[Title 3 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - January 1, 1999 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]




          The President




          3

[[Page i]]

          1998 COMPILATION
          AND
          PARTS 100-102

          Revised as of January 1, 1999
          Published by
          the Office of the Federal Register
          National Archives and Records Administration

          as a Special Edition of
          the Federal Register

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                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                             WASHINGTON: 1999



               For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office
 Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328

[[Page iii]]




                            TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                    Page
List of Title 3 Compilations..........................................iv
Explanation of the Code of Federal Regulations.........................v
Explanation of This Title.............................................ix
How To Cite This Title................................................xi
Title 3.............................................................xiii
     1998 Compilation--Presidential Documents..........................1
     Chapter I--Executive Office of the President....................311
Title 3 Finding Aids.................................................331
     Tables..........................................................333
     List of CFR Sections Affected...................................353
     Index...........................................................355
CFR Finding Aids.....................................................363
     Table of CFR Titles and Chapters................................365
     Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR..............383

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                          TITLE 3 COMPILATIONS


________________________________________________________________________


------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Title 3 Compilations           Proclamations      Executive Orders
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1936-1938.....................  2161-2286..........      7316-7905
  1938-1943.....................  2287-2587..........      7906-9347
  1943-1948.....................  2588-2823..........      9348-10025
  1949-1953.....................  2824-3041..........     10026-10510
  1954-1958.....................  3042-3265..........     10511-10797
  1959-1963.....................  3266-3565..........     10798-11134
  1964-1965.....................  3566-3694..........     11135-11263
  1966-1970.....................  3695-4025..........     11264-11574
  1971-1975.....................  4026-4411..........     11575-11893
  1976..........................  4412-4480..........     11894-11949
  1977..........................  4481-4543..........     11950-12032
  1978..........................  4544-4631..........     12033-12110
  1979..........................  4632-4709..........     12111-12187
  1980..........................  4710-4812..........     12188-12260
  1981..........................  4813-4889..........     12261-12336
  1982..........................  4890-5008..........     12337-12399
  1983..........................  5009-5142..........     12400-12456
  1984..........................  5143-5291..........     12457-12497
  1985..........................  5292-5424..........     12498-12542
  1986..........................  5425-5595..........     12543-12579
  1987..........................  5596-5759..........     12580-12622
  1988..........................  5760-5928..........     12623-12662
  1989..........................  5929-6084..........     12663-12698
  1990..........................  6085-6240..........     12699-12741
  1991..........................  6241-6398..........     12742-12787
  1992..........................  6399-6520..........     12788-12827
  1993..........................  6521-6643..........     12828-12890
  1994..........................  6644-6763..........     12891-12944
  1995..........................  6764-6859..........     12945-12987
  1996..........................  6860-6965..........     12988-13033
  1997..........................  6966-7061..........     13034-13071
  1998..........................  7062-7161..........     13072-13109
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beginning with 1976, Title 3 Compilations also include regulations
  contained in Chapter I, Executive Office of the President.
Supplementary publications include: Presidential documents of the Hoover
  Administration (two volumes), Proclamations 1870-2037 and Executive
  Orders 5076-6070; Consolidated Indexes for 1936-1965; and Consolidated
  Tables for 1936-1965.


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                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1
    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    The Code of Federal Regulations is kept up to date by the individual 
issues of the Federal Register. These two publications must be used 
together to determine the latest version of any given rule.
    To determine whether a Code volume has been amended since its 
revision date (in this case, January 1, 1999), consult the ``List of CFR 
Sections Affected (LSA),'' which is issued monthly, and the ``Cumulative 
List of Parts Affected,'' which appears in the Reader Aids section of 
the daily Federal Register. These two lists will identify the Federal 
Register page number of the latest amendment of any given rule.

EFFECTIVE AND EXPIRATION DATES

    Each volume of the Code contains amendments published in the Federal 
Register since the last revision of that volume of the Code. Source 
citations for the regulations are referred to by volume number and page 
number of the Federal Register and date of publication. Publication 
dates and effective dates are usually not the same and care must be 
exercised by the user in determining the actual effective date. In 
instances where the effective date is beyond the cut-off date for the 
Code a note has been inserted to reflect the future effective date. In 
those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register 
states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be 
inserted following the text.

OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
amendments to existing regulations in the CFR. These OMB numbers are 
placed as close as possible to the applicable recordkeeping or reporting 
requirements.

OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

    Provisions that become obsolete before the revision date stated on 
the cover of each volume are not carried. Code users may find the text 
of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
appropriate numerical list of sections affected. For the period before 
January 1, 1986, consult either the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1949-
1963, 1964-1972, or 1973-1985, published in seven separate volumes. For 
the period beginning January 1, 1986, a ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected'' is published at the end of each CFR volume.

CFR INDEXES AND TABULAR GUIDES

    A subject index to the Code of Federal Regulations is contained in a 
separate volume, revised annually as of January 1, entitled CFR Index 
and Finding Aids. This volume contains the Parallel Table of Statutory 
Authorities and Agency Rules (Table I), and Acts Requiring Publication 
in the Federal Register (Table II). A list of CFR titles, chapters, and 
parts and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR are 
also included in this volume.
    An index to the text of ``Title 3--The President'' is carried within 
that volume.
    The Federal Register Index is issued monthly in cumulative form. 
This index is based on a consolidation of the ``Contents'' entries in 
the daily Federal Register.
    A List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA) is published monthly, keyed to 
the revision dates of the 50 CFR titles.

REPUBLICATION OF MATERIAL

    There are no restrictions on the republication of material appearing 
in the Code of Federal Regulations.

INQUIRIES

    For a legal interpretation or explanation of any regulation in this 
volume, contact the issuing agency. The issuing agency's name appears at 
the top of odd-numbered pages.
    For inquiries concerning CFR reference assistance, call 202-523-5227 
or write to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408 or e-mail 
[email protected]

SALES

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) processes all sales and 
distribution of the CFR. For payment by credit card, call 202-512-1800, 
M-F 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. e.s.t. or fax your order to 202-512-2233, 24 hours 
a day. For payment by check, write to the Superintendent of Documents, 
Attn: New Orders, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. For GPO 
Customer Service call 202-512-1803.

ELECTRONIC SERVICES

    The texts of the Code of Federal Regulations, The United States 
Government Manual, the Federal Register, Public Laws, Weekly Compilation 
of Presidential Documents, and the 1995 Privacy Act Compilation are 
available in electronic format at www.access.gpo.gov/nara/index.html. 
For more information, contact Electronic Information Dissemination 
Services, U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone 202-512-1530, or 888-
293-6498 (toll-free). E-mail, [email protected]

[[Page vii]]

    The Office of the Federal Register maintains a free electronic 
bulletin board service, FREND (Federal Register Electronic News 
Delivery), for public law numbers, Federal Register finding aids, and 
related information. To access by modem: phone, 202-275-0920.
    In addition, the Federal Register's public inspection list and table 
of contents are also available on the National Archives and Records 
Administration's Fax-on-Demand system. Phone, 301-713-6905.

                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

January 1, 1999.

[[Page viii]]



[[Page ix]]




                        EXPLANATION OF THIS TITLE

    This volume of ``Title 3--The President'' contains a compilation of 
 Presidential documents and a codification of regulations issued by the 
                                      Executive Office of the President.

         The 1998 Compilation contains the full text of those documents 
      signed by the President that were required to be published in the 
   Federal Register. Signature date rather than publication date is the 
     criterion for inclusion. With each annual volume, the Presidential 
       documents signed in the previous year become the new Compilation.

    Chapter I contains regulations issued by the Executive Office of the 
 President. This section is a true codification like other CFR volumes, 
in that its contents are organized by subject or regulatory area and are 
                   updated by individual issues of the Federal Register.

       Presidential documents in this volume may be cited ``3 CFR, 1998 
 Comp.'' Thus, the preferred abbreviated citation for Proclamation 7062 
      appearing on page 1 of this book, is ``3 CFR, 1998 Comp., p. 1.'' 
          Chapter I entries may be cited ``3 CFR.'' Thus, the preferred 
  abbreviated citation for Section 100.735-1, appearing in Chapter I of 
                                      this book, is ``3 CFR 100.735-1.''

            This book is one of the volumes in a series that began with 
 Proclamation 2161 of March 19, 1936, and Executive Order 7316 of March 
  13, 1936, and that has been continued by means of annual compilations 
  and periodic cumulations. The entire Title 3 series, as of January 1, 
                  1999, is encompassed in the volumes listed on page iv.

     For readers interested in proclamations and Executive orders prior 
to 1936, there is a two-volume set entitled Proclamations and Executive 
     Orders, Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929, to March 4, 1933). Codified 
Presidential documents are published in the Codification of Presidential 
 Proclamations and Executive Orders (April 13, 1945--January 20, 1989). 
Other public Presidential documents not required to be published in the 
          Federal Register, such as speeches, messages to Congress, and 
     statements, can be found in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential 
Documents and the Public Papers of the Presidents series. Each of these 
 Office of the Federal Register publications is available for sale from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
                                                               DC 20402.

    This book was prepared in the Presidential Documents and Legislative 
Division by Anna Glover with the assistance of John S. Ashlin, Karen L. 
                         Ashlin, Jennifer S. Mangum, and Karen Thornton.

[[Page x]]





[[Page xi]]




________________________________________________________________________


               Cite Presidential documents in this volume
                            3 CFR, 1998 Comp.
                      thus: 3 CFR, 1998 Comp., p. 1
  ______________________________________________________________________

                  Cite Chapter I entries in this volume
                                  3 CFR
                          thus: 3 CFR 100.735-1


________________________________________________________________________


[[Page xii]]


  

[[Page xiii]]




                         TITLE 3--THE PRESIDENT


                                                                    Page
1998 Compilation--Presidential Documents:
     Proclamations.....................................................1
     Executive Orders................................................133
     Other Presidential Documents....................................239
Chapter I--Executive Office of the President:
     Part 100........................................................312
     Part 101........................................................323
     Part 102........................................................324
Finding Aids:
     Table 1--Proclamations..........................................333
     Table 2--Executive Orders.......................................337
     Table 3--Other Presidential Documents...........................339
     Table 4--Presidential Documents Affected During 1998............343
     Table 5--Statutes Cited as Authority for Presidential Documents.349
     List of CFR Sections Affected...................................353
     Index...........................................................355
CFR Finding Aids:
     Table of CFR Titles and Chapters................................365
     Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR..............383





 

                TITLE 3--Presidential Documents

[[Page 1]]

                1998 Compilation--Presidential Documents


________________________________________________________________________


                              PROCLAMATIONS


________________________________________________________________________




Proclamation 7062 of January 14, 1998

Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons Who Are 
Members of the Military Junta in Sierra Leone and Members of Their 
Families

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In light of the refusal of the military junta in de facto control in 
Sierra Leone to permit the return to power of the democratically elected 
government of that country, and in furtherance of United Nations 
Security Council Resolution 1132 of October 8, 1997, I have determined 
that it is in the foreign policy interests of the United States to 
suspend the entry into the United States of aliens described in section 
1 of this proclamation.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, by the power vested in me as 
President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the 
United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215 of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) 
and 1185), hereby find that the entry into the United States of aliens 
described in section 1 of this proclamation, as immigrants or 
nonimmigrants would, except as provided for in section 2 of this 
proclamation, be detrimental to the interests of the United States. I do 
therefore proclaim that:
Section 1. The entry into the United States as immigrants and 
nonimmigrants of members of the military junta in Sierra Leone and 
members of their families, is hereby suspended.
Sec. 2. Section 1 shall not apply with respect to any person otherwise 
covered by section 1 where the entry of such person would not be 
contrary to the interests of the United States.

[[Page 2]]

Sec. 3. Persons covered by sections 1 and 2 shall be identified by the 
Secretary of State.
Sec. 4. This proclamation is effective immediately and shall remain in 
effect until such time as the Secretary of State determines that it is 
no longer necessary and should be terminated.
Sec. 5. The Secretary of State is hereby authorized to implement this 
proclamation pursuant to such procedures as the Secretary of State may 
establish.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourteenth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7063 of January 15, 1998

Religious Freedom Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The right to worship according to one's own conscience is essential to 
our dignity as human beings. Whatever our religious beliefs, they 
represent the essence of our personal values and cannot be dictated to 
us. Recognizing this truth, our founders made religious liberty the 
first freedom guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. They wisely understood 
as well that in protecting the free exercise of religion, we must also 
prohibit the establishment of religion by the state.
Among the early European settlers who came to our shores were many 
seeking to escape the religious compulsion and persecution they had 
endured in the lands of their birth. William Penn, Roger Williams, and 
many others would strive to make their settlements havens for freedom of 
conscience, laying the foundation for the great tradition of religious 
liberty that would ultimately find expression in the First Amendment to 
the Constitution. Since those early days, our continuing aspiration has 
been to banish lingering prejudice and increase religious understanding 
and respect among our people.
Today, millions of people of different faiths call America home. The 
churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, and other houses of worship they 
have built have become centers of community life and service and a 
source of strength for our Nation. As our country becomes increasingly 
diverse, we must reaffirm our efforts to reach out to one another and to 
see past our differences to the values we hold in common.
My Administration is striving to enhance this climate of acceptance and 
respect, bringing people together across lines of faith. Two years ago, 
with the help of a broad coalition of religious and civic leaders, we 
created guidelines clarifying the nature of religious expression 
permitted in our public schools and reaffirming that America's young 
people do not have to

[[Page 3]]

leave their religious beliefs at the schoolhouse door. With the help of 
that same coalition, I issued additional guidelines last August to 
reinforce the right of religious expression in the Federal workplace. 
Building on America's long-standing commitment to freedom and fairness, 
these guidelines will ensure that Federal employees may engage in 
personal religious expression to the greatest extent possible, 
consistent with workplace efficiency and the requirements of law. The 
guidelines also clarify that Federal employers may not discriminate in 
employment on the basis of religion and that an agency must reasonably 
accommodate employees' religious practices.
On Religious Freedom Day this year, as we celebrate and cherish this 
precious right we enjoy as Americans, we must not forget others who are 
less fortunate. Throughout the world, in many lands, too many people 
still suffer and die for their beliefs, and lives, families, and 
communities are torn apart by old hatreds and prejudices. We must 
continue to proclaim the fundamental right of all peoples to believe and 
worship according to their own conscience, to affirm their beliefs 
openly and freely, and to practice their faith without fear or 
intimidation. The priceless gift we have inherited from past generations 
will only grow in value as we share it with others.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim January 16, 1998, as 
Religious Freedom Day. I call upon the people of the United States to 
observe this day with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs, 
and I urge all Americans to reaffirm their devotion to the fundamental 
principles of religious freedom and religious tolerance.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7064 of January 16, 1998

Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

America has been blessed with heroes throughout our history, men and 
women of vision and courage who have set our feet firmly on the path of 
freedom and equality. Some became heroes by leading us in times of 
struggle; some by shaping our values and challenging us to greatness. 
And a few, like Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., have done all this and 
more.
A thoughtful man and one of deep personal faith, his conscience called 
him into action for the soul of our Nation. He mobilized thousands of 
other brave and principled Americans--black and white, renowned and 
unknown--and began a crusade for justice that continues today. In sit-
ins, marches, demonstrations, and boycotts, he and many others met 
violence

[[Page 4]]

with nonviolence and ignorance with determination. They awakened the 
conscience of our Nation and succeeded in winning passage of historic 
civil rights legislation: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting 
Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968. Pouring out his 
life in service, Dr. King made enormous and lasting contributions to 
improve the lives of millions of his fellow Americans.
Almost 35 years have passed since Dr. King challenged us from the steps 
of the Lincoln Memorial to live out the true meaning of our creed--that 
all men are created equal--and almost 30 years have passed since he was 
taken from us after an all-too-brief sojourn on this earth. A generation 
of young Americans has come of age without experiencing firsthand the 
power of his vision or the eloquence of his voice. Much has changed for 
the better in that time, but we still have much to do if we are to 
finish the work of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Following his example of service, we must build communities where 
everyone shares an equal opportunity for a good education and a good 
job, where our children can grow up without living in the shadow of 
guns, gangs, and drugs, and where we reject separation and isolation and 
instead celebrate together the blessing of our diversity. Last June, I 
established my initiative, ``One America in the 21st Century,'' to 
encourage a national dialogue among Americans about race and to spur 
concerted action that will bring Americans together. We must put aside 
the bitter refrains of accusation and recrimination and instead discuss 
and implement new ideas for forging a single Nation in the 21st Century 
out of our ever-increasing racial and ethnic diversity. By learning to 
talk to one another, to trust one another, and to work together in hope, 
we can and will come to the time Dr. King foresaw when ``justice rolls 
down like waters.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Monday, January 19, 1998, 
as the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday. I call upon the people 
of the United States to observe this occasion with appropriate programs, 
ceremonies, and activities and to participate in the many community 
service activities taking place across the country on this day.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7065 of January 28, 1998

Year of the Ocean, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

More than 70 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water, and 
more than half the world's population lives within 50 miles of a 
coastline. We

[[Page 5]]

rely on the ocean as both a source and sustenance of life on our planet. 
It contains a wondrous abundance and diversity of life, from the 
smallest microorganism to the mammoth blue whale. It is a key source of 
food, medicine, energy, commerce, and recreation for the peoples of the 
world, and the more we learn about its influence on climate and weather, 
the more we realize its impact on our safety and quality of life.
We are only beginning to understand the depths of the ocean's mysteries, 
but we are quickly learning one crucial lesson: the ocean's resources 
are limited, and we must work together to preserve them. Many areas are 
already overfished; decades of pollution, including industrial waste, 
sewage, and toxic runoff, has taken its toll on the health of the ocean 
and its living creatures. Many species of fish are threatened with 
extinction, and even our precious coral reefs, once a safe haven for an 
amazing variety of animal and plant life, have suffered greatly.
Because the ocean is a treasure that all nations of the world share in 
common, we must work in partnership to become wise stewards of its many 
riches. We must strive together--at local, national, and international 
levels--to preserve the ocean's health, to protect the marine 
environment, and to ensure the sustainable management of the myriad 
resources the ocean contains.
Dedicating 1998 as the Year of the Ocean is an important first step in 
this worldwide endeavor. Throughout the year, individuals, 
organizations, and governments will participate in activities designed 
to raise public awareness of the vital role the ocean plays in human 
life and of the equally vital role that human beings must play in the 
life of the ocean. The Year of the Ocean provides us with an 
extraordinary opportunity to learn more about the ocean's unique 
environment and to collaborate on protecting and preserving its 
invaluable resources.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim 1998 as the Year of the Ocean. I encourage 
the Governors of the States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and 
officials of other areas subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States to participate in the observance of this year. I invite all 
Americans to take this opportunity to learn more about the ocean and its 
vast biodiversity and to become involved in keeping our coastal waters 
safe and clean.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-eighth day 
of January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 6]]




Proclamation 7066 of January 30, 1998

American Heart Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Fifty years ago, a heart attack meant an end to an active lifestyle, 
and, for a third of those stricken, it meant death. Thankfully, the past 
half-century has brought us an array of advances in the prevention and 
treatment of heart disease. Procedures such as balloon angioplasty and 
coronary artery bypass grafts, noninvasive diagnostic tests, and drugs 
that treat high blood pressure and clots and reduce high blood 
cholesterol have enabled Americans to live longer and healthier lives. 
Equally important, we have become better educated during the past five 
decades about heart disease risk factors and how to control them.
This year, two of the groups most responsible for this remarkable 
progress--the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American 
Heart Association--are celebrating their golden anniversaries. The 
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National 
Institutes of Health, leads the Federal Government's efforts against 
heart disease by supporting research and education for the public, heart 
patients, and health care professionals. The American Heart Association 
plays a crucial role in the fight against heart disease through its 
research and education programs and its vital network of dedicated 
volunteers.
Despite the encouraging developments in that fight, we still face many 
challenges. Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in 
this country, killing more than 700,000 Americans each year. The number 
of Americans with heart disease or a risk factor for it is staggering. 
Approximately 58 million have some form of cardiovascular disease, about 
50 million have high blood pressure, and about 52 million have high 
blood cholesterol. Americans are also becoming more overweight and less 
active--two key factors that increase the risk of heart disease. Most 
disturbing, for the first time in decades, Americans are losing ground 
against some cardiovascular diseases. The rate of stroke has risen 
slightly, the prevalence of heart failure has increased, and the decline 
in the death rate for those with coronary heart disease has slowed.
Women are particularly hard hit by this disease, in part because public 
health messages too often have not focused on how this segment of our 
population can best protect their hearts. The American Heart Association 
recently discovered that only 8 percent of American women know that 
heart disease and stroke are the greatest health threats for women, and 
90 percent of women polled did not know the most common heart attack 
signals for women.
For a variety of reasons, including poorer access to preventive health 
care services, minorities in America have high mortality rates due to 
heart disease. The American Heart Association reported that, in 1995, 
cardiovascular disease death rates were about 49 percent greater for 
African American men than for white men, and about 67 percent higher for 
African American women than white women. In addition, the prevalence of 
diabetes--a major risk factor for heart disease--is very high in some of 
our Na

[[Page 7]]

tive American populations, and Asian Americans have a high mortality 
rate for stroke.
However, both the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the 
American Heart Association have undertaken activities to counter these 
trends. Both groups have initiated major efforts to better inform women 
and minorities about the threat of heart disease and the steps that can 
be taken both to prevent and treat it. These fine organizations also 
continue their efforts to educate health professionals on improving 
medical practice in heart health and to inform patients and the public 
about how to reduce their risk of heart disease. As we celebrate their 
50th anniversaries, let us resolve to build on their record of 
accomplishment. By continuing our investment in research, raising public 
awareness of the symptoms of heart disease, and educating Americans 
about the importance of a heart-healthy diet and exercise, we can 
continue our extraordinary progress in saving lives and improving 
health.
In recognition of these important efforts in the ongoing fight against 
cardiovascular disease, the Congress, by Joint Resolution approved 
December 30, 1963 (77 Stat. 843; 36 U.S.C. 169b), has requested that the 
President issue an annual proclamation designating February as 
``American Heart Month.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim February 1998 as American Heart Month. I 
invite the Governors of the States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, 
officials of other areas subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States, and the American people to join me in reaffirming our commitment 
to combating cardiovascular disease and stroke.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7067 of January 30, 1998

National African American History Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

African American history is one of the great human chronicles of all 
time. It is the story of men and women who, with extraordinary courage 
and faith, prevailed against centuries of slavery and discrimination to 
build lives for themselves and their families and to contribute 
immeasurably to the strength and character of our Nation. It is the 
story of millions of people who arrived on these shores in chains, yet 
who had the greatness of heart and spirit to love this country for its 
possibilities. It is the story of generations of heroes who with their 
labor, voices, vision, and blood sought to change the essence of our 
society--our laws, institutions, and attitudes--to reflect the 
fundamental American ideals of freedom, justice, and equality. African 
American history is ultimately the story of America's struggle to become 
a more perfect union.

[[Page 8]]

Each year during the month of February, we focus on a particular aspect 
of African American history to broaden our knowledge and deepen our 
appreciation of the countless contributions African Americans have made 
to the life of our Nation. This year's theme, ``African Americans in 
Business: The Path Towards Empowerment,'' presents an opportunity not 
only to celebrate these contributions, but also to build on them.
Our Nation's system of free enterprise has been a sure path to inclusion 
and independence for generations of Americans, and today African 
American entrepreneurs are reaping its many rewards. In every facet of 
American endeavor, in the fields of health care, law, government, and 
education; as artists, bankers, scientists, and computer programmers, 
African Americans are excelling and adding significantly to the strength 
of our economy. If current trends continue, African Americans will 
account for nearly 12 percent of the American labor force by the year 
2000. And even more promising, according to the most recent data 
available from the U.S. Census, the number of businesses owned by 
African Americans has grown at an impressive annual rate and 
significantly faster than the number of new U.S. businesses overall. 
These statistics are a testament to the perseverance, hard work, and 
energy of African Americans and of their enduring faith in the American 
Dream.
As we celebrate National African American History Month, let us resolve 
to build on this record of success. We must ensure that every American 
shares equal access to a quality education--an education that will offer 
the knowledge and skills necessary to fill the jobs of the 21st century. 
We must strive to eradicate every trace of discrimination from our 
society and the American workplace. And we must work together--
government, private industry, community organizations, and concerned 
citizens--to invest in all our people, providing them with the tools 
they need to succeed and widening the circle of opportunity.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim February 1998 as National 
African American History Month. I call upon public officials, educators, 
librarians, and all the people of the United States to observe this 
month with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs that raise 
awareness and appreciation of African American history.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 9]]



Proclamation 7068 of February 26, 1998

Save Your Vision Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The ability to see is a great treasure; but, as with any precious 
possession, it is vulnerable to loss--through injury, age, or disease. 
Men and women whose jobs require them to work with chemicals or 
machinery are at increased risk of eye injury. Macular degeneration 
takes a dramatic toll on the vision of people aged 60 and over, causing 
severe visual impairment and even blindness in its victims. Diseases 
such as glaucoma, cataract, and diabetic retinopathy can silently steal 
the vision of their victims without pain or other early symptoms to 
signal the need for immediate medical attention.
The greatest defense we have in protecting our eyesight is early 
detection and treatment. While many Americans receive regular physical 
examinations to ensure their overall fitness, they often ignore the 
health of their eyes. Yet, by the time many patients realize their 
eyesight is deteriorating, it is often too late to restore vision 
already lost. Even though they may not be experiencing vision problems, 
Americans should make a dilated eye examination part of their preventive 
health care routine. A dilated eye exam can reveal early signs of eye 
disease and make it possible to treat the affliction and preserve 
vision.
Good eye care is not solely for those who know they are at high risk for 
eye disease--it is for everyone. Certain types of eye disease tend to 
develop primarily in children, while others manifest themselves most 
often in working-age adults or older men and women. By taking good care 
of our eyes, we can take the important steps to maintain our quality of 
life and ensure the full enjoyment of all that our world has to offer.
To remind Americans of the importance of protecting their eyesight, the 
Congress, by joint resolution approved December 30, 1963 (77 Stat. 629; 
36 U.S.C. 169a), has authorized and requested the President to proclaim 
the first week in March of each year as ``Save Your Vision Week.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim March 1 through March 7, 1998, as Save Your 
Vision Week. I urge all Americans to participate by making eye care and 
eye safety an important part of their lives and to ensure that dilated 
eye examinations are included in their regular health maintenance 
programs. I invite eye care professionals, the media, and all public and 
private organizations dedicated to preserving eyesight to join in 
activities that will raise awareness of the measures we can take to 
protect and sustain our vision.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of 
February, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 10]]



Proclamation 7069 of February 27, 1998

American Red Cross Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Americans share a long tradition of compassion for others and lending 
aid to those in need. Since our earliest days as a Nation, we have been 
able to bear the heartbreak of family tragedy, personal hardship, or 
natural disaster because of the help of caring friends and neighbors. 
For 117 years, the American Red Cross has been the staunchest of friends 
and neighbors to millions of people both here at home and around the 
world, adding its own vital contributions to our history of service.
The American Red Cross brings both comfort and practical assistance to 
the victims of more than 65,000 disasters each year, from hurricanes and 
tornadoes affecting thousands of people to a house fire involving a 
single family. Members of the Red Cross also work on the front lines of 
armed conflicts and disasters across the globe to relieve suffering and 
restore human dignity and self-sufficiency. At the same time, they serve 
alongside our men and women in uniform wherever they are deployed, 
relaying urgent family messages and providing a precious link with home. 
And through its Holocaust and War Victims Tracing and Information 
Center, the Red Cross has helped thousands of families in their search 
for information about the fate of loved ones from whom they were 
separated during the Holocaust.
Few of us have remained untouched by the work of the Red Cross. The Red 
Cross collects, tests, and distributes six million units of donated 
blood each year, nearly half the Nation's supply. More than 1,300 Red 
Cross chapters in communities across America teach health and safety 
courses to 12 million people each year, providing them with knowledge 
regarding CPR, first aid, water safety, and HIV/AIDS that can--and 
does--save lives.
The Red Cross has become a simple yet powerful symbol that transcends 
language and conveys a universally understood message of hope. This 
symbol draws its strength from the dedication of the more than 1.3 
million volunteers who help disaster victims, assist at blood drives, 
teach health classes, and respond to urgent community needs. I commend 
the generous spirit of all those who carry out the important work of the 
American Red Cross, and I encourage all Americans to support their 
efforts--whether by giving blood, donating funds to help disaster 
victims, or becoming Red Cross volunteers themselves. In doing so, we 
will ensure that the American Red Cross will continue its tradition of 
compassionate service in the 21st century and beyond.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America and Honorary Chairman of the American Red Cross, by virtue of 
the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United 
States, do hereby proclaim March 1998 as American Red Cross Month. I 
urge all the people of the United States to support Red Cross chapters 
nationwide, and I challenge each of you to become active participants in 
advancing the noble mission of the Red Cross.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-seventh day 
of February, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight,

[[Page 11]]

and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7070 of February 27, 1998

Irish-American Heritage Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As it has been for many immigrants, America has always been a beacon of 
hope for the Irish people, a land of promise beckoning on the far shore 
of the Atlantic where they could build a better life for themselves and 
their children. Those who traveled here in the 17th and 18th centuries 
came primarily to escape religious, social, and political discrimination 
in their homeland. But millions of Irish immigrants who came to the 
United States in the 19th century were fleeing not only persecution, but 
also the specter of starvation and disease brought on by the Great 
Hunger, the devastating potato famine that began in the 1840s. Many of 
them did not survive the journey; many of those who did arrive at 
America's ports were hungry, ill, and crushingly poor.
But the Irish did not come to America empty-handed. They brought with 
them strong arms and an even stronger spirit that would help to build 
our Nation's great canals, bridges, and railroads. They would wrest coal 
from the mines of Pennsylvania and raise the skyscrapers of New York. 
They brought with them a love of words that enriched American journalism 
and literature and produced writers such as John Boyle O'Reilly, Ring 
Lardner, Eugene O'Neill, and Mary McCarthy. They brought as well a great 
reverence for education and created schools, colleges, and universities 
across the country renowned for their scholarship and social conscience.
Perhaps their greatest gifts to America have been a abiding love of 
liberty, and an patriotic spirit. Irish Americans have served with 
distinction in every American conflict, from the Revolutionary War to 
the Persian Gulf, and their keen sense of social justice made them among 
the first and most effective voices for labor reform. From Mary Kenney 
O'Sullivan to George Meany, they have been in the vanguard of efforts to 
improve working conditions and wages for all Americans. Generations of 
Irish Americans entered public service to reach out to those in need--to 
feed the poor, find jobs for the unemployed, fight for racial equality, 
and champion social reform. From the Kennedys of Massachusetts to the 
Daleys of Chicago, from Governor Al Smith to Ambassador Mike Mansfield, 
Americans of Irish descent have made important and enduring 
contributions to the public life of our Nation.
The United States continues to draw strength and vision from our 
multicultural, multiracial society. This month, when citizens across the 
country celebrate Saint Patrick's Day, we remember with special 
gratitude the gifts of Irish Americans: faith in God, love of family and 
community, and an unswerving commitment to freedom and justice that 
continues to enrich our

[[Page 12]]

Nation and fulfill the promise envisioned by the first Irish immigrants 
who turned their eyes and hearts toward America so many years ago.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 1998 as Irish-
American Heritage Month. I call upon all the people of the United States 
to observe this month with appropriate ceremonies, programs, and 
activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-seventh day 
of February, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7071 of March 2, 1998

Women's History Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The Preamble to the Constitution begins, ``We, the people.'' Yet that 
phrase, inspiring as it is, has not always included all Americans. 
Women's history in America has been the story of the struggle of women 
of all racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds to be included in that 
simple but powerful statement. It is the story as well of how, in 
striving to reach their own great potential, women have strengthened and 
enriched our Nation.
In every era of American history, women have braved enormous challenges 
to change our world for the better. Women of faith in the early 17th 
century dared a dangerous journey and the unknown wilderness to seek 
freedom of conscience in a new land. As our Nation struggled for 
independence and to establish a new, more enlightened form of 
government, women like Esther DeBerdt Reed and Sarah Franklin Bache 
supplied food, clothes, and funds for Washington's soldiers. Freedom 
fighters like Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman led hundreds of 
enslaved men and women to liberty through the Underground Railroad, and 
social reformers like Gertrude Bonnin advanced the human rights of 
American Indians. Suffragists like Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton, and Luisa Capetillo challenged the conventions of their times 
and sought to secure for women one of the most basic rights within our 
democracy.
This year marks the 150th anniversary of the women's rights movement in 
America and its immeasurable contributions to our Nation's promise of 
justice and equality for all. The visionary women and men who gathered 
in Seneca Falls, New York, in July of 1848 for the first Women's Rights 
Convention in history gave voice so powerfully to women's aspirations 
for inclusion and empowerment that their vision continues to shape our 
world today.
Once disenfranchised, American women now serve at the highest levels of 
government, as Justices of the Supreme Court and in increasing numbers

[[Page 13]]

in the Cabinet and the United States Congress. Once denied the resources 
and opportunities to play organized sports, American women made sporting 
history this year by winning the first-ever Olympic Gold Medal in 
women's ice hockey. Women are cracking the glass ceilings of corporate 
management to lead some of our country's most prominent businesses. As 
parents and partners, entrepreneurs and artists, politicians and 
scientists, women are helping to build an America in which all citizens, 
regardless of gender, are free to live out their dreams.
Thanks to the efforts of women leaders, little girls across America 
today know far fewer limits than did their mothers and grandmothers. But 
there still remains work to be done to create a more just America, and 
we must rededicate ourselves to ending the discrimination that women 
still face. We must continue our efforts to help women succeed at work 
and at home, to be free from violent crime, and to enjoy quality health 
care. In doing so, we will confirm our conviction that ``We, the 
people'' includes us all.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 1998 as Women's 
History Month. I encourage all Americans to observe this month with 
appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities, and to remember 
throughout the year the many voices and stories of courageous women who 
have made our Nation strong.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of 
March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7072 of March 5, 1998

National Older Workers Employment Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Americans are living longer, healthier lives. As a Nation, we are 
witnessing a dramatic growth in the population of Americans aged 55 and 
older, a trend that will continue well into the next century. To 
maintain our dynamic economy and to fill the jobs of the 21st century, 
we must make the most of the creative potential and productive capacity 
of this growing segment of our society.
Unfortunately, many Americans aged 55 and older encounter serious 
difficulty finding employment when they lose their jobs or seek to 
change careers. Employers too often focus on the age of older workers 
instead of their qualifications and strong work ethic. By failing to 
recognize the wealth of skills and experience older workers can bring to 
their jobs, such employers deny them an equal opportunity to make their 
own valuable contributions to the American workplace.

