39 FR 986, Jan. 4, 1974. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 58.20  Disposition of inspection or grading certificates or reports.

    The original of any inspection or grading certificate or report 
issued pursuant to Sec. 58.19, and not to exceed four copies thereof, 
shall immediately upon issuance be delivered or mailed to the applicant 
or person designated by him. One copy shall be filed in the inspection 
and grading office serving the area in which the service was performed 
and all other copies shall be filed in such manner as the Administrator 
may approve. Additional copies of any such certificate or report may be 
supplied to any interested party as provided in Sec. 58.41.



Sec. 58.21  Advance information.

    Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any 
inspection or grading certificate or report issued to such applicant may 
be telephoned or telegraphed to him, or to any person designed by him, 
at applicant's expense.

       Appeal Inspection or Grading and Reinstatement of Regrading



Sec. 58.22  When appeal inspection or grading may be requested.

    (a) An application for an appeal inspection or grading may be made 
by any interested party who is dissatisfied with any determination 
stated in any inspection or grading certificate or report if the 
identity of the samples or the product has not been lost; or the 
conditions under which inspection service was performed have not 
changed. Such application for appeal

[[Page 77]]

inspection or grading shall be made within 2 days following the day on 
which the service was performed. Upon approval by the Administrator, the 
time within which an application for an appeal grading may be made may 
be extended.
    (b) An appeal inspection shall be limited to a review of the 
sampling procedure and in analysis of the official sample used, when, as 
a result of the original inspection, the commodity was found to be 
contaminated with filthy, putrid, and decomposed material. If it is 
determined that the sampling procedures were improper, a new sample 
shall be obtained.



Sec. 58.23  How to obtain appeal inspection or grading.

    Appeal inspection or grading may be obtained by filing a request 
therefore, (a) with the Administrator, (b) with the inspector or grader 
who issued the inspection or grading certificate or report with respect 
to which the appeal service is requested, or (c) with the supervisor of 
such inspector or grader. The application for appeal inspection or 
grading shall state the reasons therefore, and may be accompanied by a 
copy of the aforesaid inspection or grading certificate or report or any 
other information the applicant may have secured regarding the product 
or the service from which the appeal is requested. Such application may 
be made orally (in person or by telephone), in writing, or by telegraph. 
If made orally, written confirmation may be required.



Sec. 58.24  Record of filing time.

    A record showing the date and hour when each such application for 
appeal inspection or grading is received shall be maintained in such 
manner as the Administrator may prescribe.



Sec. 58.25  When an application for appeal inspection or grading may be refused.

    The Administrator may refuse an application for an appeal inspection 
or grading when (a) the quality or condition of the products has 
undergone a material change since the time of original service, (b) the 
identical products inspected or graded cannot be made accessible for 
reinspection or regrading, (c) the conditions under which inspection 
service was performed have changed, (d) it appears that the reasons for 
an appeal inspection or grading are frivolous or not substantial, or (e) 
the Act or this part have not been complied with. The applicant shall be 
promptly notified of the reason for such refusal.



Sec. 58.26  When an application for an appeal inspection or grading may be withdrawn.

    An application for appeal inspection or grading may be withdrawn by 
the applicant at any time before the appeal inspection or grading is 
made upon payment, by the applicant, of all expenses incurred by AMS in 
connection with such application.



Sec. 58.27  Order in which appeal inspections or gradings are performed.

    Appeal inspections or gradings shall be performed, insofar as 
practicable, in the order in which applications therefor are received; 
and any such application may be given precedence pursuant to Sec. 58.17.



Sec. 58.28  Who shall make appeal inspections or gradings.

    An appeal inspection or grading of any product or service shall be 
made by any inspector or grader (other than the one from whose service 
the appeal is made) designated for this purpose by the Administrator; 
and, whenever practical, such appeal inspection or grading shall be 
conducted jointly by two such inspectors or graders.



Sec. 58.29  Appeal inspection or grading certificate or report.

    Immediately after an appeal inspection or grading has been 
completed, an appeal inspection or grading certificate or report shall 
be issued showing the results of the inspection or grading. Such 
certificate or report shall thereupon supersede the previous certificate 
or report and will be effective retroactive to the date of the previous 
certificate or report. Each appeal certificate or report shall clearly 
set forth the number and the date of the previous certificate or report 
which it supersedes. The provisions of Secs. 58.18

[[Page 78]]

through 58.21 shall, whenever applicable, also apply to appeal 
certificates or reports except that copies shall be furnished each 
interested party of record.



Sec. 58.30  Application for reinspection or regrading.

    An application for the reinspection or regrading of any previously 
inspected or graded product may be made at any time by any interested 
party; and such application shall clearly indicate the reasons for 
requesting the reinspection or regrading. The provisions of the 
regulations in this subpart relative to inspection or grading service 
shall apply to reinspection or regrading service.



Sec. 58.31  Reinspection or regrading certificate or report.

    Immediately after a reinspection or regrading has been completed, a 
reinspection or a regrading certificate or report shall be issued 
showing the results of such reinspection or regrading; and such 
certificate or report shall thereupon supersede, as of the time of 
issuance, the inspection or grading certificate or report previously 
issued. Each reinspection or regrading certificate or report shall 
clearly set forth the number and date of the inspection or grading 
certificate or report that it supersedes. The provisions of Secs. 58.18 
through 58.21 shall, whenever applicable, also apply to reinspection or 
regrading certificates or reports except that copies shall be furnished 
each interested party of record.



Sec. 58.32  Superseded certificates or reports.

    When any inspection or grading certificate or report is superseded 
in accordance with this part, such certificate or report shall become 
null and void and, after the effective time of the supersedure, shall no 
longer represent the class, grade, quality, quantity, or condition 
described therein. If the original and all copies of such superseded 
certificate or report are not returned to the inspector or grader 
issuing the reinspection or regrading or appeal inspection or grading 
certificate or report, the inspector or grader shall notify such persons 
as he considers necessary to prevent fraudulent use of the superseded 
certificate or report.

                   Licensing of Inspectors or Graders



Sec. 58.33  Who may be licensed.

    Any person processing proper qualifications, as determined by an 
examination for competency, held at such time and in such manner as may 
be prescribed by the Administrator, may be licensed to perform specified 
inspection or grading service. Each license issued shall be signed by 
the Administrator.
[53 FR 20278, June 3, 1988]



Sec. 58.34  Suspension or revocation of license.

    For good cause and in instances of willful wrongdoing, the 
Administrator may suspend any license issued under the regulations in 
this subpart by giving notice of such suspension to the respective 
individual involved, accompanied by a statement of reasons therefor. 
Within 10 days after receipt of the aforesaid notice and statement of 
reasons by such individual, he may file an appeal in writing with the 
Administrator supported by any argument or evidence that he may wish to 
offer as to why his license should not be suspended or revoked. In 
conjunction therewith, he may request and, in such event, shall be 
accorded an oral hearing. After consideration of such argument and 
evidence, the Administrator will take such action as warranted with 
respect to such suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within 
the prescribed 10 days, the license is revoked.



Sec. 58.35  Surrender of license.

    Each license which is suspended or revoked shall be surrendered 
promptly by the licensee to his supervisor. Upon termination of the 
services of a licensee, the license shall be surrendered promptly by the 
licensee to his supervisor.



Sec. 58.36  Identification.

    Each licensee shall have his license card in his possession at all 
times while performing any function under the regulations in this 
subpart and

[[Page 79]]

shall identify himself by such card upon request.



Sec. 58.37  Financial interest of licensees.

    No licensee shall render service on any product in which he is 
financially interested.

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 58.38  Payment of fees and charges.

    (a) Fees and charges for any inspection or grading service shall be 
paid by the interested party, making the application for such service, 
in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and 
Secs. 58.39 through 58.46 and, if so required by the inspector or 
grader, such fees and charges shall be paid in advance.
    (b) Fees and charges for any inspection or grading service performed 
by any inspector or grader who is a salaried employee of the Department 
shall, unless otherwise required pursuant to paragraph (c) of this 
section, be paid by the interested party making application for such 
inspection or grading service by check, draft, or money order payable to 
the Agricultural Marketing Service and remitted promptly to the office 
indicated on the bill.
    (c) Fees and charges for any inspection or grading service under a 
cooperative agreement with any State or person shall be paid in 
accordance with the terms of the cooperative agreement by the interested 
party making application for the service.



Sec. 58.39  Fees for holiday or other nonworktime.

    If an applicant requests that inspection or grading service be 
performed on a holiday, Saturday, or Sunday or in excess of each 8-hour 
shift Monday through Friday, he shall be charged for such service at a 
rate of 1\1/2\ times the rate which would be applicable for such service 
if performed during normal working hours.



Sec. 58.40  Fees for appeal inspection or grading.

    The fees to be charged for any appeal inspection or grading shall be 
double the fees specified on the inspection or grading certificate from 
which the appeal is taken: Provided, That the fee for any appeal grading 
requested by any agency of the U.S. Government shall be the same as set 
forth in the certificate from which the appeal is taken. If the result 
of any appeal inspection or grading discloses that a material error was 
made in the inspection or grading appealed from, no fee shall be 
required.



Sec. 58.41  Fees for additional copies of certificates.

    Additional copies of any inspection or grading certificates 
(including takeoff certificates), other than those provided for in 
Sec. 58.20 may be supplied to any interested party upon payment of a fee 
based on time required to prepare such copies at the hourly rate 
specified in Sec. 58.43.
[54 FR 15167, Apr. 17, 1989]



Sec. 58.42  Travel expenses and other charges.

    Charges shall be made to cover the cost of travel and other expenses 
incurred by AMS in connection with the performance of any inspection or 
grading service.
[53 FR 20278, June 3, 1988]



Sec. 58.43  Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling.

    Except as otherwise provided in Secs. 58.38 through 58.46, charges 
shall be made for inspection, grading, and sampling service at the 
hourly rate of $56.00 for service performed between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 
p.m. and $61.60 for service performed between 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., 
for the time required to perform the service calculated to the nearest 
15-minute period, including the time required for preparation of 
certificates and reports and the travel time of the inspector or grader 
in connection with the performance of the service. A minimum charge of 
one-half hour shall be made for service pursuant to each request or 
certificate issued.
[62 FR 66258, Dec. 18, 1997]

    Effective Date Note:  At 62 FR 66258, Dec. 18, 1997, Sec. 58.43 was 
revised, effective Jan. 4, 1998. For the convenience of the user, the 
superseded text is set forth as follows:

[[Page 80]]

Sec. 58.43  Fees for inspection, grading, and sampling.

    Except as otherwise provided in Secs. 58.38 through 58.46, charges 
shall be made for inspection, grading, and sampling service at the 
hourly rate of $52.00 for service performed between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 
p.m. and $57.20 for service performed between 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., 
for the time required to perform the service calculated to the nearest 
15-minute period, including the time required for preparation of 
certificates and reports and the travel time of the inspector or grader 
in connection with the performance of the service. A minimum charge of 
one-half hour shall be made for service pursuant to each request or 
certificate issued.
[61 FR 68998, Dec. 31, 1996]



Sec. 58.45  Fees for continuous resident services.

    Irrespective of the fees and charges provided in Secs. 58.39 and 
58.43, charges for the inspector(s) and grader(s) assigned to a 
continuous resident program shall be made at the rate of $51.00 per hour 
for services performed during the assigned tour of duty. Charges for 
service performed in excess of the assigned tour of duty shall be made 
at a rate of 1\1/2\ times the rate stated in this section.
[62 FR 66258, Dec. 18, 1997]

    Effective Date Note:  At 62 FR 66258, Dec. 18, 1997, Sec. 58.45 was 
revised, effective Jan. 4, 1998. For the convenience of the user, the 
superseded text is set forth as follows:

Sec. 58.45  Fees for continuous resident services.

    Irrespective of the fees and charges provided in Secs. 58.39 and 
58.43, charges for the inspector(s) and grader(s) assigned to a 
continuous resident program shall be made at the rate of $47.00 per hour 
for services performed during the assigned tour of duty. Charges for 
service performed in excess of the assigned tour of duty shall be made 
at a rate of 1\1/2\ times the rate stated in this section.
[61 FR 68998, Dec. 31, 1996]



Sec. 58.46  Fees for service performed under cooperative agreement.

    The fees to be charged and collected for any service performed under 
cooperative agreement shall be those provided for by such agreement.

               Marking, Branding, and Identifying Product



Sec. 58.49  Authority to use official identification.

    Whenever the Administrator determines that the granting of authority 
to any person to package any product, inspected or graded pursuant to 
this part, and to use official identification, pursuant to Secs. 58.49 
through 58.57, will not be inconsistent with the Act and this part, he 
may authorize such use of official identification. Any application for 
such authority shall be submitted to the Administrator in such form as 
he may require.



Sec. 58.50  Approval and form of official identification.

    (a) Any package label or packaging material which bears any official 
identification shall be used only in such manner as the Administrator 
may prescribe, and such official identification shall be of such form 
and contain such information as the Administrator may require. No label 
or packaging material bearing official identification shall be used 
unless finished copies or samples thereof have been approved by the 
Administrator.
    (b) Inspection or grade mark permitted to be used to officially 
identify packages containing dairy products which are inspected or 
graded pursuant to this part shall be contained in a shield in the form 
and design indicated in Figures 1, 2, and 3 of this section or such 
other form, design, or wording as may be approved by the Administrator.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.014


[[Page 81]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.015

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.016

The official identification illustrated in Figure 1 is designed for use 
on graded product packed under USDA inspection. Figure 2 is designed for 
graded product processed and packed under USDA inspection. Figure 3 is 
designated for inspected product (when U.S. standards for grades are not 
established) processed and packed under USDA quality control service. 
The official identification shall be printed on the package label, on 
the carton or on the wrapper and, preferably, on one of the main panels 
of the carton or wrapper. The shield identification shall be not less 
than \3/4\ inch by \3/4\ inch in size, and preferably 1 inch by 1 inch 
on 1-pound cartons or wrappers. Consideration will be given by the 
Administrator of a smaller shield on special packages where the size of 
the label does not permit use of the \3/4\ inch by \3/4\ inch shield.
    (c) Official identification under this subpart shall be limited to 
U.S. Grade B or higher or to an equivalent standard of quality for U.S. 
name grades or numerical score grades when U.S. standards for grades of 
a product have not been established.
    (d) A sketch, proof, or photocopy of each proposed label or 
packaging material bearing official identification shall be submitted to 
the Chief of the Dairy Inspection Branch, Poultry and Dairy Quality 
Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, for review and tentative approval 
prior to acquisition of a supply of material.
    (e) The firm packaging the product shall furnish to the Chief four 
copies of the printed labels and packaging materials bearing official 
identification for final approval prior to use.

(60 Stat. 1087, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.; 84 Stat. 1620, 21 U.S.C. 1031 et 
seq.)
[37 FR 22363, Oct. 19, 1972, as amended at 39 FR 987, Jan. 4, 1974. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and amended at 43 FR 60138, 
Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 58.51  Information required on official identification.

    Each official identification shall conspicuously indicate the U.S. 
grade of the product it identifies, if there be a grade, or such other 
appropriate terminology as may be approved by the Administrator. Also, 
it shall include the appropriate phrase: ``Officially graded,'' 
``Officially Inspected,'' or ``Federal-State graded.'' When required by 
the Administrator, the package label, carton, or wrapper bearing 
official identification for dairy products shall be stamped or 
perforated with the date packed and the certificate number or a code 
number to indicate lot and date packed. Such coding shall be made 
available to and approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 58.52  Time limit for packaging inspected or graded products with official identification.

    Any lot of butter which is graded for packaging with official grade 
identification shall be packaged within 10 days immediately following 
the date of grading, and any lot of natural cheese or dry milk shall be 
packaged within 30 days immediately following date of grading provided 
the product is properly stored during the 10- or 30-day period. Time 
limit for packaging other inspected or graded products shall be as 
approved by the Administrator. If inspected or graded product is moved 
to another location, a reinspection or regrading shall be required.

[[Page 82]]

    Prerequisites to Packaging Products With Official Identification



Sec. 58.53  Supervisor of packaging required.

    The official identification of any inspected or graded product, as 
provided in Secs. 58.50 through 58.52, this section, and Secs. 58.54 
through 58.57, shall be done only under the supervision of a supervisor 
of packaging. The authority to use official identification may be 
granted by the Administrator only to applicants who utilize the services 
of a supervisor of packaging in accordance with this subpart. The 
supervisor of packaging shall have jurisdiction over the use and 
handling of all packaging material bearing any official identification.



Sec. 58.54  Packing and packaging room and equipment.

    Each applicant who is granted authority to package any product with 
official identification and who operates, for such purpose, a packaging 
room shall maintain the room and the equipment therein in accordance 
with this part.



Sec. 58.55  Facilities for keeping quality samples.

    Each applicant granted authority, as aforesaid, to package product 
with official identification shall provide and maintain suitable 
equipment for the purpose of incubating samples of product.



Sec. 58.56  Incubation of product samples.

    (a) Samples of product may be taken from any lot of product which is 
submitted for inspection or grading and packaging with official 
identification, or sample may be taken after packaging for the purpose 
of determining in accordance with provisions of this part if such 
product possesses satisfactory keeping quality.
    (b) Samples of product may be taken for keeping quality tests in 
accordance with provisions of this part from any lot of product 
submitted for inspection or grading. Issuance of the inspection or 
grading certificate may be withheld pending completion of the tests.



Sec. 58.57  Product not eligible for packaging with official identification.

    (a) When a lot of inspected or graded product shows unsatisfactory 
keeping quality, other lots from the same manufacturing plant shall not 
be packaged with official identification. Packaging with official 
identification may be resumed only when it is determined that product 
from such plant possesses satisfactory keeping quality.
    (b) Any manufacturing or processing plant supplying product, 
directly or indirectly, for packaging with official identification shall 
be surveyed and approved for inspection or grading service.

                               Violations



Sec. 58.58  Debarment of service.

    (a) The following acts or practices, or the causing thereof, may be 
deemed sufficient cause for the debarment, by the Administrator, of any 
person, including any agents, officers, subsidiaries, or affiliates of 
such person, from any or all benefits of the Act for a specified period. 
The rules of practice governing withdrawal of inspection and grading 
services in formal adjudicatory proceedings instituted by the Secretary 
(7 CFR, part 1, subpart H) shall be applicable to such debarment action.
    (1) Fraud or misrepresentation. Any willful misrepresentation or 
deceptive or fraudulent practice or act found to be made or committed by 
any person in connection with:
    (i) The making or filing of any application for any inspection or 
grading service, appeal reinspection, or regrading service;
    (ii) The making of the product accessible for inspection or grading 
service;
    (iii) The making, issuing, or using or attempting to issue or use 
any inspection or grading certificate issued pursuant to the regulations 
in this subpart or the use of any official stamp, label, or 
identification;
    (iv) The use of the terms ``United States,'' ``U.S.,'' ``Officially 
graded,'' ``Officially Inspected,'' ``Federal-State graded,'' or 
``Government graded,'' or terms of similar import in the labeling or 
advertising of any product without

[[Page 83]]

stating in conjunction therewith the official U.S. grade of the product; 
or
    (v) The use of any of the aforesaid terms or an official stamp, 
label, or identification in the labeling or advertising of any product 
that has not been inspected or graded pursuant to this part.
    (2) Use of facsimile form. Using or attempting to use a form which 
simulates in whole or in part any official identification for the 
purpose of purporting to evidence the U.S. grade of any product; or the 
unauthorized use of a facsimile form which simulates in whole or in part 
any official inspection or grading certificate, stamp, label, or other 
official inspection mark; and
    (3) Mislabeling. The use of any words, numerals, letters, or 
facsimile form which simulates in whole or in part any identification 
purporting to be a grade when such product does not comply with any 
recognized standards in general use for such grade, and such activity 
may be deemed sufficient cause for debarring such person from any or all 
benefits of the Act.
    (4) Willful violation of the regulations in this subpart. Willful 
violation of the provisions in this part or the Act, or the instructions 
or specifications issued thereunder.
    (5) Interfering with an inspector or grader. Any interference with 
or obstruction or any attempted interference or obstruction of any 
inspector or grader in the performance of his duties by intimidation, 
threat, bribery, assault, or other improper means.
    (b) [Reserved].

(60 Stat. 1087, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.; 84 Stat. 1620, 21 U.S.C. 1031 et 
seq.)
[37 FR 22363, Oct. 19, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]

                              Miscellaneous



Sec. 58.61  Political activity.

    All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their 
respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political 
management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, 
county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in 
behalf of any party or candidate, or any measure to be voted upon, is 
prohibited. This applies to all appointees, including, but not being 
limited to, temporary and cooperative employees and employees on leave 
of absence with or without pay. Willful violation of this section will 
constitute grounds for dismissal in the case of appointees and 
revocation of licenses in the case of licensees.



Sec. 58.62  Report of violations.

    Each inspector, grader, and supervisor of packaging shall report, in 
the manner prescribed by the Administrator, all violations and 
noncompliances under the Act and this part of which such inspector, 
grader, or supervisor of packaging has knowledge.



Sec. 58.63  Other applicable regulations.

    Compliance with the provisions in this part shall not excuse failure 
to comply with any other Federal, or any State, or municipal applicable 
laws or regulations.



Sec. 58.64  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    The following control number has been assigned to the information 
collection requirements in 7 CFR part 58, subpart A, by the Office of 
Management and Budget pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, 
Pub. L. 96-511.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Current OMB
       7 CFR section where requirements are described        control No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
58.8(a)(b).................................................    0581-0126
58.9.......................................................    0581-0126
58.14......................................................    0581-0126
58.23......................................................    0581-0126
58.30......................................................    0581-0126
58.33......................................................    0581-0126
58.49......................................................    0581-0126
58.50(d)(e)................................................    0581-0126
58.51......................................................    0581-0126
58.122(b)..................................................    0581-0126
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[49 FR 6881, Feb. 24, 1984]

[[Page 84]]



  Subpart B--General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA 
                  Inspection and Grading Service1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    1 Compliance with these standards does not excuse failure to 
comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 
Environmental Protection Act, or applicable laws and regulations of any 
State or Municipality.

    Source:  40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.100  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    The following control number has been assigned to the information 
collection requirements in 7 CFR part 58, subpart B, by the Office of 
Management and Budget pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, 
Pub. L. 96-511.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Current OMB
       7 CFR section where requirements are described        control No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
58.139.....................................................    0581-0110
58.148.....................................................    0581-0110
58.441.....................................................    0581-0110
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[49 FR 6881, Feb. 24, 1984; as amended at 61 FR 67448, Dec. 23, 1996]



Sec. 58.101  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations of this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Act. The applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Act 
of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087, as amended; (7 U.S.C. 1621-1627)), or any other 
Act of Congress conferring like authority.
    (b) Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service or any other officer or employee of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service of the Department to whom there has heretofore been delegated, 
or to whom there may hereafter be delegated the authority to act in his 
stead.
    (c) Approved laboratory. A laboratory in which the facilities and 
equipment used for official testing have been approved by the 
Administrator as being adequate to perform the necessary official tests 
in accordance with this part, and operates under a USDA surveillance 
program as set forth by the Administrator.
    (d) Approved plant. One or more adjacent buildings, or parts 
thereof, comprising a single plant at one location in which the 
facilities and methods of operation therein have been surveyed and 
approved by the Administrator as suitable and adequate for inspection or 
grading service in accordance with the following:
    (1) Shall satisfactorily meet the specifications of this subpart as 
determined by the Administrator.
    (2) Receive dairy products only from plants, transfer stations, 
receiving stations and cream buying stations which satisfactorily comply 
with the applicable requirements of this subpart as determined by the 
Administrator. (Occasional shipments may be received from nonapproved 
plants provided the product is tested and meets the quality requirements 
for No. 2 milk.)
    (e) Sanitizing treatment. Subjection of a clean product contact 
surface to steam, hot water, hot air, or an acceptable sanitizing 
solution of sufficient strength, and for a duration of time to 
effectively destroy microorganisms. Sanitizing solutions shall comply 
with 21 CFR 121.2547.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    \2\ Section 121.2547 of title 21 was redesignated as Sec. 178.1010 
at 42 FR 14305, Mar. 15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (f) Resident service. Inspection or grading service performed at a 
dairy manufacturing plant or grading station by an inspector or grader 
assigned to the plant or station on a continuous basis.
    (g) Dairy products. Butter, cheese (whether natural or processed), 
skim milk, cream, whey or buttermilk (whether dry, evaporated, 
stabilized or condensed), frozen desserts and any other food product 
which is prepared or manufactured in whole or in part from any of the 
aforesaid products, as the Administrator may hereafter designate.

[[Page 85]]

    (h) Grader. Any employee of the Department authorized by the 
Administrator or any other person to whom a license has been issued by 
the Administrator to investigate and certify, in accordance with the Act 
and this part, to shippers of products and other interested parties, the 
class, quality, quantity, and condition of such products.
    (i) Inspector. Any employee of the Department authorized by the 
Administrator or any other person to whom a license has been issued by 
the Administrator to inspect and certify quality, quantity and condition 
of products, observe the manufacturing, processing, packaging and 
handling of dairy products, and to perform dairy plant surveys in 
accordance with the regulations of this part.
    (j) Inspection or grading service. Means in accordance with this 
part, the act of (1) drawing samples of any product; (2) determining the 
class, grade, quality, composition, size, quantity, condition, or 
wholesomeness of any product by examining each unit or representative 
samples; (3) determining condition of product containers; (4) 
identifying any product or packaging material by means of official 
identification; (5) regrading or appeal grading of a previously graded 
product; (6) inspecting dairy plant facilities, equipment, and 
operations; such as, processing, manufacturing, packaging, repackaging, 
and quality control; (7) supervision of packaging inspected or graded 
product; (8) reinspection or appeal inspection; and (9) issuing an 
inspection or grading certificate or sampling, inspection, or other 
report related to any of the foregoing.
    (k) Milk. The term milk shall include the following:
    (1) Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, 
obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows. The cows 
shall be located in a Modified Accredited Area, an Accredited Free 
State, or an Accredited Free Herd for tuberculosis as determined by the 
Department. In addition, the cows shall be located in States meeting 
Class B status or Certified-Free Herds or shall be involved in a milk 
ring testing program or blood testing program under the current USDA 
Brucellosis Eradication Uniform Methods and Rules.
    (2) Goat milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from 
colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy 
goats. The goats shall be located in States meeting the current USDA 
Uniform Methods and Rules for Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication or an 
Accredited Free Goat Herd. Goat milk shall only be used to manufacture 
dairy products that are legally provided for in 21 CFR or recognized as 
non-standardized traditional products normally manufactured from goats 
milk.
    (l) Official identification. Official identification is provided for 
use on product packed under USDA inspection. Any package label or 
packaging material which bears any official identification shall be used 
only in such manner as the Administrator may prescribe, and such 
official identification shall be of such form and contain such 
information as the Administrator may require.
    (m) Official methods. Official Methods of Analysis of the 
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, a publication of the 
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Box 540, Benjamin Franklin 
Station, Washington, DC 20044.
    (n) Pasteurization (Pasteurized). Pasteurization shall mean that 
every particle of product shall have been heated in properly operated 
equipment to one of the temperatures specified in the table and held 
continuously at or above that temperature for at least the specified 
time (or other time/temperature relationship equivalent thereto in 
microbial destruction):

                             Fluid Products                             
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Temperature                              Time            
------------------------------------------------------------------------
145  deg.F (vat pasteurization)..........  30 minutes.                  
161  deg.F (high temperature short time    15 seconds.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       
191  deg.F (higher heat shorter time       1.0 second.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       
194  deg.F (higher heat shorter time       0.5 second.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       
201  deg.F (higher heat shorter time       0.1 second.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       
204  deg.F (higher heat shorter time       .05 second.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       
212  deg.F (higher heat shorter time       .01 second.                  
 pasteurization).                                                       

[[Page 86]]

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------


  Products Having Dairy Ingredients With a Fat Content of 10 Percent or 
                    More, or Contain Added Sweeteners                   
                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
150  deg.F...............................  30 minutes.                  
166  deg.F...............................  15 seconds.                  
                                                                        


                           Frozen Dessert Mix                           
                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
155  deg.F...............................  30 minutes.                  
175  deg.F...............................  25 seconds.                  
                                                                        


                   Condensed Milk To Be Repasteurized                   
                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
166  deg.F...............................  15 seconds.                  
                                                                        

    (o) Plant survey. An appraisal of a plant to determine the extent to 
which facilities, equipment, method of operation, and raw material being 
received are in accordance with the provisions of this part. The survey 
shall be used to determine suitability of the plant for USDA inspection 
or grading service.
    (p) Plant status. The extent to which a plant complies with this 
subpart shall be determined under procedures as set forth by the 
Administrator.
    (q) Producer. The person or persons who exercise control over the 
production of the milk delivered to a processing plant or receiving 
station and who receive payment for this product.
    (r) Quality control. The inspection of the quality of the raw 
material and the conditions relative to the preparation of the product 
from its raw state through each step in the entire process. It includes 
the inspection of conditions under which the product is prepared, 
processed, manufactured, packed and stored. In addition, assistance and 
guidance is offered to improve the raw milk quality, processing methods, 
quality, stability, and packaging and handling of the finished product.
    (s) Regulations. The term ``regulations'' means the provisions 
contained in this part.
    (t) Shall. Expresses a provision that is mandatory.
    (u) Should. Expresses recommended nonmandatory provisions which when 
followed would significantly aid in a quality improvement program.
    (v) Standard methods. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy 
Products, a publication of the American Public Health Association, 1790 
Broadway, New York, New York.
    (w) 3-A Sanitary Standards and Accepted Practice. The latest 
standards for dairy equipment and accepted practices formulated by the 
3-A Sanitary Standards Committees representing the International 
Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, the Food and 
Drug Administration and the Dairy Industry Committee. Published by the 
International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, 
Box 701, Ames, Iowa.
    (x) USDA or Department. Means the United States Department of 
Agriculture.
    (y) Receiving Station. Any place, premise, or establishment where 
milk or dairy products are received, collected or handled for transfer 
to a processing or manufacturing plant.
    (z) Transfer station. Any place, premise, or establishment where 
milk or dairy products are transferred directly from one transport tank 
to another.
    (aa) Corrosion-resistant. Those materials that maintain their 
original surface characteristics under prolonged influence of the 
product to be contacted, cleaning compounds and sanitizing solutions, 
and other conditions of the environment in which used.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 50 FR 34672, Aug. 27, 
1985; 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993; 59 FR 24321, May 10, 1994; 59 FR 50121, 
Sep. 30, 1994]

                                 Purpose



Sec. 58.122  Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    (a) Adoption of certain sound practices at dairy plants will 
significantly aid the operators to manufacture more consistently, 
uniform high-quality stable dairy products. Only dairy products 
manufactured, processed and packaged in an approved plant may be graded 
or inspected and identified with official identification. The 
specifications established herein provide the basis for a quality 
maintenance program which may be effectively carried forward through 
official inspection, grading, and quality control service.
    (b) USDA inspection and grading service is provided to dairy product 
manufacturing plants on a voluntary basis. The operator of any dairy 
plant desiring to have such a plant qualified

[[Page 87]]

as an approved plant under USDA inspection and grading service may 
request surveys of such plant, premises, equipment, facilities, methods 
of operation, and raw material to determine whether they are adequate to 
permit inspection and grading service. The cost of this survey shall be 
borne by the applicant.

                             Approved Plants



Sec. 58.123  Survey and approval.

    Prior to the approval of a plant, a designated representative of the 
Administrator shall make a survey of the plant, premises, storage 
facilities, equipment and raw material, volume of raw material processed 
daily, and facilities for handling the products at the plant. The survey 
shall be made at least twice a year to determine whether the facilities, 
equipment, method of operation, and raw material being received are 
adequate and suitable for USDA inspection and grading service in 
accordance with the provisions of this part. To be eligible for approval 
a plant shall satisfactorily meet the specifications of this subpart as 
determined by the Administrator.



Sec. 58.124  Denial or suspension of plant approval.

    Plant approval may be denied or suspended if a determination is made 
by a designated representative of the Administrator that the plant is 
not performing satisfactorily in regard to; (a) the classification of 
milk, (b) proper segregation and disposal of unwholesome raw materials 
or finished product, (c) adequate facilities and condition of processing 
equipment, (d) sanitary conditions of plant and equipment, (e) control 
of insects, rodents and other vermin, (f) use of non-toxic product 
contact surfaces and prevention of adulteration of raw materials and 
products with chemicals or other foreign material, (g) proper operating 
procedures, (h) the maintenance of legal composition of finished 
products, (i) the manufacture of stable dairy products, of desirable 
keeping quality characteristics, (j) proper storage conditions for 
ingrpackaging methods and material.

         Premises, Buildings, Facilities, Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.125  Premises.

    (a) The premises shall be kept in a clean and orderly condition, and 
shall be free from strong or foul odors, smoke, or excessive air 
pollution. Construction and maintenance of driveways and adjacent plant 
traffic areas should be of cement, asphalt, or similar material to keep 
dust and mud to a minimum.
    (b) Surroundings. The immediate surroundings shall be free from 
refuse, rubbish, overgrown vegetation, and waste materials to prevent 
harborage of rodents, insects and other vermin.
    (c) Drainage. A suitable drainage system shall be provided which 
will allow rapid drainage of all water from plant buildings and 
driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises, 
and all such water shall be disposed of in such a manner as to prevent 
an environmental or health hazard.



Sec. 58.126  Buildings.

    The building or buildings shall be of sound construction and shall 
be kept in good repair to prevent the entrance or harboring of rodents, 
birds, insects, vermin, dogs, and cats. All service pipe openings 
through outside walls shall be effectively sealed around the opening or 
provided with tight metal collars.
    (a) Outside doors, windows, openings, etc. All openings to the outer 
air including doors, windows, skylights and transoms shall be 
effectively protected or screened against the entrance of flies and 
other insects, rodents, birds, dust and dirt. All outside doors opening 
into processing rooms shall be in good condition and fit propperly. All 
hinged, outside screen doors shall open outward. All doors and windows 
should be kept clean and in good repair. Outside conveyor openings and 
other special-type outside openings shall be effectively protected to 
prevent the entrance of flies and rodents, by the use of doors, screens, 
flaps, fans or tunnels. Outside openings for sanitary pipelines shall be 
covered when not in use. On new construction window sills should be 
slanted downward at approximately a 45 deg. angle.

[[Page 88]]

    (b) Walls, ceilings, partitions and posts. The walls, ceilings, 
partitions, and posts of rooms in which milk, or dairy products are 
processed, manufactured, handled, packaged or stored (except dry storage 
of packaged finished products and supplies) or in which utensils are 
washed and stored, shall be smoothly finished with a suitable material 
of light color, which is substantially impervious to moisture and kept 
clean. They shall be refinished as often as necessary to maintain a 
neat, clean surface. For easier cleaning new construction should have 
rounded cove at the juncture of the wall and floor in all receiving, 
pasteurizing, manufacturing, packaging and storage rooms.
    (c) Floors. The floors of all rooms in which milk, or dairy products 
are processed, manufactured, packaged or stored or in which utensils are 
washed shall be constructed of tile properly laid with impervious joint 
material, concrete, or other equally impervious material. The floors 
shall be smooth, kept in good repair, graded so that there will be no 
pools of standing water or milk products after flushing, and all 
openings to the drains shall be equipped with traps properly constructed 
and kept in good repair. On new construction, bell and standpipe type 
traps shall not be used. The plumbing shall be so installed as to 
prevent the back-up of sewage into the drain lines and to the floor of 
the plant. Cold storage rooms used for storage of product and starter 
rooms need not be provided with floor drains if the floor is sloped to 
drain to an exit.

Sound, smooth, wood floors which can be kept clean, may be used in rooms 
where new containers and supplies and certain packaged finished products 
are stored.
    (d) Lighting and ventilation. (1) Light shall be ample, natural or 
artificial, or both, of good quality and well distributed. All rooms in 
which dairy products are manufactured or packaged or where utensils are 
washed shall have at least 30 foot-candles of light intensity on all 
working surfaces. Rooms where dairy products are graded or examined for 
condition and quality shall have at least 50 foot-candles of light 
intensity on the working surface. Restrooms and locker rooms should have 
at least 30 foot-candles of light intensity. In all other rooms there 
shall be provided at least 5 foot-candles of light intensity when 
measured at a distance of 30 inches from the floor. Where contamination 
of product by broken glass is possible, light bulbs and fluorescent 
tubes shall be protected against breakage.
    (2) There shall be adequate heating, ventilation or air conditioning 
for all rooms and compartments to permit maintenance of sanitary 
conditions. Exhaust or inlet fans, vents, hoods or temperature and 
humidity control equipment shall be provided where and when needed, to 
minimize or control room temperatures, eliminate objectionable odors, 
and aid in prevention of moisture condensation and mold. Inlet fans 
should be provided with an adequate air filtering device to eliminate 
dirt and dust from the incoming air. Ventilation systems shall be 
cleaned periodically as needed and maintained in good repair. Exhaust 
outlets shall be screened or provided with self closing louvers to 
prevent the entrance of insects when not in use.
    (e) Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments in which any raw 
material, packaging, ingredient supplies or dairy products are handled, 
manufactured, packaged or stored shall be so designed, constructed and 
maintained as to assure desirable room temperatures and clean and 
orderly operating conditions free from objectionable odors and vapors. 
Enclosed bulk milk receiving rooms, when present, shall be separated 
from the processing rooms by a wall. Rooms for receiving can milk shall 
be separated from the processing rooms by a partition or by suitable 
arrangement of equipment. Processing rooms shall be kept free from 
equipment and materials not regularly used.
    (1) Coolers and freezers. Coolers and freezers where dairy products 
are stored shall be clean, reasonably dry and maintained at the proper 
uniform temperature and humidity to adequately protect the product, and 
minimize the growth of mold. Adequate circulation of air shall be 
maintained at all times. They shall be free from rodents, insects, and 
pests. Shelves shall be kept clean and dry. Refrigeration

[[Page 89]]

units shall have provisions for collecting and disposing of condensate.
    (2) Supply room. The supply rooms or areas used for the storing of 
packaging materials; containers, and miscellaneous ingredients shall be 
kept clean, dry, orderly, free from insects, rodents, and mold, and 
maintained in good repair. Such items stored therein shall be adequately 
protected from dust, dirt, or other extraneous material and so arranged 
on racks, shelves or pallets to permit access to the supplies and 
cleaning and inspection of the room. Insecticides, rodenticides, 
cleaning compounds and other nonfood products shall be properly labeled 
and segregated, and stored in a separate room or cabinet away from milk, 
dairy products, ingredients or packaging supplies.
    (3) Boiler rooms, shop rooms and shop areas. The boiler, and shop 
rooms shall be separated from other rooms where milk, and dairy products 
are processed, manufactured, packaged, handled or stored. Shop rooms or 
areas should be kept orderly and reasonably free from dust and dirt.
    (4) Toilet and dressing rooms. Adequate toilet and dressing room 
facilities shall be conveniently located.
    (i) Toilet rooms shall not open directly into any room in which milk 
or dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged or stored; doors 
shall be self-closing; ventilation shall be provided by mechanical means 
to the outer air; fixtures shall be kept clean and in good repair.
    (ii) All employees shall be furnished with a locker or other 
suitable facility and the lockers and dressing rooms shall be kept clean 
and orderly. Adequate handwashing facilities shall be provided. Legible 
signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet or dressing room 
directing employees to wash their hands before returning to work.
    (5) Laboratory. (i) Consistent with the size and type of plant and 
the volume of dairy products manufactured, an adequately equipped 
laboratory shall be maintained and properly staffed with qualified and 
trained personnel for quality control and analytical testing. The 
laboratory should be located reasonably close to the processing activity 
and be of sufficient size to perform tests necessary in evaluating the 
quality of raw and finished products.
    (ii) Approved laboratories shall be supervised by the USDA resident 
inspector in all aspects of official testing and reporting results. 
Plant laboratory personnel in such plants may be licensed by the USDA to 
perform official duties. The AMS Science Division will provide 
independent auditing of laboratory analysis functions.
    (iii) An approved central control laboratory serving more than one 
plant may be acceptable, if conveniently located to the dairy plants, 
and if samples and results can be transmitted without undue delay.
    (6) Starter facilities. Adequate facilities shall be provided for 
the handling of starter cultures. The facilities shall not be located 
near areas where contamination is likely to occur.
    (7) Grading and inspection room. When grading or inspection of 
product is performed the plants shall furnish a room or designated area 
specifically for this purpose. The room or area shall be suitably 
located, sufficient in size, well lighted (see Sec. 58.126d), ventilated 
and the temperature shall be not less than 60  deg.F. It shall be kept 
clean and dry, free from foreign odors and reasonably free from 
disturbing elements which would interfere with proper concentration by 
the grader or inspector. The grading or inspection room or area shall be 
equipped with a table or desk and convenient facilities for washing 
hands.
    (8) Resident inspector's facilities. In resident plants, an office 
or space shall be provided for official purposes. The room or space 
should be conveniently located in or near the approved laboratory, 
adequate in size, and equipped with desk and a lockable storage supply 
cabinet, and clothes locker. It shall be well lighted, ventilated or air 
conditioned, and heated. Custodial service shall be furnished on a 
regular basis.
    (9) Lunch rooms and eating areas. When these areas are provided, 
they (i) shall be kept clean and orderly, (ii) should not open directly 
into any room in which milk or dairy products are processed, 
manufactured or packaged, and (iii) signs shall be posted directing

[[Page 90]]

employees to wash their hands before returning to work.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 
1993; 59 FR 24321, May 10, 1994; 59 FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994]



Sec. 58.127  Facilities.

    (a) Water supply. There shall be an ample supply of both hot and 
cold water of safe and sanitary quality, with adequate facilities for 
its proper distribution throughout the plant, and protected against 
contamination. Water from other facilities, when officially approved, 
may be used for boiler feed water and condenser water provided that such 
water lines are completely separated from the water lines carrying the 
sanitary water supply, and the equipment is so constructed and 
controlled as to preclude contamination of product contact surfaces. 
There shall be no cross connection between potable water lines and non-
potable water lines or between public and private water supplies. 
Bacteriological examinations shall be made of the plant's sanitary water 
supply taken at the plant at least twice a year, or as often as 
necessary to determine safety and suitability as related to product 
keeping quality for use in manufactured products shall be made by a USDA 
or State agency laboratory except for supplies that are regularly tested 
for purity and bacteriological quality, and approved by the local health 
officer. The results of all water tests shall be kept on file at the 
plant for which the test was performed.

The location, construction, and operation of any well shall comply with 
regulations of the appropriate agency.
    (b) Drinking-water facilities. Drinking-water facilities of a 
sanitary type shall be provided in the plant and should be conveniently 
located.
    (c) Hand-washing facilities. Convenient hand-washing facilities 
shall be provided, including hot and cold running water, soap or other 
detergents, and sanitary single service towels or air driers. Such 
accommodations shall be located in or adjacent to toilet and dressing 
rooms and also at such other places in the plant as may be essential to 
the cleanliness of all personnel handling products. Vats for washing 
equipment or utensils shall not be used as hand-washing facilities. 
Containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes. The 
containers may be metal or plastic, disposable or reuseable and should 
have self-closing covers.
    (d) Steam. Steam shall be supplied in sufficient volume and pressure 
for satisfactory operation of each applicable piece of equipment. 
Culinary steam used in direct contact with milk or dairy products shall 
be free from harmful substances or extraneous material and only those 
boiler water additives which meet the requirements of 21 CFR 121.1088 
shall be used, or a secondary steam generator shall be used in which 
soft water is converted to steam and no boiler compounds are used. Steam 
traps, strainers and condensate traps shall be used wherever applicable 
to insure a satisfactory and safe steam supply. Culinary steam shall 
comply with the recommended practices for ``Producing Culinary Steam for 
Processing Milk and Milk Products'' as published by the National 
Association of Food and Dairy Equipment Manufacturers, Washington, DC, 
April 1963 or latest revision thereof.
    (e) Air under pressure. The method for supplying air under pressure, 
which comes in contact with milk or dairy products or any product 
contact surface shall comply with the 3-A Accepted Practices for 
Supplying Air Under Pressure.
    (f) Disposal of wastes. Dairy wastes shall be properly disposed of 
from the plant and premises consistent with requirements imposed by the 
Environmental Protection Act. The sewer system shall have sufficient 
slope and capacity to readily remove all waste from the various 
processing operations. Where a public sewer is not available, all wastes 
shall be properly disposed of so as not to contaminate milk equipment or 
to create a nuisance or public health hazard. Containers used for the 
collection and holding of wastes shall be constructed of metal, plastic, 
or other equally impervious material and kept covered with tight fitting 
lids. Waste shall be stored in an area or room in a manner to protect it 
from flies and vermin. Solid wastes shall be

[[Page 91]]

disposed of regularly and the containers cleaned before reuse. 
Accumulation of dry waste paper and cardboard shall be kept to a minimum 
and disposed of in a manner that is environmentally acceptable.



Sec. 58.128  Equipment and utensils.

    (a) General construction, repair and installation. The equipment and 
utensils used for the processing of milk and manufacture of dairy 
products shall be constructed to be readily demountable where necessary 
for cleaning and sanitizing. The product contact surfaces of all 
utensils and equipment such as holding tanks, pasteurizers, coolers, 
vats, agitators, pumps, sanitary piping and fittings or any specialized 
equipment shall be constructed of stainless steel, or other materials 
which under conditions of intended use are as equally corrosion 
resistant. Non-metallic parts other than glass having product contact 
surfaces shall comply with 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic or Rubber 
and Rubber-Like Materials. Equipment and utensils used for cleaning 
shall be in an acceptable condition, such as not rusty, pitted or 
corroded. All equipment and piping shall be designed and installed so as 
to be easily accessible for cleaning, and shall be kept in good repair, 
free from cracks and corroded surfaces. New or rearranged equipment, 
shall be set away from any wall or spaced in such a manner as to 
facilitate proper cleaning and to maintain good housekeeping. All parts 
or interior surfaces of equipment, pipes (except certain piping cleaned-
in-place) or fittings, including valves and connections shall be 
accessible for inspection. Milk and dairy product pumps shall be of a 
sanitary type and easily dismantled for cleaning or shall be of 
specially approved construction to allow effective cleaning in place.


All C.I.P. systems shall comply with the 3-A Accepted Practices for 
Permanently Installed Sanitary Product, Pipelines and Cleaning Systems.
    (b) Weigh cans and receiving tanks. Weigh cans and receiving tanks 
shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Weigh Cans and 
Receiving Tanks for Raw Milk and shall be easily accessible for cleaning 
both inside and outside and shall be elevated above the floor and 
protected sufficiently with the necessary covers or baffles to prevent 
contamination from splash, condensate and drippage. Where necessary to 
provide easy access for cleaning of floors and adjacent wall areas, the 
receiving tank shall be equipped with wheels or casters to allow easy 
removal.
    (c) Can washers. Can washers shall have sufficient capacity and 
ability to discharge a clean dry can and cover and shall be kept 
properly timed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. 
They should be equipped with proper temperature controls on the wash and 
rinse tanks and the following additional devices: Prerinse jet, wash 
tank solution feeder, can sanitizing attachment, forced air vapor 
exhaust, and removable air filter on drying chamber. The water and steam 
lines supplying the washer shall maintain a reasonably uniform pressure 
and if necessary be equipped with pressure regulating valves. The steam 
pressure to the can washer should be not less than 80 pounds, and the 
temperature of the wash and final rinse solution should be automatically 
controlled and not exceed 140  deg.F.
    (d) Product storage tanks or vats. Storage tanks or vats shall be 
fully enclosed or tightly covered and well insulated. The entire 
interior surface, agitator and all appurtenances shall be accessible for 
thorough cleaning and inspection. Any opening at the top of the tank or 
vat including the entrance of the shaft shall be suitably protected 
against the entrance of dust, moisture, insects, oil or grease. The 
sight glasses, if used, shall be sound, clear, and in good repair. Vats 
which have hinged covers shall be easily cleaned and shall be so 
designed that moisture, or dust on the surface cannot enter the vat when 
the covers are raised. If the storage tanks or vats are equipped with 
air agitation, the system shall be of an approved type and properly 
installed in accordance with the 3-A Accepted Practices for Supplying 
Air Under Pressure. Storage tanks or vats intended to hold product for 
longer than approximately 8 hours shall be equipped with adequate 
refrigeration and/or have adequate insulation. New or replacement 
storage tanks or vats

[[Page 92]]

shall comply with the appropriate 3-A Sanitary Standards for Storage 
Tanks for Milk and Milk Products or Sanitary Standards for Silo-Type 
Storage Tanks for Milk and Milk Products and shall be equipped with 
thermometers in good operating order.
    (e) Separators. All product contact surfaces of separators shall be 
free from rust and pits and insofar as practicable shall be of stainless 
steel or other equally noncorrosive metals.
    (f) Coil or dome type batch pasteurizers. Coil or dome type batch 
pasteurizers shall be stainless steel lined and if the coil is not 
stainless steel or other equally noncorrosive metal it shall be properly 
tinned over the entire surface. Sanitary seal assemblies at the shaft 
ends of coil vats shall be of the removable type, except that existing 
equipment not provided with this type gland will be acceptable if the 
packing glands are maintained and operated without adverse effects. New 
or replacement units shall be provided with removable packing glands. 
Dome type pasteurizer agitators shall be stainless steel except that any 
non-metallic parts shall comply with 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic 
or Rubber and Rubberlike Materials, as applicable. Each pasteurizer used 
for heating product at a temperature of 5  deg.F. or more above the 
minimum pasteurization temperature need not have the airspace heater. It 
shall be equipped with an airspace thermometer to insure a temperature 
at least 5  deg.F. above that required for pasteurization of the 
product. There shall be adequate means of controlling the temperature of 
the heating medium, Batch pasteurizers shall have temperature indicating 
and recording devices.
    (g) Short time pasteurizing systems. When pasteurization is intended 
or required, an approved timing pump or device, recorder-controller, 
automatic flow diversion valve and holding tube or its equivalent, if 
not a part of the existing equipment, shall be installed on all such 
equipment used for pasteurization, to assure complete pasteurization. 
The entire facility shall comply with the 3-A Accepted Practices for the 
Sanitary Construction, Installation, Testing and Operation of High 
Temperature Short Time Pasteurizers. After the unit has been tested 
according to the 3-A Accepted Practices, the timing pump or device and 
the recorder controller shall be sealed at the correct setting to assure 
pasteurization. The system should be rechecked semi-annually to assure 
continued compliance with the 3-A Accepted Practices. Sealing and 
rechecking of the unit shall be performed by the control authority 
having jurisdiction. When direct steam pasteurizers are used, the steam, 
prior to entering the product, shall be conducted through a steam 
strainer and a steam purifier equipped with a steam trap and only steam 
meeting the requirements for culinary steam shall be used.
    (h) Thermometers and recorders--(1) Indicating thermometers. (i) 
Long stem indicating thermometers which are accurate within 0.5  deg.F., 
plus or minus, for the applicable temperature range, shall be provided 
for checking the temperature of pasteurization and cooling of products 
in vats and checking the accuracy of recording thermometers.
    (ii) Short stem indicating thermometers, which are accurate within 
0.5  deg.F., plus or minus, for the applicable temperature range, shall 
be installed in the proper stationary position in all pasteurizers. 
Storage tanks where temperature readings are required shall have 
thermometers which are accurate within 2.0  deg.F., plus or minus.
    (iii) Air space indicating thermometers, where applicable, which are 
accurate within 1.0  deg.F., plus or minus, for the proper temperature 
range shall also be installed above the surface of the products 
pasteurized in vats, to make certain that the temperature of the foam 
and/or air above the products pasteurized also received the required 
minimum temperature treatment.
    (2) Recording thermometers. (i) Recording thermometers that are 
accurate within 1  deg.F., plus or minus, for the applicable temperature 
range, shall be used on each heat treating, pasteurizing or thermal 
processing unit to record the heating process.
    (ii) Additional use of recording thermometers accurate within 2 
deg.F., plus or minus may be required where a record of temperature or 
time of cooling and holding is of significant importance.
    (iii) Recorder charts shall be marked to show date and plant 
identification,

[[Page 93]]

reading of the indicating thermometer at a particular referenced reading 
point on the recording chart, amount and name of product, product 
temperature at which the ``cut-in'' and ``cut-out'' function, record of 
the period in which flow diversion valve is in forward-flow position, 
signature or initials of operator.
    (i) Surface coolers. Surface coolers shall be equipped with hinged 
or removable covers for the protection of the product. The edges of the 
fins shall be so designed as to divert condensate on nonproduct contact 
surfaces away from product contact surfaces. All gaskets or swivel 
connections shall be leak proof.
    (j) Plate type heat exchangers. Plate type heat exchanger shall 
comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards Plate Type Heat Exchangers for 
Milk and Milk Products. All gaskets shall be tight and kept in good 
operating order. Plates shall be opened for inspection by the operator 
at sufficiently frequent intervals to determine if the equipment is 
clean and in satisfactory condition. A cleaning regimen should be posted 
to insure proper cleaning procedures between inspection periods.
    (k) Internal return tubular heat exchangers. Internal return tubular 
heat exchangers shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for 
Internal Return Tubular Heat Exchangers for Use with Milk and Milk 
Products.
    (l) Pumps. Pumps used for milk, and dairy products shall be of the 
sanitary type and constructed to comply with 3-A Sanitary Standards for 
Pumps for Milk and Milk Products. Unless pumps are specifically designed 
for effective cleaning-in-place they shall be disassembled and 
thoroughly cleaned after use.
    (m) Scales. All scales shall comply with National Bureau of 
Standards Handbook 44. (Latest revision).
    (1) Small capacity scales shall be capable of the following 
accuracy, and shall be graduated in no higher than one ounce 
graduations. (This table taken from the presently effective 1973 
revision.)

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Minimum tolerance 
                                                   ---------------------
                                                      Ounces     Pounds 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Load in pounds:                                                         
  0 to 4 inclusive................................     \1/32\      0.002
  5 to 10 inclusive...............................     \1/16\       .004
  11 to 20 inclusive..............................      \1/8\       .008
  21 to 30 inclusive..............................     \3/16\       .012
  31 to 50 inclusive..............................      \1/2\       .031
  51 to 500 inclusive.............................      \3/4\       .047
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Large capacity scales shall be capable of the following 
accuracy, and shall be graduated in no higher than \1/4\ pound 
graduations for scales of capacity of up to 250 pounds; \1/2\ pound 
graduations for scales above 250 pounds capacity.

(This table taken from the presently effective 1973 revision.)

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Minimum tolerance 
                                                   ---------------------
                                                      Ounces     Pounds 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Load in pounds:                                                         
  101 to 150 inclusive............................     1\1/4\      0.078
  151 to 250 inclusive............................        2         .125
  251 to 500 inclusive............................        4         .250
  501 to 1000 inclusive...........................        8         .500
  1001 to 2500 inclusive..........................  .........      1.0  
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Compliance shall be determined by the appropriate regulatory authority.
    (n) Homogenizers. Homogenizers and high pressure pumps of the 
plunger type shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for 
Homogenizers and Pumps of the Plunger Type and shall be disassembled and 
thoroughly cleaned after use.
    (o) New equipment and replacements. New equipment and replacements, 
including all plastic parts and rubber and rubberlike materials for 
parts and gaskets having product contact surfaces, shall comply with the 
then current 3-A Sanitary Standards. If 3-A Sanitary Standards are not 
available, such equipment and replacements shall meet the general 
requirements of this section. Only material that is sanitary, readily 
cleanable and non-toxic shall be used for product contact surfaces, 
parts and gaskets.
    (p) Vacuumizing equipment. The vacuum chamber, as used for flavor 
control, shall be made of stainless steel or other equally corrosion 
resistant metal. The unit shall be constructed to facilitate cleaning 
and all product contact surfaces shall be accessible for inspection.

[[Page 94]]

Vacuum chambers located on the pasteurized side of the unit shall be 
isolated by means of a vacuum breaker and a positive activated check 
valve on the product inlet side and a vacuum breaker and a positive 
activated check valve on the discharge side. If direct steam is used, it 
should also be equipped with a ratio controller to regulate the 
composition when applicable to the finished product. Only steam which 
meets the requirements for culinary steam shall be used. The incoming 
steam supply shall be regulated by an automatic solenoid valve which 
will cut off the steam supply in the event the flow diversion valve of 
the pasteurizer is not in the forward flow position. Condensers when 
used shall be equipped with a water level control and an automatic 
safety shutoff valve.

                    Personnel, Cleanliness and Health



Sec. 58.129  Cleanliness.

    All employees shall wash their hands before beginning work and upon 
returning to work after using toilet facilities, eating, smoking or 
otherwise soiling their hands. They shall keep their hands clean and 
follow good hygienic practices while on duty. Expectorating or use of 
tobacco in any form shall be prohibited in each room and compartment 
where any milk, dairy products, or supplies are prepared, stored or 
otherwise handled. Clean white or light-colored washable or disposable 
outer garments and caps (paper caps, hard hats, or hair nets acceptable) 
shall be worn to adequately protect the hair and beards when grown by 
all persons engaged in receiving, testing, processing milk, 
manufacturing, packaging or handling dairy products.



Sec. 58.130  Health.

    No person afflicted with a communicable disease shall be permitted 
in any room or compartment where milk and dairy products are prepared, 
manufactured or otherwise handled. No person who has a discharging or 
infected wound, sore or lesion on hands, arms or other exposed portion 
of the body shall work in any dairy processing rooms or in any capacity 
resulting in contact with milk, or dairy products. Each employee whose 
work brings him in contact with the processing or handling of dairy 
products, containers or equipment should have a medical and physical 
examination by a registered physician or by the local department of 
health at the time of employment. An employee returning to work 
following illness from a communicable disease shall have a certificate 
from the attending physician to establish proof of complete recovery.

             Protection and Transport of Raw Milk and Cream



Sec. 58.131  Equipment and facilities.

    (a)(1) Milk cans. Cans used in transporting milk from dairy farm to 
plant shall be of such construction (preferably seamless with umbrella 
lids) as to be easily cleaned, and shall be inspected, repaired, and 
replaced as necessary to exclude substantially the use of cans and lids 
with open seams, cracks, rust, milkstone, or any unsanitary condition. 
Adequate provisions should be made so that milk in cans will be cooled 
immediately after milking to 50  deg.F. or lower unless delivered to the 
plant within two hours after milking.
    (2) Farm bulk tanks. Farm bulk tanks shall comply with 3-A Sanitary 
Farm Cooling and Holding Tanks or 3-A Sanitary Standards for Farm 
Cooling and Holding Tanks or 3-A Sanitary Standards for Farm Milk 
Storage Tanks as applicable. They shall be installed in a milk house in 
accordance with the requirements of the regulatory agency in 
jurisdiction. The bulk cooling tanks shall be designed and equipped with 
refrigeration to permit the cooling of the milk to 40  deg.F. or lower 
within two hours after milking, and maintain it at 45  deg.F. or below 
until picked up.
    (b)(1) Receiving stations. Receiving stations shall comply with the 
applicable sections of this subpart covering premises, buildings, 
facilities, equipment, utensils, personnel, cleanliness and health.
    (2) Transfer stations. Transfer stations shall comply with the 
applicable sections of this subpart covering premises, floors, lighting, 
water supply, hand-washing facilities, disposal of wastes,

[[Page 95]]

general construction, repair and installation of equipment, piping and 
utensils and personnel--cleanliness and health. As climatic and 
operating conditions require the transfer station shall comply with the 
applicable sections for walls, ceilings, doors and windows.
    (3) Cream stations. Cream stations shall provide adequate protection 
and facilities for the handling, transferring and cooling of farm 
separated cream. The area shall be large enough to avoid undue crowding 
with a normal volume of business and shall be separated from other areas 
and the outside by self closing, tight fitting doors. All openings shall 
be screened during fly season. The floor, walls and ceiling shall be of 
satisfactory construction, in good repair and kept clean. Lighting and 
ventilation shall meet the requirements of Sec. 58.126(d). Cooling 
facilities shall be provided to cool the cream to 50  deg.F. or lower 
unless shipped within 8 hours after receipt. Facilities shall be 
provided to wash, sanitize and store cans and equipment used in the 
operation. The cream should not be more than 4 days old when picked up 
for delivery to the processing plant.
    (c)(1) Transporting milk or cream. Vehicles used for the 
transportation of can milk or cream shall be of the enclosed type, 
constructed and operated to protect the product from extreme 
temperature, dust, or other adverse conditions and they shall be kept 
clean. Decking boards or racks shall be provided where more than one 
tier of cans is carried. Cans or vehicles used for the transportation of 
milk from the farm to the plant shall not be used for transporting skim 
milk, buttermilk, or whey to producers.
    (2) Transport tanks. The exterior shell shall be clean and free from 
open seams or cracks which would permit liquid to enter the jacket. The 
interior shell shall be stainless steel and so constructed that it will 
not buckle, sag or prevent complete drainage. All product contact 
surfaces shall be smooth, easily cleaned and maintained in good repair. 
The pump and hose cabinet shall be fully enclosed with tight fitting 
doors and the inlet and outlet shall be provided with dust covers to 
give adequate protection from road dust. Tank manholes should be 
equipped with an adequate filtering system during loading and unloading. 
New and replacement transport tanks shall comply with 3-A Sanitary 
Standards for Stainless Steel Automotive Milk and Milk Products 
Transportation Tanks for Bulk Delivery and/or Farm Pick-up Service.
    (3) Facilities for cleaning and sanitizing. Enclosed or covered 
facilities (as climatic conditions require) shall be available for 
washing and sanitizing of transport tanks, piping, and accessories, at 
central locations or at all plants that receive or ship milk or milk 
products in transport tanks.
    (d) Transfer of milk to transport tank. Milk shall be transferred 
under sanitary conditions from farm bulk tanks through stainless steel 
piping or approved tubing. The sanitary piping and tubing shall be 
capped when not in use.

                   Quality Specifications for Raw Milk



Sec. 58.132  Basis for classification.

    The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing purposes 
from each producer shall be based on an organoleptic examination for 
appearance and odor, a drug residue test, and quality control tests for 
sediment content, bacterial estimate and somatic cell count. All milk 
received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug 
Administration's established limits for pesticide, herbicide and drug 
residues. Producers shall be promptly notified of any shipment or 
portion thereof of their milk that fails to meet any of these quality 
specifications.
[58 FR 26912, May 6, 1993]'



Sec. 58.133  Methods for quality and wholesomeness determination.

    (a) Appearance and odor. The appearance of acceptable raw milk shall 
be normal and free of excessive coarse sediment when examined visually 
or by an acceptable test procedure. The milk shall not show any abnormal 
condition (including, but not limited to, curdled, ropy, bloody or 
mastitic condition), as indicated by sight or other test procedures. The 
odor shall be fresh and sweet. The milk shall be free from objectionable 
feed and other off-odors

[[Page 96]]

that adversely affect the finished product.
    (b) Somatic cell count. (1) A laboratory examination to determine 
the level of somatic cells shall be made at least four times in each 6-
month period at irregular intervals on milk received from each patron.
    (2) A confirmatory test for somatic cells shall be done when a herd 
sample exceeds either of the following screening test results:
    (i) California Mastitis Test--Weak Positive (CMT 1).
    (ii) Wisconsin Mastitis Test--WMT value of 18 mm.
    (3) The confirmatory test for somatic cells shall be performed by 
using one of the following procedures:
    (i) Direct Microscopic Somatic Cell Count (Single Strip Procedure). 
Pyronin Y-methyl green stain shall be used for goat milk.
    (ii) Electronic Somatic Cell Count.
    (iii) Optical Somatic Cell Count.
    (4) The results of the confirmatory test for somatic cells shall be 
the official result.
    (5) Whenever the confirmatory somatic cell count indicates the 
presence of more than 1,000,000 somatic cells per ml., the following 
procedures shall be applied:
    (i) The producer shall be notified with a warning of the excessive 
somatic cell count.
    (ii) Whenever two of the last four consecutive somatic cell counts 
exceed 1,000,000 per ml., the appropriate state regulatory authority 
shall be notified and a written notice given to the producer. This 
notice shall be in effect as long as two of the last four consecutive 
samples exceed 1,000,000 per ml.
    (6) An additional sample shall be taken after a lapse of 3 days but 
within 21 days of the notice required in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this 
section. If this sample also exceeds 1,000,000 per ml., subsequent 
milkings shall not be accepted for market until satisfactory compliance 
is obtained. Shipment may be resumed and a temporary status assigned to 
the producer by the appropriate State regulatory agency when an 
additional sample of herd milk is tested and found satisfactory. The 
producer may be assigned a full reinstatement status when three out of 
four consecutive somatic cell count tests do not exceed 1,000,000 per 
ml. The samples shall be taken at a rate of not more than two per week 
on separate days within a 3-week period.
    (c) Drug residue level. (1) USDA-approved plants shall not accept 
for processing any milk testing positive for drug residue. All milk 
received at USDA-approved plants shall be sampled and tested, prior to 
processing, for beta lactam drug residue. When directed by the 
regulatory agency, additional testing for other drug residues shall be 
performed. Samples shall be analyzed for beta lactams and other drug 
residues by methods evaluated by the Association of Official Analytical 
Chemists (AOAC) and accepted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 
as effective in determining compliance with ``safe levels'' or 
established tolerances. ``Safe levels'' and tolerances for particular 
drugs are established by the FDA. Other test methods evaluated by the 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, or by other 
institutions using equivalent evaluation procedures, and determined to 
demonstrate accurate compliance results, may be employed on a temporary 
basis until they are evaluated by the AOAC and accepted or rejected by 
the FDA.
    (2) Individual producer milk samples for beta lactam drug residue 
testing shall be obtained from each milk shipment as follows:
    (i) Milk in farm bulk tanks. A sample shall be taken at each farm 
and shall include milk from each farm bulk tank.
    (ii) Milk in cans. A sample shall be formed separately at the 
receiving plant for each can milk producer included in a delivery, and 
shall be representative of all milk received from the producer.
    (3) Load milk samples for beta lactam drug residue testing shall be 
obtained from each milk shipment as follows:
    (i) Milk in bulk milk pickup tankers. A sample shall be taken from 
the bulk milk pickup tanker after its arrival at the plant and prior to 
further commingling.
    (ii) Milk in cans. A sample representing all of the milk received on 
a shipment shall be formed at the plant,

[[Page 97]]

using a sampling procedure that includes milk from every can on the 
vehicle.
    (4) Follow-up to positive-testing samples. (i) When a load sample 
tests positive for drug residue, the appropriate State regulatory agency 
shall be notified immediately of the positive test result and of the 
intended disposition of the shipment of milk containing the drug 
residue.
    (ii) Each individual producer sample represented in the positive-
testing load sample shall be singly tested to determine the producer of 
the milk sample testing positive for drug residue. Identification of the 
producer responsible for producing the milk testing positive for drug 
residue, and details of the final disposition of the shipment of milk 
containing the drug residue, shall be reported immediately to the 
appropriate agency.
    (iii) Milk shipment from the producer identified as the source of 
milk testing positive for drug residue shall cease immediately and may 
resume only after a sample from a subsequent milking does not test 
positive for drug residue.
[50 FR 34672, Aug. 27, 1985, as amended at 58 FR 26912, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.134  Sediment content.

    (a) Method of testing. Methods for determining the sediment content 
of the milk of individual producers shall be those described in the 
latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy 
Products. Sediment content shall be based on comparison with applicable 
charts of the United States Sediment Standards for Milk and Milk 
Products, subpart T, Sec. 58.2728 through 58.2732, of this part.
    (b) Sediment content classification. Milk shall be classified for 
sediment content, regardless of the results of the appearance and odor 
examination required in Sec. 58.133(a), as follows:

                         USDA Sediment Standard

    No. 1 (acceptable)--not to exceed 0.50 mg. or equivalent.
    No. 2 (acceptable)--not to exceed 1.50 mg. or equivalent.
    No. 3 (probational, not over 10 days)--not to exceed 2.50 mg. or 
equivalent.
    No. 4 (reject)--over 2.50 mg. or equivalent.

    (c) Frequency of tests. At least once each month, at irregular 
intervals, the milk from each producer shall be tested as follows:
    (1) Milk in cans. One or more cans of milk selected at random from 
each producer.
    (2) Milk in farm bulk tanks. A sample shall be taken from each farm 
bulk tank.
    (d) Acceptance or rejection of milk. If the sediment disc is 
classified as No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3 the producer's milk may be 
accepted. If the sediment disc is classified No. 4 the milk shall be 
rejected: Provided that, If the shipment of milk is commingled with 
other milk in a transport tank the next shipment shall not be accepted 
until its quality has been determined before being picked up; however, 
if the person making the test is unable to get to the farm before the 
next shipment it may be accepted but no further shipments shall be 
accepted unless the milk meets the requirements of No. 3 or better. In 
the case of milk classified as No. 3 or No. 4, if in cans, all cans 
shall be tested. Producers of No. 3 or No. 4 milk (cans or bulk) shall 
be notified immediately and shall be furnished applicable sediment discs 
and the next shipment shall be tested.
    (e) Retests. On test of the next shipment (if in cans, all cans 
shall be tested) milk classified as No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3 may be 
accepted, but No. 4 milk shall be rejected. Retests of bulk milk 
classified as No. 4 shall be made before pickup. The producers of No. 3 
or No. 4 milk shall be notified immediately, furnished applicable 
sediment discs and the next shipment tested.

This procedure of retesting successive shipments and accepting 
probational (No. 3) milk and rejecting No. 4 milk may be continued for 
not more than 10 calendar days. If at the end of this time all of the 
producer's milk does not meet the acceptable sediment content 
classification (No. 1 or No. 2), it shall be rejected.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975, Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 50 FR 34673, Aug. 27, 
1985]

[[Page 98]]



Sec. 58.135  Bacterial estimate.