[[Page 14]]

To counter these challenges, laws and government programs offer older 
workers the protections and services they need to ensure fair employment 
opportunities and practices. The Age Discrimination Act, the Older 
Americans Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act protect the 
basic rights of millions of older working Americans. The Department of 
Labor and the Department of Health and Human Services also assist older 
workers through such efforts as the Senior Community Service Employment 
Program and the programs of the Administration on Aging.
Older Americans actively contribute to our communities through their 
hard work, wisdom, and experience. They have rightly earned our 
admiration and respect; they have also earned a fair chance at a good 
job. As we observe National Older Workers Employment Week, I urge all 
employers, when they hire new workers, to consider carefully the skills 
and other qualifications of men and women aged 55 and older and to fully 
utilize this rich national resource.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States, 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of 
the United States, do hereby proclaim March 8 through March 14, 1998, as 
National Older Workers Employment Week. I encourage all Americans to 
recognize the contributions that older workers make to the workplace and 
to our economy, and I urge public officials responsible for job 
placement, training, and related services to intensify their efforts 
throughout the year to help older Americans find suitable jobs and 
training.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifth day of March, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                      WILLIAM J. CLINTON



Proclamation 7073 of March 12, 1998

National Poison Prevention Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Protecting the well-being of our children must always be our highest 
priority as a people and as a Nation. Innocent and vulnerable, children 
are eager to explore the world around them, and in our society today, 
where every home is filled with potentially dangerous chemicals, this 
can put our children at grave risk. According to the American 
Association of Poison Control Centers, over one million children are 
exposed each year to potentially deadly medicines and household 
chemicals--a danger we must not, and need not, tolerate.
Since the first observance of National Poison Prevention Week 36 years 
ago, the number of children who have died each year from accidental 
poisonings has dropped dramatically, from 450 in 1962 to 29 in 1995. 
This remarkable progress is due in part to the dedicated efforts of the 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Poison Prevention Week 
Council,

[[Page 15]]

and our Nation's poison control centers. Nevertheless we still have much 
work to do if we are to prevent even a single child from suffering or 
dying due to poisoning. Because poisonings are almost always 
preventable, there are simple, practical steps we can take to protect 
our children: use child-resistant packaging correctly; keep toxic 
materials locked up and out of the reach of children; and, if a 
poisoning does occur, call a poison control center immediately.
This year, the focus of National Poison Prevention Week is the danger 
posed by pesticides, which are involved in the poisonings of thousands 
of young children each year. While the Environmental Protection Agency 
requires that most pesticides be in child-resistant packaging, it is up 
to parents and caregivers to make sure that these materials and other 
household chemicals and medicines are kept locked up and out of the 
reach of children. By taking a few moments to read labels and store 
pesticides properly, we can avoid a lifetime of regret.
To encourage the American people to learn more about the dangers of 
accidental poisonings and to take responsible preventive measures, the 
Congress, by joint resolution approved September 26, 1961 (75 Stat. 
681), has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation 
designating the third week of March of each year as ``National Poison 
Prevention Week.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim March 15 through March 21, 1998, as National 
Poison Prevention Week. I call upon all Americans to observe this week 
by participating in appropriate ceremonies and activities and by 
learning how to protect our children from poisons.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of 
March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7074 of March 12, 1998

Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and 
American Democracy, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

This year, as we mark the 177th anniversary of the advent of Greece's 
struggle for independence, we celebrate with the Hellenic Republic and 
recognize the close ties that have long existed between Greece and the 
United States. Through two centuries, our nations have enjoyed a strong 
and enduring friendship. For more than half a century, we have stood 
together in NATO, modern history's most successful alliance.
Our bonds are deeper still, however, for we are joined by blood, 
culture, and a profound commitment to shared values. Greek ideals of 
democracy and freedom inspired our Nation's founders and breathed life 
into Ameri

[[Page 16]]

ca's experiment with democratic self-government. Generations of Greek 
Americans have enriched every aspect of our national life--in the arts, 
sciences, business, politics, and sports. Through hard work, love of 
family and community, steadfast commitment to principle, and a deep love 
of liberty, they have contributed greatly to the prosperity and peace we 
enjoy today.
The bonds between America and Greece, in fact, have never been stronger 
than they are today. We are partners in the effort to find a lasting, 
peaceful solution in the Balkans and to build an enlarged NATO that will 
enhance our common security. As our two nations prepare for the 
challenges and possibilities of the new millennium, we look forward to 
building on that partnership so that the seeds of democracy we have 
nurtured together for so long will bear fruit in a bright future not 
only for ourselves, but for our global community.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 25, 1998, as Greek 
Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American 
Democracy. I call upon all Americans to observe this day with 
appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of 
March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7075 of March 31, 1998

Cancer Control Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

While cancer still casts a shadow over the lives of millions of 
Americans and their families, we can rightfully look back over the 1990s 
as the decade in which we measurably began to turn the tide against this 
deadly disease. From 1990 to 1995, the annual number of new cancer cases 
for every 100,000 Americans dropped slightly but continuously. Perhaps 
more important, the overall cancer death rate, which rose throughout the 
1970s and 1980s, declined between 1991 and 1995, a trend that continues 
today and that we hope will be sustained into the next century. Thanks 
to years of dedicated, rigorous scientific study, people with cancer are 
now leading longer, healthier lives. More than eight million Americans 
living today have had cancer at some time, and these survivors are a 
powerful reminder of the importance of maintaining our progress in 
cancer research, prevention, and control.
My Administration's new cancer initiative proposes an unprecedented $4.7 
billion investment in cancer research through the National Institutes of 
Health (NIH) over the next 5 years. This significant increase in 
research

[[Page 17]]

funding has great potential to enhance early detection and diagnoses of 
cancer, to speed the discovery and development of new treatments, and to 
provide all cancer patients and their caregivers with improved access to 
the latest information about their disease. Part of these increased 
funds will go to NIH's Human Genome Project, which is helping to advance 
our knowledge in the promising field of cancer genetics. The National 
Cancer Institute's (NCI) recently unveiled Cancer Genome Anatomy Project 
website is connecting researchers to information on genetic factors that 
determine how a particular cancer behaves--how fast it grows, whether it 
will spread, and whether it will respond to treatment--as they work to 
develop new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.
We are also continuing our aggressive cancer prevention efforts. The 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is entering the eighth year 
of its landmark National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection 
program. This program brings critical breast and cervical cancer 
screening services to previously underserved women, including older 
women, uninsured or underinsured women, women with low incomes, and 
women of racial and ethnic minority groups. Medicare now provides 
coverage for annual mammography screening and for Pap tests, pelvic 
exams, and colorectal cancer screening. By January 2000, Medicare will 
also cover the costs of prostate cancer screening tests.
We are taking other important steps toward cancer control as well. The 
NCI and the Food and Drug Administration are working in partnership to 
ensure that potentially effective drugs are expedited through the 
development process so that new anticancer therapies can be made 
available more rapidly to the patients who need them. We are also 
proposing, as part of our new cancer initiative, that Medicare 
beneficiaries have the opportunity to participate in certain cancer 
clinical trials. This will allow patients to benefit from cutting-edge 
research and provide scientists with a larger pool of participants in 
their studies, helping to make the results more statistically meaningful 
and scientifically sound.
If we follow our present course--investing in research, translating 
research findings into medical practice, and increasing access to 
improved diagnostic and treatment programs--we can continue to make 
significant progress in our crusade against cancer. We must not slacken 
our efforts until we can fully control this devastating disease and 
ultimately eradicate it.
In 1938, the Congress of the United States passed a joint resolution 
requesting the President to issue an annual proclamation declaring April 
as ``Cancer Control Month.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim April 1998 as Cancer Control Month. I invite 
the Governors of the 50 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the 
Mayor of the District of Columbia, and the appropriate officials of all 
other areas under the American flag to issue similar proclamations. I 
also call upon health care professionals, private industry, community 
groups, insurance companies, and all interested organizations and 
individuals to unite in reaffirming our Nation's continuing commitment 
to controlling cancer.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirty-first day of 
March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and

[[Page 18]]

of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7076 of April 1, 1998

National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

All of us at one time or another have been shocked by news reports about 
a child who has been abused, neglected, or abandoned. Unable to 
comprehend such a betrayal of trust, we find ourselves hoping that these 
incidents are isolated and rare. The most recent reports from State 
child welfare agencies, however, confirm that one million cases of 
substantiated child abuse or neglect occur in our Nation every year. Of 
these cases, more than a thousand children--many under the age of four--
do not survive; and most die at the hands of a parent or other family 
member. As a caring society that cherishes our children, we must work 
together to protect these little ones who cannot protect themselves.
Two of our greatest resources in the crusade against child abuse and 
neglect are knowledge and compassion. We must raise public awareness 
that these cases, while often hidden, can occur in any family and 
community in America. As responsible adults, we must learn more about 
the signs of child abuse so that we may report suspected incidents as 
soon as possible. We must support community programs that help to 
identify families at risk and intervene before abuse becomes deadly. As 
individuals and as members of our communities, we need to support 
services, programs, and legislation that will help to relieve the 
stresses on families that can sometimes lead to violence. We must 
strengthen the partnerships among schools, social service agencies, 
religious organizations, law enforcement, and the business community so 
that child abuse prevention efforts will be comprehensive, swift, and 
effective.
Backing up such efforts at the State and local level, my Administration 
is focusing Federal attention and resources on combating child abuse and 
neglect. We are supporting family-based prevention services that help 
at-risk families reduce violence in the home. We also are continuing to 
give the States resources to build and maintain strong protection 
systems for children in danger. And for those children who cannot remain 
safely at home, we worked with the Congress to enact the Adoption and 
Safe Families Act, which makes it easier to place at-risk children more 
quickly into a permanent and secure environment.
This month, as Americans celebrate spring and its promise of new life, 
let us reaffirm our commitment to the lives of our Nation's children. I 
encourage communities across the country to join together to raise 
awareness of the tragedy of child abuse, to learn more about what we can 
do to help end such abuse, and to strengthen efforts to support children 
and their families before the cycle of abuse can begin.

[[Page 19]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 1998 as National 
Child Abuse Prevention Month. I call upon all Americans to observe this 
month by resolving to take every appropriate means to protect our 
children from abuse and neglect, to restore their shattered trust, and 
to help them grow into healthy, happy adults.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of April, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7077 of April 2, 1998

National Equal Pay Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Americans have always believed in the value of work and that, if you 
work hard, you should be able to provide for yourself and your family 
with dignity. Today, with more jobs, low unemployment, and real wages 
rising, America's workers are prospering. Yet, there are many women in 
the workforce whose work is not being fully valued.
This year, National Equal Pay Day falls on April 3, the day on which the 
typical woman's 1998 earnings, when added to her 1997 wages, will 
finally equal what the typical man earned in 1997 alone. In other words, 
the typical woman who works full-time earns just 74 cents for each 
dollar that the typical man earns. For women of color, the wage gap is 
even wider--African American women earn only 63 cents for each dollar 
earned by white men, and Hispanic women earn only 53 cents. While women 
now hold almost half of all executive and managerial jobs, their wages 
are only 70 percent of the average pay of their male counterparts. And, 
according to the Department of Labor's Glass Ceiling Commission report, 
women in management jobs generally remain at entry-level and mid-level 
positions. In part, these differences in treatment exist because of 
differing levels of experience, education, and skill. But study after 
study shows that, even after legitimate differences are accounted for, a 
significant pay gap still persists between men and women in similar 
jobs.
Equal pay not only treats women fairly, it benefits us all--particularly 
our Nation's families. It empowers women to become more self-sufficient, 
reducing the dependence of many families on government assistance. It 
also raises women's purchasing power, increases their pensions, and 
improves their capacity to save, all of which help to strengthen our 
economy.
During the past three decades, our Nation has made a strong commitment 
to ensuring that every American is treated with dignity and equality in 
the workplace. Legislation such as the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of 
the Civil Rights Act has helped us make progress in correcting 
discriminatory prac

[[Page 20]]

tices. But we still have a long way to go before the wage gap between 
men and women is eliminated. This year, I proposed an additional $43 
million for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the 
Department of Labor in order to strengthen enforcement of the laws that 
prohibit discrimination, including wage discrimination; to encourage 
mediation; and to help the EEOC reduce the average time it takes to 
resolve private sector complaints. This additional funding will help all 
victims of discrimination, including wage discrimination, obtain relief 
in a more timely manner. And the Women's Bureau at the Department of 
Labor will continue to make resources available through the Fair Pay 
Clearinghouse to highlight model pay practices and educate employers 
about the practical benefits of assuring equal pay for their employees.
As we observe National Equal Pay Day, I urge businesses and State and 
local governments across our Nation to make a solemn commitment to 
recognize the value of women's contributions to the workplace and to 
reward them appropriately. By doing so, we will help provide opportunity 
and promote equality and justice for all.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim April 3, 1998, 
as National Equal Pay Day. I call upon Government officials, law 
enforcement agencies, business leaders, educators, and the American 
people to recognize the full value of the skills and contributions of 
women in the labor force. I urge all employers to review their wage 
practices and to ensure that all their employees, including women, are 
paid equitably for their work.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7078 of April 7, 1998

Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As a new century of great promise and possibility approaches, as science 
and technology advance at astonishing rates, it is clear that now, more 
than ever, education is the key to our children's future.
We should also recognize that education must serve not only as a path to 
knowledge, but also as a means to develop the character of our Nation's 
youth. When expanding educational opportunities, we must ensure that in 
addition to raising academic standards, we emphasize values, personal 
responsibility, and community spirit.
A firm believer in nurturing both mind and heart, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, 
Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, devoted his life to helping young people

[[Page 21]]

realize their potential and become visionary leaders and thinkers, as 
well as concerned, caring, and productive citizens. He established more 
than 2,000 educational and social institutions in more than 40 States 
and nearly 60 countries. He was deeply committed to fostering civic 
pride and moral integrity along with professional success.
On this day, as we remember Rabbi Schneerson's achievements, let us 
reaffirm our commitment to providing our Nation's children with an 
education that will enable them to flourish, both intellectually and 
spiritually.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 7, 1998, as 
Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A. I invite Government officials, 
educators, volunteers, and all of the people of the United States to 
observe this day with appropriate activities, programs, and ceremonies.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7079 of April 9, 1998

National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Engraved on the Korean War Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., are 
the words ``Freedom Is Not Free.'' Generations of Americans who have 
served our Nation in uniform know the truth of this inscription. They 
have paid freedom's price by leaving behind their homes, families, and 
civilian lives to serve America around the globe. They have paid the 
price by suffering injuries and even death. And some have paid the price 
for our freedom by sacrificing their own as prisoners of war.
While in captivity, American prisoners of war have served our Nation 
with the same valor, pride, honor, and dedication as their comrades on 
the battlefield. American POWS have struggled for their freedom, armed 
with courage, wits, and an indomitable spirit. Enduring long months or 
years of hunger, abuse, torture, isolation, and the dreadful suspense of 
not knowing when--or if--they would ever be released, they have remained 
true to themselves and to our country.
This year we commemorate the 25th anniversary of Operation Homecoming, 
when we finally achieved the release of our prisoners of war from 
captivity in Southeast Asia. We also mark the anniversary of Operations 
Big Switch and Little Switch some 45 years ago, when Americans held 
captive during the Korean War finally came home. As these heroes 
returned to the open arms of their families and the grateful hearts of 
their fellow Americans, we saw written on their faces their deep love 
for our country

[[Page 22]]

and the faith, determination, and sense of honor that had sustained them 
through times of unimaginable suffering.
We can never adequately express our gratitude to those who have served 
our Nation while prisoners of war or to their families who experienced 
such anguish during years of separation. But on this day, and throughout 
the year, we can and should pay tribute to these extraordinary American 
patriots, thank them for their service and their sacrifice, and honor 
them always in our hearts.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 9, 1998, as National 
Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day. I call upon all Americans to 
join me in remembering former American prisoners of war who suffered the 
hardships of enemy captivity. I also call upon Federal, State, and local 
government officials and private organizations to observe this day with 
appropriate ceremonies and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of April, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7080 of April 9, 1998

National D.A.R.E. Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Every child is blessed with infinite potential--potential for loving, 
for learning, and for making life better for others. Yet each year 
thousands of young people destroy this potential and risk their lives by 
using illegal substances. That is why the first goal of my 1998 National 
Drug Control Strategy is to educate America's young people on the 
dangers of substance abuse and to help them resist the temptations of 
drugs, alcohol, and tobacco.
Among our greatest allies in this mission are the parents, teachers, 
students, and police officers participating in Drug Abuse Resistance 
Education (D.A.R.E.), the largest substance abuse prevention and safety 
promotion program in America. This year, millions of children across the 
United States will benefit from the D.A.R.E. curriculum. Under the 
guidance of specially trained veteran police officers, America's 
children from kindergarten through 12th grade learn how to resist peer 
pressure and live productive lives free from violence and substance 
abuse. The D.A.R.E. program is currently being used in almost 75 percent 
of our Nation's school districts and in more than 44 countries around 
the world. And because it is so critical that we reach our young people 
during their most impressionable years, D.A.R.E. has pledged to expand 
into every middle school in our Nation by the year 2001.

[[Page 23]]

Every American should reinforce D.A.R.E.'s efforts by accepting 
responsibility to join the fight against drugs and violence. Parents 
must set a good example, teach their children right from wrong, and 
educate them about the dangers of substance abuse. Young people 
themselves must have the courage to reject violence and drugs. And we 
must all support our Nation's D.A.R.E. officers in their mission to help 
our children reject illegal drugs. It is only by working together that 
we can create a brighter future for our children, our communities, and 
our Nation.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 9, 1998, as National 
D.A.R.E. Day. I call upon our youth, parents, and educators and all 
people of the United States to observe this day with appropriate 
programs and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of April, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7081 of April 10, 1998

Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Today, the nations of the Americas stand at the forefront of a promising 
new era of exciting growth and global cooperation. Americans north and 
south of the equator are communicating, interacting, and trading with 
one another more than ever before. All the nations in our hemisphere but 
one enjoy freely elected governments that promote human rights, free 
enterprise, and sustainable economic development through free trade. 
These vibrant democracies continue to seek opportunities to work 
together for the security, prosperity, and general welfare of all our 
citizens.
In keeping with this spirit of cooperation, the leaders of the 34 
American democracies will meet in Santiago, Chile, on April 18 and 19 
for the second Summit of the Americas. The United States hosted the 
first such summit in Miami in December 1994, and we look forward to 
strengthening our involvement in what is becoming a mature partnership 
that is fostering increased prosperity and security for our country. We 
hope to reach agreements in Santiago that will enhance hemispheric 
collaboration in more than 20 areas--including education, economic 
integration, democracy, justice, counternarcotics, security, poverty, 
and human rights.
This month also marks the 50th anniversary of the founding of the 
Organization of American States (OAS), a cornerstone of cooperation in 
our hemisphere. The most recent successes of the OAS include agreements 
against corruption and illegal firearms trafficking and ratification of 
the Washington Protocol, which provides for the suspension from the OAS 
of any coun

[[Page 24]]

try whose democracy has been overthrown by force. We applaud the crucial 
role the OAS plays in promoting and preserving democracy and human 
rights in the Americas. We look forward to its continued success in 
multilateral efforts to deepen the roots of democracy in this hemisphere 
and create new possibilities for progress in the next millennium.
The peoples of the Americas stand united in a commitment to democratic 
values and to increased regional cooperation and understanding. The 
partnership among our countries is laying the foundations for lasting 
freedom, prosperity, and peace in our hemisphere and bringing to reality 
our shared vision of a brighter future.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Tuesday, April 14, 1998, 
as Pan American Day and April 12 through April 18, 1998, as Pan American 
Week. I urge the Governors of the 50 States, the Governor of the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the officials of other areas under the 
flag of the United States of America to honor these observances with 
appropriate ceremonies and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this tenth day of April, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7082 of April 15, 1998

National Recall Round-Up Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

More than 21,000 Americans lose their lives each year in accidents 
involving consumer products, and more than 29 million are injured. These 
accidents cost our Nation over $200 billion annually, and the cost in 
terms of human suffering is immeasurable.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is on the front line of 
the Federal Government's efforts to protect the safety and well-being of 
our citizens, especially our children. The CPSC monitors the performance 
of more than 15,000 types of consumer products and secures the recall of 
those that prove to be defective and potentially hazardous. Last year 
alone, the CPSC negotiated 362 recalls involving over 76 million 
individual consumer products that presented a significant risk to the 
public. But getting dangerous products off store shelves is only the 
first step. The real challenge is getting them out of the homes of 
people who have already purchased them.
On April 16, the CPSC, in conjunction with State and local governments 
and community organizations across the country, will conduct the second 
annual Recall Round-Up Day. This initiative is a public safety campaign 
to warn Americans that they may still be exposing themselves and their 
fami

[[Page 25]]

lies to recalled products that could seriously injure or even kill them. 
Despite recalls and safety alerts issued by the CPSC, many of these 
hazardous products are still in consumers' homes or can be purchased at 
secondhand stores and garage sales.
This year's Recall Round-Up effort will spotlight the dangers associated 
with five types of previously recalled consumer products: playpens, bunk 
beds, halogen floor lamps, hand-held hair dryers, and lawn darts. The 
CPSC encourages government officials, health, safety, and consumer 
agencies, community organizations, and the media to alert the American 
people--particularly parents and child care providers--to the importance 
of repairing, returning, or destroying any of these products if they 
have been recalled. I encourage all Americans to make use of this vital 
information to protect the safety and health of their families and to 
avoid preventable tragedies.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 16, 1998, as 
National Recall Round-Up Day. I call upon all Americans to observe this 
day by working with safety, health, and consumer agencies and other 
appropriate community organizations to organize and conduct local round-
ups of dangerous and defective consumer products and to warn parents, 
child care providers, and the general public about the hazards of using 
recalled consumer products.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7083 of April 17, 1998

National Organ and Tissue Donor Awareness Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

On December 1, 1997, 14-year-old Nicole Hadley was killed when a 
classmate opened fire inside her high school in Paducah, Kentucky. When 
doctors told Gwen and Chuck Hadley that their daughter had no hope for 
recovery, her parents remembered that Nicole believed strongly in organ 
donation, and in the midst of their own intense grief, the Hadleys made 
the courageous decision to honor Nicole's wishes and donate her organs. 
This decision helped to save the lives of at least two people and 
allowed Nicole's spirit of grace and generosity to live on after her 
death.
Thousands of families have made the same selfless decision and have 
given the gift of life to someone in need of an organ or tissue 
transplantation. Today, approximately 55,000 Americans are on the 
national organ transplant waiting list, hoping for a second chance. Yet, 
every day, 10 people will die because organs are not available. These 
tragic deaths are unneces

[[Page 26]]

sary. Our country has a large number of people who qualify as organ 
donors--but many still have not chosen to become donors.
Last year, to help remedy this situation, Vice President Gore, with the 
Department of Health and Human Services, launched the National Organ and 
Tissue Donation Initiative to increase awareness of the urgent need for 
increased donation. We are working to ensure that all Americans know 
that by completing and carrying a donor card--and by making their 
families aware of their decision to donate--they may give the gift of 
life to other Americans or ease their suffering. And families who have 
lost their loved ones can gain solace in knowing that they have been 
able to bring life and comfort to others. This week, I encourage all 
Americans to honor the memory of Nicole Hadley--and the thousands of 
other generous people who have donated their organs--by learning more 
about the benefits of becoming an organ and tissue donor and by filling 
out a donor card.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 19 through April 25, 
1998, as National Organ and Tissue Donor Awareness Week. I urge all 
health care professionals, educators, the media, public and private 
organizations concerned with organ donation and transplantation, the 
clergy, and all Americans to join me in promoting greater awareness and 
acceptance of this humanitarian action.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7084 of April 20, 1998

National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Every day, thousands of Americans become victims of crime. Many suffer 
physical injury, and most experience emotional scars that may never 
fully heal. And all victims of crime, and their families and friends, 
often remain troubled by feelings of vulnerability and concerned about 
their personal safety.
Five years ago, my Administration made a commitment to take back our 
streets from criminals and to combat the crime and violence that affects 
so many Americans. With the Crime Act, the Brady Act, the Violence 
Against Women Act, and other tough legislation, we have put into action 
a comprehensive anticrime strategy that includes community policing, 
antigang programs, and strong penalties for criminals.
Our strategy is working. Crime rates across the country are at a 25-year 
low. Violent crimes and property crimes have decreased, and the murder 
rate is down dramatically. While we can take pride in this progress, we 
cannot

[[Page 27]]

afford to become complacent. We must build on the anticrime programs we 
have put into place if we are to win the war against crime.
As part of our continuing efforts, this year the Department of Justice 
is awarding more than $135 million in grants under the Violence Against 
Women program to help State and local authorities reduce domestic 
violence, stalking, and sexual assault. These funds will enable 
communities to train more police, hire prosecutors, and provide 
assistance to the victims of such crimes. Earlier this month, after 
thorough study, the Secretary of the Treasury concluded that we should 
ban more than 50 kinds of modified assault weapons because they accept 
large-capacity military magazines. By keeping these weapons off our 
streets and out of the hands of criminals, we will take another crucial 
step toward halting the scourge of gun violence that has taken such a 
tragic toll on America's children and families.
During National Crime Victims' Rights Week, we call to mind those whose 
lives have been so abruptly and often violently changed. This annual 
observance is also a powerful reminder of the extraordinary capacity of 
our citizens to face adversity and overcome it. Across America, victims 
of crime have refused to become victims of a criminal justice system 
that too often ignores or compromises their rights while protecting the 
rights of criminals.
With courage and determination, crime victims and their dedicated 
advocates have succeeded in winning constitutional amendments in 29 
States that guarantee such fundamental rights as protection from further 
harm, which includes keeping victims and accused criminals in separate 
rooms during court proceedings; the right of victims to call upon law 
enforcement if they feel they are being harassed or intimidated in 
connection with a pending case; and the right to be notified of a 
convicted criminal's release from incarceration. And after decades of 
advocacy, a proposed Federal constitutional amendment for victims now 
lies before the Congress. We have the opportunity--and the 
responsibility--to amend the United States Constitution to ensure that 
the rights of victims are honored in every court throughout our Nation.
This year, our observance of National Crime Victims' Rights Week 
coincides with the anniversary of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. 
Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. That tragedy brought home to 
an entire Nation the extraordinary suffering and grief that can be 
rendered by a single, senseless, criminal act. In remembering the many 
victims of this brutal crime, let us pledge to sustain our efforts to 
reduce violent crime, to provide comfort and support to its victims as 
they strive to rebuild their lives, and to keep victims' rights a 
primary concern in America's criminal justice system.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 19 through April 25, 
1998, as National Crime Victims' Rights Week. I urge all Americans to 
remember crime victims and their families by working to reduce violence, 
to assist those harmed by crime, and to make our homes and communities 
safer places in which to live and raise our families.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and

[[Page 28]]

of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7085 of April 21, 1998

National Volunteer Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Volunteers enrich our lives every day with their generosity and 
compassion. In recent months, we have witnessed the extraordinary 
response of America's volunteers to the plight of those who have 
suffered from the severe weather plaguing much of our country. In 
communities devastated by mud slides, ice storms, flash floods, or 
tornadoes, volunteers have opened their hearts and homes to offer 
shelter, hot meals, building materials, and--most important--the hope 
and support that people desperately need to begin putting their lives 
back together. This spirit of citizen service has deep and strong roots 
in America's past, and by nurturing this spirit we can help to ensure a 
better future for our Nation.
Just one year ago, at the Presidents' Summit for America's Future in 
Philadelphia, I called on all Americans to dedicate their volunteer 
efforts to the well-being of our children and to make the social and 
educational development of our youngest citizens a national priority. 
Thousands of individuals and organizations across America pledged their 
support for this effort; and today, we can be proud that more than 93 
million Americans are regularly volunteering to help hundreds of 
thousands of children in need, serving as leaders, mentors, tutors, and 
companions. Through their hard work and generous response, this growing 
army of volunteers is making our streets safer, our schools better, our 
children healthier, and our future brighter.
We must not only preserve this remarkable spirit of citizen service, but 
also expand it. By emulating our Nation's many unsung heroes--from the 
12-year-old in California who distributed dolls to disadvantaged 
children, to the businessman in New York who created one of our 
country's first school-to-work programs--we must strive together to 
build a society free from crime, poverty, illiteracy, and hopelessness. 
And by making citizen service the shared experience of all Americans, we 
can build a sense of common responsibility for our future.
This week and throughout the year, let us salute all those who devote 
their time and talents to the betterment of our communities and the 
well-being of our children. Let us honor the work of the thousands of 
voluntary, civic, religious, school, and neighborhood groups across our 
Nation who do so much to serve their fellow Americans and improve the 
quality of life for us all. Let us also recognize and support the 
efforts of the Corporation for National Service and its programs--
AmeriCorps, Learn and Serve America, and the National Senior Service 
Corps--as well as all the organizations, communities, and individuals 
who have responded to the Presidents' Summit call to action and are 
following through on the work begun there.