    (a) Method of testing. Methods for determining the bacterial 
estimate of the milk of individual producers shall be those described in 
the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy 
Products.
    (b) Bacterial estimate classification. Milk shall be classified for 
bacterial estimate by one of the following methods:

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Direct Microscopic count, 
     Bacterial estimate classification         standard plate count or  
                                                  plate loop count      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
No. 1.....................................  Not over 500,000 per ml.    
No. 2.....................................  Not over 1,000,000 per ml.  
Undergrade................................  Over 1,000,000 per ml.      
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (c) Frequency of tests. At least once each month, at irregular 
intervals, a mixed sample of each producer's milk shall be tested.
    (d) Acceptance of milk. If the sample of milk is classified as No. 1 
or No. 2 the producer's milk may be accepted without qualification. If 
the sample is classified as ``Undergrade'' (probational) the producer's 
milk may be accepted for a temporary period of 4 weeks. The producer of 
``Undergrade'' milk shall be notified immediately.
    (e) Retests. Additional samples shall be tested and classified at 
least weekly and the producer notified immediately of the results. This 
procedure of testing at least weekly and accepting ``Undergrade'' milk 
may be continued for a time period not exceeding four weeks. If at the 
end of this time the producer's milk does not meet the acceptable 
bacterial estimate requirements (No. 1 or No. 2), it shall not be 
accepted.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 50 FR 34673, Aug. 27, 
1985]



Sec. 58.136  Rejected milk.

    A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails 
to meet the requirements for appearance and odor (Sec. 58.133(a)), if it 
is classified No. 4 for sediment content (Sec. 58.134), or if it tests 
positive for drug residue (Sec. 58.133(c)).
[58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.137  Excluded milk.

    A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if:
    (a) The milk has been in a probational (No. 3) sediment content 
classification for more than 10 calendar days (Sec. 58.134);
    (b) The milk has been classified ``Undergrade'' for bacterial 
estimate for more than 4 successive weeks (Sec. 58.135);
    (c) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum 
somatic cell count level of 1,000,000 per ml. (Sec. 58.133(b)(6)); or
    (d) The producer's milk shipments to either the Grade A or the 
manufacturing grade milk market currently are not permitted due to a 
positive drug residue test (Sec. 58.133(c)(4)).
[58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.138  Quality testing of milk from new producers.

    A quality examination and tests shall be made on the first shipment 
of milk from a producer shipping milk to a plant for the first time or 
resuming shipment to a plant after a period of non-shipment. The milk 
shall meet the requirements for acceptable milk, somatic cell count and 
drug residue level (Secs. 58.133, 58.134 and 58.135). The buyer shall 
also confirm that the producer's milk is currently not excluded from the 
market (Sec. 58.137). Thereafter, the milk shall be tested in accordance 
with the provisions in Secs. 58.133, 58.134 and 58.135.
[58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.139  Record of tests.

    Accurate records listing the results of quality and drug residue 
tests for each producer shall be kept on file at the plant. 
Additionally, the plant shall obtain the quality and drug residue test 
records (Sec. 58.148(a), (e) and (g)) for any producer transferring milk 
shipment from another plant. These records shall be available for 
examination by the inspector.
[58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.140  Field service.

    A representative of the plant shall arrange to promptly visit the 
farm of

[[Page 99]]

each producer whose milk tests positive for drug residue, exceeds the 
maximum somatic cell count level, or does not meet the requirements for 
acceptable milk. The purpose of the visit shall be to inspect the 
milking equipment and facilities and to offer assistance to improve the 
quality of the producer's milk and eliminate any potential causes of 
drug residues. A representative of the plant should routinely visit each 
producer as often as necessary to assist and encourage the production of 
high quality milk.
[58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.141  Alternate quality control program.

    When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the 
producer level, which is approved by the Administrator as being 
effective in obtaining results comparable to or higher than the quality 
program as outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be 
accepted in lieu of the program herein prescribed.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.142  Product quality and stability.

    The receiving, holding and processing of milk and cream and the 
manufacturing, handling, packaging, storing and delivery of dairy 
products shall be in accordance with clean and sanitary methods, 
consistent with good commercial practices to promote the production of 
the highest quality of finished product and improve product stability. 
Milk should not be more than three days old when picked up from the 
producer and delivered to the plant, receiving station or transfer 
station.



Sec. 58.143  Raw product storage.

    (a) All milk shall be held and processed under conditions and at 
temperatures that will avoid contamination and rapid deterioration. Drip 
milk from can washers and any other source shall not be used for the 
manufacture of dairy products. Bulk milk in storage tanks within the 
dairy plant shall be handled in such a manner as to minimize bacterial 
increase and shall be maintained at 45  deg.F. or lower until processing 
begins. This does not preclude holding milk at higher temperatures for a 
period of time, where applicable to particular manufacturing or 
processing practices.
    (b) The bacteriological quality of commingled milk in storage tanks 
shall not exceed 3,000,000/ml.



Sec. 58.144  Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    When pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization is intended or required, 
or when a product is designated ``pasteurized'' or ``ultra-pasteurized'' 
every particle of the product shall be subjected to such temperatures 
and holding periods in approved systems as will assure proper 
pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization of the product. The heat 
treatment by either process shall be sufficient to insure public health 
safety and to assure adequate keeping quality, yet retaining the most 
desirable flavor and body characteristics of the finished product.



Sec. 58.145  Composition and wholesomeness.

    All necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent contamination or 
adulteration of the milk or dairy products during manufacturing. All 
substances and ingredients used in the processing or manufacturing of 
any dairy product shall be subject to inspection and shall be wholesome 
and practically free from impurities. The finished products shall comply 
with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as to 
their composition and wholesomeness.



Sec. 58.146  Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.

    (a) Equipment and utensils. The equipment, sanitary piping and 
utensils used in receiving and processing of the milk, and manufacturing 
and handling of the product shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. 
Sanitary seal assemblies shall be removable on all agitators, pumps, and 
vats and shall be inspected at regular intervals and kept clean. Unless 
other provisions are recommended in the following supplement sections, 
all equipment not designed for C.I.P. cleaning or mechanical cleaning 
shall be disassembled after each day's use for thorough cleaning. Dairy

[[Page 100]]

cleaners, detergents, wetting agents or sanitizing agents, or other 
similar materials which will not contaminate or adversely affect the 
products may be used. Steel wool or metal sponges shall not be used in 
the cleaning of any dairy equipment or utensils.
    (1) Product contact surfaces shall be subjected to an effective 
sanitizing treatment prior to use, except where dry cleaning is 
permitted. Utensils and portable equipment used in processing and 
manufacturing operations shall be stored above the floor in clean, dry 
locations and in a self draining position on racks constructed of 
impervious corrosion-resistant material.
    (2) C.I.P. cleaning or mechanical cleaning systems shall be used 
only on equipment and pipeline systems which have been designed, 
engineered and installed for that purpose. When such cleaning is used, 
careful attention shall be given to the proper procedures to assure 
satisfactory cleaning. All C.I.P. installations and cleaning procedures 
shall be in accordance with 3-A Suggested Method for the Installation 
and Cleaning of Cleaned-In-Place Sanitary Milk Pipelines for Milk and 
Milk Products Plants. Because of the possibilities of corrosion, the 
recommendations of the cleaning compound manufacturer should be followed 
with respect to time, temperature and concentration of specific acid or 
alkaline solutions and bactericides. Such cleaning operation should be 
preceded by a thorough rinse at approximately 110-115  deg.F. 
continuously discarding the water. Following the circulation of the 
cleaning solution the equipment and lines shall be thoroughly rinsed 
with lukewarm water and checks should be made for effectiveness of 
cleaning. All caps, plugs, special fittings, valve seats, cross ends, 
pumps, and tee ends shall be opened or removed and brushed clean. All 
non-pasteurized product contact surfaces should be sanitized. 
Immediately prior to starting the product flow, the pasteurized product 
contact surfaces shall be given sanitizing treatment.
    (b) Milk cans and can washers. Milk cans and lids shall be cleaned, 
sanitized and dried before returning to producers. Inspection, repair or 
replacement of cans and lids shall be adequate to substantially exclude 
from use cans and lids showing open seams, cracks, rust condition, 
milkstone or any unsanitary condition.

Washers shall be maintained in a clean and satisfactory operating 
condition and kept free from accumulation of scale or debris which will 
adversely affect the efficiency of the washer. Only washing compounds 
which are compatible with the water for effective cleaning, should be 
used. The can washer should be checked regularly during the run for 
proper operation. At the end of the day, the wash and rinse tanks should 
be drained and cleaned, jets and strainers cleaned, air filters checked 
and changed or cleaned if needed, and checks should be made for proper 
adjustment and condition of mechanical parts.
    (c) Milk transport tanks. A covered or enclosed wash dock and 
cleaning and sanitizing facilities shall be available to all plants that 
receive or ship milk in tanks. Milk transport tanks, sanitary piping, 
fittings, and pumps shall be cleaned and sanitized at least once each 
day after use: Provided that, if they are not to be used immediately 
after emptying a load of milk, they shall be washed promptly after use 
and given bactericidal treatment immediately before use. After being 
washed and sanitized, each tank should be identified by a tag attached 
to the outlet valve, bearing the following information: Plant and 
specific location where cleaned, date and time of day of washing and 
sanitizing, and name of person who washed and name of person who 
sanitized the tank. The tag shall not be removed until the tank is again 
washed and sanitized.
    (d) Building. All windows, glass, partitions, and skylights should 
be washed as often as necessary to keep them clean. Cracked or broken 
glass shall be replaced promptly. The walls, ceilings and doors should 
be washed periodically and kept free from soil and unsightly conditions. 
The shelves and ledges should be wiped or vacuumed as often as necessary 
to keep them free from dust and debris. The material picked up by the 
vacuum cleaners shall be disposed of in sealed containers which will 
prevent contamination or

[[Page 101]]

insect infestation from the waste material.



Sec. 58.147  Insect and rodent control program.

    In addition to any commercial pest control service, if one is 
utilized, a specially designated employee should be made responsible for 
the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control 
program. Poisonous substances shall be properly labeled, and shall be 
handled, stored and used in such a manner as considered satisfactory by 
the Environmental Protection Agency.



Sec. 58.148  Plant records.

    Adequate plant records shall be maintained of all required tests and 
analyses performed in the laboratory or throughout the plant during 
storage, processing and manufacturing, on all raw milk receipts and 
dairy products. Such records shall be available for examination at all 
reasonable times by the inspector. The following are the records which 
shall be maintained for examination at the plant or receiving station 
where performed.
    (a) Sediment and bacterial test results on raw milk from each 
producer. Retain for 12 months.
    (1) Routine tests and monthly summary of all producers showing 
number and percent of total in each class.
    (2) Retests, if initial test places milk in probationary status.
    (3) Rejections of raw milk over No. 3 in quality.
    (b) Pasteurization recorder charts. Retain for 3 months.
    (c) Water supply test certificate. Retain current copy for 6 months.
    (d) Cooling and heating recorder charts. Retain for 3 months.
    (e) Load and individual drug residue test results. Retain for 12 
months.
    (f) Notifications to appropriate State regulatory agencies of 
positive drug residue tests and intended and final dispositions of milk 
testing positive for drug residue. Retain for 12 months.
    (g) Somatic cell count test results on raw milk from each producer. 
Retain for 12 months.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control 
number 0583-0047) \1\


    \1\ Editorial Note: See table appearing in Sec. 58.100 for correct 
OMB control number.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982; 58 FR 26913, May 6, 1993]



Sec. 58.149  Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control 
program which is approved by the Administrator as being effective in 
obtaining results comparable to or higher than the quality control 
program as outlined in this subpart, then such a program may be accepted 
in lieu of the program herein prescribed.
    (b) Where a minimum number of samples per batch of product, or per 
unit of time on continuous production runs are not specified, the phrase 
``as many samples shall be taken as is necessary to assure compliance to 
specific quality requirements'' is used. Acceptable performance of this 
would be any method approved by the Administrator as meeting sound 
statistical methods of selecting samples and determining the number of 
samples to be taken.

                  Packaging and General Identification



Sec. 58.150  Containers.

    (a) The size, style, and type of packaging used for dairy products 
shall be commercially acceptable containers and packaging materials 
which will satisfactorily cover and protect the quality of the contents 
during storage and regular channels of trade and under normal conditions 
of handling.
    (b) Packaging materials for dairy products shall be selected which 
will provide sufficiently low permeability to air and vapor to prevent 
the formation of mold growth and surface oxidation. In addition, the 
wrapper should be

[[Page 102]]

resistant to puncturing, tearing, cracking or breaking under normal 
conditions of handling, shipping and storage. When special type 
packaging is used, the instructions of the manufacturer shall be 
followed closely as to its application and methods of closure.



Sec. 58.151  Packaging and repackaging.

    (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all styles 
of dairy products shall be conducted under rigid sanitary conditions. 
The atmosphere of the packaging rooms, the equipment and packaging 
materials shall be practically free from mold and bacterial 
contamination. Methods for checking the level of contamination shall be 
as prescribed by the latest edition of Standard Methods or by other 
satisfactory methods approved by the Administrator.
    (b) When officially graded bulk dairy products are to be repackaged 
into consumer type packages with official grade labels or other official 
identification, a supervisor of packaging shall be required, see subpart 
A of this part. (title 7, Secs. 58.2 and 58.53 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations). If the packaging or repackaging is done in a plant other 
than the one in which the dairy product is manufactured, the plant, 
equipment, facilities and personnel shall meet the same requirements as 
outlined in this subpart.



Sec. 58.152  General identification.

    All commercial bulk packages or consumer packaged product containing 
dairy products manufactured under the provisions of this subpart shall 
comply with the applicable regulation of the Food and Drug 
Administration.

                       Storage of Finished Product



Sec. 58.153  Dry storage.

    The product should be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in 
aisles, rows, or sections and lots, in such a manner as to be orderly 
and easily accessible for inspection. Rooms should be cleaned regularly. 
It is recommended that dunnage or pallets be used when practical. Care 
shall be taken in the storage of any other product foreign to dairy 
products in the same room, in order to prevent impairment or damage to 
the dairy product from mold, absorbed odors, or vermin or insect 
infestation. Control of humidity and temperature shall be maintained at 
all times, consistent with good commercial practices, to prevent 
conditions detrimental to the product and container.



Sec. 58.154  Refrigerated storage.

    Finished product in containers subject to such conditions that will 
affect its useability shall be placed on shelves, dunnage or pallets and 
properly identified. It shall be stored under temperatures that will 
best maintain the initial quality. The product shall not be exposed to 
anything from which it might absorb any foreign odors or be contaminated 
by drippage or condensation.

             Inspection, Grading and Official Identification



Sec. 58.155  Grading.

    Dairy products which have been processed or manufactured in 
accordance with the provisions of this subpart may be graded by the 
grader in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades. Laboratory 
analyses, when required in determining the final grade shall be 
conducted in an approved laboratory.



Sec. 58.156  Inspection.

    Dairy products, which have been processed or manufactured in an 
approved plant, and for which there are no official U.S. Standards for 
Grades, shall be inspected for quality by the inspector in accordance 
with contract requirements or product specifications established by the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency or buyer and 
seller. Laboratory analysis when required shall be conducted in an 
approved laboratory.



Sec. 58.157  Inspection or grading certificates.

    All dairy products which have been processed or manufactured, 
packaged and inspected or graded in accordance with the provision of 
this part may be covered by an inspection or grading certificate issued 
by the inspector or grader.

[[Page 103]]



Sec. 58.158  Official identification.

    (a) Application for authority to apply official identification to 
packaging material or containers shall be made in accordance with the 
provisions of subpart A of this part. (title 7, Secs. 58.49 through 
58.57 of the Code of Federal Regulations.)
    (b) Only dairy products received, processed, or manufactured in 
accordance with the specifications contained in this subpart and 
inspected and/or graded in accordance with the provisions of this part 
may be identified with official identification.

                          Explanation of Terms



Sec. 58.159  Terms.

    (a) Fresh and sweet. Free from ``old milk'' flavor of developed 
acidity or other off-flavors.
    (b) Normal feed. Regional feed flavors, such as alfalfa, clover, 
silage, or similar feeds or grasses (weed flavors, such as peppergrass, 
French weed, onion, garlic, or other obnoxious weeds, excluded).
    (c) Off-flavors. Tastes or odors, such as utensil, bitter, barny, or 
other associated defects when present to a degree readily detectable.
    (d) Developed acidity. An apparent increase from the normal acidity 
of the milk to a degree of taste and odor which is detectable.
    (e) Extraneous matter. Foreign substances, such as filth, hair, 
insects and fragments thereof, and rodents, and materials, such as 
metal, fiber, wood and glass.
    (f) Sediment. Fine particles of material other than the foreign 
substances and materials defined in paragraph (e) of this section.
    (g) C.I.P. The abbreviation of an approved system of cleaning 
pipelines called ``Cleaned-in-Place.''
    (h) Mechanical cleaning. Denotes cleaning solely by circulation and/
or flowing chemical detergent solution and water rinses onto and over 
the surfaces to be cleaned, by mechanical means.

 Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and 
Packaging Nonfat Dry Milk, Instant Nonfat Dry Milk, Dry Whole Milk, and 
                             Dry Buttermilk

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.205  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Nonfat dry milk. The product obtained by the removal of only 
water from pasteurized skim milk. It contains not more than 5 percent by 
weight of moisture and not more than 1\1/2\ percent by weight of milkfat 
and it conforms to the applicable provisions of 21 CFR 131 ``Milk and 
Cream'' as issued by the Food and Drug Administration. Nonfat dry milk 
shall not contain nor be derived from dry buttermilk, dry whey, or 
products other than skim milk, and shall not contain any added 
preservative, neutralizing agent, or other chemical.
    (b) Instant nonfat dry milk. Instant nonfat dry milk is nonfat dry 
milk which has been produced in such a manner as to substantially 
improve its dispersing and reconstitution characteristics over that 
produced by the conventional process. Instant nonfat dry milk shall not 
contain dry buttermilk, dry whey, or products other than nonfat dry 
milk, except that lactose may be added as a processing aid during 
instantizing. The instant nonfat dry milk shall not contain any added 
preservatives, neutralizing agent, or other chemical. If lactose is 
used, the amount of lactose shall be the minimum required to produce the 
desired effect, but in no case shall the amount exceed 2.0 percent of 
the weight of the nonfat dry milk. If instant nonfat dry milk is 
fortified with vitamin A, and the product is reconstituted in accordance 
with the label directions, each quart of the reconstituted product shall 
contain 2000 International Units thereof. If instant nonfat dry milk is

[[Page 104]]

fortified with vitamin D, and the product is reconstituted in accordance 
with the label directions, each quart of the reconstituted product shall 
contain 400 International Units thereof.
    (c) Dry whole milk. The pasteurized product resulting from the 
removal of water from milk and contains the lactose, milk proteins, milk 
fat, and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as in the fresh 
milk from which made. The milk may be standardized but shall not contain 
buttermilk, or any added preservative, neutralizing agent or other 
chemicals.
    (d) Dry buttermilk. The product resulting from drying liquid 
buttermilk that was derived from the churning of butter and pasteurized 
prior to condensing at a temperature of 161  deg.F for 15 seconds or its 
equivalent in bacterial destruction. Dry buttermilk shall have a protein 
content of not less than 30.0 percent. Dry buttermilk shall not contain 
nor be derived from nonfat dry milk, dry whey, or products other than 
buttermilk, and shall not contain any added preservative, neutralizing 
agent, or other chemical.
    (e) Dry buttermilk product. The product resulting from drying liquid 
buttermilk that was derived from the churning of butter and pasteurized 
prior to condensing at a temperature of 161  deg.F for 15 seconds or its 
equivalent in bacterial destruction. Dry buttermilk product has a 
protein content less than 30.0 percent. Dry buttermilk product shall not 
contain nor be derived from nonfat dry milk, dry whey, or products other 
than buttermilk, and shall not contain any added preservative, 
neutralizing agent, or other chemical.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 56 FR 33855, July 24, 
1991; 61 FR 17548, Apr. 22, 1996; 61 FR 35590, July 8, 1996]

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.210  Dry storage of product.

    Storage rooms for the dry storage of product shall be adequate in 
size, kept clean, orderly, free from rodents, insects, and mold, and 
maintained in good repair. They shall be adequately lighted and 
ventilated. The ceilings, walls, beams and floors should be free from 
structural defects and inaccessible false areas which may harbor 
insects.



Sec. 58.211  Packaging room for bulk products.

    A separate room or area shall be provided for filling bulk 
containers, and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec. 58.126. The 
number of control panels and switch boxes in this area should be kept to 
a minimum. Control panels shall be mounted a sufficient distance from 
the walls to facilitate cleaning or satisfactorily sealed to the wall, 
or shall be mounted in the wall and provided with tight fitting 
removable doors to facilitate cleaning. An adequate exhaust system shall 
be provided to minimize the accumulation of product dust within the 
packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and 
properly maintained to keep roofs and outside areas free of dry product. 
Only packaging materials that are used within a day's operation may be 
kept in the packaging area. These materials shall be kept on metal racks 
or tables at least six inches off the floor. Unnecessary fixtures, 
equipment, or false areas which may collect dust and harbor insects, 
should not be allowed in the packaging room.



Sec. 58.212  Hopper or dump room.

    A separate room shall be provided for the transfer of bulk dry dairy 
products to the hoppers and conveyors which lead to the fillers. This 
room shall meet the same requirements for construction and facilities as 
the bulk packaging operation. Areas and facilities provided for the 
transfer of dry dairy products from portable bulk bins will be accepted 
if gasketed surfaces or direct connections are used that appreciably 
eliminate the escape of product into the area.



Sec. 58.213  Repackaging room.

    A separate room shall be provided for the filling of small packages 
and shall meet the same requirements for construction and facilities as 
the bulk packaging operation.

[[Page 105]]

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.214  General construction, repair and installation.

    All equipment and utensils necessary to the manufacture of dry milk 
products, including pasteurizer, timing-pump or device, flow diversion 
valve and recorder controller, shall meet the same general requirements 
as outlined in Sec. 58.128 of this subpart. In addition, for certain 
other equipment the following requirements shall be met.



Sec. 58.215  Pre-heaters.

    The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally 
corrosion resistant material, cleanable, accessible for inspection and 
shall be equipped with suitable automatic temperature controls.



Sec. 58.216  Hotwells.

    The hotwells shall be enclosed or covered and should be equipped 
with indicating thermometers either in the hotwell or in the hot milk 
inlet line to the hotwell. If used for holding high heat products, they 
should also have recorders.



Sec. 58.217  Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers shall 
be equipped with an automatic condenser water level control, barometric 
leg, or so constructed so as to prevent water from entering the product. 
New or replacement units shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards 
for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed 
type condensers are used, no special controls are needed to prevent 
water from entering the product. Water collected from the condensing of 
product (cow water) in this equipment may be utilized for prerinsing and 
cleaning solution make-up; provided it is equipped with proper controls 
that will automatically divert water with entrained solids to the waste 
water system. ``Cow water'' shall not be used for acidified or final 
equipment rinse.



Sec. 58.218  Surge tanks.

    If surge tanks are used for hot milk, and temperatures of product 
including foam being held in the surge tank during processing, is not 
maintained at a minimum of 150  deg.F, then two or more surge tanks 
shall be installed with cross connections to permit flushing and 
cleaning during operation. Covers easily removable for cleaning shall be 
provided and used at all times.



Sec. 58.219  High pressure pumps and lines.

    High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such 
construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be 
disassembled for hand cleaning. The high pressure pump shall comply with 
the 3-A Sanitary Standard for Homogenizers and Pumps of the Plunger 
Type.



Sec. 58.220  Drying systems.

    (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge 
type and all product contact surfaces shall be of stainless steel or 
other equally corrosion resistant material. All joints and seams in the 
product contact surfaces shall be welded and ground smooth. All dryers 
shall be constructed so as to facilitate ease in cleaning and 
inspection. Sight glasses or ports of sufficient size shall be located 
at strategic positions. Dryers shall be equipped with suitable air 
intake filters. The filter system shall comply with the applicable 
requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and Milk Products 
Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component 
parts replaced as often as necessary to maintain a clean and adequate 
air supply. In gas fired dryers, precautions should be taken to assure 
complete combustion. Air shall be drawn into the dryer from sources free 
from objectionable odors and smoke, dust or dirt. New systems, 
replacement systems, or portions of systems replaced shall comply with 
the requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and Milk 
Products Spray Drying Systems.
    (b) Roller dryers. (1) The drums of a roller dryer shall be smooth, 
readily cleanable and free of pits and rust. The knives shall be 
maintained in such condition so as not to cause scoring of the drums.

[[Page 106]]

    (2) The end boards shall have an impervious surface and be readily 
cleanable. They shall be provided with a means of adjustment to prevent 
leakage and accumulation of milk solids. The stack, hood, the drip pan 
inside of the hood and related shields shall be constructed of stainless 
steel and be readily cleanable. The lower edge of the hood shall be 
constructed so as to prevent condensate from entering the product zone. 
The hood shall be properly located and the stack of adequate capacity to 
remove the vapors. The stack shall be closed when the dryer is not in 
operation. The augers shall be stainless steel or properly plated, and 
readily cleanable. The auger troughs and related shields shall be of 
stainless steel and be readily cleanable. All air entering the dryer 
room shall be filtered to eliminate dust and dirt. The filter system 
shall consist of filtering media or device that will effectively, and in 
accordance with good commercial practices, prevent the entrance of 
foreign substances into the drying room. The filtering system shall be 
cleaned or component parts replaced as often as necessary to maintain a 
clean and adequate air supply. All dryer adjustments shall be made and 
the dryer operating normally before food grade product is collected from 
the dryer.
    (c) Other drying systems. These systems shall be constructed 
following the applicable principles of the 3-A Accepted Practices for 
Milk and Milk Products Spray Drying Systems.



Sec. 58.221  Collectors and conveyors.

    Collectors shall be made of stainless steel or equally noncorrosive 
material and should be constructed to facilitate cleaning and 
inspection. Filter sack collectors, if used, shall be in good condition 
and the system shall be of such construction that all parts are 
accessible for cleaning and inspection. Conveyors shall be of stainless 
steel or equally corrosion resistant material and should be constructed 
to facilitate thorough cleaning and inspection.



Sec. 58.222  Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Cooling equipment shall be provided with sufficient capacity to cool 
the product as specified in Sec. 58.240. A suitable dry air supply with 
an effective filtering system meeting the requirements of Sec. 58.220(a) 
shall be provided where air cooling and conveying is used.



Sec. 58.223  Special treatment equipment.

    Any special equipment (instantizers, hammer mills, etc.) used to 
treat dry milk products shall be of sanitary construction and all parts 
shall be accessible for cleaning and inspection. New or replacement 
instantizing systems shall comply with the 3-A Accepted Practices for 
Instantizing Systems for Dry Milk and Dry Milk Products.



Sec. 58.224  Sifters.

    All newly installed sifters used for dry milk and dry milk products 
shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Sifters for Dry Milk 
and Dry Milk Products. All other sifters shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or other equally noncorrosive material and shall be of 
sanitary construction and accessible for cleaning and inspection. The 
mesh size of sifter screen used for various dry dairy products shall be 
those recommended in the appendix of the 3-A Standard for sifters.



Sec. 58.225  Clothing and shoe covers.

    Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for the 
purpose of cleaning the interior of the dryer when it is necessary to 
enter the dryer to perform the cleaning operation.



Sec. 58.226  Portable and stationary bulk bins.

    Bulk bins shall be constructed of stainless steel, aluminum or other 
equally corrosion resistant materials, free from cracks, seams and must 
have an interior surface that is relatively smooth and easily cleanable. 
All product contact surfaces shall be easily accessible for cleaning. 
The capacity of each portable and bulk bin shall be limited to permit 
proper operating procedures such as sampling and daily removal of all 
product to preclude commingling of different days production.



Sec. 58.227  Sampling device.

    If automatic sampling devices are used, they shall be constructed in 
such a manner as to prevent contamination

[[Page 107]]

of the product, and all parts must be readily accessible for cleaning. 
The type of sampler and the sampling procedure shall be as approved by 
the Administrator.



Sec. 58.228  Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and 
conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry products 
from bulk containers to fillers for small packages or containers, shall 
be of stainless or equally corrosion resistant material and designed to 
prevent contamination. All parts should be accessible for cleaning. The 
dump hoppers shall be of such height above floor level as to prevent 
foreign material or spilled product from entering the hopper.



Sec. 58.229  Filler and packaging equipment.

    All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary 
construction and all parts, including valves and filler heads accessible 
for cleaning. New or replacement equipment should comply with the 3-A 
Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry Milk 
Products.



Sec. 58.230  Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy 
duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type 
that has a collector or disposable bag which will not recontaminate the 
atmosphere of the processing and packaging areas. Regular scheduling 
shall be established for its use in vacuuming applicable areas.

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials



Sec. 58.231  General.

    All raw materials received at the drying plant shall meet the 
following quality specifications.



Sec. 58.232  Milk.

    Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in Secs. 58.132 
through 58.138 and, unless processed within two hours after being 
received, it shall be cooled to and held at a temperature of 45  deg.F. 
or lower until processed.



Sec. 58.233  Skim milk.

    The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the 
requirements as outlined in Secs. 58.132 through 58.138, and unless 
processed immediately, it shall be cooled to and maintained at a 
temperature of 45  deg.F. or lower from the time of separating until the 
time of processing.



Sec. 58.234  Buttermilk.

    Buttermilk for drying as dry buttermilk or dry buttermilk product 
shall be fresh and derived from the churning of butter, with or without 
the addition of harmless lactic culture. No preservative, neutralizing 
agent or other chemical may be added. Fluid buttermilk, unless cultured, 
shall be held at 45  deg.F or lower unless processed within 2 hours.
[56 FR 33855, July 24, 1991]



Sec. 58.235  Modified dry milk products.

    Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or chemicals 
have been added or constituents removed to alter their original 
characteristics for processing or usage shall come from products meeting 
the requirements of Secs. 58.232, 58.233, or 58.234. These products 
shall meet the applicable labeling requirements.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.236  Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products 
and modified dry milk products shall be pasteurized at the plant where 
dried, except that acidified buttermilk containing 40 percent or more 
solids may be transported to another plant for drying without 
repasteurization. Provided the condensed product is handled according to 
sanitary conditions approved by the Administrator.
    (a) Pasteurization. (1) All milk or skim milk to be used in the 
manufacture of nonfat dry milk shall be pasteurized prior to condensing 
at a minimum temperature of 161  deg.F. for at least 15 seconds or its 
equivalent in bacterial

[[Page 108]]

destruction. Condensed milk products made from pasteurized milk may be 
transported to a drying plant, provided that it shall be effectively 
repasteurized at the drying plant, prior to drying, at no less than 166 
deg.F. for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction.
    (2) All buttermilk to be used in the manufacture of dry buttermilk 
or dry buttermilk product shall be pasteurized prior to condensing at a 
temperature of 161  deg.F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial 
destruction.
    (b) Heat treatment--(1) High-heat. The finished product shall not 
exceed 1.5 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of nonfat dry 
milk as classified in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Nonfat Dry Milk 
(Spray Process).
    (2) Medium-heat. The finished product shall show undenatured whey 
protein nitrogen between the levels of ``high-heat'' and ``low-heat'' 
(1.51 to 5.99 mg.).
    (3) Low-heat. The finished product shall show not less than 6.0 
undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as 
classified in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Nonfat Dry Milk (Spray 
Process).
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 56 FR 33855, July 24, 
1991]



Sec. 58.237  Condensed surge supply.

    Surge tanks or balance tanks if used between the evaporators and 
dryer shall be used to hold only the minimum amount of condensed product 
necessary for a uniform flow to the dryers. Such tanks holding product 
at temperatures below 150  deg.F. shall be completely emptied and washed 
after each 4 hours of operation or less. Alternate tanks shall be 
provided to permit continuous operation during washing of tanks.



Sec. 58.238  Condensed storage tanks.

    (a) Excess production of condensed product over that which the dryer 
will take continuously from the pans should be bypassed through a cooler 
into a storage tank at 50  deg.F. or lower and held at this temperature 
until used.
    (b) Product cut-off points shall be made at least every 24 hours and 
the tank completely emptied, washed, and sanitized before reuse.



Sec. 58.239  Drying.

    Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry 
product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products 
shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during the drying 
process.



Sec. 58.240  Cooling dry products.

    Prior to packaging and immediately following removal from the drying 
chamber the dry product shall be cooled to a temperature not exceeding 
110  deg.F, however, if the product is to be held in a bulk bin the 
temperature should be reduced to approximately 90  deg.F but shall be 
not more than 110  deg.F.



Sec. 58.241  Packaging, repackaging and storage.

    (a) Containers. Packages or containers used for the packaging of 
nonfat dry milk or other dry milk products shall be any clean, sound 
commercially accepted container or packaging material which will 
satisfactorily protect the contents through the regular channels of 
trade, without significant impairment of quality with respect to flavor, 
wholesomeness or moisture content under the normal conditions of 
handling. In no instance will containers which have previously been used 
for nonfood items, or food items which would be deleterious to the dairy 
product be allowed to be used for the bulk handling of dairy products.
    (b) Filling. Empty containers shall be protected at all times from 
possible contamination and containers which are to be lined shall not be 
prepared more than one hour in advance of filling. Every precaution 
shall be taken during the filling operation to minimize product dust and 
spillage. When necessary a mechanical shaker shall be provided; the 
tapping or pounding of containers should be prohibited. The containers 
shall be closed immediately after filling and the exteriors shall be 
vacuumed or brushed when necessary to render them practically free of 
residual product before being transferred

[[Page 109]]

from the filling room to the palleting or dry storage areas.
    (c) Repackaging. The entire repackaging operation shall be conducted 
in a sanitary manner with all precautions taken to prevent contamination 
and to minimize dust. All exterior surfaces of individual containers 
shall be practically free of product before overwrapping or packing in 
shipping containers. The room shall be kept free of dust accumulation, 
waste, cartons, liners, or other refuse. Conveyors, packaging and carton 
making equipment shall be vacuumed frequently during the operating day 
to prevent the accumulation of dust. No bottles or glass materials of 
any kind shall be permitted in the repackaging or hopper room. The inlet 
openings of all hoppers and bins shall be of minimum size, screened and 
placed well above the floor level. The room and all packaging equipment 
shall be cleaned as often as necessary to maintain a sanitary operation. 
Close attention shall be given to cleaning equipment where residues of 
the dry product may accumulate. A thorough clean-up including windows, 
doors, walls, light fixtures and ledges, should be performed as 
frequently as is necessary to maintain a high standard of cleanliness 
and sanitation. All waste dry dairy products including dribble product 
at the fillers, shall be properly identified and disposed of as animal 
feed.
    (d) Storage--(1) Product. The packaged dry milk product shall be 
stored or so arranged in aisles, rows, or sections and lots at least 18 
inches from any wall and in such a manner as to be orderly, easily 
accessible for inspection or for cleaning of the room. All bags and 
small containers of products shall be placed on pallets elevated from 
the floor. Products in small containers may be stored by methods 
preventing direct contact with the floor when the condition of the 
container is satisfactorily maintained. The storage room shall be kept 
clean and dry and all openings protected against entrance of insects and 
rodents.
    (2) Supplies. All supplies shall be placed on dunnage or pallets and 
arranged in an orderly manner for accessibility and cleaning of the 
room. It is preferable that supplies be stored in an area separate from 
that used for storing the dry products. Supplies shall be kept enclosed 
in their original wrapping material until used. After removal of 
supplies from their original containers, they shall be kept in an 
enclosed metal cabinet, bins or on shelving and if not enclosed shall be 
protected from powder, and dust or other contamination. The room should 
be vacuumed as often as necessary and kept clean and orderly.



Sec. 58.242  Product adulteration.

    All necessary precautions shall be taken throughout the entire 
operation to prevent the adulteration of one product with another. The 
commingling of one type of liquid or dry product with another shall be 
considered as an adulteration of that product. This does not prohibit 
the normal standardization of like products in accordance with good 
commercial practices or the production of specific products for special 
uses, provided applicable labeling requirements are met.



Sec. 58.243  Checking quality.

    All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to 
inspection and analysis by the dairy plant for quality and condition 
throughout each processing operation. Periodically samples of product 
and environmental material shall be tested for salmonella. Test results 
shall be negative when samples are tested for salmonella. Line samples 
should be taken periodically as an aid to quality control in addition to 
the regular routine analysis made on the finished products.



Sec. 58.244  Number of samples.

    As many samples shall be taken from each dryer production lot as is 
necessary to assure proper composition and quality control. A sufficient 
number of representative samples from the lot shall be taken to assure 
compliance with the stated net weight on the container.



Sec. 58.245  Method of official sample analysis.

    Samples shall be tested according to the applicable methods of 
laboratory analysis contained in DA Instruction 918-103, 918-109-1 and 
918-109-3 as issued

[[Page 110]]

by the USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Dairy Division.



Sec. 58.246  Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    This equipment shall be cleaned as often as is necessary to maintain 
such equipment in a clean and sanitary condition. The kind of cleaning 
procedure either wet or dry and the frequency of cleaning shall be based 
upon observation of actual operating results and conditions.



Sec. 58.247  Insect and rodent control program.

    In addition to any commercial pest control service, if one is 
utilized, a specially designated employee should be made responsible for 
the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control 
program as outlined in University of Wisconsin Extension Bulletin A2518 
or subsequent revisions thereof, or one equivalent thereto.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.248  Nonfat dry milk.

    (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial bulk containers bearing an 
official identification shall meet the requirements of U.S. Extra Grade 
or U.S. Standard Grade.
    (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an 
official identification shall meet the requirements of U.S. Extra Grade. 
In addition, the nonfat dry milk shall be sampled and tested in 
accordance with Secs. 58.244 and 58.245.



Sec. 58.249  Instant nonfat dry milk.

    (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in 
accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable 
requirements in subpart A of this part which has been officially 
inspected in process and found to be in compliance with these 
requirements may be identified with the official USDA U.S. Extra Grade, 
processed and packed inspection shield.
    (b) Instant nonfat dry milk shall meet the applicable standard for 
U.S. Extra Grade.



Sec. 58.250  Dry whole milk.

    Dry whole milk in commercial bulk containers which bears an official 
identification shall meet the requirements for the U.S. Standards for 
Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in 
consumer packages shall be for U.S. Extra Grade and shall be gas packed 
with an oxygen content of not more than 2.0 percent.



Sec. 58.251  Dry buttermilk and dry buttermilk product.

    The quality requirements for dry buttermilk or dry buttermilk 
product bearing an official identification shall be in accordance with 
the U.S. Standards for Grades of Dry Buttermilk and Dry Buttermilk 
Product.
[56 FR 33855, July 24, 1991]

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
                  Packaging Butter and Related Products

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.305  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning.
    (a) Butter. The food product usually known as butter, and which is 
made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common 
salt, with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not 
less than 80 percent by weight of milkfat, all tolerances having been 
allowed for.
    (b) Butteroil. The food product resulting from the removal of 
practically all of the moisture and solids-not-fat from butter. It 
contains not less than 99.6 percent fat and not more than 0.3 percent 
moisture and not more than 0.1 percent other butter constituents, of 
which the salt shall be not more than 0.05 percent. Antioxidants 
permitted to be used are as follows:

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Antioxidant                         Maximum level         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Propyl gallate.........................  0.02% of fat.                  
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).........  0.02% of fat.                  
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).........  0.02% of fat.                  

[[Page 111]]

                                                                        
Tocopherols............................  Limit by GMP.                  
Ascorbyl palmitate.....................  Limit by GMP.                  
Dilauryl thiodipropionate..............  0.02% of fat.                  
                                                                        
         Antioxidant synergists                                         
                                                                        
Citric acid............................  Limit by GMP.                  
Sodium citrate.........................  Limit by GMP.                  
Isopropyl citrate......................  0.02% of food.                 
Phosphoric acid........................  Limit by GMP.                  
Monoglyceride citrate..................  200 ppm of fat.                
------------------------------------------------------------------------


An inert gas may be used to flush air-tight containers before, during, 
and after filling. Carbon dioxide may not be used for this purpose.
    (c) Anhydrous milkfat. The food product resulting from the removal 
of practically all of the moisture and solids-not-fat from pasteurized 
cream or butter. It contains not less than 99.8 percent fat and not more 
than 0.1 percent moisture and, when produced from butter, not more than 
0.1 percent other butter constituents, of which the salt shall be not 
more than 0.05 percent. An inert gas may be used to flush air-tight 
containers before, during, and after filling. Carbon dioxide may not be 
used for this purpose.
    (d) Frozen cream. Sweet cream which has been pasteurized and frozen. 
It contains approximately 40 percent milkfat.
    (e) Plastic cream. Sweet cream which has been pasteurized and 
contains approximately 80 percent milkfat.
    (f) Whipped butter. The food product is made by the uniform 
incorporation of air or inert gas into butter.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 
1994; 60 FR 4825, Jan. 24, 1995]

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.311  Coolers and freezers.

    The coolers and freezers shall be equipped with facilities for 
maintaining proper temperature and humidity conditions, consistent with 
good commercial practices for the applicable product, to protect the 
equality and condition of the products during storage or during 
tempering prior to further processing. Coolers and freezers shall be 
kept clean, orderly, free from insects, rodents, and mold, and 
maintained in good repair. They shall be adequately lighted and proper 
circulation of air shall be maintained at all times. The floors, walls, 
and ceilings shall be of such construction as to permit thorough 
cleaning.



Sec. 58.312  Churn rooms.

    Churn rooms in addition to proper construction and sanitation shall 
be so equipped that the air is kept free from objectionable odors and 
vapors and extreme temperatures by means of adequate ventilation and 
exhaust systems or air conditioning and heating facilities.



Sec. 58.313  Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products 
should, in addition to proper construction and sanitation, provide an 
atmosphere relatively free from mold (not more than 15 colonies per 
plate during a 15 min. exposure), dust, or other air-borne contamination 
and maintain a reasonable room temperature in accordance with good 
commercial practices.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.314  General construction, repair and installation.

    All equipment and utensils necessary to the manufacture of butter 
and related products shall meet the same general requirements as 
outlined in Sec. 58.128. In addition for certain other equipment, the 
following requirements shall be met.



Sec. 58.315  Continuous churns.

    All product contact surfaces of the churn and related equipment 
shall be of noncorrosive material. All non-metallic product contact 
surfaces shall comply with 3-A Standards for Plastic, Rubber, and 
Rubber-Like Materials. All product contact surfaces of the churn and 
related equipment shall be readily accessible for cleaning and 
inspection. Construction shall follow the applicable principles of the 
3-A Sanitary Standards.



Sec. 58.316  Conventional churns.

    Churns shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless steel or equally 
corrosion resistant metal, free from

[[Page 112]]

cracks, and in good repair. All gasket material shall be fat resistant, 
nontoxic and reasonably durable. Seals around the doors shall be tight.



Sec. 58.317  Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be 
constructed of aluminum, stainless steel, or equally corrosion resistant 
metal free from cracks, seams and must have a surface that is relatively 
smooth and easily cleanable. All non-metallic product surfaces shall 
comply with 3-A Standards for Plastic, Rubber, and Rubber-Like Material.



Sec. 58.318  Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of 
butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of stainless steel or equally 
corrosion resistant metal, free from cracks and of sanitary 
construction, and readily cleanable.



Sec. 58.319  Printing equipment.

    All printing equipment shall be designed so as to adequately protect 
the product and be readily demountable for cleaning of product contact 
surfaces. All product contact surfaces shall be aluminum, stainless 
steel or equally corrosion resistant metal, or plastic, rubber and 
rubber like material which comply with 3-A standards, except that 
conveyors may be constructed of material which can be properly cleaned 
and maintained in a satisfactory manner.



Sec. 58.320  Brine tanks.

    Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be 
constructed of noncorrosive material and have an adequate and safe means 
of heating the salt solution for the treatment of the liners. The tank 
should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet.



Sec. 58.321  Cream storage tanks.

    Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Sec. 58.128(d). 
Cream storage tanks for continuous churns should be equipped with 
effective temperature controls and recording devices.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material



Sec. 58.322  Cream.

    Cream separated at an approved plant and used for the manufacture of 
butter shall have been derived from raw material meeting the 
requirements as listed under Secs. 58.132 through 58.138 of this 
subpart.
[50 FR 34673, Aug. 27, 1985]



Sec. 58.323  [Reserved]



Sec. 58.324  Butteroil.

    To produce butteroil eligible for official certification, the butter 
used shall conform to the flavor requirements of U.S. Grade AA, U.S. 
Grade A, or U.S. Grade B, and shall have been manufactured in an 
approved plant.



Sec. 58.325  Anhydrous milkfat.

    If cream is used in the production of anhydrous milkfat that is 
eligible for official certification, the anhydrous milkfat shall be made 
by a continuous separation process directly from milk or cream. The 
cream used shall be comparable to the flavor quality specified above for 
U.S. Grade AA or U.S. Grade A butter. The milkfat from cream may then be 
further concentrated into oil. The cream or oil shall be pasteurized in 
accordance with the procedures for cream for buttermaking 
(Sec. 58.334a). If butter is used in the production of anhydrous milkfat 
that is eligible for official certification, the butter used shall 
conform to the flavor requirements of U.S. Grade AA or U.S. Grade A 
butter and shall have been manufactured in an approved plant. The 
appearance of anhydrous milkfat should be fairly smooth and uniform in 
consistency.
[60 FR 4826, Jan. 24, 1995]



Sec. 58.326  Plastic cream.

    To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the 
quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream 
acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA or U.S. Grade A butter.

[[Page 113]]



Sec. 58.327  Frozen cream.

    To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the 
quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream 
acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA or U.S. Grade A butter.



Sec. 58.328  Salt.

    The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and 
shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex.



Sec. 58.329  Color.

    Coloring, when used shall be Annatto or any color which is approved 
by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.330  Butter starter cultures.

    Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor 
components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and 
desirable flavor and shall have the ability to transmit these qualities 
to the finished product.



Sec. 58.331  Starter distillate.

    The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related 
products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material 
and prepared in accordance with good commercial practice.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.332  Segregation of raw material.

    The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet the 
quality specifications as indicated under Sec. 58.322. The milk and 
cream should be segregated by quality and processed separately in such a 
manner that the finished product will fully meet the requirements of a 
particular U.S. Grade or other specification, whichever is applicable.



Sec. 58.334  Pasteurization.

    The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk 
or cream is processed into the finished product or by procedures as set 
forth by the Administrator.
    (a) Cream for butter making. The cream for butter making shall be 
pasteurized at a temperature of not less than 165  deg.F. and held 
continuously in a vat at such temperature for not less than 30 minutes; 
or pasteurized by HTST method at a minimum temperature of not less than 
185  deg.F. for not less than 15 seconds; or it shall be pasteurized by 
any other equivalent temperature and holding time which will assure 
adequate pasteurization. Additional heat treatment above the minimum 
pasteurization requirement is advisable to insure improved keeping-
quality characteristics.

Adequate pasteurization control shall be used and the diversion valve 
shall be set to divert at no less than 185  deg.F. with a 15 second 
holding time or its equivalent in time and temperature to assure 
pasteurization. If the vat or holding method of pasteurization is used, 
vat covers shall be closed prior to holding period to assure temperature 
of air space reaching 5  deg.F. higher than the minimum temperature 
during the holding time. Covers shall also be kept closed during the 
holding and cooling period.
    (b) Cream for plastic or frozen cream. The pasteurization of cream 
for plastic or frozen cream shall be accomplished in the same manner as 
in paragraph (a) of this section, except, that the temperature for the 
vat method shall be not less than 170  deg.F. for not less than 30 
minutes, or not less than 190  deg.F. for not less than 15 seconds or by 
any other temperature and holding time which will assure adequate 
pasteurization and comparable keeping-quality characteristics.



Sec. 58.335  Quality control tests.

    All milk, cream and related products are subject to inspection for 
quality and condition throughout each processing operation. Quality 
control tests shall be made on flow samples as often as necessary to 
check the effectiveness of processing and manufacturing and as an aid in 
correcting deficiencies in processing and manufacturing. Routine 
analysis shall be made on raw materials and finished products to assure 
adequate microbiological, composition and chemical control.

[[Page 114]]



Sec. 58.336  Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    (a) Microbiological. Samples shall be taken from churnings or 
batches and should be taken as often as is necessary to insure 
microbiological control.
    (b) Composition. Sampling and testing for product composition shall 
be made on churns or batches as often as is necessary to insure adequate 
composition control. For in-plant control, the Kohman or modified Kohman 
test may be used.
    (c) Chemical--(1) Acid degree value. This test should be made on 
churnings or batches from samples taken from the cream as often as is 
necessary to aid in the control of lipase activity.
    (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or 
batches from samples taken from the butter as often as is necessary to 
aid in the control of lipase activity.
    (d) Other analysis. Other chemical analysis or physical measurements 
shall be performed as often as is necessary to insure meeting grade 
standards and contract specifications.
    (e) Weight or volume control. Representative samples of the packaged 
product should be checked using procedures prescribed by the 
Administrator during the packaging operation to assure compliance with 
the stated net weight or volume on the container.
    (f) Keeping quality and stability. Samples from churnings shall be 
subjected to a seven day keeping quality test at a temperature of 72 
deg.F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. 
Optionally 98  deg.F. for 48 hours may be used, however, in case of a 
dispute, the results of the seven days at 72  deg.F. will prevail.



Sec. 58.337  Official test methods.

    (a) Chemical. Chemical analyses except where otherwise prescribed 
herein, shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the 
latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of 
Official Analytical Chemists, published by the Association of Official 
Analytical Chemists, the Official and Tentative Methods of the American 
Oil Chemists Society or any other methods giving equivalent results.
    (b) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in 
accordance with the methods described or suggested in the latest edition 
of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, published by 
the American Public Health Association.



Sec. 58.338  Composition and wholesomeness.

    All ingredients used in the manufacture of butter and related 
products shall be subject to inspection and shall be wholesome and 
practically free from impurities. Chlorinating facilities shall be 
provided for butter wash water if needed and all other necessary 
precautions shall be taken to prevent contamination of products. All 
finished products shall comply with the requirements of the Federal 
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as to composition and wholesomeness.



Sec. 58.339  Containers.

    (a) Containers used for the packaging of butter and related products 
shall be commercially acceptable containers or packaging material that 
will satisfactorily protect the quality of the contents in regular 
channels of trade. Caps or covers which extend over the lip of the 
container shall be used on all cups or tubs containing two pounds or 
less, to protect the product from contamination during subsequent 
handling.
    (b) Liners and wrappers. Supplies of parchment liners, wrappers and 
other packaging material shall be protected against dust, mold and other 
possible contamination.
    (1) Prior to use, parchment liners for bulk butter packages shall be 
completely immersed in a boiling salt solution in a suitable container 
constructed of stainless steel or other equally non-corrosive material. 
The liners shall be maintained in the solution for not less than 30 
minutes. The liners shall be effectively treated with a solution 
consisting of at least 15 pounds of salt for every 85 pounds of water 
and shall be strengthened or changed as frequently as necessary to keep 
the solution full strength and in good condition.

[[Page 115]]

    (2) Other liners such as polyethylene shall be treated or handled in 
such a manner as to prevent contamination of the liner prior to filling.
    (c) Filling bulk butter containers. The lined butter containers 
shall be protected from possible contamination prior to filling. Use of 
parchment liners may be accomplished by alternately inverting one 
container over the other or stacking the lined boxes on their sides in a 
rack, until ready for use. When using polyethylene liners the boxes 
should be lined immediately prior to use. When packing butter into the 
bulk containers, care shall be taken to fill the corners leaving as few 
holes or openings as possible. The surface of the butter as well as the 
covering liner shall be smoothed evenly over the top surface before 
closing and sealing the container. Containers should be stacked only as 
high as the firmness of the product will support weight, so as not to 
crush or distort the container.



Sec. 58.340  Printing and packaging.

    Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of butter shall 
be conducted under sanitary conditions. Separate rooms equipped with 
automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The 
outside cartons should be removed from bulk butter in a room outside of 
the printing operation but the parchment removal and cutting of the 
butter may be done in the print room.



Sec. 58.341  Repackaging.

    When officially graded or inspected bulk product is to be repackaged 
into consumer type packages for official grade labeling or other 
official identification, a supervisor of packaging shall be required and 
the plant, equipment, facilities and personnel shall meet the same 
specifications as outlined in this part, including such markings or 
identification as may be required.



Sec. 58.342  General identification.

    Commercial bulk shipping containers shall be legibly marked with the 
name of the product, net weight, name and address of manufacturer, 
processor or distributor or other assigned plant identification 
(manufacturer's lot number, churn number, etc.) and any other 
identification that may be required. Packages of plastic or frozen cream 
shall be marked with the percent of milkfat.



Sec. 58.343  Storage of finished product in coolers.

    All products shall be kept under refrigeration at temperatures of 40 
 deg.F. or lower after packaging and until ready for distribution or 
shipment. The products shall not be placed directly on floors or exposed 
to foreign odors or conditions such as drippage due to condensation 
which might cause package or product damage.



Sec. 58.344  Storage of finished product in freezer.

    (a) Sharp freezers. Plastic cream or frozen cream intended for 
storage shall be placed in quick freezer rooms immediately after 
packaging, for rapid and complete freezing within 24 hours. The packages 
shall be piled or spaced in such a manner that air can freely circulate 
between and around the packages. The rooms shall be maintained at -10 
deg.F. or lower and shall be equipped to provide sufficient high 
velocity, air circulation for rapid freezing. After the products have 
been completely frozen, they may be transferred to a freezer storage 
room for continued storage.
    (b) Freezer storage. The room shall be maintained at a temperature 
of 0  deg.F. or lower. Adequate air circulation is desirable.

Butter intended to be held more than 30 days shall be placed in a 
freezer room as soon as possible after packaging. If not frozen before 
being placed in the freezer, the packages shall be spaced in such a 
manner as to permit rapid freezing and repiled, if necessary, at a later 
time.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.345  Butter.

    The quality requirements for butter shall be in accordance with the 
U.S. Standards for Grades of Butter for U.S. Grade AA, U.S. Grade A, or 
U.S. Grade B, respectively.

[[Page 116]]

    (a) In addition, the butter is subject to the following 
specifications when sampled and tested in accordance with Secs. 58.336 
and 58.337.
    (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold 
count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per 
gram.
    (c) Optional except when required or requested: Copper content, not 
more than 0.3 ppm; iron content, not more than 1.0 ppm; enterococci, not 
more than 10 per gram.



Sec. 58.346  Whipped butter.

    (a) The quality requirements for whipped butter shall be in 
accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Whipped Butter for U.S. 
Grade AA and U.S. Grade A, respectively.
    (b) Whipped butter shall also be subject to the following 
specifications when sampled and tested in accordance with Sec. 58.336 
and Sec. 58.337, respectively:
    (1) Proteolytic count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold 
count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per 
gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 70 deg.F.
    (2) Optional except when required or requested: Copper content, not 
more than 0.3 ppm; iron content, not more than 1.0 ppm; enterococci, not 
more than 10 per gram.
[59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994]



Sec. 58.347  Butteroil or anhydrous milkfat.

    The flavor shall be bland and free from rancid, oxidized, or other 
objectionable flavors.
    (a) In addition, the finished products shall meet the following 
specifications when sampled and tested in accordance with Secs. 58.336 
and 58.337:

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Butteroil       Anhydrous milkfat
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milkfat.........................  Not less than 99.6  Not less than 99.8
                                   percent.            percent.         
Moisture........................  Not more than 0.3   Not more than 0.1 
                                   percent.            percent.         
Other butter constituents         Not more than 0.1   Not more than 0.1 
 including salt.                   percent.            percent.         
Salt............................  Not more than 0.05  Not more than 0.05
                                   percent.            percent.         
Antioxidants....................  Those permitted by  Those permitted by
                                   standards of the    standards of the 
                                   Codex               Codex            
                                   Alimentarius        Alimentarius     
                                   Commission and      Commission and   
                                   authorized for      authorized for   
                                   use by the Food     use by the Food  
                                   and Drug            and Drug         
                                   Administration.     Administration.  
Free fatty acids................  Not more than 0.5   Not more than 0.3 
                                   percent             percent          
                                   (calculated as      (calculated as   
                                   oleic acid).        oleic acid).     
Peroxide value..................  Not more than 0.1   Not more than 0.1 
                                   milliequivalent     milliequivalent  
                                   per kilogram of     per kilogram of  
                                   fat.                fat.             
Iron content....................  Not more than 0.2   Not more than 0.2 
                                   ppm.                ppm.             
Copper content..................  Not more than 0.05  Not more than 0.05
                                   ppm.                ppm.             
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) [Reserved]
[60 FR 4826, Jan. 24, 1995]



Sec. 58.348  Plastic cream.

    The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing and desirable but may possess 
the following flavors to a slight degree; aged, bitter, flat, smothered 
and storage; and cooked and feed flavors to a definite degree. It shall 
be free from rancid, oxidized or other objectionable flavors.
    (a) In addition, the finished product shall meet the following 
specifications when sampled and tested in accordance with Secs. 58.336 
and 58.337.
    (b) Standard plate count, not more than 30,000 per gram; coliform 
count, not more than 10 per gram; yeast and mold, not more than 20 per 
gram;
    (c) Optional except when required or requested: Copper content not 
more than 0.3 ppm; iron content not more than 1.0 ppm.



Sec. 58.349  Frozen cream.

    The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing and desirable, but may possess 
the following flavors to a slight degree: Aged, bitter, flat, smothered, 
storage; and cooked and feed flavors to a definite degree. It shall be 
free from rancid, oxidized or other objectionable flavors.
    (a) In addition, the product shall meet the following specifications 
when sampled and tested in accordance with Secs. 58.336 and 58.337. 
Samples for analysis should be taken prior to freezing of the product.

[[Page 117]]

    (b) Standard plate count, not more than 30,000 per ml.; coliform 
count, not more than 10 per ml.; yeast and mold, not more than 20 per 
ml.
    (c) Optional except when required or requested: Copper content, not 
more than 0.3 ppm; iron content not more than 1.0 ppm.

   Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing and Packaging 
                                 Cheese

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.405  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa as the 
case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the following 
terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Cheese. The fresh or matured product obtained by draining after 
coagulation of milk, cream, skimmed or partly skimmed milk or a 
combination of some or all of these products and including any cheese 
that conforms to the provisions of 21 CFR 19.500 up to 19.750,\1\ 
``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cheese and Cheese 
Products,'' Food and Drug Administration.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    \1\ 21 CFR part 19 was redesignated as part 133 at 42 FR 14302, Mar. 
15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) Milkfat from whey. The fat obtained from the separation of 
cheese whey.

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.406  Starter facility.

    A separate starter room or properly designed starter tanks and 
satisfactory air movement techniques shall be provided for the 
propagation and handling of starter cultures. All necessary precaution 
shall be taken to prevent contamination of the facility, equipment and 
the air therein. A filtered air supply with a minimum average efficiency 
of 90 percent when tested in accordance with the ASHRAE Synthetic Dust 
Arrestance Test should be provided so as to obtain outward movement of 
air from the room to minimize contamination.



Sec. 58.407  Make room.

    The rooms in which the cheese is manufactured shall be of adequate 
size, and the equipment adequately spaced to permit movement around the 
equipment for proper cleaning and satisfactory working conditions. 
Adequate filtered air ventilation should be provided. When applicable, 
the mold count should be not more than 15 colonies per plate during a 15 
minute exposure.



Sec. 58.408  Brine room.

    A brine room, when applicable, should be a separate room constructed 
so it can be readily cleanable. The brine room equipment shall be 
maintained in good repair and corrosion kept at a minimum.



Sec. 58.409  Drying room.

    When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to 
accommodate the maximum production of cheese during the flush period. 
Adequate shelving and air circulation shall be provided for proper 
drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided 
which will promote the development of a sound, dry surface of the 
cheese.



Sec. 58.410  Paraffining room.

    When applicable for rind cheese, a separate room or compartment 
should be provided for paraffining and boxing the cheese. The room shall 
be of adequate size and the temperature maintained near the temperature 
of the drying room to avoid sweating of the cheese prior to paraffining.



Sec. 58.411  Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper 
wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, 
condensation, mold or other conditions which may contaminate the surface 
of the cheese or contribute to unsatisfactory packaging of the cheese.



Sec. 58.412  Coolers or curing rooms.

    Coolers or curing rooms where cheese is held for curing or storage 
shall be clean and maintained at the proper uniform temperature and 
humidity to

[[Page 118]]

adequately protect the cheese, and minimize the undesirable growth of 
mold. Proper circulation of air shall be maintained at all times. The 
shelves shall be kept clean and dry. This does not preclude the 
maintenance of suitable conditions for the curing of mold and surface 
ripened varieties.



Sec. 58.413  Cutting and packaging rooms.

    When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms 
shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese 
and for the cutting and wrapping operation. The rooms shall be well 
lighted, ventilated and provided with filtered air. Air movement shall 
be outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting 
and packaging room. The waste materials and waste cheese shall be 
disposed of in an environmentally and/or sanitary approved manner.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.414  General construction, repair and installation.

    All equipment and utensils necessary to the manufacture of cheese 
and related products shall meet the same general requirements as 
outlined in Sec. 58.128. In addition, for certain other equipment the 
following requirements shall be met.



Sec. 58.415  Starter vats.

    Bulk starter vats shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion 
resistant metal and should be constructed according to the applicable 3-
A Sanitary Standards. New or replacement vats shall be constructed 
according to the applicable 3-A Sanitary Standards. The vats shall be in 
good repair, equipped with tight fitting lids and have adequate 
temperature controls such as valves, indicating and/or recording 
thermometers.



Sec. 58.416  Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should 
be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity for uniform 
heating. The inner liner shall be minimum 16 gauge stainless steel or 
other equally corrosion resistant metal, properly pitched from side to 
center and from rear to front for adequate drainage. The liner shall be 
smooth, free from excessive dents or creases and shall extend over the 
edge of the outer jacket. The outer jacket shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or other metal which can be kept clean and sanitary. The 
junction of the liner and outer jackets shall be constructed so as to 
prevent milk or cheese from entering the inner jacket.
    (b) The vat, tank and/or drain table shall be equipped with a 
suitable sanitary outlet valve. Effective valves shall be provided and 
properly maintained to control the application of heat to this 
equipment. If this equipment is provided with removable cloth covers, 
they shall be clean.



Sec. 58.417  Mechanical agitators.

    The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The 
carriages shall be of the enclosed type and all product contact 
surfaces, shields, shafts, and hubs shall be constructed of stainless 
steel or other equally corrosion resistant metal. Metal blades, forks, 
or stirrers shall be constructed of stainless steel and of material 
approved in the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and 
Rubber-Like Materials and shall be free from rough or sharp edges which 
might scratch the equipment or remove metal particles.



Sec. 58.418  Automatic cheese making equipment.

    (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be 
constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the 3-A 
Sanitary Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Material. All 
areas shall be free from cracks and rough surfaces and constructed so 
that they can be easily cleaned.
    (b) Curd conveying systems. The curd conveying system, conveying 
lines and cyclone separator shall be constructed of stainless steel or 
other equally corrosion resistant metal and in such manner that it can 
be satisfactorily cleaned. The system shall be of sufficient size to 
handle the volume of curd and be provided with filtered air of the 
quality satisfactory for the intended use. Air compressors or vacuum 
pumps

[[Page 119]]

shall not be located in the processing or packaging areas.
    (c) Automatic salter. The automatic salter shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or other equally corrosion resistant metal. This 
equipment shall be constructed to equally distribute the salt throughout 
the curd. It shall be designed to accurately weigh the amount of salt 
added. The automatic salter shall be constructed so that it can be 
satisfactorily cleaned. The salting system shall provide for adequate 
absorption of the salt in the curd. Water and steam used to moisten the 
curd prior to salting shall be potable water or culinary steam.
    (d) Automatic curd filler. The automatic curd filler shall be 
constructed of stainless steel or other equally corrosion resistant 
metal. This equipment shall be of sufficient size to handle the volume 
of curd and constructed and controlled so as to accurately weigh the 
amount of curd as it fills. The curd filler shall be constructed so that 
it can be satisfactorily cleaned.
    (e) Hoop and barrel washer. The washer shall be constructed so that 
it can be satisfactorily cleaned. It shall also be equipped with 
temperature and pressure controls to ensure satisfactory cleaning of the 
hoops or barrels. It should be adequately vented to the outside.



Sec. 58.419  Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Knives, hand rakes, shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and 
miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material approved 
in the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic and Rubber-like Material. The 
product contact surfaces of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. 
All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that they can be kept 
clean and free from rough or sharp edges which might scratch the 
equipment or remove metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall 
be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced when necessary.



Sec. 58.420  Hoops, forms and followers.

    The hoops, forms, and followers shall be constructed of stainless 
steel, heavy tinned steel or other approved materials. If tinned, they 
shall be kept tinned and free from rust. All hoops, forms, and followers 
shall be kept in good repair. Drums or other special forms used to press 
and store cheese shall be clean and sanitary.



Sec. 58.421  Press.

    The cheese press should be constructed of stainless steel and all 
joints welded and all surfaces, seams and openings readily cleanable. 
The pressure device shall be the continuous type. Press cloths shall be 
maintained in good repair and in a sanitary condition. Single service 
press cloths shall be used only once.



Sec. 58.422  Brine tank.

    The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material 
and should be resistant to corrosion, pitting or flaking. The brine tank 
shall be operated so as to assure the brine is clean, well circulated, 
and of the proper strength and temperature for the variety of cheese 
being made.



Sec. 58.423  Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and 
maintained so that the product is not contaminated with rust or flaking 
paint. An inner liner of stainless steel or other corrosion resistant 
material should be provided.



Sec. 58.424  Monorail.

    The monorail shall be constructed so as to prevent foreign material 
from falling on the cheese or cheese containers.



Sec. 58.425  Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate 
the cheese and be easily cleaned. It shall be installed so that the 
press drippings will not cause an environmental problem.



Sec. 58.426  Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless 
cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth interior 
surface and have controls that shall provide uniform pressure and heat 
equally to all surfaces. The equipment used to apply

[[Page 120]]

shrinkable wrapping material to rindless cheese shall operate to 
maintain the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable 
manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on the cheese and tightly adhere the 
wrapper to the surface of the cheese.



Sec. 58.427  Paraffin tanks.

    The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than 
metal racks to support the cheese, have heat controls and an indicating 
thermometer. The cheese wax shall be kept clean.



Sec. 58.428  Speciality equipment.

    All product contact areas of speciality equipment shall be 
constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the 3-A 
Sanitary Standards for Plastic and Rubber and Rubber-Like Material, and 
constructed following 3-A Sanitary Standards principles.



Sec. 58.429  Washing machine.

    When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall 
be of commercial quality and size; or of sufficient size to handle the 
applicable load. It should be equipped with temperature and water level 
controls.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material



Sec. 58.430  Milk.

    The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and 
shall meet the requirements as outlined under Secs. 58.132 through 
58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the fat from the 
milk or by adding one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, 
skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, and water in a 
quantity sufficient to reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. 
Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same 
requirements as outlined under Secs. 58.132 through 58.138.



Sec. 58.431  Hydrogen peroxide.

    The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S. 
Pharmacopeia, except that it may exceed the concentration specified 
therein and it does not contain added preservative. Application and 
usage shall be as specified in the ``Definitions and Standards of 
Identity for Cheese and Cheese Products'', Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.432  Catalase.

    The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, 
neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per 
milliliter. The source of the catalase, its application and usage shall 
be as specified in the ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for 
Cheese and Cheese Products,'' Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.433  Cheese cultures.

    Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and 
flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste 
and odor and shall have the ability to actively produce the desired 
results in the cheese during the manufacturing process.



Sec. 58.434  Calcium chloride.

    Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food 
Chemical Codex.



Sec. 58.435  Color.

    Coloring when used, shall be Annatto or any cheese or butter color 
which meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.436  Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe 
and suitable.



Sec. 58.437  Salt.

    The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and 
shall meet the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.438  Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be 
pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum 
temperature of 161  deg.F. for not less than 15 seconds or by any

[[Page 121]]

other acceptable combination of temperature and time treatment approved 
by the Administrator. HTST pasteurization units shall be equipped with 
the proper controls and equipment to assure pasteurization. If the milk 
is held more than 2 hours between the time of pasteurization and 
setting, it shall be cooled to 45  deg.F. or lower until time of 
setting.



Sec. 58.439  Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    If the cheese is labeled as ``heat treated'', ``unpasteurized,'' 
``raw milk'', or ``for manufacturing'' the milk may be raw or heated at 
temperatures below pasteurization. Cheese made from unpasteurized milk 
shall be cured for a period of 60 days at a temperature not less than 35 
 deg.F. If the milk is held more than 2 hours between time of receipt or 
heat treatment and setting, it shall be cooled to 45  deg.F. or lower 
until time of setting.



Sec. 58.440  Make schedule.

    A uniform schedule should be established and followed as closely as 
possible for the various steps of setting, cutting, cooking, draining 
the whey and milling the curd, to promote a uniform quality of cheese.



Sec. 58.441  Records.

    Starter and make records should be kept at least three months.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control 
number 0583-0047) \1\


    \1\ Editorial Note: See table appearing in Sec. 58.100 for correct 
OMB control number.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982]



Sec. 58.442  Laboratory and quality control tests.

    (a) Chemical analyses--(1) Milkfat and moisture. One sample shall be 
tested from each vat of the finished cheese to assure compliance with 
composition requirements.
    (2) Test method. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with 
the methods described in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association 
of Official Analytical Chemists as specified in the appropriate 
standards of identity, the latest edition of Standard Methods or by 
other methods giving equivalent results.
    (b) Weight or volume control. Representative samples of the finished 
product shall be checked during the packaging operation to assure 
compliance with the stated net weight on the container of consumer size 
packages.



Sec. 58.443  Whey handling.

    (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling 
of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize 
flies, insects and development of objectionable odors.
    (b) Whey or whey products intended for human food shall at all times 
be handled in a sanitary manner in accordance with the procedures of 
this subpart as specified for handling milk and dairy products.
    (c) Milkfat from whey should not be more than four days old when 
shipped.



Sec. 58.444  Packaging and repackaging.

    (a) Packaging rindless cheese or cutting and repackaging all styles 
of bulk cheese shall be conducted under rigid sanitary conditions. The 
atmosphere of the packaging rooms, the equipment and the packaging 
material shall be practically free from mold and bacterial 
contamination.
    (b) When officially graded bulk cheese is to be repackaged into 
consumer type packages with official grade labels or other official 
identification, a supervisor of packaging shall be required. If the 
repackaging is performed in a plant other than the one in which the 
cheese is manufactured and the product is officially identified, the 
plant, equipment, facilities and personnel shall meet the same 
requirements as outlined in this part.



Sec. 58.445  General identification.

    Bulk cheese for cutting and the container for cheese for 
manufacturing shall be legibly marked with the name of the product, code 
or date of manufacture, vat number, officially designated code number or 
name and address of manufacturer. Each consumer

[[Page 122]]

sized container shall meet the applicable regulations of the Food and 
Drug Administration.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.446  Quality requirements.

    (a) Cheddar cheese. The quality requirements for Cheddar cheese 
shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Cheddar 
Cheese.
    (b) Colby cheese. The quality requirements for Colby cheese shall be 
in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Colby Cheese.
    (c) Monterey (Monterey Jack) cheese. The quality requirements for 
Monterey (Monterey Jack) cheese shall be in accordance with the U.S. 
Standards for Grades of Monterey (Monterey Jack) Cheese.
    (d) Swiss cheese, Emmentaler cheese. The quality requirements for 
Swiss cheese, Emmentaler cheese shall be in accordance with the U.S. 
Standards for Grades for Swiss Cheese, Emmentaler Cheese.
    (e) Bulk American cheese for manufacturing. The quality requirements 
for bulk American cheese for manufacturing shall be in accordance with 
the U.S. Standards for Grades of Bulk American Cheese for Manufacturing.

   Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing and Packaging 
                             Cottage Cheese

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.505  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Condensed skim. Skim milk which has been condensed to 
approximately one-third the original volume in accordance with standard 
commercial practice.
    (b) Cottage cheese. (1) Cottage cheese dry curd. The soft uncured 
cheese meeting the requirements of 21 CFR 19.525 \1\ Food and Drug 
Administration.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ See footnote at Sec. 58.405.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Cottage cheese. The soft uncured cheese meeting the requirements 
of 21 CFR 19.530,\1\ Food and Drug Administration.
    (3) Lowfat Cottage cheese. The soft uncured cheese meeting the 
requirements of 21 CFR 19.531,\1\ Food and Drug Administration.
    (c) Direct acidification. The production of cottage cheese, without 
the use of bacterial starter cultures, through the use of approved food 
grade acids. This product shall be labeled according to the requirements 
of 21 CFR 19.530(d),\1\ Food and Drug Administration.
    (d) Cottage cheese with fruits, nuts, chives, or other vegetables. 
Shall consist of cottage cheese to which has been added fruits, nuts, 
chives or other vegetables. The finished cheese shall comply with 
Sec. 58.505(b).
    (e) Cream. The milkfat portion of milk which rises to the surface of 
milk on standing or is separated from it by centrifugal force and 
contains not less than 18.0 percent of milkfat.
    (f) Creaming mixture. The creaming mixture consists of cream or a 
mixture of cream with milk or skim milk or both. To adjust the solids 
content, nonfat dry milk or concentrated skim milk may be added but not 
to exceed 3.0 percent by weight of the creaming mixture. It may or may 
not contain a culture of harmless lactic acid and flavor producing 
bacteria, food grade acid, salt, and stabilizers with or without 
carriers. The creaming mixture in its final form may or may not be 
homogenized and shall conform to the provisions of 21 CFR 19.530(b),\1\ 
Food and Drug Administration.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ 21 CFR part 20 was redesignated as part 135 at 42 FR 14303, Mar. 
15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.510  Rooms and compartments.

    (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated 
from other rooms or areas. Excessive personnel traffic or other possible 
contaminating conditions should be avoided. Rooms, compartments, 
coolers, and dry storage space in which any raw material, packaging or 
ingredients supplies

[[Page 123]]

or finished products are handled, processed, packaged or stored shall be 
designed and constructed to assure clean and orderly operations.
    (b) Ventilation. Processing and packaging rooms or compartments 
shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth 
of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation 
of water vapor and minimize or eliminate objectionable odors. To 
minimize air borne contamination in processing and packaging rooms a 
filtered air supply meeting the requirements of Sec. 58.510(c) shall be 
provided. The incoming air shall exert an outward pressure so that the 
movement of air will be outward and prevent the movement of unfiltered 
air inward.
    (c) Starter facility. A separate starter room or properly designed 
starter tanks and satisfactory air movement techniques shall be provided 
for the propagation and handling of starter cultures. All necessary 
precautions shall be taken to prevent contamination of the room, 
equipment and the air therein. A filtered air supply with a minimum 
average efficiency of 90% when tested in accordance with the ASHRAE 
Synthetic Dust Arrestance Test should be provided so as to obtain an 
outward movement of air from the room to minimize contamination.
    (d) Coolers. Coolers shall be equipped with facilities for 
maintaining proper temperature and humidity conditions, consistent with 
good commercial practices for the applicable product, to protect the 
quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, 
orderly and free from mold, and maintained in good repair. They shall be 
adequately lighted and proper circulation of air shall be maintained at 
all times. The floors, walls, and ceilings shall be of such construction 
as to permit thorough cleaning.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.511  General construction, repair and installation.

    The equipment and utensils used for the manufacture and handling of 
cottage cheese shall be as specified in Sec. 58.128. In addition for 
certain other equipment the following requirements shall be met.



Sec. 58.512  Cheese vats or tanks.

    (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of Sec. 58.416. 
When direct steam injection is used for heating the milk, the vat or 
tank may be of single shell construction. The steam shall be culinary 
steam.
    (b) Vats shall be equipped with valves to control the heating and 
cooling medium and a suitable sanitary outlet valve. Vats used for 
creaming curd should be equipped with a refrigerated cooling medium. A 
circulating pump for the heating and cooling medium is recommended.



Sec. 58.513  Agitators.

    Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of Sec. 58.417.



Sec. 58.514  Container fillers.

    Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for 
Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese.



Sec. 58.515  Mixers.

    Only mixers shall be used which will mix the cheese carefully and 
keep shattering of the curd particles to a minimum. They shall be 
constructed in such a manner as to be readily cleanable. If shafts 
extend through the wall of the tank below the level of the product, they 
shall be equipped with proper seals which are readily removable for 
cleaning and sanitizing. The mixer shall be enclosed or equipped with 
tight fitting covers.



Sec. 58.516  Starter vats.

    Bulk starter vats shall meet the requirements of Sec. 58.415.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material



Sec. 58.517  General.

    Raw materials used for manufacturing cottage cheese shall meet the 
following quality specifications.



Sec. 58.518  Milk.

    The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance 
with Secs. 58.132 through 58.138.

[[Page 124]]



Sec. 58.519  Dairy products.

    (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary 
source shall be separated from milk meeting the same quality 
requirements for milk as outlined in Sec. 58.518 above. Skim milk after 
being pasteurized and separated shall be cooled to 45  deg.F. or lower 
unless the skim milk is to be set for cheese within two hours after 
pasteurizing. The skim milk should not be more than 48 hours old from 
the time the milk was received at the plant and the skim milk is set for 
cheese.
    (b) Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk, when used, shall be obtained 
from milk meeting the same quality requirements as outlined in 
Sec. 58.518 above. It shall be processed according to the requirements 
of this Subpart, and should meet the requirements of Sec. 58.236(b)(3).
    (c) Condensed skim milk. Condensed skim milk, if used, shall be 
prepared from raw milk or skim milk that meets the same quality 
requirements outlined above for raw milk or skim milk. It shall be 
cooled promptly after drawing from the vacuum pan or evaporator and 
shall have been pasteurized before concentrating or during the 
manufacture. The standard plate count of the concentrated milk shall not 
exceed 30,000 per ml. at time of use.
    (d) Cream. Any cream used for preparing the dressing for creamed 
cottage cheese shall be separated from milk meeting at least the same 
quality requirements as the skim milk used for making the curd. The 
flavor of the cream shall be fresh and sweet. Cream obtained from a 
secondary source shall meet the same requirements. The creaming mixture 
prepared from this cream, after pasteurization, shall have a standard 
plate count of no more than 30,000 per ml.



Sec. 58.520  Nondairy ingredients.

    (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of food 
grade quality and free from extraneous material.
    (b) Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride 
and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex.
    (c) Other ingredients. Other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, 
chives or other vegetables used or blended with cottage cheese shall be 
reasonably free of bacteria so as not to appreciably increase the 
bacterial count of the finished product. The various ingredients in kind 
shall be consistent in size and color so as to produce the desired 
appearance and appeal of the finished product. The flavor of the 
ingredients used shall be natural and represent the intended flavor and 
intensity desired in the finished product. Such ingredients shall be 
clean, wholesome, of uniformly good quality, free from mold, rancid or 
decomposed particles. Vegetables used in cottage cheese may first be 
soaked for 15 to 20 minutes in a cold 25 to 50 ppm chlorine solution to 
appreciably reduce the bacterial population. After soaking, the 
vegetables shall be drained and used soon thereafter.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.521  Pasteurization and product flow.

    (a) The skim milk used for the manufacture of cottage cheese shall 
be pasteurized not more than 24 hours prior to the time of setting by 
heating every particle of skim milk to a temperature of 161  deg.F. for 
not less than 15 seconds or by any other combination of temperature and 
time giving equivalent results. All skim milk must be cooled promptly to 
setting temperature. If held more than two hours between pasteurization 
and time of setting, the skim milk shall be cooled and held at 45 
deg.F. or lower until set.
    (b) Cream or cheese dressing shall be pasteurized at not less than 
150  deg.F. for not less than 30 minutes or at not less than 166  deg.F. 
for not less than 15 seconds or by any other combination of temperature 
and time treatment giving equivalent results. Cream and cheese dressing 
shall be cooled promptly to 40  deg.F. or lower after pasteurization to 
aid in further cooling of cottage cheese curd for improved keeping 
quality.
    (c) Reconstituted nonfat dry milk for cottage cheese manufacture 
need not be re-pasteurized provided it is reconstituted within two hours 
prior to the time of setting using water which is free from viable 
pathogenic or otherwise harmful microorganisms as well as microorganisms 
which may cause

[[Page 125]]

spoilage of cottage cheese. Skim milk separated from pasteurized whole 
milk need not be re-pasteurized provided it is separated in equipment 
from which all traces of raw milk from previous operations have been 
removed by proper cleaning and sanitizing.



Sec. 58.522  Reconstituting nonfat dry milk.

    Nonfat dry milk shall be reconstituted in a sanitary manner.



Sec. 58.523  Laboratory and quality control tests.

    (a) Quality control tests shall be made on samples as often as 
necessary to determine the shelf-life and stability of the finished 
product. Routine analyses shall be made on raw materials and finished 
product to assure satisfactory composition, shelf-life and stability.
    (b) Frequency of sampling--(1) Microbiological. Samples of raw milk 
for testing shall be taken as prescribed in Sec. 58.135. Representative 
samples shall be taken of finished cottage cheese and from each lot or 
batch of product used as an ingredient. For keeping quality tests 
representative samples shall be taken of finished cottage cheese;
    (2) Chemical--(i) Milkfat and Moisture. Representative samples shall 
be taken of cottage cheese; dry cottage cheese shall be tested for 
moisture only.
    (ii) pH. Representative samples shall be taken of finished cottage 
cheese.
    (c) Test methods--(1) Microbiological. Microbiological 
determinations shall be made for coliform, psychrotrophic and yeasts and 
molds. These tests shall be made in accordance with the methods 
described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination 
of Dairy Products, published by the American Public Health Association.
    (2) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the 
methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis 
of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, published by the 
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, the latest edition of 
Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, or by other 
methods giving equivalent results.



Sec. 58.524  Packaging and general identification.

    (a) Containers. Containers used for packaging cottage cheese shall 
be any commercially acceptable multiple use or single service container 
or packaging material which will satisfactorily protect the contents 
through the regular channels of trade without significant impairment of 
quality with respect to flavor, or contamination under normal conditions 
of handling. Caps or covers which extend over the lip of the container 
shall be used on all cups or tubs containing two pounds or less, to 
protect the product from contamination during subsequent handling.
    (b) Packaging. The cheese shall be packaged in a sanitary manner and 
automatic filling and capping equipment shall be used on all small 
sizes. The containers shall be checked weighed during the filling 
operation to assure they are filled uniformly to not less than the 
stated net weight on the container. Also care shall be taken that the 
cottage cheese be of uniform consistency at the time of packaging to 
assure legal composition in all packages.
    (c) General identification. Bulk packages containing cottage cheese 
shall be adequately and legibly marked with the name of the product, net 
weight, name and address of the manufacturer, lot number, code or date 
of packaging and any other identification as may be required. Consumer 
size packaged products shall meet the applicable regulations of the Food 
and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.525  Storage of finished product.

    Cottage cheese after packaging shall be promptly stored at a 
temperature of 45  deg.F. or lower to maintain quality and condition 
until loaded for distribution. During distribution and storage prior to 
sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45  deg.F. or 
lower. The product shall not be exposed to foreign odors or conditions 
such as drippage or condensation that might cause package or product 
damage. Packaged cottage cheese shall not be placed directly on floors.

[[Page 126]]

  Requirements for Cottage Cheese Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.526  Official identification.

    (a) Only cottage cheese manufactured and packaged in accordance with 
the requirements of this part and with the applicable requirements in 
subpart A of this part which has been officially inspected in process 
and found to be in compliance with these requirements may be identified 
with the official USDA Quality Approved Inspection Shield.
    (b) Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk, when used in cottage cheese 
bearing official identification, shall meet the requirements for U.S. 
Extra Grade (Spray Process), at time of use, and should be of U.S. Low 
Heat Classification (not less than 6.0 mg. undenatured whey protein 
nitrogen per gram of nonfat dry milk). In addition, the nonfat dry milk 
shall have a direct microscopic count not exceeding 75 million per gram. 
The age of the nonfat dry milk shall be covered by a USDA grading 
certificate, evidencing compliance with quality requirements, dated not 
more than 6 months prior to use of the dry milk. In the interim between 
manufacture and use, the nonfat dry milk shall be stored in a clean, 
dry, vermin-free space. In any case, if the nonfat dry milk is more than 
120 days old, at time of use, it shall be examined for flavor to make 
certain that it meets the requirements for U.S. Extra Grade.



Sec. 58.527  Physical requirements.

    (a) Flavor. The cottage cheese shall possess a mild pleasing flavor, 
similar to fresh whole milk or light cream and may possess the delicate 
flavor and aroma of a good lactic starter. The product may possess to a 
slight degree a feed, acid, or salty flavor but shall be free from 
chalky, bitter, utensil, fruity, yeasty, or other objectionable flavors.
    (b) Body and texture. The curd particles shall have a meaty texture, 
but sufficiently tender to permit proper absorption of cream or cheese 
dressing. The texture shall be smooth and velvety and shall not be 
mealy, crumbly, pasty, sticky, mushy, watery, rubbery or slimy or 
possess any other objectionable characteristics of body and texture. 
Small curd style (cut with \1/4\ inch knives) should have curd particles 
approximately \1/4\ inch or less in size. Large curd style (cut with 
knives over \1/4\ inch) should have curd particles approximately \3/8\ 
inch or more in size.
    (c) Color and appearance. The finished cottage cheese, creamed or 
plain curd, shall have an attractive natural color and appearance with 
curd particles of reasonably uniform size. The creamed cottage cheese 
shall be uniformly mixed with the cream or dressing properly absorbed or 
adhering to the curd so as to prevent excessive drainage.



Sec. 58.528  Microbiological requirements.

    Compliance shall be based on 3 out of 5 consecutive samples taken at 
the time of packaging.
    (a) Coliform. Not more than 10 per gram.
    (b) Psychrotrophic. No more than 100 per gram.
    (c) Yeasts and molds. Not more than 10 per gram.



Sec. 58.529  Chemical requirements.

    (a) Moisture. See Sec. 58.505(b).
    (b) Milkfat. See Sec. 58.505(b).
    (c) pH. Not higher than 5.2.
    (d) Phosphatase. Not more than 4 micrograms of phenol equivalent per 
gram of cheese.



Sec. 58.530  Keeping quality requirements.

    Keeping quality samples taken from the packaging line shall be held 
at 45  deg.F. for 10 days. At the end of the 10 day period the samples 
shall possess a satisfactory flavor and appearance, and shall be free 
from bitter, sour, fruity, or other objectionable tastes and odors. The 
surface shall not be discolored, translucent, slimy or show any other 
objectionable condition.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
                        Packaging Frozen Desserts

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.605  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may

[[Page 127]]

demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms shall 
have the following meaning as applied to frozen desserts meeting FDA 
requirements and briefly defined as follows:
    (a) Ice cream. The product conforming to the requirements of 
Sec. 20.2 \1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Frozen 
Desserts,'' U.S. Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 20.2).\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ 21 CFR part 20 was redesignated as part 135 at 42 FR 14303, Mar. 
15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) Frozen custard. The product conforming to the requirements of 
Sec. 20.2 \1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Frozen 
Desserts,'' U.S. Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 20.2).\1\
    (c) Ice milk. The product conforming to the requirements of 
Sec. 20.3 \1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Frozen 
Desserts,'' U.S. Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 20.3).\1\
    (d) Sherbet. The product conforming to the requirements of Sec. 20.4 
\1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Frozen Desserts,'' U.S. 
Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 20.4).\1\
    (e) Mellorine. The product conforming to the requirements of 
Sec. 20.8 \1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Frozen 
Desserts,'' U.S. Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 20.8).\1\
    (f) Overrun. The trade expression used to reference the increase in 
volume of the frozen product over the volume of the mix. This increase 
in volume is due to air being whipped into the product during the 
freezing process. It is expressed as percent of the volume of the mix.
    (g) Mix. The trade name for the combined and processed ingredients 
which after freezing become a frozen dessert.

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.619  Mix processing room.

    The rooms used for combining mix ingredients and processing the mix 
shall meet the applicable requirements for rooms specified in 
Sec. 58.126. The room shall be ventilated to remove moisture and prevent 
condensation from forming on walls and ceiling. The room shall be well 
lighted.



Sec. 58.620  Freezing and packaging rooms.

    The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be 
adequate in size to permit satisfactory air circulation and maintained 
in a clean and sanitary condition. The rooms shall be constructed in the 
same manner as prescribed above for mix rooms.



Sec. 58.621  Freezing tunnels.

    Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low temperatures 
shall be designed and constructed as to insure ease in cleaning and 
satisfactory conditions of operation.



Sec. 58.622  Hardening and storage rooms.

    Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be constructed 
of satisfactory material for this purpose. The rooms shall be maintained 
in a clean and orderly manner. Adequate shelves, bins, or pallets shall 
be provided to keep the packages of finished products off the floor and 
to prevent damage to the containers. Sufficient refrigeration should be 
provided to insure adequate storage temperature (-10 deg. or lower). Air 
shall be circulated to maintain uniform temperature throughout the 
rooms. A vestibule or double entry way should be provided to minimize 
heat shock of the frozen products.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.623  Homogenizer.

    Homogenizer shall comply with 3-A Sanitary Standards.



Sec. 58.624  Freezers.

    Product contact surfaces of freezers used to lower the temperature 
of the liquid mix to a semi-frozen mass by a stirring action shall be 
constructed of a stainless steel or equally corrosion resistant metal 
and all parts easily accessible for cleaning and sanitizing. Batch and 
continuous freezers should comply with the applicable 3-A Standards.



Sec. 58.625  Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-
frozen product. Product contact surfaces shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or equally corrosion resistant metal and all

[[Page 128]]

pumps shall be in accordance to 3-A Sanitary Standards for dairy 
equipment. The feeder shall be constructed to enable complete 
disassembly for cleaning and sanitizing.



Sec. 58.626  Packaging equipment.

    Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single 
service containers with frozen desserts shall be constructed so that all 
product contact surfaces shall be of stainless steel or equally 
corrosion-resistant metal. All product contact surfaces shall be easily 
accessible for cleaning. The design and operation of the machine shall 
in no way contaminate the container of the finished product placed 
therein. New or replacement equipment shall comply with the 3A Sanitary 
Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage 
Cheese.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material



Sec. 58.627  Milk and dairy products.

    To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream 
shall meet the quality requirements as prescribed in Secs. 58.132 
through 58.138, except that only commingled milk and cream meeting the 
bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used.



Sec. 58.628  Sweetening agents.

    Sweetening agents shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or 
more of the approved sweeteners listed in Sec. 58.605.



Sec. 58.629  Flavoring agents.

    Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and 
free from undesirable flavors. They must impart the desired 
characteristic to the finished product. Flavoring agents shall be one or 
more of those approved in Sec. 58.605.



Sec. 58.630  Stabilizers.

    Stabilizers shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or more 
of those approved in Sec. 58.605.



Sec. 58.631  Emulsifiers.

    Emulsifiers shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or more 
of those approved in Sec. 58.605.



Sec. 58.632  Acid.

    Acids used in sherbet shall be wholesome and of food grade quality 
and consist of one or more of those approved in Sec. 58.605.



Sec. 58.633  Color.

    Coloring used for ice cream and related products shall be those 
certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as safe for human 
consumption.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.634  Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    The assembling and combining of mix ingredients for processing shall 
be in accordance with clean and sanitary methods and shall be consistent 
with good commercial practices. All raw materials shall be subjected to 
inspection for quality and condition prior to being combined and 
processed into the finished mix. All necessary precautions shall be 
taken to prevent the contamination of any raw material or the finished 
mix with any foreign substance.



Sec. 58.635  Pasteurization of the mix.

    Every particle of the mix, except added flavoring ingredients, shall 
be pasteurized at not less than 155  deg.F. and held at that temperature 
for 30 minutes or for 175  deg.F. for 25 seconds; or it may be 
pasteurized by any other equivalent temperature and holding time which 
will assure adequate pasteurization.



Sec. 58.636  Homogenization.

    Homogenization of the pasteurized mix shall be accomplished to 
effectively reduce the size of the milkfat globules and evenly disperse 
them throughout the mix.



Sec. 58.637  Cooling the mix.

    The mix shall be immediately cooled to a temperature of 45  deg.F. 
or lower, and stored at this temperature until further processing 
begins.

[[Page 129]]



Sec. 58.638  Freezing the mix.

    After the mix enters the freezer, it shall be frozen as rapidly as 
possible to assure the formation of minute crystals. Proper adjustment 
of rate of flow, refrigerant and air pressure controls shall be achieved 
to assure correct overrun and consistency of the product for packaging 
and further freezing.



Sec. 58.639  Addition of flavor.

    The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior 
to packaging shall be performed in a clean and sanitary manner. Care 
shall be taken to insure the flavor injection equipment has been 
properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor 
ingredients are of good quality and wholesome.



Sec. 58.640  Packaging.

    The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which 
will in no way contaminate the container or the product. When single 
service containers and lids are used, they shall be of good construction 
and protect the finished product. Containers used for frozen products 
shall be stored and handled in a sanitary manner so as to protect them 
from dust and bacterial contamination.



Sec. 58.641  Hardening and storage.

    Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended 
container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to 
continue the freezing process. Rapid freezing to 0 deg. to -15  deg.F is 
desirable to produce a good textured product.



Sec. 58.642  Quality control tests.

    All mix ingredients shall be subject to inspection for quality and 
condition throughout each processing operation. Quality control tests 
shall be made on flow line samples as often as necessary to check the 
effectiveness of processing and sanitation and as an aid in correcting 
deficiencies. Routine analysis shall be made on raw materials and 
finished products to assure adequate composition, weight or volume 
control.



Sec. 58.643  Frequency of sampling.

    (a) Microbiological. Representative samples shall be taken from each 
type of mix, and for the finished frozen product one sample from each 
flavor made.
    (b) Composition. Representative samples shall be tested for fat and 
solids-not-fat on each type of mix manufactured. Spot checks shall be 
made on the finished products as often as is necessary to assure 
compliance with composition standards.
    (c) Weight or volume control. Representative samples of the packaged 
products shall be checked during the packaging operation to assure 
compliance with the stated volume on the container as well as weight and 
overrun requirements.



Sec. 58.644  Test methods.

    (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in 
accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard 
Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products.
    (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the 
methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis 
of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, the latest edition 
of Standard Methods, or by other methods giving equivalent results.



Sec. 58.645  General identification.

    The various types of frozen desserts shall be packaged and labeled 
in accordance with the applicable regulations of the Food and Drug 
Administration.

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.646  Official identification.

    (a) Only ice cream and related products manufactured and packaged in 
accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable 
requirements in subpart A of this part which have been officially 
inspected in process and found to be in compliance with these 
requirements may be identified with the official USDA Quality Approved 
Inspection Shield.
    (b) Dairy products used in the manufacture of frozen desserts for 
which

[[Page 130]]

there are U.S. grades established (nonfat dry milk, whole milk, 
buttermilk and whey) shall be U.S. Extra Grade or better, and in the 
case of unsalted butter, shall be no lower than U.S. Grade A. Dairy 
products for which there are not USDA grade shall meet the applicable 
requirements of this part which permit such product to bear the USDA 
Quality Approved Inspection Shield.



Sec. 58.647  Composition requirements for ice cream.

    See Sec. 58.605(a).



Sec. 58.648  Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per 
gram as determined by the standard plate count, and shall contain not 
more than 10 coliform organisms per gram for plain and not more than 20 
coliform per gram in chocolate, fruit, nut or other flavors in three out 
of five samples.



Sec. 58.649  Physical requirements for ice cream.

    (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing 
and desirable, and characteristic of the fresh milk and cream and the 
particular flavoring used.
    (b) Body and texture. The body shall be firm, have substance and 
readily melt to a creamy consistency when exposed to room temperatures; 
the texture shall be fine, smooth, and have the appearance of creaminess 
throughout.
    (c) Color. The color shall be attractive, pleasing, uniform and 
characteristic of the flavor represented.



Sec. 58.650  Requirements for frozen custard.

    The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen 
custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content of 1.4 percent, and 
1.12 percent when fruits, nuts and other such ingredients are used for 
flavoring.



Sec. 58.651  Requirements for ice milk.

    The requirements are the same as for ice cream except: (a) The 
minimum milk fat content shall be 2 percent by weight and the maximum 
milk fat content 7 percent by weight, (b) the total milk solids content 
shall be no less than 11 percent by weight, (c) the minimum total food 
solids weight per gallon shall be 1.3 pounds, (d) no reduction in the 
standards are permitted when fruits, nuts and other such ingredients are 
used for flavoring.



Sec. 58.652  Composition requirements for sherbet.

    See Sec. 58.605(d).



Sec. 58.653  Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per 
gram as determined by the standard plate count and shall contain not 
more than 10 coliform organisms per gram in three out of five samples.



Sec. 58.654  Physical requirements for sherbet.

    (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished sherbet shall be pleasing and 
desirable and characteristic of the particular flavoring used and shall 
impart a sweet yet tart sensation.
    (b) Body and texture. The body shall be firm, compact, somwhat chewy 
and readily melt to an even syrupy consistency at room temperatures; the 
texture shall be smooth but not as fine as in ice cream and shall be 
even throughout.
    (c) Color. The color shall be attractive, pleasing, uniform and 
characteristic of the flavor represented.

  Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing and 
        Packaging Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.705  Meaning of words.

    (a) Pasteurized process cheese and related products. Pasteurized 
process cheese and related products are the foods which conform to the 
applicable provisions of part 19, title 21, Secs. 19.750 through 
19.790,\1\ ``Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cheese and Cheese 
Products,'' Food and Drug Administration.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ 21 CFR part 18 was redesignated as part 131 at 42 FR 14302, Mar. 
15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) Blend set up. The trade term for a particular group of vat lots 
of cheese

[[Page 131]]

selected to form a blend based upon their combined ability to impart the 
desired characteristics to a pasteurized process cheese product.
    (c) Cooker batch. The amount of cheese and added optional 
ingredients placed into a cooker at one time, heated to pasteurization 
temperature, and held for the required length of time.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.706  General construction, repair and installation.

    The equipment and utensils used for the handling and processing of 
cheese products shall be as specified in Sec. 58.128 of this subpart. In 
addition, for certain other equipment the following requirements shall 
be met.



Sec. 58.707  Conveyors.

    Conveyors shall be constructed of material which can be properly 
cleaned, will not rust, or otherwise contaminate the cheese, and shall 
be maintained in good repair.



Sec. 58.708  Grinders or shredders.

    The grinders or shredders used in the preparation of the trimmed and 
cleaned cheese shall be of corrosion-resistant material, and of such 
construction as to prevent contamination of the cheese and to allow 
thorough cleaning of all parts and product contact surfaces.



Sec. 58.709  Cookers.

    The cookers shall be the steam jacketed or direct steam type. They 
shall be constructed of stainless steel or other equally corrosion-
resistant material. All product contact surfaces shall be readily 
accessible for cleaning. Each cooker shall be equipped with an 
indicating thermometer, and shall be equipped with a temperature 
recording device. The recording thermometer stem may be placed in the 
cooker if satisfactory time charts are obtained, if not, the stem shall 
be placed in the hotwell or filler hopper. Steam check valves on direct 
steam type cookers shall be mounted flush with cooker wall, be 
constructed of stainless steel and designed to prevent the backup of 
product into the steam line, or the steam line shall be constructed of 
stainless steel pipes and fittings which can be readily cleaned. If 
direct steam is applied to the product only culinary steam shall be used 
(see Sec. 58.127(d)).



Sec. 58.710  Fillers.

    A strainer should be installed between the cooker and the filler. 
The hoppers of all filters shall be covered but the cover may have sight 
ports. If necessary, the hopper may have an agitator to prevent buildup 
on side wall. The filler valves and head shall be kept in good repair 
and capable of accurate measurements. Product contact surfaces shall be 
of stainless steel or other corrosion resistant material.

                 Quality Specifications for Raw Material



Sec. 58.711  Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese 
products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor 
consistent with the age of the cheese; should have body and texture 
characteristics which will impart the desired body and texture 
characteristics in the finished product; and should possess finish and 
appearance characteristics which will permit removal of all packaging 
material and surface defects. The cheese should at least meet the 
requirements equivalent to U.S. Standard Grade for Bulk American Cheese 
for Manufacturing provided the quantity of the cheese with any one 
defect as listed for U.S. Standard Grade is limited to assure a 
satisfactory finished product.



Sec. 58.712  Swiss.

    Swiss cheese used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese 
and related products should be equivalent to U.S. Grade B or better, 
except that the cheese may be blind or possess finish characteristics 
which do not impair the interior quality.



Sec. 58.713  Gruyere.

    Gruyere cheese used in the manufacture of process cheese and related 
products should be of good wholesome quality and except for smaller eyes 
and

[[Page 132]]

sharper flavor shall meet the same requirements as for Swiss cheese.



Sec. 58.714  Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for spreads and 
dips should possess a fresh, pleasing and desirable flavor.



Sec. 58.715  Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    These food products shall be pasteurized, sweet, have a pleasing and 
desirable flavor and be free from objectionable flavors, and shall be 
obtained from milk which complies with the quality requirements as 
specified in Secs. 58.132 through 58.138 of this subpart.



Sec. 58.716  Nonfat dry milk.

    Nonfat dry milk used in cheese products should meet the requirements 
equivalent to U.S. Extra Grade except that the moisture content may be 
in excess of that specified for the particular grade.



Sec. 58.717  Whey.

    Whey used in cheese products should meet the requirements equivalent 
to USDA Extra Grade except that the moisture requirement for dry whey 
may be waived.



Sec. 58.718  Flavor ingredients.

    Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall 
be those permitted by the Food and Drug Standards of Identity, and in no 
way deleterious to the quality or flavor of the finished product. In the 
case of bulky flavoring ingredients such as pimento, the particles 
should be, to at least a reasonable degree, uniform in size, shape and 
consistency. The individual types of flavoring materials should be 
uniform in color and should impart the characteristic flavor desired in 
the finished product.



Sec. 58.719  Coloring.

    Coloring shall be Annatto or any other cheese or butter color which 
is approved by the Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.720  Acidifying agents.

    Acidifying agents if used shall be those permitted by the Food and 
Drug Administration for the specific pasteurized process cheese product.



Sec. 58.721  Salt.

    Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall 
meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex.



Sec. 58.722  Emulsifying agents.

    Emulsifying agents shall be those permitted by the Food and Drug 
Administration for the specific pasteurized process cheese product, and 
shall be free from extraneous material.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.723  Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    A representative sample shall have been examined to determine fat 
and moisture content. One sample unit from each vat of cheese shall have 
been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in process 
cheese products in accordance with the flavor, body and texture 
characteristics permitted in Secs. 58.711 through 58.714 as applicable, 
and to determine the characteristics it will contribute to the finished 
product when blended with other cheese. The cheese included in each 
blend shall be selected on the basis of the desirable qualities which 
will result in the desired finished product. Recook from equivalent 
blends may be used in an amount that will not adversely affect the 
finished product. Hot cheese from the filler may be added to the cooker 
in amounts which will not adversely affect the finished product.



Sec. 58.724  Blending.

    To as great an extent as is practical, each vat of cheese should be 
divided and distributed throughout numerous cooker batches. The purpose 
being to minimize the preponderance and consequent influence of any one 
vat on the characteristics of the finished product, and to promote as 
much uniformity as is practical. In blending also consider the final 
composition requirements for fat and moisture. Quantities of salt,

[[Page 133]]

color, emulsifier and other allowable ingredients to be added shall be 
calculated and predetermined for each cooker batch.



Sec. 58.725  Trimming and cleaning.

    The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all non-edible portions. 
Paraffin and bandages as well as rind surface, mold or unclean areas or 
any other part which is unwholesome or unappetizing shall be removed.



Sec. 58.726  Cutting and grinding.

    The trimmed and cleaned cheese should be cut into sections of 
convenient size to be handled by the grinder or shredder. The grinding 
and mixing of the blended lots of cheese should be done in such a manner 
as to insure a homogeneous mixture throughout the batch.



Sec. 58.727  Adding optional ingredients.

    As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of 
salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall 
be added. However, a special blending vat may be used to mix the ground 
cheese and other ingredients before they enter the cooker to provide 
composition control.



Sec. 58.728  Cooking the batch.

    Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional 
ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized 
at a temperature of at least 158  deg.F. and held at that temperature 
for not less than 30 seconds or any other equally effective combination 
of time and temperature approved by the Administrator. Care shall be 
taken to prevent the entrance of cheese particles or ingredients after 
the cooker batch of cheese has reached the final heating temperature. 
After holding for the required period of time, the hot cheese shall be 
emptied from the cooker as quickly as possible.



Sec. 58.729  Forming containers.

    Containers either lined or unlined shall be assembled and stored in 
a sanitary manner to prevent contamination. The handling of containers 
by filler crews should be done with extreme care and observance of 
personal cleanliness. Preforming and assembling of pouch liners and 
containers shall be kept to a minimum and the supply rotated to limit 
the length of time exposed to possible contamination prior to filling.



Sec. 58.730  Filling containers.

    Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers 
to assure a constant and even supply of processed cheese to the filler 
or slice former. Filler valves shall effectively measure the desired 
amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner and 
shall cut off sharply without drip or drag of cheese across the opening. 
An effective system shall be used to maintain accurate and precise 
weight control. Damaged or unsatisfactory packages shall be removed from 
production, and the cheese may be salvaged into sanitary containers, and 
added back to cookers.



Sec. 58.731  Closing and sealing containers.

    Pouches, liners, or containers having product contact surfaces, 
after filling shall be folded or closed and sealed in a sanitary manner, 
preferably by mechanical means, so as to assure against contamination. 
Each container in addition to other required labeling shall be coded in 
such a manner as to be easily identified as to date of manufacture by 
lot or sublot number.



Sec. 58.732  Cooling the packaged cheese.

    After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or cased and 
stacked in such a manner as to prevent breaking of seals due to 
excessive bulging and to allow immediate progressive cooling of the 
individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be 
cooled to a temperature of 100  deg.F. or lower within 24 hours after 
filling. The temperature of the cheese should be reduced further, before 
being shipped or if storage is intended.



Sec. 58.733  Quality control tests.

    (a) Chemical analyses. The following chemical analyses shall be 
performed in accordance with the appropriate edition of the Official 
Methods of Analysis of the AOAC as specified in the appropriate 
Standards of Identity or in accordance with methods that give equivalent 
results.

[[Page 134]]

    (1) Cheese. A representative sample of cheese used in the 
manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products shall have been 
tested prior to usage to determine its moisture and fat content.
    (2) Pasteurized process cheese products. As many samples shall be 
taken of the finished product direct from the cooker, hopper, filler, or 
other location as is necessary to assure compliance with composition 
requirements. Spot checks should be made on samples from the cooker as 
frequently as is necessary to indicate pasteurization by means of the 
phosphatase test, as well as any other tests necessary to assure good 
quality control.
    (b) Examination of physical characteristics. As many samples shall 
be taken as is necessary to assure meeting the required physical 
characteristics of the products. Representative samples shall be taken 
from production for examination of physical characteristics. The samples 
shall be examined at approximately 70  deg.F. the first day of operation 
after the date of processing for the following characteristics: (1) 
Finish and appearance, (2) flavor, (3) color, (4) body and texture, and 
(5) slicing or spreading properties.
    (c) Keeping quality. During processing or preferably from the cooled 
stock select sufficient samples at random from the production run. The 
samples should be stored at approximately 50  deg.F. for 3 months for 
evaluation of physical characteristics as in paragraph (b) of this 
section. Additional samples may be selected and held at different 
temperatures or time.
    (d) Weight control. During the filling operation as many samples 
shall be randomly selected and weighed from each production run as is 
necessary to assure accuracy of the net weight established for the 
finished products.

    Requirements for Processed Cheese Products Bearing USDA Official 
                             Identification



Sec. 58.734  Official identification.

    Only process cheese products manufactured and packaged in accordance 
with the requirements of this part and with the applicable requirements 
in subpart A of this part which have been officially inspected in 
process and found to be in compliance with these requirements may be 
identified with official USDA Quality Approved Inspection Shield.



Sec. 58.735  Quality specifications for raw materials.

    (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd 
cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese 
products which are identified with the USDA official identification 
shall possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with 
the age of the cheese; shall have body and texture characteristics which 
will impart the desired body and texture characteristics in the finished 
product; and shall possess finish and appearance characteristics which 
will permit removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The 
cheese shall at least meet the requirements of U.S. Standard Grade for 
Bulk American Cheese for Manufacturing provided the quantity of the 
cheese with any one defect as listed for U.S. Standard Grade is limited, 
to assure compliance with the specifications of the finished product.
    (b) Swiss. Swiss cheese used in the manufacture of pasteurized 
process cheese and related products bearing official identification 
shall be U.S. Grade B or better, except that the cheese may be blind or 
possess finish characteristics which do not impair the interior quality.
    (c) Gruyere. Gruyere cheese used in the manufacture of process 
cheese and related products shall be of good wholesome quality and 
except for smaller eyes and sharper flavor shall meet the same 
requirements as for Swiss cheese.
    (d) Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. Mixed with other foods, or used 
for spreads and dips shall possess a fresh, pleasing and desirable 
flavor.
    (e) Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. These food products 
shall be pasteurized, sweet, have a pleasing and desirable flavor and be 
free from objectionable flavors, and shall be obtained from milk which 
complies with the quality requirements as specified in Sec. 58.132 of 
this subpart.
    (f) Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in officially identified 
cheese products shall meet the requirements

[[Page 135]]

of U.S. Extra Grade except that the moisture content may be in excess of 
that specified for the particular grade.
    (g) Whey. Condensed or dry whey used in officially identified cheese 
products shall meet the requirements for USDA Extra Grade except that 
the moisture requirement for dry whey may be waived.
    (h) Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese 
and related products shall be those permitted by the Food and Drug 
Standards of Identity, and in no way deleterious to the quality or 
flavor of the finished product. In the case of bulky flavoring 
ingredients such as pimento, the particles shall be, to at least a 
reasonable degree, uniform in size, shape and consistency. The 
individual types of flavoring materials shall be uniform in color and 
shall impart the characteristic flavor desired in the finished product.
    (i) Other ingredients. For coloring, acidifying agents, salt, and 
emulsifying agents see Secs. 58.719, 58.720, 58.721 and 58.722.

              Quality Specifications for Finished Products



Sec. 58.736  Pasteurized process cheese.

    Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of 
Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and 
Drug Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be 
such that the desired flavor, body and texture will be achieved in the 
finished product. The quality of pasteurized process cheese shall be 
determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish 
and appearance.
    (a) Flavor. Has a pleasing and desirable mild cheese taste and odor 
characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese ingredients used. 
If additional optional ingredients are used they shall be incorporated 
in accordance with good commercial practices and the flavor imparted 
shall be pleasing and desirable. May have a slight cooked or very slight 
acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and 
odors.
    (b) Body and texture. Shall have a medium-firm, smooth and velvety 
body free from uncooked cheese particles. Is resilient and not tough, 
brittle, short, weak, or sticky. It shall be free from pin holes or 
openings except those caused by trapped steam. The cheese shall slice 
freely, and shall not stick to the knife or break when cut into 
approximately \1/8\ inch slices. If in sliced form, the slices shall 
separate readily.
    (c) Color. May be colored or uncolored but shall be uniform 
throughout. If colored it shall be bright and not be dull or faded. To 
promote uniformity and a common reference to describe color use the 
color designations as depicted by the National Cheese Institute standard 
color guide for cheese.
    (d) Finish and appearance. The wrapper may be slightly wrinkled but 
shall envelop the cheese, adhere closely to the surface, and be 
completely sealed and not broken or soiled.



Sec. 58.737  Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of 
Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food 
and Drug Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend 
shall be such that the desired flavor, body and texture will be achieved 
in the finished product. The quality of pasteurized process cheese food 
shall be determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and 
finish and appearance.
    (a) Flavor. Has a pleasing and desirable mild cheese taste and odor 
characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese ingredients used. 
If additional optional ingredients are used they shall be incorporated 
in accordance with good commercial practices and the flavor imparted 
shall be pleasing and desirable. May have a slight cooked or very slight 
acid or emulsifier flavors; is free from any undesirable tastes and 
odors.
    (b) Body and texture. Shall have a reasonably medium-firm smooth and 
velvety body and free from uncooked cheese particles. Is resilient and 
not tough, brittle, short or sticky. It shall be free from pin holes or 
openings except those caused by trapped steam. The product shall slice 
freely with only a slight amount of sticking and shall not break when 
cut into approximately

[[Page 136]]

\1/8\ inch slices. If in sliced form, the slices shall separate readily.
    (c) Color. May be colored or uncolored but shall be uniform 
throughout. If colored it shall be bright and not be dull or faded. To 
promote uniformity and a common reference to describe color use the 
color designations as depicted by the National Cheese Institute standard 
color guide for cheese.
    (d) Finish and appearance. The wrapper may be slightly wrinkled but 
shall envelop the cheese, adhere closely to the surface, and be 
completely sealed and not broken or soiled.



Sec. 58.738  Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Shall conform to the applicable provisions of the Definitions and 
Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and 
Drug Administration. The pH of pasteurized process cheese spreads shall 
not be below 4.0.

The quality of pasteurized process cheese spreads shall be determined on 
the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance.
    (a) Flavor. Has a pleasing and desirable cheese taste and odor 
characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese ingredients used. 
If additional optional ingredients are used they shall be incorporated 
in accordance with good commercial practices and the flavor imparted 
shall be pleasing and desirable. May have a slight cooked, acid, or 
emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors.
    (b) Body and texture. Shall have a smooth body free from uncooked 
cheese particles and when packaged shall form into a homogeneous plastic 
mass, and be free from pin holes or openings except those caused by 
trapped steam. Product made for slicing shall slice freely when cut into 
approximately \1/8\ inch slices with only a slight amount of sticking. 
Product made for spreading shall be spreadable at approximately 70 
deg.F.
    (c) Color. May be colored or uncolored but shall be uniform 
throughout. If colored it shall be bright and not be dull or faded. To 
promote uniformity and a common reference to describe color the color 
designations as depicted by the National Cheese Institute standard color 
guide for cheese may be used.
    (d) Finish and appearance. Wrappers, if used, may be slightly 
wrinkled but shall envelop the cheese, adhere closely to the surface, 
and be completely sealed and not broken or soiled. Other containers made 
of suitable materials shall be completely filled, sealed and not broken 
or soiled.

 Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and 
                Packaging Whey, Whey Products and Lactose

                               Definitions



Sec. 58.805  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as 
the case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the 
following terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Whey. ``Whey'' is the fluid obtained by separating the coagulum 
from milk, cream, and/or skim milk in cheesemaking. The acidity of the 
whey may be adjusted by the addition of safe and suitable pH adjusting 
ingredients. Moisture removed from cheese curd as a result of salting 
may be collected for further processing as whey if the collection of the 
moisture and the removal of the salt from the moisture are conducted in 
accordance with procedures approved by the Administrator.
    (b) Dry Whey. ``Dry Whey'' is the product resulting from drying 
fresh whey which has been pasteurized and to which nothing has been 
added as a preservative. It contains all constituents, except moisture, 
in the same relative proportions as in the whey.
    (c) Dry Sweet Whey. Dry whey not over 0.16 percent titratable 
acidity on a reconstituted basis.
    (d) Dry Whey--% Titratable Acidity. Dry whey over 0.16 percent, but 
below 0.35 percent titratable acidity on a reconstituted basis. The 
blank being filled with the actual acidity.
    (e) Dry Acid Whey. Dry whey with 0.35 percent or higher titratable 
acidity on a reconstituted basis.
    (f) Modified Whey Products:
    (1) Partially demineralized whey,
    (2) Partially delactosed whey,

[[Page 137]]

    (3) Demineralized whey, and
    (4) Whey protein concentrate-products defined by regulations of the 
Food and Drug Administration.
    (g) Lactose (milk sugar). That food product defined by regulations 
of the Food and Drug Administration.
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 1257, Jan. 6, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 55 FR 39912, Oct. 1, 1990]

                         Rooms and Compartments



Sec. 58.806  General.

    Dry storage of product, packaging room for bulk product, and hopper 
or dump room shall meet the requirements of Secs. 58.210 through 58.212 
as applicable.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.807  General construction, repair and installation.

    All equipment and utensils necessary for the manufacture of whey, 
whey products and lactose shall meet the same general requirements for 
materials and construction as outlined in Secs. 58.128 and 58.215 
through 58.230 as applicable, except for the following:
    (a) Modified Whey Products. Equipment for whey fractionation, such 
as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, gel filtration, and electrodialysis 
shall be constructed in accordance with 3-A sanitary design principles, 
except where engineering requirements preclude strict adherence to such 
standards. Materials used for product contact surfaces shall meet 
applicable 3-A Sanitary Standards or Food and Drug Administration 
requirements. All equipment shall be of sanitary construction and 
readily cleanable.
    (b) Lactose. Equipment used in the further processing of lactose 
following its separation from whey shall have smooth surfaces, be 
cleanable, free from cracks or crevices, readily accessible for 
inspection and shall be constructed of non-toxic material meeting 
applicable Food and Drug Administration requirements and under 
conditions of use shall be resistant to corrosion, pitting or flaking. 
[The use of stainless steel is optional.]

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials



Sec. 58.808  Whey.

    Whey for processing shall be fresh and originate from the processing 
of products made from milk meeting the requirements as outlined in 
Secs. 58.132 through 58.138. Only those ingredients approved by the Food 
and Drug Administration may be added to the whey for processing, except 
when restricted by this subpart. Whey products to which approved 
ingredients have been added or constituents removed to alter original 
characteristics for processing or usage shall be labeled to meet the 
applicable requirements.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.809  Pasteurization.

    (a) All fluid whey used in the manufacture of dry whey, dry whey 
products, modified whey products, and lactose shall be pasteurized prior 
to condensing. When the condensing and drying operations for dry whey 
take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at a 
different point in the operation provided it will protect the quality of 
the finished product and not adversely affect the processing procedure.
    (b) Pasteurized products transported to another plant for final 
processing shall be repasteurized, except that condensed whey containing 
40 percent or more solids may be transported to another plant for 
further processing into dry whey, dry whey products or lactose without 
repasteurization.
    (c) If whey is transferred to another plant for further processing, 
or if during the processing procedure unpasteurized ingredients are 
added (except those necessary for lactose crystallization), or 
processing procedures permit contamination or bacterial growth, the whey 
shall be repasteurized as close to the final drying operations as 
possible.



Sec. 58.810  Temperature requirements.

    (a) Unless processed within 2 hours, all whey or condensed whey, 
except acid type whey with a titratable acidity of 0.40 percent or 
above, or a pH of

[[Page 138]]

4.6 or below, shall be cooled to 45  deg.F or less, or heated to 145 
deg.F or higher. Other temperatures may be used when essential for the 
technology of the process, such as lactose crystallization and membrane 
whey separation processes, when the quality and wholesomeness of the 
product is not impaired.
    (b) Recording thermometers shall be required and so located to 
assure that the cooling or heating requirements in paragraph (a) of this 
section are met.



Sec. 58.811  General.

    The operating procedures as contained in Secs. 58.237 through 
58.244, 58.246, 58.247, and 58.443 (a) and (b) shall be followed as 
applicable.



Sec. 58.812  Methods of official sample analysis.

    Samples shall be tested according to the applicable methods of 
laboratory analysis contained in DA Instruction 918-109-2 and 918-109-3 
as issued by the USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Poultry and Dairy 
Quality Division.

(60 Stat. 1087, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.; 84 Stat. 1620, 21 U.S.C. 1031 et 
seq.)
[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.813  Dry whey.

    The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with 
the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey.

 Supplemental Specifications for Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and 
  Packaging Evaporated and Condensed Milk or Ultra-Pasteurized Products

                               definitions



Sec. 58.905  Meaning of words.

    For the purpose of the regulations in this subpart, words in the 
singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa as the 
case may demand. Unless the context otherwise requires, the following 
terms shall have the following meaning:
    (a) Evaporated milk. The liquid food made by evaporating sweet milk 
to such point that it contains not less than 7.5 percent of milkfat and 
not less than 25.5 percent of the total milk solids. The finished 
product shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 18.520 ``Definitions 
and Standards of Identity for Milk and Cream,'' Food and Drug 
Administration (21 CFR 18.520).\1\
    (b) Concentrated milk, plain condensed milk. The product which 
conforms to the standard of identity for evaporated milk except that it 
is not processed by heat to prevent spoilage. The container may be 
unsealed, and stabilizing ingredients are not used. The finished product 
shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 18.525 ``Definitions and 
Standards of Identity for Milk and Cream,'' Food and Drug Administration 
(21 CFR 18.525).\1\
    (c) Sweetened condensed milk. The liquid or semi-liquid food made by 
evaporating a mixture of sweet milk and refined sugar (sucrose) or any 
combination of refined sugar (sucrose) and refined corn sugar (dextrose) 
to such point that the finished sweetened condensed milk contains not 
less than 28.0 percent of total milk solids and not less than 8.5 
percent of milkfat. The quantity of sugar used is sufficient to prevent 
spoilage. The finished product shall conform to the requirements of 
Secs. 18.530 or 18.535, respectively, ``Definitions and Standards of 
Identity for Milk and Cream,'' Food and Drug Administration (21 CFR 
18.530 and 18.535).\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ 21 CFR Part 18 was redesignated as Part 131 at 42 FR 14302, Mar. 
15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Ultra-pasteurized. The product shall have been thermally 
processed at or above 280  deg.F for at least 2 seconds, either before 
or after packaging, so as to produce a product which has an extended 
shelf life under refrigerated conditions.

                         Equipment and Utensils



Sec. 58.912  General construction, repair and installation.

    The equipment and utensils used for processing and packaging 
evaporated, condensed or ultra pasteurized dairy

[[Page 139]]

products shall be as specified in Sec. 58.128. In addition for certain 
other equipment, the following requirements shall be met.



Sec. 58.913  Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk 
products for the purpose of concentrating the solids should comply with 
the requirements of the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk 
Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans.



Sec. 58.914  Fillers.

    Both gravity and vacuum type fillers shall be of sanitary design and 
all product contact surfaces, if metal, shall be made of stainless steel 
or equally corrosion-resistant material; except that, certain evaporated 
milk fillers having brass parts may be approved if free from corroded 
surfaces and kept in good repair. Nonmetallic product contact surfaces 
shall comply with the requirements for 3-A Sanitary Standards for 
Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed 
so that they in no way will contaminate or detract from the quality of 
the product being packaged.



Sec. 58.915  Batch or continuous in-container thermal processing equipment.

    Shall comply with title 21, chapter 1, subpart 128b--``Thermally 
Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers.'' 
The equipment shall be maintained in such a manner as to assure control 
of the length of time of processing, and to minimize the number of 
damaged containers.



Sec. 58.916  Homogenizer.

    Homogenizers where applicable shall be used to reduce the size of 
the fat particles and to evenly disperse them in the product. 
Homogenizers shall comply with the applicable 3-A Sanitary Standards.

                   Operations and Operating Procedures



Sec. 58.917  General.

    There are many operations and procedures used in the preparation of 
evaporated, condensed and ultra pasteurized dairy products that are 
similar, therefore, the following general requirements will apply when 
such operations or procedures are used.



Sec. 58.918  Standardization.

    The standardization of the product to obtain a finished product of a 
given composition shall be accomplished by the addition or removal of 
milkfat, milk solids-not-fat and/or water. The ingredients added to 
accomplish the desired composition shall be of the same hygenic quality 
as the product being standardized.



Sec. 58.919  Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat 
method, HTST method, or by the HHST method it shall be accomplished by 
systems and equipment meeting the requirements outlined in Sec. 58.128. 
Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that 
have the most favorable effect on the finished product.



Sec. 58.920  Homogenization.

    Where applicable concentrated products shall be homogenized for the 
purpose of dispersing the fat throughout the product. The temperature of 
the product at time of homogenization and the pressure at which 
homogenization is accomplished will be that which accomplishes the most 
desired results in the finished products.



Sec. 58.921  Concentration.

    Concentrating by evaporation shall be accomplished with a minimum of 
chemical change in the product. The equipment and systems used shall in 
no way contaminate or adversely affect the desirability of the finished 
product.

[[Page 140]]



Sec. 58.922  Thermal processing.

    The destruction of living organisms shall be performed in one of the 
following methods: (a) The complete in-container method, by heating the 
container and contents to a range of 212  deg.F to 280  deg.F for a 
sufficient time; (b) by a continuous flow process at or above 280  deg.F 
for at least 2 seconds, then packaged aseptically; (c) the product is 
first processed according to methods as in paragraph (b) of this 
section, then packaged and given further heat treatment to complete the 
process.



Sec. 58.923  Filling containers.

    (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a 
sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from 
the quality of the product in any way. After filling, the container 
shall be hermetically sealed.
    (b) Bulk containers for the product shall be suitable and adequate 
to protect the product in storage or transit. The bulk container 
(including bulk tankers) shall be cleaned and sanitized before filling, 
and filled and closed in a sanitary manner.



Sec. 58.924  Aseptic filling.

    A previously ultra pasteurized product shall be filled under 
conditions which prevent contamination of the product by living 
organisms or spores. The containers prior to being filled shall be 
sterilized and maintained, in a sterile condition. The containers shall 
be sealed in a manner that prevents contamination of the product.



Sec. 58.925  Sweetened condensed.

    After condensing, the sweetened condensed product should be cooled 
rapidly to about 85  deg.F to induce crystallization of the 
oversaturated lactose. When the desired crystallization is reached 
further cooling is resumed to 68 deg.-70  deg.F.



Sec. 58.926  Heat stability.

    Prior to thermal processing of concentrated products and where 
stabilizers are allowed, tests should be made on the heat stability of 
the product to determine necessity for, and the amount of stabilizer 
needed. Based on the stability tests, safe and suitable stabilizers and 
emulsifiers may be added.



Sec. 58.927  Storage.

    Finished products which are to be held more than 30 days should be 
stored at temperatures below 72  deg.F Precautions shall be taken to 
prevent freezing of the product.



Sec. 58.928  Quality control tests.

    All dairy products and other ingredients shall be subject to 
inspection for quality and condition throughout each processing 
operation. Quality control tests shall be made on flow samples as often 
as is necessary to check the effectiveness of processing and 
manufacturing and as an aid in correcting deficiencies. Routine analyses 
shall be made on raw materials and finished products to assure adequate 
composition control. For each batch or production run a keeping quality 
test shall be made to determine product stability.



Sec. 58.929  Frequency of sampling for quality control.

    (a) Composition. Sampling and testing for composition shall be made 
on batches of product as often as is necessary to control composition. 
On continuous production runs, enough samples shall be taken throughout 
the run to adequately assure composition requirements.
    (b) Other chemical analysis or physical analysis. Such tests shall 
be performed as often as is necessary to assure compliance with 
standards, specifications or contract requirements.
    (c) Weight or volume control. Representative samples of the packaged 
products shall be checked during the filling operation to assure 
compliance with the stated net weight or volume on the container.
    (d) Keeping quality and stability. A minimum of one sample from each 
batch of product or one representative sample per hour from a continuous 
production run shall be taken. For continuous runs, samples shall be 
taken at the start, each hour, and at the end of the run. Samples should 
also be taken

[[Page 141]]

after resumption of processing following an interruption in continuous 
operation. Each sample shall be incubated at 90  deg.F to 100  deg.F for 
seven days.



Sec. 58.930  Official test methods.

    (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed 
herein, shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the 
latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC or by the 
latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy 
Products.
    (b) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in 
accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard 
Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products.



Sec. 58.931  General identification.

    Bulk shipping containers shall be legibly marked with the name of 
the product, net weight, name and address of manufacturer, processor or 
distributor, a lot number and coded date of manufacture. Consumer sized 
containers shall meet the applicable regulations of the Food and Drug 
Administration.

                Quality Specifications for Raw Materials



Sec. 58.932  Milk.

    The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in Secs. 58.132 
through 58.138. Unless processed within two hours after being received, 
it shall be cooled to, and held at a temperature of 45  deg.F or lower 
until processed.



Sec. 58.933  Stabilizers.

    Shall be those permitted by the Food and Drug Administration's 
``Standards of Identity'' as optional ingredients for specific products. 
Stabilizers shall be free from extraneous material, be of food grade 
quality and not be in violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic 
Act.



Sec. 58.934  Sugars.

    Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or 
sterilized milk products shall be refined, and of food grade quality.



Sec. 58.935  Chocolate and cocoa.

    Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements 
of the Food and Drug Administration, ``Definitions and Standards of 
Identity for Cocoa Products.''

 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official Identification



Sec. 58.936  Milk.

    To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra-
pasteurized dairy products eligible for official identification with the 
USDA Quality Approved Inspection Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet 
the requirements as outlined in Secs. 58.132 through 58.136. Unless 
processed within two hours after being received, it shall be cooled to, 
and held at a temperature of 45  deg.F or lower until processed.



Sec. 58.937  Physical requirements for evaporated milk.

    (a) Flavor. The product shall possess a sweet, pleasing and 
desirable flavor with not more than a definite cooked flavor. It shall 
be free from scorched, oxidized or other objectionable tastes and odors.
    (b) Body and texture. The product shall be of uniform consistency 
and appearance. It shall be smooth and free from fat separation, lumps, 
clots, gel formation, coarse milk solids precipitate or sedimentation 
and extraneous material.
    (c) Color. The color shall be of a natural white or light cream.
    (d) Degree of burn-on. The interior walls of the container shall not 
show excessive burn-on of product (product fused to more than 75 percent 
of the inner surface of the can).
    (e) Keeping quality. Samples incubated at 90-100  deg.F shall show 
no sensory, chemical or microbiological deterioration after seven days.



Sec. 58.938  Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    (a) Flavor. Shall be sweet, clean, and free from rancid, oxidized, 
scorched, fermented, stale or other objectionable tastes and odors.

[[Page 142]]

    (b) Color. Shall be white to light cream.
    (c) Texture. Shall be smooth and uniform, free from lumps or coarse 
graininess. There shall not be sufficient settling of the lactose to 
cause a deposit on the bottom of the container.
    (d) Body. Shall be sufficiently viscous so that the product upon 
being poured at room temperature piles up above the surface of that 
previously poured, but does not retain a definite form.
    (e) Microbiological limits. (1) Coliforms, less than 10 per gram; 
(2) yeasts, less than 5 per gram; (3) molds, less than 5 per gram; (4) 
total plate count, less than 1,000 per gram.
    (f) Keeping quality. Samples incubated at 90-100  deg.F shall show 
no physical evidence of deterioration after seven days.
    (g) Composition. Shall meet the minimum requirements as set forth in 
the ``Standards of Identity for Milk and Cream,'' Food and Drug 
Administration (21 CFR 18.530).\1\ In addition, the quantity of refined 
sugar used shall be sufficient to give a sugar-in-water ratio of not 
less than 61.5 percent.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    \1\ 21 CFR parts 18 and 19 were redesignated as parts 131 and 133, 
respectively, at 42 FR 14302, Mar. 15, 1977.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (h) Sediment. The amount of sediment retained on a lintine disc 
after a sample composed of 225 grams of product dissolved in 500 ml. of 
140  deg.F water has passed through it, shall not exceed 0.10 mg. as 
indicated by the USDA Sediment Standard for Milk and Milk Products (7 
CFR 58.2726).



                        Subparts C-V  [Reserved]



  Subpart W--United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice 
                                  Cream

    Source:  42 FR 56717, Oct. 28, 1977, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981.



Sec. 58.2825  United States Standard for ice cream.

    (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to 
the gallon, weigh not less than 4.5 pounds to the gallon, and contain 
not less than 20 percent total milk solids, constitued of not less than 
10 percent milkfat. In no case shall the content of milk solids not fat 
be less than 6 percent. Whey shall not, by weight, be more than 25 
percent of the milk solids not fat.
    (b) When one or more of the bulky optional ingredients, as approved 
by the Food and Drug Administration, are used, the weights of milk fat 
and total milk solids (excusive of such fat and solids in any malted 
milk used) are not less than 10 percent and 20 percent, respectively, of 
the remainder obtained by subtracting the weight of such optional 
ingredients, from the weight of the finished ice cream; but in no case 
is the weight of milk fat or total milk solids less than 8 percent and 
16 percent, respectively, of the weight of the finished ice cream. In 
calculating the reduction of milk fat and total milk solids from the use 
of bulky optional ingredients, chocolate and cocoa solids used shall be 
considered the bulky ingredients. In order to make allowance for 
additional sweetening ingredients needed when bulky ingredients are 
used, the weight of chocolate or cocoa solids may be multiplied by 2.5; 
the weight of fruit or nuts used may be multiplied by 1.4; and the 
weight of partially or wholly dried fruits or fruit juices may be 
multiplied by appropriate factors to obtain the original weights before 
drying and this weight multiplied by 1.4 The finished ice cream contains 
not less than 1.6 pounds to the gallon; except that when the optional 
ingredient microcrystalline cellulose is used, the finished ice cream 
contains not less than 1.6 pounds of total solids to the gallon and 
weighs not less than 4.5 pounds to the gallon exclusive, in both cases, 
of the weight of the microcrystalline cellulose.
    (c) Optional characterizing ingredients, optional sweetening 
ingredients, stabilizers, and emulsifiers as approved by the Food and 
Drug Administration may be used.



Sec. 58.2826  General identification.

    Consumer packaged product shall comply with the applicable labeling 
regulations of the Food and Drug Administration.



Sec. 58.2827  Official identification.

    (a) The official symbol to be used to identify product meeting the 
USDA

[[Page 143]]

standard for ice cream shall be as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.017

    (b) Ice cream manufacturing plants using this symbol shall be USDA 
approved as set forth in subpart B of this regulation, and the ice cream 
bearing the symbol shall be manufactured under continuous resident or 
continuous nonresident USDA inspection service in accordance with 
subpart A of this regulation. The dairy ingredients used in such ice 
cream shall come from USDA approved plants.



PART 59--INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)--Table of Contents




                               Definitions

Sec.
59.1  Meaning of words.
59.5  Terms defined.

                             Administration

59.10  Authority.
59.13  Federal and State cooperation.
59.17  Nondiscrimination.
59.18  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.

                           Scope of Inspection

59.20  Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.
59.22  Basis of service.
59.24  Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.
59.26  Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.
59.28  Other inspections.

                      Relation to Other Authorities

59.30  At official plants.
59.35  Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

            Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food

59.40  Continuous inspection not provided.
59.45  Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as 
          human food.

                               Exemptions

59.100  Specific exemptions.
59.105  Suspension or termination of exemptions.

                         Performance of Service

59.110  Licensed inspectors.
59.112  Suspension of license or authority; revocation.
59.114  Surrender of license.
59.116  Activities of inspectors.
59.118  Identification.
59.119  Political activity.
59.120  Financial interest of inspectors.
59.122  Time of inspection.
59.124  Schedule of operation of official plants.
59.126  Overtime inspection service.
59.128  Holiday inspection service.
59.130  Basis of billing plants.
59.132  Access to plants.
59.134  Accessibility of product.
59.136  Facilities and equipment to be furnished by official plants for 
          use of inspectors in performing service.

                         Application for Service

59.140  How application shall be made.
59.142  Filing of application.
59.144  Authority of applicant.
59.146  Application for continuous inspection in official plants; 
          approval.
59.148  Order of service.

                         Inauguration of Service

59.150  Official plant numbers.
59.155  Inauguration of service.

                            Denial of Service

59.160  Refusal, suspension, or withdrawal of service.
59.161  Termination of plant approval.

Records and Related Requirements for Eggs and Egg Products Handlers and 
                           Related Industries

59.200  Records and related requirements.
59.220  Information and assistance to be furnished to inspectors.

                        Administrative Detention

59.240  Detaining product.

                   Appeal of an Inspection or Decision

59.300  Who may request an appeal inspection or review of an inspector's 
          decision.
59.310  Where to file an appeal.
59.320  How to file an appeal.
59.330  When an application for an appeal grading or inspection may be 
          refused.
59.340  Who shall perform the appeal.
59.350  Procedures for selecting appeal samples.
59.360  Appeal inspection certificates.
59.370  Cost of appeals.

[[Page 144]]

                              Certificates

59.400  Form of certificates.
59.402  Egg products inspection certificates.
59.404  Erasures or alterations made on official certificates.
59.406  Disposition of official certificates.

                     Identifying and Marking Product

59.410  Egg products required to be labeled.
59.411  Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in 
          official egg products plants.
59.412  Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.
59.414  Products bearing the official inspection mark.
59.415  Use of other official identification.
59.417  Unauthorized use or disposition of approved labels.
59.418  Supervision of marking and packaging.
59.419  Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

          Inspection, Reinspection, Condemnation, and Retention

59.420  Inspection.
59.422  Condemnation.
59.424  Reinspection.
59.426  Retention.

          Entry of Materials Into Official Egg Products Plants

59.430  Limitation on entry of material.
59.435  Wholesomeness and approval of materials.
59.440  Processing ova.

             Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements

59.500  Plant requirements.
59.502  Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment.
59.504  General operating procedures.
59.506  Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.
59.508  Candling and transfer-room operations.
59.510  Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg 
          products.
59.515  Egg cleaning operations.
59.516  Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.
59.520  Breaking room facilities.
59.522  Breaking room operations.
59.530  Liquid egg cooling.
59.532  Liquid egg holding.
59.534  Freezing facilities.
59.536  Freezing operations.
59.538  Defrosting facilities.
59.539  Defrosting operations.
59.540  Spray process drying facilities.
59.542  Spray process drying operations.
59.544  Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.
59.546  Albumen flake process drying facilities.
59.547  Albumen flake process drying operations.
59.548  Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and 
          facilities.
59.549  Dried egg storage.
59.550  Washing and sanitizing room or area facilities.
59.552  Cleaning and sanitizing requirements.
59.560  Health and hygiene of personnel.
59.570  Pasteurization of liquid eggs.
59.575  Heat treatment of dried whites.

                               Laboratory

59.580  Laboratory tests and analyses.

                      Exempted Egg Products Plants

59.600  Application for exemption.
59.610  Criteria for exemption.
59.620  Authority of applicant.
59.630  Filing of application.
59.640  Application for exemption; approval.
59.650  Exempted plant registration number.
59.660  Inspection of exempted plants.
59.670  Termination of exemption.
59.680  Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg 
          products processing plants.

                   Registration of Shell Egg Handlers

59.690  Persons required to register.

              Inspection and Disposition of Restricted Eggs

59.700  Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.
59.720  Disposition of restricted eggs.
59.760  Inspection of egg handlers.

Identification of Restricted Eggs or Egg Products Not Intended for Human 
                               Consumption

59.800  Identification of restricted eggs.
59.801  Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.
59.840  Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg 
          products.
59.860  Identification wording.

                                 Imports

59.900  Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs 
          into the United States.
59.905  Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more 
          restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for 
          U.S. Consumer Grade B.
59.910  Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of egg products 
          into the United States.
59.915  Foreign inspection certificate required.
59.920  Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and 
          egg products.

[[Page 145]]

59.925  Inspection of imported eggs and egg products.
59.930  Imported eggs and egg products; retention in customs custody; 
          delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection; sealing; 
          handling; facilities, and assistance.
59.935  Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling eggs and egg 
          products to be maintained in sanitary condition.
59.940  Marking of egg products offered for importation.
59.945  Foreign eggs and egg products offered for importation; reporting 
          of findings to customs; handling of products refused entry.
59.950  Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.
59.955  Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for 
          importation.
59.956  Relabeling of imported egg products.
59.960  Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or 
          laboratory analysis.
59.965  Returned U.S. inspected and marked products; not importations.
59.970  Charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products 
          imported contrary to the Act.

    Authority:  21 U.S.C. 1031-1056.

    Source:  36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.

                               Definitions



Sec. 59.1  Meaning of words.

    Under these regulations, words in the singular shall be deemed to 
mean the plural and vice versa, as the case may demand.



Sec. 59.5  Terms defined.