[[Page 29]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 19 through April 25, 
1998, as National Volunteer Week. I call upon all Americans to observe 
this week with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities to 
express appreciation to the countless volunteers among us for their 
commitment to service and to encourage the spirit of volunteerism in our 
families and communities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-first day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7086 of April 22, 1998

National Park Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Within our national parks, we find all the rich diversity and 
extraordinary beauty of America's natural heritage. From the majestic 
Grand Tetons to the mysterious Everglades, our parks preserve for us the 
treasures of our magnificent country: the astonishing variety of plant 
and animal life, the tranquility of forests and meadows, and the 
breathtaking grandeur of our great rivers, deserts, and mountains. Our 
national park sites also provide us with vital links to our heritage as 
a people and a Nation. They tell us the stories of the individuals, 
places, and events that have shaped the American character.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island are tangible 
reminders of the more than 12 million immigrants who came to the United 
States through this small gateway to a new world and a new life. For 
many Americans, this national park site tells a very personal story of 
family struggles and triumphs and of the courage it takes to seek 
freedom.
Many African Americans took a different but equally brave route to 
freedom. Their story has been preserved for us by the National Park 
Service in the many historic sites marking the route of the Underground 
Railroad. In homes, churches, and farms in communities throughout Ohio, 
Indiana, Pennsylvania, New York, and elsewhere, we can experience the 
determination and indomitable spirit of African American men and women 
fleeing the bonds of slavery, and we can learn more about the many 
heroes like Harriet Tubman who helped them on their dangerous trek north 
to freedom.
This summer, our Nation will celebrate the 150th anniversary of the 
first Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York. That event 
will be commemorated at Women's Rights National Historical Park, where 
we are reminded that the idea that men and women are created equal was 
once considered radical. On this site, visionaries such as Lucretia 
Mott, Eliza

[[Page 30]]

beth Cady Stanton, and Frederick Douglass helped our Nation take an 
important first step toward legal, political, and educational rights for 
American women.
At these and so many other historic places across our Nation, the 
National Park Service preserves and protects the American legacy, 
reminding us not only of who we are as a people, but also of how far we 
have traveled together on our great American journey. Our national parks 
are classrooms and laboratories, windows on our past and doorways to our 
future. As we celebrate National Park Week, I commend all the talented 
and dedicated men and women of the National Park Service for telling the 
story of the people and places that have shaped our destiny and for 
preserving for our children the riches of our natural and cultural 
heritage.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 20 through April 26, 
1998, as National Park Week.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-second day 
of April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7087 of April 24, 1998

Jewish Heritage Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

America's first Jewish immigrants arrived on our shores from Europe more 
than 100 years before the American Revolution. In subsequent decades, 
millions more Jewish men and women would follow, fleeing persecution, 
pogroms, and the horrors of the Holocaust, seeking a new life of freedom 
and opportunity for themselves and their children. While many came here 
in poverty, they brought with them the riches of their ancient Jewish 
heritage: faith in God; a strong commitment to family and community; a 
tradition of service to others; and a deep love of learning and the 
arts.
Drawing on these many strengths, Jewish citizens have made extraordinary 
contributions to every aspect of American life. Acutely conscious of the 
dangers of racism, prejudice, and political oppression, American Jews 
have been strong and effective advocates in the cause of social justice. 
They have dedicated their energies, talents, and resources to ensure 
that our Nation lives up to its promise of equality, making a lasting 
impact in the struggle for civil rights, labor reform, and women's 
equality. The Jewish philanthropic tradition, dating back to ancient 
times, has flourished in America, bringing hope and help to those in 
need through numerous Jewish charitable organizations and activities. In 
public service and education, in science and medicine, in entertainment, 
law, the arts, and many other fields of endeavor, Jewish men and women 
strengthen our national commu

[[Page 31]]

nity and uphold the fundamental American ideals of faith, community, 
compassion, and responsibility.
Every spring, we set aside this special time to celebrate the many gifts 
that American Jews bring to our national life. This year, we also join 
with Jews around the world in celebrating the 50th anniversary of the 
founding of the modern state of Israel. This milestone is a tribute to 
the strength and resilience of the Jewish spirit in the face of great 
adversity. Israel's achievements in the past 5 decades of challenge and 
conflict continue to inspire all Americans and teach us anew the power 
of the human spirit to build reality out of our dreams.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 26 through May 3, 
1998, as Jewish Heritage Week. I urge all Americans to observe this week 
with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fourth day 
of April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7088 of April 29, 1998

National Day of Prayer, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In every era of American history, devout men and women from every nation 
have come to our shores seeking the freedom to worship according to 
their own conscience. Recognizing the sacredness of this fundamental 
human right, our founders wisely guaranteed it in the First Amendment to 
the Constitution.
Prayer has always been an integral part of American life. In every city, 
town, and rural community across our country, people of every religious 
denomination gather to worship according to their faith. In churches, 
synagogues, temples, and mosques, Americans come together to pray. We 
pray for the health and happiness of loved ones; for inner peace and 
peace among nations; and for the wisdom and courage to face the 
challenges of the new millennium. And always we raise our voices and 
hearts in prayers of thanksgiving for the blessing of freedom.
Just as Americans rely on prayer for strength and renewal in private 
life, so do we turn to it at moments of great joy or crisis in our 
public life as a Nation. Meeting in Philadelphia to make the momentous 
decisions that would ultimately determine the nature and form of 
American Government, the Continental Congress began daily deliberations 
with a prayer for God's blessings and assistance. In his first inaugural 
address, President George Washington also prayed for guidance from the 
Almighty as he began the enormous task of leading a new, untried 
democracy.

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In this century, with America in the throes of the Great Depression and 
a world teetering on the brink of war, President Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt concluded his first inaugural address with a fervent prayer: 
``In this dedication of a Nation we humbly ask the blessing of God. May 
He protect each and every one of us. May He guide me in the days to 
come.'' And today, as we look ahead to the promise of a new century, 
Americans continue to draw strength from the bedrock of faith and 
religious freedom upon which our democracy rests.
The Congress, by Public Law 100-307, has called on our citizens to 
reaffirm the role of prayer in our society and to honor the religious 
diversity our freedom permits by recognizing annually a ``National Day 
of Prayer.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 7, 1998, as a National Day of Prayer. I 
encourage the citizens of this great Nation to pray, each in his or her 
own manner, seeking strength from God to face the problems of today, 
requesting guidance for the uncertainties of tomorrow, and giving thanks 
for the rich blessings that our country has enjoyed throughout our 
history.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7089 of April 30, 1998

Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Like millions of others who left their homelands to come to America, the 
first Asian and Pacific Island immigrants who arrived here in the 19th 
century were seeking a better life than the one they left behind. Many 
were poor; many had suffered oppression; but all were strengthened by a 
rich culture, an ancient heritage, a belief in freedom's promise, and a 
willingness to work for their share of the American Dream.
For many, however, that dream was deferred. These courageous men and 
women from Asia and the Pacific Islands were met in America by prejudice 
as they strived to make a living and establish a home in their adopted 
country.
These brave new Americans would prevail over every hardship. Whether 
working in the gold fields of California, laboring on the sugar and 
pineapple plantations of Hawaii, constructing the transcontinental 
railway, or creating their own businesses, Asian and Pacific Americans 
succeeded in building new lives for themselves and their families.
Today, Asian and Pacific Americans are helping to build a vibrant 
America. They are leaders in medical and scientific research, in the 
halls of Congress, in the classrooms of our educational institutions, in 
business, labor,

[[Page 33]]

the arts, and every other human endeavor. They are building economic and 
technological bridges across the Pacific and beyond, which will ensure 
America's leadership well into the next millennium. These sons and 
daughters of Cambodia, China, Indonesia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the 
Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and so many other Asian and Pacific 
lands have enriched our national life and culture with their energy and 
talents, with their commitment to family and community, and with their 
enduring reverence for freedom.
As we approach the 21st century, Asian and Pacific Americans are playing 
an increasingly important role in the life of our Nation, helping us to 
maintain our leadership in the global economy. More important, they are 
inspiring us to embrace the wider world, to recognize and appreciate the 
blessing of our great diversity, and to become one America.
To honor the accomplishments of Asian and Pacific Americans and to 
recognize their many contributions to our Nation, the Congress, by 
Public Law 102-450, has designated the month of May as ``Asian/Pacific 
American Heritage Month.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 1998 as Asian/Pacific American Heritage 
Month. I call upon the people of the United States to observe this month 
with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
April, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7090 of May 1, 1998

Law Day, U.S.A., 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In 1787, when the founders of this great Nation set forth the guiding 
principles of our new democracy in the Preamble to the Constitution, 
among their primary goals was to ``establish Justice.'' These visionary 
American leaders revered the law, understanding that its proper practice 
would simultaneously free us and protect us, enabling us to steer a 
steady course between the opposing dangers of tyranny and anarchy. 
Today, our country, built upon the foundation of equal justice for all, 
is renowned throughout the world for legally enshrining fundamental 
human rights. Recognizing the importance of law to the life of our 
Nation, we set aside one day each year to reflect on our judicial system 
and to celebrate both the security and the freedom it guarantees.
Our laws ensure that the rights set forth in the Constitution and its 
Amendments are protected in our everyday lives: our right to worship as 
we choose, to speak freely, to vote in free elections, to be safe from 
arbitrary arrest. Justice for all is central to our democracy, and we 
must strive to en

[[Page 34]]

sure that all Americans have equal access to the judicial system. 
Unfortunately, each year many of our most vulnerable citizens are denied 
the legal assistance they need because they cannot afford it.
I am proud that our Federal Government is making an investment to 
address this problem through the work of the Legal Services Corporation 
(LSC). For almost 25 years, the LSC has funded local offices that give 
our citizens access to the legal help they need to secure child support, 
escape domestic violence, or fight unscrupulous lenders. Last year 
alone, 4 million poor Americans, the majority of whom were women and 
children, were helped by LSC offices.
Without laws, our democracy would wither; without access to our legal 
system, there can be no true justice. We must affirm and strengthen our 
national legal services system to ensure that all Americans have an 
equal opportunity to enjoy the rights and liberties guaranteed in our 
Constitution. As we observe Law Day, let us reaffirm our faith in the 
rule of law and strive to secure justice for all our people.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, in accordance with Public Law 87-20 of April 7, 1961, do hereby 
proclaim May 1, 1998, as Law Day. I urge the people of the United States 
to consider anew how our laws protect our freedoms and contribute to our 
national well-being. I call upon members of the legal profession, civic 
associations, educators, librarians, public officials, and the media to 
promote the observance of this day with appropriate programs and 
activities. I also call upon public officials to display the flag of the 
United States on all government buildings throughout the day.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7091 of May 1, 1998

Loyalty Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

More than two centuries ago, our Nation's founders, with clear vision 
and courageous hearts, fashioned a new form of government for our new 
country. They created a government that honors human dignity and 
protects individual rights--a democracy strong enough to withstand 
external threats, secure enough to allow dissent from within, and 
responsive enough to help our citizens achieve their dreams. In doing 
so, America's founders created a Nation that inspired loyalty from its 
citizens and gave hope to oppressed peoples around the world.
Since then, generations of Americans have reaffirmed their loyalty and 
devotion to our country. During times of war, Americans have fought and 
died to defend our liberty and promote the ideals of democracy. In times

[[Page 35]]

of peace, we have strived to preserve the rights secured for us in the 
Constitution and to ensure that every American enjoys the full 
protection of those rights. And throughout the decades, Americans have 
strived to build upon the ``more perfect Union'' envisioned by our 
country's founders.
On Loyalty Day, as we formally acknowledge our faith in America and in 
this great democracy, let us rededicate ourselves to the continuing 
quest for a more perfect union. Let us have the courage not only to 
recognize our differences, but also to build on the dreams we share and 
on the values we hold in common. Let us reaffirm our belief in freedom, 
equality, justice, and opportunity for all of our people. And let us 
show to all the world that our diversity is a source of lasting strength 
and renewal.
The Congress, by Public Law 85-529, has designated May 1 of each year as 
``Loyalty Day'' to remind us of the many blessings we enjoy as citizens 
of this great land.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 1, 1998, as Loyalty Day. I urge all 
Americans to recognize the heritage of American freedom, to honor the 
memory of those who have served and sacrificed in defense of that 
freedom, and to express our loyalty to our Nation through appropriate 
patriotic programs, ceremonies, and activities. I also call upon 
Government officials to display the flag of the United States in support 
of this national observance.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7092 of May 4, 1998

Older Americans Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In just over a decade from now, the first of America's 77 million baby 
boomers will celebrate their 65th birthdays. Fortunately, visionary 
programs like Social Security, Medicare, and the Older Americans Act 
will help to make life easier for them as they reach this milestone.
For more than 60 years, Social Security has provided our older citizens 
with a measure of economic security. For more than 30 years, Medicare 
has given them access to quality health care and the latest in medical 
advances. And older Americans in need of greater assistance have been 
able to look to programs under the Older Americans Act for the critical 
home and community-based care services that have enabled millions of 
elderly men and women to live independently. Together, these farsighted 
measures have played a major role in dramatically reducing the poverty 
rate and extending the longevity of older Americans, allowing our 
citizens to grow old with dignity and peace of mind.

[[Page 36]]

This year's Older Americans Month celebration centers around the theme 
``Living Longer; Growing Stronger in America.'' As we enter a new 
century and address the challenges of an aging America, we must commit 
ourselves to the health and welfare of our older Americans and to 
protecting and strengthening Medicare and Social Security. One of the 
most important achievements of the Balanced Budget Act that I signed 
last summer was its unprecedented reform of the Medicare program. This 
bipartisan effort extends the life of the Medicare Trust Fund for a 
decade, includes new health plan choices, and adds coverage of 
preventive benefits. The legislation also established the National 
Bipartisan Commission on the Future of Medicare to, among other things, 
review and analyze the financial condition of Medicare so that it 
remains as strong for our children as it has been for our parents.
We must respond with equal resolve to the increasing strains on the 
Social Security system. Now that we have succeeded in dramatically 
reducing the Federal budget deficit, I have called on the Congress to 
reserve all of the anticipated budget surplus until we have a 
comprehensive plan to strengthen Social Security for the 21st century. 
We are holding a series of regional conferences throughout the year to 
engage in a national discussion on the future of Social Security, both 
to raise awareness of the problem and to allow all Americans to 
contribute their ideas for a solution. At the end of the year, I will 
host a bipartisan White House Conference on Social Security to summarize 
the lessons we learn from this dialogue and to map out an effective 
strategy that will enable us to ensure that Social Security will be 
there for future generations of Americans.
During Older Americans Month--and throughout the year--I encourage all 
Americans to pay tribute to our older citizens and to follow their 
example by planning for the future. As individuals, we should take care 
of our health through proper diet, exercise, and appropriate preventive 
care, and we should plan for our future financial security by 
participating in retirement and savings programs. As families and 
communities, we can help older Americans to remain active and 
independent members of our communities. And as a Nation, we must 
recognize our obligation to those who will come after us by preserving 
and strengthening Medicare and Social Security for the 21st century and 
beyond.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 1998 as Older 
Americans Month. I call upon Government officials, businesses, 
communities, educators, volunteers, and all the people of the United 
States to acknowledge the contributions older Americans have made, and 
continue to make, to the life of our Nation.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourth day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 37]]


Proclamation 7093 of May 7, 1998

Mother's Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Mothers are the heart of our families and the soul of our society. They 
are the nurturers of life, our teachers, confidants, counselors, and 
lifelong friends. They believe in our dreams and help us to achieve 
them. They help us develop the values, self-esteem, strength of 
character, and generosity of spirit we need to embrace the wider world 
beyond the family. Above all, mothers provide us with the blessing of 
their love.
While this special love between mother and child is unchanging, the 
challenges of motherhood are not. The role of women in our society has 
changed dramatically during the past century. Millions of American women 
today pursue full-time careers in addition to carrying out their duties 
as parents, balancing family, job, and community responsibilities. 
Whether they stay home with their children or become working mothers, 
mothers today care for their families and meet the new demands of our 
complex society with strength, courage, and quiet selflessness. On 
Mother's Day, let us honor all mothers--biological or adoptive, foster 
or stepmother--whose unconditional love has strengthened us and whose 
many gifts have graced our lives.
The Congress, by a joint resolution approved May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. 770), 
has designated the second Sunday in May each year as ``Mother's Day'' 
and requested the President to call for its appropriate observance.
 NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States 
of America, do hereby proclaim May 10, 1998, as Mother's Day. I urge all 
Americans to express their love, respect, and appreciation for the 
contributions mothers have made to all of us, and I call upon all 
citizens to observe this day with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and 
activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7094 of May 8, 1998

National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 
1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

America's transportation system is the finest in the world. The web of 
streets, highways, bridges, and railroads that crisscross our Nation and 
our complex network of shipping lanes and air routes keep us connected 
to one

[[Page 38]]

another and the world. They enable us to move people and goods swiftly 
and efficiently across the country and around the globe and fuel the 
engine of our robust economy. Whether building subways, constructing new 
highways, or improving airplane safety, the dedicated and hardworking 
men and women of our national transportation system keep America moving.
As we look forward to a new century, we must build on our record of 
achievement. As always, our first priority must be the safety of those 
who use our Nation's transportation system. We have already made great 
progress in improving highway safety--the traffic fatality rate today is 
two-and-a-half times less than it was 30 years ago. However, by 
increasing seat belt use, ensuring that our children are properly 
secured in our vehicles, and lowering the threshold for drunk driving to 
a blood alcohol concentration of .08, we can further reduce the number 
of traffic accidents and the harm they cause.
We also must strive to keep our Nation's transportation system secure 
and our borders safe from terrorists and drug traffickers. Today, 
through improved training techniques and advanced technology, we have 
increased security at our airports, and programs such as the Coast 
Guard's Operation Frontier Shield have helped to seize tons of illegal 
drugs and abort numerous drug smuggling attempts.
While recognizing the many benefits we derive from our transportation 
system, we also acknowledge the need to use and develop it responsibly 
to ensure the protection of our environment. We are making progress in 
this goal as well: we have funded many projects to improve transit 
services and accommodations for bicyclists and pedestrians; we are 
turning historic railroad terminals into multimodal transportation 
centers; and funds from transportation programs have helped to support 
wetlands restoration projects and have aided communities in planning 
both transit projects and sustainable development. We must build on 
these efforts by also working to reduce the pollutants and greenhouse 
gases that our transportation system creates.
Recognizing the need for safety, security, and environmental stewardship 
in America's transportation system, we also must invest in our 
transportation infrastructure. Together with the Congress, my 
Administration has provided funding for construction projects in 
communities across the country, creating 700,000 new transportation-
related jobs in the last 5 years. Our fiscal 1999 budget proposal for 
transportation infrastructure is 42 percent higher than the average 
level of investment from 1990 to 1993. The 240 trade agreements we have 
signed since 1993, including 27 ``open skies'' aviation agreements in 
the last 3 years, have opened markets around the world for American 
products. America's transportation system will enable us to seize these 
unprecedented opportunities for trade and economic growth.
In recognition of the importance of our Nation's transportation system 
to our national security and economic success, and in gratitude to the 
outstanding men and women who ensure its continued excellence, the 
United States Congress, by joint resolution approved May 16, 1957 (36 
U.S.C. 160), has designated the third Friday in May of each year as 
``National Defense Transportation Day'' and, by joint resolution 
approved May 14, 1962 (36 U.S.C. 166), declared that the week in which 
that Friday falls be designated ``National Transportation Week.''

[[Page 39]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim Friday, May 15, 1998, as National Defense 
Transportation Day and May 10 through May 16, 1998, as National 
Transportation Week. I urge all Americans to observe these occasions 
with appropriate ceremonies and activities, giving due recognition to 
the individuals and organizations that build, operate, and maintain this 
country's modern transportation systems.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighth day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7095 of May 12, 1998

Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

This week a grateful Nation pauses to honor the more than half a million 
dedicated law enforcement officers across our country who put their 
lives on the line each day to protect us. These courageous and dedicated 
men and women daily wage the timeless battle for right over wrong, peace 
over conflict, and the rule of law over anarchy.
We ask a great deal of our Federal, State, and local police officers. We 
ask them to stand between us and the forces of violence and chaos. We 
ask them to protect our homes and property and to save our lives at the 
risk of their own. We ask them to patrol our highways and our borders, 
to keep our children safe from drug dealers and gang leaders, and to 
bring to justice the murderers, terrorists, rapists, and other criminals 
who prey on our society. We lean heavily on this thin blue line, and it 
never breaks.
Last year, in carrying out their awesome responsibilities, 158 law 
enforcement officers lost their lives--and the lives of their families 
and friends were changed forever. After several years of decreased 
violence against our law enforcement community, we face the sobering 
reality that police officer fatalities rose 27 percent during 1997.
As we honor these heroes--those who still live and work among us, and 
those who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our well-being--let us 
reaffirm our efforts to end the violence that has taken such a heavy 
toll on our Nation's law enforcement community. Let us work to ensure 
that America's police officers have the training, resources, manpower, 
and community support they need to carry out the crucial 
responsibilities with which we charge them. In this way we can best 
honor the service and sacrifice of the thousands of fallen police 
officers whose memory we honor and whose devotion to duty has earned our 
respect and lasting gratitude.
By a joint resolution approved October 1, 1962 (76 Stat. 676), the 
Congress has authorized and requested the President to designate May 15 
of each year as ``Peace Officers Memorial Day'' and the week in which it 
falls as

[[Page 40]]

``Police Week,'' and, by Public Law 103-322 (36 U.S.C. 175), has 
directed that the flag be flown at half-staff on Peace Officers Memorial 
Day.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 15, 1998, as Peace Officers Memorial Day 
and May 10 through May 16, 1998, as Police Week. I call upon the people 
of the United States to observe these occasions with appropriate 
ceremonies, programs, and activities. I also request the Governors of 
the United States and of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, as well as the 
appropriate officials of all units of government, to direct that the 
flag of the United States be flown at half-staff on Peace Officers 
Memorial Day on all buildings, grounds, and naval vessels throughout the 
United States and all areas under its jurisdiction and control. I also 
invite all Americans to display the flag at half-staff from their homes 
on that day.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of May, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7096 of May 14, 1998

National Safe Boating Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Recreational boating is one of our Nation's most popular and most 
rewarding pastimes. Blessed with an abundance of scenic rivers, lakes, 
streams, and coastal waters, our country is a haven for people who love 
the water. More than 78 million Americans take to the water each year 
with family and friends to appreciate nature, relax, and simply escape 
from the cares of the day. However, while boating can be a wonderful 
recreational activity, it can also be dangerous for the unprepared.
Tragically, more than 700 Americans die each year in boating-related 
accidents. In most cases, human error and poor judgment are to blame. 
Drinking or taking drugs while operating a boat, ignoring safe 
navigation rules, and failing to wear a life preserver are all examples 
of poor judgment that can lead to loss of life. The U.S. Coast Guard 
estimates that last year alone, 80 percent of boating-related fatalities 
could have been prevented had life jackets been worn. So, the theme of 
this year's Safe Boating Week, ``Boat Smart from the Start! Wear Your 
Life Jacket,'' is truly a matter of life and death. I encourage all 
Americans to wear life preservers every time they are on the water--this 
simple precaution can save hundreds of lives each year.
The National Safe Boating Council, the U.S. Coast Guard, other Federal 
agencies, State and local governments, and many recreational boating 
organizations actively promote boating safety and work to save lives on 
the water. However, it is ultimately up to each individual to take 
responsibility for his or her own safety and for the safety of friends 
and family. This year, during National Safe Boating Week, I urge all 
Americans who use our Na

[[Page 41]]

tion's waterways to practice safe boating and to educate others about 
the importance of wearing life jackets, abstaining from drugs and 
alcohol, and following safe navigation rules. Together we can save lives 
and ensure that boating remains an enjoyable activity--for ourselves and 
for our loved ones.
In recognition of the importance of safe boating practices, the 
Congress, by joint resolution approved June 4, 1958 (36 U.S.C. 161), as 
amended, has authorized and requested the President to proclaim annually 
the seven-day period prior to Memorial Day as ``National Safe Boating 
Week.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 16 through May 22, 1998, as National 
Safe Boating Week. I encourage the Governors of the 50 States and the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and officials of other areas subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States, to join in observing this occasion 
and to urge all Americans to practice safe boating not only during this 
week, but also throughout the year.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourteenth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7097 of May 15, 1998

World Trade Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The American economy is experiencing its longest period of sustained 
growth in more than a generation, with more than 15 million new jobs, 
the lowest unemployment rate since 1970, and the lowest inflation rate 
in more than 30 years. Much of this economic expansion can be attributed 
to our overseas trade. Today, America is the world's leading exporter. 
Our exports sustain 12 million jobs--jobs that on average, pay more than 
jobs not tied to exports. The extraordinary vigor of America's economy 
reflects the 1998 theme of World Trade Week: ``Exporting Pays Off.''
Our unparalleled capacity to develop and market high-technology products 
and processes has given us a strong competitive edge in the 
international marketplace in everything from aerospace to agriculture. 
Americans have led the world into the Information Age, and we are poised 
to lead it into an exciting new era of electronic commerce. Also central 
to our success in the global economy has been our ability to open 
foreign markets for American goods and services. During the past 5 
years, my Administration has negotiated more than 240 new trade 
agreements and strengthened efforts to eliminate unfair trading 
practices in order to help American workers and businesses compete in an 
international arena that is open and fair and where trade rules are 
enforced.

[[Page 42]]

To keep America growing, and to maintain our leadership in the global 
economy, we must expand our exports. We must sustain our advantage in 
information and other technologies by creating a business climate that 
encourages investment, by continuing our support of education and 
research in basic science and technology, and by ensuring that American 
workers are the best-educated and best-trained work force in the world. 
The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that we will need more than a 
million new high-skilled workers during the next 10 years to power the 
information technology field. We must provide working Americans with the 
skills and training they need to seize these promising employment 
opportunities.
Our exports and our economic strength depend upon our access to an open, 
stable, and growing world market. The nations of the world are becoming 
increasingly intertwined in a global economy. We must continue our 
efforts to remove foreign barriers to American goods and services, to 
open new markets, and to keep them open. This week, I will travel to 
Geneva, Switzerland and address the World Trade Organization to 
underline just how important free and open trade is to our future 
prosperity. Fast-track trade authority has been a crucial tool in this 
endeavor in the past, and it will become increasingly important to our 
ability to compete in the future with other countries for new markets, 
new contracts, and new jobs. This traditional trading authority will 
empower us to negotiate pro-growth, pro-American trade agreements that 
will maintain the momentum of our economy and ensure that American 
workers and American businesses can compete on a level playing field 
with the rest of the world.
America's leadership in building an open, fair world trade system is 
paying off in rewards for entrepreneurial initiative, higher wages for 
working Americans, incentives for technological advances and artistic 
creation, and prosperity for our Nation. By embracing the challenges of 
competing in the global marketplace in the 21st century, we can ensure 
continued growth for American businesses, prosperity for working 
Americans, and a brighter future for us all.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 17 through May 23, 
1998, as World Trade Week. I invite the people of the United States to 
observe this week with ceremonies, activities, and programs that 
celebrate the potential of international trade.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 43]]


Proclamation 7098 of May 21, 1998

National Maritime Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The United States is and has always been a maritime Nation. Our history 
is tied to the sea--from the Santa Maria to the Mayflower, from clipper 
ships to ocean liners, from the Liberty Ships of World War II to the 
huge, efficient containerships of the 1990s--and our development as a 
Nation has paralleled the growth of our waterborne commerce.
As we look forward to the challenges of the 21st century, we continue to 
rely on our Nation's maritime industry and the U.S. Merchant Marine to 
keep America competitive in an increasingly global economy. Ships and 
barges carry more than one billion tons of commercial cargo annually 
between ports within our Nation. Internationally, more than 95 percent 
of our imports and exports by weight are transported on water--a total 
of more than one billion metric tons of cargo each year.
We also depend on America's maritime industry and Merchant Marine to 
fill a crucial role in protecting our national interests and the 
security of our allies. Throughout our history, in times of conflict or 
crisis, the owners, operators, and crews of U.S.-flag commercial vessels 
have provided vital sealift capability in support of our Armed Forces, 
advancing defense, peacekeeping, and humanitarian missions across the 
globe.
Our maritime industry has made many important contributions to the 
economic strength and defense capability of our Nation, and my 
Administration has worked with the Congress to implement new approaches 
to ensure the industry's continued viability. Our National Shipbuilding 
Initiatives are helping to improve the competitiveness of America's 
maritime industry by seeking to eliminate foreign subsidies, assisting 
the industry's international marketing efforts, eliminating unnecessary 
government regulations, and enhancing private sector financing of 
shipbuilding through Federal loan guarantees. Under the Maritime 
Security Program, the Federal Government contracts with owners and 
operators of U.S.-flag vessels to supplement our military sealift 
capability and gains access to a fleet of modern commercial ships and 
the sophisticated intermodal transportation system that supports it. 
Together, these programs protect our Nation's economic interests and our 
national security by ensuring that U.S.-flag vessels will always sail in 
the sea lanes of the world.
In recognition of the importance of the U.S. Merchant Marine, the 
Congress, by a joint resolution approved May 20, 1933, has designated 
May 22 as ``National Maritime Day'' and has authorized and requested the 
President to issue annually a proclamation calling for its appropriate 
observance.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim May 22, 1998, as National Maritime Day. I 
urge all Americans to observe this day with appropriate programs, 
ceremonies, and activities and by displaying the flag of the United 
States at their homes and in their communities. I also request that all 
ships sailing under the American flag dress ship on that day.

[[Page 44]]

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-first day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7099 of May 22, 1998

Prayer for Peace, Memorial Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Today Americans live in a time of great hope. Our Nation is free, 
prosperous, and at peace. While very real dangers and problems still 
exist in the world, the Cold War is over, democracy is sweeping the 
globe, and old adversaries are forming new partnerships.
But the blessings we enjoy today are not the happy accidents of history; 
they are the culmination of promises kept by generations of young 
Americans and paid for by their courage and sacrifice. The promise of 
freedom articulated in our Declaration of Independence was made real by 
a ragtag army of brave Americans who were prepared to die for their 
convictions. The promise of unity was kept during the Civil War by 
thousands of Americans, black and white, who were willing to fight to 
preserve our Union. The promise of democracy was kept by the hundreds of 
thousands of Americans who fought and died in World War I, World War II, 
Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf. On home soil and in foreign lands, 
lost at sea or brought down from the skies, our young men and women in 
uniform have given their lives to keep their promise to America: to 
defend our freedom, to preserve our values, and to advance the ideals of 
democracy.
On this Memorial Day, we, too, have promises to keep. We remember and 
honor all those gallant Americans who, in the eloquent words of 
President Lincoln, ``gave the last full measure of devotion'' for the 
well-being of our Nation and their fellow citizens. We express our 
profound sympathy and gratitude to the families who have lost their sons 
and daughters in service to America. We promise to keep faith with all 
those who have died for our country by remaining vigilant in our defense 
of freedom and democracy. And we promise always to work for permanent 
peace in the world so that a new generation of Americans will never have 
to know the horrors of war.
In respect and recognition of the courageous men and women to whom we 
pay tribute, the Congress, by joint resolution approved on May 11, 1950 
(64 Stat. 158), has requested the President to issue a proclamation 
calling upon the people of the United States to observe each Memorial 
Day as a day of prayer for permanent peace and designating a period on 
that day when the American people might unite in prayer.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim Memorial Day, May 25, 1998, as a day of 
prayer for permanent peace, and I designate the hour beginning at 3:00 
p.m. EDT of that day as a time to join in prayer. I urge the press,

[[Page 45]]

radio, television, and all other information media to take part in this 
observance.
I also request the Governors of the United States and the Commonwealth 
of Puerto Rico, and the appropriate officials of all units of 
government, to direct that the flag be flown at half-staff during this 
Memorial Day on all buildings, grounds, and naval vessels throughout the 
United States and in all areas under its jurisdiction and control, and I 
request the people of the United States to display the flag at half-
staff from their homes for the customary forenoon period.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-second day 
of May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7100 of May 29, 1998

Death of Barry M. Goldwater

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As a mark of respect for the memory of Barry M. Goldwater, former 
Senator from the State of Arizona, I hereby order, by the authority 
vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United 
States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at 
half-staff upon all public buildings and grounds, at all military posts 
and naval stations, and on all naval vessels of the Federal Government 
in the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its 
Territories and possessions on Wednesday, June 3, 1998. I also direct 
that the flag shall be flown at half-staff on that day at all United 
States embassies, legations, consular offices, and other facilities 
abroad, including all military facilities and naval vessels and 
stations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7101 of May 29, 1998

National Alternative Fuels Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In today's robust and growing economy, the United States faces major 
challenges in meeting the ever-increasing demand for transportation 
goods and

[[Page 46]]

services while minimizing the adverse impact on our energy resources, 
environment, and future prosperity.
Today's American transportation system remains enormously dependent on 
oil. Highway transportation alone accounts for more than half of our 
Nation's oil demand, and the number of vehicles and miles driven on our 
roads is steadily increasing. Transportation is the second largest 
contributor to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and will likely be the most 
significant contributor by the year 2000.
Fortunately, vehicles that are powered by alternatives to conventional 
gasoline and diesel fuels are already on the market, and domestically 
produced, renewable alternative fuels are readily available to American 
consumers. These alternative fuels--such as ethanol, methanol, natural 
gas, propane, electricity, and biodiesel--can make significant 
contributions to our energy security and environmental quality. By 
increasing the use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), we can reduce 
our demand for imported oil, create new products, jobs, and businesses, 
and improve air quality by dramatically reducing carbon dioxide 
emissions as well as the hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate 
matter that are such major contributors to urban air pollution.
More than 350,000 AFVs are already on the road in the 60 communities 
participating in the Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program. This 
program is fostering the development of AFV markets in a network of 
cities across the country through partnerships among fuel suppliers, 
vehicle fleet operators, Federal, State, and local governments, and 
private sector organizations. Through the efforts of program 
participants, we are moving closer to our goal of building a 
transportation system for our Nation that meets the energy, economic, 
and environmental needs of Americans today and of generations yet to 
come.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 31 through June 6, 
1998, as National Alternative Fuels Week. I call upon all Americans to 
observe this week with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7102 of May 29, 1998

Small Business Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Our great Nation is renowned worldwide as the land of opportunity. 
Americans are dedicated to bettering their lives, pursuing the American 
Dream with entrepreneurial spirit and ingenuity.

[[Page 47]]

 Small business owners across our country are among the true heroes of 
our great American success story. We owe much of today's prosperity to 
our Nation's 23.6 million small businesses. Small businesses represent 
99.7 percent of all employers, account for 47 percent of all sales in 
the country, employ 53 percent of the private work force, and are 
responsible for more than half of the private gross domestic product. 
New business formation reached another record level in 1997, with 
884,609 new employer firms--the highest ever, and a 5-percent increase 
over the last record set in 1996.
Recognizing the extraordinary contributions of small businesses to the 
strength and continuing growth of our economy, my Administration has 
worked hard to implement policies and programs designed to help small 
businesses develop and expand. We are directing tax relief to more small 
businesses, expanding access to capital, supporting innovation, 
providing regulatory relief, opening overseas markets to entrepreneurs, 
and strengthening America's work force through investments in education, 
training, and better benefits.
The U.S. Small Business Administration plays a key role in my 
Administration's efforts to help Americans start, build, and grow their 
small businesses into the 21st century. Since the end of fiscal year 
1992, the SBA extended or guaranteed more than $48 billion in loans to 
small businesses, more than in the previous 12 years combined. The SBA's 
current portfolio guarantees $29 billion in loans to 200,000 small 
business owners who otherwise would not have access to capital. 
Realizing the enormous potential of today's revolution in technology, we 
are leading the world in the development of electronic commerce and in 
using the Internet to help advance small business opportunities.
As Americans observe Small Business Week, let us pay tribute to the 
hundreds of thousands of small business owners across our Nation whose 
energy, innovative spirit, and faith in our system of free enterprise 
have done so much to generate the unprecedented prosperity and growth we 
enjoy today.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 31 through June 6, 
1998, as Small Business Week. I call upon Government officials and all 
the people of the United States to observe this week with appropriate 
ceremonies, activities, and programs that celebrate the achievements of 
small business owners and encourage the development of new enterprises.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 48]]


Proclamation 7103 of May 30, 1998

To Facilitate Positive Adjustment to Competition From Imports of Wheat 
Gluten

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

1. On March 18, 1998, the United States International Trade Commission 
(USITC) transmitted to the President a unanimous affirmative 
determination in its investigation under section 202 of the Trade Act of 
1974, as amended (the ``Trade Act'')(19 U.S.C. 2252), with respect to 
imports of wheat gluten provided for in subheadings 1109.00.10 and 
1109.00.90 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States 
(``HTS''). Under section 202 of the Trade Act, the USITC determined that 
such wheat gluten is being imported into the United States in such 
increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury to 
the domestic industry producing a like or directly competitive article. 
Further, the USITC, pursuant to section 311(a) of the North American 
Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (``NAFTA Implementation Act'') 
(19 U.S.C. 3371(a)), made negative findings with respect to imports of 
wheat gluten from Canada and Mexico. The USITC also transmitted its 
recommendation made pursuant to section 202(e) of the Trade Act with 
respect to the action that would address the serious injury to the 
domestic industry and be most effective in facilitating the efforts of 
the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import 
competition.
2. Pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2253), and taking 
into account the considerations specified in section 203(a)(2) of the 
Trade Act, I have determined to implement action of a type described in 
section 203(a)(3). Such action shall take the form of quantitative 
limitations on imports of wheat gluten, provided for in HTS subheadings 
1109.00.10 and 1109.00.90, imposed for a period of 3 years plus one day, 
with annual increases in such quota limits of six percent in the second 
year and in the third year. Except for products of Canada, Mexico, 
Israel, beneficiary countries under the Caribbean Basin Economic 
Recovery Act (CBERA) and the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), and 
other developing countries that have accounted for a minor share of 
wheat gluten imports, which shall be excluded from any restriction, such 
quantitative limitations shall apply to imports from all countries and 
the quota quantity shall be allocated among such countries. Pursuant to 
section 203(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2253(a)(1)(A)), I have 
further determined that these actions will facilitate efforts by the 
domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition 
and provide greater economic and social benefits than costs.
3. Section 604 of the Trade Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2483), authorizes 
the President to embody in the HTS the substance of the relevant 
provisions of that Act, and of other acts affecting import treatment, 
and actions thereunder, including the removal, modification, 
continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or other import 
restriction.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, including but not limited to sections

[[Page 49]]

203 and 604 of the Trade Act, and section 301 of title 3, United States 
Code, do proclaim that:
(1) In order to establish quantitative limitations for wheat gluten 
classified in HTS subheadings 1109.00.10 and 1109.00.90, subchapter III 
of chapter 99 of the HTS is modified as provided in the Annex to this 
proclamation.
(2) Wheat gluten that is the product of Canada, of Mexico, of Israel, of 
beneficiary countries under the CBERA and the ATPA, and of developing 
countries listed in general note 4(a) to the HTS shall be excluded from 
the quantitative limitations established by this proclamation, and such 
imports shall not be counted toward such limitations for any quota 
period created herein.
(3) In the event that a quota quantity established by this proclamation 
and allocated to a country or to ``other countries'' is significantly 
underutilized, the United States Trade Representative is authorized to 
reallocate all or part of the unfilled portion of such quota quantity to 
any other country or countries and, upon publication of notice in the 
Federal Register, to modify the HTS provisions created by the Annex to 
this proclamation to reflect any such reallocation.
(4) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders that 
are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are 
superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.
(5) The modifications to the HTS made by this proclamation, including 
the Annex hereto, shall be effective with respect to goods entered, or 
withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after 12:01 a.m. EDT on 
June 1, 1998, and shall continue in effect as provided in the Annex to 
this proclamation, unless such actions are earlier expressly modified or 
terminated.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  




ANNEX

Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States
Effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for 
consumption, on or after June 1, 1998, subchapter III of chapter 99 of 
the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States is modified by 
inserting in numerical sequence the following new U.S. note, subheadings 
and superior text thereto, with the language inserted in the columns 
entitled ``Heading/Subheading'', ``Article Description'', and ``Quota 
Quantity'', and upon the close of June 1, 2002, these provisions and 
superior text shall be deleted from the HTS:


[[Page 50]]



                         ``  7. For purposes of subheadings 9903.11.05,
                              9903.11.06, and 9903.11.07, the term: ''European
                              Community'' means Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
                              Finland, France, the Federal Republic of
                              Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the
                              Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the
                              United Kingdom.''

                             Wheat gluten, whether or not dried, except
                              products of Canada, of Mexico, of Israel, of
                              beneficiary countries under the Caribbean Basin
                              Economic Recovery Act (as enumerated in general
                              note 7 to this schedule) or of the Andean Trade
                              Preference Act (as enumerated in general note 11
                              to this schedule), or of countries enumerated in
                              general note 4(a) to this schedule as that note
                              existed on June 1, 1998 (provided for in
                              subheadings 1109.00.10 and 1109.00.90):

                 9903.11.05    If entered during the period from June 1, 1998,
                                through May 31, 1999, inclusive, in the
                                respective aggregate quantity of goods the
                                product of a foreign country specified below,
                                after which no wheat gluten the product of
                                such country may be entered during the
                                remainder of such period:

                                 Australia....................................  28,315,000 kg
                                 European Community...........................  24,513,000 kg
                                 Other countries..............................   4,693,000 kg

                 9903.11.06    If entered during the period from June 1, 1999,
                                through May 31, 2000, inclusive, in the
                                respective aggregate quantity of goods the
                                product of a foreign country specified below,
                                after which no wheat gluten the product of
                                such country may be entered during the
                                remainder of such period:

                                 Australia....................................  30,014,000 kg
                                 European Community...........................  25,983,000 kg
                                 Other countries..............................   4,975,000 kg

                 9903.11.07    If entered during the period from June 1, 2000,
                                through June 1, 2001, inclusive, in the
                                respective aggregate quantity of goods the
                                product of a foreign country specified below,
                                after which no wheat gluten the product of
                                such country may be entered during the
                                remainder of such period:

                                 Australia....................................  31,814,000 kg
                                 European Community...........................  27,543,000 kg
                                 Other countries..............................   5,273,000 kg``

[[Page 51]]


Proclamation 7104 of June 5, 1998

National Homeownership Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Homeownership has always been the foundation of the American Dream. 
Generations of Americans have worked hard and set aside their savings so 
that they might enjoy the security and stability of owning their own 
home. The partnership forged between the Federal Government and the 
private sector during this century has succeeded in bringing that dream 
closer to reality for all our citizens.
The National Housing Act, which President Franklin Roosevelt signed into 
law more than 60 years ago, made homeownership available to millions of 
families who previously could not have afforded to buy their own homes. 
The G.I. Bill of Rights extended the opportunity of homeownership to a 
whole new generation of Americans, enabling millions of our service men 
and women to start a new life in their own homes.
Building on this legacy, in 1995 I convened the National Partners in 
Homeownership--a coalition of 139 community-based local partnerships and 
65 national groups representing the housing industry, lenders, nonprofit 
organizations, and all sectors of government--to dramatically increase 
homeownership opportunity in America. And my Administration's economic 
strategy to reduce the deficit, invest in our people, and open foreign 
markets has led to lower mortgage rates, more jobs, and higher family 
incomes. Thanks to the success of our strategy and the efforts of the 
National Partners in Homeownership, we now have the highest 
homeownership rate in America's history.
Our Nation's commitment to homeownership has brought us extraordinary 
rewards, invigorating the construction and related industries, creating 
new jobs, and enhancing our prosperity. The next generation of American 
homes will also improve our environment. The new partnership I recently 
launched with America's building industry--the Partnership for Advancing 
Technology in Housing--will dramatically improve the energy efficiency 
of new homes, reducing the greenhouse gases that cause global warming 
and cutting homeowners' energy bills. Most important, homeownership has 
encouraged millions of Americans to save and invest, to take pride in 
their neighborhoods, and to take an active, responsible role in the life 
of their communities.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 7 through June 13, 
1998, as National Homeownership Week. I urge all Americans to observe 
this week with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities that 
celebrate the rewards of homeownership.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifth day of June, 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the

[[Page 52]]

Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-
second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7105 of June 12, 1998

Flag Day and National Flag Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Our country has undergone enormous change since the Continental Congress 
first adopted the Stars and Stripes as the official Flag of the United 
States of America in 1777. The new country that struggled for 7 long 
years to win independence from Great Britain is today the most powerful 
Nation on Earth. The 13 original colonies huddled close to the Atlantic 
coast of North America have grown into 50 States, stretching across the 
continent to the Pacific coast and beyond. From a population of less 
than 3 million, we have grown to more than 269 million people whose 
differences in race, religion, cultural traditions, and ethnic 
background have made us one of the most diverse countries in the world.
Throughout these two centuries of remarkable growth and change, the 
Stars and Stripes has remained the proud symbol of our fundamental 
unity. Across the generations, our flag has united Americans in the 
quest for freedom and peace. Our soldiers first followed it into battle 
at Brandywine in 1777, and today our Armed Forces carry it on 
peacekeeping and humanitarian missions around the globe. The American 
flag accompanied Lewis and Clark on their historic journey of 
exploration in the early 19th century, and last year Pathfinder carried 
the image of the Stars and Stripes to the distant landscape of Mars. In 
schoolyards, on public buildings, and displayed on the front porches of 
homes across America, our flag is an enduring reminder of the hopes, 
dreams, and values we all share as Americans, and of the sacrifices so 
many have made to keep it flying above a Nation that is strong, secure, 
and free.
Like America, our flag was fashioned to accommodate change without 
altering its fundamental design. The red and white stripes have remained 
constant, reminding us of our roots in the 13 colonies. The white stars 
on a field of blue, shifting in pattern as new States have joined the 
Union, celebrate our capacity for change. The challenge we have faced in 
the past and will confront in the 21st century is the same challenge 
woven into the American flag--to respond creatively to new possibilities 
while remaining true to our basic ideals of freedom, justice, and human 
dignity. As we celebrate Flag Day and Flag Week, let us reaffirm our 
reverence for the American flag, the bright banner that has uplifted the 
hearts and inspired the finest efforts of Americans for more than 200 
years. It has been the symbol of and companion on our American journey 
thus far, and it will continue to lead us as we embrace the promise of 
the future.
To commemorate the adoption of our flag, the Congress, by joint 
resolution approved August 3, 1949 (63 Stat. 492), designated June 14 of 
each year as ``Flag Day'' and requested the President to issue an annual 
proclamation

[[Page 53]]

calling for its observance and for the display of the Flag of the United 
States on all Federal Government buildings. The Congress also requested 
the President, by joint resolution approved June 9, 1966 (80 Stat. 194), 
to issue annually a proclamation designating the week in which June 14 
falls as ``National Flag Week'' and calling upon all citizens of the 
United States to display the flag during that week.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim June 14, 1998, as Flag Day and the week 
beginning June 14, 1998, as National Flag Week. I direct the appropriate 
officials to display the flag on all Federal Government buildings during 
that week, and I urge all Americans to observe Flag Day and National 
Flag Week by flying the Stars and Stripes from their homes and other 
suitable places.
I also call upon the people of the United States to observe with pride 
and all due ceremony those days from Flag Day through Independence Day, 
also set aside by the Congress (89 Stat. 211), as a time to honor our 
Nation, to celebrate our heritage in public gatherings and activities, 
and to publicly recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of 
June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7106 of June 17, 1998

Father's Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Fathers hold us close and lift us up in so many ways throughout our 
lives. Devoted fathers work day in and day out, not only to help provide 
their families with food, clothing, education, and a good home, but also 
to give their children the values, guidance, encouragement, and self-
esteem to make the most of their lives. With careful planning and many 
quiet sacrifices, fathers seek to give their children the freedom to 
dream and the opportunity to make those dreams a reality. Across our 
Nation, at piano recitals and basketball games, at science fairs and 
high school graduations, proud fathers rejoice at the achievements of 
their sons and daughters.
In today's complex and changing society, fathers have taken on new roles 
and additional responsibilities within their homes, balancing the varied 
demands of work and family. They are nurturers as well as providers, 
confidants and best friends as well as heroes and role models. They 
teach their children how to read, how to drive, and how to live. And, 
like generations of fathers who came before them, they build a strong 
foundation of love that enables their sons and daughters to stand 
taller, see farther, and reach higher. On Father's Day, let us thank the 
biological fathers, stepfathers, foster fathers, and adoptive fathers 
across America whose love graces their children's lives and whose 
character strengthens our Nation.

[[Page 54]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, in accordance with a joint resolution of the Congress approved 
April 24, 1972 (36 U.S.C. 142a), do hereby proclaim Sunday, June 21, 
1998, as Father's Day. I invite the States, communities across the 
country, and all the citizens of the United States to observe this day 
with appropriate ceremonies and activities that demonstrate our deep 
appreciation and abiding love for our fathers.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7107 of June 30, 1998

To Modify Duty-Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of 
Preferences

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

1. Pursuant to sections 501, 503(a)(1)(A), and 503(c)(1) of title V of 
the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``the 1974 Act'') (19 U.S.C. 2461, 
2463(a)(1)(A), and 2463(c)(1)), as amended, the President may designate 
or withdraw designation of specified articles provided for in the 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) as eligible for 
preferential tariff treatment under the Generalized System of 
Preferences (GSP) when imported from designated beneficiary developing 
countries.
2. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 
2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those 
designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries pursuant 
to section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are 
subject to competitive need limitations on the preferential treatment 
afforded under the GSP to eligible articles.
3. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(C) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 
2463(c)(2)(C)), a country that is no longer treated as a beneficiary 
developing country with respect to an eligible article may be 
redesignated as a beneficiary developing country with respect to such 
article if imports of such article from such country did not exceed the 
competitive need limitations in section 503(c)(2)(A) of the 1974 Act (19 
U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), during the preceding calendar year.
4. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(F) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 
2463(c)(2)(F)), the President may disregard the competitive need 
limitation provided in section 503(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) of the 1974 Act (19 
U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)(i)(II)) with respect to any eligible article if the 
aggregate appraised value of the imports of such article into the United 
States during the preceding calendar year does not exceed the applicable 
amount set forth in section 503(c)(2)(F)(ii) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 
2463(c)(2)(F)(ii)).

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5. Pursuant to section 503(d) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(d)), the 
President may waive the application of the competitive need limitations 
in section 503(c)(2)(A) with respect to any eligible article of any 
beneficiary developing country if certain conditions are met.
6. Section 507(2) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2467(2)) provides that in 
the case of an association of countries which is a free trade area or 
customs union, or which is contributing to comprehensive regional 
economic integration among its members through appropriate means, 
including, but not limited to, the reduction of duties, the President 
may provide that all members of such association other than members 
which are barred from designation under section 502(b) of the 1974 Act 
(19 U.S.C. 2462(b)) shall be treated as one country for purposes of 
title V of the 1974 Act.
7. Pursuant to sections 501 and 503(a)(1)(A) of the 1974 Act, and after 
receiving advice from the International Trade Commission in accordance 
with section 503(e), I have determined to designate certain articles, 
previously designated under section 503(a)(1)(B), as eligible articles 
from additional beneficiary developing countries. In order to do so, it 
is necessary to subdivide and amend the nomenclature of existing 
subheadings of the HTS. For certain articles, I have decided that the 
effective date of designation shall be determined by the United States 
Trade Representative (USTR).
8. Pursuant to section 503(c)(1) of the 1974 Act, I have determined to 
limit the application of duty-free treatment accorded to certain 
articles from certain beneficiary developing countries.
9. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the 1974 Act, I have determined 
that certain beneficiary developing countries should not receive 
preferential tariff treatment under the GSP with respect to certain 
eligible articles imported in quantities that exceed the applicable 
competitive need limitation.
10. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(C) of the 1974 Act, I have determined 
that certain countries should be redesignated as beneficiary developing 
countries with respect to certain eligible articles that previously had 
been imported in quantities exceeding the competitive need limitations 
of section 503(c)(2)(A).
11. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(F) of the 1974 Act, I have determined 
that the competitive need limitation provided in section 
503(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) should be waived with respect to certain eligible 
articles from certain beneficiary developing countries. For certain 
articles, I have decided that the effective date of the waiver shall be 
determined by the USTR.
12. Pursuant to section 503(d) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that 
the competitive need limitations of section 503(c)(2)(A) should be 
waived with respect to certain eligible articles from certain 
beneficiary developing countries. I have received the advice of the 
International Trade Commission on whether any industries in the United 
States are likely to be adversely affected by such waivers, and I have 
determined, based on that advice and on the considerations described in 
sections 501 and 502(c), that such waivers are in the national economic 
interest of the United States. For a certain article, I have decided 
that the effective date of the waiver shall be determined by the USTR.
13. Pursuant to section 507(2) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that 
members of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) should 
be treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 1974 Act.

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14. Pursuant to section 507(2) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that 
members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) should be 
treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 1974 Act. The USTR 
shall determine which specific members of the SADC are to be included in 
the designation under section 507(2) of the 1974 Act and shall determine 
the effective date or dates of the designation. The USTR shall announce 
by publication in the Federal Register the specific SADC members to be 
included in the designation and the effective date or dates.
15. Pursuant to section 507(2) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that 
members of the Tripartite Commission for East African Cooperation (EAC) 
should be treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 1974 
Act. The USTR shall determine which specific members of the EAC are to 
be included in the designation under section 507(2) of the 1974 Act and 
shall determine the effective date or dates of the designation. The USTR 
shall announce by publication in the Federal Register the specific EAC 
members to be included in the designation and the effective date or 
dates.
16. Section 604 of the 1974 Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2483), authorizes 
the President to embody in the HTS the substance of the relevant 
provisions of that Act, and of other acts affecting import treatment, 
and actions thereunder, including the removal, modification, 
continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or other import 
restriction.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States of America, including but not limited to 
title V and section 604 of the 1974 Act, do proclaim that:
    (1) In order to provide that one or more countries that have not 
been treated as beneficiary developing countries with respect to one or 
more eligible articles should be designated as beneficiary developing 
countries with respect to such article or articles for purposes of the 
GSP, and that one or more countries should not be treated as beneficiary 
developing countries with respect to one or more eligible articles for 
purposes of the GSP, general note 4 to the HTS is modified as provided 
in section A of Annex I and section A of Annex IV to this proclamation.
    (2) In order to designate certain articles, previously designated 
under section 503(a)(1)(B), as eligible articles from additional 
beneficiary developing countries, the HTS is modified by amending and 
subdividing the nomenclature of existing HTS subheadings as provided in 
section B of Annex I to this proclamation.
    (3)(a) In order to designate certain articles as eligible articles 
for purposes of the GSP when imported from any beneficiary developing 
country, the Rates of Duty 1-Special subcolumn for certain HTS 
subheadings is modified as provided in section C(1) of Annex I and 
section B of Annex IV to this proclamation.
      (b) In order to designate certain articles, previously designated 
under section 503(a)(1)(B), as eligible articles from additional 
beneficiary developing countries, the Rates of Duty 1-Special subcolumn 
for the HTS subheadings enumerated in section C(2) of Annex I to this 
proclamation is modified as provided in such section.
      (c) In order to provide preferential tariff treatment under the 
GSP to beneficiary developing countries that have been excluded from the 
benefits

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of the GSP for certain eligible articles, the Rates of Duty 1-Special 
subcolumn for each of the HTS subheadings enumerated in section C(3) of 
Annex I to this proclamation is modified as provided in such section.
      (d) In order to provide that one or more countries should not be 
treated as a beneficiary developing country with respect to certain 
eligible articles for purposes of the GSP, the Rates of Duty 1-Special 
subcolumn for each of the HTS subheadings enumerated in section C(4) of 
Annex I to this proclamation is modified as provided in such section.
    (4) A waiver of the application of section 503(c)(2)(A) of the 1974 
Act shall apply to the eligible articles in the HTS subheadings and to 
the beneficiary developing countries set forth in Annex II and in 
section C of Annex IV to this proclamation.
    (5) In order to provide for the continuation of previously 
proclaimed staged reductions of duties in the Rates of Duty 1-General 
subcolumn for goods that fall in the HTS subheadings modified by section 
B of Annex I to this proclamation and that are entered, or withdrawn 
from warehouse for consumption, on or after the dates specified in 
section A of Annex III to this proclamation, the rate of duty in the HTS 
set forth in such subcolumn for each of the HTS subheadings enumerated 
in section A of Annex III to this proclamation is deleted and the rate 
of duty provided in such section is inserted in lieu thereof.
    (6) In order to provide for the continuation of previously 
proclaimed staged reductions of duties in the Rates of Duty 1-Special 
subcolumn for certain goods of Mexico that fall in the HTS subheadings 
modified by section B of Annex I to this proclamation and effective with 
respect to goods of Mexico under the terms of general note 12 to the HTS 
that are entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or 
after the dates specified in section B of Annex III to this 
proclamation, the rate of duty in the HTS set forth in such subcolumn 
followed by the symbol ``MX'' in parentheses for each of the HTS 
subheadings enumerated in section B of Annex III to this proclamation is 
deleted and the rate of duty provided in such section is inserted in 
lieu thereof.
    (7) In order to reflect in the HTS the decision that members of the 
WAEMU should be treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 
1974 Act, and to enumerate the member countries, general note 4(a) to 
the HTS is modified as provided in Annex V to this proclamation.
    (8) In order to reflect in the HTS the decision that members of the 
SADC should be treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 
1974 Act, and to enumerate those member countries that should benefit 
from such designation, general note 4(a) to the HTS is to be modified as 
set forth in a notice or notices that the USTR shall cause to be 
published in the Federal Register. Such notice or notices should direct 
the insertion in general note 4(a) of the title of the association and 
the names of those member countries that should be treated as one 
country for purposes of title V of the 1974 Act, and should specify the 
effective date of such designation.
    (9) In order to reflect in the HTS the decision that members of the 
EAC should be treated as one country for purposes of title V of the 1974 
Act, and to enumerate those member countries that should benefit from 
such designation, general note 4(a) to the HTS is to be modified as set 
forth in a notice or notices that the USTR shall cause to be published 
in the Fed

[[Page 58]]

eral Register. Such notice or notices should direct the insertion in 
general note 4(a) of the title of the association and the names of those 
member countries that should be treated as one country for purposes of 
title V of the 1974 Act, and should specify the effective date of such 
designation.
    (10) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders 
that are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are 
superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.
    (11)(a) The modifications made by Annex I to this proclamation shall 
be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from 
warehouse for consumption, on or after July 1, 1998.
      (b) The action taken in Annex II to this proclamation shall be 
effective on the date of signature of this proclamation.
      (c) The modifications made by Annex III to this proclamation shall 
be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from 
warehouse for consumption, on or after the dates set forth in such 
Annex.
      (d) The modifications made by Annex IV to this proclamation shall 
be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from 
warehouse for consumption, on or after a date to be announced in the 
Federal Register by the USTR.
      (e) The modification made by Annex V to this proclamation shall be 
effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse 
for consumption, on or after the date of signature of this proclamation.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-second.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

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Proclamation 7108 of July 13, 1998

50th Anniversary of the Integration of the Armed Services, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

On July 26, 1948, with the stroke of a pen, President Harry Truman 
changed the course of American history. By signing Executive Order 9981, 
``Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and 
Opportunity in the Armed Services,'' he officially declared that ``there 
shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the 
armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national 
origin.'' His action reflected the growing realization by more and more 
Americans that our Nation could no longer reconcile segregation with the 
values we had fought a war to uphold.
The United States had emerged from World War II with a new understanding 
of the importance of racial and ethnic diversity to our Nation's 
strength and unity. Nazi racism and the horrors of the concentration 
camps shocked Americans and revealed the true dangers of prejudice and 
discrimination. Hundreds of thousands of our fellow citizens from many 
different ethnic and racial backgrounds served and sacrificed in the 
war. The valor of segregated African American soldiers--from the 
Tuskegee Airmen and the 761st Tank Battalion to individuals like General 
Benjamin O. Davis and General Daniel ``Chappie'' James--could not be 
ignored. These heroes risked their lives for our country overseas, and 
yet still faced discrimination here at home. By signing Executive Order 
9981, President Truman set America on the path to right this wrong.
We have come a long way in the subsequent 50 years, and the United 
States Armed Forces have been in the vanguard of our crusade to abolish 
discrimination in our society. Today our men and women in uniform 
represent so many aspects of the diversity that has made our Nation 
great, and they have proved that different people, sharing the same 
values, can work together as a mighty force for peace and freedom at 
home and around the world. We still have much to accomplish in our 
journey to become a society that respects our differences, celebrates 
our diversity, and unites around our shared values, but we should 
proudly mark the milestones on that journey and rejoice in the progress 
we have made thus far.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim July 26, 1998, as the 50th 
Anniversary of the Integration of the Armed Services. I call upon all 
Americans to observe this day with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and 
activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirteenth day of 
July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

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Proclamation 7109 of July 20, 1998

Captive Nations Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Freedom, dignity, equality, and justice: these are words sacred to the 
American people. They define our lives as citizens of a democratic 
Nation, and they sum up our hopes for all the peoples of the world. More 
than 2 centuries ago, our founders articulated these fundamental human 
rights in the Declaration of Independence, proclaiming the truth of 
human dignity and the idea that governments derive their power and 
legitimacy from the consent of the people they serve. We reaffirmed 
these convictions with the ratification of our Constitution and the Bill 
of Rights. And 50 years ago, more than four dozen nations joined us in 
championing these rights and liberties across the globe by adopting the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which the United Nations General 
Assembly passed unanimously in December of 1948.
Over the course of the last half-century, the Universal Declaration's 
call to ``expand the circle of full human dignity to all people'' has 
been a wellspring of inspiration. The Declaration has served as a 
framework for laws, constitutions, and other important efforts to 
safeguard basic liberties, as well as a yardstick for measuring 
progress. However, while democracy continues to grow and flourish around 
the world and millions enjoy fundamental human rights unencumbered by 
tyranny or restraint, the shadow of oppression still lingers.
The last decade has seen a remarkable transformation. The courage, 
strength, and determination of men and women struggling for liberty have 
changed the political landscape of the world. Democracy has blossomed 
and deepened its roots in many countries, particularly in Central and 
Eastern Europe and the nations of the former Soviet Union. But, the 
process of building democracy and strengthening civil society in these 
nations is far from complete. Moreover, there are countries in Europe 
and elsewhere where democracy is actively being undermined by 
authoritarian rule and disrespect for the rule of law. In these regions 
around the world, people are denied the right to worship freely, speak 
their thoughts openly, or live without fear of sudden arrest, arbitrary 
imprisonment, or brutal treatment. The rulers of these captive nations, 
in denying the tide of freedom rising across the globe, have positioned 
themselves on the wrong side of history.
This year marks the 40th observance of Captive Nations Week. For four 
decades these proclamations have served to express America's solidarity 
with people suffering under communist and other oppressive rule around 
the world. It is important that we continue to mark this annual 
observance as a reminder that building and nurturing democracy is an 
enduring struggle while there are still people in various parts of the 
world who are captives of tyranny.
The Congress, by Joint Resolution approved July 17, 1959 (73 Stat. 212), 
has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation 
designating the third week in July of each year as ``Captive Nations 
Week.''