    For the purpose of these regulations, unless the context otherwise 
requires, the following terms shall be construed, respectively, as 
follows:
    Acceptable means suitable for the purpose intended and acceptable to 
the Administrator.
    Act means the applicable provisions of the Egg Products Inspection 
Act (Pub. L. 91-597, 84 Stat. 1620 et seq.).
    Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service of the Department or any other officer or employee of the 
Department to whom there has heretofore been delegated, or to whom there 
may hereafter be delegated the authority to act in his stead.
    Adulterated means any egg or egg product under one or more of the 
following circumstances:
    (a) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance 
which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is 
not an added substance, such article shall not be considered adulterated 
under this clause if the quantity of such substance in or on such 
article does not ordinarily render it injurious to health;
    (b)(1) If it bears or contains any added poisonous or added 
deleterious substance (other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical 
in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; or (iii) a 
color additive) which may in the judgment of the Secretary, make such 
article unfit for human food;
    (2) If it is, in whole or in part, a raw agricultural commodity and 
such commodity bears or contains a pesticide chemical which is unsafe 
within the meaning of section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and 
Cosmetic Act;
    (3) If it bears or contains any food additive which is unsafe within 
the meaning of section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act;
    (4) If it bears or contains any color additive which is unsafe 
within the meaning of section 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and 
Cosmetic Act: Provided, that an article which is not otherwise deemed 
adulterated under paragraph (b)(2), (3), or (4) of this definition shall 
nevertheless be deemed adulterated if use of the pesticide chemical, 
food additive, or color additive, in or on such article, is prohibited 
by regulations of the Secretary in official plants;
    (c) If it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or 
decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for human food;
    (d) If it has been prepared, packaged, or held under insanitary 
conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or 
whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health;
    (e) If it is an egg which has been subjected to incubation or the 
product of any egg which has been subjected to incubation;
    (f) If its container is composed, in whole or in part of any 
poisonous or

[[Page 146]]

deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health;
    (g) If it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the 
use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in 
effect pursuant to section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act; or
    (h) If any valuable constituent has been, in whole or in part, 
omitted or abstracted therefrom; or if any substance has been 
substituted, wholly or in part therefor; or if damage or inferiority has 
been concealed in any manner; or if any substance has been added thereto 
or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or 
reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater 
value than it is.
    Applicant means any person who requests any inspection service as 
authorized under the Act or the regulations of this part.
    Capable of use as human food means any egg or egg product, unless it 
is denatured, or otherwise identified, as required by these regulations 
to deter its use as human food.
    Chief of the Grading Branch means Chief of the Poultry Grading 
Branch, Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing Service.
    Class means any subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same 
kind, type, or method of processing.
    Commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce.
    Condition means any condition (including, but not being limited to, 
the state of preservation, cleanliness, soundness, wholesomeness, or 
fitness for human food) of any product which affects its 
merchantability; or any condition, including but not being limited to, 
the processing, handling, or packaging which affects such product.
    Container or Package includes any box, can, tin, plastic, or other 
receptacle, wrapper, or cover.
    (a) Immediate container means any consumer package, or other 
container in which egg products, not consumer packaged, are packed.
    (b) Shipping container means any container used in packaging a 
product packed in an immediate container.
    Department means the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    Dirty egg or Dirties means an egg(s) that has an unbroken shell with 
adhering dirt or foreign material.
    Egg means the shell egg of the domesticated chicken, turkey, duck, 
goose, or guinea. Some of the terms applicable to shell eggs are as 
follows:
    (a) Check means an egg that has a broken shell or crack in the shell 
but has its shell membranes intact and contents not leaking.
    (b) Clean and sound shell egg means any egg whose shell is free of 
adhering dirt or foreign material and is not cracked or broken.
    (c) Dirty egg or Dirties means an egg(s) that has a shell that is 
unbroken and has adhering dirt, foreign material, or prominent stains.
    (d) Incubator reject means an egg that has been subjected to 
incubation and has been removed from incubation during the hatching 
operations as infertile or otherwise unhatchable.
    (e) Inedible means eggs of the following descriptions: Black rots, 
yellow rots, white rots, mixed rots, sour eggs, eggs with green whites, 
eggs with stuck yolks, moldy eggs, musty eggs, eggs showing blood rings, 
and eggs containing embryo chicks (at or beyond the blood ring stage).
    (f) Leaker means an egg that has a crack or break in the shell and 
shell membranes to the extent that the egg contents are exposed or are 
exuding or free to exude through the shell.
    (g) Loss means an egg that is unfit for human food because it is 
smashed or broken so that its contents are leaking; or overheated, 
frozen, or contaminated; or an incubator reject; or because it contains 
a bloody white, large meat spots, a large quantity of blood, or other 
foreign material.
    (h) Restricted egg means any check, dirty egg, incubator reject, 
inedible, leaker, or loss.
    Egg handler means any person who engages in any business in commerce 
which involves buying or selling any eggs (as a poultry producer or 
otherwise), or processing any egg products,

[[Page 147]]

or otherwise using any eggs in the preparation of human food.
    Egg product means any dried, frozen, or liquid eggs, with or without 
added ingredients, excepting products which contain eggs only in a 
relatively small proportion or historically have not been, in the 
judgment of the Secretary, considered by consumers as products of the 
egg food industry, and which may be exempted by the Secretary under such 
conditions as he may prescribe to assure that the egg ingredients are 
not adulterated and such products are not represented as egg products. 
For the purposes of this part, the following products, among others, are 
exempted as not being egg products: Freeze-dried products, imitation egg 
products, egg substitutes, dietary foods, dried no-bake custard mixes, 
egg nog mixes, acidic dressings, noodles, milk and egg dip, cake mixes, 
French toast, and sandwiches containing eggs or egg products, provided, 
such products are prepared from inspected egg products or eggs 
containing no more restricted eggs than are allowed in the official 
standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs. Balut and other similar 
ethnic delicacies are also exempted from inspection under this part.
    Eggs of current production means shell eggs which have moved through 
the usual marketing channels since the time they were laid and are not 
in excess of 60 days old.
    Fair Packaging and Labeling Act means the Act so entitled, approved 
November 3, 1966 (80 Stat. 1296), and Acts amendatory thereof or 
supplementary thereto.
    Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act means the Act so entitled, 
approved June 25, 1938 (52 Stat. 1040), and Acts amendatory thereof or 
supplementary thereto.
    Inspection means the application of such inspection methods and 
techniques as are deemed necessary by the responsible Secretary to carry 
out the provisions of the Egg Products Inspection Act and the 
regulations under this part.
    Inspection service means the official service within the Department 
having the responsibility for carrying out the provisions of the Egg 
Products Inspection Act. Inspection service also means the activities 
performed, including official reporting by such official service.
    Inspector/Grader means:
    (a) Any employee or official of the United States Government 
authorized to inspect eggs or egg products under the authority of this 
part; or
    (b) Any employee or official of the government of any State or local 
jurisdiction authorized by the Secretary to inspect eggs or egg products 
under the authority of this part, under an agreement entered into 
between the Secretary and the appropriate State or other agency.
    Interested party means any person financially interested in a 
transaction involving any inspection or appeal inspection of any 
product, or the decision of an inspector.
    Label means a display of any printed, graphic, or other method of 
identification upon the shipping container, if any, or upon the 
immediate container, including but not limited to, an individual 
consumer package of eggs and egg products, or accompanying such product.
    Misbranded means any egg products which are not labeled and packaged 
in accordance with the requirements prescribed by regulations of the 
Administrator under this part.
    National Supervisor means:
    (a) The officer in charge of the inspection service; and
    (b) Such other employee of the Service as may be designated by him.
    Nest-run eggs means eggs which are packed as they come from the 
production facilities without having been washed, sized and/or candled 
for quality, with the exception that some checks, dirties, or other 
obvious undergrades may have been removed.
    Official certificate means any certificate prescribed by regulations 
of the Administrator for issuance by an inspector or other person 
performing official functions under this part.
    Official device means any device prescribed or authorized by the 
Secretary for use in applying any official mark.
    Official identification means the official inspection mark or any 
other symbol prescribed by regulations of this part to identify the 
status of any article.

[[Page 148]]

    Official inspection mark means any symbol prescribed by the 
regulations of the Administrator showing that egg products were 
inspected in accordance with this part.
    Official standards means the standards of quality, grades, and 
weight classes for eggs, as described under part 56 of this chapter 
under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087, as amended, 
7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), or as hereafter amended.
    Office of inspection means the office of any inspector.
    Pasteurize means the subjecting of each particle of egg products to 
heat or other treatments to destroy harmful viable microorganisms by 
such processes as may be prescribed by these regulations.
    Person means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, 
or other business unit.
    Pesticide chemical, Food additive, Color additive, and Raw 
agricultural commodity shall have the same meaning for purposes of this 
part as under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
    Plant means any place of business where egg products are processed:
    (a) Exempted plant means any plant where the Administrator has 
determined the facilities and operating procedures meet such standards 
as may be prescribed by this part, and where the eggs received or used 
in the manufacture of egg products contain no more restricted eggs than 
are allowed by the official standards of U.S. Consumer Grade B for shell 
eggs, and where an exemption has been granted.
    (b) Official plant means any plant in which the plant facilities, 
methods of operation and sanitary procedures have been found suitable 
and adequate by the Administrator for the continuous inspection of egg 
products in accordance with this part and in which inspection service is 
carried on.
    Potable water means water that has been approved by a State health 
authority or other agency or laboratory acceptable to the Administrator 
as safe for drinking and suitable for food processing.
    Processing means manufacturing of egg products, including breaking 
eggs or filtering, mixing, blending, pasteurizing, stabilizing, cooling, 
freezing or drying, or packaging egg products at official plants.
    Producer-packer means any producer who sorts eggs only from his own 
production and packs them into their various qualities.
    Quality means the inherent properties of any product which determine 
its relative degree of excellence.
    Regional Director means any employee of the Department in charge of 
inspection service in a designated geographical region.
    Regulations means the provisions in this part.
    Regulatory inspector means any employee of the U.S. Government, or 
State or local jurisdiction, who is authorized by the Secretary to make 
such inspections as required in Sec. 59.28 of these regulations.
    Sampling means the act of taking samples of any product for 
inspection or analyses.
    Sanitize means the application of a bactericidal treatment which is 
approved as being effective in destroying microorganisms, including 
pathogens.
    Secretary means the Secretary of Agriculture or his delegate.
    Service means the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the 
Department.
    Shell egg packer (grading station) means any person engaged in the 
sorting of eggs from sources other than or in addition to his own 
production into their various qualities, either mechanically or by other 
means.
    Stabilization means the subjection of any egg product to a 
desugaring process.
    State means any State of the United States, the Commonwealth of 
Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the District 
of Columbia.
    United States means the States.
    Washed ungraded eggs means eggs which have been washed but not sized 
or segregated for quality.
    White or albumen means, for the purpose of this part, the product 
obtained

[[Page 149]]

from the egg as broken from the shell and separated from the yolk.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6657, Apr. 4, 1972; 40 FR 
20057, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 
3, 1982; 54 FR 37289, Sept. 8, 1989; 60 FR 49168, Sept. 21, 1995; 60 FR 
58199, Nov. 27, 1995]

                             Administration



Sec. 59.10  Authority.

    The Administrator shall perform, for and under the supervision of 
the Secretary, such duties as the Secretary may require in the 
enforcement or administration of the provisions of the Act, and this 
part. The Administrator may waive for a limited period any particular 
provisions of the regulations to permit experimentation so that new 
procedures, equipment, and processing techniques may be tested to 
facilitate definite improvements and at the same time to maintain full 
compliance with the spirit and intent of the regulations. The 
Agricultural Marketing Service and its officers and employees shall not 
be liable in damages through acts of commission or omission in the 
administration of this part.
[42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.13  Federal and State cooperation.

    The Secretary shall, whenever he determines that it would effectuate 
the purposes of the Act, authorize the Administrator to cooperate with 
appropriate State and other governmental agencies in carrying out any 
provisions of the Egg Products Inspection Act and these regulations. In 
carrying out the provisions of the Act and the regulations, the 
Secretary may conduct such examinations, investigations, and inspections 
as he determines practicable through any officer or employee of any such 
agency commissioned by him for such purpose. The Secretary shall 
reimburse the States and other agencies for the services rendered by 
them in such cooperative programs as agreed to in the cooperative 
agreements as signed by the Administrator and the duly authorized agent 
of the State or other agency.



Sec. 59.17  Nondiscrimination.

    The conduct of all services and the licensing of graders and 
inspectors under these regulations shall be accomplished without 
discrimination as to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, 
or disability.
[40 FR 20057, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.18  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    (a) Purpose. This section collects and displays the control numbers 
assigned to information collection requirements by the Office of 
Management and Budget contained in 7 CFR 59 pursuant to the Paperwork 
Reduction Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-511.
    (b) Display.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Current OMB 
      7 CFR section where identified and described        control number
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sec.  59.10.............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.13.............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.22.............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.28(a)(1).......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.40.............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.45(c)(1).......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.45(c)(3).......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.45(d)..........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.110(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.112............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.122............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.124............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.126............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.128(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.140............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.144............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.146(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.146(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.155............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.160(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.160(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.160(f)(3)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.160(f)(4)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.200(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.200(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.220............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.240............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.320............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.402(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.411(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.411(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.411(e).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.411(f).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.418(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.430(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.435(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.435(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.440(c).........................................       0581-0113

[[Page 150]]

                                                                        
Sec.  59.500(h).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(h).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(k).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(1)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(2)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(3)(i)...................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(3)(iii).................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(3)(iv)..................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.504(o)(3)(v)...................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.515(a)(8)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.520(h).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.522(f).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.522(x).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.522(aa)(2).....................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.530(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.534(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.544(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.544(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.544(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.552(a)(3)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.552(b)(1)(i)...................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.552(b)(2)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.570(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.575(b)(3)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.575(d).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.580(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.600............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.610(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.620............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.640(b)(1)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.680(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.690............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.720(a)(2)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.720(a)(3)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.720(a)(4)......................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.720(c).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.760............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.800............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.840............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.905(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.915(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.915(b).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.920............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.930(f).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.950(a).........................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.960............................................       0581-0113
Sec.  59.965............................................       0581-0113
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[48 FR 34238, July 28, 1983, as amended at 50 FR 23270, June 3, 1985; 54 
FR 37290, Sept. 8, 1989]

                           Scope of Inspection



Sec. 59.20  Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.

    Inspection of eggs and egg products shall be rendered pursuant to 
these regulations and under such conditions and in accordance with such 
methods as may be prescribed or approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 59.22  Basis of service.

    These regulations provide for inspection services pursuant to the 
Egg Products Inspection Act. Eggs and egg products shall be inspected in 
accordance with such standards, methods, and instructions as may be 
issued or approved by the Administrator. Inspection services shall be 
subject to supervision at all times by the applicable Federal-State 
supervisor, egg products supervisor, Regional Director, and National 
Supervisor.



Sec. 59.24  Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    No plant in which egg products processing operations are conducted 
shall process egg products without continuous inspection under these 
regulations, except as expressly exempted in Sec. 59.100.



Sec. 59.26  Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Eggs and egg products processed in an official plant shall be 
inspected, processed, marked, and labeled as required by these 
regulations. Egg products entering an official plant shall have been 
inspected, processed, marked, and labeled as required by these 
regulations.



Sec. 59.28  Other inspections.

    (a) Periodic inspections shall be made of:
    (1) Business premises, facilities, inventories, operations, and 
records of egg handlers, and the records of all persons engaged in the 
business of transporting, shipping, or receiving any eggs or egg 
products. In the case of shell egg packers packing eggs for the ultimate 
consumer (i.e., packed for direct use of household consumers, 
restaurants, institutions, etc.), such inspections shall be made a 
minimum of once each calendar quarter. Hatcheries are to be inspected a 
minimum of once each fiscal year.
    (2) Exempted plants to determine that such plants are operating 
pursuant to these regulations.
    (b) Inspections shall be made of imported eggs and egg products as 
required in this part.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20057, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]

[[Page 151]]

                      Relation to Other Authorities



Sec. 59.30  At official plants.

    (a) Requirements within the scope of the Act with respect to 
premises, facilities, and operations of any official plant which are in 
addition to or different than those made under this part may not be 
imposed by any State or local jurisdiction except that any such 
jurisdiction may impose recordkeeping and other requirements within the 
scope of Sec. 59.200, if consistent therewith, with respect to any such 
plant.
    (b) Labeling, packaging, or ingredient requirements in addition to 
or different than those made under this part, the Federal Food, Drug, 
and Cosmetic Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act may not be 
imposed by any State or local jurisdiction with respect to egg products 
processed at any official plant in accordance with the requirements 
under this part and such Acts.



Sec. 59.35  Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    (a) For eggs which have moved or are moving in interstate or foreign 
commerce, no State or local jurisdiction (1) may require the use of 
standards of quality, condition, grade, or weight classes which are in 
addition to or different than the official standards or (2) other than 
those in noncontiguous areas of the United States may require labeling 
to show the State or other geographical area of production or origin. 
This shall not preclude a State from requiring the name, address, and 
license number of the person processing or packaging eggs to be shown on 
each container.
    (b) Any State or local jurisdiction may exercise jurisdiction with 
respect to eggs and egg products for the purpose of preventing the 
distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are 
outside of the official plant and are in violation of this part or any 
of said Federal Acts or any State or local law consistent therewith.

            Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food



Sec. 59.40  Continuous inspection not provided.

    Continuous inspection shall not be provided under this part at any 
plant for the processing of any egg products which are not intended for 
use as human food, but such articles prior to their offer for sale or 
transportation in commerce shall be denatured or decharacterized unless 
shipped under seal as authorized in Secs. 59.504(c) and 59.720(a), and 
identified as prescribed by the regulations in this part to prevent 
their use for human food. Periodic inspections shall be made of such 
operations and records to assure compliance with the Act and the 
regulations in this part.
[37 FR 6657, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.45  Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport or offer to buy or sell, 
or offer or receive for transportation in commerce, any eggs or egg 
products which are not intended for use as human food, unless they are 
denatured or decharacterized, unless shipped under seal as authorized in 
paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section or in Secs. 59.504(c) and 
59.720(a) and identified as required by the regulations in this part.
    (b) No person shall import or export shell eggs classified as loss, 
inedible, or incubator rejects or any egg products which are 
unwholesome, adulterated, or are otherwise unfit for human food 
purposes, except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, 
unless they are denatured or decharacterized and identified as required 
by the regulations in this part.
    (c) Egg products which are unwholesome, adulterated, or are 
otherwise unfit for human food purposes that are not denatured or 
decharacterized may be exported to foreign countries for industrial use 
or animal food under the following provisions:

[[Page 152]]

    (1) Authorized government official of the foreign country shall 
approve the importation of such products into that country.
    (2) The egg products shall be shipped under U.S. Government seal and 
identified as required in Sec. 59.840.
    (3) Provisions for the control of such inedible product in the 
foreign country to preclude its use as human food must be established 
and approved by the Administrator. Such control may consist of, but not 
be limited to, receipt and inspection by an appropriate U.S. Government 
official, an official of an approved meat, poultry, or egg products 
inspection system of the foreign government, or, when acceptable to the 
Administrator, a foreign government official including other foreign 
health authorities.
    (d) Foreign governments may petition the Administrator for approval 
to import into this country egg products which are unwholesome, 
adulterated, or otherwise unfit for human food purposes that are not 
denatured or decharacterized for industrial use or animal food 
requirements. Such products shall be subject to the provisions of this 
part and other applicable laws and regulations for importation into the 
United States.
[48 FR 34238, July 28, 1983]

                               Exemptions



Sec. 59.100  Specific exemptions.

    The following are exempt to the extent prescribed as to the 
provisions for control of restricted eggs in section 8(a)(1) and (2) of 
the Act and the provision for continuous inspection of processing 
operations in section 5(a) of the Act: Provided, That as to paragraphs 
(c) through (f) of this section, the exemptions do not apply to 
restricted eggs when prohibited by State or local law: And provided 
further, That the sale of ``hard-cooked shell eggs'' or ``peeled hard-
cooked shell eggs'' prepared from checks is subject to the conditions 
for exemption in paragraphs (c), (d), and (f) of this section: And 
provided further, That the conditions for exemption and provisions of 
these regulations are met:
    (a) The sale, transportation, possession, or use of eggs which 
contain no more restricted eggs than are allowed by the tolerances in 
the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs;
    (b) Subject to the approval of the Administrator as provided in 
Secs. 59.600 through 59.670, the processing of egg products without 
continuous inspection at any plant where the facilities, sanitation, and 
operating procedures are the same as are required in this part for 
official plants and where the eggs received or used in the manufacture 
of egg products contain no more restricted eggs than are allowed by the 
official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs, and the egg 
products processed at such plant;
    (c) The sale at the site of production, on a door-to-door retail 
route, or at an established place of business away from the site of 
production, by a poultry producer of eggs from his own flock's 
production directly to a household consumer exclusively for use by such 
consumer and members of his household and his nonpaying guests and 
employees, and the transportation, possession, and use of such eggs: 
Provided, That each such sale of restricted eggs shall be limited to no 
more than 30 dozen eggs; And provided further, (1) That eggs sold 
directly to consumers at an established place of business away from the 
site of production be moved directly from the producer to such place of 
business; (2) that such business away from the site of production be 
owned and managed by the producer; and (3) that such eggs which are sold 
on a door-to-door route or at an established place of business away from 
the site of production shall contain no more loss and/or leakers than 
allowed in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs.
    (d) The sale of eggs by any producer with an annual egg production 
from a flock of 3,000 hens or less and the record requirements of 
Sec. 59.200;
    (e) The processing and sale of egg products by any poultry producer 
from eggs of his own flock's production when sold directly to a 
household consumer exclusively for use by such consumer and members of 
his household and his nonpaying guests and employees;
    (f) The sale of eggs by shell egg packers on the premises where the 
grading

[[Page 153]]

station is located, directly to household consumers for use by such 
consumer and members of his household and his nonpaying guests and 
employees, and the transportation, possession, and use of such eggs. 
Each such sale of ``restricted eggs'': Shall be limited to no more than 
30 dozen eggs;
    (g) The processing in nonofficial plants, including but not limited 
to bakeries, restaurants, and other food processors, without continuous 
inspection, of certain categories of food products which contain eggs or 
egg products as an ingredient, and the sale and possession of such 
products: Provided, That such products are manufactured from inspected 
egg products processed in accordance with this part or from eggs 
containing no more restricted eggs than are allowed in the official 
standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs;
    (h) The purchase, sale, possession, or transportation of shell eggs 
containing more restricted eggs than allowed in the tolerances for U.S. 
Consumer Grade B shell eggs: Provided, That such eggs are handled in 
accordance with Secs. 59.200 and 59.700 through 59.860 to assure that 
only eggs fit for human food are used for such purpose. This exemption 
applies to the following:
    (1) Egg producers, assemblers, wholesalers, and grading operations;
    (2) Hatcheries;
    (3) Transporters;
    (4) Laboratories, pharmaceutical companies; and
    (5) Processors of products not intended for use as human food.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20057, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 59.105  Suspension or termination of exemptions.

    (a) The Administrator may immediately suspend or terminate any 
exemption under Sec. 59.100(b) at any time with respect to any person, 
if the conditions of exemption prescribed by this section are not being 
met. The Administrator may modify or revoke any regulation of this part, 
granting exemptions whenever he determines such action appropriate to 
effectuate the purposes of the Act.
    (b) Failure to comply with the condition of the exemptions contained 
in Sec. 59.100 shall subject such person to the penalties provided for 
in the Act and in this part.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20057, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]

                         Performance of Service



Sec. 59.110  Licensed inspectors.

    (a) Any person who is a Federal or State employee, or the employee 
of a local jurisdiction possessing proper qualifications as determined 
by an examination for competency and who is to perform services pursuant 
to this part, may be licensed by the Secretary as an inspector.
    (b) Licenses issued by the Secretary are to be countersigned by the 
Administrator or by any other designated official of the Service.
    (c) No person may be licensed to inspect any product in which he is 
financially interested.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.112  Suspension of license or authority; revocation.

    Pending final action by the Secretary, any person authorized to 
countersign a license to perform inspection services may, whenever he 
deems such action necessary to assure that any inspection service is 
properly performed, suspend any license to perform inspection services 
issued pursuant to this part by giving notice of such suspension to the 
respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the reasons therefor. 
Within 7 days after the receipt of the aforesaid notice and statement of 
reasons by the licensee, he may file an appeal in writing, with the 
Secretary, supported by any argument or evidence that he may wish to 
offer as to why his license should not be suspended or revoked. After 
the expiration of the aforesaid 7-day period and consideration of such 
argument and evidence, the Secretary will take such action as he deems 
appropriate with respect to such suspension or revocation.

[[Page 154]]

When no appeal is filed within the prescribed 7 days, the license is 
revoked or suspended.



Sec. 59.114  Surrender of license.

    Upon termination of his services as an inspector or whenever his 
license has been suspended or revoked, the licensee shall surrender his 
license and other items of identification furnished by the Department 
immediately to the inspection service.



Sec. 59.116  Activities of inspectors.

    Inspectors at official plants shall confine their activities to 
those duties necessary in the rendering of inspection service and such 
closely related activities as may be approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 59.118  Identification.

    Inspectors shall have in their possession at all times while on 
duty, and present upon request, the means of identification furnished by 
the Department to such persons.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.119  Political activity.

    Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective 
appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political 
management or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, 
county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in 
behalf of any party or candidate, except as authorized by law or 
regulation of the Department, is prohibited. This applies to all 
appointees, including but not being limited to temporary and cooperative 
employees and employees on leave of absence with or without pay. Willful 
violation of this section or Sec. 59.120 will constitute grounds for 
dismissal in the case of appointees and revocation of licenses in the 
case of licensees.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 59.120  Financial interest of inspectors.

    No inspector shall inspect any product in which he is financially 
interested.



Sec. 59.122  Time of inspection.

    The inspector who is to perform the inspection in an official plant 
shall be given reasonable advance notice by plant management of the 
hours when such inspection will be required.
[60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.124  Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Operating schedules for an official plant shall be subject to 
approval of the Administrator. The normal operating schedule shall 
consist of a continuous 8-hour period per day (excluding not to exceed 1 
hour for lunch), 5 consecutive days per week, within the administrative 
workweek, Sunday through Saturday, for each full shift required. Clock 
hours of daily operations need not be specified in a schedule, although 
as a condition of continuance of approval of a schedule, the hours of 
operation must be reasonably uniform from day to day.
[48 FR 20683, May 9, 1983]



Sec. 59.126  Overtime inspection service.

    When operations in an official plant require the services of 
inspection personnel beyond their regularly assigned tour of duty on any 
day or on a day outside the established schedule, such services are 
considered as overtime work. The official plant shall give reasonable 
advance notice to the inspector of any overtime service necessary and 
shall pay the Service for such overtime at an hourly rate of $26.16 to 
cover the cost thereof.
[59 FR 52637, Oct. 18, 1994]



Sec. 59.128  Holiday inspection service.

    (a) When an official plant requires inspection service on a holiday 
or a day designated in lieu of a holiday, such service is considered 
holiday work. The official plant shall, in advance of such holiday work, 
request the inspector in charge to furnish inspection service during 
such period and shall pay the

[[Page 155]]

Service therefore at an hourly rate of $17.44 to cover the cost thereof.
    (b) The term ``holiday'' shall mean the legal public holidays 
specified by the Congress in paragraph (a) of section 6103, title 5 of 
the United States Code. Information on legal holidays may be obtained 
from the supervisor.
[37 FR 6657, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 9, Jan. 2, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46071, Oct. 15, 1982; 59 FR 52637, Oct. 
18, 1994]



Sec. 59.130  Basis of billing plants.

    Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official 
plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service 
performed by each inspector providing such service to the plant, except 
that when an official plant requires the services of an inspector after 
he has completed his day's assignment and left the plant or when he is 
called back to duty on a day outside the established normal operating 
schedule or on a holiday, the official plant shall pay for a minimum of 
2 hours service at the applicable established rate. Extra travel expense 
incurred while rendering overtime or holiday service shall be billed to 
the official plant. Bills are payable upon receipt and become delinquent 
30 days from date of billing. Overtime or holiday inspection service 
will not be performed at any plant that is delinquent, and processing 
operations shall be confined to the regular operating schedule of the 
plant. In addition, fees will be charged and collected for 
certifications requested by and provided for the official plant that are 
not within the scope of these regulations. Unless otherwise provided in 
this part, the fees to be charged and collected for any service 
performed (other than an appeal) shall be based on the applicable rates 
specified in the Regulations Governing the Voluntary Inspection of Egg 
Products and Grading (7 CFR, 55.510 through 55.560).
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.132  Access to plants.

    Access shall not be refused, at any reasonable time, to any 
representative of the Secretary to any plant or place of business 
subject to inspection under the provisions of this part upon 
presentation of proper credentials.



Sec. 59.134  Accessibility of product.

    Each product for which inspection service is required shall be so 
placed as to disclose fully its class, quality, quantity, and condition 
as the circumstances may warrant.



Sec. 59.136  Facilities and equipment to be furnished by official plants for use of inspectors in performing service.

    (a) Such facilities and equipment shall include but not be limited 
to a room or area suitable for sampling product, and acceptable candling 
light, flashlight, heavy duty, high speed drill with an eleven 
sixteenths-inch or larger bit of sufficient length to reach the bottom 
of containers used for frozen eggs, metal stem thermometer(s), test 
thermometer(s), stop watch, test weighing scale(s) and test weight(s), 
test kit for determining the bactericidal strength of sanitizing 
solutions, and stationary or adequately secured storage box or cage 
(capable of being locked only by the inspector) for holding official 
samples.
    (b) Furnished office space and equipment, including but not being 
limited to a desk (equipped with a satisfactory locking device), lockers 
or cabinets suitable for the protection and storage of supplies, and 
facilities suitable for inspectors to change clothing.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]

                         Application for Service



Sec. 59.140  How application shall be made.

    The proprietor or operator of each plant processing egg products, 
unless exempted by Sec. 59.100, shall make application to the 
Administrator for inspection service. The application shall be made in 
writing on forms furnished by the inspection service. In cases of change 
of name or ownership or change

[[Page 156]]

of location, a new application shall be made.



Sec. 59.142  Filing of application.

    An application for inspection service shall be regarded as filed 
only when it has been filled in completely and signed by the applicant 
and has been received in the office of the Chief of the Grading Branch.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.144  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of authority of any person applying for inspection service may 
be required at the discretion of the Administrator.



Sec. 59.146  Application for continuous inspection in official plants; approval.

    Any person desiring to process egg products under continuous 
inspection service must receive approval of such plant and facilities as 
an official plant prior to the installation of such service. An 
application for continuous inspection service to be installed in an 
official plant shall be approved according to the following procedure:
    (a) Initial survey: When an application for continuous inspection in 
a plant has been filed, a supervisory egg products inspector will make a 
survey and inspection of the premises and plant to determine if the 
facilities and methods of operation therein are suitable and adequate 
for service in accordance with:
    (1) These regulations, and
    (2) Such other administrative instructions as may be issued from 
time to time by the Service and which are in effect at the time of the 
aforesaid survey and inspection.
    (b) Drawings and specifications to be furnished:
    (1) Applicants may obtain information or assistance as to the 
requirements before submitting prints of drawings, specifications, and 
supplemental information from the inspection service.
    (2) Three copies of each print drawing as specified in this section 
of the complete floor plan, plot plan, supplemental information, and 
specifications shall be submitted. Sheet size of the print shall not 
exceed 34 by 44 inches, the wording shall be legible, all lines sharp 
and clear, and properly drawn to scale. Each print shall show the scale 
used, north point of the compass, and the firm name, street, city, 
state, and zip code or an accurate description of the location.
    (3) Plot plan of entire premises shall include location of all 
buildings, railroads, roadways, alleys, wells, reservoirs, drains, catch 
basins, nearby buildings adjoining property, drainage and slope of 
terrain, character and surfacing of roadways, driveways, and vehicular 
loading areas. The plot plan may be drawn to a scale of one-thirty-
second inch per foot.
    (4) Floor plan prints shall include all space on each floor of the 
official plant, accurately illustrating and describing the facilities. 
Detailed drawings of processing area shall be drawn to a scale of one-
fourth inch per foot. Prints showing only nonprocessing areas may be 
drawn to a scale of one-eighth inch per foot.
    (5) Floor plans shall show the location of such features as walls, 
partitions, posts, doorways, windows, floor drains and channel drains, 
air systems, ventilation fans, principal pieces of equipment, storage 
tanks, hose connections for cleaning purposes, hand-washing facilities, 
lockers, and toilets. The prints shall show slope of floors to drains.
    (6) The official plant shall include all processing rooms and other 
rooms used in the official plant, including but not being limited to the 
breaking room, equipment washing and sanitizing rooms, shell egg washing 
rooms, packaging rooms, shell egg and egg products storage rooms 
(including coolers, freezers, hot rooms), drying rooms, toilet and 
dressing rooms, storerooms for supplies, and all other rooms, 
compartments, or passageways where products or any ingredients to be 
used in the preparation of products under this service will be handled 
or kept and may include other rooms located in the building comprising 
the official plant. Except in public warehouses, all rooms, 
compartments, etc., of the building not to be considered as part of the 
official

[[Page 157]]

plant shall not have direct access into any part of the official plant.
    (7) Supplemental information may be shown as notations on the 
drawings or on supplemental sheets. Supplemental information shall 
include clarifying information such as sequence of processing edible 
products, handling of inedible product, shell disposal, handling of 
packaging material, liquid pumping systems, cleaned-in-place systems, 
description of pasteurizer, description of drier, type and efficiency of 
air filtration, hot water facilities, sewage disposal, and such other 
notations as may be required.
    (8) Specification sheets shall include height of ceilings and type 
construction, type of floors, and wall construction, wall and partition 
material, and number of employees who will use each toilet room and 
facilities.
    (c) Upon approval of the prints of drawing, supplemental 
information, and specifications, the application for service may be 
approved.
    (d) Changes and revisions of official plant: When changes are 
planned in official plant construction, facilities, and equipment 
covered by previously approved prints, revised prints shall be submitted 
for review and approval prior to making the changes by: A completely 
revised sheet(s) showing proposed alterations and additions or an 
overlay print drawn to same scale as print to be modified or revised. A 
final survey of the completed alterations and additions shall be made by 
the supervisory egg products inspector to determine if the changes are 
in accordance with approved drawings and the regulations.
    (e) Final survey and plant approval: Prior to the inauguration of 
continuous inspection service, a final survey of the plant and premises 
shall be made by the supervisory egg products inspector to determine if 
the plant is constructed and facilities are installed in accordance with 
the approved drawings and these regulations. The plant may be approved 
only when these requirements have been met.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.148  Order of service.

    Inspection service shall be performed, insofar as practicable, in 
the order in which applications therefor are made.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]

                         Inauguration of Service



Sec. 59.150  Official plant numbers.

    An official plant number shall be assigned to each plant granted 
inspection service. Such plant number shall be used to identify all 
containers of inspected products prepared in the plant which are capable 
of use as human food. A plant shall not have more than one plant number.



Sec. 59.155  Inauguration of service.

    Prior to the inauguration of service, the proprietor or operator of 
the plant shall be knowledgeable of the requirements of these 
regulations.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]

                            Denial of Service



Sec. 59.160  Refusal, suspension, or withdrawal of service.

    (a) The Administrator (for such period, or indefinitely, as he deems 
necessary to effectuate the purposes of the Act) may refuse to provide 
or may withdraw inspection service under this part with respect to any 
plant if he determines after opportunity for a hearing (following the 
procedures of 7 CFR, part 1, subpart H) is accorded to the applicant 
for, or recipient of, such service, that such applicant or recipient is 
unfit to engage in any business requiring inspection under the Act or 
this part, because the applicant or recipient or anyone responsibly 
connected with such person has been convicted in any Federal or State 
court, within the previous 10 years, of (1) any felony or more than one 
misdemeanor under any law based upon the acquiring, handling, or 
distributing of adulterated, mislabeled, or deceptively packaged food or 
fraud in connection with transactions in food

[[Page 158]]

or (2) any felony, involving, fraud, bribery, extortion, or any other 
act or circumstances indicating a lack of the integrity needed for the 
conduct of operations affecting the public health.
    (b) For the purpose of this section, a person shall be deemed to be 
responsibly connected with the business if he is a partner, officer, 
director, holder, or owner of 10 percentum or more of its voting stock, 
or employee in a managerial or executive capacity.
    (c) The determination and order of the Administrator with respect 
thereto under this section shall be final and conclusive unless the 
affected applicant for, or recipient of, inspection service files 
application for judicial review within 30 days after the effective date 
of such order in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the circuit in which such 
applicant or recipient has its principal place of business or in the 
U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Judicial 
review of any such order shall be upon the record upon which the 
determination and order are based. The provisions of section 204 of the 
Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, as amended (7 U.S.C. 194) shall be 
applicable to appeals taken under this section. This section shall not 
affect in any way other provisions of the Act or these regulations for 
refusal of inspection services.
    (d) Any applicant for inspection at a plant where the operations 
thereof may result in any discharge into the navigable waters in the 
United States is required by subsection 401(a)(1) (33 U.S.C. 1341) of 
the Clean Water Act as amended (86 Stat. 816, 91 Stat. 1566; 33 U.S.C. 
1251 et seq.), to provide the Administrator with a certification, as 
prescribed in said subsection, that any such discharge will comply with 
the applicable provisions of sections 301, 302, 303, 306, and 307 of the 
Act (33 U.S.C. 1311, 1312, 1313, 1316, and 1317). No grant of inspection 
can be issued unless such certification has been obtained, or is waived, 
because of failure or refusal of the State, interstate agency, or the 
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to act on a request 
for certification within a reasonable period (which shall not exceed 1 
year after receipt of such request). Further, upon receipt of an 
application for inspection and a certification as required by subsection 
401(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act, the Administrator (as defined in 
Sec. 59.5) is required by subparagraph (2) of said subsection to notify 
the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for proceedings 
in accordance with that subsection. No grant of inspection can be made 
until the requirements of 401(a) (1) and (2) have been met.
    (e) Inspection may be suspended or revoked and plant approval 
terminated as provided in subsection 401(a) (4) and (5) of the Clean 
Water Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1341(a) (4) and (5)).
    (f) Suspension of plant approval and withdrawal of service:
    (1) Any plant approval given pursuant to these regulations may be 
suspended by the Administrator for (i) failure to maintain premises, 
facilities, and equipment in a satisfactory state of repair; (ii) the 
use of operating procedures or practices which are not in accordance 
with the regulations; (iii) the alterations of buildings, facilities, or 
equipment which have not been approved in accordance with the 
regulations; or (iv) assaulting, intimidating, impeding, obstructing, or 
interfering with any person engaged in or on account of the performance 
of his official duties.
    (2) During such period of suspension, no processing of egg products 
for commerce shall be carried on in the official plant. If the plant 
facilities or methods of operation are not brought into compliance 
within a reasonable period of time, to be specified by the 
Administrator, inspection service shall be withdrawn from the official 
plant. Upon withdrawal of inspection service in an official plant, the 
plant approval for processing egg products shall also become terminated.
    (3) The operator shall be notified of the withdrawal action and the 
reasons therefor and afforded an opportunity to present his views 
informally prior to the effective date of such withdrawal, and upon 
written request, he shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing in 
accordance with the applicable rules of practice (7 CFR, part 1, subpart 
H), with respect to the merits or validity of the withdrawal, but such a 
suspension or other withdrawal shall continue

[[Page 159]]

in effect pending the outcome of any such hearing unless otherwise 
ordered by the Administrator.
    (4) In any case where inspection service is suspended under this 
paragraph (f) of this section, such service, after appropriate 
corrective action is taken, will be restored immediately, or as soon 
thereafter as an inspector can be made available. In any case where 
inspection service is withdrawn for a specified period under this 
paragraph (f) of this section, the person concerned may, after said 
specified period has expired, apply for inspection service as provided 
in Secs. 59.140 through 59.146.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6657, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further amended at 43 FR 
60138, Dec. 26, 1978; 45 FR 23640, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 
63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.161  Termination of plant approval.

    When inspection service is not performed at any plant for a period 
of at least 90 days, plant approval shall terminate upon notice by the 
Administrator without further proceedings; provided, however, that this 
section shall not apply to any plant where the Administrator determines 
that such a plant operates on a seasonal basis and the inspection 
service has not been used as a result of such seasonal operation, or 
where operations have ceased due to extraordinary circumstances 
determined by the Administrator as not warranting termination of plant 
approval.
[45 FR 23641, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

Records and Related Requirements for Eggs and Egg Products Handlers and 
                           Related Industries



Sec. 59.200  Records and related requirements.

    (a) Persons engaged in the business of transporting, shipping, or 
receiving any eggs or egg products in commerce, or holding such articles 
so received, and all egg handlers, including hatcheries, shall maintain 
records showing, for a period of 2 years, to the extent that they are 
concerned therewith, the receipt, delivery, sale, movement, and 
disposition of all eggs and egg products handled by them, and shall, 
upon the request of an authorized representative of the Secretary, 
permit him, at reasonable times, to have access to and to copy all such 
records.
    (b) Production records by categories of eggs such as graded eggs, 
nest-run eggs, dirties, checks, leakers, loss, inedible, etc., bills of 
sale, inventories, receipts, shipments, shippers, receivers, dates of 
shipment and receipt, carrier names, etc., as determined by the 
Administrator, shall be maintained by all shell egg handlers and egg 
processing operations, except that, (1) producers who ship all of their 
production as nest-run eggs without segregation need only to maintain 
records indicating the amount of shell eggs shipped, date of shipment, 
and the receivers' name and address, and (2) official egg products 
plants which use all shell eggs received and do not reship any shell 
eggs need only to maintain records indicating the amount of eggs 
received, date received, and the name and address of the shipper.
[37 FR 6657, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982]



Sec. 59.220  Information and assistance to be furnished to inspectors.

    When inspection service is performed at any plant, the plant 
operator shall furnish the inspector such information and assistance as 
may be required for the performance of inspection functions, preparing 
certificates, reports, and for other official duties.

                        Administrative Detention



Sec. 59.240  Detaining product.

    Whenever any eggs or egg products subject to the Act are found by 
any authorized representative of the Secretary upon any premises, and 
there is reason to believe that they are or have been processed, bought, 
sold, possessed, used, transported, or offered or received for sale or 
transportation in violation of the Act or the regulations in this part, 
or that they are in any other way in violation of the Act, or whenever 
any restricted eggs capable of use

[[Page 160]]

as human food are found by such a representative in the possession of 
any person not authorized to acquire such eggs under the regulations in 
this part, such articles may be detained by such representative for a 
period not to exceed 20 days, as more fully provided in section 19 of 
the Act. A detention tag or other similar device shall be used to 
identify detained product, and the custodian or owner shall be given a 
written notice of such detention. Only authorized representatives of the 
Secretary shall affix or remove detention identification. The provisions 
of this section shall in no way derogate from authority for condemnation 
or seizure conferred by other provisions of the Act, the regulations in 
this part, or other laws.
[37 FR 6658, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                   Appeal of an Inspection or Decision



Sec. 59.300  Who may request an appeal inspection or review of an inspector's decision.

    Any appeal inspection may be requested by any interested party who 
is dissatisfied with the determination by an inspector of the class, 
quantity, or condition of any product, and a review may be requested by 
the operator of an official plant with respect to an inspector's 
decision or on any other matter related to inspection in the official 
plant.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.310  Where to file an appeal.

    (a) Appeal of resident inspector's inspection or decision in an 
official plant. Any interested party who is not satisfied with the 
determination of the class, quantity, or condition of product which was 
inspected by an inspector in an official plant and has not left such 
plant, and the operator of any official plant who is not satisfied with 
a decision by an inspector on any other matter relating to inspection in 
such plant may request an appeal inspection or review of the decision by 
the inspector by filing such request with the inspector's immediate 
supervisor.
    (b) All other appeal requests. Any interested party who is not 
satisfied with the determination of the class, quantity, or condition of 
product which has left the official plant where it was inspected or 
which was inspected other than in an official plant may request an 
appeal inspection by filing such request with the Regional Director in 
the region where the product is located or with the Chief of the Grading 
Branch.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; as amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.320  How to file an appeal.

    The request for an appeal inspection or review of an inspector's 
decision may be made orally or in writing. If made orally, written 
confirmation may be required. The applicant shall clearly state the 
identity of the product, the decision which is questioned, and the 
reason(s) for requesting the appeal service. If such appeal request is 
based on the results stated on an official certificate, the original and 
all copies of the certificate available at the appeal inspection site 
shall be provided to the inspector assigned to make the appeal 
inspection.
[60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.330  When an application for an appeal grading or inspection may be refused.

    When it appears to the official with whom an appeal request is filed 
that the reasons given in the request are frivolous or not substantial, 
or that the condition of the product has undergone a material change 
since the original grading or inspection, or that the original lot has 
changed in some manner, or the Act or the regulations in this part have 
not been complied with, the applicant's request for the appeal 
inspection may be refused. In such case, the applicant shall be promptly 
notified of the reason(s) for such refusal.
[60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]

[[Page 161]]



Sec. 59.340  Who shall perform the appeal.

    (a) An appeal inspection or review of a decision requested under 
Sec. 59.310(a) shall be made by the inspector's immediate supervisor or 
by a licensed inspector assigned by the immediate supervisor other than 
the inspector whose inspection or decision is being appealed.
    (b) The assignment of the inspector(s) who will make the appeal 
inspection under Sec. 59.310(b) shall be made by the Regional Director 
or the Chief of the Grading Branch, Poultry Division, Agricultural 
Marketing Service.



Sec. 59.350  Procedures for selecting appeal samples.

    (a) Prohibition on movement of product. Products shall not have been 
moved from the place where the inspection being appealed was performed 
and must have been maintained under adequate refrigeration when 
applicable.
    (b) Laboratory analyses. The appeal sample shall consist of product 
taken from the original sample containers plus an equal number of 
containers selected at random. When the original sample containers 
cannot be located, the appeal sample shall consist of product taken at 
random from double the number of original sample containers.
    (c) Condition inspection. The appeal sample shall consist of product 
taken from the original sample containers plus an equal number of 
containers selected at random. A condition appeal cannot be made unless 
all originally sampled containers are available.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.360  Appeal inspection certificates.

    Immediately after an appeal inspection is completed, an appeal 
certificate shall be issued to show that the original inspection was 
sustained or was not sustained. Such certificate shall supersede any 
previously issued certificate for the product involved and shall clearly 
identify the number and date of the superseded certificate. The issuance 
of the appeal certificate may be withheld until any previously issued 
certificate and all copies have been returned when such action is deemed 
necessary to protect the interest of the Government. When the appeal 
inspector assigns a different class to the lot or determines that a net 
weight shortage exists, the lot shall be retained pending correction of 
the labeling or approval of the product disposition by the National 
Supervisor.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.370  Cost of appeals.

    (a) There shall be no cost to the appellant when the appeal 
inspection discloses a material error was made in the original 
determination.
    (b) The costs of an appeal shall be borne by the appellant at an 
hourly rate of $27.36, including travel time and expenses if the appeal 
was frivolous, including but not being limited to the following: The 
appeal inspection discloses that no material error was made in the 
original inspection, the condition of the product has undergone a 
material change since the original inspection, the original lot has 
changed in some manner, or the Act or these regulations have not been 
complied with.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 49571, Oct. 7, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 58 FR 57539, Oct. 26, 1993; 59 FR 52636, 
Oct. 18, 1994]

                              Certificates



Sec. 59.400  Form of certificates.

    All certificates shall be issued on forms approved by the 
Administrator.



Sec. 59.402  Egg products inspection certificates.

    (a) Upon request of the applicant or the Service, any inspector is 
authorized to issue an egg products inspection certificate with respect 
to any lot of egg products inspected by him. In addition, an inspector 
is authorized to issue an inspection certificate covering product 
inspected in whole or in part by another inspector when the inspector 
has knowledge that the product is eligible for certification based on 
personal examination of the product or official inspection records.

[[Page 162]]

    (b) Each egg products inspection certificate shall show the name and 
address of the processor, the class and quantity of the egg products 
covered by such certificate, such shipping marks as are necessary to 
identify such products, all pertinent information concerning the 
wholesomeness thereof, and such other information as the Administrator 
may prescribe or approve.



Sec. 59.404  Erasures or alterations made on official certificates.

    Erasures or alterations shall be initialed by the issuing inspector 
on the original certificate and any copy thereof. All certificates made 
useless through clerical error or otherwise and all certificates 
canceled for whatever cause shall be voided and initialed and the 
original and all other copies shall be forwarded as prescribed by the 
Administrator.



Sec. 59.406  Disposition of official certificates.

    The original and up to two copies of each official certificate shall 
be issued to the applicant or person designated by him. Other copies 
shall be filed and retained in accordance with the disposition schedule 
for inspection program records.

                     Identifying and Marking Product



Sec. 59.410  Egg products required to be labeled.

    Containers and portable tanks of edible egg products, prior to 
leaving the official plant, shall be labeled in accordance with 
Secs. 59.411 through 59.415 and shall bear the official identification 
shown in Figure 2 of Sec. 59.412 or Figure 3 or 4 of Sec. 59.415. Bulk 
transport shipments of liquid pasteurized egg products to nonofficial 
outlets need not be sealed. Bulk shipments of liquid egg products 
transported from one official plant to another shall be sealed and 
accompanied by an official certificate.
[40 FR 20058, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.411  Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    (a) No label, container, or packaging material which bears official 
identification may bear any statement that is false or misleading. Any 
label, container, or packaging material which bears any official 
identification shall be used only in such manner as the Administrator 
may prescribe. No label, container, or packaging material bearing 
official identification may be used unless it is approved by the 
Administrator in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. The use 
of finished labels must be approved as prescribed by the Administrator. 
If the label is printed on or otherwise applied directly to the 
container or packaging material, the principal display panel thereof 
shall be considered as the label.
    (b) No label, container, or packaging material bearing official 
identification may be printed or prepared for use until the printers' or 
other final proof has been approved by the Administrator in accordance 
with the regulations in this part, the Egg Products Inspection Act, the 
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Fair Packaging and Labeling 
Act, and the regulations promulgated under these acts. Copies of each 
label submitted for approval shall be accompanied by:
    (1) A statement showing by their common or usual names the kinds and 
percentages of the ingredients comprising the egg product. A range may 
be given in cases where the percentages may vary from time to time. 
Formulas are to be expressed in terms of a liquid product except for 
products which are dry blended. Also, for products to be dried, the 
label may show the ingredients in the order of descending proportions by 
weight in the dried form. However, the formula submitted must include 
the percentage of ingredients in both liquid and dried form.
    (2) When required, scientific data demonstrating that the substance 
or mixture is safe and effective for its intended use and does not 
promote deception or cause the product to be otherwise adulterated or 
misbranded.

[[Page 163]]

    (c) Containers of product bearing official identification shall 
display the following information:
    (1) The common or usual name, if any, and if the product is 
comprised of two or more ingredients, such ingredients shall be listed 
in the order of descending proportions by weight in the form in which 
the product is to be marketed (sold), except that ingredients in dried 
products (other than dry blended) may be listed in either liquid or 
dried form. When water (excluding that used to reconstitute dehydrated 
ingredients back to their normal composition) is added to a liquid or 
frozen egg product or to an ingredient of such products (in excess of 
the normal water content of that ingredient), the total amount of water 
added, including the water content of any cellulose or vegetable gums 
used, shall be expressed as a percentage of the total product weight in 
the ingredient statement on the label.
    (2) The name, address, and ZIP code of the packer or distributor. 
When the distributor is shown, it shall be qualified by such terms as 
``packed for,'' ``distributed by,'' or ``distributors'';
    (3) The lot number or approved alternative code number indicating 
date of production;
    (4) The net contents;
    (5) Official identification and plant number;
    (6) Egg products which are produced in an official plant from edible 
shell eggs of other than current production or from other egg products 
produced from shell eggs of other than current production, shall be 
clearly and distinctly labeled in close proximity to the common or usual 
name of the product, e.g., ``Manufactured from eggs of other than 
current production'';
    (7) Egg products produced from edible shell eggs or the egg product 
produced from such shell eggs of the turkey, duck, goose, or guinea 
shall be clearly and distinctly labeled as to the common or usual name 
of the product indicating the type of eggs or egg products used in the 
product, e.g., ``Frozen whole turkey eggs,'' ``Frozen whole chicken and 
turkey eggs.'' Egg products labeled without qualifying words as to the 
type of shell egg used in the product shall be produced only from the 
edible shell egg of the domesticated chicken or the egg product produced 
from such shell eggs.
    (d) Liquid or frozen egg products identified as whole eggs and 
prepared other than in natural proportions, as broken from the shell, 
shall have a total egg solids content of 24.20 percent or greater.
    (e) Nutrition information may be included on labels used to identify 
egg products, providing such labeling complies with the provisions of 21 
CFR part 101, promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 
and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. Since these regulations have 
different requirements for consumer packaged products than for bulk 
packaged egg products not for sale or distribution to household 
consumers, label submission shall be accompanied with information 
indicating whether the label covers consumer packaged or bulk packaged 
product. Nutrition labeling is required when nutrients, such as 
proteins, vitamins, and minerals are added to the product, or when a 
nutritional claim or information is presented on the labeling, except 
for the following which are exempt from nutrition labeling requirements:
    (1) Egg products shipped in bulk form for use solely in the 
manufacture of other food and not for distribution to household 
consumers in such bulk form or containers.
    (2) Products containing an added vitamin, mineral, or protein, or 
for which a nutritional claim is made on the label, or in advertising, 
which is supplied for institutional food use only: Provided, That the 
manufacturer or distributor provides the required nutrition information 
directly to those institutions.
    (3) Any nutrient(s) included in product solely for technological 
purpose may be declared solely in the ingredients statement, without 
complying with nutrition labeling, if the nutrient(s) is otherwise not 
referred to in labeling or in advertising. All labels showing nutrition 
information or claims are subject to review by the Food and Drug 
Administration prior to approval by the Department.

[[Page 164]]

    (f) If the Administrator has reason to believe that the statement on 
formulation shows the product to be adulterated or misbranded or that 
any labeling, or the size or form of any container in use or proposed 
for use in respect to egg products at any official plant is false or 
misleading in any way, he may direct that such use be withheld unless 
the labeling or container is modified in such a manner as he may 
prescribe so that it will not be false or misleading, and/or the 
formulation of the product is altered in such a manner that he may 
prescribe so that it is not adulterated, or would not cause misbranding. 
Any person so denied the approval of any label shall be notified 
promptly of the reasons for the denial on a form approved by the 
Administrator. If the person using or proposing to use the label does 
not accept the determination of the Administrator, he may request a 
hearing by filing with the Administrator within 10 days after receiving 
the notice of denial, a written application for a hearing setting forth 
specifically, the errors alleged to have been made by the Administrator 
in denying approval of the label. The use of the label shall be withheld 
pending hearing and final determination by the Administrator if the 
Administrator so directs. Hearings held pursuant to this subsection 
shall be presided at by the Administrator. The applicant shall be given 
the opportunity to present evidence both oral and written in support of 
his allegation that the Administrator erred in denying approval of the 
label. The notice of denial together with all other available data and 
information used as a basis for such denial shall be considered part of 
the record. The Administrator may take official notice of such matters 
as are judicially noticed by the Courts of the United States and of any 
other matter of technical, scientific, or commercial fact of established 
character. The Administrator shall make his final determination with 
respect to the matter upon the basis of evidence before him. Such 
determination shall be conclusive unless, within 30 days after the 
receipt of notice of such final determination, the person adversely 
affected thereby appeals to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the circuit in 
which he has his principal place of business, or to the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The provisions of section 
204 of the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, as amended, shall be 
applicable to appeals taken under this section.
[37 FR 6658, Apr. 1, 1972, as amended at 40 FR 20058, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further amended at 45 FR 
23641, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; 53 FR 
23751, June 24, 1988; and amended at 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.412  Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    (a) The shield set forth in Figure 1 containing the letters ``USDA'' 
shall be the official identification symbol for purposes of this part 
and, when used, imitated, or simulated in any manner in connection with 
a product, shall be deemed to constitute a representation that the 
product has been officially inspected.
    (b) The inspection mark which is to be used on containers of edible 
egg products shall be contained within the outline of a shield and with 
the wording and design set forth in Figure 2 of this section, except the 
plant number may be preceded by the letter ``P'' in lieu of the word 
``plant''. Alternatively, it may be omitted from the official shield if 
applied on the container's principal display panel or other prominent 
location and preceded by the letter ``P'' or the word ``Plant''.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.018


[[Page 165]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.019

[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20058, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; as amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.414  Products bearing the official inspection mark.

    Egg products which are permitted to bear the inspection mark shall 
be processed in an official plant from edible shell eggs or other edible 
egg products and may contain other edible ingredients. The official mark 
shall be printed or lithographed and applied as a part of the principal 
display panel of the container but shall not be applied to a detachable 
cover.



Sec. 59.415  Use of other official identification.

    Other official identification as shown in this section shall be 
printed or lithographed and applied as a part of the principal display 
panel, but shall not be applied to a detachable cover. The plant number 
may be omitted from the identification if applied elsewhere on the 
container's principal display panel or other prominent location and 
preceded by the letter ``P'' or the word ``plant''. Such products shall 
meet all requirements for egg products which are permitted to bear the 
official inspection mark shown in Sec. 59.412, except for 
pasteurization, heat treatment, or other such methods of treatment 
approved by the Administrator. Such products shall not be released into 
consuming channels until they have been subjected to pasteurization, 
heat treatment, or other approved methods of treatment.
    (a) All nonpasteurized egg products, except as provided in paragraph 
(b) of this section, shipped from an official plant in packaged form 
shall be marked with the identification set forth in Figure 3 of this 
section. After pasteurization or treatment, the product may bear the 
official inspection mark as shown in Sec. 59.412.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.020

    (b) All nonpasteurized egg products, containing 10 percent or more 
added salt, shipped from an official plant in packaged form to an acidic 
dressing manufacturer shall be marked with the identification set forth 
in Figure 4 of this section.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.021

[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended 
at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.417  Unauthorized use or disposition of approved labels.

    (a) Containers or labels which bear official identification approved 
for use pursuant to Sec. 59.411 shall be used only for the purpose for 
which approved. Any unauthorized use or disposition of approved 
containers or labels which bear any official identification may result 
in cancellation of the approval and denial of the use of containers or 
labels

[[Page 166]]

bearing official identification and may subject such violator to the 
penalties and denial of the benefits of the Act;
    (b) The use of simulations or imitations of any official 
identification by any person is prohibited;
    (c) Upon termination of inspection service in an official plant 
pursuant to these regulations, all labels or packaging materials 
indicating product packed by the plant which bear official 
identification shall either be destroyed under the supervision of the 
Service or, if used in another location, modified in a manner acceptable 
to the Service before use.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975; 42 FR 
2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 
46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.418  Supervision of marking and packaging.

    (a) Evidence of label approval. No inspector shall authorize the use 
of official identification on any inspected product unless he has on 
file evidence that such official identification or packaging material 
bearing such official identification has been approved in accordance 
with the provisions of Sec. 59.411.
    (b) Affixing of official identification. No official identification 
shall be, or caused to be affixed to or placed on any product or 
container except by an inspector or under the supervision of an 
inspector or other person authorized by the Administrator. All such 
products shall have been inspected in accordance with these regulations. 
The inspector shall have supervision over the use and handling of all 
material bearing any official identification.
    (c) Labels for products sold under Government contract. The 
inspector in the official plant may approve use of labels for containers 
of product sold under a contract specification to governmental agencies 
when such product is not offered for resale to the general public: 
Provided, That the contract specifications have been approved by the 
Administrator and include complete specific requirements with respect to 
labeling and are made available to the inspector.



Sec. 59.419  Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

    The reuse, by any person, of containers bearing official 
identification is prohibited unless such identification is applicable in 
all respects to product being packed therein. In such instances, the 
container and label may be used provided the packaging is accomplished 
under the supervision of an inspector and the container is in compliance 
with Sec. 59.504(k).

          Inspection, Reinspection, Condemnation, and Retention



Sec. 59.420  Inspection.

    (a) Continuous inspection shall be made, pursuant to these 
regulations, of the processing of egg products in each official plant 
processing egg products for commerce unless exempted under Sec. 59.100. 
Inspections, certifications, or specification-type gradings, and other 
inspections which may be requested by the official plant and are in 
addition to the normal inspection requirements and functions for the 
processing, production, or certification of a wholesome egg product 
under this part, shall be made pursuant to the voluntary egg products 
inspection service (part 55 of this chapter).
    (b) Any food manufacturing establishment or institution which uses 
any eggs that do not meet the requirements of Sec. 59.100(a) in the 
preparation of any articles for human food shall be deemed to be a plant 
processing egg products requiring continuous inspection under this part.
    (c) Any product which is prepared under inspection in an official 
plant shall be inspected in such plant as often as the inspector deems 
necessary in order to ascertain if the product is unadulterated, 
wholesome, properly labeled, and fit for human food at the time it 
leaves the plant. Upon any such inspection, if any product or portion 
thereof is found to be adulterated, unwholesome, or otherwise unfit for 
human food, such product or portion thereof shall be condemned and shall 
receive such treatment as provided in Sec. 59.422.

[[Page 167]]



Sec. 59.422  Condemnation.

    Eggs and egg products found to be adulterated at official plants 
shall be condemned and, if no appeal be taken from such determination of 
condemnation, such articles shall be destroyed for human food purposes 
under the supervision of an inspector: Provided, That articles which may 
by reprocessing be made not adulterated need not be condemned and 
destroyed if so reprocessed under the supervision of an inspector and 
thereafter found to be not adulterated. If an appeal is requested, the 
eggs or egg products shall be appropriately marked and segregated 
pending completion of an appeal inspection. The appeal shall be at the 
cost of the appellant if the Administrator determines that the appeal is 
frivolous, as defined in Sec. 59.370.



Sec. 59.424  Reinspection.

    (a) No egg product may be brought into an official plant except as 
provided in Sec. 59.430(b) unless it has been prepared and handled in 
accordance with these regulations, and the container of such product is 
marked so as to identify the article as so inspected in accordance with 
this part.
    (b) All egg products shall be reinspected by an inspector at the 
time they are brought into the official plant. Upon reinspection, if any 
such product or portion thereof is found to be unsound, unwholesome, 
adulterated, or otherwise unfit for human food, such product or portion 
thereof, shall be condemned and shall receive such treatment as provided 
in Sec. 59.422, and shall, in the case of other products be disposed of 
according to applicable law.



Sec. 59.426  Retention.

    Retention tags or other devices and methods as may be approved by 
the Administrator shall be used for the identification and control of 
products which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held 
for further examination, and any equipment, utensils, rooms or 
compartments which are found to be unclean or otherwise in violation of 
the regulations. No product, equipment, utensil, room, or compartment 
shall be released for use until it has been made acceptable. Such 
identification shall not be removed by anyone other than an inspector.

           Entry of Material Into Official Egg Products Plants



Sec. 59.430  Limitation on entry of material.

    (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products 
and other materials into official plants under such conditions as he may 
prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles will be 
consistent with the purposes of the Act and these regulations.
    (b) Inedible egg products may be brought into an official plant for 
storage and reshipment: Provided, they are handled in such a manner that 
adequate segregation and inventory controls are maintained at all times. 
Inedible egg products may be processed in official plants: Provided, 
That prior approval is obtained from the Administrator and under such 
conditions and time limitations as the Administrator may specify. The 
processing of inedible egg products shall be done under conditions which 
will not affect the processing of edible products, such as processing in 
separate areas, or at times when no edible product is being processed. 
All equipment and processing areas must be thoroughly cleaned and 
sanitized prior to processing any edible product.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 59.435  Wholesomeness and approval of materials.

    (a) Substances and ingredients used in the manufacture or 
preparation of any egg product capable of use as human food shall be 
clean, wholesome, and unadulterated.
    (b) The use of chemical additives in egg products shall be permitted 
only when they are approved by the Administrator. The Administrator may 
require, in addition to listing the ingredients, a declaration of the 
additive, and the purpose of its use.
    (c) Chemical additives to be used in the preparation of egg products 
will be

[[Page 168]]

approved only if they comply with the following criteria:
    (1) The additive shall be safe under the conditions of its intended 
use.
    (2) The additive shall not promote deception or cause the product to 
be otherwise adulterated or unwholesome. Scientific data acceptable to 
the Administrator showing that the additive meets the criteria specified 
in this paragraph (c) shall be submitted by the person interested in 
having the additive approved.
    (d) Containers and packing or packaging materials in which shell 
eggs are received into the official plant shall be free from odors and 
materials which could contaminate or adulterate the eggs or egg 
products.



Sec. 59.440  Processing ova.

    (a) Ova from slaughtered poultry may be brought into the official 
plant for processing: Provided, That the ova is from wholesome poultry 
inspected in a plant operating under the Poultry Products Inspection Act 
(21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.) and such product is harvested in a sanitary 
manner, properly handled, cooled, packaged and labeled: And provided 
further, That such product is wholesome and the containers of such 
product bear official identification which assures the provisions of 
this paragraph have been met.
    (b) The ova and products containing ova shall be processed, cooled, 
and pasteurized in the official plant in the same manner as liquid, 
frozen, or dried yolk products.
    (c) The labeling for all products containing ova shall be approved 
by the Administrator prior to use.

             Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements



Sec. 59.500  Plant requirements.

    (a) The plant shall be free from objectionable odors, dust, and 
smokeladen air.
    (b) The premises shall be free from refuse, rubbish, waste, and 
other materials and conditions which constitute a source of odors or a 
harbor for insects, rodents, and other vermin.
    (c) The buildings shall be of sound construction and kept in good 
repair to prevent the entrance or harboring of vermin.
    (d) Rooms shall be kept free from refuse, rubbish, waste materials, 
odors, insects, rodents, and from any conditions which may constitute a 
source of odors or engender insects and rodents. Materials and equipment 
not currently needed shall be handled or stored in a manner so as not to 
constitute a sanitary hazard.
    (e) Doors and windows that open to the outside shall be protected 
against the entrance of flies and other insects. Doors and windows 
serving rooms where edible product is exposed shall be so designed and 
installed to prevent the entrance of dust and dirt. Doors leading into 
rooms where edible product is processed shall be of solid construction 
and such doors, other than freezer and cooler doors, shall be fitted 
with self-closing devices.
    (f) Doors and other openings which are accessible to rodents shall 
be of rodent-proof construction.
    (g) There shall be an efficient drainage and plumbing system for the 
plant and premises. Drains and gutters shall be properly installed with 
approved traps and vents. The sewage system shall have adequate slope 
and capacity to readily remove waste from the various processing 
operations. Floor drains shall be equipped with traps, and constructed 
so as to minimize clogging. In new or remodeled construction the 
drainage systems from toilets and laboratories shall not be connected 
with other drainage systems within the plant.
    (h) The water supply (both hot and cold) shall be ample, clean, and 
potable, with adequate pressure and facilities for its distribution 
throughout the plant or portion thereof utilized for egg processing and 
handling operations and protected against contamination and pollution. A 
water report, issued under the authority of a State or municipal health 
agency, certifying to the potability of the water supply shall be 
obtained by the applicant and furnished to the Administrator whenever 
such report is required by the Administrator.
    (i) The floors, walls, ceiling, partitions, posts, doors, and other 
parts of

[[Page 169]]

all structures shall be of such materials, construction, and finish to 
permit their ready and thorough cleaning. The floors and curbing shall 
be watertight.
    (j) Each room and each compartment in which any shell eggs or egg 
products are handled or processed shall be so designed, constructed, and 
maintained to insure processing and operating conditions of a clean and 
orderly character, free from objectionable odors and vapors, and 
maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
    (k) Every precaution shall be taken to exclude dogs, cats, and 
vermin (including, but not being limited to, rodents and insects) from 
the plant, or portion thereof utilized in which shell eggs or egg 
products are handled or stored.
    (l)(1) There shall be a sufficient number of adequately lighted 
dressing rooms and toilet rooms, ample in size, conveniently located and 
separated from the rooms and compartments in which shell eggs or egg 
products are handled, processed, or stored. The dressing rooms and 
toilet rooms shall be separately ventilated, and shall meet all 
requirements as to sanitary construction and equipment.
    (2) The following formula shall serve as a basis for determining the 
toilet facilities required:

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Toilet 
                     Persons of same sex                         bowls  
                                                                required
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 to 15, inclusive...........................................          1
16 to 35, inclusive..........................................          2
36 to 55, inclusive..........................................      \1\ 3
56 to 80, inclusive..........................................      \1\ 4
For each additional 30 persons in excess of 80...............      \1\ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Urinals may be substituted for toilet bowls but only to the extent  
  of one-third of the total number of bowls stated.                     
                                                                        

    (m) Lavatory accommodations (including, but not being limited to, 
hot and cold running water, single service towels, and soap which does 
not impart an odor which interferes with accurate evaluation of the 
product) shall be placed at such locations in the plant to assure 
cleanliness of each person handling any shell eggs or egg products. The 
hand washing facilities in the processing areas shall be operated by 
other than hand operated controls and the drains shall be trapped and 
connected to the plumbing system.
    (n) Suitable facilities for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and 
equipment shall be provided at convenient locations throughout the 
plant.
    (o) Refuse rooms shall be provided for the accumulation and storage 
of shells, trash, and other refuse. They shall be separate rooms 
completely enclosed without doorways opening into breaking rooms or 
rooms where egg products or packaging materials are handled or stored 
and have concrete floors with approved drains, facilities for cleaning, 
and an approved exhaust system vented to the outside. Alternative 
systems of handling shells, trash, and other refuse may be approved by 
the Administrator when such systems adequately contain all refuse and 
provide equivalent sanitary methods for the handling and removal of 
refuse.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971, as amended at 40 
FR 20059, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
further amended at 45 FR 23641, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 
63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.502  Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment.