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NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim July 19 through July 25, 1998, as Captive 
Nations Week. I call upon the people of the United States to observe 
this week with appropriate ceremonies and activities and to rededicate 
ourselves to supporting the cause of freedom, human rights, and self-
determination for all the peoples of the world.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7110 of July 24, 1998

National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In 1950, the thoughts of most Americans were far from war. With the 
recent end of World War II and economic recovery in full swing, the 
American people had resumed their everyday lives--going back to school, 
starting new jobs, and raising their families. But the tenor of the 
times changed suddenly and dramatically that summer, as communist North 
Korea crossed the 38th Parallel to invade its free neighbor to the 
south.
Once again, the world watched to see if the right of self-determination 
would prevail in the face of aggression, and once again Americans 
answered the call to serve. A United Nations force--spearheaded by U.S. 
air, sea, and ground troops and under a unified command headed by the 
United States--rushed to the support of South Korea. In the following 38 
months, Inchon, the Chosin Reservoir, the Yalu River, and a hundred 
other locales indelibly etched into the memory of our Korean War 
veterans were added to the long list of places where Americans have 
fought and died for freedom. The fighting was brutal; the toll in 
injuries, lives lost, and those missing in action was heavy. But 
American forces, fighting side by side with South Koreans and our U.N. 
allies, halted communist aggression, preserved the Republic of Korea, 
and won a victory for democratic peoples everywhere.
Yet, for many years, these important achievements and the extraordinary 
courage and sacrifice of our forces in Korea received little 
recognition. For too long, overshadowed by the broad dimensions of World 
War II and the complexities of the Vietnam War, the Korean conflict 
seemed to be America's forgotten victory.
But in 1995, with the dedication of the Korean War Veterans Memorial in 
our Nation's capital, America finally paid fitting tribute to those 
brave Americans whose devotion to duty wrote a crucial chapter in 
freedom's history and whose valor and determination in battle laid the 
foundation for our Nation's ultimate triumph in the Cold War. With its 
haunting column of determined troops, the Memorial has the power to 
evoke strong memo

[[Page 67]]

ries within those who served. But it serves another enduring purpose: to 
teach future generations about America's heroes, the depth of their 
sacrifice, and the historic contributions they made to the cause of 
peace and freedom.
The Congress, by Public Law 104-19 (36 U.S.C. 169m), has designated July 
27, 1998, as ``National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day'' and has 
authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation in 
observance of this day.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim July 27, 1998, as National Korean War 
Veterans Armistice Day. I call upon all Americans to observe this day 
with appropriate ceremonies and activities that honor and give thanks to 
our distinguished Korean War veterans. I also ask Federal departments 
and agencies, interested groups, organizations, and individuals to fly 
the flag of the United States at half-staff on July 27, 1998, in memory 
of the Americans who died as a result of their service in Korea.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fourth day 
of July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7111 of July 24, 1998

Parents' Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Parents play a central role in the life of our society and our Nation. 
They are a link with the past, teaching our children the history and 
values of our individual families and of our national community. They 
are the stewards of the future, shaping the hearts and minds of the next 
generation of leaders, thinkers, and workers.
Being a good parent means much more than protecting our children from 
harm. It means teaching our children how to love and how to learn; it 
means working to give them the opportunities they need to make the most 
of their lives; it means fostering their self-esteem and independent 
spirit so they can make their own contributions to our world. Being a 
parent is a challenge, a privilege, and a lifelong commitment.
My Administration has worked hard to help parents raise happy, healthy 
children. With the Family and Medical Leave Act, we gave working parents 
up to 12 weeks of leave to care for a family member in need. We 
protected family incomes through an increase in the minimum wage, 
expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the new Child Tax Credit. 
We stood up for reliable health insurance with the Kennedy-Kassebaum law 
and improved childhood immunization, with our new Children's Health 
Insurance Program. We opened the doors of higher education to more 
families by making student loans less expensive and easier to repay and 
by providing

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new tax credits and larger Pell Grant scholarships. We have proposed an 
historic initiative to ensure that parents have access to quality, 
affordable child care for their children. I pledge to continue 
supporting these types of effective programs and legislation so that 
America's parents have the tools they need to give their children a 
strong start in life.
Too often in the rush of daily existence, we fail to remember or 
acknowledge the many blessings we enjoy because of the love of our 
parents. On Parents' Day, we have an opportunity to express our profound 
appreciation to our own parents, to remember with love and gratitude 
those who are no longer with us, and to pay tribute to the millions of 
men and women across our Nation whose devotion as parents strengthens 
our society and forms the foundation of a bright future for America.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States and consistent with Public Law 103-362, do 
hereby proclaim Sunday, July 26, 1998, as Parents' Day. I invite the 
States, communities, and the people of the United States to join 
together in observing this day with appropriate ceremonies and 
activities to honor our Nation's parents.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fourth day 
of July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7112 of July 30, 1998

Designation of American Heritage Rivers

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

In celebration of America's rivers, and to recognize and reward 
grassroots efforts to restore them, last year I announced the American 
Heritage Rivers initiative. My goal was to help communities realize 
their visions for their rivers by making it easier for them to tap 
existing programs and resources of the Federal Government. From across 
the country, hundreds of communities answered my call for nominations, 
asking that their rivers be designated American Heritage Rivers. I 
applaud all of the communities that have drawn together and dedicated 
themselves to the goal of healthy rivers, now and forever.
Having reviewed the recommendations of the American Heritage Rivers 
Initiative Advisory Committee, I am pleased to be able to recognize a 
select group of rivers and communities that reflect the true diversity 
and splendor of America's natural endowment, and the tremendous energy 
and commitment of its citizenry.
Pursuant to Executive Orders 13061, 13080, and 13093, I hereby designate 
the following American Heritage Rivers:


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     The Blackstone and Woonasquatucket Rivers, in the States of 
        Massachusetts and Rhode Island;
     The Connecticut River, in the States of Connecticut, 
        Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont;
     The Cuyahoga River, in the State of Ohio;
     The Detroit River, in the State of Michigan;
     The Hanalei River, in the State of Hawaii;
     The Hudson River, in the State of New York;
     The Upper Mississippi River, in the States of Illinois, 
        Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin;
     The Lower Mississippi River, in the States of Louisiana and 
        Tennessee;
     The New River, in the States of North Carolina, Virginia, 
        and West Virginia;
     The Rio Grande, in the State of Texas;
     The Potomac River, in the District of Columbia and the 
        States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia;
     The St. Johns River, in the State of Florida;
     The Upper Susquehanna and Lackawanna Rivers, in the State 
        of Pennsylvania;
     The Willamette River, in the State of Oregon.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7113 of July 31, 1998

To Implement an Accelerated Schedule of Duty Elimination Under the North 
American Free Trade Agreement

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

1. On December 17, 1992, the Governments of Canada, Mexico, and the 
United States of America entered into the North American Free Trade 
Agreement (``the NAFTA''). The NAFTA was approved by the Congress in 
section 101(a) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation 
Act (``the NAFTA Implementation Act'') (19 U.S.C. 3311(a)) and was 
implemented with respect to the United States by Presidential 
Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993.
2. Section 201(b) of the NAFTA Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3331(b)) 
authorizes the President, subject to the consultation and layover 
requirements

[[Page 70]]

of section 103(a) of the NAFTA Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3313(a)), 
to proclaim accelerated schedules for duty elimination that the United 
States may agree to with Mexico or Canada. Consistent with Article 
302(3) of the NAFTA, I, through my duly empowered representative, 
entered into an agreement with the Government of Mexico and the 
Government of Canada, dated July 27, 1998, providing for an accelerated 
schedule of duty elimination for specific goods of Mexico. The 
consultation and layover requirements of section 103(a) of the NAFTA 
Implementation Act with respect to such schedule of duty elimination 
have been satisfied.
3. Pursuant to section 201(b) of the NAFTA Implementation Act, I have 
determined that the modifications hereinafter proclaimed of duties on 
goods originating in the territory of a NAFTA party are necessary or 
appropriate to (i) maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually 
advantageous concessions with respect to Canada and Mexico provided for 
by the NAFTA and (ii) to carry out the agreement with Canada and Mexico 
providing an accelerated schedule of duty elimination for specific 
goods.
4. Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2483) 
(``the Trade Act''), authorizes the President to embody in the 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``the HTS'') the 
substance of the relevant provisions of acts affecting import treatment, 
and actions thereunder, including the removal, modification, 
continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or other import 
restriction.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, including but not limited to section 
201(b) of the NAFTA Implementation Act and section 604 of the Trade Act, 
do proclaim that:
    (1) In order to provide for an accelerated schedule of duty 
elimination for specific goods, the tariff treatment set forth in the 
HTS for certain NAFTA originating goods is modified as provided in the 
Annex to this proclamation.
    (2) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders 
that are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are 
superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.
    (3) The amendments made to the HTS by the Annex to this proclamation 
shall be effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from 
warehouse for consumption, on or after August 1, 1998.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirty-first day of 
July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

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Proclamation 7114 of August 5, 1998

Designating Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

A century ago, the Klondike Gold Rush began a migration that forever 
changed Alaska and the Yukon Territory. More than 100,000 people headed 
north during 1897 and 1898, catapulting a little-known region from 
obscurity to the center of the world stage. While the Klondike was not 
the first or largest western gold rush, coming nearly 50 years after the 
1848 gold discovery at Sutter's Mill, California, it is remembered for 
the sheer drama by which it was announced to the world and for its 
century-long influence on Alaska and the upper Yukon River basin.
The United States and Canada have been engaged for 30 years in joint 
planning and cooperation to commemorate the Klondike Gold Rush and 
preserve historic structures and trails on both sides of the 
international boundary. In 1976, the Government of the United States 
established Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, consisting of a 
Seattle unit, a Skagway unit, a Chilkoot Pass unit, and a White Pass 
unit, to preserve the historic structures and trails. The Government of 
Canada has recognized the national significance of the Chilkoot Trail 
and Dawson Historical Complex by designating them as National Historic 
Sites. It has also designated a section of the Yukon River as a Canadian 
Heritage River and taken other steps to commemorate the rich history of 
this region.
It is the desire of the United States to join our Canadian neighbors in 
celebrating our shared history on the occasion of the centennial of the 
Klondike Gold Rush and to reaffirm the commitment of the United States 
to continuing the joint efforts of both nations to preserve our shared 
Klondike history.
In 1996, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien proclaimed that, ``the 
governments of Canada and the United States and of Yukon and Alaska in a 
long-standing spirit of cooperation have agreed to establish the 
Klondike Gold Rush International Historic Park, incorporating the 
resources of the Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British 
Columbia and the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Alaska . 
. .''
Section 3(a) of U.S. Public Law 94-323 states, ``At such time . . . that 
planning, development, and protection of the adjacent or related 
historic and scenic resources in Canada have been accomplished by the 
Government of Canada in a manner consistent with the purposes for which 
the park was established, and upon enactment of a provision similar to 
this section by the proper authority of the Canadian Government, the 
President is authorized to issue a proclamation designating and 
including the park as a part of an international historical park to be 
known as Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3(a) of 
Public Law 94-323 of June 30, 1976, do proclaim that Klondike Gold Rush 
National Historical Park is designated and included as part of an

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international historical park to be known as Klondike Gold Rush 
International Historical Park.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7115 of August 7, 1998

Victims of the Bombing Incidents in Africa

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As a mark of respect for those killed in the bombing incidents outside 
the United States embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, 
Tanzania, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President of 
the United States of America by section 175 of title 36 of the United 
States Code, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-
staff at the White House and upon all public buildings and grounds, at 
all military posts and naval stations, and on all naval vessels of the 
Federal Government in the District of Columbia and throughout the United 
States and its Territories and possessions until sunset, Sunday, August 
9, 1998. I also direct that the flag shall be flown at half-staff for 
the same length of time at all United States embassies, legations, 
consular offices, and other facilities abroad, including all military 
facilities and naval vessels and stations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of 
August, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7116 of August 20, 1998

Women's Equality Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Since the earliest days of our democracy, Americans have taken great 
pride and found great purpose in our pursuit of equality. It is a right 
for which many have bravely struggled and the ideal that challenges us 
even today to build a more perfect union and to forge a future in which 
our children know no boundaries to their dreams. Each year, on Women's 
Equality Day, we rededicate ourselves to the pursuit of full equality 
for women and girls in our society.

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This year, as we reflect on the magnificent journey and the 
extraordinary heroines and heroes of the women's rights movement in 
America, we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the first women's rights 
convention, which took place in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 and set 
our Nation on a course toward equality. It was at this historic 
gathering that pioneers such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, 
Mary Ann McClintock, and Frederick Douglass signed the Declaration of 
Sentiments--a document unequivocally affirming that all men and women 
are created equal. Encouraged by the truth of their convictions, these 
determined women and men set out to make equality for women a reality in 
America.
In the decades following the convention at Seneca Falls, many of the 
rights expressed in the prophetic Declaration of Sentiments became law. 
The ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution secured a 
woman's right to vote; the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 
barred employment discrimination; and the enactment of Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 guaranteed equal opportunity in education 
and sports.
This year, we recognize another milestone on the road to women's 
equality: the 35th anniversary of the enactment of the Equal Pay Act, 
which for the first time in our Nation's history guaranteed equal pay to 
women who perform the same jobs as men. Only a generation ago, a woman 
could legally be paid less for her time and talent solely because of her 
gender. Today, we realize that the denial of equal pay not only unfairly 
limits a woman's ability to provide for her family's economic security, 
but also diminishes her dignity by belittling the value of her labor.
While we have made progress in closing this pay gap in the 35 years 
since the enactment of the Equal Pay Act, women today continue to make 
less than men for the same work--earning 76 cents for every dollar paid 
to a man. As we celebrate the Equal Pay Act's anniversary, we must 
reaffirm our commitment to making equal pay for equal work a reality in 
the workplace. My Administration supports new proposed legislation that 
will close the pay gap completely, strengthen enforcement of the Equal 
Pay Act, and toughen penalties for violations.
My Administration is striving to ensure women's equality in other areas 
of our society. We have dramatically increased the funding for research, 
prevention, and treatment of diseases that predominantly affect women. 
Through the Family and Medical Leave Act that I signed and our proposed 
child care initiative, we are working to help women balance their 
responsibilities at home and on the job. During the past 5 years, the 
Small Business Administration has tripled loans to women-owned 
businesses, and we have strengthened enforcement of Title IX to ensure 
that education programs, activities, and institutions receiving Federal 
funds do not discriminate on the basis of gender.
 On Women's Equality Day, as we look back on what we have accomplished, 
we also recognize how far we have to go before we complete the journey 
that began so long ago. As women continue to distinguish themselves in 
boardrooms, classrooms, courtrooms, and family rooms across America, we 
must renew our efforts to empower all women with the rights and 
opportunities promised by our founders and fought for by the heroic 
women and men whose achievements we honor today.

[[Page 77]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim August 26, 1998, as 
Women's Equality Day. I call upon the citizens of our great Nation to 
observe this day with appropriate programs and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7117 of August 25, 1998

Death of Lewis F. Powell, Jr.

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As a mark of respect for the memory of Lewis F. Powell, Jr., retired 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, I hereby 
order, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution 
and laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United 
States shall be flown at half-staff on the day of his interment. On such 
day the flag shall be flown at half-staff until sunset upon all public 
buildings and grounds, at all military posts and naval stations, and on 
all naval vessels of the Federal Government in the District of Columbia 
and throughout the United States and its Territories and possessions; 
and at all United States embassies, legations, consular offices, and 
other facilities abroad, including all military facilities and naval 
vessels and stations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fifth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7118 of September 9, 1998

America Goes Back to School, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Across America, millions of children are beginning a new school year 
with a sense of excitement and anticipation, taking another important 
step toward their future. As caring parents and responsible citizens, we 
must work together to nurture their love of learning and to ensure that 
the education they receive provides them with the knowledge and skills 
they need to succeed in the 21st century.

[[Page 78]]

The Partnership for Family Involvement in Education is taking a 
leadership role in this important endeavor. The partners in this effort 
include the Department of Education and more than 4,000 schools, 
colleges, and universities; community, cultural, and religious groups; 
businesses; elected officials; policymakers; and the men and women of 
our Armed Forces. They have pledged to support our initiative, entitled 
``America Goes Back to School: Get Involved! Stay Involved!'' Across the 
country, the Partnership is working to encourage family and community 
involvement in children's learning and to create innovative solutions to 
education issues at the grassroots level.
I have set ambitious goals for America's educational system, and we must 
pursue them with vigor if we are to prepare our Nation for the 
challenges and possibilities of the next century. We must have strong 
standards of achievement and discipline and well-trained, dedicated 
teachers in every classroom. We must work to reduce class size so all 
our children get the individual attention they need, especially in the 
critical early grades. We must build new schools, modernize existing 
ones, and expand public school choice by strengthening Federal support 
for charter schools. We must bring computers, communications technology, 
and the latest educational software into the classroom so that every 
American student is technologically literate and can take advantage of 
today's information revolution.
My Administration is also committed to making our schools safe and 
orderly places where teachers can teach and children can learn. With the 
Safe and Drug-Free Schools program, we have supported schools and 
communities that offer antitruancy, curfew, school uniform, and dress 
code policies. We have strictly enforced the policy of zero tolerance 
for guns. Last year alone, more than 6,000 students had guns taken from 
them and were sent home. This month, we will begin distributing a 
guide--Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools--to help 
all schools prevent violence before it starts. At my direction, the 
Secretary of Education and the Attorney General developed this guide to 
help school officials recognize and respond to the early signs of 
student violence. Later this fall, we will hold the first ever White 
House Conference on School Safety to develop effective strategies to 
keep our schools safe, disciplined, and drug-free.
My Administration also supports legislative initiatives that encourage 
literacy and learning at every age--from expanding the Head Start 
program for preschoolers to providing trained reading tutors to 
elementary school children to offering college aid for low-income 
students. We are working with the Congress to fund the Administration's 
proposal to strengthen teacher training programs and provide 
scholarships to 35,000 well-prepared teachers who commit to teaching in 
underserved urban or rural schools.
The quality of America's educational system will determine the shape of 
our children's future and the success of our Nation. As America's 
students go back to school this year, let us renew our commitment to 
ensuring that the doors of every classroom open onto a future bright 
with possibility for every child.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 6

[[Page 79]]

through September 12, 1998, as a time when America Goes Back to School. 
I encourage parents, schools, community and State leaders, businesses, 
civic and religious organizations, and the people of the United States 
to observe this week with appropriate ceremonies and activities 
expressing support for high academic standards and meaningful 
involvement in schools and colleges and the students and families they 
serve.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7119 of September 10, 1998

Minority Enterprise Development Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

America's free enterprise system has always been a path to inclusion and 
empowerment. Under this system, generations of Americans have built good 
lives for themselves and their families--rising as high as their skills, 
effort, and determination can take them. But for minority entrepreneurs, 
the path has not always been free of obstacles. Sometimes held back by 
economic, social, and educational disadvantages, too often denied 
opportunities because of racial and ethnic prejudice, many minority men 
and women have had to struggle for equal access to the capital, tools, 
training, and services they need to build and maintain successful 
businesses.
My Administration remains committed to providing opportunities for all 
entrepreneurs, and we are determined to ensure the full inclusion of 
minority business enterprises in the economic mainstream of our Nation. 
The Minority Business Development Agency at the Department of Commerce 
continues to promote minority business growth and to create new 
initiatives to ensure that minority business men and women have access 
to the capital, information, and training they need to compete in 
today's domestic and global markets. Last year, the Small Business 
Administration (SBA) made a record $2.6 billion in loans to more than 
10,000 minority-owned businesses; over the last 4 years, loans to 
minority borrowers have nearly tripled. And earlier this year, the SBA 
entered into partnership agreements with three leading minority business 
organizations as part of a 3-year outreach initiative. This initiative 
is designed to increase dramatically the SBA's financial, technical, and 
procurement assistance for minority entrepreneurs. These efforts will 
help to ensure that America's growing number of minority entrepreneurs 
are equipped to succeed.
Strong and successful minority enterprises benefit us all. The goods and 
services produced by minority-owned firms create jobs, spark community 
reinvestment and neighborhood pride, and increase America's 
productivity. With their imagination, innovative spirit, and willingness 
to take risks, minority entrepreneurs have made important contributions 
to the remarkable growth of our economy during the past 5 years. Since 
the beginning of my

[[Page 80]]

Administration, we have created more than 16 million new jobs and 
unemployment has reached its lowest level in 30 years. But to sustain 
and build on this success, we must utilize the energy and creativity of 
every American.
As we observe Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize and 
honor the extraordinary contributions that minority entrepreneurs make 
to our Nation's strength and prosperity, and we reaffirm our 
determination to help them make the most of today's dynamic economy.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 20 through 
September 26, 1998, as Minority Enterprise Development Week, and I call 
upon all Americans to join together with minority business entrepreneurs 
across the country in appropriate observances.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this Tenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7120 of September 12, 1998

Ovarian Cancer Awareness Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

We have many weapons at hand in our war against cancer, and among the 
most effective is early diagnosis. With ovarian cancer in particular--
sometimes called the ``silent killer'' because it shows no obvious signs 
or symptoms until late in its development--early diagnosis can mean the 
difference between life and death. Of the estimated 26,000 American 
women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer last year, an estimated 
14,000 died. Currently, almost 70 percent of women with ovarian cancer 
are not diagnosed until the disease is in its advanced stages; in many 
cases, the cancer has already spread by the time it is discovered.
We know relatively little about why some women develop this deadly 
disease. While every woman is at risk, we do know that ovarian cancer 
occurs somewhat more frequently in women who have never been pregnant. 
Women who have had breast cancer or who have a family history of breast 
or ovarian cancer are also at increased risk. There are other genetic 
factors as well that can affect the incidence of ovarian cancer.
We do have hope in our fight against this cancer. Scientists at medical 
centers and hospitals across our Nation are developing significant new 
information that holds promise for the future, particularly for research 
in genetic susceptibility and prevention, diagnostic imaging, screening 
and diagnosis, and treatment. For example, because of their knowledge 
about the ovarian cancer risk genes, researchers are now able to work on 
developing prevention and screening with women in families at high risk. 
Researchers

[[Page 81]]

are also making progress in the area of treatment through improvements 
in existing chemotherapy regimens.
While we take heart from these promising developments, we also recognize 
the need for an increased awareness and understanding of ovarian cancer. 
As we observe Ovarian Cancer Awareness Week and affirm our national 
commitment to fighting this devastating disease, I encourage all 
American women and their families to learn more about ovarian cancer, 
and I urge health care professionals to emphasize to their patients the 
importance of regular examinations. By doing so, we can build on the 
progress we have made in our crusade against cancer and ensure 
healthier, longer lives for women.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 13 through 
September 19, 1998, as Ovarian Cancer Awareness Week. I encourage the 
American people to observe this week with appropriate ceremonies and 
activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7121 of September 15, 1998

National Hispanic Heritage Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The presence of Hispanics on this continent predates the founding of our 
Nation, and, as among the first to settle in the New World, Hispanics 
and their descendants have had a profound and lasting influence on 
American history, values, and culture. Since the arrival of the earliest 
Spanish settlers more than 400 years ago, millions of Hispanic men and 
women have come to the United States from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba and 
other Caribbean regions, Central America, South America, and Spain, in 
search of peace, freedom, and a more prosperous future. They brought 
with them a deep commitment to family and community, a strong work 
ethic, and an unwavering belief in the American Dream.
In a Nation that derives so much of its strength from many cultures and 
races, Hispanic Americans are a thriving force in our society and a 
vital part of our economy. For example, businesses started and operated 
by Hispanic women constitute one of the fastest-growing categories of 
small business in the United States today. This entrepreneurial spirit 
has contributed to the strongest U.S. economy in a generation.
As we approach the 21st century and face the challenges of a global 
economy, we recognize that the success of our Nation is closely tied to 
the success of our citizens of Hispanic heritage, who are a large and 
increasing

[[Page 82]]

segment of our population. My Administration is committed to ensuring 
that Hispanic Americans have the opportunities they need to realize 
their dreams of a better life.
The key to those dreams is education. We must continue to reach out to 
Hispanic youth, encouraging them to stay in school, graduate from high 
school, and go on to college so that they can compete successfully for 
good jobs and take advantage of promising career opportunities. As part 
of these efforts, my Administration is committed to ensuring that our 
$600 million Hispanic Education Action Plan is fully funded. This 
initiative will provide the investments needed to help Hispanic students 
master basic skills and become proficient in English. It will also 
assist schools in implementing reforms to reduce dropout rates, enable 
adults to receive basic skills training and participate in English-as-a-
second-language programs, and offer assistance to colleges and 
universities that serve large numbers of Hispanic students.
This month, as we remember with special gratitude the gifts that 
Hispanic Americans bring to every aspect of our national life, let us 
reaffirm our efforts to ensure that all Hispanic American families have 
the tools and opportunities they need to make the most of their lives. 
Working together, we can meet the challenges of the 21st century in a 
way that will celebrate our differences and unite us around our common 
values.
To honor Hispanic Americans for their many contributions to our Nation 
and our culture, the Congress, by Public Law 100-402, has authorized and 
requested the President to issue annually a proclamation designating 
September 15 through October 15 as ``National Hispanic Heritage Month.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim September 15 through October 15, 1998, as 
National Hispanic Heritage Month. I call upon all government officials, 
educators, and the people of the United States to honor this observance 
with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7122 of September 15, 1998

National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Education has always been at the heart of opportunity in America. That 
has never been more true than today, when a revolution in technology is 
fundamentally changing the way we live and work and learn. In this new 
era of dynamic challenge and possibility, we recognize that the best 
opportunities for personal and professional success will go to those who 
are well

[[Page 83]]

educated. Our Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities 
(HBCUs) play a vital role in helping to extend access to a quality 
education.
Established before and just after the Civil War to educate free black 
students, these institutions have been African Americans' primary 
route--and for many the only route--to higher education. Struggling to 
exist in a segregated society, striving to keep tuition affordable 
despite limited financial resources, these schools nonetheless upheld 
their mission of academic excellence and equal opportunity.
Even after the 1954 Supreme Court ruling that ended legal segregation of 
America's public schools, the need for HBCUs did not disappear. These 
schools continue to provide young African Americans and other students 
with a nurturing and affirming environment. Today, America's 105 HBCUs 
are educating almost 300,000 African Americans, and they count among 
their graduates the majority of our Nation's African American military 
officers, physicians, Federal judges, elected officials, and business 
executives. The distinguished faculty members at HBCUs serve as role 
models and mentors, challenging students to reach their full potential 
and to refuse to set limits on their dreams. HBCUs are a source of great 
pride and a symbol of economic, social, and political growth.
As our Nation grows increasingly diverse in race, culture, and ethnic 
background, these institutions are a valuable source of knowledge about 
the history and heritage of African Americans, serving as keepers of 
significant archives and centers for the study of African Americans' 
many contributions to the life of our Nation. Most important, these 
schools continue to champion the cause of equal access to education. 
With a notable past, a dynamic present, and a promising future, 
America's HBCUs are helping to prepare our Nation's young people for the 
challenges and opportunities of the new millennium.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 20 through 
September 26, 1998, as National Historically Black Colleges and 
Universities Week. I call upon the people of the United States, 
including government officials, educators, and administrators, to 
observe this week with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities 
honoring America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities and 
their graduates.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 84]]


Proclamation 7123 of September 16, 1998

Citizenship Day and Constitution Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Two hundred eleven years ago, on September 17, 1787, our Nation's 
Founders signed the Constitution that established our system of 
government. This extraordinary document, the product of passionate 
debate and grudging compromise, was crafted by a handful of individuals 
in the late 18th century; yet it has safely charted America's course 
through more than two centuries of enormous change and growth and has 
served as the model for democratic governments around the globe.
The United States Constitution has endured in large part because of its 
remarkable fairness and flexibility. It created an inspired balance of 
powers and responsibilities among the executive, legislative, and 
judicial branches of government and among the Federal Government, the 
States, and individual citizens. It also provided for a system of 
amendment that allows our democracy to correct past errors and omissions 
and to respond to new challenges. As we mark this anniversary of the 
signing of the Constitution, we celebrate the effort, the dedication, 
and the wisdom of our Founders and the blessings of liberty that 
resulted from their labors.
We also celebrate those who have struggled to move America closer to 
fulfilling the first and fundamental purpose expressed in the 
Constitution: ``. . . to form a more perfect Union.'' Among these heroes 
were the thousands who fought and died during the Civil War to keep our 
Nation united and to banish slavery from our land. The 13th Amendment to 
the Constitution is the fruit of their sacrifice: ``Neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude . . . shall exist within the United States.'' The 
courageous women and men who met at Seneca Falls, New York, 150 years 
ago also set the highest standards of citizenship. Recognizing that 
women, too, are entitled to share in America's promise of equality, they 
began a crusade that resulted in the ratification of the 19th Amendment, 
guaranteeing women the right to vote. Likewise, we honor American 
citizens of our century, black and white, who worked together, faced 
danger together, and sometimes died together in the struggle to end 
racial injustice in our society and move our Nation closer to the 
constitutional ideal of equality under the law. The 24th Amendment, 
guaranteeing all citizens the right to vote, reflects their spirit and 
commitment to true democracy.
As we seek to form a more perfect union at home, we also bear the 
responsibilities of citizenship in our world community. Throughout our 
history, we have sought to secure the blessings of liberty not only for 
ourselves, but for all people everywhere. We remember the Americans who 
fought two world wars against tyranny and oppression and who triumphed 
in the Cold War through faith in the promise of democracy. These men and 
women cared so intensely about our Nation and their fellow human beings 
that they were willing to forego their own comfort and sometimes even to 
sacrifice their own lives for the ideal of freedom envisioned by our 
Founders.
In commemoration of the signing of the Constitution and in recognition 
of the importance of active, responsible citizenship in preserving the 
Constitution's blessings for our Nation, the Congress, by joint 
resolution of February

[[Page 85]]

29, 1952 (36 U.S.C. 153), designated September 17 as ``Citizenship 
Day,'' and by joint resolution of August 2, 1956 (36 U.S.C. 159), 
requested that the President proclaim the week beginning September 17 
and ending September 23 of each year as ``Constitution Week.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim September 17, 1998, as Citizenship Day and 
September 17 through September 23, 1998, as Constitution Week. I call 
upon Federal, State, and local officials, as well as leaders of civic, 
educational, and religious organizations, to conduct meaningful 
ceremonies and programs in our schools, houses of worship, and other 
community centers to foster a greater understanding and appreciation of 
the Constitution and the rights and duties of citizenship.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7124 of September 17, 1998

National POW/MIA Recognition Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

For more than two centuries, America has been blessed by the service and 
sacrifice of the men and women of our Armed Forces. Often leaving home 
and family, they have fought to preserve our freedom, protect our 
national interests, and advance American values and ideals around the 
globe. These valiant heroes have risked--and many have lost--their lives 
in service to our Nation and for the well-being of their fellow 
Americans.
Each year, on National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we acknowledge with 
special gratitude and profound respect those who paid for our freedom 
with their own, and we remember with deep sorrow those whose fate has 
never been resolved. Americans who were held as prisoners of war 
throughout our history endured the indignities and brutality of 
captivity without surrendering their devotion to duty, honor, and 
country. With steadfast hearts and indomitable spirit, these patriots 
never gave up on America because they knew that America, and the 
American people, would never give up on them.
In the same way, we will never give up on our efforts to obtain the 
fullest possible accounting of every American missing in service to our 
country. We reaffirm our pledge to their families to search unceasingly 
for information about those missing and to seek the repatriation of 
those who have died and whose remains have not been recovered. By doing 
so we keep faith with our men and women in the Armed Forces and with the 
families who have suffered the anguish of not knowing the fate of their 
loved ones.
On September 18, 1998, the flag of the National League of Families of 
American Prisoners of War and Missing in Southeast Asia, a black and

[[Page 86]]

white banner symbolizing America's missing and our fierce determination 
to account for them, will be flown over the White House, the U.S. 
Capitol, the Departments of State, Defense, and Veterans Affairs, the 
Selective Service System Headquarters, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, 
the Korean War Veterans Memorial, national cemeteries, and other 
locations across our country.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, by virtue of the authority vested 
in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby 
proclaim September 18, 1998, as National POW/MIA Recognition Day. I ask 
all Americans to join me in honoring former American prisoners of war 
and those whose fate is still undetermined. I also encourage the 
American people to remember with compassion and concern the courageous 
families who persevere in their quest to know the fate of their missing 
loved ones.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7125 of September 18, 1998

To Modify Certain Provisions of the Special Textile and Apparel Regime 
Implemented Under the North American Free Trade Agreement

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

1. On December 17, 1992, the Governments of Canada, Mexico, and the 
United States entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement 
(``the NAFTA''). The NAFTA was approved by the Congress in section 
101(a) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act 
(``the NAFTA Implementation Act'') (19 U.S.C. 3311(a)), and was 
implemented with respect to the United States by Presidential 
Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993.
2. Section 201(b)(1)(A) of the NAFTA Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 
3331(b)(1)(A)) authorizes the President to proclaim such modifications 
or continuation of any duty as the President determines to be necessary 
or appropriate to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually 
advantageous concessions with respect to Canada or Mexico provided for 
by the NAFTA, subject to the consultation and layover requirements of 
section 103(a) of the NAFTA Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3313(a)). 
Among the provisions previously proclaimed to implement the NAFTA 
schedule of concessions is heading 9802.00.90 of the Harmonized Tariff 
Schedule of the United States (``HTS''), which affords duty-free entry 
into the United States of certain textile and apparel goods assembled in 
Mexico, in which all fabric components were wholly formed and cut in the 
United States and then exported to Mexico ready for assembly and there 
assembled and returned to the U.S. customs territory.

[[Page 87]]

3. In order to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually 
advantageous concessions under the NAFTA, I have determined that new 
provisions should be added to chapter 99 of the HTS to provide that 
specified apparel articles, which are assembled in Mexico using 
interlining fabrics that are cut but not formed in the United States, 
and which otherwise meet the conditions set forth in HTS heading 
9802.00.90, may enter the United States free of duty on a temporary 
basis because the necessary interlining fabrics for such apparel are no 
longer formed in the United States. The consultation and layover 
requirements provided for in section 103(a) of the NAFTA Implementation 
Act have been observed.
4. Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 
2483)(``Trade Act''), authorizes the President to embody in the HTS the 
substance of the relevant provisions of that Act, and of other Acts 
affecting import treatment and actions thereunder, including the 
removal, modification, continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or 
other import restriction.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, including, but not limited to, sections 
103(a) and 201(b) of the NAFTA Implementation Act, section 604 of the 
Trade Act, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, do proclaim 
that:
    (1) Subchapter VI of chapter 99 of the HTS is modified as provided 
in the Annex to this proclamation.
    (2) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders 
that are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are 
superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.
    (3)(a) The modifications to the HTS made by this proclamation shall 
be effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse 
for consumption, on or after the fifteenth day after the signing of this 
proclamation.
    (b) At the close of the effective period specified therefor in the 
Annex, HTS subheadings 9906.98.02 and 9906.98.03 shall cease to apply to 
imported articles, except that goods described in such subheadings that 
were shipped and in transit on a through bill of lading on such 
specified date shall be eligible for the tariff treatment specified 
therein as if entered on the last day of such effective period. At the 
close of the day that is one year from the close of the effective period 
specified in such HTS subheadings, U.S. note 28 to subchapter VI of 
chapter 99, such subheadings and their immediately superior text 
beginning with the word ``Apparel'' shall all be deleted from the HTS.
    (c) The United States Trade Representative is authorized, after 
obtaining advice from the appropriate advisory committees established 
under section 135 of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2155), to extend the 
effective period of the new tariff provisions for one additional year, 
upon publication in the Federal Register of a notice modifying the new 
HTS subheadings accordingly.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighteenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight,

[[Page 88]]

and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
    Annex

Effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for 
consumption, on or after the fifteenth day after the President signs 
this Proclamation, the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States 
(``HTS'') is modified by inserting in numerical sequence in subchapter 
VI of chapter 99 the following new U.S. note, tariff subheadings and 
superior text, with language inserted in columns of the HTS headed 
``Heading/Subheading'', ``Article Description'', ``Rates of Duty 1-
Special'', and ``Effective Period'', and with the new superior text 
inserted at the same level of indentation as the article description in 
subheading 9906.73.02:


[U.S. Note:]                   .................................................................................
``28.                          For purposes of subheadings 9906.98.02 and 9906.98.03, the term ``interlining
                                fabrics'' refers to the following:
                                 (a) A chest plate, ``hymo'' piece or ``sleeve header'' of woven or weft-
                                inserted warp knit construction, the foregoing of coarse animal hair or man-made
                                filaments, of a type used in the manufacture of men's, boys', women's or girls'
                                tailored suit jackets and suit-type jackets;
                                 (b) A weft-inserted warp knit fabric that contains and exhibits properties of
                                elasticity and resilience which render the fabric especially suitable for
                                attachment by fusing with a thermoplastic adhesive to the coat-front, side body
                                or back of men's or boys' tailored suit jackets and suit-type jackets; or
                                 (c) A woven fabric that contains and exhibits properties of resiliency which
                                render the fabric especially suitable for attachment by fusing with a thermo-
                                plastic adhesive to the coat-front, side body or back of men's, boys', women's
                                or girls' tailored suit jackets and suit-type jackets.''



[HTS subheadings:]                 ......................................  ...............  ....................
                                   ``Apparel articles assembled in Mexico  ...............  ....................
                                    in which all fabric components were
                                    wholly formed and cut in the United
                                    States except interlining fabrics of
                                    a type described in U.S. note 28 to
                                    this subchapter that were cut in the
                                    United States but not formed therein
                                    and that are incorporated in such
                                    articles, the foregoing of a type
                                    otherwise described in heading
                                    9802.00.90 of the tariff schedule:

[[Page 89]]

9906.98.02                           Men's or boys' suit-type jackets,     ...............  ....................
                                    whether or not imported as parts of
                                    suits or ensembles, the foregoing of
                                    wool or fine animal hair or of man-
                                    made fibers or subject to wool
                                    restraints or to man-made fiber
                                    restraints (provided for in
                                    subheadings 6103.11.00, 6103.12.10,
                                    6103.12.20, 6103.19.10, 6103.19.15,
                                    6103.19.90, 6103.21.00, 6103.23.00,
                                    6103.29.10, 6103.31.00, 6103.33.10,
                                    6103.33.20, 6103.39.10, 6103.39.80,
                                    6203.11.10, 6203.11.20, 6203.12.10,
                                    6203.12.20, 6203.19.20, 6203.19.30,
                                    6203.19.90, 6203.21.00, 6203.23.00,
                                    6203.29.20, 6203.31.00, 6203.33.10,
                                    6203.33.20,
                                   6203.39.10, 6203.39.20, or 6203.39.90)  Free (MX)        On or before 08/31/
                                                                                             99
9906.98.03                           Women's or girls' suit-type jackets,  ...............  ....................
                                    whether or not imported as parts of
                                    suits or ensembles, the foregoing of
                                    wool or fine animal hair or of man-
                                    made fibers or subject to wool
                                    restraints or to man-made fiber
                                    restraints (provided for in
                                    subheadings 6104.11.00, 6104.13.10,
                                    6104.13.20, 6104.19.10, 6104.19.15,
                                    6104.19.80, 6104.21.00, 6104.23.00,
                                    6104.29.10, 6104.29.20, 6104.31.00,
                                    6104.33.10, 6104.33.20, 6104.39.10,
                                    6104.39.20, 6204.11.00, 6204.13.10,
                                    6204.13.20, 6204.19.10, 6204.19.20,
                                    6204.19.80, 6204.21.00, 6204.23.00,
                                    6204.29.20, 6204.29.40, 6204.31.10,
                                    6204.31.20, 6204.33.10, 6204.33.20,
                                    6204.33.40, 6204.33.50, 6204.39.20,
                                    6204.39.30, or
                                   6204.39.80)                             Free (MX)        On or before 08/31/
                                                                                             99''



Proclamation 7126 of September 18, 1998

National Farm Safety and Health Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

America's agricultural industry plays an important role in our Nation's 
economy. It provides us with an ample supply of high-quality food and 
fiber and a rewarding form of employment for millions of Americans. 
However, farming and ranching remain among our Nation's most dangerous 
occupations, demanding an understanding of complex agricultural 
equipment, strict attention to detail, and careful performance of farm 
and ranch work.
Among the most hazardous duties on farms and ranches is the operation of 
farm tractors and machinery. This work is even more dangerous with extra 
riders, and all farm equipment operators should avoid carrying people on 
their machinery who are not necessary to their work. Using tractors and 
machinery can be especially dangerous during planting and harvesting 
seasons, when farmers and ranchers must use public highways to gain 
access

[[Page 90]]

to production fields or to bring the harvested crop to market. During 
these times, all vehicle and equipment operators must exercise special 
caution on our roadways.
After school, during the summer, and other times of the year when 
children have more unsupervised time, can be very hazardous to our next 
generation of farmers and ranchers. Since many agricultural operations 
are family-oriented, this work can bring younger family members into 
contact with the mechanical, chemical, and environmental hazards their 
more knowledgeable parents and older siblings face daily with 
appropriate caution. Adults should strive to set good examples for 
younger, inexperienced workers and always carefully monitor children's 
activities.
Because of the environment they work in, agricultural workers also face 
serious health concerns. Noisy equipment and inadequate hearing 
protection frequently cause permanent hearing loss among farm and ranch 
employees, and skin cancer rates among agricultural workers are 
exceedingly high, due to long exposure to the sun and chemicals. In 
every farm environment, workers need to use protective gear to avoid 
health and safety hazards. This is not only for their personal benefit--
it also sends the right message to the young people who are the future 
agricultural workers of our Nation.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 20 through 
September 26, 1998, as National Farm Safety and Health Week. I call upon 
government agencies, businesses, and professional associations that 
serve our agricultural sector to strengthen their efforts to promote 
safety and health programs among our Nation's farm and ranch workers. I 
ask agricultural workers to take advantage of the many diverse education 
and training programs and technical advancements that can help them 
avoid injury and illness. I also call upon our Nation to recognize 
Wednesday, September 23, 1998, as a day to focus on the risks facing 
young people on farms and ranches. Finally, I call upon the citizens of 
our Nation to reflect on the bounty we enjoy thanks to the labor and 
dedication of agricultural workers across our land.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighteenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7127 of September 25, 1998

Gold Star Mother's Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Throughout our Nation's history, brave Americans have put on the 
uniforms of our Armed Services and placed themselves in harm's way to 
preserve our cherished freedoms and advance the ideals of democracy. In 
the

[[Page 91]]

brutality of war, many have sacrificed their lives, bringing devastating 
pain and grief to their families and friends. No one feels such a loss 
more acutely than do the mothers and fathers of these patriots who have 
paid so dearly to serve our country. To bear and nurture children, to 
give them life and unbounded love, to raise them with care to adulthood, 
only to lose them to the fatal grip of war, brings an abiding sorrow.
Yet, with strength and determination, a group of extraordinary women has 
transformed sorrow into service to others. Since 1928, America's Gold 
Star Mothers have worked together to serve their communities and our 
Nation. They bring comfort and hope to disabled veterans and their 
families, to keep alive the memory of all Americans who have paid the 
ultimate price for our freedom, and to promote harmony among all the 
peoples of the world. Their quest for peace is especially poignant 
because they know better than most the cruel costs of war. Every Gold 
Star Mother has faced the inevitable and unyielding truth that the proud 
son or daughter who marched off to battle will never come home to her 
loving arms. Bound by sorrow yet filled with compassion, America's Gold 
Star Mothers are a noble example of love, dedication, and patriotism.
As a Nation, we have a sacred duty to remember those who have died in 
service to our country, but we have an important responsibility to the 
living as well. America's Gold Star Mothers deserve our unfailing 
gratitude and profound respect, not only for their courage and 
compassion in the face of great personal sadness, but also for their 
constant love for our country and their fellow Americans. That is why 
the Congress, by Senate Joint Resolution 115 of June 23, 1936 (49 Stat. 
1895), has designated the last Sunday in September as ``Gold Star 
Mother's Day'' and authorized and requested the President to issue a 
proclamation in observance of this day.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim September 27, 1998, as Gold Star Mother's 
Day. I call on all government officials to display the United States 
flag on government buildings on this day. I also urge the American 
people to display the flag and to hold appropriate meetings in their 
homes, places of worship, or other suitable places, as a public 
expression of the sympathy and the respect that our Nation holds for its 
Gold Star Mothers.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fifth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7128 of September 29, 1998

National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Today America is enjoying great prosperity, with the prospect of an even 
brighter future in the 21st century. Our economy is the strongest it has

[[Page 92]]

been in a generation. We have created more than 16 million new jobs in 
the past 5 years, and we are witnessing the lowest inflation rate in 
three decades, the lowest unemployment rate in 28 years, and the 
smallest welfare rolls in 29 years. But we cannot consider ourselves 
truly successful until all Americans, including the 30 million working-
age adults with disabilities, have access to the tools and opportunities 
they need to achieve economic independence.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is making it possible for 
millions of Americans to participate more fully in our society. However, 
8 years after the ADA's passage, the unemployment rate among people with 
disabilities is still far too high. Almost 75 percent of working-age 
Americans with severe disabilities remain unemployed. If America is to 
live up to its promise of equal opportunity, and if our economy is to 
continue to strengthen and expand, we must be able to draw on the 
untapped energy, talents, and creativity of this large and capable 
segment of our population.
Last March, I issued an Executive order to establish the National Task 
Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities and begin to break down 
the remaining barriers for people with disabilities. I charged the Task 
Force with creating a coordinated and aggressive national strategy to 
make equality of opportunity, full participation, inclusion, and 
economic self-sufficiency a reality for all working-age Americans with 
disabilities. I have also directed the Attorney General, the Chair of 
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Administrator of 
the Small Business Administration to increase public awareness of rights 
and responsibilities under the ADA. It is particularly important to 
reach out in this effort to the small business community, because it 
employs most of our Nation's private work force.
Employment is the best path to economic security and to personal and 
professional fulfillment. I salute disability community leaders, 
business and labor leaders, government officials, community 
organizations, and concerned citizens who are working together to remove 
the remaining obstacles on that path so that all Americans with 
disabilities have the opportunity to contribute to our national life.
To recognize the great potential of people with disabilities and to 
encourage all Americans to work toward their full integration in the 
work force, the Congress, by joint resolution approved August 11, 1945, 
as amended (36 U.S.C. 155), has designated October of each year as 
``National Disability Employment Awareness Month.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 1998 as National Disability 
Employment Awareness Month. I call upon government officials, educators, 
labor leaders, employers, and the people of the United States to observe 
this month with appropriate programs and activities that reaffirm our 
determination to fulfill both the letter and the spirit of the Americans 
with Disabilities Act.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 93]]


Proclamation 7129 of September 30, 1998

National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Domestic violence is a leading cause of injury to American women, and 
teenage girls between the ages of 16 and 19 experience one of the 
highest rates of such violence. A woman is battered every 15 seconds in 
the United States, and 30 percent of female murder victims are killed by 
current or former partners. Equally disturbing is the impact of domestic 
violence on children. Witnessing such violence has a devastating 
emotional effect on children, and between 50 and 70 percent of men who 
abuse their female partners abuse their children as well. From inner 
cities to rural communities, domestic violence affects individuals of 
every age, culture, class, gender, race, and religion.
Combatting the violence that threatens many of our Nation's families is 
among my highest priorities as President. Through the Violence Against 
Women Act (VAWA), included in the historic Crime Bill I signed into law, 
we have more than tripled funding for programs that combat domestic 
violence and sexual abuse--investing over half a billion dollars since 
1994. The Violence Against Women Office at the Department of Justice, 
which coordinates the Federal Government's implementation of the Act, is 
leading a comprehensive national effort to combine tough Federal laws 
with assistance to State and local programs designed to fight domestic 
violence and aid its victims. With VAWA grants, communities across our 
country have been able to hire more prosecutors and improve domestic 
violence training among police officers, prosecutors, and health and 
social service professionals.
My Administration has also worked to enact other important legislation 
that sends the clear message that family violence is a serious crime. 
The Interstate Stalking Punishment and Prevention Act of 1996 stiffens 
the penalties against perpetrators who pursue women across State lines 
to stalk, threaten, or abuse them; and an extension of the Brady Law 
prohibits anyone convicted of a domestic violence offense from owning a 
firearm. Since 1996, the 24-hour National Domestic Violence Hotline (1-
800-799-SAFE) we established has provided immediate crisis intervention, 
counseling, and referrals for those in need, responding to as many as 
10,000 calls each month.
In observing the month of October as National Domestic Violence 
Awareness Month, we also recognize the dedicated efforts of 
professionals and volunteers who take up this cause every day, offering 
protection, guidance, encouragement, and compassion to the survivors of 
family violence. We reaffirm our pledge to strengthen our collective 
national response to crimes of domestic violence. Most important, we 
strengthen our commitment to raise public awareness of the frequency of 
domestic violence, recognize the signs of such violence, and intervene 
before it escalates. If we are ever to erase the pain of these heinous 
crimes, we must help victims become survivors and, once and for all, end 
the scourge of violence in America's homes.

[[Page 94]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 1998 as National 
Domestic Violence Awareness Month. I call upon government officials, law 
enforcement agencies, health professionals, educators, community 
leaders, and the American people to join together to end the domestic 
violence that threatens so many of our people.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7130 of October 1, 1998

National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

For the millions of us who have lost loved ones to breast cancer, this 
annual observance brings with it both sorrow and hope--sorrow that 
medical breakthroughs came too late to save a beloved relative or 
friend, and hope that new efforts in research, prevention, and treatment 
will protect other families from suffering the impact of this 
devastating disease. Recent declines in the rate of breast cancer deaths 
among American women reflect the progress we have made in early 
detection and improved treatment. But it is urgent that we continue to 
build on that progress. This year alone, another 180,000 cases of breast 
cancer will be diagnosed, and some 44,000 women will die from the 
disease.
We are waging America's crusade against breast cancer on many fronts. 
Spearheading the effort is the National Action Plan on Breast Cancer 
(NAPBC)--the product of a conference convened by Secretary of Health and 
Human Services (HHS) Donna Shalala that included advocates, women with 
breast cancer, their families, clinicians, researchers, members of 
Congress, educators, and the media. The NAPBC is helping to coordinate 
the national response to breast cancer by fostering communication, 
cooperation, and collaboration among experts both inside and outside of 
the Government.
The lead Government agency conducting breast cancer research and control 
programs is the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at HHS. By developing an 
index of genes involved in breast and other cancers, the NCI is 
improving our understanding of the disease at the molecular level. 
Research into the relationship between breast cancer and genes such as 
BRCA1 and BRCA2 is helping us to better comprehend how the disease 
develops, allowing researchers to understand more precisely the risk of 
breast cancer caused by mutations in these genes. The most encouraging 
advance thus far in prevention research came from the landmark Breast 
Cancer Prevention Trial. This study, a national clinical trial sponsored 
by the NCI, found that women at high risk for breast cancer reduced that 
risk by taking the drug

[[Page 95]]

tamoxifen, demonstrating that breast cancer can actually be prevented. 
The NCI is now developing an educational program to help physicians and 
patients decide who should consider taking tamoxifen.
Researchers are also making advances in breast cancer treatment and have 
found ways to combine chemotherapy drugs to make treatment more 
effective for patients whose cancer has spread. Drugs have also been 
developed to alleviate some of the side effects of chemotherapy. But 
these breakthroughs in cancer research and treatment can only help if 
women are informed about them. During this month, I invite all Americans 
to take part in our national effort to save lives. Let us join together 
to make sure that women and their families hear the message about the 
importance of screening and early detection, receive recommended 
screening mammograms, and have access to appropriate treatment. We have 
won important battles in our war on breast cancer, and we have cause to 
celebrate; nevertheless, we must remain focused on gaining the ultimate 
victory--an America free from breast cancer.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 1998 as National 
Breast Cancer Awareness Month. I call upon government officials, 
businesses, communities, health care professionals, educators, 
volunteers, and all the people of the United States to publicly reaffirm 
our Nation's strong and continuing commitment to controlling and curing 
breast cancer.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7131 of October 2, 1998

Fire Prevention Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Fire claims more than 4,000 American lives each year, a tragic loss of 
life that we can and must prevent. Nearly 80 percent of these deaths 
occur in the home, where smoke and poisonous gases often kill people 
long before flames can reach them.
Underestimating fire's deadly speed has cost many Americans their lives. 
Smoke alarms are one of the most effective safety tools available to 
ensure sufficient escape time, and research shows that by installing and 
maintaining working smoke alarms, we can reduce the risk of fire-related 
death by nearly 50 percent. Another important safety measure is a home 
fire escape plan, which enables everyone in the household to exit 
quickly during a fire emergency.
As sponsor of Fire Prevention Week for more than 70 years, the National 
Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has selected ``Fire Drills--The Great

[[Page 96]]

Escape!'' as the theme for this year's Fire Prevention Week. Together 
with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the NFPA reminds us to 
take responsibility for our personal safety and practice our home escape 
plans. On Wednesday, October 7, 1998, fire departments across America 
will coordinate home fire drills in support of National Fire Prevention 
Week. Community fire departments will signal the start of the ``Great 
Escape Fire Drill'' by sounding their stations' fire alarms at 6:00 p.m.
As we focus on fire safety this week, let us also pay tribute to the 
courage and commitment of our Nation's fire and emergency services 
personnel. These dedicated men and women devote themselves, day in and 
day out, to protecting our lives and property from the ravages of fire. 
All America watched in awe this summer as thousands of firefighters from 
across the Nation battled the wildfires that raged through Florida for 
so many weeks. Leaving their own homes and families, these heroes put 
their lives on the line as street by street, house by house, they worked 
to save the homes of their fellow Americans. It is fitting that on 
Sunday, October 4, 1998, at the 17th annual National Fallen Firefighters 
Memorial Service in Emmitsburg, Maryland, our Nation will honor once 
again the valiant men and women across our country whose commitment to 
protecting our families and communities from fire cost them their lives.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 4 through October 
10, 1998, as Fire Prevention Week. I encourage people of the United 
States to take an active role in fire prevention not only this week, but 
also throughout the year. I also call upon every citizen to pay tribute 
to the members of our fire and emergency services who have lost their 
lives or been injured in service to their communities, and to those men 
and women who carry on their noble tradition.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7132 of October 5, 1998

Child Health Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As caring parents and citizens, we must do all we can to ensure that our 
children, our Nation's greatest resource, lead safe and healthy lives. 
Today, thanks to scientific breakthroughs and increased public 
awareness, we have the ability to prevent many of the childhood 
illnesses and disorders of the past. We have raised immunization rates 
to an all-time high, ensured that prescription drugs will be adequately 
tested for children, conducted research to help protect children from 
environmental health risks, and established protections so that mothers 
can stay in hospitals with their

[[Page 97]]

newborns until they and their doctors decide they are ready to leave. 
Although we can be heartened by these important achievements, we must do 
more if we are to overcome the many health challenges our children still 
face.
Recent studies show that children without health insurance are more 
likely to be sick as newborns, less likely to be immunized, and less 
likely to receive treatment for recurring illnesses. One of the great 
accomplishments of my Administration has been the creation of the 
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which I called for in my 
1997 State of the Union and signed into law just a year ago. CHIP 
provides $24 billion to help States offer affordable health insurance to 
children in eligible working families--the single largest investment in 
children's health since the passage of Medicaid in 1965. CHIP will 
provide health care coverage, including prescription drugs, and vision, 
hearing, and mental health services, to as many as 5 million uninsured 
children; and in its first year, nearly four out of five States already 
are participating in CHIP. We are also working hard to identify and 
enroll in Medicaid the more than 4 million children who are currently 
eligible to receive health care through that program but are not 
enrolled. The challenge before us now is to realize the promise of CHIP 
and Medicaid by reaching out to families to inform them of their options 
for health care coverage.
Due to recent breakthroughs in medical knowledge, we know that the 
decisions we make even before our children are born can have a 
significant impact on their future health. That is why we are committed 
to fighting, among other afflictions, the tragic consequences of Fetal 
Alcohol Syndrome. In this country, thousands of infants are born each 
year suffering from the physical and mental effects of this disorder. 
Because its effects are devastating, causing permanent damage, the 
simplest and best measure that expectant mothers can take for the safety 
of their babies is to abstain from drinking alcohol throughout their 
pregnancies.
As part of my Administration's ongoing efforts to protect our children 
from the effects of alcohol and other substance abuse, Secretary of 
Health and Human Services Donna Shalala recently announced a new 
campaign, ``Your Time--Their Future,'' to recruit adults to help 
children and adolescents develop healthy and useful skills and 
interests. Research shows that the guidance and example of caring adults 
can play an important part in helping young people resist the attraction 
of alcohol and other harmful or illegal substances.
To acknowledge the importance of our children's health, the Congress, by 
joint resolution approved May 18, 1928, as amended (36 U.S.C. 143), has 
called for the designation of the first Monday in October as ``Child 
Health Day'' and has requested the President to issue a proclamation in 
observance of this day.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim Monday, October 5, 1998, as Child Health 
Day. I call upon families, schools, communities, and governments to 
dedicate themselves to protecting the health and well-being of all our 
children.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of

[[Page 98]]

the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7133 of October 5, 1998

German-American Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

From the time our republic was born, German Americans have enriched our 
national life and culture. Many, seeking religious freedom, first 
settled in and around Philadelphia more than 300 years ago; and to this 
day, one of the largest neighborhoods in that city is called Germantown. 
Throughout the colonial period, more Germans arrived on these shores and 
made their homes throughout the Thirteen Colonies. Today, almost a 
quarter of the American people can trace their roots back to Germany.
German Americans have had an important and lasting impact not only on 
the growth of our Nation, but also on the formation of many of our 
deepest values. As skilled and industrious farmers, German Americans 
have shared their love for the land and a strong sense of family and 
community. With a deep respect for education and the arts, they have 
broadened the cultural life of the communities in which they live. And, 
from their earliest days in this country, Germans and German Americans 
have revered freedom, as epitomized by the service of General Friedrich 
von Steuben during America's struggle for independence and by the 
dedication of the entirely German American Provost Corps which, under 
the command of Major Bartholomew von Heer, served as General 
Washington's personal guard unit during the Revolutionary War.
All of us can take pride in the accomplishments of German Americans--as 
soldiers and statesmen, scientists and musicians, artisans and 
educators. It is fitting that we set aside this special day to remember 
and celebrate how much German Americans have done to preserve our 
ideals, enrich our culture, and strengthen our democracy.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Tuesday, October 6, 
1998, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to recognize and 
celebrate the many gifts that millions of people of German descent have 
brought to this Nation and that have enriched the lives of our citizens.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 99]]


Proclamation 7134 of October 7, 1998

National Day of Concern About Young People and Gun Violence, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

During the past 18 months, Americans have been stunned by gun violence 
among our youth, including the tragic incidents of students shooting 
their classmates and teachers in Jonesboro, Arkansas; Pearl, 
Mississippi; Paducah, Kentucky; Edinboro, Pennsylvania; and Springfield, 
Oregon. In communities across the country, some young people are trying 
to resolve their conflicts and problems by taking a gun into their 
schools or onto the streets--guns that, although they are generally 
illegal for children to possess, are still too easy to get.
While recent data indicate that the overwhelming majority of American 
schools are safe and that the rate of youth violence is beginning to 
decline, we must not relax our efforts to protect our children from such 
violence. Since the beginning of my Administration, we have worked hard 
to make our schools and communities safe places for children to learn 
and grow. We have put more community police in our neighborhoods, 
encouraged the use of curfews, school uniforms, and tough truancy 
policies, and proposed funding for after-school programs that provide 
children and young people with wholesome activities that keep them 
interested, engaged, and off the streets. We instituted a policy of zero 
tolerance for guns in schools that is now the law in all 50 States. We 
have issued a guidebook to help teachers, principals, and parents 
recognize the early warning signs of troubled students and intervene 
before despair or anger gives way to violence. Later this month, I will 
host the first-ever White House Conference on School Safety to focus on 
the causes and prevention of youth violence and to share effective 
strategies that we can put into practice nationwide. Through these and 
many other measures, we have strived to protect America's youth from 
being either the perpetrators or the victims of gun violence.
While government can and must be an active partner in the effort to 
prevent youth violence, the real key to ending the killing is in the 
hands of young Americans themselves. Every young person must assume 
personal responsibility for avoiding violent confrontation, have the 
strength of character to walk away from a dispute before it turns 
deadly, and have the courage and common sense to refuse to participate 
in gang activities, to use drugs, or to carry or use a gun.
As part of our nationwide observance of National Day of Concern About 
Young People and Gun Violence, I urge students across America to 
voluntarily sign a ``Student Pledge Against Gun Violence'' as an 
acknowledgment of these responsibilities. This pledge is a solemn 
promise by young people never to bring a gun to school, never to use a 
gun to settle a dispute, and to discourage their friends from using 
guns. By keeping this promise and giving one another the chance to grow 
to healthy, productive adulthood, young Americans will be taking an 
enormous step toward a stronger, safer future for themselves and our 
Nation.