    (a) Equipment and utensils used in processing shell eggs and egg 
products shall be of such design, material, and construction as will:
    (1) Enable the examination, segregation, and processing of such 
products in an efficient, clean, and satisfactory manner;
    (2) Permit easy access to all parts to insure thorough cleaning and 
sanitizing. So far as is practicable, all such equipment shall be made 
of metal or other impervious material which will not affect the product 
by chemical action or physical contact.
    (b) Except as authorized by the Administrator, in new or remodeled 
equipment and equipment installations, the equipment and installation 
shall comply with the applicable 3-A or E-3-A Sanitary Standards and 
accepted practices currently in effect for such equipment.
    (c) New or replacement equipment or machinery (including any 
replacement parts) brought onto the premises of any official plant shall 
not contain liquid polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in concentrations 
above 50 parts per

[[Page 170]]

million by weight of the liquid medium. This provision applies to both 
food processing and nonfood processing equipment and machinery, and any 
replacement parts for such equipment and machinery. Totally enclosed 
capacitors containing less than 3 pounds of PCBs are exempted from this 
prohibition.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 45 FR 68919, Oct. 17, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.504  General operating procedures.

    (a) Operations involving processing, storing, and handling of shell 
eggs, ingredients, and egg products shall be strictly in accord with 
clean and sanitary methods and shall be conducted as rapidly as 
practicable. Pasteurization, heat treatment, stabilization, and other 
processes shall be in accord with this part and as approved by the 
Administrator. Processing methods and temperatures in all operations 
shall be such as will prevent a deterioration of the egg products.
    (b) Shell eggs and egg products processed in official plants shall 
be subjected to constant and continuous inspection throughout each and 
every processing operation. Any shell egg or egg product which was not 
processed in accordance with these regulations or is not fit for human 
food shall be removed and segregated.
    (c) All loss and inedible eggs or egg products shall be placed in a 
container clearly labeled ``inedible'' and containing a sufficient 
amount of approved denaturant or decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, 
blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and 
milling by-products, or any other substance, as approved by the 
Administrator, that will accomplish the purposes of this section. Shell 
eggs shall be crushed and the substance shall be dispersed through the 
product in amounts sufficient to give the product a distinctive 
appearance or odor. Notwithstanding the foregoing, and upon permission 
of the Inspector, the applicant may hold inedible product in containers 
clearly labeled inedible which do not contain a denaturant if such 
inedible product is denatured or decharacterized prior to shipment from 
the official plant: Provided, That such product is properly packaged, 
labeled, segregated, and inventory controls are maintained. In addition, 
product shipped from the official plant for industrial use or animal 
food need not be denatured or decharacterized, provided, that such 
product is properly packaged, labeled, segregated, and inventory 
controls are maintained, and that such product is shipped under 
Government seal and certificate and received at the destination location 
by an inspector or grader as defined in this part.
    (d) The inspector may, prior to receipt of laboratory results for 
salmonella, or for other reasons such as labeling as to solids content, 
permit egg products to be shipped from the official plant when he has no 
reason to suspect noncompliance with any of the provisions of this part. 
However, such shipments shall be made under circumstances which will 
assure the return of the product to the plant for reprocessing, 
relabeling, or under such other conditions as the Administrator may 
determine to assure compliance with this part.
    (e) Pasteurizing, stabilizing, or drying operations shall start as 
soon as practicable after breaking to prevent deterioration of product, 
preferably within 72 hours from time of breaking for egg products other 
than whites which are to be desugared.
    (f) Each person who is to handle any exposed or unpacked egg 
products or any utensils or container which may come into contact with 
egg product, shall wash his hands and maintain them in a clean 
condition.
    (g) No product or material which creates an objectionable condition 
shall be processed, stored, or handled in any room, compartment, or 
place where any shell eggs or egg products are processed, stored or 
handled.
    (h) Only germicides, insecticides, rodenticides, detergents, or 
wetting agents or other similar compounds which will not deleteriously 
affect the eggs or egg products when used in an approved manner and 
which have been approved by the Administrator, may be

[[Page 171]]

used in an official plant. The identification, storage, and use of such 
compounds shall be in a manner approved by the Administrator.
    (i) Utensils and equipment which are contaminated during the course 
of processing any shell eggs or egg products shall be removed from use 
immediately and shall not be used again until cleaned and sanitized.
    (j) Any substance or ingredient added in the processing of any egg 
products shall be clean and fit for human food.
    (k) Packages or containers for egg products shall be of sanitary 
design and clean when being filled with any egg products; and all 
reasonable precautions shall be taken to avoid soiling or contaminating 
the surface of any package or container liner which is, or will be, in 
direct contact with such egg products. Only new containers or used 
containers that are clean, in sound condition and lined with suitable 
inner liners shall be used for packaging edible egg products. Fiber 
containers used without liners require the approval of the 
Administrator.
    (l) Egg products shall be inspected to determine the wholesomeness 
of the finished product.
    (m) Egg products shall be processed in such a manner as to insure 
the immediate removal of blood and meat spots, shell particles, and 
foreign materials.
    (n) Utensils and equipment, except drying units, powder conveyors, 
sifters, blenders, and mechanical powder coolers shall be clean and 
sanitized at the start of processing operations. Equipment and utensils 
shall be kept clean and sanitary during all processing operations.
    (o) Egg products prior to being released into consuming channels 
shall be pasteurized in accordance with Sec. 59.570 except that dried 
whites prepared from nonpasteurized liquid shall be heat treated in 
accordance with Sec. 59.575.
    (1) To assure adequate pasteurization, egg products shall be sampled 
and tested for the presence of salmonella. Sampling for the presence of 
salmonella shall be in accordance with Sec. 59.580 and product found to 
be salmonella positive shall be reprocessed, pasteurized, and analyzed 
for the presence of salmonella, or denatured.
    (2) Nonpasteurized or salmonella positive egg product may be shipped 
from an official plant only when it is to be pasteurized, repasteurized, 
or heat treated in another official plant. Shipments of products from 
one official plant to another for pasteurization, repasteurization, or 
heat treatment shall be in sealed cars or trucks with an accompanying 
certificate stating that the product is not pasteurized or is salmonella 
positive. If nonpasteurized or salmonella positive products are to be 
stored in other than the official plant facilities, the inspector at the 
consignee's and consignor's plants shall be given full knowledge of the 
disposition of the product, including warehouse inventory receipts, 
until such time as product is pasteurized, repasteurized, or heat 
treated. The containers of such nonpasteurized or salmonella positive 
product shall be marked with the identification mark shown in Figure 3 
of Sec. 59.415.
    (3) Notwithstanding the provision of paragraph (o)(2) of this 
section, nonpasteurized salted egg products containing 10 percent or 
more salt added may be shipped from an official plant directly to a 
manufacturer of acidic dressings only under the following provisions:
    (i) Before such shipment is made, the manufacturer of the acidic 
dressing shall apply in writing and receive permission from the 
Administrator to receive and use unpasteurized egg products. The 
applicant shall sign a written statement containing the specification 
for the treatment of the nonpasteurized egg product in a manner that 
will insure that viable salmonella microorganisms are destroyed, and 
such processing treatment shall be approved by the Administrator prior 
to use.
    (ii) Product shall be shipped under seal from the official plant, 
accompanied by an official USDA certificate stating that the product is 
nonpasteurized and for use in acidic dressings only.
    (iii) The applicant shall acknowledge receipt of each shipment by 
indicating on the reverse side of the USDA certificate. ``The quantity 
of nonpasteurized egg product stated on this certificate was received at 
----------,'' the blank

[[Page 172]]

being filled in with the name and address of the receiving company and 
the date and signature of the person completing the form. The 
certificate shall be returned to the USDA inspector at the origin plant.
    (iv) The acidic dressing manufacturer shall maintain processing 
records indicating the use of each shipment of unpasteurized salted 
product and the code lots of acidic dressing into which it was 
processed. Records of the pH and the acidity expressed as percent acetic 
acid of each code lot shall be maintained. The records shall also 
demonstrate that the acidic dressing was held 72 hours prior to 
shipment. These records shall be maintained for 2 years and shall be 
available for inspection by a representative of the Department.
    (v) Each container of salted egg product shipped from the official 
plant shall be labeled as required in Sec. 59.411, and shall bear the 
words ``Caution--this egg product has not been pasteurized or otherwise 
treated to destroy viable salmonella microorganisms,'' and shall bear 
the official identification shown in figure 4 of Sec. 59.415.
    (p) Air which is to come in contact with product or with product 
contact surfaces shall come from approved filtered outside air sources.
    (q) All liquid and solid waste material in the official plant shall 
be disposed of in a manner approved by the Administrator to prevent 
product contamination and in accordance with acceptable environmental 
protection practices.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6658, Apr. 1, 1972; 40 FR 
20059, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 
46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 1982; 60 
FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.506  Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    (a) The room shall be so constructed that it can be adequately 
darkened to assure accuracy in removal of inedible or loss eggs by 
candling. Equipment shall be arranged so as to facilitate cleaning and 
the removal of refuse and excess packing material.
    (b) The construction of the floor shall allow thorough cleaning. The 
floors shall be of water-resistant composition and provided with proper 
drainage.
    (c) An approved exhaust system shall be provided for the continuous 
removal directly to the outside of any steam, vapors, odors, or dust in 
the room. The room shall be maintained at reasonable working 
temperatures during operations.
    (d) Candling devices of an approved type shall be provided to enable 
candlers to detect loss, inedible, dirty eggs, and eggs other than 
chicken eggs.
    (e) Leaker trays shall be made of a material and of such design that 
is conducive to easy cleaning and sanitizing.
    (f) Containers made of a material and of such design that are 
conducive to easy cleaning shall be provided for inedible eggs. All such 
containers shall be conspicuously marked.
    (g) Containers made of a material and of such design that are 
conducive to easy cleaning shall be provided for trash unless clean, 
disposable containers are furnished daily.
    (h) Shell egg conveyors shall be constructed so that they can be 
thoroughly cleaned.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.508  Candling and transfer-room operations.

    (a) Candling and transfer rooms and equipment shall be kept clean, 
free from cobwebs, dust, objectionable odors, and excess packing 
materials.
    (b) Containers for trash and inedible eggs shall be removed from the 
candling rooms as often as necessary but at least once daily; and shall 
be cleaned and treated in such a manner as will prevent off odors or 
objectionable conditions in the plant.
    (c) Shell eggs shall be handled in a manner to minimize sweating 
prior to breaking.
    (d) Shell eggs with extensively damaged shells, unless prohibited 
under Sec. 59.510(d), shall be placed into leaker trays and shall be 
broken promptly.

[[Page 173]]



Sec. 59.510  Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    (a) The shell eggs shall be sorted and classified into the following 
categories in a manner approved by the National Supervisor:
    (1) Eggs listed in paragraph (d) of this section.
    (2) Dirty.
    (3) Leakers as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    (4) Eggs from other than chicken; duck, turkey, guinea, and goose 
eggs.
    (5) Other eggs--satisfactory for use as breaking stock.
    (b) Shell eggs having strong odors or eggs received in cases having 
strong odors shall be candled and broken separately to determine their 
acceptability.
    (c) Shell eggs, when presented for breaking, shall be of edible 
interior quality and the shell shall be sound and free of adhering dirt 
and foreign material, except that:
    (1) Checks and eggs with a portion of the shell missing may be used 
when the shell is free of adhering dirt and foreign material and the 
shell membranes are not ruptured.
    (2) Eggs with clean shells which are damaged in candling and/or 
transfer and have a portion of the shell and shell membranes missing may 
be used only when the yolk is unbroken and the contents of the egg are 
not exuding over the outside shell. Such eggs shall be placed in leaker 
trays and be broken promptly.
    (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are 
removed in an acceptable manner.
    (d) All loss or inedible eggs shall be placed in a designated 
container and be handled as required in Sec. 59.504(c). Inedible and 
loss eggs for the purpose of this section and Sec. 59.522 are defined to 
include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with 
diffused blood in the albumen or on the yolk, crusted yolks, stuck 
yolks, developed embryos at or beyond the blood ring state, moldy eggs, 
sour eggs, any eggs that are adulterated as such term is defined 
pursuant to this part, and any other filthy and decomposed eggs 
including the following:
    (1) Any egg with visible foreign matter other than removable blood 
and meat spots in the egg meat.
    (2) Any egg with a portion of the shell and shell membranes missing 
and with egg meat adhering to or in contact with the outside of the 
shell.
    (3) Any egg with dirt or foreign material adhering to the shell and 
with cracks in the shell and shell membranes.
    (4) Liquid egg recovered from shell egg containers and leaker trays.
    (5) Open leakers made in the washing operation.
    (6) Any egg which shows evidence that the contents are or have been 
exuding prior to transfer from the case.
    (e) Incubator reject eggs shall not be brought into the official 
plant.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 59.515  Egg cleaning operations.

    (a) The following requirements shall be met when washing shell eggs 
to be presented for breaking:
    (1) Shell egg cleaning equipment shall be kept in good repair and 
shall be cleaned after each day's use or more frequently if necessary.
    (2) The temperature of the wash water shall be maintained at 90 
deg.F or higher, and shall be at least 20  deg.F warmer than the 
temperature of the eggs to be washed. These temperatures shall be 
maintained throughout the cleaning cycle.
    (3) An approved cleaning compound shall be used in the wash water. 
(The use of metered equipment for dispensing the compound into solution 
is recommended.)
    (4) Wash water shall be changed approximately every 4 hours or more 
often if needed to maintain sanitary conditions and at the end of each 
shift. Remedial measures shall be taken to prevent excess foaming during 
the egg washing operation.
    (5) Replacement water shall be added continuously to the wash water 
of washers to maintain a continuous overflow. Rinse water and chlorine 
sanitizing rinse may be used as part of the replacement water. Iodine 
sanitizing

[[Page 174]]

rinse may not be used as part of the replacement water.
    (6) Waste water from the egg washing operation shall be piped 
directly to drains.
    (7) The washing operation shall be continuous and shall be completed 
as rapidly as possible. Eggs shall not be allowed to stand or soak in 
water. Immersion-type washers shall not be used.
    (8) Prewetting shell eggs prior to washing may be accomplished by 
spraying a continuous flow of water over the eggs in a manner which 
permits the water to drain away, or by other methods which may be 
approved by the Administrator.
    (b) Shell eggs shall not be washed in the breaking room or any room 
where edible products are processed.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.516  Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray 
rinsed with potable water containing an approved sanitizer of not less 
than 100 ppm nor more than 200 ppm of available chlorine or its 
equivalent. Alternative procedures may be approved by the Administrator 
in lieu of sanitizing shell eggs washed in the plant.
    (b) Shell eggs shall be sufficiently dry at time of breaking to 
prevent contamination or adulteration of the liquid egg product from 
free moisture on the shell.
[60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.520  Breaking room facilities.

    (a) The breaking room shall have at least 30 foot-candles of light 
on all working surfaces except that light intensity shall be at least 50 
foot-candles at breaking and inspection stations. Lights shall be 
protected with adequate safety devices.
    (b) The surface of the ceiling and walls shall be smooth and made of 
a water-resistant material.
    (c) The floor shall be of water-proof composition, reasonably free 
from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate drainage, and the 
intersections with walls and curbing shall be impervious to water.
    (d) Ventilation shall provide for:
    (1) A positive flow of outside filtered air through the room;
    (2) Air of suitable working temperature during operations.
    (e) There shall be provided adequate hand washing facilities which 
are easily accessible to all breaking personnel, an adequate supply of 
warm water, clean towels or other facilities for drying hands, odorless 
soap, and containers for used towels. Hand washing facilities shall be 
operated by other than hand operated controls.
    (f) Containers for packaging egg products are not acceptable as 
liquid egg buckets.
    (g) A suitable container conspicuously identified shall be provided 
for the disposal of rejected liquid.
    (h) Strainers, filters, or centrifugal clarifiers of approved 
construction shall be provided for the effective removal of shell 
particles and foreign material, unless specific approval is obtained 
from the National Supervisor for other mechanical devices.
    (i) A separate drawoff room with a filtered positive air ventilation 
system shall be provided for packaging liquid egg product, except 
product packaged by automatic, closed packaging systems.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981]



Sec. 59.522  Breaking room operations.

    (a) The breaking room shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition 
and free from flies, insects, and rodents. The floor shall be kept clean 
and reasonably dry during breaking operations and free of egg meat and 
shells.
    (b) All breaking room personnel shall wash their hands thoroughly 
with odorless soap and water each time they enter the breaking room and 
prior to receiving clean equipment after breaking an inedible egg.
    (c) Paper towels or tissues shall be used at breaking tables, and 
shall not be reused. Cloth towels are not permitted.

[[Page 175]]

    (d) Breakers shall use a complete set of clean equipment when 
starting work and after lunch periods. All table equipment shall be 
rotated with clean equipment every 2\1/2\ hours.
    (e) Cups shall not be filled to overflowing.
    (f) Each shell egg shall be broken in a satisfactory and sanitary 
manner and inspected for wholesomeness by smelling the shell or the egg 
meat and by visual examination at the time of breaking. All egg meat 
shall be reexamined by a person qualified to perform such functions 
before being emptied into the tank or churn, except as otherwise 
approved by the National Supervisor.
    (g) Shell particles, meat and blood spots, and other foreign 
material accidentally falling into the cups or trays shall be removed 
with a spoon or other approved instrument.
    (h) Whenever an inedible egg is broken, the affected breaking 
equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized.
    (i) Inedible and loss eggs as defined in Sec. 59.510 apply to this 
section.
    (j) The contents of any cup or other liquid egg receptacle 
containing one or more inedible or loss eggs shall be rejected.
    (k) Contents of drip trays shall be emptied into a cup and smelled 
carefully before pouring into liquid egg bucket. Drip trays shall be 
emptied at least once for each 15 dozen eggs or every 15 minutes.
    (l) Edible leakers as defined in Sec. 59.510(c)(2) and checks which 
are liable to be smashed in the breaking operation shall be broken at a 
separate station by specially trained personnel.
    (m) Ingredients and additives used in, or for, processing egg 
products, shall be handled in a clean and sanitary manner.
    (n) Liquid egg containers shall not pass through the candling room.
    (o) Test kits shall be provided and used to determine the strength 
of the sanitizing solution. (See Secs. 59.515(a)(9) and 59.552.)
    (p) Leaker trays shall be washed and sanitized whenever they become 
soiled and at the end of each shift.
    (q) Shell egg containers whenever dirty shall be cleaned and 
drained; and shall be cleaned, sanitized, and drained at the end of each 
shift.
    (r) Belt-type shell egg conveyors shall be cleaned and sanitized 
approximately every 4 hours in addition to continuous cleaning during 
operation. When not in use, belts shall be raised to permit air drying.
    (s) Cups, knives, racks, separators, trays, spoons, liquid egg 
pails, and other breaking equipment, except for mechanical egg breaking 
equipment, shall be cleaned and sanitized at least every 2\1/2\ hours. 
This equipment shall be cleaned at the end of each shift and shall be 
clean and sanitized immediately prior to use.
    (t) Utensils and dismantled equipment shall be drained and air dried 
on approved self-draining metal racks and shall not be nested.
    (u) Dump tanks, drawoff tanks, and churns shall be cleaned 
approximately every 4 hours. All such equipment and all other liquid 
handling equipment, unless cleaned by acceptable cleaned in-place 
methods, shall be dismantled and cleaned after each shift. 
Pasteurization equipment shall be cleaned at the end of each day's use 
or more often if necessary. All such equipment shall be clean and shall 
be sanitized prior to placing in use.
    (v) Strainers, clarifiers, filtering and other devices used for 
removal of shell particles and other foreign material shall be cleaned 
and sanitized each time it is necessary to change such equipment, but at 
least once each 4 hours of operation.
    (w) Breaking room processing equipment shall not be stored on the 
floor.
    (x) Metal containers and lids for other than dried products shall be 
thoroughly washed, rinsed, sanitized, and drained immediately prior to 
filling. The foregoing sequence shall not be required if equally 
effective measures approved by the National Supervisor in writing are 
followed to assure clean and sanitary containers at the time of filling.
    (y) Liquid egg holding vats and containers (including tank trucks) 
used for transporting liquid eggs shall be cleaned after each use. Such 
equipment shall be clean and sanitized immediately prior to placing in 
use.

[[Page 176]]

    (z) Tables, shell conveyors, and containers for inedible egg product 
shall be cleaned at the end of each shift.
    (aa) Mechanical egg breaking machines shall be operated at a rate to 
maintain complete control and accurately inspect and segregate each egg 
to insure the removal of all loss and inedible eggs. The machine shall 
be operated in a sanitary manner.
    (1) When an inedible egg is encountered on mechanical egg breaking 
equipment, the inedible egg and contaminated liquid shall be removed. 
The machine shall be cleaned and sanitized, or contaminated parts 
replaced with clean ones in the manner prescribed by the Administrator 
for the type of inedible egg encountered and the kind of egg breaking 
machine.
    (2) Systems for pumping egg liquid directly from egg breaking 
machines shall be of approved sanitary design and construction, and 
designed to minimize the entrance of shells into the system and be 
disconnected when inedible eggs are encountered. The pipelines of the 
pumping system shall be cleaned or flushed as often as needed to 
maintain them in a sanitary condition, and they shall be cleaned and 
sanitized at the end of each shift. Other pumping system equipment shall 
be cleaned and sanitized approximately every 4 hours or as often as 
needed to maintain it in a sanitary condition. All liquid egg pumped 
directly from egg breaking machines shall be reexamined, except as 
otherwise prescribed and approved by the Administrator.
    (3) Mechanical egg breaking equipment shall be clean and sanitized 
prior to use, and during operations the machines shall be cleaned and 
sanitized approximately every 4 hours or more often if needed to 
maintain them in a sanitary condition. This equipment shall be cleaned 
at the end of each shift.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972; 40 FR 
20059, May 8, 1975; 40 FR 20941, May 14, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 
32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.530  Liquid egg cooling.

    (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including surface coolers and holding 
tank rooms, shall be kept clean and free from objectionable odors and 
condensation. Surface coolers and liquid holding vats containing product 
shall be kept covered while in use. Liquid cooling units shall be of 
approved construction and have sufficient capacity to cool all liquid 
eggs to the temperature requirements specified in this section.
    (b) Compliance with temperature requirements applying to liquid eggs 
shall be considered as satisfactory only if the entire mass of the 
liquid meets the requirements.
    (c) The cooling and temperature requirements for liquid egg products 
shall be as specified in Table I of this section.

                                      Table I--Minimum Cooling and Temperature Requirements for Liquid Egg Products                                     
                                        [Unpasterurized product temperature within 2 hours from time of breaking]                                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Liquid (other than                                                                       
                                       Liquid (other than      salt product) to be                           Temperature within 2   Temperature within 3
              Product                  salt product) to be     held in excess of 8    Liquid salt product        hours after            hours after     
                                      held 8 hours or less            hours                                     pasteurization         stabilization    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Whites (not to be stabilized)......  55  deg.F. or lower...  45  deg.F. or lower...  .....................  45  deg.F. or lower..                       
Whites (to be stabilized)..........  70  deg.F. or lower...  55  deg.F. or lower...  .....................  55  deg.F. or lower..  (\1\)                
All other product (except product    45  deg.F. or lower...  40  deg.F. or lower...  .....................  If to be held 8 hours  If to be held 8 hours
 with 10 percent or more salt                                                                                or less 45  deg.F.     or less, 45  deg.F. 
 added).                                                                                                     or lower. If to be     or lower. If to be  
                                                                                                             held in excess of 8    held in excess of 8 
                                                                                                             hours, 40  deg.F. or   hours, 40  deg.F. or
                                                                                                             lower.                 lower.              

[[Page 177]]

                                                                                                                                                        
Liquid egg product with 10 percent   ......................  ......................  If to be held 30       65  deg.F. or                               
 or more salt added.                                                                  hours or less, 65      lower\2\.                                  
                                                                                      deg.F. or lower. If                                               
                                                                                      to be held in excess                                              
                                                                                      of 30 hours, 45                                                   
                                                                                      deg.F. or lower.                                                  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Stabilized liquid whites shall be dried as soon as possible after removal of glucose. The storage of stabilized liquid whites shall be limited to   
  that necessary to provide a continuous operation.                                                                                                     
\2\ The cooling process shall be continued to assure that any salt product to be held in excess of 24 hours is cooled and maintained at 45  deg.F. or   
  lower.                                                                                                                                                

    (d) Upon written request and under such conditions as may be 
prescribed by the National Supervisor, liquid cooling and holding 
temperatures not otherwise provided for in this section may be approved.
    (e) Agitators shall be operated in such a manner as will minimize 
foaming.
    (f) When ice is used as an emergency refrigerant by being placed 
directly into the egg meat, the source of the ice must be certified by 
the local or State board of health. Such liquid shall be dried. All ice 
shall be handled in a sanitary manner.
    (g) Previously frozen egg or egg product cannot be added to liquid 
product for the purpose of complying with liquid cooling requirements.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982; 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.532  Liquid egg holding.

    (a) Tanks and vats used for holding liquid eggs shall be of approved 
construction, fitted with covers, and located in rooms maintained in a 
sanitary condition. Notwithstanding the foregoing, tanks designed for 
installation partially outside of a room or building are acceptable, 
providing all openings into the tanks terminate in the processing room.
    (b) Liquid egg holding tanks or vats shall be equipped with suitable 
thermometers and agitators.
    (c) Inlets to holding tanks or vats shall be such as to prevent 
excessive foaming.
    (d) Gaskets, if used, shall be of a sanitary type.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 45 FR 23641, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.534  Freezing facilities.

    (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the premises, shall be capable 
of freezing all liquid egg products in accordance with the freezing 
requirements as set forth in Sec. 59.536. Use of off-premise freezing 
facilities is permitted only when prior approval in writing from the 
National Supervisor is on file.
    (b) Adequate air circulation shall be provided in all freezing 
rooms.



Sec. 59.536  Freezing operations.

    (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and free from objectionable 
odors.
    (b) Requirements. (1) Nonpasteurized egg products which are to be 
frozen shall be solidly frozen or reduced to a temperature of 10  deg.F 
or lower within 60 hours from time of breaking.
    (2) Pasteurized egg products which are to be frozen shall be solidly 
frozen or reduced to a temperature of 10  deg.F or lower within 60 hours 
from time of pasteurization.
    (3) The temperature of the products not solidly frozen shall be 
taken at the

[[Page 178]]

center of the container to determine compliance with this section.
    (c) Containers shall be stacked so as to permit circulation of air 
around the containers.
    (d) The outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean and free 
from evidence of liquid egg.
    (e) Frozen egg products shall be examined by organoleptic 
examination after freezing to determine their fitness for human food. 
Any such products which are found to be unfit for human food shall be 
denatured and any official identification mark which appears on any 
container thereof shall be removed or completely obliterated and the 
containers identified as required in Secs. 59.840 and 59.860.



Sec. 59.538  Defrosting facilities.

    (a) Approved metal defrosting tanks or vats constructed so as to 
permit ready and thorough cleaning shall be provided.
    (b) Frozen egg crushers, when used, shall be of approved metal 
construction. The crushers shall permit ready and thorough cleaning and 
the bearings and housing shall be fabricated in such a manner as to 
prevent contamination of the egg products.
    (c) Service tables shall be of approved metal construction without 
open seams and the surfaces shall be smooth to allow thorough cleaning.



Sec. 59.539  Defrosting operations.

    (a) Frozen egg products which are to be defrosted shall be defrosted 
in a sanitary manner.
    (b) Each container of frozen eggs shall be checked for condition and 
odor just prior to being emptied into the crusher or receiving tank. 
Frozen eggs which have objectionable odors and are unfit for human food 
(e.g., sour, musty, fermented, or decomposed odors) shall be denatured.
    (c) Frozen whites to be used in the production of dried albumen may 
be defrosted at room temperature. All other whites shall be defrosted in 
accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.
    (d) Frozen whole eggs, whites and yolks, and yolks may be tempered 
or partially defrosted for not to exceed 48 hours at a room temperature 
no higher than 40  deg.F. or not to exceed 24 hours at a room 
temperature above 40  deg.F.: Provided, That no portion of the defrosted 
liquid shall exceed 50  deg.F. while in or out of the container.
    (1) Frozen eggs packed in metal or plastic containers may be placed 
in running tap water (70 F deg. or lower) without submersion to speed 
defrosting.
    (2) The defrosted liquid shall be held at 40  deg.F. or less, except 
for product to be pasteurized or stabilized by glucose removal as 
provided in Sec. 59.530. Defrosted liquid shall not be held more than 16 
hours prior to processing or drying.
    (e) Sanitary methods shall be used in handling containers and 
removing egg product.
    (f) Crushers and other equipment used in defrosting operations shall 
be dismantled at the end of each shift and shall be washed, rinsed, and 
sanitized.
    (1) Where crushers are used intermittently, they shall be flushed 
after each use and again before being placed in use.
    (2) Floors and work tables shall be kept clean.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.540  Spray process drying facilities.

    (a) Driers shall be of a continuous discharge type and so 
constructed and equipped to prevent an excess accumulation of powder in 
the drier, bags, and powder conveyors.
    (b) Driers shall be of approved construction and materials, with 
welded seams, and the surfaces shall be smooth to allow for thorough 
cleaning.
    (c) Driers shall be equipped with approved air intake filters.
    (d) Air shall be drawn into the drier from sources free from foul 
odors, dust, and dirt.
    (e) Indirect heat or the use of an approved premixing device or 
other approved devices for securing complete combustion in direct-fired 
units is required. A premix-type burner, if used, shall be equipped with 
approved air filters at blower intake.

[[Page 179]]

    (f) High-pressure pump heads and lines shall be of stainless steel 
construction or equivalent which will allow for thorough cleaning.
    (g) Preheating units, if used, shall be of stainless steel 
construction, or equivalent which will allow thorough cleaning.
    (h) Powder conveying equipment shall be so constructed as will 
facilitate thorough cleaning.
    (i) Sifters shall be constructed of an approved metal or metal lined 
interior. The sifting screens and frames shall be of an approved metal 
construction. Sifters shall be so constructed that accumulations of 
large particles or lumps of dried eggs can be removed continuously while 
the sifters are in operation.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.542  Spray process drying operations.

    (a) The drying room shall be kept in a clean condition and free of 
flies, insects, and rodents.
    (b) Low-pressure lines, high-pressure lines, high- and low-pressure 
pumps, homogenizers, and pasteurizers shall be cleaned by acceptable 
inplace cleaning methods or dismantled and cleaned after use or as 
necessary when operations have been interrupted.
    (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned 
immediately after cessation of drying operations.
    (2) Equipment shall be sanitized within 2 hours prior to resuming 
operations.
    (c) Drying units, conveyors, sifters, and packaging systems shall be 
cleaned whenever wet powder is encountered or when other conditions 
occur which would adversely affect the product. The complete drying 
unit, including sifters, conveyors, and powder coolers shall be either 
wet washed or dry cleaned. A combination of wet washing and dry cleaning 
of the complete drying unit shall not be permitted unless that segment 
of the unit to be cleaned in a different manner is completely detached 
or disconnected from the balance of the drying unit.
    (1) Sifters and conveyors used for other than dried albumen shall be 
cleared of powder when such equipment is not to be used for a period of 
24 hours or longer.
    (2) Collector bags shall be cleaned as often as needed to maintain 
them in an acceptable clean condition.
    (d) Powder shall be sifted and the screen shall be replaced whenever 
torn or worn.
    (e) Accumulations of large particles or lumps of dried eggs shall be 
removed from the sifter screens continuously.
    (f) All openings into the drier around ports, augers, high-pressure 
lines, etc., shall be closed to the extent possible during the drying 
operation to prevent entrance of nonfiltered air.
    (g) Openings into the drying unit shall be closed when the drier is 
not in use, except when the drying unit has been completely emptied of 
powder and wet washed. This includes, but is not limited to, openings, 
for the air intake and exhaust systems, nozzle openings, ports, augers, 
etc.



Sec. 59.544  Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    (a) Definition of product:
    (1) Primary powder is that powder which is continuously removed from 
the primary or main drying chamber while the drying unit is in 
operation.
    (2) Secondary powder is that powder which is continuously and 
automatically removed from the secondary chamber and/or bag collector 
chamber while the drying unit is in operation.
    (3) Sweep-down powder is that powder which is recovered in the 
brush-down process from the primary or secondary chamber and conveyors.
    (4) Brush bag powder is that powder which is brushed from the 
collector bags.
    (b) Secondary powder shall be continuously discharged and mixed with 
the primary powder by methods approved by the Administrator.
    (c) Edible dried egg products, including edible ingredients which 
may be added to such dried products, may be dry-blended: Provided, That 
the blending is done in a room as provided in Sec. 59.548 or in a closed 
blending system and in accordance with clean, sanitary practices and 
such procedures as may be prescribed by the Administrator.
    (d) Any edible dried egg powder may be reconstituted, repasteurized, 
and

[[Page 180]]

redried when accomplished in a clean, sanitary manner and in accordance 
with such procedures as may be prescribed by the Administrator.
    (e) Edible dried egg powder obtained from the sweep down, 
screenings, brush bag (except for brush bag powder from albumen driers), 
and improperly dried or scorched powder shall be reconstituted, 
repasteurized, and redried.
    (f) Approximately the first and last 175 pounds of powder from the 
main driers for each continuous operation shall be checked for 
improperly dried or scorched powder.



Sec. 59.546  Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    (a) Drying facilities shall be constructed in such a manner as will 
allow thorough cleaning and be equipped with approved intake filters.
    (b) The intake air source shall be free from foul odors, dust, and 
dirt.
    (c) Premix-type burners, if used, shall be equipped with approved 
air filters at blower intake.
    (d) Fermentation tanks, drying pans, trays or belts, scrapers, 
curing racks, and equipment used for pulverizing pan dried albumen shall 
be constructed of approved materials in such a manner as will permit 
thorough cleaning.
    (e) Sifting screens shall be constructed of approved materials in 
such a manner as will permit thorough cleaning and be in accordance with 
the specification for the type of albumen produced.



Sec. 59.547  Albumen flake process drying operations.

    (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a 
dust-free clean condition and free of flies, insects, and rodents.
    (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and 
sanitary condition.
    (c) Drying pans, trays, belts, scrapers, or curing racks, if used, 
shall be kept in a clean condition.
    (d) Oils and waxes used in oiling drying pans or trays shall be of 
edible quality.
    (e) Equipment used for pulverizing or sifting dried albumen shall be 
kept in a clean condition.



Sec. 59.548  Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    (a) General. Processing rooms shall be maintained in a clean 
condition and free of flies, insects, and rodents. The drying, blending, 
and packaging rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of 
a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material.
    (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where 
water or dirt could accumulate.
    (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to 
water and the floor shall be sloped for adequate drainage.
    (3) Metal storage racks or cabinets shall be provided for storing of 
tools and accessories.
    (b) Dry blending of edible egg products, including adding edible dry 
ingredients, and/or packaging of spray-dried products shall be done in a 
room separate from other processing operations. Dry blending may also be 
done in other areas: Provided, That it is accomplished in an approved 
closed blending system.
    (1) Blending and packaging rooms for pasteurized products shall be 
provided with an adequate positive flow of approved outside filtered 
air.
    (2) Blending and packaging equipment and accessories which come into 
contact with the dried product shall be of an approved construction 
without open seams and of materials that can be kept clean and which 
will have no deleterious effect on the product. Service tables shall be 
of approved metal construction without open seams and surfaces shall be 
smooth to permit thorough cleaning.
    (3) Package liners shall be inserted in a sanitary manner, and 
equipment and supplies used in the operation shall be kept off the 
floor.
    (4) Utensils used in packaging dried eggs shall be kept clean at all 
times and whenever contaminated shall be cleaned and sanitized. When not 
in use, scoops, brushes, tampers, and other similar equipment shall be 
stored in sanitary cabinets or racks provided for this purpose.
    (5) Automatic container fillers shall be of a type that will 
accurately fill given quantities of product into the

[[Page 181]]

containers. Scales shall be provided to accurately check the weight of 
the filled containers. All equipment used in mechanically packaging 
dried egg products shall be vacuum cleaned daily.
    (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and 
be maintained in a clean condition. The room or rooms shall be of 
sufficient size so that product to be heat treated can be so spaced to 
assure adequate heat and air circulation. The room shall have an 
adequate heat supply and a continuous air circulation system.



Sec. 59.549  Dried egg storage.

    Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to adequately handle the 
production of the plant and shall be kept clean, dry, and free from 
objectionable odors.



Sec. 59.550  Washing and sanitizing room or area facilities.

    (a) This room or area shall be well lighted, and of sufficient size 
to permit operators to properly wash and sanitize all equipment at the 
rate required by the size of the operation. Adequate exhaust shall be 
provided to assure the prompt removal of odors and vapors and the air 
flow shall be away from the breaking room. If the washing and sanitizing 
is not done in a separate room, it shall be in an area well segregated 
from the breaking areas and be well ventilated with air movement 
directed away from the breaking operations so that odors and vapors do 
not permeate the breaking areas.
    (b) Ceiling and walls shall have a surface of tile, enamel paint, or 
other water-resistant material.
    (c) Floors shall be adequately sloped for proper drainage, be free 
from cracks or rough surfaces where water and dirt could accumulate and 
the intersections with walls shall be impervious to water.



Sec. 59.552  Cleaning and sanitizing requirements.

    (a) Cleaning. (1) Equipment used in egg processing operations which 
comes in contact with liquid eggs or exposed edible products shall be 
cleaned to eliminate organic matter and inorganic residues. This may be 
accomplished by any sanitary means but it is preferable (unless high 
pressure cleaning is used) to flush soiled equipment with clean cool 
water, dismantle it when possible, wash by brushing with warm water 
containing a detergent and followed by rinsing with water. It is 
essential to have the equipment surfaces thoroughly clean if effective 
sanitizing is to be attained.
    (2) Equipment shall be cleaned with such frequency as is specified 
elsewhere under the sanitary requirements for the particular kind of 
operation and type of equipment involved.
    (3) C.I.P. (cleaned-in-place) shall be considered to be acceptable 
only if the methods and procedures used accomplish cleaning equivalent 
to that obtained by thorough manual washing and sanitizing of dismantled 
equipment. The Administrator shall determine the acceptability of C.I.P. 
cleaning procedures and may require bacteriological tests and periodic 
dismantling of equipment as a basis for such determination.
    (b) Sanitizing. (1) Sanitizing shall be accomplished by such methods 
as approved by the Administrator.
    (i) Chemicals and compounds used for sanitizing shall have approval 
by the Administrator prior to use.
    (ii) Sanitizing by use of hypochlorites or other approved sanitizing 
solutions shall be accomplished by subjecting the equipment surfaces to 
such sanitizing solution containing a maximum strength of 200 p.p.m. of 
available chlorine or its equivalent. These solutions shall be changed 
whenever the strength drops to 100 p.p.m. or less of available chlorine 
or its equivalent.
    (2) Shell eggs which have been sanitized and equipment which comes 
in contact with edible products shall be rinsed with clean water after 
sanitizing if other than hypochlorites are used as sanitizing agents 
unless otherwise approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 59.560  Health and hygiene of personnel.

    (a) Personnel facilities, including toilets, lavatories, lockers, 
and dressing rooms shall be adequate and meet State and local 
requirements for food processing plants.

[[Page 182]]

    (b) Toilets and dressing rooms shall be kept clean and adequately 
ventilated to eliminate odors and kept adequately supplied with soap, 
towels, and tissues. Toilet rooms shall be ventilated to the outside of 
the building.
    (c) No person affected with any communicable disease in a 
transmissible stage or a carrier of such disease, or with boils, sores, 
infected wounds, or wearing cloth bandages on hands shall be permitted 
to come in contact with eggs in any form or with equipment used to 
process such eggs.
    (d) Workers coming into contact with liquid or dried eggs, 
containers, or equipment shall wear clean outer uniforms.
    (e) Plant personnel handling exposed edible product shall wash their 
hands before beginning work, and upon returning to work after leaving 
the work room.
    (f) Expectorating, or other unsanitary practices, shall not be 
permitted.
    (g) Use of tobacco in any form or the wearing of jewelry, nail 
polish, or perfumes shall not be permitted in any area where edible 
products are exposed.
    (h) Hair nets or caps shall be properly worn by all persons in 
breaking and packaging rooms.



Sec. 59.570  Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    (a) Pasteurization facilities: The facilities for pasteurization of 
egg products shall be adequate and of approved construction so that all 
products will be processed as provided for in this section. 
Pasteurization equipment for liquid egg product shall include a holding 
tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls, and recording 
devices to determine compliance for pasteurization as set forth in 
paragraph (b) of this section. The temperature of the heated liquid egg 
product shall be continuously and automatically recorded during the 
process.
    (b) Pasteurizing operations: Every particle of all products must be 
rapidly heated to the required temperature and held at that temperature 
for the required minimum holding time as set forth in this section. The 
temperatures and holding times listed in Table I of this section are 
minimum. The product may be heated to higher temperatures and held for 
longer periods of time. Pasteurization procedures shall assure complete 
pasteurization, and holding, packaging, facilities and operations shall 
be such as to prevent contamination of the product.

                Table I--Pasteurization Requirements \1\                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Minimum       Minimum  
                                               temperature  holding time
             Liquid egg product               requirements  requirements
                                                ( deg.F.)     (Minutes) 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Albumen (without use of chemicals)..........          134           3.5 
                                                      132           6.2 
Whole egg...................................          140           3.5 
Whole egg blends (less than 2 percent added                             
 nonegg ingredients)........................          142           3.5 
                                                      140           6.2 
Fortified whole egg and blends (24-38                                   
 percent egg solids, 2-12 percent added                                 
 nonegg ingredients)........................          144           3.5 
                                                      142           6.2 
Salt whole egg (with 2 percent or more salt                             
 added).....................................          146           3.5 
                                                      144           6.2 
Sugar whole egg (2-12 percent sugar added)..          142           3.5 
                                                      140           6.2 
Plain yolk..................................          142           3.5 
                                                      140           6.2 
Sugar yolk (2 percent or more sugar added)..          146           3.5 
                                                      144           6.2 
Salt yolk (2-12 percent salt added).........          146           3.5 
                                                      144          6.2  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Pasteurization of egg products not listed in this table shall be in 
  accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.                        
                                                                        

    (c) Other methods of pasteurization may be approved by the 
Administrator when such treatments give equivalent effects to those 
specified in paragraph (b) of this section for those products or other 
products and results in a salmonella negative product.



Sec. 59.575  Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Heat treatment of dried whites is an approved method for 
pasteurization and the product shall be heated throughout for such times 
and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product.
    (a) The product to be heat treated shall be held in the heat 
treatment room in closed containers and shall be spaced to assure 
adequate heat penetration and air circulation. Each container shall be 
identified as to type of product (spray or pan dried) and with the lot 
number or production code number.

[[Page 183]]

    (b) The minimum requirements for heat treatment of spray or pan 
dried albumen shall be as follows:
    (1) Spray dried albumen shall be heated throughout to a temperature 
not less than 130  deg.F and held continuously at such temperature not 
less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative.
    (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout to a temperature of 
not less than 125  deg.F and held continuously at such temperature not 
less than 5 days and until it is salmonella negative.
    (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan dried albumen, 
other than listed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, may be 
approved by the Administrator upon receipt of satisfactory evidence that 
such methods will result in salmonella negative products.
    (c) Dried whites which have been heat treated in the dried form 
shall be sampled and analyzed for the presence of Salmonellae as 
required in Sec. 59.580.
    (d) Records shall be maintained for 1 year of the following:
    (1) Types of product;
    (2) Lot number;
    (3) Heat treatment room temperatures;
    (4) Product temperatures;
    (5) Length of time product is held in heat treatment room;
    (6) Results of all laboratory analyses made for the presence of 
Salmonellae.
    (e) Dried whites processed and tested in accordance with all of the 
applicable requirements specified in this section may be labeled 
``Pasteurized.''
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982; 60 FR 49169, Sept. 21, 1995; 60 FR 58199, Nov. 27, 1995]

                               Laboratory



Sec. 59.580  Laboratory tests and analyses.

    The official plant, at their expense, shall make tests and analyses 
to determine compliance with the Act and the regulations.
    (a) Samples shall be drawn from liquid, frozen or dried egg products 
and analyzed for compliance with the standards of identity (if any) and 
with the product label.
    (b) To assure adequate pasteurization, pasteurized egg products and 
heat treated dried egg whites shall be sampled and analyzed for the 
presence of Salmonellae in accordance with such sequence, frequency, and 
approved laboratory methods as prescribed by the AMS Science Division 
Director. The samples of pasteurized egg products and heat treated dried 
egg whites shall be drawn from the final packaged form.
    (c) Results of all analyses and tests performed under paragraphs (a) 
and (b) of this section shall be provided to the inspector promptly upon 
receipt by the plant. If samples of pasteurized products or heat treated 
dried egg whites, in addition to those described in paragraphs (a) and 
(b) of this section, are analyzed for the presence of Salmonella, the 
plant shall immediately advise the inspector of any such samples which 
are determined to be Salmonella positive.
    (d) USDA will draw confirmation samples and submit them to a AMS 
Science Division laboratory at USDA's expense to determine the adequacy 
of the plant's tests and analyses.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 
1993; 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995; 60 FR 58199, Nov. 27, 1995]

                      Exempted Egg Products Plants



Sec. 59.600  Application for exemption.

    An application for exemption from the continuous inspection 
requirements must be made in writing on forms approved by the 
Administrator and filed with the inspection service.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982]



Sec. 59.610  Criteria for exemption.

    Any plant processing egg products may qualify for exemption where:
    (a) The facility, operating procedures and practices, and sanitation 
meet the standards required for official egg products plants as are 
contained in Secs. 59.500 through 59.580, and such exempted plants shall 
thereafter be subject to other provisions applicable to official plants 
which shall include

[[Page 184]]

maintaining records such as pasteurization temperatures and holding 
times, laboratory records, egg products testing procedures, and making 
all such records available for review.
    (b) The eggs received or used in the manufacture of egg products 
contain no more restricted eggs than are allowed by the official 
standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 7, 
1982]



Sec. 59.620  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of authority of any person applying for exemption from 
continuous inspection may be required by the Administrator.



Sec. 59.630  Filing of application.

    An application for exemption shall be regarded as filed only when it 
has been filled in completely and signed by the applicant and has been 
received in the office of the inspection service.



Sec. 59.640  Application for exemption; approval.

    Any person desiring to process egg products pursuant to the 
exemption provision of the Act and these regulations must receive 
approval of such plant, facilities, and operating procedures as an 
exempted plant. An application for exemption shall be according to the 
following:
    (a) Initial survey. When an application for exemption of a plant has 
been filed, a Supervisory Egg Products Inspector will make a survey and 
inspection of the premises and plant to determine if the facilities, 
methods of operation, and eggs received or used therein are suitable and 
adequate in accordance with:
    (1) Section 59.610; and
    (2) Such other administrative instructions as may be issued, from 
time to time, by the Service and which are in effect at the time of the 
aforesaid survey and inspection.
    (b) Final survey and exemption approval. Upon notification by the 
applicant for exemption that all the criteria for exemption required in 
Sec. 59.610 are in effect and an initial survey has been performed, the 
applicant shall:
    (1) Submit drawings and specifications in accordance with the same 
requirements as official plants as specified in Sec. 59.146(b);
    (2) Submit labels for approval as specified in Sec. 59.680;
    (3) Request a final survey be made by a Supervisory Egg Products 
Inspector to determine if the plant is constructed and the facilities 
are installed in accordance with the approved drawings and these 
regulations.
    (c) The plant will be approved for exemption only when all the 
requirements of this section have been met.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971. Redesignated at 42 
FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.650  Exempted plant registration number.

    Each plant processing egg products which receives the 
Administrator's approval for exemption shall be assigned an ``Exempted 
Registration Number'' at the time the exemption approval is provided.



Sec. 59.660  Inspection of exempted plants.

    Duly authorized representatives of the Administrator shall make such 
periodic inspections of exempted plants and records thereof as the 
Administrator may require to ascertain if any of the provisions of the 
Act or these regulations applicable to exempted plants have been 
violated. Such representatives shall be afforded access, at any 
reasonable time, to any plant or place of business subject to inspection 
under the provisions of the Act.



Sec. 59.670  Termination of exemption.

    The Administrator may suspend or terminate any exemption if the 
criteria for exemption required in Sec. 59.610 are not being met. In 
addition, if any violation has been committed, the applicable penalties 
provided in this part may be enforced as provided in the Act.



Sec. 59.680  Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    (a) The labels for egg products which are capable for use as human 
food shall be submitted to the Administrator for approval. The 
submission and approval shall be the same as for official plants

[[Page 185]]

as required in Sec. 59.411 except the labels or containers shall not 
bear official identification.
    (b) The label or container shall legibly and conspicuously bear the 
statement: ``Exempted--E.P.I.A. Registration No. ------.'' The 
registration number shall be that assigned to the exempted plant as 
provided in Sec. 59.650.

                   Registration of Shell Egg Handlers



Sec. 59.690  Persons required to register.

    Shell egg handlers, except for producer-packers with an annual egg 
production from a flock of 3,000 hens or less, who grade and pack eggs 
for the ultimate consumer (e.g., retail stores, households, restaurants, 
institutions, food manufacturers, etc.), and hatcheries, are required to 
register with the U.S. Department of Agriculture by furnishing their 
name, place of business, and such other information as is requested on 
forms provided by and/or available from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. Completed forms shall be sent to the addressee indicated on 
the form. Persons as those listed above who are establishing a business 
will be required to register before they start operations.
[40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

              Inspection and Disposition of Restricted Eggs



Sec. 59.700  Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.

    (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport, or offer to buy or 
sell, or offer or receive for transportation in any business in commerce 
any restricted eggs, except as authorized in Secs. 59.100 and 59.720.
    (b) No egg handler shall possess any restricted eggs, except as 
authorized in Secs. 59.100 and 59.720.
    (c) No egg handler shall use any restricted eggs in the preparation 
of human food, except as provided in Secs. 59.100 and 59.720.



Sec. 59.720  Disposition of restricted eggs.

    (a) Eggs classified as checks, dirties, incubator rejects, 
inedibles, leakers, or loss shall be disposed of by one of the following 
methods at point and time of segregation:
    (1) Checks and dirties shall be labeled in accordance with 
Sec. 59.800 and shipped directly or indirectly to an official egg 
products plant for segregation and processing. Inedible and loss eggs 
shall not be intermingled in the same container with checks and dirties.
    (2) By destruction in a manner approved by the Administrator, such 
as crushing and denaturing or decharacterizing in accordance with 
Sec. 59.504(c) and identifying the product as ``Inedible Egg Product--
Not To Be Used As Human Food.''
    (3) Processing for industrial use or for animal food. Such product 
shall be denatured or decharacterized in accordance with Sec. 59.504(c) 
and identified as provided in Secs. 59.840 and 59.860, or handled in 
accordance with other procedures approved by the Administrator. 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, product which was produced under official 
supervision and transported for industrial use or animal food need not 
be denatured or decharacterized if it is shipped under Government seal 
and received by an inspector or grader as defined in this part.
    (4) By coloring the shells of loss and inedible eggs with a 
sufficient amount of FD&C color to give a distinct appearance, or 
applying a substance that will penetrate the shell and decharacterize 
the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant 
percentages of blood spots or meat spots, but no other types of loss or 
inedible eggs may be shipped directly to official egg products plants, 
provided they are conspicuously labeled with the name and address of the 
shipper and the wording ``Spots--For Processing Only In Official Egg 
Products Plants.''
    (5) Incubator rejects shall be broken or crushed and denatured or 
decharacterized in accordance with Sec. 59.504(c) and labeled as 
required in Secs. 59.840 and 59.860.
    (b) Eggs which are packed for the ultimate consumer and which have 
been found to exceed the tolerance for restricted eggs permitted in the 
official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shall be identified as 
required in

[[Page 186]]

Sec. Sec. 59.800 and 59.860 and shall be shipped directly or indirectly:
    (1) To an official egg products plant for proper segregation and 
processing; or
    (2) Be regraded so that they comply with the official standards; or
    (3) Used as other than human food.
    (c) Records shall be maintained as provided in Sec. 59.200 to assure 
proper disposition.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971; 36 FR 10841, June 4, 1971; 37 FR 6659, Apr. 
1, 1972; 40 FR 20059, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 
1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 745, Jan. 
7, 1982; 60 FR 49170, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.760  Inspection of egg handlers.

    Duly authorized representatives of the Administrator shall make such 
periodic inspections of egg handlers and their records as the 
Administrator may require to ascertain if any of the provisions of the 
Act or these regulations applicable to such egg handlers have been 
violated. Such representatives shall be afforded access, at any 
reasonable time, to any place of business or plant subject to inspection 
under the provisions of the Act.

Identification of Restricted Eggs or Egg Products Not Intended for Human 
                               Consumption



Sec. 59.800  Identification of restricted eggs.

    The shipping container of restricted eggs shall be determined to be 
satisfactorily identified if such container bears the packer's name and 
address, the quality of the eggs in the container (e.g., dirties, 
checks, inedibles, or loss), or the statement ``Restricted Eggs--For 
Processing Only In An Official USDA Egg Products Plant,'' for checks or 
dirties, or ``Restricted Eggs--Not To Be Used As Human Food,'' for 
inedibles, loss, and incubator rejects, or ``Restricted Eggs--To Be 
Regraded'' for graded eggs which contain more restricted eggs than are 
allowed in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell eggs. 
The size of the letters of the identification wording shall be as 
required in Sec. 59.860. When eggs are packed in immediate containers, 
e.g., cartons, sleeve packs, overwrapped 2\1/2\- or 3-dozen packs, etc., 
for sale to household consumers under the exemptions provided for in 
section 59.100 (c), or (f), they shall be deemed to be satisfactorily 
identified in accordance with the requirements of this part if such 
immediate containers bear the packer's name and address and the quality 
of the eggs. Alternatively, a point of sale sign may be displayed 
showing the above information.
[40 FR 20060, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.801  Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling 
provisions in Sec. 59.800. However, when such eggs are packed and sold 
to consumers, they may not exceed the tolerance for restricted eggs 
permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shell 
eggs.
[60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.840  Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    All inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products shall be 
identified with the name and address of the processor, the words 
``Inedible Egg Products--Not To Be Used as Human Food.''



Sec. 59.860  Identification wording.

    The letters of the identification wording shall be legible and 
conspicuous.
[37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

                                 Imports



Sec. 59.900  Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    (a) Egg products and restricted eggs may be imported into the United 
States from any foreign country only in accordance with these 
regulations. The term United States means any State of the United 
States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the 
United States, and the District of Columbia. The importation

[[Page 187]]

of any egg or egg product in violation of the regulations of this part 
is prohibited.
    (b) All such imported articles shall upon entry into the United 
States be deemed and treated as domestic articles and be subject to the 
other provisions of the Act, these regulations, and other Federal or 
State requirements.



Sec. 59.905  Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B.

    (a) No containers of restricted egg(s) other than checks or dirties 
shall be imported into the United States. The shipping containers of 
such eggs shall be identified with the name, address, and country of 
origin of the exporter, and the date of pack and quality of the eggs 
(e.g., checks, or dirties) preceded by the word ``Imported'' or the 
statement ``Imported Restricted Eggs--For Processing Only In An Official 
USDA Plant,'' or ``Restricted Eggs--Not To Be Used As Human Food.'' Such 
identification shall be legible and conspicuous. Alternatively, for 
properly sealed and certified shipments of shell eggs imported for 
breaking at an official egg products plant, the shipping containers need 
not be labeled, provided that the shipment is segregated and controlled 
upon arrival at the destination breaking plant.
    (b) Eggs which are imported for use as human food and upon entry are 
found to contain more restricted eggs than permitted in the official 
standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B, shall be refused entry and returned 
to the importing country or be conspicuously and legibly identified as 
``Imported Restricted Eggs'' and be sent directly under official seal: 
(1) To a place where they may be regraded to comply with the official 
U.S. standards for consumer grades; (2) to an official USDA egg products 
processing plant; or (3) to be used as other than human food.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.910  Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of egg products into the United States.

    (a) Whenever it is determined by the Administrator that the system 
of egg products inspection maintained by any foreign country is such 
that the egg products produced in such country are processed, labeled, 
and packaged in accordance with, and otherwise comply with, the 
standards of the Act and these regulations including, but not limited to 
the same sanitary, processing, facility requirements, and continuous 
Government inspection as required in Secs. 59.500 through 59.580 
applicable to inspected articles produced within the United States, 
notice of that fact will be given by listing the name of such foreign 
country in paragraph (b) of this section. Thereafter, egg products from 
the countries so listed shall be eligible, subject to the provisions of 
this part and other applicable laws and regulations, for importation 
into the United States. Such products to be imported into the United 
States from these foreign countries must meet, to the extent applicable, 
the same standards and requirements that apply to comparable domestic 
products as set forth in these regulations. Egg products from foreign 
countries not listed herein are not eligible for importation into the 
United States, except as provided by Sec. 59.960. In determining if the 
inspection system of a foreign country is the equivalent of the system 
maintained by the United States, the Administrator shall review the 
inspection regulations of the foreign country and make a survey to 
determine the manner in which the inspection system is administered 
within the foreign country. The survey of the foreign inspection system 
may be expedited by payment by the interested Government agency in the 
foreign country of the travel expenses incurred in making the survey. 
After approval of the inspection system of a foreign country, the 
Administrator may, as often and to the extent deemed necessary, 
authorize representatives of the Department to review the system to 
determine that it is maintained in such a manner as to be the equivalent 
of the system maintained by the United States.

[[Page 188]]

    (b) It has been determined that each of the following foreign 
countries maintain an egg products inspection system that is the 
equivalent of the system maintained by the United States: Canada, The 
Netherlands.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 42 FR 48327, Sept. 23, 1977. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 52 FR 42426, Nov. 5, 1987]



Sec. 59.915  Foreign inspection certificate required.

    (a) Egg products. Except as provided in Sec. 59.960, each 
consignment of egg products, as defined in this part, shall be 
accompanied by a foreign egg products inspection certificate, which, 
unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, contains the following 
information:
    (1) Country exporting product;
    (2) City and date where issued;
    (3) Kind of product, number of containers, and weight;
    (4) Production date(s) of product;
    (5) Identification marks on containers;
    (6) Name and address of exporter;
    (7) Name, address, and plant number of processing plant;
    (8) Name and address of importer;
    (9) A certification that the egg products were produced under the 
approved regulations, requirements, and continuous Government inspection 
of the exporting country and;
    (10) Name (including signature) and official title of person 
authorized to issue inspection certificates for egg products exported to 
the United States.
    (b) Shell eggs. Except as otherwise provided in Sec. 59.960, each 
consignment of shell eggs shall be accompanied by a foreign inspection 
certificate, which, unless otherwise approved by the Administrator 
contains the following information:
    (1) Country exporting product;
    (2) City and date where issued;
    (3) Quality or description of eggs;
    (4) Number of cases and total quantity;
    (5) Identification marks on containers;
    (6) Name and address of exporter;
    (7) Name and address of importer;
    (8) A certification that the quality or description of the shell 
eggs, including date of pack, is true and accurate and;
    (9) Name (including signature) and title of person authorized to 
issue inspection certificates for shell eggs exported to the United 
States.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6659, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.920  Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Each person importing any eggs or egg products shall make 
application for inspection upon PY Form 222-Import Request, Eggs and Egg 
Products, to the Chief, Poultry Grading Branch, Poultry Division, 
Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, DC 20250, or to the Poultry Division, Poultry Grading Branch 
office at the port where the product is to be offered for importation. 
Application shall be made as long as possible prior to the arrival of 
each consignment of product, except in the case of product exempted from 
inspection by Sec. 59.960. Each application shall state the approximate 
date of product arrival in the United States, the name of the ship or 
other carrier, the country from which the product was shipped, the 
destination, the quantity and class of product, whether fresh, frozen, 
or dried, and the point of first arrival in the United States.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, 
Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 59.925  Inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    (a) Except as provided in Sec. 59.960, eggs and egg products offered 
for importation from any foreign country shall be subject to inspection 
in accordance with established inspection procedures, including the 
examination of the labeling information on the containers, by an 
inspector before the product shall be admitted into the United States. 
Importers will be advised of the point where inspection will be made, 
and in

[[Page 189]]

case of small shipments (less than carload lots), the importer may be 
required to move the product to the location of the nearest inspector.
    (b) Inspectors may take samples, without cost to the United States, 
of any product offered for importation which is subject to analysis or 
quality determination, except that samples shall not be taken of any 
products offered for importation under Sec. 59.960, unless there is 
reason for suspecting the presence therein of a substance in violation 
of that section.



Sec. 59.930  Imported eggs and egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection; sealing; handling; facilities, and 
          assistance.

    (a) No eggs or egg products required by this part to be inspected 
shall be released from customs custody prior to required inspections, 
but such product may be delivered to the consignee, or his agent, prior 
to inspection if the consignee shall furnish a bond, in the form 
prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, conditioned that the 
product shall be returned, if demanded, to the collector of the port 
where the same is offered for clearance through customs.
    (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, no product 
required by this part to be inspected shall be moved prior to inspection 
from the port of arrival where first unloaded, and if arriving by water 
from the wharf where first unloaded at such port, to any place other 
than the place designated in accordance with this part as the place 
where the same shall be inspected; and no product shall be conveyed in 
any manner other than in compliance with this part.
    (c) Means of conveyance or packages in which any product is moved in 
accordance with this part, prior to inspection, from the port or wharf 
where first unloaded in the United States, shall be sealed with special 
import seals of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or otherwise 
identified as provided herein, unless already sealed with customs or 
consular seals in accordance with the customs regulations. Such special 
seals shall be affixed by an inspector or, if there is no inspector at 
such port, by a customs officer. In lieu of sealing packages, the 
carrier or importer may furnish and attach to each package of product a 
warning notice on bright yellow paper, not less than 5 x 8 inches in 
size, containing the following legend in black type of a conspicuous 
size:

                     (Name of Truck Line or Carrier)

                                 Notice

    This package of ---------- must be delivered intact to an inspector 
of the Poultry Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

                                 Warning

    Failure to comply with these instructions will result in penalty 
action being taken against the holder of the customs entry bond.
    If the product is found to be acceptable upon inspection, the 
product may be released to the consignee, or his agent, and this warning 
notice defaced.

    (d) No person shall affix, break, alter, deface, mutilate, remove, 
or destroy any special import seal of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, except customs officers or inspectors, or as provided in 
paragraph (f) of this section.
    (e) No product shall be removed from any means of conveyance or 
package sealed with a special import seal of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, except under the supervision of an inspector or a customs 
officer, or as provided in paragraph (f) of this section.
    (f) In case of a wreck or similar extraordinary emergency, the 
special import seal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture on a car, 
truck, or other means of conveyance may be broken by the carrier and, if 
necessary, the articles may be reloaded into another means of conveyance 
for transportation to destination. In all such cases, the carrier shall 
immediately report the facts by telegraph to the Chief of the Grading 
Branch.
    (g) The consignee or his agent shall provide such facilities and 
assistance as the inspector may require for the inspection and handling 
and marking of products offered for importation.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6660, Apr. 1, 1972; 40 FR 
20060, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and 
further amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 
63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46070, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 
54421, Dec. 3, 1982]

[[Page 190]]



Sec. 59.935  Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling eggs and egg products to be maintained in sanitary condition.

    Compartments of boats, railroad cars, and other means of conveyance 
transporting any product to the United States, and all chutes, 
platforms, racks, tables, tools, utensils, and all other devices used in 
moving and handling such product offered for importation, shall be 
maintained in a sanitary condition.



Sec. 59.940  Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Egg products which, upon inspection, are found to be acceptable for 
importation into the United States, and are properly labeled and bear 
the inspection mark of the country of origin, need no further 
identification.
[40 FR 20060, May 8, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.945  Foreign eggs and egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of products refused entry.

    (a) Inspectors shall report their findings to the collector of 
customs at the port where products are offered for entry, and shall 
request the collector to refuse entry to eggs or egg products which are 
marked or designated ``U.S. Refused Entry'' or otherwise are not in 
compliance with the regulations in this part. Unless such products are 
exported by the consignee within a time specified by the collector of 
customs (usually 30 days), the consignee shall cause the destruction of 
such products for human food purposes under the supervision of an 
inspector. If products are destroyed for human food purposes under the 
supervision of an inspector, he shall give prompt notice thereof to the 
District Director of Customs.
    (b) Consignees shall, at their own expense, return immediately to 
the collector of customs, in means of conveyance or packages sealed by 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, any eggs or egg products received by 
them under this part which in any respect do not comply with this part.
    (c) Except as provided in Sec. 59.930(a), no person shall remove or 
cause to be removed from any place designated as the place of 
inspection, any eggs or egg products which the regulations require to be 
marked in any way, unless the same has been clearly and legibly marked 
in compliance with this part.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 6660, Apr. 1, 1972. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.950  Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    (a) Immediate containers of product offered for importation shall 
bear a label, printed in English, showing:
    (1) The name of product; (2) the name of the country of origin of 
the product, and for consumer packaged products, preceded by the words 
``Product of,'' which statement shall appear immediately under the name 
of the product; (3) The quality or description of shell eggs, including 
date of pack; (4) for egg products, the word ``Ingredients'' followed by 
a list of the ingredients in order of descending proportions by weight; 
(5) the name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or 
distributor, qualified by a phrase which reveals the connection that 
such person has with the product; (6) an accurate statement of the 
quantity; (7) for egg products, the inspection mark of the country of 
origin; and (8) The date of production and plant number of the plant at 
which the egg product was processed and/or packed.
    (b) For properly sealed and certified shipments of shell eggs 
imported for breaking at an official egg products plant, the immediate 
containers need not be labeled, provided that the shipment is segregated 
and controlled upon arrival at the destination breaking plant.
    (c) The labels shall not be false or misleading in any respect.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 45 FR 23641, Apr. 8, 1980. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]

[[Page 191]]



Sec. 59.955  Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the 
United States shall bear in a prominent and legible manner the true name 
of the product, the name of the country of origin, the plant number of 
the plant in which the egg product was processed and/or packed, and for 
egg products, the inspection mark of the country of origin, the quality 
or description for shell eggs, except as required in Sec. 59.905 of this 
part. Labeling on shipping containers examined at the time of inspection 
in the United States, if found to be false or misleading, shall be cause 
for the product to be refused entry.
    (b) For properly sealed and certified shipments of shell eggs 
imported for breaking at an official egg products plant, the shipping 
containers need not be labeled, provided that the shipment is segregated 
and controlled upon arrival at the destination breaking plant.
    (c) In the case of products which are not in compliance solely 
because of misbranding, such products may be brought into compliance 
with the regulations only under the supervision of an authorized 
representative of the Administrator.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981; and amended at 60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 
1995]



Sec. 59.956  Relabeling of imported egg products.

    (a) Egg products eligible for importation may be relabeled with an 
approved label under the supervision of an inspector at an official egg 
products plant or other location. The new label for such product shall 
indicate the country of origin except for products which are reprocessed 
(repasteurized, or in the case of dried products, dry blended with 
products produced in the United States) in an official egg products 
plant.
    (b) The label for relabeled products must state the name, address, 
and zip code of the distributor, qualified by an appropriate term such 
as ``packed for'', ``distributed by'' or ``distributors''.
[60 FR 49171, Sept. 21, 1995]



Sec. 59.960  Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis.

    Any eggs or egg products which are offered for importation, 
exclusively for the consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory 
analysis, and not for sale or distribution; which is sound, healthful, 
wholesome, and fit for human food; and which is not adulterated and does 
not contain any substance not permitted by the Act or regulations, may 
be admitted into the United States without a foreign inspection 
certificate. Such product is not required to be inspected upon arrival 
in the United States and may be shipped to the consignee without further 
restriction under this part: Provided, That the Department may, with 
respect to any specific importation, require that the consignee certify 
that such product is exclusively for the consignee's personal use, 
display, or laboratory analysis and not for sale or distribution. The 
amount of such product imported shall not exceed 30-dozen shell eggs, 30 
pounds of liquid or frozen eggs, or 50 pounds of dried egg products, 
unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator.
[37 FR 6660, Apr. 1, 1972. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 59.965  Returned U.S. inspected and marked products; not importations.

    Products which have been inspected by the United States Department 
of Agriculture and so marked, and which are returned from foreign 
countries are not importations within the meaning of this part. Such 
returned shipments shall be reported to the Administrator by letter.



Sec. 59.970  Charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products imported contrary to the Act.

    All charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to any 
product which is imported contrary to this part shall be paid by the 
owner or consignee, and in default of such payment shall constitute a 
lien against such

[[Page 192]]

product and any other product thereafter imported under the Act by or 
for such owner or consignee.
[36 FR 9814, May 28, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46071, Oct. 15, 
1982 and 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



PART 60  [RESERVED]






PART 61--COTTONSEED SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE FOR CRUSHING PURPOSES (INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND CERTIFICATION)--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Regulations

                               Definitions

Sec.
61.1  Words in singular form.
61.2  Terms defined.
61.2a  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, and devices for purpose of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.

                       Administrative and General

61.3  Director.
61.4  Supervisor of cottonseed inspection.
61.5  Regulations to govern.
61.6  Denial of further services.
61.7  Misrepresentation.
61.8  Application for review.
61.9  Cost of review.

                      Licensed Cottonseed Samplers

61.25  Application for license as sampler; form.
61.27  Period of license; renewals.
61.30  Examination of sampler.
61.31  License must be posted.
61.32  No discrimination in sampling.
61.33  Equipment of sampler; contents of certificate.
61.34  Drawing and preparation of sample.
61.36  Cause for suspension or revocation.
61.37  License may be suspended.
61.38  Suspended license to be returned to Division.
61.39  Duplicate license.
61.40  Reports of licensed samplers.
61.41  Unlicensed persons must not represent themselves as licensed 
          samplers.
61.42  Information on sampling to be kept confidential.

 Subpart B--Standards for Grades of Cottonseed Sold or Offered for Sale 
             for Crushing Purposes Within the United States

61.101  Determination of grade.
61.102  Determination of quantity index.
61.103  Determination of quality index.
61.104  Sampling and certification of samples and grades.