[[Page 100]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 8, 1998, as a 
National Day of Concern About Young People and Gun Violence. On this 
day, I call upon all Americans to commit themselves anew to helping our 
young people avoid violence, to setting a good example, and to restoring 
our schools and neighborhoods as safe havens for learning and 
recreation.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7135 of October 8, 1998

Leif Erikson Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Almost a thousand years ago, the great Norse explorer Leif Erikson first 
set foot on the North American continent. In commemorating Leif Erikson 
Day each year, we honor the pioneering spirit of this son of Iceland and 
grandson of Norway. We recall the daring of the Viking seafarers, who 
saw the ocean not as a boundary but as a gateway to another world, and 
we pay tribute to the courage of their descendants who, centuries later 
would brave their own ocean journeys to find a new life in America.
This thirst for adventure has remained a fundamental trait of the 
American character since our earliest days as a Nation. But men and 
women of the Nordic countries brought other important strengths to their 
adopted land as well: resourcefulness, self-reliance, determination, a 
willingness to work hard, a love of freedom, and a belief in human 
dignity.
Leif Erikson's arrival in North America brought not only the explorer's 
passion to our country, but also laid the foundations of the friendship 
the United States enjoys today with the Nordic countries. Building on 
the values we share, our nations have made a powerful commitment to 
protect and expand political, religious, and economic freedom to peoples 
around the world. Staunch allies in times of peace and war, the United 
States and the countries of Scandinavia look forward to the year 2000 
when we will commemorate together the 1000th anniversary of Leif 
Erikson's historic voyage to our continent and celebrate the important 
and lasting contributions the sons and daughters of Iceland, Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, and Finland have made to the history and heritage of 
our Nation.
In honor of Leif Erikson, the Congress, by joint resolution approved on 
September 2, 1964 (Public Law 88-566), has authorized and requested the 
President to proclaim October 9 of each year as ``Leif Erikson Day.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 9, 1998, as Leif Erikson Day.

[[Page 101]]

I encourage the people of the United States to observe this occasion 
with appropriate ceremonies and activities commemorating our rich 
Nordic-American heritage.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7136 of October 9, 1998

Columbus Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Today our Nation stands on the threshold of a new millennium, an 
uncharted time of great challenge and opportunity. To fulfill the 
promise of this new era, we must be adventurous, willing to leave known 
shores, and eager to embrace change. To find inspiration for this 
momentous journey, we need only look to the example of Christopher 
Columbus, who helped usher in a similar Age of Discovery more than 500 
years ago.
A skilled and experienced seaman, Columbus pushed back the boundaries of 
the known world and charted a safe course across the ocean to a new 
continent. He was a master at reading and using the winds and discovered 
the best westward and eastward passages between Europe and North 
America. As Daniel Boorstin wrote in The Discoverers, ``. . . a sailing 
vessel today, after all that has been learned in the last five 
centuries, could not do better than follow Columbus' route.'' Explorers, 
adventurers, and traders from many nations would follow his lead across 
the Atlantic, as would millions of immigrants in the centuries following 
his voyages. Although both a dreamer and a visionary, Columbus--a son of 
Italy whose enterprise was funded by the Spanish crown--could never have 
foreseen the multicultural, multiracial Nation that would ultimately 
emerge in the New World he helped to discover.
As we enter a new era, let us embrace Columbus' spirit of discovery and 
embrace as well the great diversity of cultures, religions, and ethnic 
traditions that we enjoy because so many have followed his course to 
this great land.
In tribute to Columbus' many achievements, the Congress, by joint 
resolution of April 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 657), and an Act of June 28, 1968 
(82 Stat. 250), has requested the President to proclaim the second 
Monday in October of each year as ``Columbus Day.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 12, 1998, as Columbus Day. I call 
upon the people of the United States to observe this day with 
appropriate ceremonies and activities. I also direct that the flag of 
the United States be displayed on all public buildings on the appointed 
day in honor of Christopher Columbus.

[[Page 102]]

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7137 of October 9, 1998

National School Lunch Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

When the National School Lunch Program was established by President 
Truman in 1946, it built upon decades of local commitment by parents, 
educators, and community leaders who recognized a simple but important 
fact: hungry children can't learn. Today, for millions of students, the 
National School Lunch Program provides nutritious meals that serve as a 
vital foundation for learning and growing. Many of these children 
receive their only nutritious meal of the day at school. Thanks to this 
practical and effective program, children and adolescents in school 
cafeterias across our country not only have the opportunity to enjoy a 
wholesome and balanced meal each day, but they also begin to understand 
the importance of making healthy eating choices.
Unfortunately, the eating habits of America's children and adolescents 
often fall short. Parents, educators, school administrators, food 
service professionals, and community leaders must work in partnership to 
ensure that our youth learn the importance of good nutrition to overall 
good health. Learning about nutrition in school and having the daily 
opportunity to eat a well-balanced meal can help children develop the 
eating habits necessary to excel in the classroom and in life.
In recognition of the contributions of the National School Lunch Program 
to the health, education, and well-being of our Nation's children, the 
Congress, by joint resolution of October 9, 1962 (Public Law 87-780), 
has designated the week beginning on the second Sunday in October of 
each year as ``National School Lunch Week'' and has requested the 
President to issue a proclamation in observance of this week.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 11 through October 17, 1998, as 
National School Lunch Week. I call upon all Americans to join the 
dedicated individuals who lead child nutrition programs at the State and 
local levels in appropriate activities and celebrations that promote 
these programs.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 103]]


Proclamation 7138 of October 9, 1998

General Pulaski Memorial Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Two hundred nineteen years ago, General Casimir Pulaski selflessly gave 
his life on an American battlefield, far from his native soil, in a 
struggle dedicated to the principles of freedom and self-governance. 
Each year on October 11, America solemnly marks the anniversary of the 
death of this hero, a man whose devotion to liberty recognized no 
national boundary.
Born in Poland in 1747, Pulaski first joined the fight against tyranny 
and oppression at his father's side, defending their beloved homeland 
against Prussian and Imperial Russian aggression. At the age of 21, 
Pulaski took command of a detachment of rebel forces and proved his 
valor and strategic skill as he led freedom fighters into numerous 
battles. Struggling against insurmountable odds, he and his fellow 
rebels were ultimately defeated, and Pulaski was forced into exile.
Carrying the cause of freedom to foreign shores, Pulaski came to America 
to offer his services to George Washington in our country's struggle for 
independence. He wrote to General Washington, ``I came here, where 
freedom is being defended, to serve it, and to live or die for it.'' He 
proved true to his word. Washington was so impressed with Pulaski's 
abilities during the battle of Brandywine Creek that he recommended that 
the Continental Congress appoint Pulaski as general of the American 
cavalry. Pulaski and the special infantry and cavalry unit he formed 
fought bravely at the front lines of the Revolutionary War. And during 
the siege of Savannah, Casimir Pulaski gave his life so that our Nation 
might live in freedom.
Every year on this date, Americans across our country commemorate 
General Pulaski and draw inspiration from his life and the principles 
for which he fought. As we reflect on how far liberty and democracy have 
advanced across the globe, we know that General Pulaski's gallant and 
determined spirit continues to live. It is this very spirit that kept 
alive the dream of freedom in the hearts and minds of the Polish people 
during the darkest days of Nazi and Communist oppression. Today, thanks 
to the enduring resolve and sacrifices of modern heroes following 
Pulaski's example, Europe is free, and the United States and Poland, as 
staunch friends and future NATO allies, look forward to a new millennium 
bright with the prospects of peace and prosperity.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Sunday, October 11, 1998, 
as General Pulaski Memorial Day. I encourage all Americans to 
commemorate this occasion with appropriate programs and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 104]]


Proclamation 7139 of October 9, 1998

National Children's Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

One of the most important measures of our success as a Nation is the 
well-being of our children. As a society, we have no more important 
responsibility than to help our families raise healthy, happy, loving 
children in an environment that allows kids to reach their full 
potential. My Administration is committed to this goal, and we have made 
significant progress over the past five and a half years through 
initiatives and legislation designed to strengthen families, protect our 
children's health, and invest in their education.
By providing a tax credit of $500 per child to 26 million families, 
increasing the minimum wage, and cutting taxes through extending the 
Earned Income Tax Credit, we have helped millions of working families. 
We have dramatically increased Federal funding for child care and 
proposed additional subsidies and tax credits to help families pay for 
such care.
Through the Family and Medical Leave Act, we have made it easier for 
working parents to take as much as 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for 
a new baby or a sick child without jeopardizing their jobs. And the 
landmark Adoption and Safe Families Act I signed into law last year 
helps the thousands of children in foster care by working to reunite 
them with their families, where possible, or move them more quickly into 
secure, permanent adoptive families when that is the best option.
To meet our commitment to the health of all our children, we have 
extended health care coverage to millions of previously uninsured 
children through the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), the 
largest national investment in children's health care in more than 30 
years. Children with health insurance get a healthier start in life 
because they receive regular checkups and routine immunizations. We are 
working with the States to ensure that every child eligible for CHIP is 
enrolled, and we are focusing on enrolling the more than 4 million 
uninsured children who are currently eligible for health coverage under 
the Medicaid program.
To empower America's children with the skills and knowledge they need to 
make the most of their lives, our Nation has also made the largest 
investment in education in more than a generation. Today, more than 
800,000 children are enrolled in Head Start, receiving the attention and 
training they need to start school ready to learn. We are also working 
with the Congress to pass legislation that will provide public schools 
with more teachers, smaller class sizes, new or renovated buildings, and 
the latest in information technology.
Children are our greatest blessing, and raising them well is the most 
challenging and rewarding task any of us will ever undertake. On 
National Children's Day, let us recommit ourselves--as loving parents 
and caring citizens--to ensure that all of America's children grow up in 
truly nurturing environments where their needs are met and where they 
have every opportunity to make the most of their lives.

[[Page 105]]

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 11, 1998, as 
National Children's Day. I urge the American people to express their 
love and appreciation for children on this day and on every day 
throughout the year. I invite Federal officials, local governments, 
communities, and particularly all American families to join together in 
observing this day with appropriate ceremonies and activities that honor 
our Nation's children. I also urge all Americans to reflect upon the 
importance of children to our families, the importance of strong 
families to our children, and the importance of each to America.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7140 of October 15, 1998

White Cane Safety Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The white cane is both a simple tool and a powerful symbol. For people 
who are blind or visually impaired, it can be the key to greater 
mobility, giving them information about their surroundings and allowing 
them to travel safely whether crossing the street or crossing the 
country. For those who are sighted, the white cane shows that blind or 
visually impaired people have the ability, the desire, and the right to 
participate in every aspect of our national life. It is also a reminder 
that, whether as pedestrians or drivers, we should respond with care and 
courtesy to people using a white cane. And for all of us, the white cane 
symbolizes the independence every citizen needs and deserves if he or 
she is to contribute fully to society.
Our annual observance of White Cane Safety Day gives us the opportunity 
not only to celebrate the accomplishments of those who use the white 
cane, but also to renew our commitment to removing those barriers, both 
physical and attitudinal, that prevent people with disabilities from 
reaching their full potential. Since passage of the Rehabilitation Act, 
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the Fair Housing 
Amendments Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the 
Telecommunications Act, we have made great progress in our efforts to 
ensure that all people with disabilities enjoy equal access to 
employment opportunities, education, public accommodations, housing, 
transportation, telecommunications, emerging technologies, and other 
aspects of our society.
We still have a long way to go, however, before we achieve the full 
inclusion, empowerment, and independence of all Americans with 
disabilities. The public and private sectors must work in partnership to 
raise awareness of the rights protected by the ADA and other laws, as 
well as the responsibilities and obligations these laws mandate. It is 
crucial that we pursue

[[Page 106]]

a comprehensive strategy to enable people with all types of disabilities 
to obtain and sustain competitive employment in our Nation's thriving 
economy. Men and women with disabilities have much to offer, and their 
energy, creativity, and hard work can greatly strengthen our Nation and 
our economy. As we observe White Cane Safety Day and acknowledge the 
importance of the white cane as an instrument of personal freedom, let 
us reaffirm our determination to ensure equal opportunity for every 
American, including people who are blind or visually impaired.
To honor the many achievements of blind and visually impaired citizens 
and to recognize the white cane's significance in advancing 
independence, the Congress, by joint resolution approved October 6, 
1964, has designated October 15 of each year as ``White Cane Safety 
Day.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 15, 1998, as White Cane Safety Day. 
I call upon the people of the United States, government officials, 
educators, and business leaders to observe this day with appropriate 
programs, ceremonies, and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7141 of October 16, 1998

National Character Counts Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As Americans, we are a people full of hope, confident in our capacity to 
make life better for ourselves and others. We look forward to the 
promise of the future, and we have high goals for the 21st century: to 
remain the world's leading force for peace, freedom, prosperity, and 
security; to keep the American Dream alive for everyone willing to work 
for it; to come together across lines of race, religion, and other 
individual differences to become one America. But everything we hope to 
accomplish depends, as it always has, on the hearts and minds of the 
American people.
One of the greatest building blocks of character is citizen service. We 
must do more as individuals and as a society to encourage all 
Americans--especially our young people--to share their time, skills, 
enthusiasm, and energy with their communities. Whether we teach children 
to read, mentor young people, work at a food bank or homeless shelter, 
or care for people living with AIDS, citizen service calls forth the 
best from each of us. It builds a sense of community, compassion, 
acceptance of others, and a willingness to do the right thing--all 
hallmarks of character.
We can take great pride today in the numbers of energetic, idealistic 
Americans who are participating in service activities across our country 
and around the world. Almost 90,000 young men and women have served 
their

[[Page 107]]

communities through AmeriCorps during the past 4 years, tutoring 
students, mentoring children, building homes, fighting drug abuse. 
Through our America Reads initiative, Americans of all ages are 
volunteering their time to help children learn to read independently by 
the end of the third grade. Through Learn and Serve America, the 
Corporation for National and Community Service encourages America's 
schools to add service learning to their curricula so that all 
students--from kindergarten through graduate school--can develop their 
character, skills, and self-confidence while making their own unique 
contributions to the life of their communities. In the National Senior 
Service Corps and the Peace Corps, in religious, school, community, and 
charitable organizations, Americans strengthen the character of our 
Nation by volunteering to improve the quality of life for their fellow 
human beings. During National Character Counts Week, let us reaffirm to 
our children that the future belongs to those who have the strength of 
character to live a life of service to others.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 18 through October 
24, 1998, as National Character Counts Week. I call upon the people of 
the United States, government officials, educators, religious, 
community, and business leaders, and the States to commemorate this week 
with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7142 of October 16, 1998

National Forest Products Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Our Nation has been blessed with abundant natural resources, and among 
the most precious of these are our forests. Because forests cover about 
one-third of the land area of the United States, their splendor is not 
limited to one region, but is shared by our entire country. All 
Americans can experience the variety and beauty of our forests, parks, 
and woodlands and share the joys of hiking, camping, bird watching, and 
other recreational activities. Likewise, all Americans benefit from the 
essentials for life that forests provide: clean water, clean air, soil 
stability, pollution reduction, and a rich habitat for plants and 
animals. Forests also supply us with products vital to our society and 
economy, from building materials to paper products to medicines.
Maintaining the health of our Nation's forests is an important and 
delicate task. As we continue to grow, both in terms of population and 
in land developed, we put increased pressure on our forests and woodland 
areas. In the past, such growth occurred without regard to its impact 
and often

[[Page 108]]

threatened the very existence of our forests and the diverse wildlife 
they support. Learning from our mistakes, today we use wise forest 
management strategies and careful stewardship to ensure that our forests 
will remain both healthy and productive.
Such management requires strong cooperation among private citizens, 
government agencies, and the forestry industry. Half of our Nation's 
forestlands belong to private landowners, the Federal Government and 
State governments own 40 percent, and the forest products industry owns 
the remaining 10 percent. All three groups have been working together to 
ensure the sustainable development of our forests and woodlands. State 
Foresters and Cooperative State Extension Agents, with assistance from 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, play a vital role in this endeavor, 
helping private landowners properly manage their forestlands through 
technical assistance, educational programs, and voluntary incentives. 
Working in partnership, government, industry, and private citizens are 
making progress in the vital task of preserving the health of America's 
forests and woodlands while providing essential products to the American 
people.
To recognize the importance of our forests in ensuring the long-term 
welfare of our Nation, the Congress, by Public Law 86-753 (36 U.S.C. 
163), has designated the week beginning on the third Sunday in October 
of each year as ``National Forest Products Week'' and has authorized and 
requested the President to issue a proclamation in observance of this 
week.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim October 18 through October 24, 1998, as 
National Forest Products Week. I call upon all Americans to observe this 
week with appropriate ceremonies and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7143 of October 23, 1998

United Nations Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Every year on October 24, we celebrate the United Nations, a unique 
institution conceived in the crucible of World War II. Although the U.N. 
is an international body, the term ``United Nations'' was coined by an 
American, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who vigorously advocated 
for the creation of an assembly, composed of representatives from 
nations around the globe, devoted to the promotion of world peace and 
prosperity.
The member countries of the United Nations are large and small, with 
diverse social, cultural, and political values, but each has a voice in 
shaping the world's destiny. Maintaining peace and security; promoting 
democracy, development, and human rights--this is the noble mission put 
forth in the

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U.N. Charter. The U.N. has been effective in fulfilling this formidable 
mission, winning Nobel Peace Prizes for its peace-keeping operations, 
its promotion of children's and workers' rights, and its assistance to 
refugees. The U.N. has also enabled people in more than 45 countries to 
participate in free and fair elections by providing electoral advice and 
assistance and monitoring results. Its day-to-day operations--supplying 
safe drinking water, fighting disease, giving food and shelter to 
victims of emergencies and political tumult--have made a difference in 
the lives of millions of people around the world.
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights, one of the first major achievements of the U.N. The 
Declaration has become the standard for international human rights law, 
beginning with the uncompromising statement: ``All human beings are born 
free and equal in dignity and rights.'' Over the years, the Declaration 
has been used countless times in countless ways to advance and defend 
human rights. As Secretary General Kofi Annan has stated, ``Human rights 
are universal, indivisible, and interdependent and lie at the heart of 
all that the United Nations aspires to achieve in peace and 
development.''
Despite the U.N.'s extraordinary accomplishments, many challenges lie 
before us. Lasting peace can be realized only through wide social and 
economic development. Today, three-fourths of the world's people live in 
developing countries, and 1.3 billion live in abject poverty. The ever-
widening gap between the world's richest and poorest countries remains 
one of our most pressing challenges. The U.N. and its agencies, 
including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, provide 
vital assistance to developing countries through grants and loans of 
over $25 billion a year. With the current disruption in the world 
financial markets, the U.N. also plays a pivotal role as a stabilizing 
force, attracting investment in emerging economies in the developing 
world by promoting political stability, transparency, and good 
governance. And the U.N. continues to serve the world as an effective 
forum for instant consultation and cooperation among governments when 
attacking such shared threats as terrorism, drug trafficking, 
environmental degradation, and infectious disease.
The United States can best honor and celebrate the good work and many 
accomplishments of the United Nations by ensuring its continued strength 
and effectiveness. The U.N. has made great strides in streamlining its 
programs and cutting its costs. I applaud this progress, and I deeply 
regret the failure of this Congress to agree to pay our overdue U.N. 
dues. I pledge to work with the next Congress to meet our financial 
treaty obligations to the U.N. America played a vital role in the birth 
of the United Nations more than 50 years ago, and, if we are to remain 
true to our values and goals, we must work constructively with this 
great institution and maintain our vote in its deliberations.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 24, 1998, as 
United Nations Day. I encourage all Americans to acquaint themselves 
with the activities and accomplishments of the United Nations and to 
observe this day with appropriate ceremonies, programs, and activities 
furthering the goal of international cooperation.

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-third day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7144 of October 29, 1998

National American Indian Heritage Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

American Indians and Alaska Natives--the first Americans--have made 
enormous contributions to the life of our country. When the first 
Europeans arrived on this continent, they did not find an empty land; 
they found instead a land of diverse peoples with a rich and complex 
system of governments, languages, religions, values, and traditions that 
have shaped and influenced American history and heritage. Generations of 
American Indians have served and sacrificed to defend our freedom, and 
no segment of our population has sent a larger percentage of its young 
men and women to serve in our Armed Forces. But American Indians are not 
just an important part of our country's past; they are also a vital part 
of today's America and will play an even more important role in 
America's future.
There are more than 2 million American Indians living in our country 
today, from the hardwood forests of Maine to the Florida Everglades, 
across the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast, and throughout the State 
of Alaska. Through a variety of innovative enterprises, many tribes are 
sharing in the unprecedented prosperity our country enjoys today, 
prosperity that is reflected in the construction of community centers, 
schools, museums, and other cultural centers. However, many people who 
live in Indian Country are caught in a cycle of poverty made worse by 
poor health care and a lack of educational and employment opportunity. 
If we are to honor the United States Government's long-standing 
obligations to Indian tribes, we must do all in our power to ensure that 
American Indians have access to the tools and opportunities they need to 
make the most of their lives.
As part of this endeavor, my Administration has strengthened the special 
government-to-government relationship between the Federal Government and 
the sovereign nations of Indian Country, expanded the role of American 
Indians and Alaska Natives in the Administration, and sought to increase 
educational opportunities and economic development throughout Indian 
Country. Earlier this year, I signed an Executive order directing the 
Federal Government to work together with tribal and State governments to 
improve Native American achievement in math and reading, raise high 
school graduation rates, increase the number of Native American youth 
attending college, improve science education, and expand the use of 
educational technology. We are also striving to boost economic 
development in Indian Country by working with tribal governments to meet 
their technology infrastructure needs, to coordinate and strengthen 
existing Native

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American economic development initiatives, and to help Native Americans 
obtain loans more easily for building homes and starting new businesses.
Today's Native Americans are among the youngest segments of our 
population--a new, large generation of young people who, if empowered 
with the education, skills, opportunity, and encouragement they need to 
thrive, can lead Indian Country into a future as bright and promising as 
its extraordinary past. As we observe National American Indian Heritage 
Month, let us resolve to work together to make that future a reality.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 1998 as National 
American Indian Heritage Month. I urge all Americans, as well as their 
elected representatives at the Federal, State, local, and tribal levels, 
to observe this month with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and 
activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7145 of October 29, 1998

National Adoption Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Every child deserves a safe and loving family. But each year, thousands 
of American children grow up without such families, lacking the 
stability and sense of permanency they need to thrive. More than 100,000 
such children--orphaned, abandoned, abused, or unable to remain at home 
for other serious reasons--will need homes in the next few years. 
Although foster care provides a good supportive temporary environment 
for these children, adoption can provide them with the sustained love 
and care of permanent families and can give adults the chance to open 
their hearts and homes to a child they will cherish.
My Administration has worked hard both to improve the experience of 
children awaiting adoption and to increase their chances of adoption. 
Last November, I signed into law the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 
1997, which made sweeping changes in our Nation's child welfare system. 
This legislation underscores the importance of safety and permanency for 
children awaiting adoption and focuses on the urgency of finding 
adoptive families. In addition to achieving passage of this landmark 
legislation, we have made adoption easier by barring discrimination by 
race or ethnicity, by providing a tax credit for newly adoptive parents, 
and by ensuring that adoptive parents are covered by the Family and 
Medical Leave Act.
We must strengthen such efforts if we are to meet our national goal of 
doubling the number of adoptions by the year 2002. In addition, while 
adop

[[Page 112]]

tion in America has increased in recent years, more than 25,000 young 
Americans each year reach the age of 18 and leave the child welfare 
system without permanent homes or families. This statistic tells us that 
we still have much to do. We must not only secure the placement of young 
children in families, but also move aggressively to place in permanent 
families our older children, as well. I have directed the Federal 
Government to work with State and local governments to continue 
identifying and removing the barriers that prevent young people from 
moving from our child welfare system into adoptive families.
Working together--policymakers, government officials, family welfare 
agencies, religious and community organizations, and families--we can 
make a difference in the lives of thousands of children. My 
Administration will continue to support efforts to recruit and 
strengthen adoptive families and to shorten the time it takes to move 
children from foster care to permanent homes; to reduce the backlogs in 
our Nation's juvenile and family court systems; and to promote strong, 
supportive adoption programs that meet the needs of every child.
During National Adoption Month, let us recommit ourselves to the goal of 
finding a safe, permanent, and loving home for every child in need. Let 
us also honor the many caring families across our Nation who have opened 
their arms and their hearts to a child through adoption. By making such 
a profound and loving commitment to our Nation's most vulnerable 
children, they are also making a lasting investment in America's future.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 1998 as National 
Adoption Month. I urge all Americans to observe this month with 
appropriate programs and activities to honor adoptive families and to 
participate in efforts to find permanent, loving homes for waiting 
children.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of 
October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7146 of November 9, 1998

Veterans Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

This year on Veterans Day, we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the 
armistice that finally silenced the guns of World War I. Millions of 
brave Americans marched into Europe and into the brutality of trench 
warfare to fight that war. Although President Woodrow Wilson recognized 
that ``it is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into 
war,'' he also realized that it was important to do so ``for the things 
which we have always carried nearest our hearts--for democracy, for the 
right of those who submit to au

[[Page 113]]

thority to have a voice in their own Governments . . . .'' The veterans 
of the First World War accepted this burden and privilege, which 
American men and women in uniform have borne throughout the decades and 
still bear today.
At Cantigny, St. Mihiel, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, and the Meuse-
Argonne, American soldiers withstood the onslaughts of the enemy and, 
with extraordinary valor and unbending determination, turned the tide of 
battle and won a signal victory for democracy. Our Nation has been truly 
blessed by the service of these veterans who set an extraordinary 
example of courage and devotion to country that inspired the generations 
of Americans who followed them into the Armed Forces.
Through two world wars, through long and costly struggles against 
aggression in Korea and Vietnam, through conflict in the Persian Gulf, 
and in numerous peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, America's 
veterans have risked their lives and spilled their blood to keep faith 
with our Nation's fundamental values of freedom, democracy, and human 
dignity. We owe an enormous debt of gratitude to these patriots, whose 
service and sacrifice have allowed us to raise our children in a country 
blessed with peace and prosperity and to shape a brighter future for 
nations around the world.
In grateful recognition of the contributions of those who have served in 
our Armed Forces, the Congress has provided (5 U.S.C. 6103(a)) that 
November 11 of each year shall be set aside as a legal public holiday to 
honor America's veterans. On Veterans Day, we honor all those who have 
served in our Armed Forces, and we remember with deep respect those who 
paid the ultimate price for our freedom. America's veterans have 
answered the highest calling of citizenship, and they continue to 
inspire us with the depth of their patriotism and the generosity of 
their service.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim Wednesday, November 11, 1998, as Veterans 
Day. I urge all Americans to acknowledge the courage and sacrifice of 
our veterans through appropriate public ceremonies and private prayers. 
I call upon Federal, State, and local officials to display the flag of 
the United States and to encourage and participate in patriotic 
activities in their communities. I invite civic and fraternal 
organizations, places of worship, schools, businesses, unions, and the 
media to support this national observance with suitable commemorative 
expressions and programs.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 114]]


Proclamation 7147 of November 17, 1998

National Farm-City Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Thanks in large part to our Nation's farmers, the quality of life the 
American people enjoy today is the envy of the world. Farmers and 
ranchers provide us with a safe, abundant, and affordable supply of food 
and fiber. American agriculture remains one of our country's most 
important and productive industries, generating more than 22 million 
jobs and contributing a trillion dollars to the American economy each 
year. Today's farmers and ranchers also serve as guardians of our 
precious environment. Using modern technology and environmentally 
responsible methods, they have improved our Nation's water supply, 
worked to reduce soil erosion, and restored thousands of acres of 
wetlands.
This remarkable record of achievement would not be possible, however, 
without the essential farm-city partnerships that contribute so much to 
the productivity of America's farms and ranches. From seed and 
fertilizer merchants to agricultural processors, from research 
scientists in the laboratory to extension agents in the field, from 
shippers and manufacturers to inspectors and grocers, urban and rural 
Americans work together to share the bounty of this land with their 
fellow citizens and with people around the world.
For more than 40 years, Americans have set aside this special week to 
recognize and reflect upon the importance of these partnerships in 
sustaining our Nation's strength and prosperity. As we celebrate 
Thanksgiving with family and friends, let us remember to count among our 
many blessings America's agricultural abundance and the collaboration 
between rural and urban communities that has contributed so much to the 
quality of our lives.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 20 through 
November 26, 1998, as National Farm-City Week. I call upon all 
Americans, in rural and urban communities alike, to join in recognizing 
the accomplishments of our farmers and all the hardworking individuals 
who cooperate to produce a wealth of affordable, quality agricultural 
goods that strengthen and enrich our country.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 115]]