    Source:  22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Regulations

    Authority:  Sec. 205, 60 Stat. 1090, as amended, (7 U.S.C. 1624).

                               Definitions



Sec. 61.1  Words in singular form.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice-versa, as the case may 
demand.



Sec. 61.2  Terms defined.

    As used throughout the regulations in this part, unless the context 
otherwise requires, the following terms shall be construed, respectively 
to mean:
    (a) The act. The applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.) or any other act of 
Congress conferring like authority.
    (b) Regulations. Regulations mean the provisions in this subpart.
    (c) Department. The United States Department of Agriculture.
    (d) Secretary. The Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, or 
any officer or employee of the Department to whom authority has 
heretofore been delegated, or to whom authority may hereafter be 
delegated, to act in his stead.
    (e) Service. The Agricultural Marketing Service of the United States 
Department of Agriculture.
    (f) Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, or any officer or employee of the Service, to whom authority 
has heretofore been delegated, or to whom authority may hereafter be 
delegated, to act in his stead.
    (g) Division. The Cotton Division of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service.
    (h) Director. The Director of the Cotton Division, or any officer or 
employee of the Division to whom authority has heretofore been 
delegated, or to whom authority may hereafter be delegated, to act in 
his stead.

[[Page 193]]

    (i) Custodian. Person who has possession or control of cottonseed or 
of samples of cottonseed as agent, controller, broker, or factor, as the 
case may be.
    (j) Owner. Person who through financial interest owns or controls, 
or has the disposition of either cottonseed or of samples of cottonseed.
    (k) Official cottonseed standards. The official standards of the 
United States for the grading, sampling, and analyzing of cottonseed 
sold or offered for sale for crushing purposes.
    (l) Supervisor of cottonseed inspection. An officer of the Division 
designated as such by the Director.
    (m) License. A license issued under the act by the Secretary.
    (n) Licensed cottonseed chemist. A person licensed under the act by 
the Secretary to make quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses of 
samples of cottonseed according to the methods prescribed by the Science 
Division Director of the Agricultural Marketing Service and to 
certificate the grade according to the official cottonseed standards of 
the United States.
    (o) Licensed cottonseed sampler. A person licensed by the Secretary 
to draw and to certificate the authenticity of samples of cottonseed in 
accordance with the regulations in this subpart.
    (p) Dispute. A disagreement as to the true grade of a sample of 
cottonseed analyzed and graded by a licensed chemist.
    (q) Party. A party to a dispute.
    (r) Commercial laboratory. A chemical laboratory operated by an 
individual, firm, or corporation in which one or more persons are 
engaged in the chemical analysis of materials for the public.
    (s) Cottonseed. The word ``cottonseed'' as used in this part means 
the seed, after having been put through the usual and customary process 
known as cotton ginning, of any cotton produced within the continental 
United States.
    (t) Lot. That parcel or quantity of cottonseed offered for sale or 
tendered for delivery or delivered on a sale or contract of sale, in 
freight cars, trucks, wagons, or otherwise in the quantities and within 
the time limits prescribed from time to time by the Director for the 
drawing and preparation of official samples by licensed cottonseed 
samplers.
    (u) Official sample. A specimen of cottonseed drawn and prepared by 
a licensed cottonseed sampler and certified by him as representative of 
a certain identified lot, in accordance with the regulations in this 
subpart.
[22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993]



Sec. 61.2a  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purpose of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks, or other identifications, and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the inspection or grading of 
agricultural products under said section. For the purposes of said 
subsection and the provisions in this part, the terms listed below shall 
have the respective meanings specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, used under this part to certify with respect to the 
inspection, sampling, class, grade, quality, quantity, or condition of 
products (including the compliance of products with applicable 
specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an authorized person in the process of grading, inspecting, or sampling, 
pursuant to this part, any processing or plant-operation report made by 
an authorized person in connection with grading, inspecting, or sampling 
under this part, and any report made by an authorized person of services 
performed pursuant to this part.
    (c) Official mark means the grade mark, inspection mark, and any 
other mark, approved by the Administrator and authorized to be affixed 
to any product, or affixed to or printed on the packaging material of 
any product, stating that the product was graded or inspected or both, 
or indicating the appropriate U.S. grade or condition of the

[[Page 194]]

product, or for the purpose or maintaining the identity of products 
graded or inspected or both under this part.
    (d) Official identification means any United States (U.S.) standard 
designation of class, grade, quality, quantity, or condition specified 
in this part, or any symbol, stamp, label, or seal indicating that the 
product has been officially graded or inspected and/or indicating the 
class, grade, quality, quantity, or condition of the product, approved 
by the Administrator and authorized to be affixed to any product, or 
affixed to or printed on the packaging material of any product.
    (e) Official device means a stamping appliance, branding device, 
stencil, printed label, or any other mechanically or manually operated 
tool that is approved by the Administrator for the purpose of applying 
any official mark or other identification to any product or the 
packaging material thereof.

                       Administrative and General



Sec. 61.3  Director.

    The Director shall perform for and under the supervision of the 
Secretary and the Administrator, such duties as the Secretary or the 
Administrator may require in enforcing the provisions of the act and the 
regulations.



Sec. 61.4  Supervisor of cottonseed inspection.

    The Director, whenever he deems necessary, may designate an officer 
of the Division as supervisor of cottonseed inspection who shall 
supervise the inspection and sampling of cottonseed and perform such 
other duties as may be required of him in administering the act and the 
regulations.



Sec. 61.5  Regulations to govern.

    The inspection, sampling, analyzing, and grading of cottonseed in 
the United States pursuant to the act shall be performed as prescribed 
in methods approved from time to time by the Director.



Sec. 61.6  Denial of further services.

    Any person, partnership, or corporation that shall have undertaken 
to utilize the services of licensed cottonseed samplers under these 
regulations who shall not make available for official sampling and 
analysis each lot of cottonseed purchased or sold on grade and received 
by such person or partnership or corporation, may be denied further 
services under the act and these regulations: Provided, That in cases of 
persons, partnerships, or corporations operating two or more cottonseed 
crushing units under separate local managements, such penalty shall 
apply only to the offending unit, unless it shall be shown that the 
actions of such unit were at the direction or with the knowledge, 
approval, or acquiescence of the general management.
[22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993]



Sec. 61.7  Misrepresentation.

    Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fradulent practice 
made or committed by an applicant for a cottonseed sampler's certificate 
or for a cottonseed chemist's certificate or for an appeal grade 
certificate in connection with the sampling or grading of cottonseed by 
persons licensed under the act and the regulations or the issuance or 
use of a certificate not issued by a person licensed under the 
regulations in imitation of or that might mislead anyone to believe that 
such certificate was in fact issued by a person licensed under the act, 
or that might be otherwise false, misleading, or deceptive, may be 
deemed sufficient cause for debarring such applicant from any further 
benefits of the act.



Sec. 61.8  Application for review.

    In case of dispute in which a review is desired of the grading of 
any official sample of cottonseed covered by a valid certificate issued 
by a licensed cottonseed chemist, application therefor shall be filed 
with or mailed to a supervisor of cottonseed inspection within ten days 
after the date of the original certificate, whereupon the licensed 
chemist issuing the certificate shall immediately surrender to such 
supervisor the retained portion of the original sample, together with 
such records as may be required, for the determination of the true 
grade. The supervisor shall assign to such retained portion an 
identification number, shall divide such retained portion into two parts

[[Page 195]]

and submit the parts to two other licensed cottonseed chemists for 
reanalysis. Should the supervisor determine that such reanalyses 
indicate a grade differing from the original by not more than plus or 
minus one full grade, the original grade shall be considered the true 
grade. Should he find that such reanalyses indicate a grade differing 
more than plus or minus one full grade from the original, he shall 
determine the true grade. In any case, the supervisor shall issue over 
his name an appeal cottonseed grade certificate showing the true grade 
as determined in accordance with this section, which shall supersede the 
licensed chemists' certificates relating to the grade of such seed. 
Where due solely to errors in calculation or clerical error a grade 
certificated by a licensed cottonseed chemist is not the true grade, the 
supervisor shall direct the licensee to cancel the original and to issue 
a correct certificate. Should such error be found after an application 
for review has been filed, the supervisor shall nevertheless issue an 
appeal cottonseed grade certificate showing the true grade of the 
cottonseed involved.
[22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, Dec. 28, 1957, as amended at 58 FR 42413, 
Aug. 9, 1993]



Sec. 61.9  Cost of review.

    In cases of review of the grade of any official sample of 
cottonseed, payment covering the costs of re-analysis shall accompany 
the application.

                      Licensed Cottonseed Samplers



Sec. 61.25  Application for license as sampler; form.

    (a) Applications for licenses to sample cottonseed shall be made to 
the Director on forms furnished for the purpose by him.
    (b) Each such application shall be in English, shall be signed by 
the applicant, and shall contain or be accompanied by (1) satisfactory 
evidence that he is an actual resident of the United States, (2) 
satisfactory evidence of his experience in the handling and sampling of 
cottonseed, (3) a statement by the applicant that he agrees to comply 
with and abide by the terms of the act and these regulations so far as 
they relate to him, and with instructions issued from time to time 
governing the sampling of cottonseed, and (4) such other information as 
may be required.



Sec. 61.27  Period of license; renewals.

    The period for which a license may be issued under the regulations 
in Secs. 61.25 through 61.42 shall be from the first day of August 
following receipt of the application, and shall continue for 5 years, 
ending on the 31st of July in the fifth year. Renewals shall be for 5 
years also, beginning with the first day of August and ending on the 
31st day of July in the fifth year: Provided, That licenses or renewals 
issued on and after June 1 of any year shall be for the period ending 
July 31 of the fifth year following.
[59 FR 26411, May 20, 1994]



Sec. 61.30  Examination of sampler.

    Each applicant for a license as a sampler and each licensed sampler 
whenever requested by an authorized representative of the Director, 
shall submit to an examination or test to show his ability properly to 
perform the duties for which he is applying for a license or for which 
he has been licensed, and each such applicant or licensee shall furnish 
the Division any information requested at any time in regard to his 
sampling of cottonseed.



Sec. 61.31  License must be posted.

    Each licensed sampler shall keep his license conspicuously posted at 
the place where he functions as a sampler or in such other place as may 
be approved by the Director.



Sec. 61.32  No discrimination in sampling.

    Each licensed sampler, when requested, shall without discrimination, 
as soon as practicable and upon reasonable terms, sample any cottonseed 
if the same be made available to him at his place of business, under 
conditions that will permit proper sampling. Each such licensee shall 
give preference to those who request his services as such over persons 
who request his services in any other capacity.

[[Page 196]]



Sec. 61.33  Equipment of sampler; contents of certificate.

    Each licensed sampler shall have available suitable triers or 
sampling tools, sample containers, scales, seed cleaners, seed mixers, 
and air-tight containers for enclosing and forwarding the official 
samples to licensed chemist, and with tags and samplers' certificates 
approved or furnished by the Director or his representative for 
identifying the samples of cottonseed and for certificating the 
condition of the cottonseed represented by such samples. There shall be 
clearly written or printed on the face of such certificate (a) a 
suitable caption; (b) the location of the cottonseed involved and its 
point of origin; (c) the identification of the lot from which the sample 
was drawn; (d) the date on which the sample was drawn; (e) the gross 
weight of the original sample, and the net weight of the cleaned sample; 
(f) a statement indicating that the sample was drawn in accordance with 
sampling methods prescribed by the Director of the Cotton Division; and 
(g) the signature of the licensed sampler as such. The use of such tags 
and certificates shall be in conformity with instructions issued from 
time to time by the Division.



Sec. 61.34  Drawing and preparation of sample.

    Each licensed cottonseed sampler shall draw, prepare, and identify 
one official sample of cottonseed and a duplicate thereof from each lot 
made available to him in such manner as may be required by the Director, 
and shall promptly prepare it for forwarding to a licensed cottonseed 
chemist for analysis and grading. The duplicate shall be sealed and 
retained by the sampler until the original official sample shall have 
been analyzed by a licensed chemist. If the original official sample 
shall become lost or destroyed before having been analyzed the duplicate 
shall become the official sample; otherwise the licensed sampler shall 
immediately remove the identification marks from the duplicate and 
discard it. In no case shall the duplicate be offered for analysis 
unless the original shall have been lost or destroyed before analysis.



Sec. 61.36  Cause for suspension or revocation.

    The failure or refusal of any cottonseed sampled, duly licensed as 
such under the regulations in this subpart, to draw, prepare, identify, 
and to forward an official sample of every lot of cottonseed made 
available to him for the purpose, in accordance with these regulations, 
shall be cause for the suspension or revocation of his license. A 
sampler's license may also be suspended when the sampler (a) has ceased 
to perform services as a licensed cottonseed sampler, (b) has knowingly 
or carelessly sampled cottonseed improperly, (c) has violated or evaded 
any provision of the Act, these regulations, or the sampling methods 
prescribed by the Director, (d) has used his license or allowed it to be 
used for any fraudulent or improper purposes, or (e) has in any manner 
become incompetent or incapacitated to perform the duties of a licensed 
sampler.



Sec. 61.37  License may be suspended.

    The Director may, without a hearing, suspend or revoke the license 
issued to a licensed sampler upon written request and a satisfactory 
statement of reasons therefor submitted by such licensed sampler. 
Pending final action by the Secretary, the Director may, whenever he 
deems such action necessary, suspend the license of any licensed sampler 
by giving notice of such suspension to the licensee, accompanied by a 
statement of the reasons therefor. Within 10 days after the receipt of 
the aforesaid notice and statement of reasons by such licensee, he may 
file an appeal, in writing, with the Secretary, supported by any 
argument or evidence that he may wish to offer as to why his license 
should not be suspended or revoked. After the expiration of the 
aforesaid 10-day period and consideration of such argument and evidence, 
the Secretary will take such action as he deems appropriate with respect 
to such suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within the 
prescribed 10 days, the license shall be automatically revoked.

[[Page 197]]



Sec. 61.38  Suspended license to be returned to Division.

    In case a license issued to a sampler is suspended or revoked such 
license shall be returned to the Division. At the expiration of any 
period of suspension of such license, unless in the meantime it be 
revoked, the dates of beginning and termination of such suspension shall 
be endorsed thereon, it shall be returned to the person to whom it was 
originally issued, and its shall be posted as prescribed in Sec. 61.31.



Sec. 61.39  Duplicate license.

    Upon satisfactory proof of the loss or destruction of a license 
issued to a sampler hereunder, a new license may be issued under the 
same or a new number.



Sec. 61.40  Reports of licensed samplers.

    Each licensed sampler, when requested, shall make reports on forms 
furnished for the purpose by the Division bearing upon his activity as 
such licensee.



Sec. 61.41  Unlicensed persons must not represent themselves as licensed samplers.

    No person shall in any way represent himself to be a sampler 
licensed under the act unless he holds an unsuspended and unrevoked 
license issued thereunder.



Sec. 61.42  Information on sampling to be kept confidential.

    Every person licensed under the act as a sampler of cottonseed shall 
keep confidential all information secured by him relative to shipments 
of cottonseed sampled by him. He shall not disclose such information to 
any person except an authorized representative of the Department.



 Subpart B--Standards for Grades of Cottonseed Sold or Offered for Sale 
             for Crushing Purposes Within the United States

    Authority:  Secs. 203, 205, 60 Stat. 1087, 1090, as amended; 7 
U.S.C. 1622, 1624.



Sec. 61.101  Determination of grade.

    The grade of cottonseed shall be determined from the analysis of 
samples by licensed chemists, and it shall be the result, stated in the 
nearest whole or half numbers, obtained by multiplying a quantity index 
by a quality index and dividing the result by 100. The quantity index 
and the quality index shall be determined as hereinafter provided.
    (a) The basis grade of cottonseed shall be grade 100.
    (b) High grades of cottonseed shall be those grades above 100.
    (c) Low grades of cottonseed shall be those grades below 100.
    (d) Grades for American Pima cottonseed shall be suffixed by the 
designation ``American Pima'' or by the symbol ``AP.''
[22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, as amended at 37 FR 20157, Sept. 27, 1972; 
58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993]



Sec. 61.102  Determination of quantity index.

    The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows:
    (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times 
percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia, plus 5.
    (b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four 
times percentage of oil, plus six times percentage of ammonia, minus 10.
[37 FR 20157, Sept. 27, 1972]



Sec. 61.103  Determination of quality index.

    The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and 
soundness, and shall be determined as follows:
    (a) Prime quality cottonseed. Cottonseed that by analysis contains 
not more than 1.0 percent of foreign matter, not more than 12.0 percent 
of moisture, and not more than 1.8 percent of free fatty acids in the 
oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall 
have a quality index of 100.
    (b) Below prime quality cottonseed. The quality index of cottonseed 
that, by analysis, contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids 
in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages

[[Page 198]]

prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing 
the quality index of prime quality cottonseed as follows:
    (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids 
in the oil in the seed in excess of 1.8 percent.
    (2) One-tenth of a unit for each 0.1 percent of foreign matter in 
excess of 1.0 percent.
    (3) One-tenth of a unit for each 0.1 percent of moisture in excess 
of 12.0 percent.
    (c) Off quality cottonseed. Cottonseed that has been treated by 
either mechanical or chemical process other than the usual cleaning, 
drying, and ginning (except sterilization required by the United States 
Department of Agriculture for quarantine purposes) or that are fermented 
or hot, or that upon analysis are found to contain 12.5 percent or more 
of free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, or more than 10.0 percent of 
foreign matter, or more than 20.0 percent of moisture, or more than 25.0 
percent of moisture and foreign matter combined, shall be designated as 
``off quality cottonseed.''
    (d) Below grade cottonseed. Cottonseed the grade of which when 
calculated according to Sec. 61.101 is below grade 40.0 shall be 
designated as ``below grade cottonseed,'' and a numerical grade shall 
not be indicated.



Sec. 61.104  Sampling and certification of samples and grades.

    The drawing, preparation, and certification of samples of 
cottonseed, and certification of grades of cottonseed shall be performed 
in accordance with methods approved from time to time for the purposes 
by the Director, or his representatives.
[22 FR 10948, Dec. 28, 1957, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993]



PART 70--VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS AND U.S. CLASSES, STANDARDS, AND GRADES--Table of Contents




       Subpart A--Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products

                                 General

Sec.
70.1  Definitions.
70.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other 
          identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural 
          Marketing Act.
70.3  Administration.
70.4  Grading services available.
70.5  Nondiscrimination.
70.6  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction 
          Act.

                            Basis of Service

70.10  Grading service.
70.11  [Reserved]
70.12  Supervision.
70.13  Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food 
          products; eligibility.
70.14  Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.
70.15  Equipment and facilities to be furnished for use of graders in 
          performing service on a resident basis.
70.16  Prerequisites to grading.
70.17  Accessibility of products.
70.18  Schedule of operation of official plants.

                         Performance of Services

70.20  Licensed or authorized graders.
70.21  Suspension of license; revocation.
70.22  Surrender of license.
70.23  Identification.
70.24  Financial interest of graders.
70.25  Political activity.

                     Application for Grading Service

70.30  Who may obtain grading service.
70.31  How application for service may be made; conditions of service.
70.32  Filing of application.
70.33  Authority of applicant.
70.34  Application for grading service in official plants; approval.
70.35  Rejection of application.
70.36  Withdrawal of application.
70.37  Order of service.

[[Page 199]]

70.38  Suspension or withdrawal of plant approval for correctable cause.

                            Denial of Service

70.40  Debarment.
70.41  Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent acts or practices.
70.42  Use of facsimile forms.
70.43  Willful violation of the regulations.
70.44  Interfering with a grader or employee of Service.
70.45  Misleading labeling.
70.46  Miscellaneous.

                    Identifying and Marking Products

70.50  Approval of official identification and wording on labels.
70.51  Marking graded products.
70.52  Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits 
          identified with consumer grademarks.
70.54  Retention authorities.
70.55  Check grading officially identified product.

                                 Reports

70.60  Report of grading work.
70.61  Information to be furnished to graders.
70.62  Reports of violations.

                            Fees and Charges

70.70  Payment of fees and charges.
70.71  On a fee basis.
70.72  Fees for appeal grading, or examination or review of a grader's 
          decision.
70.75  Travel expenses and other charges.
70.76  Charges for continuous poultry grading performed on a nonresident 
          basis.
70.77  Charges for continuous poultry or rabbit grading performed on a 
          resident basis.
70.78  Fees or charges for grading service performed under cooperative 
          agreement.

                                 Grading

70.80  General.
70.81  Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food 
          products.

                          Grading Certificates

70.90  Forms.
70.91  Issuance and disposition.
70.92  Advance information.

                     Appeal of a Grading or Decision

70.100  Who may request an appeal grading or review of a grader's 
          decision.
70.101  Where to file an appeal.
70.102  How to file an appeal.
70.103  When an application for an appeal grading may be refused.
70.104  Who shall perform the appeal.
70.105  Procedures for appeal gradings.
70.106  Appeal grading certificates.

       Sanitary Requirements, Facilities, and Operating Procedures

70.110  Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating 
          procedures in official plants.

                        Subparts B-C  [Reserved]

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1621-1627.

    Source:  41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976, unless otherwise noted. 
Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 
1981.



       Subpart A--Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products

                                 General



Sec. 70.1  Definitions.

    Unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms shall 
have the following meaning:
    Acceptable means suitable for the purpose intended and acceptable to 
the Service.
    Act means the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.) or any 
other act of Congress conferring like authority.
    Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service of the Department or any other officer or employee of the 
Department to whom there has heretofore been delegated or to whom there 
may hereafter be delegated the authority to act in his stead.
    Applicant means any interested person who requests any grading 
service.
    Carcass means any poultry or rabbit carcass.
    Chief of the Grading Branch means Chief of the Poultry Grading 
Branch, Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing Service.
    Class means any subdivision of a product based on essential physical 
characteristics that differentiate between major groups of the same 
kind.
    Condition means any condition, including but not being limited to, 
the state of preservation, cleanliness, or soundness of any product; or 
any condition, including but not limited to the processing, handling, or 
packaging which affects such product.
    Condition and wholesomeness means the condition of any product and 
its

[[Page 200]]

healthfulness and fitness for human food.
    Department means the United States Department of Agriculture.
    Free from protruding pinfeathers, diminutive feathers, or hairs 
means that a poultry carcass, part, or poultry product with the skin on 
is free from protruding pinfeathers, diminutive feathers, or hairs which 
are visible to a grader during an examination at normal grading speeds. 
However, a poultry carcass, part, or poultry product may be considered 
as being free from protruding pinfeathers, diminutive feathers, or hairs 
if it has a generally clean appearance and if not more than an 
occasional protruding pinfeather, diminutive feather, or hair is 
evidenced during a more careful examination.
    Giblets means the following poultry organs when properly trimmed and 
washed: The liver from which the bile sac has been removed, the heart 
from which the pericardial sac has been removed, and the gizzard from 
which the lining and contents have been removed. With respect to rabbits 
``giblets'' means the liver from which the bile sac has been removed and 
the heart from which the pericardial sac has been removed.
    Grader means any Federal or State employee or the employee of a 
local jurisdiction or cooperating agency to whom a license has been 
issued by the Secretary to investigate and certify in accordance with 
the regulations in this part the class, quality, quantity, or condition 
of products.
    Grading or grading service means: (a) The act whereby a grader 
determines, according to the regulations in this part the class, 
quality, quantity, or condition of any product by examining each unit 
thereof or each unit of the representative sample thereof drawn by a 
grader, and issues a grading certificate with respect thereto, except 
that with respect to grading service performed on a resident basis, the 
issuance of a grading certificate shall be pursuant to a request 
therefor by the applicant or the Service; (b) the act whereby the grader 
identifies, according to the regulations in this part, the graded 
product; (c) with respect to any official plant, the act whereby a 
grader determines that the product in such plant was processed, handled, 
and packaged in accordance with Sec. 70.110, or (d) any regrading or any 
appeal grading of a previously graded product.
    Grading certificate means a statement, either written or printed, 
issued by a grader, pursuant to the regulations in this part, relative 
to the class, quality, quantity, or condition of a product.
    Holiday or Legal Holiday shall mean the legal public holidays 
specified by the Congress in paragraph (a) of section 6103, title 5, of 
the United States Code.
    Identify means to apply official identification to products or the 
containers thereof.
    Lightly shaded discolorations on poultry are generally reddish in 
color and are usually confined to areas of the skin or the surface of 
the flesh.
    Moderately shaded discolorations on poultry skin or flesh are areas 
that are generally dark red or bluish, or are areas of flesh bruising. 
Moderately shaded discolorations are free from blood clots that are 
visible to a grader during an examination of the carcass, part, or 
poultry product at normal grading speeds.
    National supervisor means (a) the officer in charge of the poultry 
grading service of the Agricultural Marketing Service, and (b) other 
officers and employees of the Department designated by the officer in 
charge of the poultry grading service of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service.
    Office of grading means the office of any grader.
    Official plant or official establishment means one or more buildings 
or parts thereof comprising a single plant in which the facilities and 
methods of operation therein have been approved by the Administrator as 
suitable and adequate for grading service and in which grading is 
carried on in accordance with the regulations in this part.
    Person means any individual, partnership, association, business 
trust, corporation, or any organized group of persons, whether 
incorporated or not.
    Poultry means any kind of domesticated bird, including, but not 
being limited to, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pigeons, and guineas.

[[Page 201]]

    Poultry food product means any article of human food or any article 
intended for or capable of being so used, which is prepared or derived 
in whole or in substantial part, from any edible part or parts of 
poultry.
    Poultry product means any ready-to-cook poultry carcass or part 
therefrom or any specified poultry food product.
    Poultry grading service means the personnel who are actively engaged 
in the administration, application, and direction of poultry and rabbit 
grading programs and services pursuant to the regulations in this part.
    Quality means the inherent properties of any product which determine 
its relative degree of excellence.
    Rabbit means any domesticated rabbit whether live or dead.
    Rabbit product means any ready-to-cook rabbit carcass or part 
therefrom.
    Ready-to-cook poultry means any slaughtered poultry free from 
protruding pinfeathers, vestigial feathers (hair or down as the case may 
be) and from which the head, feet, crop, oil gland, trachea, esophagus, 
entrails, mature reproductive organs, and lungs have been removed, and 
the kidneys have been removed from certain mature poultry as defined in 
9 CFR part 381, and with or without the giblets, and which is suitable 
for cooking without need of further processing. Ready-to-cook poultry 
also means any cut-up or disjointed portion of poultry or other parts of 
poultry as defined in 9 CFR part 381 that are suitable for cooking 
without need of further processing.
    Ready-to-cook rabbit means any rabbit which has been slaughtered for 
human food, from which the head, blood, skin, feet, and inedible viscera 
have been removed, that is ready to cook without need of further 
processing. Ready-to-cook rabbit also means any cut-up or disjointed 
portion of rabbit or any edible part thereof.
    Regional director means any employee of the Department in charge of 
poultry grading service in a designated geographical area.
    Regulations means the provisions of this entire part and such United 
States classes, standards, and grades for products as may be in effect 
at the time grading is performed.
    Secretary means the Secretary of the Department, or any other 
officer or employee of the Department to whom there has heretofore been 
delegated, or to whom there may hereafter be delegated, the authority to 
act in his stead.
    Service means the Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department.
    Slight discolorations on poultry skin or flesh are areas of 
discoloration that are generally pinkish in color and do not detract 
from the appearance of the carcass, part, or poultry product.
    Soundness means freedom from external evidence of any disease or 
condition which may render a carcass or product unfit for food.
    State supervisor or Federal-State supervisor means any authorized 
and designated individual who is in charge of the poultry grading 
service in a State.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976; 41 FR 24693, June 18, 1976. Redesignated at 
42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and amended at 43 FR 60138, Dec. 26, 1978. 
Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46071, 
Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982; 51 FR 17280, May 9, 1986; 60 
FR 6639, Feb. 2, 1995]



Sec. 70.2  Designation of official certificates, memoranda, marks, other identifications, and devices for purposes of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Subsection 203(h) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as 
amended by Pub. L. 272, 84th Congress, provides criminal penalties for 
various specified offenses relating to official certificates, memoranda, 
marks, or other identification and devices for making such marks or 
identifications, issued or authorized under section 203 of said Act, and 
certain misrepresentations concerning the grading of agricultural 
products under said section. For the purposes of said subsection and the 
provisions in this part, the terms listed in this section shall have the 
respective meaning specified:
    (a) Official certificate means any form of certification, either 
written or printed, used under this part to certify with respect to the 
sampling, class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition of 
products (including the compliance of products with applicable 
specifications).
    (b) Official memorandum means any initial record of findings made by 
an

[[Page 202]]

authorized person in the process of grading or sampling pursuant to this 
part, any processing or plant-operation report made by an authorized 
person in connection with grading or sampling under this part, and any 
report made by an authorized person of services performed pursuant to 
this part.
    (c) Official mark means the grade-mark and any other mark, or any 
variations in such marks, approved by the Administrator and authorized 
to be affixed to any product or affixed to or printed on the packaging 
material of any product, stating that the product was graded or 
indicating the appropriate U.S. Grade or condition of the product, or 
for maintaining the identity of products graded under this part, 
including but not limited to, those marks set forth in Sec. 70.51.
    (d) Official identification means any United States (U.S.) standard 
designation of class, grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition 
specified in this part or any symbol, stamp, label, or seal indicating 
that the product has been officially graded and/or indicating the class, 
grade, quality, size, quantity, or condition of the product approved by 
the Administrator and authorized to be affixed to any product, or 
affixed to or printed on the packaging material of any product.
    (e) Official device means a stamping appliance, branding device, 
stencil, printed label, or any other mechanically or manually operated 
tool that is approved by the Administrator for the purpose of applying 
any official mark or other identification to any product or the 
packaging material thereof.



Sec. 70.3  Administration.

    The Administrator shall perform for and under the supervision of the 
Secretary such duties as are prescribed in the regulations in this part 
and as the Secretary may require in the administration of the 
regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized to waive for 
limited periods any particular provisions of the regulations to permit 
experimentation so that new procedures and grading techniques may be 
tested to facilitate definite improvements and at the same time to 
determine full compliance with the spirit and intent of the regulations. 
The Agricultural Marketing Service and its officers and employees shall 
not be liable in damages through acts of commission or omission in the 
administration of this part.



Sec. 70.4  Grading services available.

    The regulations in this part provide for the following kinds of 
service; and any one or more of the different services applicable to 
official plants may be rendered in an official plant:
    (a) Grading of ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits in an official 
plant or at other locations with adequate facilities.
    (b) Grading of specified poultry food products in official plants.



Sec. 70.5  Nondiscrimination.

    The conduct of all services and the licensing of graders and 
inspectors under these regulations shall be accomplished without regard 
to race, color, national origin, religion, age, sex, or disability.
[60 FR 6640, Feb. 2, 1995]



Sec. 70.6  OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    (a) Purpose. This section collects and displays the control numbers 
assigned to information collection requirements by the Office of 
Management and Budget contained in 7 CFR part 70 pursuant to the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-511.
    (b) Display.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Current OMB
        7 CFR section where identified and described         control No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
70.3.......................................................    0581-0127
70.10......................................................    0581-0127
70.17......................................................    0581-0127
70.18......................................................    0581-0127
70.20(a)...................................................    0581-0127
70.21......................................................    0581-0127
70.31(a)...................................................    0581-0127
70.31(b)...................................................    0581-0127
70.33......................................................    0581-0127
70.34......................................................    0581-0127
70.35......................................................    0581-0127
70.36......................................................    0581-0127
70.38(c)...................................................    0581-0127
70.38(d)...................................................    0581-0127
70.40......................................................    0581-0127
70.50......................................................    0581-0127
70.61......................................................    0581-0127
70.62......................................................    0581-0127
70.73......................................................    0581-0127
70.76(b)(1)................................................    0581-0127
70.76(b)(3)(ii)............................................    0581-0127

[[Page 203]]

                                                                        
70.77(a)(1)................................................    0581-0127
70.77(a)(4)................................................    0581-0127
70.77(b)(1)................................................    0581-0127
70.77(b)(3)(ii)............................................    0581-0127
70.91(a)...................................................    0581-0127
70.91(c)...................................................    0581-0127
70.92......................................................    0581-0127
70.100.....................................................    0581-0127
70.102.....................................................    0581-0127
70.210(e)..................................................    0581-0127
70.310(e)..................................................    0581-0127
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[48 FR 56566, Dec. 22, 1983, as amended at 51 FR 26224, July 22, 1986]

                            Basis of Service



Sec. 70.10  Grading service.

    Any grading service in accordance with the regulations in this part 
shall be for class, quality, quantity, or condition or any combination 
thereof. Grading service with respect to determination of quality of 
products shall be on the basis of United States classes, standards, and 
grades as contained in subparts B and C of this part. However, grading 
service may be rendered with respect to products which are bought and 
sold on the basis of institutional contract specifications or 
specifications of the applicant, and such service, when approved by the 
Administrator, shall be rendered on the basis of such specifications.



Sec. 70.11  [Reserved]



Sec. 70.12  Supervision.

    All grading service shall be subject to supervision at all times by 
the responsible State supervisor, regional director, and national 
supervisor. Such service shall be rendered in accordance with 
instructions issued by the Administrator where the facilities and 
conditions are satisfactory for the conduct of the service and the 
requisite graders are available. Whenever the supervisor of a grader has 
evidence that such grader incorrectly graded a product, such supervisor 
shall take such action as is necessary to correct the grading and to 
cause any improper grademarks which appear on the product or containers 
thereof to be corrected prior to shipment of the product from the place 
of initial grading.



Sec. 70.13  Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products; eligibility.

    Only ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food 
products which are inspected and passed by the poultry inspection 
service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or by any other official 
inspection system acceptable to the Department may be graded.



Sec. 70.14  Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Squabs and domesticated game birds (including, but not being limited 
to, quail, pheasants, and wild species of ducks and geese raised in 
captivity) may be graded under the regulations in this part, only if 
they have been inspected and passed by the poultry inspection service of 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture or have been inspected by any other 
official inspection system acceptable to the Department.



Sec. 70.15  Equipment and facilities to be furnished for use of graders in performing service on a resident basis.

    Such equipment and facilities shall include but not be limited to:
    (a) An accurate metal stem thermometer.
    (b) A drill with a steel bit to drill holes in frozen product for 
inserting the metal thermometer stem to determine temperature.
    (c) Scales graduated in tenths of a pound or less for weighing 
carcasses, parts, or products individually or in containers up to 100 
pounds, and test weights for such scales.
    (d) Scales graduated in one-pound graduation or less for weighing 
bulk containers of poultry and test weights for such scales.
    (e) Furnished adequate office space, a desk equipped with a 
satisfactory locking device, lockers or cabinets suitable for the 
protection and storage of official supplies and facilities suitable for 
graders to change clothing.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 51 FR 17280, May 9, 
1986; 60 FR 6640, Feb. 2, 1995]



Sec. 70.16  Prerequisites to grading.

    Grading of products shall be rendered pursuant to the regulations in 
this part

[[Page 204]]

and under such conditions and in accordance with such methods as may be 
prescribed or approved by the Administrator.



Sec. 70.17  Accessibility of products.

    Each product for which grading service is requested shall be so 
placed as to disclose fully its class, quality, quantity, and condition 
as the circumstances may warrant.



Sec. 70.18  Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Grading operation schedules for services performed pursuant to 
Secs. 70.76 and 70.77 shall be requested in writing and be approved by 
the Administrator. Normal operating schedules for a full week consist of 
a continuous 8-hour period per day (excluding not to exceed 1 hour for 
lunch), 5 consecutive days per week, within the administrative workweek, 
Sunday through Saturday, for each shift required. Less than 8-hour 
schedules may be requested and will be approved if a grader is 
available. Clock hours of daily operations need not be specified in the 
request, although as a condition of continued approval, the hours of 
operation shall be reasonably uniform from day to day. Graders are to be 
notified by management 1 day in advance of any change in the hours 
grading service is requested.
[48 FR 20683, May 9, 1983]

                         Performance of Services



Sec. 70.20  Licensed or authorized graders.

    (a) Any person who is a Federal or State employee, the employee of a 
local jurisdiction, or the employee of a cooperating agency possessing 
proper qualifications as determined by an examination for competency and 
who is to perform grading service under this part may be licensed by the 
Secretary as a grader.
    (b) All licenses issued by the Secretary shall be countersigned by 
the officer in charge of the poultry grading service of the Agricultural 
Marketing Service or any other designated officer of such Service.
    (c) Any person who is employed by any official plant and possesses 
proper qualifications as determined by the Administrator may be 
authorized to grade poultry and/or rabbits on the basis of the U.S. 
classes, standards, and grades under the supervision of a grader. No 
person to whom such authorization is granted shall have authority to 
issue any grading certificates, grading memoranda, or other official 
documents; and all products graded by any such person shall thereafter 
be check graded by a grader.



Sec. 70.21  Suspension of license; revocation.

    Pending final action by the Secretary, any person authorized to 
countersign a license to perform grading service may, whenever he deems 
such action necessary to assure that any grading services are properly 
performed, suspend any license to perform grading service issued 
pursuant to this part, by giving notice of such suspension to the 
respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the reasons therefor. 
Within 7 days after the receipt of the aforesaid notice and statement of 
reasons, the licensee may file an appeal in writing, with the Secretary, 
supported by any argument or evidence that he may wish to offer as to 
why his license should not be further suspended or revoked. After the 
expiration of the aforesaid 7-day period and consideration of such 
argument and evidence, the Secretary will take such action as he deems 
appropriate with respect to such suspension or revocation. When no 
appeal is filed within the prescribed 7 days, the license to perform 
grading service is revoked.



Sec. 70.22  Surrender of license.

    Each license which is suspended or revoked shall immediately be 
surrendered by the licensee to the office of grading serving the area in 
which he is located. Upon termination of the services of a licensed 
grader, the licensee shall surrender his license immediately for 
cancellation.



Sec. 70.23  Identification.

    Each grader shall have in his possession at all times, and present 
upon request while on duty, the means of identification furnished by the 
Department to such person.

[[Page 205]]



Sec. 70.24  Financial interest of graders.

    No grader shall render service on any product in which he is 
financially interested.



Sec. 70.25  Political activity.

    All graders are forbidden, during the period of their respective 
appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management 
or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, county, State, or 
national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any 
party or candidate, or any measure to be voted upon, is prohibited. This 
applies to all appointees, including, but not being limited to, 
temporary and cooperative employees and employees on leave of absence 
with or without pay. Willful violation of this section will constitute 
grounds for dismissal in the case of appointees and revocation of 
licenses in the case of licensees.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 48 FR 20683, May 9, 
1983]

                     Application for Grading Service



Sec. 70.30  Who may obtain grading service.

    An application for grading service may be made by any interested 
person, including, but not being limited to, the United States, any 
State, county, municipality, or common carrier, and any authorized agent 
of the foregoing.



Sec. 70.31  How application for service may be made; conditions of service.

    (a) Noncontinuous grading service on a fee basis. An application for 
any noncontinuous grading service on a fee basis may be made in any 
office of grading or with any grader at or nearest the place where the 
service is desired. Such application may be made orally (in person or by 
telephone), in writing, or by telegraph. If the application for grading 
service is made orally, the office of grading or the grader with whom 
such application is made or the Administrator may require that the 
application be confirmed in writing.
    (b) Continuous grading service on a resident basis or continuous 
grading service on a nonresident basis. An application for continuous 
grading service on a resident basis or for continuous grading service on 
a nonresident basis must be made in writing on forms approved by the 
Administrator and filed with the Administrator. Such forms may be 
obtained at the national, regional, or State grading office. In making 
application, the applicant agrees to comply with the terms and 
conditions of the regulations (including, but not being limited to, such 
instructions governing grading of products as may be issued from time to 
time by the Administrator). No member of or Delegate to Congress or 
Resident Commissioner shall be admitted to any benefit that may arise 
from such service unless derived through service rendered a corporation 
for its general benefit.



Sec. 70.32  Filing of application.

    An application for grading service shall be regarded as filed only 
when made pursuant to the regulations in this part.



Sec. 70.33  Authority of applicant.

    Proof of the authority of any person applying for grading service 
may be required at the discretion of the Administrator.



Sec. 70.34  Application for grading service in official plants; approval.

    Any person desiring to process and pack products in a plant under 
grading service must receive approval of such plant and facilities as an 
official plant prior to the rendition of such service. An application 
for grading service to be rendered in an official plant shall be 
approved according to the following procedure: Survey. When application 
has been filed for grading service, as aforesaid, the State supervisor 
or his assistant shall examine the grading office, facilities, and 
equipment and specify any additional facilities or equipment needed for 
the service. When the plant survey for poultry or rabbit grading has 
been completed and approved in accordance with the regulations in this 
part, service may be installed.



Sec. 70.35  Rejection of application.

    Any application for grading service may be rejected by the 
Administrator

[[Page 206]]

(a) whenever the applicant fails to meet the requirements of the 
regulations prescribing the conditions under which the service is made 
available; (b) whenever the product is owned by or located on the 
premises of a person currently denied the benefits of the Act; (c) where 
any individual holding office or a responsible position with or having a 
substantial financial interest or share in the applicant, is currently 
denied the benefits of the Act, or was responsible in whole or in part 
for the current denial of the benefits of the Act to any person; (d) 
where the Administrator determines that the application is an attempt on 
the part of a person currently denied the benefits of the Act to obtain 
grading service; (e) whenever the applicant, after an initial survey has 
been made in accordance with Sec. 70.34, fails to bring the grading 
facilities and equipment into compliance with the regulations within a 
reasonable period of time; or (f) notwithstanding any prior approval 
whenever, before inauguration of service, the applicant fails to fulfill 
commitments concerning the inauguration of the service. Each such 
applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons 
for the rejection. A written petition for reconsideration of such 
rejection may be filed by the applicant with the Administrator if 
postmarked or delivered within 10 days after receipt of notice of the 
rejection. Such petition shall state specifically the errors alleged to 
have been made by the Administrator in rejecting the application. Within 
20 days following the receipt of such a petition for reconsideration, 
the Administrator shall approve the application or notify the applicant 
by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection thereof.



Sec. 70.36  Withdrawal of application.

    Any application for grading service may be withdrawn by the 
applicant at any time before the service is performed upon payment by 
the applicant, of all expenses incurred by the Service in connection 
with such application.



Sec. 70.37  Order of service.

    Grading service shall be performed, insofar as practicable and 
subject to the availability of qualified graders, in the order in which 
applications therefor are made, except that precedence may be given to 
any application for an appeal grading.



Sec. 70.38  Suspension or withdrawal of plant approval for correctable cause.

    (a) Any plant approval given pursuant to the regulations in this 
part may be suspended by the Administrator for (1) failure to maintain 
grading facilities and equipment in a satisfactory state of repair, 
sanitation, or cleanliness; (2) the use of operating procedures which 
are not in accordance with the regulations in this part; or (3) 
alterations of grading facilities or equipment which have not been 
approved in accordance with the regulations in this part.
    (b) Whenever it is feasible to do so, written notice in advance of a 
suspension shall be given to the person concerned and shall specify a 
reasonable period of time in which corrective action must be taken. If 
advance written notice is not given, the suspension action shall be 
promptly confirmed in writing and the reasons therefor shall be stated, 
except in instances where the person has already corrected the 
deficiency. Such service, after appropriate corrective action is taken, 
will be restored immediately, or as soon thereafter as a grader can be 
made available. During such period of suspension, grading service shall 
not be rendered. However, the other provisions of the regulations 
pertaining to providing service on a resident basis will remain in 
effect unless such service is terminated in accordance with the 
provisions of this part.
    (c) If the grading facilities or methods of operation are not 
brought into compliance within a reasonable period of time as specified 
by the Administrator, he shall initiate withdrawal action pursuant to 
the Rules of Practice Governing Withdrawal of Inspection and Grading 
Service (7 CFR part 1, subpart H), and the operator shall be afforded an 
opportunity for an oral hearing upon his written request in accordance 
with such Rules of Practice, with respect to the merits or validity of 
the withdrawal action, but any suspension shall continue in effect 
pending the

[[Page 207]]

outcome of such hearing unless otherwise ordered by the Administrator. 
Upon withdrawal of grading service in an official plant, the plant 
approval shall also become terminated, and all labels, seals, tags, or 
packaging material bearing official identification shall, under the 
supervision of a person designated by the service, either be destroyed, 
or the official identification completely obliterated, or sealed in a 
manner acceptable to the service.
    (d) In any case where grading service is withdrawn under this 
Sec. 70.38, the person concerned may thereafter apply for grading 
service as provided in Secs. 70.30 through 70.37 of these regulations.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60139, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]

                            Denial of Service



Sec. 70.40  Debarment.

    The acts or practices set forth in Secs. 70.41 through 70.46, or the 
causing thereof, may be deemed sufficient cause for the debarment by the 
Administrator of any person, including any agents, officers, 
subsidiaries, or affiliates of such person, from any or all benefits of 
the Act for a specified period. The rules of practice governing 
withdrawal of grading services in formal adjudicatory proceedings 
instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR, part 1, subpart H) shall be 
applicable to such debarment action.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 43 FR 60139, Dec. 26, 1978. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 70.41  Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent acts or practices.

    Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or 
practice found to be made or committed by any person in connection with:
    (a) The making or filing of any application for any grading service, 
appeal or regrading service;
    (b) The making of the product accessible for grading;
    (c) The making, issuing, or using, or attempting to issue or use any 
grading certificate, symbol, stamp, label, seal, or identification, 
authorized pursuant to the regulations in this part;
    (d) The use of the terms ``United States'' or ``U.S.'' in 
conjunction with the grade of the product;
    (e) The use of any of the aforesaid terms or any official stamp, 
symbol, label, seal, or identification in the labeling or advertising of 
any product.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976; 41 FR 24693, June 18, 1976. Redesignated at 
42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 70.42  Use of facsimile forms.

    Using or attempting to use a form which simulates in whole or in 
part any certificate, symbol, stamp, label, seal, or identification 
authorized to be issued or used under the regulations in this part.



Sec. 70.43  Willful violation of the regulations.

    Any willful violation of the regulations in this part or the Act.



Sec. 70.44  Interfering with a grader or employee of Service.

    Any interference with or obstruction or any attempted interference 
or obstruction of, or assault upon any grader, licensee, or employee of 
the Service in the performance of his duties. The giving or offering, 
directly or indirectly, of any money, loan, gift, or anything of value 
to an employee of the Service, or the making or offering of any 
contribution to or in any way supplementing the salary, compensation, or 
expenses of an employee of the Service, or the offering or entering into 
a private contract or agreement with an employee of the Service for any 
services to be rendered while employed by the Service.



Sec. 70.45  Misleading labeling.

    The use of the terms ``Government Graded'' and ``Federal-State 
Graded'' or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of 
any product without stating in the labeling or advertisement the U.S. 
grade of the product as determined by an authorized grader.



Sec. 70.46  Miscellaneous.

    The existence of any of the conditions set forth in Sec. 70.35 
constituting a

[[Page 208]]

basis for the rejection of an application for grading service.

                    Identifying and Marking Products



Sec. 70.50  Approval of official identification and wording on labels.

    Any label or packaging material which bears any official grade 
identification shall be used only in such a manner as the Administrator 
may prescribe, and such labeling or packaging materials, including the 
wording used on such materials, shall be approved in accordance with and 
conform with the provisions of this part 70 and the applicable 
provisions of Secs. 381.115 through 381.141 of 9 CFR part 381. Poultry 
Products Inspection Regulations. Labeling requirements for ready-to-cook 
rabbits, except for the product name, shall be the same as for ready-to-
cook poultry. For ready-to-cook rabbits the class name shall be shown on 
the label. The appropriate designation, ``young,'' ``mature,'' or 
``old,'' may be used as a prefix to the word ``rabbit'' in lieu of the 
class name.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976; 41 FR 24694, June 18, 1976. Redesignated at 
42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]



Sec. 70.51  Marking graded products.

    (a) Information required on grademark. Except as otherwise 
authorized by the Administrator, each grademark, which is to be used, 
shall include the letters ``USDA'' and the U.S. Grade of the product it 
identifies, such as ``U.S. A Grade,'' and such information shall be 
printed with the shield in a dark color and the wording within the 
shield in a light color or the shield in a light color and the wording 
within the shield in a dark color, provided that such design is legible 
and conspicuous on the material upon which it is printed. In addition, a 
term, such as ``Federal-State Graded,'' or ``Government Graded,'' may be 
used adjacent to but not within the grademark.
    (b) Form of official identification symbol and grademark. (1) The 
shield set forth in Figure 1, containing the letters ``USDA'' shall be 
the official identification symbol for purposes of this part, and when 
used, imitated, or simulated in any manner in connection with poultry or 
rabbits, shall be deemed prima facia to constitute a representation that 
the product has been officially graded for the purposes of Sec. 70.2.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.022

    (2) Except as otherwise authorized, the grademark permitted to be 
used to officially identify consumer graded poultry and rabbit products, 
shall be of the form and design indicated in Figure 2 or 3 of this 
section. The shield shall be of sufficient size so that the print and 
other information contained therein is distinctly legible and in 
approximately the same proportion and size as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.023


[[Page 209]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC25SE91.024

    (c) Products that may be individually grade marked. The grademarks 
set forth in Figures 2 and 3 may be applied individually to ready-to-
cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products for which 
consumer grades are provided in subparts B and C of this part, or to the 
containers in which such products are enclosed for the purpose of 
display and sale to household consumers, only when such products qualify 
for the particular grade indicated in accordance with the consumer 
grades.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 51 FR 17280, May 9, 
1986]



Sec. 70.52  Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    The official identification of any graded product as provided in 
Secs. 70.50 and 70.51 shall be done only under the supervision of a 
grader. The grader shall have supervision over the use and handling of 
all material bearing any official identification.



Sec. 70.54  Retention authorities.

    A grader may use retention tags or other devices and methods as 
approved by the Administrator for the identification and control of 
poultry or rabbit products which are not in compliance with the 
regulations or are held for further examination. Any such item shall not 
be released until in compliance with the regulations and retention 
identification shall not be removed by anyone other than a grader.



Sec. 70.55  Check grading officially identified product.

    Officially identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to 
final check grading prior to their shipment. Such product found not to 
be in compliance with the assigned official grade shall be placed under 
a retention tag until it is regraded to comply with the grade assigned 
or until the official identification is removed.

                                 Reports



Sec. 70.60  Report of grading work.

    Reports of the work of grading carried on within official plants 
shall be forwarded to the Administrator by the grader in such manner as 
may be specified by the Administrator.



Sec. 70.61  Information to be furnished to graders.

    The applicant for grading service shall furnish to the grader 
rendering such service such information as may be required for the 
purposes of this part.
[47 FR 46071, Oct. 15, 1982; 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982]



Sec. 70.62  Reports of violations.

    Each grader shall report, in the manner prescribed by the 
Administrator, all violations of and noncompliance with the Act and the 
regulations in this part of which he has knowledge.

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 70.70  Payment of fees and charges.

    (a) Fees and charges for any grading service shall be paid by the 
interested party making the application for such service in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of this section and Secs. 70.71 through 
70.78 inclusive. If so required by the grader, such fees and charges 
shall be paid in advance.
    (b) Fees and charges for any grading service shall, unless otherwise 
required pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, be paid by check, 
draft, or money order payable to the Agricultural Marketing Service and 
remitted promptly to the Service.

[[Page 210]]

    (c) Fees and charges for any grading under a cooperative agreement 
with any State or person shall be paid in accordance with the terms of 
such cooperative agreement.



Sec. 70.71  On a fee basis.

    (a) Unless otherwise provided in this part, the fees to be charged 
and collected for any service (other than for an appeal grading) 
performed, in accordance with this part, on a fee basis shall be based 
on the applicable rates specified in this section.
    (b) Fees for grading services will be based on the time required to 
perform such services for class, quality, quantity (weight test), or 
condition, whether ready-to-cook poultry, ready-to-cook rabbits, or 
specified poultry food products are involved. The hourly charge shall be 
$38.96 and shall include the time actually required to perform the work, 
waiting time, travel time, and any clerical costs involved in issuing a 
certificate.
    (c) Grading services rendered on Saturdays, Sundays, or legal 
holidays shall be charged for at the rate of $43.24 per hour. 
Information on legal holidays is available from the Supervisor.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 49571, Oct. 7, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, 
Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 59 FR 52638, Oct. 18, 1994; 62 FR 18021, 
Apr. 14, 1997]



Sec. 70.72  Fees for appeal grading, or examination or review of a grader's decision.

    The costs of an appeal grading, or examination or review of a 
grader's decision, will be borne by the appellant at an hourly rate of 
$30.56 for the time spent in performing the appeal and travel time to 
and from the site of the appeal, plus any additional expenses. If the 
appeal grading, or examination or review of a grader's decision, 
discloses that a material error was made in the original determination, 
no fee or expenses will be charged.
[62 FR 18021, Apr. 14, 1997]



Sec. 70.75  Travel expenses and other charges.

    Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other 
expenses incurred by the Service in connection with rendering grading 
service. Such charges shall include the cost of transportation, per 
diem, and any other expenses.
[42 FR 2971, Jan. 14, 1977. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and amended at 46 FR 9, Jan. 2, 1981. Redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 
31, 1981]



Sec. 70.76  Charges for continuous poultry grading performed on a nonresident basis.

    Fees to be charged and collected for grading service on a 
nonresident grading basis shall be those provided in this section. The 
fees to be charged for any appeal grading shall be as provided in 
Sec. 70.72.
    (a) Charges. The charges for the grading of poultry and edible 
products thereof shall be paid by the applicant for the service and 
shall include items listed in this section as are applicable. Payment 
for the full cost of the grading service rendered to the applicant shall 
be made by the applicant to the Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as ``AMS''). Such 
full costs shall comprise such of the items listed in this section as 
are due and included in the bill or bills covering the period or periods 
during which the grading service was rendered. Bills will be rendered by 
the 10th day following the end of the billing period in which the 
service was rendered and are payable upon receipt.
    (1) A charge for the salary and other costs, as specified in this 
paragraph, for each grader while assigned to a plant, except that no 
charge will be made when the assigned grader is temporarily reassigned 
by AMS to perform grading service for other than the applicant. Base 
salary rates will be determined on a national average for all official 
plants operating in States under a Federal Trust Fund Agreement where 
Federal graders, State graders, or a combination of Federal and State 
graders are used, by averaging the salary rates paid to each Federal or 
State grader assigned to such plants. Charges to plants are as follows:

[[Page 211]]

    (i) For all regular hours of work scheduled and approved as an 
established tour of duty for a plant, the regular rate charge will be 
made. The regular rate charge will be determined by adding an amount to 
the base salary rate to cover the costs to AMS for such items as the 
Employer's Tax imposed under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.) 
for Old Age and Survivor's Benefits under the Social Security System, 
retirement benefits, group life insurance, severance pay, sick leave, 
annual leave, additional salary and travel costs for relief grading 
service, accident payments, certain moving costs, and related servicing 
costs.
    (ii) All hours worked by an assigned grader or another grader in 
excess of the approved tour of duty, or worked on a nonscheduled 
workday, or actually worked on a holiday in excess of the tour of duty, 
will be considered as overtime. The charge for such overtime will be 150 
percent of the grader's base salary rate.
    (iii) For work performed on a holiday which is within the 
established tour of duty approved for a plant, the added charge will be 
the same as the grader's base rate.
    (iv) For work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night 
differential charges (for regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked 
during this period) will be at the applicable rates established plus 10 
percent of the base rate.
    (v) For work performed on Sunday, Sunday differential charges (for 
regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked on Sunday) will be at the 
applicable rates established plus 25 percent of the base rate.
    (vi) For all hours of work performed in a plant without an approved 
tour of duty, the charge will be one of the applicable hourly rates in 
Sec. 70.71.
    (2) An administrative service charge equal to 25 percent of the 
grader's total salary costs. A minimum charge of $225 will be made each 
billing period. The minimum charge also applies where an approved 
application is in effect and no product is handled.
    (b) Other provisions. (1) The applicant shall designate in writing 
the employees of the applicant who will be required and authorized to 
furnish each grader with such information as may be necessary for the 
performance of the grading service.
    (2) AMS will provide, as available, an adequate number of graders to 
perform the grading service. The number of graders required will be 
determined by AMS based on the expected demand for service.
    (3) The grading service shall be provided at designated locations 
and shall be continued until the service is suspended, withdrawn, or 
terminated by:
    (i) Mutual consent;
    (ii) Thirty (30) days' written notice by either the applicant or AMS 
specifying the date of suspension, withdrawal or termination;
    (iii) One (1) day's written notice by AMS to the applicant if the 
applicant fails to honor any invoice within thirty (30) days after date 
of invoice covering the cost of the grading service; or
    (iv) Action taken by AMS pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 70.38 or 
Sec. 70.40.
    (4) Graders will be required to confine their activities to those 
duties necessary in the rendering of grading service and such closely 
related activities as may be approved by AMS: Provided, That in no 
instance may the graders assume the duties of management.
    (5) When similar nonresident grading services are furnished to the 
same applicant under part 55 or part 56 of this chapter, the charges 
listed in this section shall not be repeated.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec. 70.76, 
see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of 
this volume.



Sec. 70.77  Charges for continuous poultry or rabbit grading performed on a resident basis.

    Fees to be charged and collected for any grading service, other than 
for an appeal grading, on a resident grading basis, shall be those 
provided in this section. The fees to be charged for any appeal grading 
shall be as provided in Sec. 70.72.
    (a) Charges. The charges for the grading of poultry and rabbits and 
edible products thereof shall be paid by the applicant for the service 
and shall include items listed in this section as are applicable. 
Payment for the full cost of

[[Page 212]]

the grading service rendered to the applicant shall be made by the 
applicant to the Agricultural Marketing Service U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as ``AMS''). Such full costs shall 
comprise such of the items listed in this section as are due and 
included in the bill or bills covering the period or periods during 
which the grading service was rendered. Bills will be rendered by the 
10th day following the end of the billing period in which the service 
was rendered and are payable upon receipt.
    (1) An inauguration charge of $310 will be made at the time an 
application for service is signed, except when the application is 
required because of a change in name or ownership. If service is not 
installed within 6 months from the date the application is filed, or if 
service is inactive due to an approved request for removal of a 
grader(s) for a period of 6 months, the application will be considered 
terminated, but a new application may be filed at any time. In addition, 
there will be a charge of $300 if the application is terminated at the 
request of the applicant for reasons other than for a change in location 
within 12 months from the date of the inauguration of service.
    (2) A charge for the salary and other costs, as specified in this 
paragraph, for each grader while assigned to a plant, except that no 
charge will be made when the assigned grader is temporarily reassigned 
by AMS to perform grading service for other than the applicant. Base 
salary rates will be determined on a national average for all official 
plants operating in States under a Federal Trust Fund Agreement where 
Federal graders, State graders, or a combination of Federal and State 
graders are used, by averaging the salary rates paid to each Federal or 
State grader assigned to such plants. Charges to plants are as follows:
    (i) For all regular hours of work scheduled and approved as an 
established tour of duty for a plant, the regular rate charge will be 
made. The regular rate charge will be determined by adding an amount to 
the base salary rate to cover the costs to AMS for such items as the 
Employer's Tax imposed under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.) 
for Old Age and Survivor's Benefits under the Social Security System, 
retirement benefits, group life insurance, severance pay, sick leave, 
annual leave, additional salary and travel costs for relief grading 
service, accident payments, certain moving costs, and related servicing 
costs.
    (ii) All hours worked by an assigned grader or another grader in 
excess of the approved tour of duty, or worked on a nonscheduled 
workday, or actually worked on a holiday in excess of the tour of duty 
will be considered as overtime. The charge for such overtime will be 150 
percent of the grader's base salary rate.
    (iii) For work performed on a holiday which is within the 
established tour of duty approved for a plant, the added charge will be 
the same as the grader's base rate.
    (iv) For work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night 
differential charges (for regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked 
during this period) will be at the applicable rates established plus 10 
percent of the base rate.
    (v) For work performed on Sunday, Sunday differential charges (for 
regular, overtime, or holiday hours worked on Sunday) will be at the 
applicable rates established plus 25 percent of the base rate.
    (vi) For all hours of work performed in a plant without an approved 
tour of duty, the charge will be one of the applicable hourly rates in 
Sec. 70.71.
    (3) A charge at the hourly rates specified in Sec. 70.71, plus 
actual travel expenses incurred by AMS for intermediate surveys to firms 
without grading service in effect.
    (4) For poultry grading: An administrative service charge based upon 
the aggregate weight of the total volume of all live and ready-to-cook 
poultry handled in the plant per billing period computed in accordance 
with the following: Total pounds per billing period multiplied by 
$0.00033, except that the minimum charge per billing period shall be 
$225 and the maximum charge shall be $2,250. The minimum charge also 
applies where an approved application is in effect and no product is 
handled.
    (5) For rabbit grading: An administrative service charge equal to 25 
percent of the grader's total salary costs.

[[Page 213]]

A minimum charge of $225 will be made each billing period. The minimum 
charge also applies where an approved application is in effect and no 
product is handled.
    (b) Other provisions. (1) The applicant shall designate in writing 
the employees of the applicant who will be required and authorized to 
furnish each grader with such information as may be necessary for the 
performance of the grading service.
    (2) AMS will provide, as available, an adequate number of graders to 
perform the grading service. The number of graders required will be 
determined by AMS based on the expected demand for service.
    (3) The grading service shall be provided at the designated plant 
and shall be continued until the service is suspended, withdrawn, or 
terminated by:
    (i) Mutual consent;
    (ii) Thirty (30) days' written notice by either the applicant or AMS 
specifying the date of suspension, withdrawal, or termination;
    (iii) One (1) day's written notice by AMS to the applicant if the 
applicant fails to honor any invoice within thirty (30) days after date 
of invoice covering the cost of the grading service; or
    (iv) Action taken by AMS pursuant to the provisions of Sec. 70.38 
through Sec. 70.40.
    (4) Graders will be required to confine their activities to those 
duties necessary in the rendering of grading service and such closely 
related activities as may be approved by AMS: Provided, That in no 
instance may the graders assume the duties of management.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec. 70.77, 
see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of 
this volume.



Sec. 70.78  Fees or charges for grading service performed under cooperative agreement.

    Fees or charges to be made to an applicant for any grading service 
which differ from those listed in Secs. 70.70 through 70.77, shall be 
provided for by a cooperative agreement.

                                 Grading



Sec. 70.80  General.

    Whenever grading service is provided for examination of quality, 
condition, or for test weighing on a representative sample basis, such 
sample shall be drawn and consist of not less than the minimum number of 
containers indicated in the following table. The number of 
representative samples for large bulk containers (combo bins, tanks, 
etc.) may be reduced by one-half. For quality or condition, all of the 
poultry and rabbits in each representative sample shall be examined 
except for individual ready-to-cook carcasses weighing under 6 pounds in 
large bulk containers. For individual carcasses weighing under 6 pounds 
in large bulk containers, 100 carcasses shall be examined for quality or 
condition. Procedures for test weighing shall be in accordance with 
those prescribed by the Administrator.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Containers in
                    Containers in lot                         sample    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 or less...............................................             All
4 to 20.................................................               4
21 to 100...............................................               6
101 to 500..............................................               8
501 to 1,000............................................              15
1,001 to 2,000..........................................              25
2,001 to 4,000..........................................              40
Over 4,000..............................................              60
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 51 FR 17280, May 9, 
1986]



Sec. 70.81  Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    (a) Ready-to-cook poultry or rabbit carcasses or parts or specified 
poultry food products may be graded only if they have been inspected and 
certified by the poultry inspection service of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, or inspected and passed by any other inspection system 
which is acceptable to the Department.
    (b) Only when ready-to-cook poultry carcasses, parts, poultry food 
products, including those used in preparing raw poultry food products, 
have been graded on an individual basis by a grader or by an authorized 
person pursuant to Sec. 70.20(c) and thereafter checkgraded by

[[Page 214]]

a grader, and when poultry food products have been prepared under the 
supervision of a grader, may the individual container, carcass, part, or 
poultry food product be identified with the appropriate official letter 
grademark. Checkgrading will be accomplished in accordance with a 
statistical sampling plan prescribed by the Administrator. Grading with 
respect to quality factors for freezing defects and appearance of the 
finished products may be done on a sample basis in accordance with a 
plan prescribed by the Administrator.
    (c) Only when ready-to-cook rabbit carcasses or parts have been 
graded on an individual basis by a grader or by an authorized person 
pursuant to Sec. 70.20(c) and thereafter checkgraded by a grader, may 
the container or the individual carcass or part be identified with the 
appropriate official letter grademark. Checkgrading will be accomplished 
in accordance with a statistical sampling plan prescribed by the 
Administrator. Grading with respect to quality factors for freezing 
defects and appearance of the finished products may be done on a sample 
basis in accordance with a plan prescribed by the Administrator.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 51 FR 17281, May 9, 
1986]

                          Grading Certificates



Sec. 70.90  Forms.

    Grading certificates (including appeal grading certificates and 
regrading certificates) shall be issued on forms approved by the 
Administrator.



Sec. 70.91  Issuance and disposition.

    (a) Resident grading basis. Certificates will be issued only upon a 
request therefor by the applicant or the Service. When requested, a 
grader shall issue a certificate covering product graded by him. In 
addition, a grader may issue a grading certificate covering product 
graded in whole or in part by another grader when the grader has 
knowledge that the product is eligible for certification based on 
personal examination of the product or official grading records.
    (b) Other than resident grading. Each grader shall, in person or by 
his authorized agent, issue a grading certificate covering each product 
graded by him. A grader's name may be signed on a grading certificate by 
a person other than the grader if such person has been designated as the 
authorized agent of such grader by the national supervisor: Provided, 
That the certificate is prepared from an official memorandum of grading 
signed by the grader.
    (c) The original and a copy of each grading certificate, issued 
pursuant to Secs. 70.90 through 70.92, and not to exceed two additional 
copies thereof if requested by the applicant prior to issuance shall, 
immediately upon issuance, be delivered or mailed to the applicant or 
person designated by him. Other copies shall be filed and retained in 
accordance with the disposition schedule for grading program records.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 30514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 47 FR 46071, Oct. 15, 
1982 and 47 FR 54421, Dec. 3, 1982; 51 FR 17281, May 9, 1986]



Sec. 70.92  Advance information.

    Upon the request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any 
grading certificate issued to such applicant may be telephoned or 
telegraphed to him, or to any person designated by him, at his expense.

                     Appeal of a Grading or Decision



Sec. 70.100  Who may request an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision.

    An appeal grading may be requested by any interested party who is 
dissatisfied with the determination by a grader of the class, quality, 
quantity, or condition of any product as evidenced by the USDA grademark 
and accompanying label, or as stated on a grading certificate, and a 
review may be requested by the operator of an official plant with 
respect to a grader's decision on any other matter relating to grading 
in an official plant.



Sec. 70.101  Where to file an appeal.

    (a) Appeal from resident grader's grading or decision in an official 
plant. Any interested party who is not satisfied with the determination 
of the class,

[[Page 215]]

quality, quantity, or condition of product which was graded by a grader 
in an official plant and has not left such plant, and the operator of 
any official plant who is not satisfied with a decision made by a grader 
or any other matter relating to grading in such plant, may request an 
appeal grading or review of the decision by filing such request with the 
grader's immediate supervisor.
    (b) All other appeal requests. Any interested party who is not 
satisfied with the determination of the class, quality, quantity, or 
condition of product which has left the official plant where it was 
graded, or which was graded other than in an official plant, may request 
an appeal grading by filing such request with the regional director in 
the area where the product is located or with the Chief of the Grading 
Branch.



Sec. 70.102  How to file an appeal.

    Any request for an appeal grading or review of a grader's decision 
may be made orally or in writing. If made orally, written confirmation 
may be required. The applicant shall clearly state the reasons for 
requesting the appeal service, and a description of the product or the 
decision which is questioned. If such appeal request is based on the 
results stated on an official certificate, the original and all 
available copies of the certificate shall be returned to the appeal 
grader assigned to make the appeal grading.



Sec. 70.103  When an application for an appeal grading may be refused.

    When it appears to the official with whom an appeal request is filed 
that the reasons given in the request for an appeal grading are 
frivolous or not substantial, or that the quality or condition of the 
product has undergone a material change since the original grading, or 
that the original lot has changed in some manner, or the Act or the 
regulations in this part have not been complied with, the applicant's 
request for the appeal grading may be refused. In such case, the 
applicant shall be promptly notified of the reason(s) for such refusal.



Sec. 70.104  Who shall perform the appeal.

    (a) An appeal grading or review of a decision requested under 
Sec. 70.101(a) shall be made by the grader's immediate supervisor or by 
a licensed grader assigned by the immediate supervisor other than the 
grader whose grading or decision is being appealed.
    (b) Appeal gradings requested under Sec. 70.101(b) shall be 
performed by a grader other than the grader who originally graded the 
product.
    (c) Whenever practical, an appeal grading shall be conducted jointly 
by two graders. The assignment of the grader(s) who will make the appeal 
grading requested under Sec. 70.101(b) shall be made by the regional 
director or the Chief of the Grading Branch.



Sec. 70.105  Procedures for appeal gradings.

    (a) When all of the originally graded and identified samples are 
available, the appeal sample shall consist of such samples plus an equal 
number of samples.
    (b) When the original samples are not available, the appeal sample 
size for the lot shall consist of double the samples required in 
Sec. 70.80.
    (c) Poultry or rabbits in an unfrozen state must be adequately 
protected and kept in good condition until the appeal grading is 
performed.
    (d) Overwraps on frozen poultry or rabbits shall be removed from all 
birds or rabbits in the sample prior to appeal grading for quality or to 
determine the class.
    (e) When the appeal is based on grading or class determination 
factors, each frozen carcass shall be defrosted prior to conducting the 
appeal grading. Whether defrosting poultry or rabbit carcasses for other 
types of appeals will be required by the appeal grader, will depend upon 
the reason for the appeal.



Sec. 70.106  Appeal grading certificates.

    Immediately after an appeal grading is completed, an appeal 
certificate shall be issued to show that the original grading was 
sustained or was not sustained. Such certificate shall supersede any 
previously issued certificate for the product involved and shall clearly 
identify the number and date of

[[Page 216]]

the superseded certificate. The issuance of the appeal certificate may 
be withheld until any previously issued certificate and all copies have 
been returned when such action is deemed necessary to protect the 
interest of the Government. When the appeal grader assigns a different 
grade to the lot, the existing grademark shall be changed or obliterated 
as necessary. When the appeal grader assigns a different class or 
quantity designation to the lot, the labeling shall be corrected.

       Sanitary Requirements, Facilities, and Operating Procedures



Sec. 70.110  Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating 
procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions stated 
in 9 CFR part 381 for poultry, and for rabbits the requirements shall be 
the applicable provisions stated in 9 CFR part 354.
    (b) With respect to grading services, there shall be a minimum of 
50-foot candles of light intensity at grading stations; and acceptable 
means, when necessary, of maintaining control and identity of products 
segregated for quality, class, condition, weight, lot, or any other 
factor which may be used to distinguish one type of product from 
another.
[41 FR 23681, June 11, 1976. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, 
and at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, and amended at 51 FR 17281, May 9, 
1986]



                        Subparts B-C  [Reserved]



PART 75--REGULATIONS FOR INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS--Table of Contents




                               Definitions

Sec.
75.1  Meaning of words.
75.2  Terms defined.

                             Administration

75.3  Authority.
75.4  Federal and State cooperation.
75.5  Regulations not applicable for certain purposes.
75.6  Nondiscrimination.

                               Inspection

75.7  Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.
75.8  Basis of service.
75.9  Who may obtain service.
75.10  How to make application.
75.11  Content of application.
75.12  When application deemed filed.
75.13  When application may be rejected.
75.14  When application may be withdrawn.
75.15  Authority of agent.
75.16  Accessibility of seeds.
75.17  Testing.
75.18  Sampling.
75.19  Seed lot inspection.
75.20  Submitted sample inspection.
75.21  Grain sample inspection.
75.22  Form of inspection certificate.
75.23  Issuance of inspection certificate.
75.24  Disposition of inspection certificate.
75.25  Issuance of corrected certificate.

                            Appeal Inspection

75.26  When appeal inspection may be requested.
75.27  How to file an appeal.
75.28  When a request for an appeal inspection may be withdrawn.
75.29  When an appeal may be refused.
75.30  Who shall perform appeal inspection.
75.31  Appeal inspection certificate.

                         Licensing of Inspectors

75.32  Who may become licensed inspector.
75.33  Suspension or revocation of license of inspector.
75.34  Surrender of license.

                  Sampling Provisions and Requirements

75.35  Obtaining samples for lot inspections.
75.36  Representative sample.
75.37  Submitted samples.
75.38  Lot inspections.
75.39  Use of file samples.
75.40  Protecting samples.

                            Fees and Charges

75.41  General.
75.42  Sampling and sealing.
75.43  Laboratory testing.
75.44  When application rejected or withdrawn.
75.45  Charge for appeals.
75.46  When appeal refused or withdrawn.
75.47  For certificates.

                              Miscellaneous

75.48  Identification number.
75.49  OMB control numbers.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1622 and 1624.

    Source:  49 FR 18724, May 2, 1984, unless otherwise noted.

[[Page 217]]

                               Definitions



Sec. 75.1  Meaning of words.

    Words used in the regulations in this part in the singular form 
shall be deemed to import the plural and vice versa, as the case may 
demand.



Sec. 75.2  Terms defined.

    For the purpose of these regulations unless the context otherwise 
requires, the following terms shall be construed, respectively, as 
follows:
    (a) Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (7 
U.S.C. 1621 et seq.).
    (b) Regulations means the regulations in this part.
    (c) Department means the United States Department of Agriculture 
(USDA).
    (d) Secretary means the Secretary of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, or any officer or employee of the Department to whom 
authority has been delegated to act in the Secretary's stead.
    (e) Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural 
Marketing Service (AMS) of the Department, or any other officer or 
employee of AMS to whom authority has been delegated to act in the 
Administrator's stead.
    (f) Division means the Warehouse and Seed Division (WSD), AMS.
    (g) Director means the Director of the Division or any other officer 
or employee of the Division to whom authority has been delegated to act 
in the Director's stead.
    (h) Person means any individual, partnership, association, business 
trust, corporation, entity, or any other organized group of persons, 
whether incorporated or not.
    (i) Seed means any agricultural or vegetable seed.
    (j) Interested Party means any person financially interested in a 
transaction involving seed.
    (k) Applicant means an interested party who requests any inspection 
service with respect to seed.
    (l) Authorized agent means an agent to whom authority to represent a 
person or government agency has been given by that person or government 
agency through delegation, contract or cooperative agreement, or other 
means.
    (m) Memorandum of Understanding means a written plan between AMS and 
a State for carrying out their separate activities in a project of 
mutual interest to the parties involved.
    (n) Inspector means a licensed employee of a State authorized 
pursuant to a Memorandum of Understanding or an employee of the 
Department authorized by the Director, to draw samples of seeds, seal 
containers, inspect records, test seeds for quality, issue certificates 
and reports, and bill for services.
    (o) Inspection means sampling seeds, sealing containers, testing 
seeds for quality and reviewing records.
    (p) Appeal inspector means an inspector or other person designated 
or authorized by the Division to perform appeal inspections under the 
Act and regulations in this subpart.
    (q) Certificate means a certificate issued under the Act and the 
regulations in this subpart.

                             Administration



Sec. 75.3  Authority.

    The Director is charged with the administration of the provisions of 
the regulations and the Act insofar as they relate to the subject matter 
of the regulations, under the supervision of the Secretary and the 
Administrator.



Sec. 75.4  Federal and State cooperation.

    Pursuant to the Act, the Administrator is authorized to cooperate 
with the appropriate State agencies in carrying out provisions of the 
Act and these regulations through Memoranda of Understanding. The 
Memorandum of Understanding shall specify the duties to be performed by 
the parties concerned with each party directing its own activities and 
utilizing its own resources.



Sec. 75.5  Regulations not applicable for certain purposes.

    The regulations do not apply to the inspection of grain in the 
United States under the U.S. Grain Standards Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 
71 et seq.), except to the extent that official grain samples received 
from the Federal

[[Page 218]]

Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) shall be examined for the presence of 
specified weed and crop seeds upon the request of FGIS.



Sec. 75.6  Nondiscrimination.

    The conduct of all services under these regulations shall be 
accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion, sex, or 
national origin.

                               Inspection



Sec. 75.7  Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.

    Inspection of seed shall be rendered pursuant to these regulations 
and under such conditions and in accordance with the methods of either 
the Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) or the International 
Seed Testing Association (ISTA).



Sec. 75.8  Basis of service.

    The regulations provide for inspection services pursuant to the Act. 
Seeds shall be inspected in accordance with the methods of either the 
Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) or the International Seed 
Testing Association (ISTA); provided, that limitations in these rules 
respecting maximum lot size will not be observed and, provided further, 
that certification as to origin may be based on examination of records 
and certification of other seed certifying agencies.



Sec. 75.9  Who may obtain service.

    An application for inspection service may be made by any interested 
party or his authorized agent.



Sec. 75.10  How to make application.

    An application for service shall be confirmed in writing and 
addressed to the Federal Seed Laboratory, WSD, AMS, USDA, Beltsville, 
Maryland 20705.



Sec. 75.11  Content of application.

    An application for service shall include the following information; 
(a) The date of application; (b) the kind and quantity of seed, and 
test(s) to be performed; (c) the methods and instructions for the 
inspection of the seed (either Association of Official Seed Analysts 
(AOSA) or International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) rules); (d) the 
name and address of the applicant and, if made by an authorized agent; 
and (e) such further information relating to the inspection as may be 
required.



Sec. 75.12  When application deemed filed.

    An application shall be deemed filed when received by the Division 
or the Federal Seed Laboratory.



Sec. 75.13  When application may be rejected.

    Any application for service may be rejected by the Director (a) for 
noncompliance with the Act or the regulations relating to applications 
for service in this subpart, or (b) when it is not practicable to 
provide the service. Each such applicant shall be promptly notified in 
writing.



Sec. 75.14  When application may be withdrawn.

    An application may be withdrawn at any time before the requested 
service is rendered. The applicant will remain responsible for payment 
of expenses incurred in connection therewith as provided in Sec. 75.44.



Sec. 75.15  Authority of agent.

    Proof of authority of any person making an application as an agent 
may be required in the discretion of the official receiving the 
application.



Sec. 75.16  Accessibility of seeds.

    Each lot of seed for which a lot inspection is requested shall be 
placed by the applicant so as to permit the entire lot to be sampled and 
a representative sample to be obtained as required.



Sec. 75.17  Testing.

    Upon request by the applicant, tests may be made for kind, variety, 
germination, purity, weed seeds, disease pathogens, treatment, moisture, 
and other special tests, or any combination thereof for which prescribed 
methods of testing are established. The tests shall be in accordance 
with the methods of either the Association of Official Seed Analysts 
(AOSA) or the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) as requested 
by the applicant.

[[Page 219]]



Sec. 75.18  Sampling.

    Sampling, when requested by the applicant, shall be in accordance 
with the methods of either the Association of Official Seed Analysts 
(AOSA) or the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), depending 
upon the test method requested by the applicant.



Sec. 75.19  Seed lot inspection.

    A lot inspection shall be made by obtaining a representative sample 
from a specified quantity of seed identified with a distinguishing mark 
or number to appear on all containers in the lot, and performing such 
test(s) as may be requested by the applicant. The identification mark or 
number must be approved by the inspector and will appear on the 
certificate to be issued.



Sec. 75.20  Submitted sample inspection.

    A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed 
submitted by an applicant for inspection.



Sec. 75.21  Grain sample inspection.

    A sample inspection shall be performed by examining official grain 
samples received from FGIS to identify specified weed and crop seeds 
upon the request of FGIS.



Sec. 75.22  Form of inspection certificate.

    Inspection certificates shall be approved by the Director as to 
their form. No correction, erasure, or other change shall be made in the 
information on a certificate.



Sec. 75.23  Issuance of inspection certificate.

    After an inspection has been completed, an inspection certificate 
shall be issued showing the results of the inspection in accordance with 
paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.
    (a) Lot inspection certificate. A lot inspection certificate shall 
be issued to include the name of the inspector sampling and sealing the 
seed lot, the analysis results from testing the sample, the identifying 
mark or number which has been approved by the inspector to appear on 
each container in the seed lot, and any other factual information 
pertinent to the inspection.
    (b) Sample inspection certificate. A sample inspection certificate 
shall be issued to show the results of the inspection of a sample of 
seed or grain submitted by an interested party. Each sample inspection 
certificate shall state the results of the inspection that applies only 
to the sample described in the certificate.
    (c) General authorization to issue certificates. Certificates for 
inspections may be issued by any inspector authorized by the Director to 
perform the inspection covered by the certificate.
    (d) Name requirements. The name and signature of the person who 
issued the inspection certificate shall be shown on the certificate. The 
original certificate must be signed, and the signature or a stamped 
facsimile shall be shown on each copy.



Sec. 75.24  Disposition of inspection certificate.

    Upon issuance, the original and one copy of each inspection 
certificate shall be delivered or mailed to the applicant or otherwise 
delivered or mailed in accordance with the applicant's instructions. One 
copy of each inspection certificate shall be filed in the Federal Seed 
Laboratory. In case of a lost or destroyed certificate, a duplicate 
thereof labeled as such may be issued under the same number, date, and 
name.



Sec. 75.25  Issuance of corrected certificate.

    (a) If any error is made in an inspection, a corrected inspection 
certificate may be issued.
    (b) The original and copies of the corrected certificate shall be 
issued as promptly as possible to the same interested persons who 
received the incorrect certificate.
    (c) The corrected certificate shall supersede the incorrect 
inspection certificate previously issued. The corrected certificate 
shall clearly identify, by certificate number and date, the incorrect 
certificate which it supersedes.
    (d) The original and all copies of the superseded incorrect 
certificate shall be obtained by the Director, if possible.

[[Page 220]]

If it is not possible to obtain the original and all copies of the 
superseded certificate, to the extent possible, all parties involved 
will be notified to prevent misuse of the superseded certificate and the 
corrected certificate so marked as to the outstanding certificate.

                            Appeal Inspection



Sec. 75.26  When appeal inspection may be requested.

    A request for an appeal inspection may be made by any interested 
party regarding the results of an inspection as stated on an inspection 
certificate. Such request shall be made within thirty (30) days 
following the day on which an inspection certificate was issued.



Sec. 75.27  How to file an appeal.

    Any request for an appeal inspection may be made orally or in 
writing to the Federal Seed Laboratory. If made orally, written 
confirmation is required. The applicant shall clearly state the reasons 
for requesting the appeal service. The original and all available copies 
of the certificate shall be returned to the appeal inspector assigned to 
make the appeal inspection.



Sec. 75.28  When a request for an appeal inspection may be withdrawn

    A request for an appeal inspection may be withdrawn by the applicant 
at any time before the appeal inspection is performed: Provided, that, 
the appellant shall pay any expenses incurred in connection with the 
appeal as provided in Sec. 75.46.



Sec. 75.29  When an appeal may be refused.

    A request for an appeal inspection may be refused if:
    (a) The reasons for an appeal inspection are frivolous or not 
substantial;
    (b) The quality or condition of the seed has been altered since the 
inspection covering the seed on which the appeal inspection is 
requested;
    (c) The lot in question in a lot inspection is not or cannot be made 
accessible for sampling;
    (d) The lot relative to which appeal inspection is requested cannot 
be positively identified by the inspection as the lot from which drawn 
samples were previously inspected in a lot inspection; or
    (e) The application is not in compliance with the regulations; and
    (f) Such applicant shall be notified promptly of the reason for such 
refusal.



Sec. 75.30  Who shall perform appeal inspection.

    An appeal inspection shall be performed by an inspector (other than 
the one from whose inspection the appeal is requested) authorized for 
this purpose by the Director.



Sec. 75.31  Appeal inspection certificate.

    After an appeal inspection has been completed, an appeal inspection 
certificate shall be issued showing the results of such appeal 
inspection; and such certificate shall supersede the inspection 
certificate previously issued for the seed involved. Each appeal 
inspection certificate shall clearly identify the number and date of the 
inspection certificate which it supersedes. The superseded certificate 
shall become null and void upon the issuance of the appeal inspection 
certificate and shall no longer represent the quality or condition of 
the seed described therein. The inspector issuing an appeal inspection 
certificate shall forward notice of such issuance to such persons as 
considered necessary to prevent misuse of the superseded certificate if 
the original and all copies of such superseded certificate have not 
previously been delivered to the inspector issuing the appeal inspection 
certificate. The appeal inspection certificate shall be marked as to the 
existence of the outstanding certificate. The provisions in the 
regulations concerning forms of certificates and disposition of 
certificates shall apply to appeal inspection certificates, except that 
copies of such appeal inspection certificates shall be furnished to all 
interested parties who received copies of the superseded certificate.

                         Licensing of Inspectors



Sec. 75.32  Who may become licensed inspector.

    Any person nominated by a cooperating State and who is found to have 
the necessary qualifications may be licensed by the Director as an 
inspector

[[Page 221]]

to perform such duties of inspection as specified by the Memorandum of 
Understanding. Such a license shall bear the signature of an authorized 
employee of the Department. A licensed inspector shall perform duties 
pursuant to the regulations in accordance with instructions issued or 
approved by the Director.



Sec. 75.33  Suspension or revocation of license of inspector.

    Pending final action by the Administrator, the Director may suspend, 
whenever it is deemed that such action is necessary to assure that any 
service provided is performed properly, the license of any inspector, 
issued pursuant to the regulations by giving notice of such suspension 
to the respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the reasons 
therefore. Within 7 days after receipt of notice and statement of 
reasons by a licensee, an appeal may be filed in writing with the 
Administrator supported by any argument or evidence as to why the 
license should not be suspended. After expiration of the 7-day period 
and consideration of such argument and evidence, the Administrator shall 
take such action as deemed appropriate with respect to a suspension or 
revocation.



Sec. 75.34  Surrender of license.

    Upon termination of service as an inspector or suspension or 
revocation of such license, such licensee shall surrender the license 
immediately to the Federal Seed Laboratory.

                  Sampling Provisions and Requirements



Sec. 75.35  Obtaining samples for lot inspections.

    Samples of seed for lot inspections may be obtained by licensed 
inspectors or authorized employees of the Department.



Sec. 75.36  Representative sample.

    No lot inspection sample shall be deemed representative of a lot of 
seed unless the sample (a) has been obtained by a licensed inspector or 
an authorized employee of the Department; (b) is of the size prescribed 
in the instructions; and (c) has been obtained, handled, and submitted 
in accordance with the Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) or 
the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) procedures.



Sec. 75.37  Submitted samples.

    Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested person. 
(Instructions for sampling seed may be obtained upon request to the 
Director or the Federal Seed Laboratory.)



Sec. 75.38  Lot inspections.

    Each lot inspection shall be made on the basis of a representative 
sample obtained from that lot of seed by a licensed inspector or an 
authorized employee of the Department. Each lot of seed which is offered 
for lot inspection shall be sealed at the time of sampling in accordance 
with methods and procedures of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 
(AOSA) or the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA).



Sec. 75.39  Use of file samples.

    (a) File samples which are retained by inspection personnel in 
accordance with the regulations may be deemed representative for appeal 
inspections: Provided, that (1) the samples have remained in the custody 
of the inspection personnel who certificated the inspection; and (2) the 
inspection personnel who performed the inspection and the inspection 
personnel who are to perform the appeal inspection determine that the 
sample was representative of the seed at the time of the inspection and 
that the quality or condition of the seed in the sample and in the lot 
has not changed since the time of the inspection.
    (b) Upon request of the applicant, and if practicable, a new sample 
may be obtained and examined as a part of an appeal inspection.



Sec. 75.40  Protecting samples.

    Inspection personnel shall protect each sample from manipulation, 
substitution, and improper or careless handling which would deprive the 
sample of its representative character from the time of collection until 
the inspection is completed and the file sample has been discarded.

[[Page 222]]

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 75.41  General.

    Fees and charges for inspection services performed by Federal 
employees shall cover the cost of performing the service. Fees shall be 
for actual time required to render the service, calculated to the 
nearest 15-minute period except that a minimum of 1 hour shall apply for 
testing and a 2-hour minimum shall apply for sampling and sealing. Fees 
and charges shall be at the rate of $40.40 per hour. (Cost estimates may 
be obtained upon request to the Director or the Federal Seed 
Laboratory.)
[49 FR 18724, May 2, 1984, as amended at 56 FR 51320, Oct. 11, 1991; 58 
FR 64101, Dec. 6, 1993; 60 FR 21035, May 1, 1995]



Sec. 75.42  Sampling and sealing.

    (a) Fees for inspection services provided by licensed inspectors may 
be charged by States participating in the program at rates established 
by the individual States.
    (b) When onsite inspection services are performed by Federal 
employees at the request of the applicant:
    (1) Fees for onsite inspections for sampling and sealing shall 
include the time for actual sampling and sealing, standby at the service 
site, travel time and actual travel costs to and from the site, and a 
per diem charge if the employee performing the service is paid per diem 
in accordance with existing travel regulations as appear in Agricultural 
Travel Regulations, including the Federal Travel Regulations, DM 2300-1.
    (2) Hourly rates shall begin when the inspector begins travel to the 
service site and end when the inspector arrives back at his official 
station or residence, computed to the nearest quarter hour, less meal 
time, if any.
    (3) A 2-hour minimum shall be charged for each onsite inspection.



Sec. 75.43  Laboratory testing.

    Fees for testing each sample shall include the time required for 
actual testing, preparation of test records, issuing the certificate, 
and filing of samples and documents, with:
    (a) Charges billed at the hourly rate in increments of 15 minutes.
    (b) A minimum fee of 1 hour per sample for testing shall be charged.



Sec. 75.44  When application rejected or withdrawn.

    When an application for inspection is rejected in accordance with 
Sec. 75.13 or withdrawn in accordance with Sec. 75.14, the applicant 
will be required to pay applicable fees for the time used by an 
inspector and other expenses incurred in connection with such 
application prior to its rejection or withdrawal.



Sec. 75.45  Charge for appeals.

    A charge of 1 hour shall be made for each appeal filed under 
Sec. 75.26, and the fee for an appeal inspection shall equal the fee for 
the original inspection from which the appeal is taken, plus any charges 
for travel or other expenses incurred in performing the appeal: 
Provided, That when a material error in the certificate or sample from 
which the appeal is taken is found by the appeal inspector the charge 
and fee shall be waived.



Sec. 75.46  When appeal refused or withdrawn.

    When an appeal is refused in accordance with Sec. 75.29 or withdrawn 
in accordance with Sec. 75.28, the applicant will be required to pay for 
the time used by the appeal inspector and other expenses incurred in 
connection with such appeal prior to its denial, dismissal, or 
withdrawal.



Sec. 75.47  For certificates.

    A charge of $10.10 per certificate will be made for copies of 
certificates other than those required to be distributed in Sec. 75.23 
and for the issuance of a duplicate certificate in accordance with 
Sec. 75.24 and an appeal certificate in Sec. 75.31.
[49 FR 18724, May 2, 1984, as amended at 56 FR 51320, Oct. 11, 1991; 58 
FR 64101, Dec. 6, 1993; 60 FR 21035, May 1, 1995]

                              Miscellaneous



Sec. 75.48  Identification number.

    The Director may require the use of official identification numbers 
in connection with seed certificated or sampled under the Act. When 
identification numbers are required, they shall be

[[Page 223]]

specified by the Director and shall be attached to, or stamped, printed, 
or stenciled on the lot of seed certificated or sampled in a manner 
specified by the Director.



Sec. 75.49  OMB control numbers.

    The control number assigned to the information collection 
requirements by the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 is as follows: OMB Control No. 0581-
0140.
[56 FR 51320, Oct. 11, 1991]

[[Page 224]]



         SUBCHAPTER D--EXPORT AND DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS





PART 80--FRESH IRISH POTATOES--Table of Contents




            Subpart A--Fresh Irish Potato--Diversion Program

Sec.
Sec. 80.1  Applicability.
Sec. 80.2  Administration.
Sec. 80.3  Definitions.
Sec. 80.4  Length of program.
Sec. 80.5  Rate of payment.
Sec. 80.6  Eligibility for payment.
Sec. 80.7  Application and approval for participation.
80.8  Inspection and certificate of diversion.
80.9  Claim for payment.
80.10  Compliance with program provisions.
80.11  Inspection of premises.
80.12  Records and accounts.
80.13  Offset and assignment.
80.14  Appeals.

                          Subpart B  [Reserved]

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 612c.

    Source:  58 FR 29098, May 19, 1993, unless otherwise noted.



            Subpart A--Fresh Irish Potato--Diversion Program

    Source:  62 FR 29650, June 2, 1997, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 80.1  Applicability.

    In order to encourage the domestic consumption of the 1996 crop of 
fresh Irish potatoes by diverting them from normal channels of trade and 
commerce, the Secretary of Agriculture, pursuant to the authority 
conferred by section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, as amended (7 
U.S.C. 612c) (Section 32), will make payment to producers who divert 
fresh Irish potatoes that they produced by donating them to charitable 
institutions for human consumption or by using such fresh Irish potatoes 
as livestock feed in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth 
herein.



Sec. 80.2  Administration.

    The program will be administered under the general direction and 
supervision of the Director, Fruit and Vegetable Division, Agricultural 
Marketing Service (AMS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 
and will be implemented by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). AMS, FSA, or 
their authorized representatives do not have authority to modify or 
waive any of the provisions of this subpart.



Sec. 80.3  Definitions.

    Application means Form FSA-117.
    Charitable institutions means those organizations which offer food, 
housing, and other necessities to low income, homeless, or other persons 
in need of assistance in obtaining basic sustenance.
    Diversion means the delivery of potatoes to an eligible outlet.
    Eligible outlet means charitable institutions or livestock feeding 
operations.
    Fresh Irish potatoes means the 1996 crop of all types and varieties 
of potatoes (except sweet potatoes) fit for human consumption and 
produced and stored in the United States.
    Invoice and certificate of inspection and diversion means Form FSA-
118.
    Producer means an individual, partnership, association, or 
corporation located in the United States who grows potatoes for market 
and is in possession of such potatoes as of the date of May 29, 1997, 
and whose Form FSA-117 has been approved by USDA.



Sec. 80.4  Length of program.

    This program will be effective May 29, 1997, and will continue until 
August 27, 1997. Producers diverting potatoes to charitable institutions 
must file an application at the FSA office responsible for the county in 
which the farm is located for FSA purposes within the first ten Federal 
Government business days following the effective date of this program. 
Producers diverting potatoes to livestock feed must file an application 
at such office no later than August 27, 1997. Application for charitable 
diversions, as well as for livestock feed, will be accepted until August 
27, 1997.
[62 FR 29650, June 2, 1997, as amended at 62 FR 40730, July 30, 1997]

[[Page 225]]



Sec. 80.5  Rate of payment.

    (a) The rate of payment for potatoes for charitable institutions 
will be $1.50 per hundredweight for fresh Irish potatoes if packed in 
bags or cartons, and will be $0.75 if shipped in bulk. All eligible 
fresh Irish potatoes intended for donation to charitable institutions 
must: Meet U.S. Grade No. 2 (fairly clean) requirements as certified by 
the AMS or the Federal-State Inspection Service; and be in a quantity of 
40,000 pounds net or a multiple of 40,000 pounds net. Only 
transportation costs associated with donations to charitable 
institutions may be arranged for and paid by USDA. USDA will make no 
other payment with respect to such potatoes.
    (b) Livestock feed payments will be $.75 per hundredweight for U.S. 
Grade No. 2 Processing potatoes when whole as certified by AMS or the 
Federal-State Inspection Service. Payment will not be made for any 
fractional part of a hundredweight not meeting grade requirements. All 
arrangements and costs for: U.S. grading and inspection; processing, and 
transportation, as well as identifying the livestock feed recipient will 
be included in the $.75 per hundredweight payment. USDA will make no 
other payment with respect to such potatoes.
[62 FR 29650, June 2, 1997, as amended at 62 FR 40730, July 30, 1997]



Sec. 80.6  Eligibility for payment.

    (a) To the extent applications for payment do not exceed $9 million, 
payments will be made under this program to any producer of fresh Irish 
potatoes who:
    (1) Provides fresh Irish potatoes that are free from any water 
damage and:
    (i) If intended for human consumption, meet the requirements of 7 
CFR 51.1540-51.3006 U.S. Grade No. 2 (fairly clean); or
    (ii) If intended for livestock feed, meet the requirements of 7 CFR 
51.3410-51.3418 U.S. Grade No. 2 Processing when whole, and are cut, 
chopped sliced, gouged, crushed, ensiled, or cooked to the degree that 
the potatoes are readily and obviously identifiable as having been 
rendered unsuitable to enter into normal channels of trade and commerce 
as determined by FSA or its representative;
    (2) Executes and files Form FSA-117 with the FSA county office 
responsible for the county where the producer's farm is located for FSA 
program purposes;
    (3) Receives approval for their application;
    (4) Completes form FSA-118 and whose fresh Irish potatoes are 
shipped in accordance with this regulation;
    (5) Diverts fresh Irish potatoes and submits required documentation 
by July 28, 1997, if Form FSA-117 is approved by USDA from May 29 
through July 11, 1997; or diverts fresh Irish potatoes and submits 
required documentation by August 13, 1997, if Form FSA-117 is approved 
by USDA from July 14 through July 28, 1997; or diverts fresh Irish 
potatoes and submits required documentation by August 27, 1997, if Form 
FSA-117 is approved by USDA from July 29 through August 27, 1997. 
Allocations unused by the applicable date will no longer be available 
for that producer. Final dates to complete diversions and submit 
documentation may be waived by USDA if it is determined that severe 
weather conditions prevented the completion of the diversion during the 
allotted time period.
    (6) Files a claim as provided in Sec. 80.10; and
    (7) Complies with all other terms and conditions in this subpart.
    (b) In the event applications for participation in the program 
authorized by this subpart exceed $9 million, USDA shall, at its sole 
discretion, determine which applications to accept.
[62 FR 29650, June 2, 1997, as amended at 62 FR 40731, July 30, 1997]



Sec. 80.7  Application and approval for participation.

    (a) The applications will be reviewed by the FSA in the order shown 
on the FSA register located at the respective FSA county office and will 
be approved taking into account the availability of funds, for each 
method of diversion;
    (b) An approved Form FSA-117 may be modified or amended with the 
consent of the applicant and the duly authorized representative of AMS 
or FSA provided that such modification or

[[Page 226]]

amendment does not conflict with the provisions of this subpart; and
    (c) Copies of the applicable U.S. grade standards and the 
application for participation in the Fresh Irish Potato Diversion 
Program can be obtained from the local county FSA office.



Sec. 80.8  Inspection and certificate of diversion.

    Prior to diversion of potatoes to a charitable institution, the 
fresh Irish potatoes must be inspected by an inspector authorized or 
licensed by the USDA to inspect and certify the class, quality, and 
condition of fresh Irish potatoes. The producer will be responsible for 
requesting and arranging for inspection. For charitable institutions the 
product must be Positive Lot Identification (PLI) or certified by USDA 
grading personnel at time of loading. With respect to potatoes diverted 
for livestock feed, the producer must furnish to FSA such scale tickets, 
weighing facilities, or volume measurements as determined by the 
inspector to be necessary for ascertaining the net weight of the 
potatoes being diverted.



Sec. 80.9  Claim for payment.

    (a) In order to obtain payment for shipments to charitable 
institutions, the producer must submit to the county FSA office which 
approved the application: A properly executed Form FSA-118; a copy of 
the Notice to Deliver sent from FSA, Kansas City Commodity Office, 
Kansas City, Missouri; a bill of lading showing shipment was made. All 
such claims must be filed no later than 30 days after the termination 
date specified in the applicable approved application. For those 
potatoes which fail to meet the definition of fresh Irish potatoes 
provided in Sec. 80.3 or the eligibility requirements of Sec. 80.6, the 
producer may request an appeal inspection; however, payment of the truck 
detention and storage charges will be the responsibility of the 
producer.
    (b) Livestock feed payments will be based on the percentage of the 
offered fresh Irish potatoes meeting U.S. Grade No. 2 Processing. In 
order to obtain payment the producer must submit to the county FSA 
office which approved the application a properly executed FSA-118, and a 
livestock feed recipient delivery receipt indicating hundredweight 
received, the date and name, address, and telephone number of the 
recipient.



Sec. 80.10  Compliance with program provisions.

    If USDA determines that any provisions of the application or of 
these regulations has not been complied with, whether by the producer, 
charitable institution, or livestock feeder, or that any quantity of 
fresh Irish potatoes diverted under this program was not used 
exclusively for donation to charitable institutions or livestock feeders 
(whether such failure was caused directly by the producer or by any 
other person or persons), the producer will not be entitled to diversion 
payments in connection with such fresh Irish potatoes, must refund any 
USDA payment made in connection with such fresh Irish potatoes, and will 
also be liable to USDA for any other damages incurred as a result of 
such failure to use the fresh Irish potatoes exclusively for donation to 
charitable institutions or for use as livestock feed. The USDA may deny 
any producer the right to participate in this program or the right to 
receive payments in connection with any diversion previously made under 
this program, or both, if USDA determines that:
    (a) The producer has failed to use or caused to be used any quantity 
of fresh Irish potatoes diverted under this program exclusively for 
donation to charitable institutions or livestock feed, whether such 
failure was caused directly by the producer or by any other person or 
persons;
    (b) The producer has not acted in good faith in connection with any 
transaction under this program; or
    (c) The producer has failed to discharge fully any obligation 
assumed by him under this program.



Sec. 80.11  Inspection of premises.

    The producer, charitable institution, or livestock feeder must 
permit authorized representatives of USDA, at any reasonable time, to 
have access to their premises to inspect and examine such fresh Irish 
potatoes as are being diverted or stored for diversion, and to

[[Page 227]]

inspect and examine the facilities for diverting fresh Irish potatoes to 
determine compliance with the provisions of this program.



Sec. 80.12  Records and accounts.

    The producer, charitable institution, or livestock feeder 
participating in this program must keep accurate records and accounts 
showing the details relative to the diversion and livestock feeding of 
the fresh Irish potatoes. The producer, charitable institution, or 
livestock feeder must permit authorized representatives of USDA and the 
General Accounting Office at any reasonable time to inspect, examine, 
and make copies of such records and accounts to determine compliance 
with provisions of this program; such records and accounts must be 
retained for three years after the date of last payment to the producer 
under the program, or for 2 years after date of audit of records by USDA 
as provided herein, whichever is the later.



Sec. 80.13  Offset and assignment.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, below, any 
payment or portion thereof due any person shall be allowed without 
regard to questions of title under state law, and without regard to any 
claim or lien against the crop or proceeds thereof in favor of the owner 
or any other creditor, except for statutory liens belonging to agencies 
of the U.S. Government. The regulations governing offsets and 
withholdings found at 7 CFR part 3 shall be applicable to such payments.
    (b) Assignments. Assignments will be done in accordance with Form 
FSA-117.



Sec. 80.14  Appeals.

    Appeals under this part will be in accordance with 7 CFR part 780.



                          Subpart B  [Reserved]



PART 81  [RESERVED]




[[Page 228]]



           SUBCHAPTER E--COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS





PART 90--INTRODUCTION--Table of Contents




                     Subpart A--Scope of Subchapter

Sec.
90.1  General.

                    Subpart B--Subchapter Definitions

90.2  General terms defined.

 Subpart C--Good Laboratory Practices for Commodity Laboratory Analyses

90.3  General.
90.4-90.100  [Reserved]

                      Subpart D--Quality Assurance

90.101  General.
90.102  Quality assurance review.
90.103  Maintenance of quality control records.
90.104-90.200  [Reserved]

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624.

    Source:  58 FR 42414, Aug. 9, 1993, unless otherwise noted.



                     Subpart A--Scope of Subchapter



Sec. 90.1  General.

    This subchapter sets forth the functions and responsibilities of the 
Science and Technology Division (S&TD) of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service (AMS) relating to:
    (a) The performance of comprehensive analytical tests and laboratory 
determinations of agricultural commodities and processed products.
    (b) The conduct of experiments and collaborative studies to validate 
new analytical procedures and improved methodologies in order to promote 
faster, more precise, or safer laboratory testing for agricultural 
commodities and processed products.
    (c) The supervised issuance of external quality control or 
proficiency check samples to laboratories under the Science and 
Technology Division's direction or performance review in order to 
regularly spot check and assess that analytical or test data produced by 
each laboratory is reproducible, precise, and reliable for a specific 
test program.
    (d) The granting of laboratory program accreditation or 
certification or approval for specialty testing of agricultural 
commodities and products.
    (e) The licensing of chemists to analyze cottonseed in order to 
certify its quality and grade.
    (f) The granting of certification to non-federal laboratories for 
testing for trichinae in horsemeat for export to the European Community 
(EC).
    (g) The granting of acceptance of standardized methodology or new 
procedures for commodity testing.
    (h) The auditing of the facilities, equipment, quality control 
procedures, standard methodologies, and good laboratory practices for a 
commodity testing program of a laboratory.
    (i) The examination of plants for novelty and distinctiveness in 
order to grant certificates of protection for new varieties of sexually 
reproduced plants, and the provision of other fee based services 
authorized by the Plant Variety Protection Act.
    (j) The extension or coordination of research for the determination 
of a new chemical analyte or microorganism in a commodity product or 
food.
    (k) The analysis of imported flue-cured and burley tobacco for 
pesticide residues.
    (l) The supervision and implementation of the State enforcement of 
the recordkeeping requirements for private applicators of restricted-use 
pesticides for agricultural production.
[58 FR 42414, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



                    Subpart B--Subchapter Definitions



Sec. 90.2  General terms defined.

    Words used in the regulations in this subchapter in the singular 
form will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As 
used throughout the regulations in this subchapter and unless the 
context requires otherwise, the following terms will be construed to 
mean:
    Act. The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (Title II of the act of 
Congress

[[Page 229]]

approved August 14, 1946, 60 Stat. 1087-1091, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1621-
1627).
    Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, or any officer or employee of the Service, to whom authority 
has been delegated, or to whom authority may be delegated, to act in his 
or her stead.
    Cooperative agreement. An agreement between the Agricultural 
Marketing Service and another Federal agency or a State agency, or other 
agency, organization or person that defines in the general terms the 
basis on which the parties concerned will cooperate to serve a mutual 
interest on an agricultural service project. The responsibilities for 
AMS and each cooperator are stated in the document along with the 
conditions as applicable.
    Department. The United States Department of Agriculture.
    Director. The Director of the Science and Technology Division, or 
any officer or employee of the Division to whom authority has heretofore 
been delegated, or to whom authority may hereafter be delegated, to act 
in his or her stead.
    Division. The Science and Technology Division (S&TD) of the 
Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), which performs analytical testing 
services, issues licenses for cottonseed chemists, conducts quality 
assurance reviews and grants accreditation or certification for 
commodity testing programs of laboratories.
    Laboratories. Division laboratories performing the analyses 
described in this subchapter.
    Quality assurance. The assurance that there is accuracy of 
analytical data using proficiency check sample or analyte recovery 
techniques. In addition, the certainty that there is strict adherence by 
the analysts in following the quality control details in the recommended 
or official methods for reagents, laboratory apparatus and procedures. 
The overall objective of quality assurance, as a comprehensive program, 
is to ensure that all analytical data produced by the laboratory meets 
certain quality criteria and that all data produced is reproducible, 
precise, and accurate.
    Quality control. The system of close examination of the critical 
details of an analytical procedure in order to have the proper equipment 
parameters, techniques, supplies and reagents to achieve a predetermined 
level of quality data, with the performance of a particular laboratory 
analysis.
    Secretary. The Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, or any 
officer or employee of the Department to whom authority has heretofore 
been delegated, or to whom authority may hereafter be delegated, to act 
in his or her stead.
    Service. The Agricultural Marketing Service of the United States 
Department of Agriculture.
[58 FR 42414, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



 Subpart C--Good Laboratory Practices for Commodity Laboratory Analyses



Sec. 90.3  General.

    Laboratory service programs of laboratories certified and approved 
by the Science and Technology Division shall have good laboratory 
practice (GLP) requirements that are generalized in this subpart.
[58 FR 42414, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



Secs. 90.4-90.100  [Reserved]



                      Subpart D--Quality Assurance



Sec. 90.101  General.

    Laboratory service programs of laboratories certified and approved 
by the Science and Technology Division shall have quality assurance 
requirements that are generalized in this subpart.
[58 FR 42414, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 90.102  Quality assurance review.

    (a) Each laboratory performing tests and analysis under this 
subchapter will be subject to a quality assurance program evaluation at 
least annually, and more often if deemed necessary by the Director. Such 
evaluation will include:
    (1) A review of the adequacy of quality control measures taken by 
the laboratory for the standardized method of

[[Page 230]]

analysis for a commodity and its related products;
    (2) A review of the laboratory methodologies and procedures;
    (3) A review of records for the calibration and maintenance of 
equipment;
    (4) A review of records documenting sample handling;
    (5) The evidence of quality control records;
    (6) The evidence of correct reporting and determination of 
analytical data.
    (b) A laboratory will receive a quality assurance report following 
the review. This evaluation will address any necessary improvements to 
the laboratory program(s) being examined.



Sec. 90.103  Maintenance of quality control records.

    Quality control records pertaining, but not limited to the following 
areas, shall be retained by the laboratory for at least the 3 most 
recent years:
    (a) Prepared solution standardizations;
    (b) Recovery studies by known analyte additions;
    (c) The purity checks of reagents and test materials;
    (d) Apparatus and equipment calibrations;
    (e) The quality examination and testing of materials;
    (f) The mandatory participation in proficiency check sample testing 
or collaborative studies;
    (g) Daily critical parameter checks of equipment, such as 
temperature readings;
    (h) The equivalency tests of new procedures with standard 
methodologies.



Secs. 90.104-90.200  [Reserved]



PART 91--SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION--Table of Contents




                        Subpart A--Administration

Sec.
91.1  General.
91.2  Definitions.
91.3  Authority.

                       Subpart B--General Services

91.4  Kinds of services.
91.5  Where services are offered.
91.6  Availability of services.

                   Subpart C--Application for Services

91.7  Nondiscrimination.
91.8  Who may apply.
91.9  How to make an application.
91.10  Information required in connection with an application.
91.11  Filing of an application.
91.12  Record of filing time and laboratory tests.
91.13  When an application may be rejected.
91.14  When an application may be withdrawn.

                      Subpart D--Laboratory Service

91.15  Basis of a laboratory service.
91.16  Order of a laboratory service.
91.17  Postponing a laboratory service.
91.18  Financial interest of a scientist.

                           Subpart E--Samples

91.19  General requirements of suitable samples.
91.20  Shipping.
91.21  Protecting samples.
91.22  Disposition of analyzed sample.

                        Subpart F--Method Manuals

91.23  Analytical methods.

                          Subpart G--Reporting

91.24  Reports of test results.
91.25  Certificate requirements.
91.26  Issuance of certificates.
91.27  Corrections to certificates prior to issuance.
91.28  Issuance of corrected certificates or amendments for analysis 
          reports.
91.29  Issuance of duplicate certificates or reissuance of an analysis 
          report.
91.30  Maintenance and retention of copies of certificates or analysis 
          reports.

                Subpart H--Appeal of Laboratory Services

91.31  When an appeal of a laboratory service may be requested.
91.32  Where to file for an appeal of a laboratory service and 
          information required.
91.33  When an application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be 
          withdrawn.
91.34  When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.
91.35  Who shall perform an appealed laboratory service.
91.36  Appeal laboratory certificate.

                       Subpart I--Fees and Charges

91.37  Fees for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.
91.38  Additional fees for appeal of analysis.
91.39  Special request fees for overtime and legal holiday service.

[[Page 231]]

91.40  Fees for courier service and facsimile of the analysis report.
91.41  Charges for demonstrations and courses of instruction.
91.42  Billing.
91.43  Payment of fees and charges.
91.44  Charges on overdue accounts and issuance of delinquency notices.
91.45  Charges for laboratory services on a contract basis.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624.

    Source:  58 FR 42415, Aug. 9, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

    Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 91 appear at 61 FR 
51350, Oct. 2 1996.



                        Subpart A--Administration



Sec. 91.1  General.

    This part consolidates the procedural and administrative rules of 
the Science and Technology Division of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service for conducting the analytical testing and laboratory audits with 
quality assurance reviews. It also contains the fees, charges and 
laboratories applicable to such services.



Sec. 91.2  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this part in the singular form will 
import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this part, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Analyses. Microbiological, chemical, or physical tests performed on 
a commodity.
    Applicant. Any person who requests services provided by the 
Division.
    Legal holidays. Those days designated as legal public holidays 
specified by Congress in paragraph (a) of section 6103, title 5 of the 
United States Code and any other day declared to be a holiday by Federal 
Statute or Executive Order. Under section 6103 and Executive Order 
10357, as amended, if the specified legal public holiday falls on a 
Saturday, the preceding Friday shall be considered the holiday, or if 
the specified legal holiday falls on a Sunday, the following Monday 
shall be considered to be the holiday.



Sec. 91.3  Authority.

    The Division Director is charged with the administration of this 
subchapter.



                       Subpart B--General Services



Sec. 91.4  Kinds of services.

    (a) Analytical tests. Analytical laboratory testing services under 
the regulations consist of microbiological, chemical, and certain other 
analyses, requested by the applicant and performed on tobacco, seed, 
dairy, egg, fruit and vegetable, meat and poultry, and related processed 
products. Analyses are performed to determine if products meet Federal 
specifications or specifications defined in purchase contracts and 
cooperative agreements. Analyses are also performed on egg products as 
part of the mandatory Egg Products Inspection Program.
    (b) Examination and licensure. The Division administers examinations 
and issues licenses to chemists to certify the grade of cottonseed.
    (c) Quality assurance reviews. The Division performs on-site 
laboratory quality assurance reviews (both required and voluntary) to 
ensure that appropriate technical methods, equipment maintenance, and 
quality control procedures are being observed.
    (d) Consultation. Technical advice, statistical science 
consultation, and quality assurance program assistance are provided by 
the Division for domestic and foreign laboratories.



Sec. 91.5  Where services are offered.

    (a) Services are offered to applicants at the Science and Technology 
Division laboratories and facilities as listed below.
    (1) Science and Technology Division regional laboratories. A variety 
of tests and laboratory analyses are available in two regional multi-
disciplinary Science and Technology Division (S&TD) laboratories, and 
are located as follows:

(i) USDA, AMS, S&TD, Midwestern Laboratory, 3570 North Avondale Avenue, 
    Chicago, IL 60618.
(ii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, Eastern Laboratory, 2311-B Aberdeen Boulevard, 
    Gastonia, NC 28054.


[[Page 232]]


    (2) Science and Technology Division aflatoxin laboratories. The 
specialty laboratories performing aflatoxin testing on peanuts, peanut 
products, tree nuts and other commodities are located as follows:

(i) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 1557 Reeves Street, Mail: P.O. Box 1368, Dothan, AL 
    36302.
(ii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Golden Peanut Company, 200 West Washington 
    Street, Mail: P.O. Box 488, Ashburn, GA 31714.
(iii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 1211 Schley Avenue, Albany, GA 31707.
(iv) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Golden Peanut Company, 301 West Pearl Street, 
    Mail: P.O. Box 279, Aulander, NC 27805.
(v) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 610 North Main Street, Blakely, GA 31723.
(vi) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 107 South Fourth Street, Madill, OK 73446.
(vii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Steven Industries, Cargill, Inc., 715 North 
    Main Street, Mail: P.O. Box 272, Dawson, GA 31742.
(viii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 308 Culloden Street, Mail: P.O. Box 1130, 
    Suffolk, VA 23434.

    (3) Citrus laboratory. The Science and Technology Division Citrus 
Laboratory specializes in testing citrus juices and other citrus 
products and is located as follows: Science and Technology Division 
Citrus Laboratory, 98 Third Street, SW, Winter Haven, FL 33880.
    (4) Divisional laboratories. Laboratory services are available in 
all areas covered by cooperative agreements providing for this 
laboratory work and entered on behalf of the Department with cooperating 
Federal or State laboratory agencies pursuant to authority contained in 
Act(s) of Congress. Also, services may be provided in other areas not 
covered by a cooperative agreement if the Administrator determines that 
it is possible to provide laboratory services.
    (5) Other alternative laboratories. Laboratory analyses may be 
conducted at alternative Science and Technology Division laboratories 
and can be reached from any commodity market in which a laboratory 
facility is located to the extent laboratory personnel is available.
    (6) The Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Office. The PVP office and 
plant examination facility of the Science and Technology Division issues 
certificates of protection to developers of novel varieties of plants 
which reproduce sexually and is located as follows: USDA, AMS, Science 
and Technology Division, Plant Variety Protection Office, Room 500 
National Agricultural Library Building, Beltsville, MD 20705.
    (7) Science and Technology Division headquarters offices. The 
examination, licensure, quality assurance reviews, and consultation 
services are provided by headquarters staff located in Washington, DC.
    (8) Statistical Branch offices. Statistical Science services are 
provided by Science and Technology Division (S&TD) offices located as 
follows:

(i) USDA, AMS, Science and Technology Division, Statistical Branch, 
    Kansas City Technical Center, 10383 No. Executive Hills Blvd., 
    Kansas City, MO 64153.
(ii) USDA, AMS, S&TD, Statistical Branch, 0611 So. Agriculture Bldg., 
    14th & Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250.

    (9) Residue Branch offices. Services afforded by the Recordkeeping 
Program for restricted use pesticides by certified applicators and 
services afforded by the Pesticide Data Program are provided by offices 
located as follows:

(i) USDA, AMS, Science and Technology Division, 8700 Centreville Rd., 
    suite 200, Manassas, VA 22110.
(ii) USDA, AMS, Science and Technology Division, Office of Director, 
    3507 So. Agriculture Bldg., 14th & Independence Avenue, SW., 
    Washington, DC 20250.

    (b) The addresses of the various laboratories and offices appear in 
the pertinent parts of this subchapter. A prospective applicant may 
obtain a current listing of addresses and telephone numbers of Science 
and Technology Division laboratories, offices, and facilities by 
addressing an inquiry to the Director, Science and Technology Division, 
Agricultural Marketing Service,

[[Page 233]]

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), P.O. Box 96456, 
Washington, DC 20090-6456.
[58 FR 42415, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 24321, May 10, 1994; 59 
FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994; 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 91.6  Availability of services.

    (a) Services may be furnished whenever a Science and Technology 
Division staff is available and the facilities and conditions are 
satisfactory for the conduct of such service.
    (b) Laboratories may provide limited service on Saturdays and 
Sundays at a premium fee. Weekend service may be obtained by contacting 
the laboratory director or supervisor.
    (c) Holiday and overtime laboratory service may be obtained with a 
minimum 24 hour advance notice, at a premium fee, by any prospective 
applicant through the laboratory director or supervisor.



                   Subpart C--Application for Services



Sec. 91.7  Nondiscrimination.

    All services under these regulations are provided to applicants 
without discrimination as to race, color, handicapped or disabled 
condition, religion, sex, age, or national origin.



Sec. 91.8  Who may apply.

    An application for service may be made by any individual or 
interested party including, but not limited to, the United States and 
any instrumentality or agency thereof, any State, county, municipality, 
or common carrier, and any authorized agent on behalf of the foregoing.



Sec. 91.9  How to make an application.

    (a) Voluntary. An application for analysis and testing may be made 
by contacting the director or supervisor of the Science and Technology 
Division laboratory where the service is provided, or by contacting 
either the Laboratory Operations Coordination branch chief, or the 
Technical Services branch chief at Science and Technology Division 
Headquarters, Washington, DC. A list of the Science and Technology 
Division laboratories is included in Sec. 91.5.
    (b) Mandatory. In the case of mandatory analyses, such as those 
required to be performed on eggs and egg products, application for 
services may be submitted to the office or division which administers 
the program, or by contacting an inspector who is involved with the 
program.



Sec. 91.10  Information required in connection with an application.

    (a) An application for laboratory service shall be made in the 
English language and may be made orally (in person or by telephone), in 
writing, or by facsimile. If an application for laboratory service is 
made orally, written confirmation may be required by the laboratory 
involved.
    (b) In connection with each application for a laboratory service, 
information that may be necessary to perform analyses on the processed 
product(s) shall also be furnished. The information shall include, but 
is not limited to, the name of the product, name and address of the 
packer or plant where such product was packed, the location of the 
product, its lot or load number, codes or other identification marks, 
the number of containers, the type and size of the containers, the 
analytical test requested, and the size of the sample. In addition, 
information regarding analysis of the lot by any federal agency previous 
to the application and the purpose of the desired laboratory service may 
be requested.



Sec. 91.11  Filing of an application.

    An application for a laboratory service shall be regarded as filed 
only when made in accordance with the regulations in this part.



Sec. 91.12  Record of filing time and laboratory tests.

    A record showing the date of receipt for each application for a 
laboratory service or an appeal of a laboratory service shall be 
maintained. In addition, the requested laboratory analyses shall be 
recorded at the time of sample receipt.

[[Page 234]]



Sec. 91.13  When an application may be rejected.

    (a) An application for a laboratory service may be rejected by the 
Administrator when deemed appropriate as follows:
    (1) For non-compliance by the applicant with the regulations in this 
part,
    (2) For non-payment of previous laboratory services rendered,
    (3) When the sample is not properly identified by a code or other 
marks,
    (4) When the samples are received in an unsatisfactory condition and 
are rejected for analysis,
    (5) When there is evidence or knowledge of tampering with the 
sample,
    (6) When it appears that to perform the analytical testing or 
laboratory service specified in this part would not be to the best 
interests of the public welfare or of the Government, or
    (7) When it appears to the Administrator that prior commitments of 
the Department necessitate rejection of the application.
    (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered 
mail of the reasons for the rejection.
    (c) A written petition for reconsideration of such rejection may be 
filed by the applicant with the Administrator if postmarked or delivered 
within 10 days after the receipt of notice of the rejection. Such 
petition shall state specifically the errors alleged to have been made 
by the Administrator in rejecting the application. Within 20 days 
following the receipt of such a petition for reconsideration, the 
Administrator shall approve the application or notify the applicant by 
registered mail of the reasons for the rejection thereof.



Sec. 91.14  When an application may be withdrawn.

    An application for a laboratory service may be withdrawn by the 
applicant at any time before the analytical testing is performed; 
Provided, That, the applicant shall pay, at the hourly rate prescribed 
in Sec. 91.37, for the time incurred by the scientist or laboratory 
technician, in connection with such application and any travel expenses, 
telephone, facsimile, mailing, telegraph or other expenses, which have 
been incurred by the laboratory servicing office, in connection with 
such application.



                      Subpart D--Laboratory Service



Sec. 91.15  Basis of a laboratory service.

    Analytical testing and laboratory determination for analyte or 
quality constituent shall be based upon the appropriate standards 
promulgated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, applicable standards 
prescribed by the laws of the State where the particular product was 
produced, specifications of any governmental agency, written buyer and 
seller contract specifications, or any written specifications by an 
applicant which is approved by the Administrator; Provided, That, if 
such product is regulated pursuant to the Agricultural Marketing 
Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), or the 
comparable laws of any State, such testing and determination shall be on 
the basis of the standards, if any, prescribed in, or pursuant to, the 
marketing order and/or agreement effective thereunder.



Sec. 91.16  Order of a laboratory service.

    Laboratory service shall be performed, insofar as possible, in the 
order in which applications are made except that precedence may be given 
to any such applications which are made by the United States (including, 
but not being limited to, any instrumentality or agency thereof) and to 
any application for an appeal inspection.



Sec. 91.17  Postponing a laboratory service.

    If the scientist determines that it is not possible to accurately 
analyze or make a laboratory determination of a sample immediately after 
receipt because standard materials, laboratory equipment and supplies 
need replacement, or for any other substantial reason, the scientist may 
postpone laboratory service for such period as may be necessary.



Sec. 91.18  Financial interest of a scientist.

    No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any product in 
which he is directly or indirectly financially interested.

[[Page 235]]



                           Subpart E--Samples



Sec. 91.19  General requirements of suitable samples.

    (a) Samples must be representative of the product tested and 
provided in sufficient quantity for the analyses requested.
    (b) Each sample must be identified with the following information:
    (1) Product type (specific description);
    (2) Lot number or production date;
    (3) Analyses desired;
    (4) Date/time collected;
    (5) Storage conditions prior to shipping;
    (6) Name of applicant;
    (7) Name of sampler;
    (8) Any other information which is required by the specific program 
under which analysis or test is performed.



Sec. 91.20  Shipping.

    (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a condition 
(including temperature) that does not compromise the quality and 
validity of analytical results.
    (b) All samples must be submitted in sealed, leakproof containers.
    (c) Containers for perishable refrigerated samples should contain 
ice or ice packs to maintain temperatures of 0 deg. to 5  deg.C, unless 
a different temperature is required for the sample to be tested.
    (d) Containers for frozen samples should contain dry ice or other 
effective methods of maintaining samples in a frozen state.
    (e) The applicant is responsible for providing shipping containers 
and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests.
    (f) A courier charge may apply for the shipment of some samples.



Sec. 91.21  Protecting samples.

    Laboratory personnel shall protect each sample from manipulation, 
substitution, and improper or careless handling which would deprive the 
sample of its representative character from the time of receipt in the 
laboratory until the analysis is completed and the sample has been 
discarded.



Sec. 91.22  Disposition of analyzed sample.

    (a) Excess samples not used in analyses will be placed in proper 
storage for a maximum period of 30 days after reporting results of 
tests.
    (b) Any sample of a processed commodity that has been used for a 
laboratory service may be returned to the applicant at his or her 
request and expense; otherwise, it shall be destroyed or disposed of to 
a charitable institution.



                        Subpart F--Method Manuals



Sec. 91.23  Analytical methods.

    Most analyses are performed according to approved procedures 
described in manuals of standardized methodology. These standardized 
methods are the specific methods used. Alternatively, equivalent methods 
prescribed in cooperative agreements are used. The manuals of standard 
methods most often used by the Science and Technology Division 
laboratories are listed as follows:
    (a) Edwards, P.R. and W.H. Ewing, Edwards and Ewing's Identification 
of Enterobacteriaceae, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., 52 
Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017.
    (b) Manual of Analytical Methods for the Analysis of Pesticide 
Residues in Human and Environmental Samples, U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Toxicology Division, Health 
Effects Research Laboratory (HERL), Alexander Drive and Highway 54, Mail 
Drop 51, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.
    (c) Official Analytical Methods of the American Spice Trade 
Association (ASTA), American Spice Trade Association, 580 Sylvan Avenue, 
P.O. Box 1267, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632.
    (d) Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 
American Association of Cereal Chemists, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, 
MN 55121-2097.
    (e) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil 
Chemists' Society (AOCS), American Oil Chemists' Society, 1608 Broadmoor 
Drive, P.O. Box 3489, Champaign, IL 61826-3489.

[[Page 236]]

    (f) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 
481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.
    (g) Standard Analytical Methods of the Member Companies of Corn 
Industries Research Foundation, Corn Refiners Association (CRA), suite 
1120, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036.
    (h) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, American 
Public Health Association, 1015 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 
20036.
    (i) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 
American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works 
Association and the Water Pollution Control Federation, APHA, 1015 
Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.
    (j) U.S. Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military 
Specifications, approved analytical test methods noted therein, U.S. 
Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Kansas Street, 
Natick, MA 01760-5017.
    (k) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical 
Manual (BAM), Association of Official Analytical Chemists, suite 400, 
2200 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3301.
    (l) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Analytical Manuals 
(PAM), Volumes I and II, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department 
of Health and Human Services, 200 C Street, SW, Washington, DC 20204 
(available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal 
Road, Springfield, VA 22161).
[58 FR 42415, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



                          Subpart G--Reporting



Sec. 91.24  Reports of test results.

    (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by facsimile or 
other electronic means to the applicant.
    (b) Applicants may call the appropriate Science and Technology 
Division laboratory for interim or final results prior to issuance of 
the formal report. The advance results may be telegraphed, telephoned, 
or sent by facsimile to the applicant. Any additional expense for 
advance information shall be borne by the requesting party.
    (c) A letter report in lieu of a certificate of analysis may be 
issued by a laboratory representative when such action appears to be 
more suitable than a certificate; Provided, That, issuance of such 
report is approved by the Division Director.



Sec. 91.25  Certificate requirements.

    Certificates of analysis and other memoranda concerning laboratory 
service and the reporting of results should have the following 
requirements:
    (a) Certificates of analysis shall be on standard printed forms 
approved by the Division Director;
    (b) Shall be printed in English;
    (c) Shall have results typewritten, computer generated, or 
handwritten in ink and shall be clearly legible;
    (d) Shall show the results of laboratory tests in a uniform, 
accurate, and concise manner with abbreviations identified on the form;
    (e) Shall show the information required by Secs. 91.25-91.29; and
    (f) Show only such other information and statements of fact as are 
provided in the instructions authorized by the Division Director.



Sec. 91.26  Issuance of certificates.

    (a) The person signing and issuing the certificate of analysis shall 
be one of the following:
    (1) The scientist who performed the analysis;
    (2) Another technician of the laboratory facility, who has been 
given power of attorney by the scientist who performed the analytical 
testing and been authorized by the Division Director to affix the 
scientist's signature to a certificate. The power of attorney shall be 
on file with the employing office or laboratory of the Division;
    (3) A person designated as the ``laboratory director in charge,'' 
when the certificate represents composite analyses by several 
technicians.
    (b) The laboratory certificate shall be prepared in accordance with 
the facts set forth in the official memoranda made by the scientist or 
technicians in connection with the analysis.

[[Page 237]]

    (c) Whenever a certificate is signed by a person under a power of 
attorney, the certificate should so indicate. The signature of the 
holder of power shall appear under the name of the scientist who 
personally analyzed the sample, and whenever a certificate issued is 
signed by a scientist in charge, that title must appear in connection 
with the signature.



Sec. 91.27  Corrections to certificates prior to issuance.

    (a) The accuracy of the statements and information shown on 
certificates of analysis must be verified by the individual whose name 
or signature, or both, is shown on the certificate or by the authorized 
agent who affixed the name or signature, or both. When a name or 
signature, or both, is affixed by an authorized agent, the initials of 
the agent shall appear directly below or following the name, or 
signature of the person. Errors found during this process shall be 
corrected according to this section.
    (b) Only official personnel or their authorized agents may make 
corrections, additions, or other changes to certificates.
    (c) No corrections, additions, or other changes shall be made which 
involve identification, quality, or quantity. If such errors are found, 
a new certificate shall be prepared and issued and the incorrect 
certificate marked ``Void.'' Otherwise, errors may be corrected, 
provided there is evidence of satisfactory correction procedures as 
follows:
    (1) The corrections are neat and legible;
    (2) Each correction is initialed by the individual who corrects the 
certificate; and
    (3) The corrections and initials are shown on the original and all 
copies.



Sec. 91.28  Issuance of corrected certificates or amendments for analysis reports.

    (a) A corrected certificate of analysis or an amended letter report 
may be issued by the laboratory representative who issued the original 
certificate or report after distribution of the form if errors, such as 
incorrect dates, analytical results, or test determination statements, 
lot numbers, or errors in any other pertinent information require the 
issuance of a corrected certificate or an amended report.
    (b) Whenever a corrected certificate or amended report is issued, 
such certificate or report shall supersede the original form which was 
issued in error. The superseded certificate or incorrect report shall 
become null and void after the issuance of the corrected certificate or 
the amended analysis report.
    (c) The corrected certificates or amended reports shall show the 
following:
    (1) The terms ``Corrected Original'' and ``Corrected Copy;''
    (2) A statement identifying the superseded certificate or incorrect 
letter report and the corrections;
    (3) A new serial number or new date of issuance; and
    (4) The same statements and information, including permissive 
statements, that were shown on the incorrect certificate or the 
incorrect report, along with the correct statement or information, shall 
be shown on the corrected form.
    (d) If all copies of the incorrect certificate or incorrect report 
can be obtained, then the superseded form shall be marked ``Void'' when 
submitted.
    (e) Corrected certificates or amended letter reports cannot be 
issued for a certificate that has been superseded by another 
certificate, or superseded on the basis of a subsequent analysis or an 
additional laboratory test determination.



Sec. 91.29  Issuance of duplicate certificates or reissuance of an analysis report.

    (a) Upon request by an applicant, a duplicate certificate or an 
additional report may be issued for a lost, destroyed, or otherwise not 
obtainable original form.
    (b) The duplicate certificate or the reissuance of an analysis 
report shall be at the expense of the applicant.
    (c) Requests for duplicate certificates or additional analysis 
reports shall be filed as follows:
    (1) In writing;

[[Page 238]]

    (2) By the applicant who requested the service covered by the lost, 
destroyed, or otherwise not obtainable original form; and
    (3) With the office that issued the initial certificate or original 
laboratory analysis report.
    (d) The duplicate certificates or reissued analysis reports shall 
show the following:
    (1) The terms ``Duplicate Original,'' and the copies shall show 
``Duplicate Copy,''
    (2) A statement that the certificate or letter report was issued in 
lieu of a lost or destroyed or otherwise not obtainable certificate or 
laboratory analysis report; and
    (3) The same statements and information, including permissive 
statements, that were shown on the original certificate or the initial 
analysis report shall be shown on the duplicate form.
    (e) Duplicate certificates or duplicate analysis reports shall be 
issued as promptly as possible and distributed as the original 
certificates or original analysis reports and their copies.
    (f) Duplicate certificates shall not be issued for certificates that 
have been superseded.



Sec. 91.30  Maintenance and retention of copies of certificates or analysis reports.

    (a) At least one copy of each certificate or analysis report shall 
be filed in the laboratory for a period of not less than 3 years either 
from the date of issuance of the document, from the date of voiding a 
certificate, or from the date last payment is made by the applicant for 
a reported laboratory determination, whichever is later.
    (b) Whenever any document, because of its condition, becomes 
unsuitable for its intended or continued use, the laboratory personnel 
shall make a copy of the original document.
    (c) True copies shall be retained as photocopies, microfilm, 
microfiche, or other accurate reproductions and durable forms of the 
original document. Where reduction techniques, such as microfilming are 
used, suitable reader and photocopying equipment shall be readily 
available. Such reproductions shall be treated and considered for all 
purposes as though they were the original documents.
    (d) All documents required to be maintained under this part shall be 
kept confidential and shall be disclosed only to the applicants or other 
persons with the applicants' knowledge and permission. Only such 
information as the Administrator deems relevant shall be disclosed to 
the public without the applicants' permission, and then, only in a suit 
or administrative hearing brought at the direction, or on the request, 
of the Administrator, or to which the Administrator or any other officer 
of the United States is a party.



                Subpart H--Appeal of Laboratory Services



Sec. 91.31  When an appeal of a laboratory service may be requested.

    (a) An application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be made 
by any interested party who is dissatisfied with the results of an 
analysis as stated in a certificate or laboratory report, if the lot of 
the commodity can be positively identified by the laboratory service as 
the lot from which originally drawn samples were previously analyzed.
    (b) An application for an appeal of a laboratory service shall be 
made within thirty (30) days following the day on which the previous 
analysis was performed. However, upon approval by the Division Director, 
the filing time for an appeal application may be extended.



Sec. 91.32  Where to file for an appeal of a laboratory service and information required.

    (a) Application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be filed 
with the supervisor in the office or laboratory facility that issued the 
certificate or laboratory report on which the appeal analysis covering 
the commodity product is requested.
    (b) The application for an appeal of a laboratory service shall 
state the location of the lot of the commodity product and the reasons 
for the appeal; and date and serial number of the certificate covering 
the laboratory service of the commodity product on which the appeal is 
requested. In addition, such application shall be accompanied by

[[Page 239]]

the original and all available copies of the certificate or laboratory 
report.
    (c) Application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be made 
orally (in person or by telephone), in writing, by facsimile, or by 
telegraph. If made orally, written confirmation shall be made promptly.



Sec. 91.33  When an application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be withdrawn.

    An application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be 
withdrawn by the applicant at any time before the appealed laboratory 
service is performed; Provided, That, the applicant shall pay, at the 
hourly rate prescribed in Sec. 91.37, for the time incurred by the 
laboratory personnel, any travel, telephone, telegraph, or other 
expenses which have been incurred by the laboratory service in 
connection with such application.



Sec. 91.34  When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    An application for an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused 
if:
    (a) The reasons for the appealed laboratory service are frivolous or 
not substantial;
    (b) The quality or condition of the commodity product has undergone 
a material change since the laboratory service covering the commodity 
product on which the appealed laboratory service is requested;
    (c) The lot in question is not, or cannot be made accessible for 
sampling;
    (d) The lot relative to which the appealed laboratory service is 
requested cannot be positively identified as the lot from which samples 
were previously drawn and originally analyzed; or
    (e) There is noncompliance with the regulations in this part. Such 
applicant shall be notified promptly of the reason for such refusal.



Sec. 91.35  Who shall perform an appealed laboratory service.

    An appealed laboratory service shall be performed, whenever 
possible, by another individual or other individuals than the 
scientist(s) or the technician(s) that performed the original analytical 
determination.



Sec. 91.36  Appeal laboratory certificate.

    (a) An appeal laboratory certificate shall be issued showing the 
results of such appealed analysis. This certificate shall supersede the 
laboratory certificate previously issued for the commodity product 
involved.
    (b) Each appeal laboratory certificate shall clearly identify the 
number and date of the laboratory certificate which it supersedes. The 
superseded certificate shall become null and void upon the issuance of 
the appealed laboratory certificate and shall no longer represent the 
analytical results of the commodity product.
    (c) The individual issuing an appeal laboratory certificate shall 
forward notice of such issuance to such persons as he or she considers 
necessary to prevent misuse of the superseded certificate if the 
original and all copies of such superseded certificate have not 
previously been delivered to the individual issuing the appeal 
certificate.
    (d) The provisions in the regulations in this part concerning forms 
and certificates, issuance of certificates, and retention and 
disposition of certificates shall apply to appeal laboratory 
certificates, except that copies of such appeal certificates shall be 
furnished to all interested parties who received copies of the 
superseded certificate.



                       Subpart I--Fees and Charges



Sec. 91.37  Fees for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    (a) The fees listed in the general schedules in this section for the 
individual laboratory analyses cover the costs of Science and Technology 
Division laboratory services, including issuance of certificates and 
personnel and overhead costs other than the commodity inspection fees 
referred to in Secs. 52.42 through 52.46, 52.48 through 52.51, 55.510 
through 55.530, 55.560 through 55.570, 58.38 through 58.43, 58.45 
through 58.47, 70.71 through 70.72, and 70.75 through 70.78. The fees 
apply to all processed commodity products, except flue-cured and burley 
tobacco, citrus juices and certain citrus products. The laboratory fees 
are listed for single test analysis (unless specified) for processed 
fruits and vegetables (part 93), poultry and egg products (part 94), 
processed

[[Page 240]]

dairy products (part 95), and meat and meat products (part 98). The fees 
for chemical analysis of cottonseed associated with grading and novel 
variety seed certification under the Plant Variety Protection Act are 
specified in parts 96 and 97, respectively. Except as otherwise provided 
in this section, charges will be made for laboratory analysis at the 
hourly rate of $34.20 for the time required to perform the service. A 
minimum charge of one-quarter hour will be made for service pursuant to 
each request or certificate issued. The following times per single test 
on each schedule will apply.

    General Schedules of Fees for Official Laboratory Test Services 
 Performed at the AMS Science and Technology Division Laboratories for 
                      Processed Commodity Products

  Table 1--Single Test Times and Laboratory Fees for Proximate Analyses 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Hours for            
                Type of analysis                    single     List fee 
                                                     test               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ammonia, Ion Selective Electrode................        2.25      $76.95
Ash, Total......................................        1          34.20
Ash, Acid Insoluble.............................        1.5        51.30
Chloride, Salt Titration (Dairy)................        0.5        17.10
Fat, Acid Hydrolysis............................        1          34.20
Fat (Cheese and Related Products)...............        0.75       25.65
Fat (Dairy Products except Cheese)..............        0.5        17.10
Fat, Ether Extraction...........................        1          34.20
Fat, Microwave--Solvent Extraction..............        1          34.20
Fat, Specific Gravity...........................        1          34.20
Fiber, Crude....................................        2          68.40
Moisture, Distillation..........................        1          34.20
Moisture, Karl Fischer..........................        1.5        51.30
Moisture, Oven..................................        0.5        17.10
Protein, Kjeldahl...............................        2          68.40
Salt, Back Titration............................        0.75       25.65
Salt, Potentiometric............................        0.5        17.10
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Table 2--Single Test Times and Laboratory Fees for Lipid Related    
                                Analyses                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Hours for            
                Type of Analysis                    single     List fee 
                                                     test               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acid Degree Value (Dairy).......................        1         $34.20
Acidity, Titratable.............................        0.25        8.55
Carotene, Spectrophotometric....................        2.5        85.50
Catalase Test...................................        0.5        17.10
Cholesterol \1\.................................        5         171.00
Color (Honey)...................................        0.5        17.10
Color, NEPA (Eggs)..............................        1          34.20
Consistency, Bostwick (Cooked)..................        0.5        17.10
Consistency, Bostwick (Uncooked)................        0.5        17.10
Density (Specific Gravity)......................        0.25        8.55
Dispersibility (Moates-Dabbah Method)...........        0.5        17.10
Fat Stability,\2\ AOM...........................        1          34.20
Fatty Acid Profile (AOAC-GC method).............        4         136.80
Flash Point Test only...........................        2          68.40
Free fatty acids................................        0.5        17.10
Meltability (Process Cheese)....................        0.5        17.10
Peroxidase Test.................................        0.5        17.10
Peroxide Value..................................        0.75       25.65
Smoke Point Test only...........................        2          68.40
Smoke Point and Flash Point.....................        3.5       119.70
Solids, Total (Oven Drying).....................        0.5        17.10
Soluble Solids, Refractometer...................        0.5        17.10 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Moisture and fat analyses are required to be analyzed at an         
  additional cost as prerequisites to the cholesterol test.             
\2\ Peroxide value analysis is required as a prerequisite to the fat    
  stability test at the additional fee.                                 
                                                                        


    Table 3--Single Test Times and Laboratory Fees for Food Additives   
                          (Direct and Indirect)                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Hours for            
                Type of analysis                    single     List fee 
                                                     test               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aflatoxin, (Dairy, Eggs)........................        3.5      $119.70
Alar or Daminozide Residue......................        6         205.20

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Amitraz Residue, GLC............................        6         205.20
Alcohol (Qualitative)...........................        2          68.40
Alkalinity of Ash...............................        1.5        51.30
Antibiotic, Qualitative (Dairy).................        0.5        17.10
Antibiotic, Quantitative........................        4         136.80
Ascorbates (Qualitative--Meats).................        0.5        17.10
Ascorbic Acid, Titration........................        1          34.20
Ascorbic Acid, Spectrophotometric...............        1          34.20
Benzene, Residual...............................        2          68.40
Brix, Direct Percent Sucrose....................        0.5        17.10
Brix, Dilution..................................        0.5        17.10
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)..................        1.5        51.30
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT)..................        1.5        51.30
Caffeine, Micro Bailey-Andrew...................        1.5        51.30
Caffeine, Spectrophotometric....................        1          34.20
Calcium.........................................        1.5        51.30
Citric Acid, GLC or HPLC........................        1.5        51.30
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons:                                               
  Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals--                                 
    Initial Screen..............................        4         136.80
    Second Column Confirmation of Analyte.......        1          34.20
    Confirmation on Mass Spectrometer...........        2          68.40
Dextrin (Qualitative)...........................        0.5        17.10
Dextrin (Quantitative)..........................        3         102.60
Filth, Heavy (Dairy)............................        2.5        85.50
Filth, Heavy (Eggs).............................        4         136.80
Filth, Light (Eggs).............................        2.5        85.50
Filth, Light and Heavy (Eggs Extraneous)........        6         205.20
Flavor (Dairy)..................................        0.25        8.55
Flavor (Products except Dairy)..................        0.75       25.65
Fumigants:                                                              
  Initial Screen--                                                      
    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP).................        1          34.20
    Ethylene Dibromide..........................        1          34.20
    Methyl Bromide..............................        1          34.20
  Confirmation on Mass Spectrometer--                                   
    Each individual fumigant residue............        2          68.40
Glucose (Qualitative)...........................        0.75       25.65
Glucose (Quantitative)..........................        1.75       59.85
Glycerol (Quantitative).........................        3         102.60
Gums............................................        3         102.60
High Sucrose Content or Avasucrol--Percent                              
 Sucrose (Holland Eggs).........................        4         136.80
Hydrogen Ion Activity, pH.......................        0.5        17.10
Mercury, Cold Vapor AA..........................        2.5        85.50
Metals--Other Than Mercury, Each Metal..........        2          68.40
Monosodium Dihydrogen Phosphate.................        4         136.80
Monosodium Glutamate............................        4         136.80
Nitrites (Qualitative)..........................        0.5        17.10
Nitrites (Quantitative).........................        3         102.60
Oxygen..........................................        0.5        17.10
Palatability and Odor:                                                  
  First Sample..................................        0.75       25.65
  Each Additional Sample........................        0.5        17.10
Phosphatase, Residual...........................        1          34.20
Phosphorus......................................        2          68.40
Propylene Glycol, Codistillation: (Qualitative).        2          68.40
Pyrethrin Residue (Dairy).......................        4         136.80
Scorched Particles..............................        0.25        8.55
Sodium, Potentiometric..........................        1          34.20
Sodium Benzoate, HPLC...........................        1.5        51.30
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS).....................        8         273.60
Sodium Silicoaluminate (Zeolex).................        2          68.40
Solubility Index................................        0.5        17.10
Starch, Direct Acid Hydrolysis..................        3         102.60
Sugar, Polarimetric Methods.....................        1          34.20
Sugar Profile, HPLC--This profile includes the                          
 following components: Dextrose, Fructose,                              
 Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose:                                          
  One type sugar from HPLC profile..............        3         102.60
  Each additional type sugar....................        0.5        17.10
Sugars, Non-Reducing............................        3         102.60

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Sugars, Total as Invert.........................        2          68.40
Sulfites (Qualitative)..........................        0.75       25.65
Sulfur Dioxide, Direct Titration................        1          34.20
Sulfur Dioxide, Monier-Williams.................        1.5        51.30
Toluene, Residual...............................        2          68.40
Triethyl Citrate, GC (Quantitative).............        1          34.20
Vitamin A.......................................        2.5        85.50
Vitamin A, Carr-Price (Dry Milk)................        1.25       42.75
Vitamin D, HPLC (Vitamins D2 and D3)............        8.5       290.70
Whey Protein Nitrogen...........................        0.75       25.65
Xanthydrol Test For Urea........................        1.5        51.30
  This is an optional test to the extraneous                            
   materials isolation test.                                            
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------


  Table 4--Single Test Times and Laboratory Fees for Other Chemical and 
                       Physical Component Analyses                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Hours for            
                Type of analysis                    single     List fee 
                                                     test               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Available Carbon Dioxide (Baking Powders).......        4        $136.80
Complete Kohman Analysis (Dairy)................        1          34.20
Jelly Strength (Bloom)..........................        2.5        85.50
Methyl Anthranilate.............................        1          34.20
Grape Juice Absorbency Ratio....................        0.5        17.10
Net Weight (Per Can)............................        0.25        8.55
Non-Volatile Methylene Chloride Extract.........        2.5        85.50
Particle Size (Ether Wash)......................        0.5        17.10
Potassium Iodide (Table Salt)...................        1.5        51.30
Quinic Acid (Cranberry Juice)...................        1.75       59.85
Sieve or Particle Size..........................        0.5        17.10
Water Activity..................................        4         136.80
Water Insoluble Inorganic Residues (WIIR).......        2          68.40
Yellow Onion Test...............................        0.75       25.65
------------------------------------------------------------------------


   Table 5--Single Test Times and Laboratory Fees for Microbiological   
                                Analyses                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Hours for            
                Type of analysis                    single     List fee 
                                                     test               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerobic (Standard) Plate Count..................        0.5       $17.10
Anaerobic Bacterial Plate Count.................        0.75       25.65
Bacterial Direct Microscopic Count..............        1          34.20
Campylobacter jejuni............................        4         136.80
Coliform Plate Count (Dairy Products)...........        0.5        17.10
Coliform Plate Count, Violet Red Bile Agar:                             
(Presumptive Coliform Plate Count)..............        0.75       25.65
Coliforms, Most Probable Number (MPN): \1\                              
    Step 1......................................        0.75       25.65
    Step 2......................................        0.75       25.65
Direct Microscopic Clump Count, DMCC............        0.75       25.65
E. coli, Presumptive MPN (Additional Fee) \2\...        1.5        51.30
Enterococci Count...............................        3         102.60
Listeria monocytogenes confirmation analysis:                           
 \3\                                                                    
    Step 1......................................        1.5        51.30
    Step 2......................................        1.5        51.30
    Step 3 (Confirmation).......................        2.5        85.50
Proteolytic Count (Dairy).......................        0.5        17.10
Psychrotrophic Bacterial Plate Count............        0.75       25.65
Salmonella (USDA Culture Method): \4\                                   
    Step 1 (Dairy Products).....................        1          34.20
    Step 1......................................        1.5        51.30
    Step 2......................................        0.75       25.65
    Step 3 (Confirmation).......................        1.5        51.30
    Serological Typing (Optional)...............        2.5        85.50
Salmonella (Rapid Methods): \5\                                         
    Step 1......................................        2          68.40
    Step 2......................................        0.75       25.65
    Step 3 (Confirmation).......................        1.5        51.30

[[Page 243]]

                                                                        
Staphylococcus aureus, MPN:                                             
    With Coagulase Positive Confirmation........        1.75       59.85
Thermoduric Bacterial Plate Count...............        0.75       25.65
Yeast and Mold Count............................        0.5        17.10
Yeast and Mold Differential Plate Count.........        0.75       25.65 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Coliform MPN analysis may be in two steps as follows: Step 1--      
  presumptive test through lauryl sulfate tryptose broth; Step 2--      
  confirmatory test through brilliant green lactose bile broth.         
\2\ Step 1 of the coliform MPN analysis is a prerequisite for the       
  performance of the presumptive E. coli test, Prior enrichment in      
  lauryl sulfate tryptose broth is required for optimal recovery of E.  
  coli from inoculated and incubated EC broth (Escherichia coli broth). 
  The E. coli test is performed through growth on eosin methylene blue  
  agar. The fee stated for E. coli analysis is a supplementary charge to
  step 1 of coliform test.                                              
\3\ Listeria monocytogenes test using the USDA method may be in three   
  steps as follows: Step 1--isolation by University of Vermont modified 
  (UVM) broth and Fraser's broth enrichments and selective plating with 
  Modified Oxford (MOX) agar; Presumptive Step 2--typical colonies      
  inoculated from Horse Blood into brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and 
  check for characteristic motility; Confirmatory Step 3--culture from  
  BHI broth with typical motility is inoculated into the seven          
  biochemical medias, BHI agar for oxidase and catalase tests, Motility 
  test medium, and Christie-Atkins-Munch-Peterson (CAMP) test.          
Listeria monocytogenes test using the FDA method may be in three steps  
  as follows: Step 1--isolation by trypticase soy broth with 0.6% yeast 
  extract (TSB-YE) broth enrichment and selective plating with Modified 
  McBrides agar and Lithium chloride Phenylethanol Moxalactam (LPM)     
  agar; Presumptive Step 2--typical colonies inoculated to trypticase   
  soy agar with yeast extract (TSA-YE) with sheep blood plates to check 
  for hemolysis followed by inoculations to BHI broth and TSA-YE plates 
  to check for characteristic motility, gram stain and catalase test;   
  Confirmatory Step 3--culture from BHI broth with typical motility for 
  wet mount is inoculated into the required 10 biochemical medias,      
  Sulfide-Indole-Motility (SIM) medium, and the CAMP test. Serology is  
  checked using growth from TSA-YE plates.                              
Both methods for Listeria determination have the equivalent time needed 
  for each step.                                                        
\4\ Salmonella test may be in three steps as follows: Step 1--growth    
  through differential agars; Step 2--growth and testing through triple 
  sugar iron and lysine iron agars; Step 3--confirmatory test through   
  biochemicals, and polyvalent serological testing with Poly ``O'' and  
  Poly ``H'' antiserums. The serological typing of Salmonella is        
  requested on occasion.                                                
\5\ Salmonella test may be in three steps as follows: Step 1--growth in 
  enrichment broths and Elisa test or DNA hybridization system assay;   
  Step 2--growth and testing through triple sugar iron and lysine iron  
  agars; Step 3--confirmatory test through biochemicals, and polyvalent 
  serological testing with Poly ``O'' and Poly ``H'' antiserums.        


                     Table 6.--Single Test Times And Laboratory Fees for Aflatoxin Analyses                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Hours for                                  
                    Aflatoxin test by commodity                       single     Fee per single    Fee per pair 
                                                                       test         analysis       analyses \1\ 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peanut Butter (TLC--CB)...........................................           1           $34.20           \2\ NA
Corn (TLC--CB)....................................................           1            34.20               NA
Roasted Peanuts (TLC--BF).........................................           1            34.20               NA
Brazil Nuts (TLC--BF).............................................           2            68.40               NA
Pistachio Nuts (TLC--BF)..........................................           2            68.40               NA
Shelled Peanuts (TLC--BF).........................................          NA            14.00            28.00
Shelled Peanuts (Aflatest)........................................          NA            20.00            40.00
Shelled Peanuts (HPLC)............................................          NA            50.00           100.00
Tree Nuts (TLC)...................................................           1            34.20               NA
Oilseed Meals (TLC)...............................................           1            34.20               NA
Edible Seeds (TLC)................................................           1            34.20               NA
Dried Fruit (TLC).................................................           1            34.20               NA
Small Grains (TLC)................................................           1            34.20               NA
In-Shell Peanuts (TLC)............................................          NA            14.00            28.00
Silage; Other Grains (TLC)........................................           1            34.20              NA 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Aflatoxin testing of raw peanuts under Peanut Marketing Agreement for subsamples 1-AB, 2-AB, 3-AB, and 1-CD 
  is $28.00 per pair of analyses using Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Best Foods (BF) extraction method.   
  The BF method has been modified to incorporate a water slurry extraction procedure. The Contaminants Branch   
  (CB) method is used on occasion as an alternative method for peanuts and peanut meal when doubt exists as to  
  the effectiveness of the BF method in extracting aflatoxin from the sample or when background interferences   
  exist that might mask TLC quantitation of aflatoxin. The cost per pair of analyses using Aflatest and High    
  Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is $40.00 and $100.00, respectively. Other aflatoxin analyses for fruits
  and vegetables are listed at Science and Technology Division's current hourly rate of $34.20.                 
\2\ NA denotes not applicable.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                


     Table 7--Miscellaneous Charges Supplemental to the Science and     
             Technology Division's Laboratory Analysis Fees             
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Hours for        
           Laboratory service description               single     List 
                                                        sample      fee 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sample Grinding (Raw Peanuts).......................        0.25   $8.55
Sample Grinding (Canned Boned Poultry)..............        1      34.20
                                                                        
Sample Grinding (Meats, Meat Products, Meals, Ready-                    
 to-Eat):                                                               
    Per pouch or raw sample.........................        0.25    8.55
    Per tray pack...................................        0.5    17.10

[[Page 244]]

                                                                        
Compositing Multiple Subsamples for an Individual                       
 Test Sample Unit per subsample.....................        0.25    8.55
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Table 8--Additional Charges Applicable to the Sample Receipt and    
                             Analysis Report                            
------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Service description                      List charge         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Established Courier Expense at Albany,     $2.00                        
 Georgia Laboratory.                                                    
Courier Expense at Other AMS               Varies.                      
 Laboratories: Mileage Charge Set at                                    
 $0.30 Per Mile Roundtrip from Laboratory                               
 to Delivery Site.                                                      
Facsimile Charge (Per Analysis Report)...  $3.00 minimum up to first 3  
                                            pages, then $1.00 per page. 
Additional Analysis Report or Extra        $17.10 per report or         
 Certificate (\1/2\ hour charge).           certificate reissued.       
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) The fee charge for any laboratory analysis not listed in 
paragraph (a) of this section, or for any other applicable services 
rendered in the laboratory, shall be based on the time required to 
perform such analysis or render such service. The standard hourly rate 
shall be $34.20.
    (c) When a laboratory test service is provided for AMS by a 
commercial or State government laboratory, the applicant will be 
assessed a fee which covers the costs to AMS for the service provided.
[58 FR 42415, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 24321, May 10, 1994; 59 
FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994]



Sec. 91.38  Additional fees for appeal of analysis.

    (a) The appellant will be charged an additional fee at a rate of 1.5 
times the standard rate stated in paragraph (a) of Sec. 91.37 if, as a 
result of an authorized appeal analysis, it is determined that the 
original test results are correct. The appeal laboratory rate is $51.30 
per analysis hour.
    (b) The appeal fee will be waived if the appeal laboratory test 
discloses that an error was made in the original analysis.



Sec. 91.39  Special request fees for overtime and legal holiday service.

    (a) Laboratory analyses initiated at the special request of the 
applicant to be rendered on Saturdays, Sundays, Federal holidays, and on 
an overtime basis will be charged at a rate of 1.5 times the standard 
rate stated in paragraph (a) of Sec. 91.37. The premium laboratory rate 
for holiday and overtime service will be $51.30 per analysis hour.
    (b) Information on legal holidays or what constitutes overtime 
service at a particular AMS laboratory is available from the laboratory 
supervisor.



Sec. 91.40  Fees for courier service and facsimile of the analysis report.

    (a) The AMS peanut aflatoxin laboratory at Albany, Georgia, has a 
set courier charge of $2.00 per trip to retrieve the sample package. The 
mileage charge specified in Table 8 in Sec. 91.37 of this part for 
courier service at other AMS laboratories is based on the shortest 
roundtrip route from laboratory to sample retrieval site.
    (b) The faxing of laboratory analysis reports or certificates is an 
optional service offered at the fee specified in Table 8 in Sec. 91.37 
of this part.



Sec. 91.41  Charges for demonstrations and courses of instruction.

    Charges, not in excess of the cost thereof and as approved by the 
Division Director, may be made for demonstrations, samples, or courses 
of instruction when such are furnished upon request.



Sec. 91.42  Billing.

    (a) Each billing cycle will end on the 25th of the month. The 
applicant will be billed by the National Finance Center on the 1st day, 
following the end of the billing cycle in which voluntary laboratory 
services and other services

[[Page 245]]

were rendered at a particular Science and Technology Division 
laboratory.
    (b) The total charge shall normally be stated directly on the 
analysis report or on a standardized certificate form for the laboratory 
analyses of a specific agricultural commodity and related commodity 
products.
    (c) The actual bill for collection will be issued by the National 
Finance Center, Program Billings and Collection Section, PO Box 60950, 
New Orleans, Louisiana 70160.



Sec. 91.43  Payment of fees and charges.

    (a) Fees and charges for services shall be paid by the applicant, by 
check or money order payable, to the ``Agricultural Marketing Service, 
USDA'' and sent to the office indicated on the bill.
    (b) Fees and charges for services under a cooperative agreement with 
a State or other AMS Divisions will be paid in accordance with the terms 
of the cooperative agreement.
    (c) As necessary, the Division Director may require that fees shall 
be paid in advance of the performance of the requested service. Any fees 
paid in excess of the amount due shall be used to offset future 
billings, unless a request for a refund is made by applicant.



Sec. 91.44  Charges on overdue accounts and issuance of delinquency notices.

    (a) Accounts are considered overdue if payment is late with the 
National Finance Center (NFC). The timeliness of a payment will be based 
on the postmark date of the payment or the date of receipt by the NFC if 
no postmark date is present or legible. Bills are payable upon receipt 
and become delinquent 30 days from date of billing.
    (b) Any amount due not paid by the due date will be increased by a 
late payment charge. The actual assessed rate applied to overdue 
accounts is set quarterly by the Department of the Treasury. This amount 
is one-twelfth of one year's late penalty interest rate computed at the 
prescribed rate.
    (c) Overtime or holiday laboratory service will not be performed for 
any applicant with a notice of delinquency.
    (d) Applicants with three notices of delinquency will be reviewed 
for possible termination of services. A deposit in advance sufficient to 
cover the fees and expenses for any subsequent service may be required 
of any person failing to pay in claim after issuance of such notice of 
delinquency.
    (e) The Division Director will take such action as may be necessary 
to collect any delinquent amounts due.



Sec. 91.45  Charges for laboratory services on a contract basis.

    (a) Irrespective of fees and charges prescribed in Sec. 91.37, or in 
other sections of this subchapter E, the Division Director may enter 
into contracts with applicants to perform continuous laboratory services 
or other types of laboratory services pursuant to the regulations in 
this part and other requirements, as prescribed by the Division Director 
in such contract. In addition, the charges for such laboratory services, 
provided in such contracts, shall be on such basis as will reimburse the 
Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department for the full cost of 
rendering such laboratory services, including an appropriate overhead 
charge to cover administrative overhead expenses as may be determined by 
the Administrator.
    (b) Irrespective of fees and charges prescribed in Sec. 91.37, or in 
other sections of this subchapter E, the Division Director may enter 
into a written Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) or agreement with any 
administrative agency or governing party for the performance of 
laboratory services pursuant to said agreement or order on a basis that 
will reimburse the Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department for 
the full cost of rendering such laboratory service, including an 
appropriate overhead administrative overhead charge.
    (c) The conditions and terms for renewal of such Memorandum of 
Understanding or agreement shall be specified in the contract.



PART 92--TOBACCO--Table of Contents




Sec.
92.1  General.
92.2  Definitions.
92.3  Location for laboratory testing and kind of services available.
92.4  Approved forms for reporting analytical results.

[[Page 246]]

92.5  Analytical methods.
92.6  Cost for pesticide analysis set by cooperative agreement.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 511m, 511r.

    Source:  58 FR 42424, Aug. 9, 1993, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 92.1  General.

    Analytical testing of imported flue-cured and burley tobacco is 
performed for maximum allowable pesticide residue levels. Domestic grown 
tobacco may also be analyzed for pesticide residues at the Science and 
Technology Division's Eastern Laboratory facility.
[58 FR 42424, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996, 61 
FR 55840, Oct. 29, 1996]



Sec. 92.2  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this part in the singular form will 
import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this part, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. 
Artificial heat is sometimes used to control excess humidity during the 
curing period to prevent house-burn, barn-burn and pole-burn in damp 
weather. Air-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or fumes 
resulting from the application of artificial heat.
    Burley. A thin to medium-bodied tobacco, usually a light tan to 
reddish-brown in color.
    Burley, Type 93. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as 
foreign-grown Burley, produced in countries other than the United 
States.
    Certificate of Analysis (Form CSSD-3). A legal document on which the 
test results for official samples will be certified by a Division 
chemist in charge of testing.
    Cured. Tobacco dried of its sap by either natural or artificial 
processes.
    2,4-D. The common abbreviation for the acid herbicide 2,4-
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
    DBCP. The common abbreviation for the volatile fumigant pesticide 
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
    DDE. The common abbreviation for the chlorinated pesticide 
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. Degradation product of DDT by loss of 
one molecule of hydrochloric acid or referred to as a 
dehydrohalogenation process.
    DDT. The common abbreviation for Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane 
or the common name for the chlorinated insecticide or contact poison 
1,1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane.
    Dicamba. The common name for the acid herbicide 2-Methoxy-3,6-
dichlorobenzoic acid.
    EDB. The common abbreviation for Ethylene dibromide or the common 
name for the volatile fumigant pesticide 1,2-Dibromoethane.
    Flue-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by 
a process of regulating the heat and ventilation without allowing smoke 
or fumes from the fuel to come in contact with the tobacco; or tobacco 
cured by some other process which accomplishes the same results.
    Flue-cured, Type 92. That type of flue-cured tobacco commonly known 
as Foreign-grown Flue-cured, produced in countries other than the United 
States.
    Formothion. The common name for the organophosphorus pesticide S-(2-
(Formylmethylamino)-2-oxoethyl) O-O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate.
    HCB. The common abbreviation for the organochlorine pesticide 
Hexachlorobenzene.
    Lot. A unit of shipment of tobacco encompassed by a single invoice. 
The lot may represent a pile, basket, bulk, hack, burden, or more than 
one bale, case, hogshead, tierce, package, or other definite package 
unit.
    Maximum pesticide residue level. The maximum concentration of 
residue allowable for a specific pesticide or combination of pesticides, 
as set forth in Sec. 29.427 by the Director of the Tobacco Division.
    Pesticide. Any substance or mixture of substances intended for 
preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest, and any 
substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant 
regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.
    Pesticide certification. A document issued by the Tobacco Division 
in a form approved by its Director, containing a certification by the 
importer that flue-cured and burley tobacco offered for importation does 
not exceed the

[[Page 247]]

maximum allowable residue levels of any pesticide that has been 
canceled, suspended, revoked, or otherwise prohibited under the Federal 
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).
    Pesticide test sample. An official sample or samples, collected from 
a lot of tobacco by the AMS Tobacco Division inspector for analysis by a 
certified chemist to ascertain the residue levels of pesticides that 
have been canceled, suspended, revoked, or otherwise prohibited under 
the FIFRA.
    Sample Identification Form (Form TB-89). A document approved by the 
Director of the Tobacco Division that identifies and accompanies the 
sample to the testing facility.
    2,4,5-T. The common abbreviation for the acid herbicide 2,4,5-
Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
    TDE. The common abbreviation for the chlorinated insecticide 1,1-
Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane.
    Testing. The chemical analysis of a pesticide test sample to 
determine the presence and levels of pesticide residues.
    Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between the time it is cured and 
stripped from the stalk, or primed and cured, in whole leaf or strip 
form, and the time it enters into the different manufacturing processes. 
Conditioning, sweating, stemming, and threshing are not regarded as 
manufacturing processes. Tobacco, as used in this part does not include 
manufactured or semimanufactured products, stems, cuttings, clippings, 
trimmings, siftings, or dust.



Sec. 92.3  Location for laboratory testing and kind of services available.

    (a) The analytical testing of imported Type 92 flue-cured tobacco 
samples and imported Type 93 burley tobacco samples for maximum 
pesticide residue level determinations is performed at the Science and 
Technology Division's Eastern Laboratory, and is located at: USDA, AMS, 
Science and Technology Division, Eastern Laboratory, 645 Cox Road, 
Gastonia, NC 28054.
    (b) Domestic-grown tobacco and tobacco products may be analyzed for 
acid herbicides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fumigants, and 
organophosphates at the Science and Technology Division facility in this 
section.
    (c) The Division performs for the Tobacco Division the quantitative 
and confirmatory chemical residue analyses on pesticide test samples of 
imported tobacco for the following specific pesticides:
    (1) Organochlorine pesticides such as Dichloro-
diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT), 
1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane (TDE), Toxaphene, Endrin, 
Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Methoxychlor, Chlordane, Heptachlor 
Epoxide, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Cypermethrin, and Permethrin.
    (2) Organophosphorus pesticides such as Formothion.
    (3) Fumigants such as Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) and 
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP).
    (4) Acid herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and Dicamba.
[58 FR 42424, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996, 61 
FR 55840, Oct. 29, 1996]



Sec. 92.4  Approved forms for reporting analytical results.

    (a) Form TB-89, ``Imported Tobacco Pesticide Residue Analysis'' 
certificate, is enclosed with and identifies the sample submitted to the 
laboratory.
    (b) Test results of the pesticide analyses for tobacco shall be 
recorded on ``Certificate of Analysis For Official Samples,'' Form CSSD-
3, and shall be expressed in total parts per million, per gram sample 
for each particular pesticide residue found in the lot of tobacco. Form 
CSSD-3 is attached to Form TB-89 that is returned to the Tobacco 
Division. The analytical data on Form CSSD-3 substantiates the 
information placed on Form TB-89.



Sec. 92.5  Analytical methods.

    Every chemist certified to analyze tobacco samples for pesticide 
residue contamination shall follow precisely the USDA developed 
analytical test methods and all successive official

[[Page 248]]

method updates, as approved by the Director, Science and Technology 
Division.
[58 FR 42424, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 92.6  Cost for pesticide analysis set by cooperative agreement.

    The fee for the pesticide analysis of tobacco is set by the Tobacco 
Division, in conjunction with the Science and Technology Division, and 
appears at Sec. 29.500 as part of Tobacco Division's fees for sampling 
and certification of imported flue-cured and burley tobacco. A 
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) exists between the Tobacco Division 
and the Science and Technology Division for the testing of imported 
tobacco samples for pesticide residue contamination, and the 
corresponding agreement on the cost of analyses is specified in this 
document.
[58 FR 42424, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51350, Oct. 2, 1996]



PART 93--PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES--Table of Contents




          Subpart A--Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products

Sec.
93.1  General.
93.2  Definitions.
93.3  Analyses available and location of laboratory.
93.4  Analytical methods.
93.5  Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

         Subpart B--Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds

93.10  General.
93.11  Definitions.
93.12  Analyses available and locations of laboratories.
93.13  Analytical methods.
93.14  Fees for aflatoxin testing.
93.15  Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624.

    Source:  61 FR 51351, Oct. 2, 1996, unless otherwise noted.



          Subpart A--Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products



Sec. 93.1  General.

    Domestic and imported citrus products are tested to determine 
whether quality and grade standards are satisfied as set forth in the 
Florida Citrus Code.



Sec. 93.2  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Acid. The grams of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric 
acid, per 100 grams of juice or citrus product. Total acidity is 
determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution, using 
phenolphthalein as indicator.
    Brix or degrees Brix. The percent by weight total soluble solids of 
the juice or citrus product when tested with a Brix hydrometer 
calibrated at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) and to which any applicable 
temperature correction has been made. The Brix or degrees Brix may be 
determined by any other method which gives equivalent results.
    Brix value. The refractometric sucrose value of the juice or citrus 
product determined in accordance with the ``International Scale of 
Refractive Indices of Sucrose Solutions'' and to which the applicable 
correction for acid is added. The Brix value is determined in accordance 
with the refractometric method outlined in the Official Methods of 
Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick Avenue, 
Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.
    Brix value/acid ratio. The ratio of the Brix value of the juice or 
citrus product, in degrees Brix, to the grams of anhydrous citric acid 
per 100 grams of juice or citrus product.
    Brix/acid ratio. The ratio of the degrees Brix of the juice to the 
grams of

[[Page 249]]

anhydrous citric acid per 100 grams of the juice.
    Citrus. All plants, edible parts and commodity products thereof, 
including pulp and juice of any orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit, 
mandarin, tangerine, kumquat or other tree or shrub in the genera 
Citrus, Fortunella, or Poncirus of the plant family Rutaceae.
    Recoverable oil. The percent of oil by volume, determined by the 
Bromate titration method as described in the current edition of the AOAC 
INTERNATIONAL.



Sec. 93.3  Analyses available and location of laboratory.

    (a) Laboratory analyses of citrus juice and other citrus products 
are being performed at the following Science and Technology Division 
location: Science and Technology Division Citrus Laboratory, 98 Third 
Street, SW, Winter Haven, FL 33880.
    (b) Laboratory analyses of citrus fruit and products in Florida are 
available in order to determine if such commodities satisfy the quality 
and grade standards set forth in the Florida Citrus Code (Florida 
Statutes Pursuant to Chapter 601). Such analyses include tests for acid 
as anhydrous citric acid, Brix, Brix-acid ratio, recoverable oil, and 
artificial coloring matter additive, as turmeric. The Florida Division 
of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection may also request analyses for arsenic 
metal, pulp wash (ultraviolet and fluorescence), standard plate count, 
yeast with mold count, and nutritive sweetening ingredients as sugars.
    (c) Additional laboratory tests are available upon request at the 
Science and Technology Division Citrus Laboratory at Winter Haven, 
Florida. Such analyses include tests for vitamins, naringin, sodium 
benzoate, Salmonella, protein, salt, pesticide residues, sodium metal, 
ash, potassium metal, and coliforms for citrus products.



Sec. 93.4  Analytical methods.

    (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found 
in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL.
    (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as 
approved by the Director, Science and Technology Division.



Sec. 93.5  Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    The fees for the analyses of fresh citrus juices and other citrus 
products shall be set by mutual agreement between the applicant, the 
State of Florida, and the Director, Science and Technology Division. A 
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) or cooperative agreement exists 
presently with the AMS Science and Technology Division and the State of 
Florida, regarding the set hourly rate and the costs to perform 
individual tests on Florida citrus products, for the State.



         Subpart B--Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds



Sec. 93.10  General.

    Chemical analyses are performed to detect the presence of aflatoxin 
in lots of shelled peanuts and peanut products, as well as in other nuts 
and agricultural products. In addition, proximate chemical analyses for 
quality determination are performed on oilseeds.



Sec. 93.11  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Aflatoxin. A toxic metabolite produced by the molds Aspergillus 
flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The aflatoxin compounds fluoresce 
when viewed under UV light as follows: aflatoxin B1 and 
derivatives with a blue fluorescence, aflatoxin B2 with a 
blue-violet fluorescence, aflatoxin G1 with a green 
fluorescence, aflatoxin G2 with a green-blue fluorescence, 
aflatoxin M1 with a blue-violet fluorescence, and aflatoxin 
M2 with a violet fluorescence. These closely related 
molecular structures are referred to as aflatoxin B1, 
B2, G1, G2, M1, 
M2, GM1, B2a, G2a, 
R0, B3, 1- OCH3 B2, and 
1CH3 G2.
    Peanut Administrative Committee (PAC). The committee established

[[Page 250]]

under the U.S. Department of Agriculture Marketing Agreement for 
Peanuts, 7 CFR part 998, which administers the terms and provisions of 
this Agreement, including the aflatoxin control program for domestically 
produced raw peanuts, for peanut shellers.
    Peanut Marketing Agreement. The agreement concerning the regulations 
and instructions set forth since July 12, 1965, by the Peanut 
Administrative Committee for the marketing of peanuts entered into by 
handlers of domestically produced peanuts under the authority of the 
Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 
et seq.).
    Peanuts. The seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea, and includes both 
inshell and shelled nuts.
    Seed. Any vegetable or other agricultural plant ovule having an 
embryo that is capable of germinating to produce a plant.



Sec. 93.12  Analyses available and locations of laboratories.

    (a) Aflatoxin testing services. The aflatoxin analyses for peanuts, 
other nuts, corn, and other oilseed products are performed at the 
following 8 locations for Science and Technology Division (S&TD) 
Aflatoxin Laboratories:

(1) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 1557 Reeves Street, Mail: P.O. Box 1368, Dothan, AL 
    36302.
(2) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 1211 Schley Avenue, Albany, GA 31707.
(3) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 610 North Main Street, Blakely, GA 31723.
(4) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 107 South Fourth Street, Madill, OK 73446.
(5) USDA, AMS, S&TD, 308 Culloden Street, Mail: P.O. Box 1130, Suffolk, 
    VA 23434.
(6) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Golden Peanut Company, 200 West Washington 
    Street, Mail: P.O. Box 488, Ashburn, GA 31714.
(7) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Golden Peanut Company, 301 West Pearl Street, 
    Mail: P.O. Box 279, Aulander, NC 27805.
(8) USDA, AMS, S&TD, c/o Stevens Industries, Cargill, Inc., 715 North 
    Main Street, Mail: P.O. Box 272, Dawson, GA 31742.

    (b) Peanuts, peanut products, and oilseed testing services. (1) The 
Science and Technology Division Aflatoxin Laboratories at Dothan, 
Alabama and Albany and Blakely, Georgia will perform other analyses for 
peanuts, peanut products, and a variety of oilseeds. The analyses for 
oilseeds include testing for free fatty acids, ammonia, nitrogen or 
protein, moisture and volatile matter, foreign matter, and oil (fat) 
content.
    (2) All of the analyses described in paragraph (b)(1) of this 
section performed on a single seed sample are billed at the rate of one 
hour per sample. Any single seed analysis performed on a single sample 
is billed at the rate of one-half hour per sample. The standard hourly 
rate shall be as specified in 7 CFR 91.37(b).
    (c) Vegetable oil testing services. The analyses for vegetable oils 
are performed at the Science and Technology Division Midwestern 
Laboratory, 3570 North Avondale Ave., Chicago, IL 60618. The analyses 
for vegetable oils will include the flash point test, smoke point test, 
acid value, peroxide value, phosphorus in oil, and specific gravity. The 
fee charged for any single laboratory analysis for vegetable oils shall 
be obtained from the schedules of charges in 7 CFR 91.37(a).



Sec. 93.13  Analytical methods.

    Official analyses for peanuts, nuts, corn, oilseeds, and related 
vegetable oils are found in the following manuals:
    (a) Analyst's Instruction for Aflatoxin (August 1994), S&TD 
Instruction No. 1, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and 
Technology Division, South Agriculture Building, 14th & Independence 
Avenue, SW, P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC 20090-6456.
    (b) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil 
Chemists' Society (AOCS), American Oil Chemists' Society, 1608 Broadmoor 
Drive, P.O. Box 3489, Champaign, IL 61826-3489.
    (c) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 
481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.
    (d) Standard Analytical Methods of the Member Companies of Corn 
Industries Research Foundation, Corn Refiners Association (CRA), Suite 
1120, 1100

[[Page 251]]

Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036.



Sec. 93.14  Fees for aflatoxin testing.

    (a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis for 
aflatoxins shall be obtained from the schedules of charges in 7 CFR 
91.37(a).
    (b) The charge for the aflatoxin testing of raw peanuts under the 
Peanut Marketing Agreement for subsamples 1-AB, 2-AB, 3-AB, and 1-CD is 
a set cost per pair of analyses and shall be set by cooperative 
agreement between the Peanut Administrative Committee and AMS Science 
and Technology Division.
    (c) The charge for any requested laboratory analysis for aflatoxins 
not listed shall be based on the standard hourly rate specified in 7 CFR 
91.37(b).



Sec. 93.15  Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    (a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis for oilseeds 
shall be obtained from the schedules of charges in 7 CFR 91.37(a).
    (b) The charge for any requested laboratory analysis for oilseeds 
not listed shall be based on the standard hourly rate specified in 7 CFR 
91.37(b).



PART 94--POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS--Table of Contents




              Subpart A--Mandatory Analyses of Egg Products

Sec.
94.1  General.
94.2  Definitions.
94.3  Analyses performed and locations of laboratories.
94.4  Analytical methods.
94.5  Charges for laboratory service.

              Subpart B--Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products

94.100  General.
94.101  Definitions.
94.102  Analyses available.
94.103  Analytical methods.
94.104  Fees and charges.

          Subpart C--Salmonella Laboratory Recognition Program

94.200  [Reserved]

                  Subpart D--Processed Poultry Products

94.300  General.
94.301  Definitions.
94.302  Analyses available and locations of laboratories.
94.303  Analytical methods.
94.304  Fees and charges.

    Authority:  Secs. 2-28 of the Egg Products Inspection Act (84 Stat. 
1620-1635; 21 U.S.C. 1031-1056), Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 
Secs. 202-208 as amended (60 Stat. 1087-1091; 7 U.S.C. 1621-1627).

    Source:  58 FR 42428, Aug. 9, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

    Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 94 appear at 61 FR 
51352, Oct. 2 1996.



              Subpart A--Mandatory Analyses of Egg Products



Sec. 94.1  General.

    Microbiological, chemical, and physical analysis of liquid, frozen, 
and dried egg products is performed under authority of the Egg Products 
Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031-1056).



Sec. 94.2  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Egg. The shell egg of the domesticated chicken, turkey, duck, goose, 
or guinea. Some of the terms applicable to shell eggs are defined by the 
Poultry Division in Sec. 59.5.
    Egg product. Any dried, frozen, or liquid eggs, with or without 
added ingredients. However, products which contain eggs only in a 
relatively small proportion or historically have not been, in the 
judgment of the Secretary, considered by consumers as products of the 
egg food industry may be exempted by the Secretary under such conditions 
as may be prescribed to assure that the egg ingredients are not 
adulterated and such products are not represented as egg products. Some 
of the products exempted as not being egg products are specified by the 
Poultry Division in Sec. 59.5.

[[Page 252]]

    Mandatory sample. An official sample of egg product(s) taken for 
testing under authority of the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 
1031-1056) for analysis by a U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology Division 
laboratory at government expense. A mandatory sample shall include an 
egg product sample to be analyzed for microbiological, chemical, or 
physical attributes.
    Official plant. Any plant, as determined by the Secretary, at which 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture maintains inspection of the 
processing of egg products under the authority of the Egg Products 
Inspection Act.
    Pasteurize. The subjecting of each particle of egg products to heat 
or other treatments to destroy harmful viable microorganisms by such 
processes as may be prescribed by the regulations in the EPIA.
    Pesticide chemical, food additive, color additive, and raw 
agricultural commodity. These terms shall have the same meaning for 
purposes of this subpart as under sections 408, 409, and 706 of the 
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
    Plant. Any place of business where egg products are processed.
    Processing. Manufacturing of egg products, including breaking eggs 
or filtering, mixing, blending, pasteurizing, stabilizing, cooling, 
freezing, drying, or packaging egg products at official plants.



Sec. 94.3  Analyses performed and locations of laboratories.

    (a) Samples drawn by a USDA egg products inspector will be analyzed 
by Science and Technology Division personnel for microbiological, 
chemical, and physical attributes. The analytical results of these 
samples will be reported to the resident egg products inspector at the 
applicable plant on the official certificate.
    (b) Mandatory egg product samples for Salmonella are required and 
are analyzed in Division laboratories to spot check and confirm the 
adequacy of Division approved and recognized laboratories for analyzing 
routine egg product samples for Salmonella.
    (c) Mandatory egg product samples for chlorinated hydrocarbons are 
required and are submitted by the plant inspectors on a random basis. 
These samples screen for pesticide residues and industrial chemical 
contaminants in egg products.
    (d) Samples are drawn by a USDA egg products inspector to determine 
potential adulteration. These egg product samples may be analyzed for 
extraneous material, color, color additive, pesticide, heavy metal, 
microorganism, dextrin, or other substance.
    (e) The Science and Technology Division's Eastern Laboratory shall 
conduct the majority of laboratory analyses for egg products. The 
analyses for mandatory egg product samples are performed at the 
following USDA location: USDA, AMS, Science and Technology Division, 
Eastern Laboratory, 2311-B Aberdeen Boulevard, Gastonia, NC 28054.
[58 FR 42428, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 24325, May 10, 1994; 59 
FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994]



Sec. 94.4  Analytical methods.

    The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to 
perform mandatory analyses for egg products are listed as follows:
    (a) Edwards, P.R. and W.H. Ewing, Edwards and Ewing's Identification 
of Enterobacteriaceae, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., 52 
Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017.
    (b) Manual of Analytical Methods for the Analysis of Pesticide 
Residues in Human and Environmental Samples, U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Toxicology Division, Health 
Effects Research Laboratory (HERL), Alexander Drive and Highway 54, Mail 
Drop 51, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.
    (c) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 
481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.
    (d) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, American 
Public Health Association, 1015 Eighteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 
20036.
    (e) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 
American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works 
Association and the Water Pollution

[[Page 253]]

Control Federation, APHA, 1015 Eighteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 
20036.
    (f) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical 
Manual (BAM), Association of Official Analytical Chemists, suite 400, 
2200 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3301.
    (g) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Analytical Manuals 
(PAM), Volumes I and II, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department 
of Health and Human Services, 200 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20204 
(available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal 
Road, Springfield, VA 22161).
[58 FR 42428, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51352, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 94.5  Charges for laboratory service.

    The costs for analysis of mandatory egg product samples at Science 
and Technology Division laboratories shall be paid by annually 
appropriated and designated funds allocated to the egg products 
inspection program. The costs for any other mandatory laboratory 
analyses and testing of an egg product's identity and condition, 
necessitated by the Egg Products Inspection Act, shall also be paid by 
such program funding.



              Subpart B--Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products



Sec. 94.100  General.

    Analyses for voluntary egg product samples may be requested to 
certify that specifications regarding stated identity, quality, and 
wholesomeness are met; to test routinely for the presence of Salmonella; 
and to ensure laboratory quality control with testing activities.



Sec. 94.101  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this part, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Certification sample. An egg product sample submitted by an 
applicant for chemical, physical, or microbiological analyses and tests 
at a Science and Technology Division laboratory. This voluntary sample 
is analyzed or tested by the Division's analyst or scientist to certify 
that an egg product lot meets applicable specifications for identity, 
quality, and wholesomeness.
    Surveillance sample. This is a 100 gram sample for Salmonella 
analysis that is drawn by the USDA egg product inspector from each lot 
of egg product processed at an official plant. This sample may be 
analyzed by a Science and Technology Division laboratory, or by a 
laboratory approved and recognized by the Division to analyze for 
Salmonella in egg products.
    Unofficial sample. These samples of egg products are drawn by plant 
personnel upon the request of plant management. Analyses of these 
samples are usually conducted for the plant's refractometer correlation, 
bacteriological evaluation of production techniques, or quality control 
of procedures. Official plant or Science and Technology Division 
laboratories can analyze these samples.



Sec. 94.102  Analyses available.

    A wide array of analyses for voluntary egg product samples is 
available. Voluntary egg product samples include surveillance, 
certification, and unofficial samples. The physical and chemical tests 
for voluntary egg products include analyses for total ash, fat by acid 
hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene, catalase, 
cholesterol, NEPA color, density, total solids, aflatoxin, daminozide 
and amitraz residues, BHA, BHT, alcohol, chlorinated hydrocarbon and 
fumigant residues, dextrin, heavy and light filth, glucose, glycerol and 
gums. In addition, egg products can be analyzed for high sucrose 
content, pH, heavy metals and minerals, monosodium dihydrogen phosphate, 
monosodium glutamate, nitrites, oxygen, palatability and odor, 
phosphorus, propylene glycol, SLS, and zeolex. There are also be tests 
for starch, total sugars, sugar profile, whey, standard plate count, 
direct microscopic count, Campylobacter, coliforms, presumptive 
Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, proteolytic

[[Page 254]]

count, psychrotrophic bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, thermoduric 
bacteria, and yeast with mold count.



Sec. 94.103  Analytical methods.

    The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division 
laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for egg products shall be the 
same as listed in Sec. 94.4.



Sec. 94.104  Fees and charges.

    (a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis of voluntary 
egg product samples shall be obtained from the schedules of charges in 
paragraph (a) of Sec. 91.37 of this subchapter.
    (b) The charge for any requested laboratory analysis not listed 
shall be based on the standard hourly rate specified in Sec. 91.37, 
paragraph (b).



          Subpart C--Salmonella Laboratory Recognition Program



 94.200  [Reserved]



                  Subpart D--Processed Poultry Products



Sec. 94.300  General.

    Laboratory services of processed poultry products are conducted to 
derive their analytical attributes used to determine the compliance of 
the product with applicable specifications.



Sec. 94.301  Definitions.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Dark meat. Refers to the skinless and deboned drumstick, thigh, and 
back portions of poultry.
    Light meat. Refers to the skinless and deboned breast and wing 
portions of poultry.
    Poultry. Any kind of domesticated bird, including, but not limited 
to, chicken, turkey, duck, goose, pigeon, and guinea.
    Poultry product. Any ready-to-cook poultry carcass or part therefrom 
or any specified poultry food product.



Sec. 94.302  Analyses available and locations of laboratories.

    (a) The Science and Technology Division laboratories will analyze 
processed poultry products for moisture, fat, salt, protein, nitrites, 
and added citric acid.
    (b) Deboned poultry for roasting will have the individual dark meat, 
light meat, and skin portions tumbled separately in the natural juices 
prior to grinding. The skin, light meat, and dark meat portion weight 
percentages of the total product are determined. The ground skin, ground 
dark meat, and ground light meat portions will be analyzed separately 
for moisture, protein, salt, and fat. Moisture to protein ratios will be 
reported also for the individual portions of poultry.
    (c) Canned boned poultry for a variety of USDA programs will be 
tested as a total can composite of the canned product for moisture, fat, 
salt, and protein analyses. Additional poultry commodities and related 
products for specific USDA sponsored programs will be tested for 
different chemical and physical attributes.
    (d) Microbiological analyses, as the Salmonella determination, are 
available for poultry products.
    (e) The majority of analyses for processed poultry products shall be 
performed at the Science and technology Division Eastern Laboratory, as 
indicated in paragraph (e) of Sec. 94.3.



Sec. 94.303  Analytical methods.

    The analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform 
analyses for processed poultry products are found in the latest edition 
of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 
481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417.
[61 FR 51352, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 94.304  Fees and charges.

    (a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis of processed 
poultry products shall be obtained from the schedules of charges in 
paragraph (a) of Sec. 91.37 of this subchapter.

[[Page 255]]

    (b) The laboratory analyses for processed poultry products shall 
result in an additional fee, found in Table 7 of Sec. 91.37 of this 
subchapter, for sample preparation or grinding.
    (c) The charge for any requested laboratory analysis of processed 
poultry products not listed shall be based on the standard hourly rate 
specified in Sec. 91.37 (b) of this subchapter.



PART 95  [RESERVED]






PART 96--COTTONSEED SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE FOR CRUSHING PURPOSES (CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND UNITED STATES OFFICIAL GRADE CERTIFICATION)--Table of Contents




          Subpart A--Cottonseed Chemists--Licensing Regulations

                                  Scope

Sec.
96.1  General.

                               Definitions

96.2  Terms defined.

                      Licensed Cottonseed Chemists

96.3  Application for license as cottonseed chemist; form.
96.4  Examination of applicant.
96.5  Period of license; renewals.
96.6  Conditions in licensing.
96.7  Sustained proficiency; suspension of license of cottonseed 
          chemist.
96.8  Annual review of licensed chemist.
96.9  Fees for grading and certification.
96.10  Records of analyses; inspection of certificate recordkeeping.
96.11  Official and unofficial samples; analyses; certificate.
96.12  Unlicensed persons shall not analyze and certify the grade of 
          official samples.
96.13  Grade certificate; form.
96.14  Reports of licensed chemists.
96.15  Information of violations.
96.16  Licensed chemists; suspension or revocation of license.
96.17  Revoked license to be returned to Division.
96.18  Duplicate license.
96.19  Information on grading to be kept confidential.

                            Fees and Charges

96.20  Fee for chemist's license.
96.21  Fee for certificates to be paid by licensee to Service.
96.22  Fees for the review of grading of cottonseed.

            Subpart B--Official Cottonseed Grade Calculations

96.23  General.
96.24  Definitions, cottonseed quality analysis terms.
96.25  Determination of grade.
96.26  Determination of quantity index.
96.27  Determination of quality index.
96.28  Calculation of grades of official samples.
96.29  Analysis and certification of samples and grades.

    Authority:  7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624.

    Source:  58 FR 42431, Aug. 9, 1993, unless otherwise noted.



          Subpart A--Cottonseed Chemists--Licensing Regulations

                                  Scope



Sec. 96.1  General.

    Licenses are issued to chemists of laboratories involved in the 
grading of cottonseed. A chemist that has passed examinations for 
analyst proficiency and for official standards used for grading shall be 
issued a license to perform quality analyses for grade determinations of 
cottonseed.

                               Definitions



Sec. 96.2  Terms defined.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Blind check sample. A sample designated to check the routine 
analytical testing performance of the licensed USDA cottonseed chemist. 
The cottonseed is originally mixed in bulk quantities at a Division 
laboratory and packaged so that it is a representative portion for the 
samples forwarded to all chemists in a region under a certain number 
code. An oil mill representative and official cottonseed sampler 
repackage and identify the cottonseed as an official sample so that it 
would be blind or unknown as a check sample to the analyst.

[[Page 256]]

    Commercial laboratory. A chemical laboratory operated by an 
individual, firm, or corporation in which one or more persons are 
engaged in the chemical analysis of materials for the public.
    Cotton gin. The machine or device used to separate the cotton fiber 
from the cottonseed.
    Cottonseed. The word ``cottonseed'' as used in this part means the 
seed, after having been put through the usual and customary process 
known as cotton ginning, of any cotton produced within the continental 
United States.
    Dispute. A disagreement between parties as to the true grade of a 
sample of cottonseed analyzed and graded by a licensed chemist.
    License. A license issued under the Act by the Secretary.
    Licensed cottonseed chemist. A person licensed under the Act by the 
Secretary to make quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses of 
official samples of cottonseed, according to the methods prescribed by 
the Director of the Division, and to certify the grade according to the 
official cottonseed standards of the United States.
    Licensed cottonseed sampler. A person licensed by the Secretary to 
draw and to certify the authenticity of samples of cottonseed in 
accordance with the regulations in this subpart.
    Lot. That parcel or quantity of cottonseed, offered for sale or 
tendered for delivery, or delivered on a sale or contract of sale, in 
freight cars, trucks, wagons, or otherwise in the quantities and within 
the time limits, prescribed from time to time by the Director of the AMS 
Cotton Division, for the drawing and preparation of official samples by 
licensed cottonseed samplers.
    Official cottonseed standards. The official standards of the United 
States for the grading, sampling, and analyzing of cottonseed sold or 
offered for sale for crushing purposes, established May 23, 1932, and 
amendments thereto.
    Official sample. A specimen of not less than 2 pounds of cottonseed, 
drawn and prepared by a licensed cottonseed sampler and certified as 
representative of a certain identified lot, in accordance with the 
regulations in this subpart.
    Owner. A person who through financial interest owns or controls, or 
has the disposition of either cottonseed or of samples of cottonseed.
    Society. The American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), P.O. Box 3489, 
1608 Broadmoor Drive, Champaign, IL 61826-3489.
    Supervisor of cottonseed chemists. An officer of the Science and 
Technology Division designated as such by the Director.
[58 FR 42431, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51352, Oct. 2, 1996]

                      Licensed Cottonseed Chemists



Sec. 96.3  Application for license as cottonseed chemist; form.

    (a) Application for a license to analyze and grade cottonseed shall 
be made to the Director on a form furnished for the purpose by the 
Science and Technology Division.
    (b) Each application shall be in English, shall be signed by the 
applicant, and shall contain or be accompanied by satisfactory evidence:
    (1) That the applicant is at least 25 years of age and that the 
applicant is an actual resident of the continental United States;
    (2) That the applicant holds a degree in chemistry or chemical 
engineering from a recognized college or university, and has had not 
less than 3 years practical experience in laboratory work, in which the 
applicant shall have analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively samples 
of cottonseed; or in the absence of a degree from a recognized college 
or university, that the applicant has had at least 5 years practical 
laboratory experience, 3 years of which shall have been devoted chiefly 
to the analysis of samples of cottonseed;
    (3) That the applicant has no financial interest, or is in the 
employ of anyone having a financial interest in any cottonseed oil mill 
or cotton ginning establishment;
    (4) That the applicant agrees to comply with and abide by the terms 
of the Act and these regulations so far as they may relate to him or 
her;
    (5) That the applicant is an independent analytical chemist or an 
employee of a commercial analytical laboratory; and

[[Page 257]]

    (6) That the applicant owns or will have the use of all of the 
apparatus specified in the regulations, established hereunder for the 
analysis and grading of cottonseed.
    (c) Every chemist licensed hereunder to analyze cottonseed and to 
certify the grade thereof shall comply with the Society's official 
analytical test methods and other methods of analysis approved by the 
Director.
    (d) The applicant shall furnish such additional information, as the 
Director shall at any time find to be necessary, to the consideration of 
the submitted application.
    (e) Upon receipt of an incomplete or improperly executed 
application, the applicant will be notified of the deficiency in the 
application. If the application is not corrected and returned within 30 
days following the date of notification, the application will be 
considered as having been abandoned.
[58 FR 42431, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51352, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 96.4  Examination of applicant.

    Each applicant for a license as a chemist and each licensed chemist 
shall, when requested, submit to a practical examination and written 
test, to show an ability to analyze and grade cottonseed. These 
examinations can only be administered by the supervisor of cottonseed 
chemists. The chemist's failure to pass such tests may be considered 
sufficient ground for withholding the issuance of a license or of a 
renewal of a license.



Sec. 96.5  Period of license; renewals.

    The period for which a license may be issued shall be from the first 
day of August, until, and including the 31st day of July, following. 
Renewals shall be for not more than 1 year beginning with the first day 
of August of each year, provided that licenses issued on and after June 
1 of any year shall be for the period ending on July 31 of the following 
year.



Sec. 96.6  Conditions in licensing.

    (a) It shall be a condition of the licensing of any person and of 
the retention by him or her of a license, that during the active cotton 
season each year, the licensee shall be engaged in or in connection with 
the grading of cottonseed; that each cottonseed sample offered for 
grading shall be analyzed and grade certified by the licensee, in 
accordance with the official cottonseed standards of the United States; 
and that the USDA license of the cottonseed chemist shall not be used or 
be allowed to be used for any improper purpose.
    (b) A USDA licensed cottonseed chemist shall be required to 
participate in each quality assurance program and each collaborative 
study for the analytical testing of cottonseed as follows:
    (1) The licensed chemist must participate in the American Oil 
Chemists' Society (AOCS) cottonseed series which requires the testing of 
10 known cottonseed samples per year for foreign matter, moisture, free 
fatty acids, oil, and ammonia.
    (2) The licensed chemist must analyze and issue a grade for 10 blind 
cottonseed check samples per year from the Science and Technology 
Division. These blind check samples will be submitted as ``official'' 
samples.
    (3) The chemist shall participate in all collaborative cottonseed 
analytical method validation studies, initiated by the Division 
Director.
    (c) Each licensed chemist shall keep his or her license 
conspicuously posted at the place where he or she functions as a 
chemist, or in such other place as may be approved by the Division 
Director.
    (d) Each licensed chemist must pay in a timely manner an annual 
licensing renewal fee and other charges and fees assessed by the 
Division, as listed in Secs. 96.20 and 96.21. In the event the chemist 
fails to pay the annual license renewal fee by the 31st day of August, 
the chemist will be sent a written notice of a 7-day review by the 
Director for the suspension of his or her license.
[58 FR 42431, Aug. 9, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 51352, Oct. 2, 1996]



Sec. 96.7  Sustained proficiency; suspension of license of cottonseed chemist.

    (a) Sustained proficiency in the analysis of the two check sample 
series is

[[Page 258]]

required to maintain a license. If a licensed chemist fails to perform 
satisfactorily during a 1 year period on either the AOCS or the USDA 
check cottonseed series, the chemist shall be placed on probation for 1 
year, providing that the person achieves a passing score (90 or higher) 
on a retake of the proficiency examination. In the event that the 
chemist fails the examination, he or she may be subject to an immediate 
suspension of the license.
    (b) Failure to perform satisfactorily with either quality assurance 
program during a 1 year probationary period may also result in 
suspension of the license.
    (c) Pending final action by the Director to suspend a license of a 
cottonseed chemist, a written notice of such suspension shall be given 
to the respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the reasons 
therefore. Within 7 days after receipt of notice and statement of 
reasons by a licensee, an appeal may be filed in writing with the 
Director supported by any argument or evidence as to why the license 
should not be suspended. After expiration of the 7-day period and 
consideration of such argument and evidence, the Director shall take 
such action, as deemed appropriate, with respect to a suspension.
    (d) Upon termination of service as a cottonseed chemist or 
suspension of such license, such licensee shall surrender the license 
immediately to the supervisor of the cottonseed chemists.
    (e) The minimum period of license suspension for a cottonseed 
chemist shall be 1 year, after which the chemist may reapply and be 
reexamined for a USDA license.
    (f) At the expiration of any period of suspension of such license, 
unless in the meantime it be revoked, the dates of the suspension period 
shall be endorsed thereon and returned to the licensed chemist to whom 
it was originally issued.



Sec. 96.8  Annual review of licensed chemist.

    Each licensed chemist shall be subject to an annual on-site review, 
by the supervisor of the cottonseed chemists, to assess the chemist's 
continued conformance with procedure and equipment requirements of 
official analytical test methods.



Sec. 96.9  Fees for grading and certification.

    Whenever any licensed chemist shall grade and/or certify any 
cottonseed or samples for a fee, the fee charged shall be reasonable, 
unconditional, nondiscriminatory, and shall be in accordance with a 
schedule previously submitted to and approved by the Division. The 
schedule shall include the certificate fee provided for in Sec. 96.21.



Sec. 96.10  Records of analyses; inspection of certificate recordkeeping.

    (a) Certificate recordkeeping responsibilities. The laboratory shall 
have an adequate system for the numbering and accounting of issued 
official cottonseed certificates. Provisions shall be made for 
consecutively numbering all cottonseed grade certificates issued and 
listing in a separate journal certificate numbers with the sample 
identification for accurate billing.
    (b) Retention of records for inspection. Each licensed chemist, 
shall keep, or shall cause to be kept for him or her, for a period of at 
least 3 years after date of analysis, a record of the analysis of each 
individual sample of cottonseed graded by the licensee.
    (c) Each licensed chemist shall permit any authorized officer or 
agent of the Department to inspect or examine, on any business day 
during normal business hours, books and records relating to analyses of 
cottonseed samples and issuance of cottonseed grade certificates under 
the Act and the regulations in this subpart.



Sec. 96.11  Official and unofficial samples; analyses; certificate.

    (a) Each licensed cottonseed chemist shall designate a certificate 
number from a series of assigned numbers to each official sample of 
cottonseed as received and shall analyze and certify over his or her 
signature the grade of each sample or lot of cottonseed in the order of 
its receipt.
    (b) Each such sample which is in proper condition for analysis under 
these regulations and which is accompanied by the certificate of a 
licensed cottonseed sampler certifying it to be

[[Page 259]]

an official sample that represents an identified lot of cottonseed shall 
be considered an official sample. In any case where the original sample 
is lost or destroyed before analysis, the duplicate thereof, retained by 
the licensed cottonseed sampler, as provided in Sec. 61.34 of this 
subchapter, shall become the official sample. Each licensed chemist 
shall retain for at least 2 weeks a portion of each official sample 
first analyzed; and in any case where a review is requested under 
Sec. 61.8 of this subchapter, such retained portion shall be considered 
an official sample for purposes of review analysis.
    (c) Each such sample which is: (1) Not sufficient for proper 
analysis as an official sample under these regulations, or
    (2) Not accompanied by a certificate of a licensed cottonseed 
sampler, or
    (3) Not believed to be samples of the same seed represented by an 
official sample (except duplicates or lost or destroyed official 
samples) shall be considered an unofficial sample and the licensed 
cottonseed chemist's certificate of the grade thereof shall be plainly 
marked: ``Sample not official; grade applies to sample only.'' This 
paragraph shall not apply to mill control or crush samples.



Sec. 96.12  Unlicensed persons shall not analyze and certify the grade of official samples.

    (a) No person shall in any way represent that he or she is a chemist 
licensed under the Act, unless that person holds a license issued under 
the Act. Title 18 U.S.C. 1001, Crimes and Criminal Procedures, makes it 
a criminal offense to knowingly and willfully make such false 
representations.
    (b) Only licensed chemists shall analyze and certify the grade of 
official cottonseed samples.



Sec. 96.13  Grade certificate; form.

    Each grade certificate issued under the Act by a licensed chemist 
shall be in a form, approved for the purpose by the Director and shall 
embody within its written or printed terms:
    (a) The caption ``Cottonseed Grade Certificate.''
    (b) The serial number assigned to it.
    (c) The date and place of issuance.
    (d) A statement certifying that the analysis of the cottonseed 
sample was made according to the methods approved by the Director of the 
Division and that the grade given is according to the official standards 
of the United States.
    (e) A statement of the condition of the lot of cottonseed as 
reported by the sampler, and in cases where the sample was submitted by 
a licensed sampler, the name and license number of the sampler.
    (f) The identification of each lot of cottonseed by the marks and 
notations by which the seed was identified at the time the sample was 
taken, and the origin of the cottonseed by county and State.
    (g) All analytical data required by the Director.
    (h) The signature and license number of the chemist. In addition, 
the grade certificate may include any other matter consistent with the 
Act or the regulations in this part. Two copies of the grade certificate 
form shall be submitted to and approved by the Division, before use by a 
licensed chemist. A copy of each certificate shall be mailed to a 
designated office of the Division within 36 hours after its issuance.



Sec. 96.14  Reports of licensed chemists.

    Each licensed chemist shall periodically, when requested by the 
Director, make reports on forms furnished for the purpose by the 
Division, concerning the activities as such licensed chemist.



Sec. 96.15  Information of violations.

    Whenever any person licensed under this part becomes aware of 
information relating to the violation of the Act or these regulations, 
such person shall inform the Director of the Division of the alleged 
violations.



Sec. 96.16  Licensed chemists; suspension or revocation of license.

    The Director may, without a hearing, suspend or revoke the license 
issued to a licensed chemist upon written request and a satisfactory 
statement of reasons submitted by such licensed chemist. Pending final 
action by the Secretary, the Director may, whenever

[[Page 260]]

such action is deemed necessary, suspend or revoke the license of any 
licensed chemist when such licensed chemist:
    (a) Has ceased to perform services as such chemist;
    (b) Has knowingly or carelessly analyzed cottonseed improperly;
    (c) Has violated or evaded any provision of the Act or the 
regulations so far as they relate to the licensee;
    (d) Has used the license or allowed it to be used for any fraudulent 
or improper purposes; or
    (e) Has in any manner become incompetent or incapacitated to perform 
the duties of a licensed chemist.

In such cases the Director shall give written notice of the suspension 
or revocation to the licensed chemist, accompanied by a statement of the 
reasons therefor. Within 10 days after the receipt of the aforesaid 
notice and statement of reasons by such licensee, the individual may 
file an appeal, in writing, with the Secretary, supported by any 
argument or evidence that the licensee may wish to offer, as to why the 
license should not be suspended or revoked. After the expiration of the 
aforesaid 10-day period and consideration of such argument and evidence, 
the Secretary will take such action as is deemed appropriate with 
respect to such suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within 
the prescribed 10 days, the license shall be automatically suspended or 
revoked.



Sec. 96.17  Revoked license to be returned to Division.

    If a license issued to a licensed chemist is revoked, such license 
shall be returned to the Division.



Sec. 96.18  Duplicate license.

    Upon satisfactory proof of the loss or destruction of a license 
issued to a licensed chemist, a duplicate thereof may be issued under 
the same or a new number.



Sec. 96.19  Information on grading to be kept confidential.

    Every person licensed under the Act as a licensed chemist shall keep 
confidential all information secured by the licensee, relative to 
cottonseed analyzed and graded by the licensee. The licensee shall not 
disclose such information to any person, except to the owner or 
custodian of the seed in question, or to an authorized agent of the 
Department.

                            Fees and Charges



Sec. 96.20  Fee for chemist's license.

    (a) The fee for the examination of an applicant for a license as a 
chemist to analyze and certify the grade of cottonseed shall be 
$1100.00.
    (b) The examination fee shall be paid at the time the application is 
filed or at a time prior to the administration of the examinations. This 
fee shall be paid regardless of the outcome of the licensing 
examinations. The examination fee shall be nonrefundable to the 
applicant; however, in the evident of death of the applicant prior to 
the examination, full payment of the fee may be returned to the 
applicant's beneficiary. If an application is filed with an insufficient 
fee, the application and fee submitted will be returned to the 
applicant.
    (c) For each renewal of a chemist's license, the fee shall be 
$275.00.



Sec. 96.21  Fee for certificates to be paid by licensee to Service.

    (a) To cover the cost of administering the regulations in this part, 
each licensed cottonseed chemist shall pay to the Service $3.00 for each 
certificate of the grade of cottonseed issued by the licensee.
    (b) Upon receipt of a statement from the Service each month, showing 
the number of certificates issued by the licensee, such licensee will 
forward the appropriate remittance in the form of a check, draft, or 
money order payable to the ``Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA.''



Sec. 96.22  Fees for the review of grading of cottonseed.

    For the review of the grading of any lot of cottonseed, the fee 
shall be $60.00. Remittance to cover such fee, in the form of a check, 
draft, or money order payable to the ``Agricultural Marketing Service, 
USDA'' shall accompany each application for review. For each such fee 
collected, $20.00 shall be disbursed to each of the two licensed

[[Page 261]]

chemists designated to make reanalysis of such seed.



            Subpart B--Official Cottonseed Grade Calculations



Sec. 96.23  General.

    Using methods prescribed by the Science and Technology Division, the 
licensed cottonseed chemist makes quantitative and qualitative chemical 
analyses, certificating the grade according to the official cottonseed 
standards of the United States.



Sec. 96.24  Definitions, cottonseed quality analysis terms.

    Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form 
will import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may demand. As used 
throughout the regulations in this subpart, unless the context requires 
otherwise, the following terms will be construed to mean:
    Cottonseed quality analysis. In determining the quality of 
cottonseed, testing is performed by licensed chemists for total 
composition of oil, ammonia, moisture, free fatty acids, and foreign 
matter. These individual analytical factors of cottonseed samples are 
combined to form indexes of quantity and quality, which in turn are used 
to determine the official grade of cottonseed, in accordance with the 
United States Official Standards for Grades.
    Foreign matter. The foreign matter in cottonseed includes boll 
portions, sand, dirt, stones or gravel, hulls, leaves, stems, unginned 
locks of cotton, lint cotton, immature seeds, and any noncotton 
extraneous material.
    Official grade. The official grade is the product of the quantity 
index times the quality index, and it is determined by a representative 
official sample of cottonseed, graded by a licensed chemist under the 
supervision of the United States Department of Agriculture. The base 
grade for cottonseed is 100.0.
    Quality index. The quality index measures the deterioration of 
cottonseed in oil and meal and takes into account the excesses of 
moisture, foreign matter and free fatty acids.
    Quantity index. The quantity index measures the oil and cake or