Proclamation 7148 of November 17, 1998

Thanksgiving Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Thanksgiving Day is one of America's most beloved and widely celebrated 
holidays. Whether descendants of the original colonists or new citizens, 
Americans join with family and friends to give thanks to a provident God 
for the blessings of freedom, peace, and plenty.
We are a Nation of people who have come from many countries, cultures, 
and creeds. The colonial Thanksgiving at Plymouth in 1621, when the 
Pilgrims of the Old World mingled in fellowship and celebration with the 
American Indians of the New World, foreshadowed the challenge and 
opportunity that such diversity has always offered us: to live together 
in peace with respect and appreciation for our differences and to draw 
on one another's strengths in the work of building a great and unified 
Nation.
And so at Thanksgiving we must also remember to be thankful for the many 
contributions each generation of Americans has made to preserve our 
blessings. We are thankful for the brave patriots who have fought and 
died to defend our freedom and uphold our belief in human dignity. We 
are thankful for the men and women who have worked this land throughout 
the decades, from the stony farms of New England to the broad wheat 
fields of the Great Plains to the fertile vineyards of California, 
sharing our country's bounty with their fellow Americans and people 
around the world. We are thankful for the leaders and visionaries who 
have challenged us through the years to fulfill America's promise for 
all our people, to make real in our society our fundamental ideals of 
freedom, equality, and justice. We are thankful for the countless quiet 
heroes and heroines who work hard each day, raise their families with 
love and care, and still find time and energy to make their communities 
better places in which to live. Each of us has reason to be proud of our 
part in building America, and each of us has reason to be grateful to 
our fellow Americans for the success of these efforts.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Thursday, November 26, 
1998, as a National Day of Thanksgiving. I encourage all the people of 
the United States to assemble in their homes, places of worship, or 
community centers to share the spirit of goodwill and prayer; to express 
heartfelt thanks to God for the many blessings He has bestowed upon us; 
and to reach out in true gratitude and friendship to our brothers and 
sisters across this land who, together, comprise our great American 
family.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 116]]


Proclamation 7149 of November 19, 1998

National Great American Smokeout Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

One of the greatest public health threats facing Americans today is 
tobacco addiction and all the related health disorders that come with 
it. More Americans die every year from tobacco-related diseases than 
from AIDS, illegal drugs, alcohol, fires, car accidents, murders, and 
suicides combined. Although we have heard for decades the Surgeon 
General's warning that smoking kills, each day more than 3,000 young 
Americans become regular smokers--and more than 1,000 of them will die 
prematurely as a result.
This past April, the Surgeon General issued a new report on tobacco that 
underscores the urgent need for comprehensive legislation to reduce 
youth smoking. Over the past 6 years, youth smoking has grown by one-
third, increasing by an alarming 80 percent among African American 
youth. Currently, more than 36 percent of high school students smoke, 
and recent statistics released by the Centers for Disease Control also 
reaffirm what we already know: nicotine creates an addiction that is 
extremely difficult to overcome. Unfortunately, 86 percent of our young 
people who smoke daily and try to quit are unsuccessful, and casual 
teenage smokers--even those who smoke as few as three cigarettes a 
month--often go on to become regular smokers.
My Administration has worked hard for comprehensive and effective 
tobacco legislation that will cut teen smoking. We will continue our 
efforts until the Congress has acted to pass such legislation. Our 1999 
budget also includes an unprecedented increase in funding for research 
at the National Institutes of Health, and the National Cancer Institute 
plans to allocate millions of those dollars for research into prevention 
and cessation programs to reduce tobacco use.
Each year, the Great American Smokeout gives us the opportunity to do 
what we should do every day: raise awareness among all Americans--but 
especially among children and teens--of the dangers of smoking. Through 
such youth-related promotions as the Great American SmokeScream and the 
Great American Smokeout Pledge, we can encourage young people who smoke 
to stop, and we can convince those who don't smoke that they should 
never start. Adult smokers should also remember the power of personal 
example and make a sincere effort to stop smoking on this special day, 
taking an important step toward a better, healthier future.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 19, 1998, as 
National Great American Smokeout Day. I call upon all Americans to join 
together in an effort to educate our children about the dangers of 
tobacco use, and I urge both smokers and nonsmokers to take this 
opportunity to begin healthier lifestyles that set a positive example 
for young people.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this nineteenth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight,

[[Page 117]]

and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  


Proclamation 7150 of November 20, 1998

World Fisheries Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As a coastal Nation, America has a proud fishing heritage, and we have 
long benefited from the bounty of the oceans. Generations of our people 
have made their living from the sea, fishing for cod off the rocky coast 
of New England, shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico, or Pacific salmon along 
the West Coast and Alaska. In this Year of the Ocean, it is fitting that 
we set aside a special day to celebrate one of our Nation's oldest 
industries and the source of so much of our sustenance.
World Fisheries Day is not only an occasion for celebration, it is also 
a time to raise awareness of the plight of so many of the world's fish 
resources. A recent United Nations study reported that more than two-
thirds of the world's fisheries have been overfished or are fully 
harvested and more than one third are in a state of decline because of 
factors like the loss of essential fish habitats, pollution, and global 
warming.
My Administration is committed to restoring our marine resources and 
preserving their diversity through careful stewardship. At the National 
Oceans Conference in June of this year, I announced our goal of creating 
sustainable fisheries and rebuilding fish stocks by working with 
industry to improve fishing practices and technologies that catch only 
targeted species, devoting additional resources to fisheries research, 
and protecting essential fish habitats. We have also launched the Clean 
Water Action Plan that, among other things, reduces the runoff from 
farms and city streets that flow into our streams, rivers, and oceans.
While these efforts are important, the United States acting alone cannot 
preserve the health of the world's oceans and their marine life. It will 
take concerted international action--both at the government level and 
from fish harvesters, workers, and consumers themselves--and a 
commitment to scientifically based fishing limits to rebuild the world's 
fisheries and ensure that future generations will benefit from their 
abundance.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the Constitution and laws of the United States, do 
hereby proclaim Saturday, November 21, 1998, as World Fisheries Day. I 
call upon Government officials, fishing industry professionals, 
scientists, environmental experts, and the people of the United States 
to observe this day and to recognize the importance of conserving the 
world's fisheries, sustaining the health of the oceans, and protecting 
their precious and abundant variety of marine life.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight,

[[Page 118]]

and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7151 of November 20, 1998

National Family Caregivers Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

As American families enjoy Thanksgiving this year, millions of aging 
parents and grandparents or relatives with disabilities will be able to 
join these celebrations because of the loving support of family 
caregivers. Each day these generous women and men devote their time and 
energies to care for family members who can no longer live independently 
or who need assistance to remain in the familiar surroundings of their 
own homes.
The need for such caregivers in our Nation is growing. We are blessed to 
live in a time when medicine and technology have helped us live longer; 
as a result, people 85 years of age and older constitute America's 
fastest-growing age group. For these older Americans, however, the 
blessing of longevity also brings with it an increased likelihood of 
disability and chronic disease, reduced physical and mental agility, and 
higher risk of injury or illness--all of which create a greater need for 
care.
Families across our country have quickly responded to this need, but 
often at great financial, physical, and emotional sacrifice. Family 
members, working without pay, are the major providers of long-term care 
in the United States, and half of all caregivers today are over the age 
of 65 and are often themselves in declining health. Women, who tend to 
be the primary family caregivers in our society, often must juggle full-
time work and family schedules with their caregiving responsibilities.
The contributions that family caregivers make to our society are best 
gauged by the impact they have in improving the quality of life of the 
family members for whom they care. Thanks to family caregivers, those 
they serve retain a measure of independence, remain with friends and 
relatives, and continue making contributions to our Nation.
This week, as we celebrate Thanksgiving and reflect with gratitude on 
our many blessings, let us remember to give thanks for the family 
caregivers among us whose love and care make life brighter for so many 
and whose dedication and generosity contribute so much to the strength 
and well-being of our Nation.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 22 through 
November 28, 1998, as National Family Caregivers Week. I call upon 
Government officials, businesses, communities, educators, volunteers, 
and the people of the United States to pay tribute to and acknowledge 
the heroic efforts of caregivers this special week and throughout the 
year.

[[Page 119]]

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7152 of November 20, 1998

National Family Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Of all the blessings that Americans enjoy, our families are perhaps the 
most precious. It is within the family that we first gain an 
understanding of who we are and learn to respect the individuality of 
others. It is to our families that we turn for the unconditional love, 
acceptance, comfort, and support we need. And it is our families who 
teach us how to give that love and support to others, helping us to grow 
into strong, caring adults who can contribute to the well-being of our 
communities and our world.
In the broad and diverse America of today, families take many different 
forms, but they all share a need for security and stability. If we are 
to maintain strong families as the cornerstone of our society and our 
hope for the future, it is our responsibility as individuals to 
strengthen and protect our own families--and it is our responsibility as 
Americans to reach out with compassion to help other families in need.
My Administration has worked hard to help provide America's families 
with the tools they need to thrive. Our economic policies have brought 
dignity, security, and opportunity to millions of families by creating 
new jobs and reducing unemployment.
The most important work, however, is always done in the hearts and homes 
of individuals. During this week, I encourage all Americans to reflect 
upon the many blessings of family life and to join in our national 
effort to promote strong, loving families across our country. By 
strengthening and supporting the American family, we are ensuring that 
the future will be bright for our children, our Nation, and the world.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 22 through 
November 28, 1998, as National Family Week. I call upon Federal, State, 
and local officials to honor American families with appropriate programs 
and activities. I encourage educators, community organizations, and 
religious leaders to celebrate the strength and values we draw from 
family relationships, and I urge all the people of the United States to 
reaffirm their own family ties and to reach out to other families in 
friendship and goodwill.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twentieth day of 
November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight,

[[Page 120]]

and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred 
and twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7153 of December 1, 1998

World AIDS Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

On World AIDS Day, we are heartened by the knowledge that our 
unprecedented investments in AIDS research have resulted in new 
treatments that are prolonging the lives of many people living with the 
disease. Thousands of scientists, health care professionals, and 
patients themselves have joined together to advance our understanding of 
HIV and AIDS and improve treatment options. Because of the heroic 
efforts of these people, fewer and fewer Americans are losing their 
lives to AIDS, and for that we are immensely thankful.
But the AIDS epidemic is far from over. Within racial and ethnic 
minority communities, HIV and AIDS are a severe and ongoing crisis. 
While the number of deaths in our country attributed to AIDS has 
declined for 2 consecutive years, AIDS remains the leading killer of 
African American men aged 25-44 and the second leading killer of African 
American women in the same age group. African Americans, who comprise 
only 13 percent of the U.S. population, accounted for 43 percent of new 
AIDS cases in 1997 and 36 percent of all AIDS cases. Hispanic Americans 
represent just 10 percent of our population, but they account for more 
than 20 percent of new AIDS cases; and AIDS is also becoming a critical 
concern to Native American and Asian American communities. Young people 
of every racial and ethnic community are also disproportionately 
impacted by AIDS, both in the number of new AIDS cases and in the number 
of new HIV infections. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and 
Prevention estimate that approximately half of all new HIV infections in 
the United States occur in people under age 25 and that one-quarter 
occur in people under age 22.
Across the world, the situation is even more grim. As with other 
epidemics before it, AIDS hits hardest in areas where knowledge about 
the disease is scarce and poverty is high. Of the nearly 6 million 
people newly infected with HIV each year, more than 90 percent live in 
the poorest nations of the world. Entire communities are threatened by 
this epidemic, and the growing number of children who will lose parents 
to AIDS will have a devastating impact on these societies. By the year 
2010, there may be as many as 40 million children who will have been 
orphaned by AIDS, and developing nations will have to struggle to deal 
with the overwhelming needs of a generation of young people left without 
parents.
This year's World AIDS Day theme, ``Be A Force For Change,'' is a 
reminder that each of us has a role to play in bringing the AIDS 
epidemic to an end. Our response must be comprehensive and ongoing. It 
must also be a collaborative one, bringing together governments and 
communities in a shared effort to expand prevention efforts, raise 
awareness among young

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people of the risks of HIV infection and how to avoid it, increase 
access to lifesaving therapies, and ensure that those who are living 
with HIV and AIDS receive the care and services they need.
Developing a vaccine for HIV is perhaps our best hope of eradicating 
this terrible disease and stemming the tide of pain and desolation it 
has wrought. The global community has joined together in making the 
development of an HIV vaccine a top international priority. Within the 
next decade, we hope to have the means to stop this deadly virus, but 
until we reach that day we must remain strong in our crusade to prevent 
the spread of HIV and AIDS and to care for those living with the 
disease. In this way we can best honor the memory of the many loved ones 
we have lost to AIDS.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim December 1, 1998, as World 
AIDS Day. I invite the Governors of the States, the Commonwealth of 
Puerto Rico, officials of the other territories subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States, and the American people to join me in 
reaffirming our commitment to defeating HIV and AIDS. I encourage every 
American to participate in appropriate commemorative programs and 
ceremonies in workplaces, houses of worship, and other community centers 
and to reach out to protect and educate our children and to help and 
comfort all people who are living with HIV and AIDS.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7154 of December 3, 1998

To Terminate Temporary Duties on Imports of Broom Corn Brooms

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

1. On July 2, 1996, the United States International Trade Commission 
(``USITC'') made an affirmative determination in its investigation under 
section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Trade Act'') (19 
U.S.C. 2252), with respect to imports of broom corn brooms provided for 
in heading 9603 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States 
(``HTS''). Under section 202 of the Trade Act, the USITC determined that 
such brooms were being imported into the United States in such increased 
quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury to the 
domestic industry producing a like or directly competitive article. 
Further, pursuant to section 311(a) of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement Implementation Act (``the NAFTA Implementation Act'') (19 
U.S.C. 3371(a)), the USITC found that imports of such brooms produced in 
Mexico, considered individually, accounted for a substantial share of 
total imports of broom corn brooms

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and contributed importantly to the serious injury caused by imports, but 
that such brooms produced in Canada did not so account or contribute. 
The USITC's determination and its recommendations to address the serious 
injury were reported to me on August 1, 1996.
2. On November 28, 1996, pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act (19 
U.S.C. 2253), I issued Proclamation 6961, which temporarily increased or 
imposed duties on imported brooms (except whisk brooms), wholly or in 
part of broom corn and provided for in HTS subheading 9603.10.50 and, 
with respect to imports that exceeded certain specified annual levels, 
HTS subheading 9603.10.60. The increase in, or imposition of, duties was 
made effective for a three-year period for imports from all countries, 
except Canada and Israel and developing countries that account for less 
than three percent of the relevant imports over a recent representative 
period. Pursuant to section 203(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 
2253(a)(1)(A)), I determined that this action would facilitate efforts 
by the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import 
competition and would provide greater economic and social benefits than 
costs. On January 27, 1997, I issued Proclamation 6969, making certain 
technical corrections to the HTS provisions covered by Proclamation 
6961.
3. On May 11, 1998, acting under my delegation of authority, and 
pursuant to section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 
1332(g)), the United States Trade Representative asked the USITC to 
provide a report on developments with respect to the domestic broom corn 
broom industry since November 28, 1996, including the progress and 
specific efforts made by workers and firms in the industry to make a 
positive adjustment to import competition. The USITC report in 
Investigation Number 332-394, issued August 10, 1998, has been provided 
to me.
4. Following issuance of the USITC report, I received advice from the 
Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor, as well as from other 
interested agencies, regarding the effectiveness of efforts undertaken 
by the domestic broom corn broom industry to make a positive adjustment 
to import competition.
5. Section 204(b)(1)(A) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2254(b)(1)(A)) 
authorizes the President to reduce, modify, or terminate a safeguard 
action if, after taking into account any report or advice submitted by 
the USITC and receiving advice from the Secretary of Commerce and the 
Secretary of Labor, the President determines that changed circumstances 
warrant the reduction, modification, or termination. The President's 
determination may be made, inter alia, on the basis that the domestic 
industry has not made adequate efforts to make a positive adjustment to 
import competition. Under section 201(b) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 
2251(b)), a positive adjustment occurs when the domestic industry is 
able to compete successfully with imports after the termination of the 
import relief or when the domestic industry experiences an orderly 
transfer of resources to other productive pursuits, and when dislocated 
workers in the industry experience an orderly transition to productive 
pursuits.
6. In view of the information provided in the USITC's report, and based 
on advice from the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor, I 
find that the broom corn broom industry has not made adequate efforts to 
make a positive adjustment to import competition. Accordingly, I have 
determined pursuant to section 204(b)(1)(A) of the Trade Act that 
termination

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of the action I took under section 203 of that Act with respect to broom 
corn broom imports is warranted.
7. Section 604 of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2483), authorizes the 
President to embody in the HTS the substance of the relevant provisions 
of that Act, and of other Acts affecting import treatment, and actions 
thereunder, including the removal, modification, continuance, or 
imposition of any rate of duty or other import restriction.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, including, but not limited to, sections 
204 and 604 of the Trade Act, do proclaim that:
    (1) The HTS is modified as provided in the Annex to this 
proclamation.
    (2) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders 
that are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are 
superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.
    (3) The modifications to the HTS made by this proclamation shall be 
effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for 
consumption, on or after the date specified in the Annex hereto.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this third day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



ANNEX

Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States
Effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for 
consumption, on or after the date of signature of this proclamation, 
chapters 96 and 99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States are hereby modified as follows:
a. Subheading 9603.10.50 is modified by inserting in alphabetical 
sequence in the parenthetical expression in column 1-special the symbol 
``,MX''.
b. Subheadings 9903.96.01 through 9903.96.19, inclusive, and any 
superior text related thereto are deleted.
c. Subheading 9906.96.02 is modified by striking ``32.5%'' from column 
1-special and by inserting in lieu thereof ``22.4%''. The provisions of 
Presidential Proclamation 6961 suspending previously proclaimed 
concessions regarding brooms, wholly or in part of broom corn, that are 
goods of Mexico under the terms of general note 12 to the tariff 
schedule are terminated, and all such previously proclaimed concessions, 
under Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993, shall be implemented as 
scheduled in such Proclamation.

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Proclamation 7155 of December 4, 1998

National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

For most Americans, driving an automobile has become a practical 
necessity. Whether in an urban, suburban, or rural setting, the daily 
routine of modern life requires that we have access to reliable and 
affordable transportation from our homes to our offices, schools, 
shopping, and elsewhere. But the right to drive a vehicle brings with it 
the responsibility to drive safely. A fundamental part of this 
responsibility is the need to stay free from alcohol and drugs when 
driving. Driving under the influence of alcohol or mind-altering drugs 
can turn an automobile into a lethal weapon.
The Department of Transportation released some encouraging data earlier 
this year regarding injuries and fatalities caused by drunk or drugged 
drivers. The number of Americans killed in alcohol-related crashes last 
year dropped to an all-time low, representing a decline of more than 30 
percent since 1982. Drunk-driving deaths accounted for less than 40 
percent of all traffic deaths, and alcohol-related fatalities among 15- 
to 20-year-olds dropped by 5 percent last year alone. We have achieved 
this progress because of stronger laws, tougher enforcement, and 
increased public awareness. These statistics also reflect the 
effectiveness of the legislation I fought for and signed into law 3 
years ago to help ensure zero tolerance for underage drinking and 
driving.
But there is more we must do. Last year, more than 16,000 Americans lost 
their lives to impaired driving, and hundreds of thousands more were 
injured. Research shows that the risk of being involved in a fatal car 
crash is 11 times greater when drivers have a blood alcohol content 
(BAC) exceeding .08. By passing a tough national standard of impaired 
driving at .08 BAC--an important measure I continue to challenge the 
Congress to enact--we could save additional lives. At my direction, the 
Secretary of Transportation developed a plan to make .08 BAC the 
standard on Federal property, such as national parks and military bases, 
and included in his plan a strategy to raise public awareness of the 
risks associated with drinking and driving. Federal agencies currently 
are implementing the Secretary's recommendations.
In memory of the thousands who have lost their lives to drunk and 
drugged drivers, I ask all motorists to participate in ``National Lights 
on for Life Day'' on Friday, December 18, 1998, by driving with vehicle 
headlights illuminated. By doing so, we will call attention to this 
critical national problem and remind others on the road of the 
responsibility to drive free of the influence of drugs and alcohol.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim December 1998 as National 
Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month. I urge all Americans who 
drive to take responsibility for themselves, their loved ones, guests, 
and passengers; to stop anyone under the influence of alcohol or

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mind-altering drugs from getting behind the wheel; and to help teach our 
young people safe and alcohol- and drug-free driving behavior.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourth day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7156 of December 4, 1998

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Fifty-seven years ago, at 7:55 on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, 
Imperial Japan launched a surprise attack on American forces at Pearl 
Harbor, thrusting the United States into the crucible of World War II. 
From the vantage point of history, we now know that the events of that 
day would transform our Nation and the course of world history.
Attacking in two waves, Japanese aircraft killed or wounded almost 3,600 
Americans--over 1,000 of them aboard the battleship ARIZONA--sank or 
badly damaged most of our Pacific Fleet, and destroyed or damaged almost 
all U.S. aircraft in the area. In his historic speech to the Congress on 
the following day, President Franklin Roosevelt requested and the 
Congress approved a declaration of war against Japan. With 
characteristic optimism and confidence in the spirit of the American 
people, he predicted that ``No matter how long it may take us . . . the 
American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute 
victory.''
President Roosevelt proved to be right, although he would not live to 
see the ultimate triumph of freedom. After almost 4 long years of 
struggle and sacrifice by the men and women of our Armed Forces, 
sustained by the prayers of their families and the efforts of determined 
working men and women throughout our land who built our Nation into the 
``Arsenal of Democracy,'' the United States and our allies prevailed 
over the forces of fascism and oppression.
To understand and appreciate the magnitude of our victory in World War 
II, we have only to remember Pearl Harbor. We have only to remember the 
indomitable spirit of the American forces there who, despite the death 
and destruction engulfing them, individually and collectively responded 
with courage and selflessness. We remember the sailors who raced to 
their battle stations and opened fire on the attacking Japanese planes 
even as their ships were ablaze and sinking. We remember the small, 
valiant band of Army pilots who managed to take off during the second 
wave of bombing and, though hopelessly outnumbered, shot down several 
enemy aircraft. We remember the crew of the crippled OKLAHOMA cheering 
their comrades on the NEVADA as she made a desperate dash down the 
harbor channel to safety. These heroes of Pearl Harbor were an 
inspiration to our entire country--and they remain so today. It is 
fitting that each year, on

[[Page 126]]

this day, we remember them and give thanks for their courage, their 
sacrifice, and their refusal to be defeated. Because of them, and the 
millions of other Americans like them who have served our Nation in 
uniform, America is free, strong, and at peace.
To pay tribute to these heroes and to honor our solemn obligation to 
those who sacrificed their lives to defend our freedom that fateful 
Sunday morning, the Congress, by Public Law 103-308, has designated 
December 7, 1998, as ``National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day.''
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim December 7, 1998, as National Pearl Harbor 
Remembrance Day. I urge all Americans to observe this day with 
appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities in honor of the 
Americans who served at Pearl Harbor. I also ask all Federal departments 
and agencies, organizations, and individuals to fly the flag of the 
United States at half-staff on this day in honor of those Americans who 
died as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourth day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7157 of December 7, 1998

Death of Albert Gore, Sr.

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Albert Gore, Sr., was the embodiment of everything public service ought 
to be. The Nation has lost a great patriot and a true role model for 
young people everywhere.
As a mark of respect for the memory of Albert Gore, Sr., former Senator 
from the State of Tennessee, I hereby order, by the authority vested in 
me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of 
America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff 
upon all public buildings and grounds, at all military posts and naval 
stations, and on all naval vessels of the Federal Government in the 
District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its 
Territories and possessions on Tuesday, December 8, 1998. I also direct 
that the flag shall be flown at half-staff on that day at all United 
States embassies, legations, consular offices, and other facilities 
abroad, including all military facilities and naval vessels and 
stations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 127]]


Proclamation 7158 of December 10, 1998

Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Thanks to the foresight of our Founding Fathers and their commitment to 
human rights, we live in a Nation founded upon the principles of 
equality, justice, and freedom--principles guaranteed to us by our 
Constitution. With the memory of tyranny fresh in their minds, the 
members of the First Congress of the United States proposed 
constitutional amendments known as the Bill of Rights, making explicit 
and forever protecting our Nation's cherished freedoms of religion, 
speech, press, and assembly.
But human rights have never been solely a domestic concern. Americans 
have always sought to share these rights with oppressed people around 
the world. In his annual message to the Congress, on January 6, 1941, 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt articulated this desire: ``In the 
future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world 
founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of 
speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of 
every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The 
third is freedom from want . . . . The fourth is freedom from fear . . . 
anywhere in the world . . . . The world order which we seek is the 
cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized 
society.''
Fifty years ago, on December 10, 1948, the world reached a major 
milestone toward FDR's vision when the United Nations adopted the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This Declaration--drafted by the 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights under the leadership of Eleanor 
Roosevelt--established an international standard that recognized the 
``inherent dignity'' and the ``equal and inalienable rights of all 
members of the human family . . . .'' It denounced past ``disregard and 
contempt for human rights [that] have resulted in barbarous acts which 
have outraged the conscience of mankind . . . .''
 Today, a majority of the world's people live in democracies and 
exercise their right to freely choose their own governments. 
International war crimes tribunals seek justice for victims and their 
families by working to ensure that war crimes, crimes against humanity, 
and genocide do not go unpunished. And we are heartened by the progress 
toward peace made in Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and elsewhere, 
which advances the cause of human rights. But there are still many areas 
where human rights abuses are committed with impunity--unchecked and 
unpunished.
To reaffirm our Nation's unequivocal commitment to upholding human 
rights, today I am issuing an Executive order to create an interagency 
working group to help enforce the human rights treaties we have already 
ratified and to make recommendations on treaties we have yet to ratify. 
In addition, my Administration is working to establish a genocide early 
warning center and to fund nongovernmental organizations that respond 
rapidly in human rights emergencies. The Department of State is working 
to provide additional assistance for Afghan women and girls under the 
oppressive rule of

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the Taliban. We are also supporting the work of the International Labor 
Organization in its efforts to eliminate child labor. Finally, the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service is issuing guidelines on how to 
handle cases where children seek asylum in the United States.
This year, as we come together to celebrate the Declaration's 50th 
anniversary, let us not forget the driving force behind its creation. We 
are grateful that Eleanor Roosevelt brought her prodigious energies and 
talents to this task. And it is fitting that we have established the 
Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights, honoring others for their 
important contributions to protecting human rights around the world.
Eleanor Roosevelt once said that ``the future belongs to those who 
believe in the beauty of their dreams.'' Her accomplishments serve as an 
inspiration to us all, and each of us can play a part in preserving and 
promoting her enduring legacy. Let us each embrace the Declaration's 
promise by striving to uphold its principles and defending the rights it 
embodies.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim December 10, 1998, as 
Human Rights Day; December 15, 1998, as Bill of Rights Day; and the week 
beginning December 10, 1998, as Human Rights Week. I call upon the 
people of the United States to celebrate these observances with 
appropriate activities, ceremonies, and programs that demonstrate our 
national commitment to the Bill of Rights, the Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights, and the promotion and protection of human rights for all 
people.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this tenth day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7159 of December 11, 1998

National Children's Memorial Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

There is nothing more devastating to a family than the death of a child. 
Each year, thousands of America's families face this tragedy, losing 
their children to illness, injury, or accident. Our whole society 
experiences this loss as well, for we are all diminished by the death of 
every one of our young people, whose love, laughter, talents, and 
achievements bring so much joy to our lives and so much promise to our 
future.
The holiday season is an especially painful time for parents who have 
lost a child, so it is fitting that we set aside a special day during 
this month to acknowledge the grief of these families and to pay tribute 
to the lives and memories of their children. On National Children's 
Memorial Day, let us all reach out, whether as individuals or as members 
of caring commu

[[Page 129]]

nities, to offer bereaved families the compassion, support, and 
understanding they need to begin the process of healing.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim December 13, 1998, as 
National Children's Memorial Day. I call upon the American people to 
observe this day with appropriate programs and activities in remembrance 
of the infants, children, teenagers, and young adults who have died and 
to bring comfort to their families.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eleventh day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7160 of December 17, 1998

Wright Brothers Day, 1998

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

On a December morning 95 years ago, over the windswept sands of Kitty 
Hawk, North Carolina, Orville and Wilbur Wright turned humanity's age-
old dream of powered flight into reality. The two brothers, bicycle 
mechanics by trade and visionaries by nature, had worked painstakingly 
for years to construct the first power-driven craft that was heavier 
than air and capable of controlled, sustained flight. After persevering 
through many trials and discouraging setbacks, they made their fourth 
trip to Kitty Hawk in 1903 and, on December 17, with Orville at the 
controls and Wilbur running alongside, their airplane took flight and 
took us into a new era. The achievement of the Wright brothers was not 
only a great personal success and a vindication of years of creative 
effort and methodical experimentation--it was also a feat of historic 
significance for the future of humankind.
Almost a century later, the same passion and power of imagination that 
spurred the Wright brothers are fueling the dreams of a new generation 
of Americans. From John Glenn's second historic space flight to the 
construction of the International Space Station, we continue to open new 
frontiers and expand our horizons. Just as the Wright brothers' 
inventions and achievements created a new industry and revolutionized 
transportation, commerce, and communication, today's missions into space 
hold great promise for the development of new technologies and 
industries to benefit all humanity and strengthen our hopes for lasting 
peace and prosperity for nations across the globe.
This November, I was pleased to sign into law the Centennial of Flight 
Commemoration Act, which establishes a commission to coordinate the 
celebration in 2003 of the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' 
first flight. The commission's activities will raise public awareness of 
the enor

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mous contributions of the Wright brothers to human progress; remind the 
world of the triumph of American ingenuity, inventiveness, and diligence 
in developing new technologies; and inspire all Americans to recognize 
that the daring, creativity, and spirit of adventure reflected in the 
achievement of the Wright brothers will be crucial to the success of our 
Nation in the 21st century.
The Congress, by a joint resolution approved December 17, 1963 (77 Stat. 
402; 36 U.S.C. 169), has designated December 17 of each year as ``Wright 
Brothers Day'' and has authorized and requested the President to issue 
annually a proclamation inviting the people of the United States to 
observe that day with appropriate ceremonies and activities.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby proclaim December 17, 1998, as Wright Brothers Day.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  



Proclamation 7161 of December 23, 1998

Extending United States Copyright Protections to the Works of the 
Socialist Republic of Vietnam

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Section 104(b)(5) of title 17 of the United States Code provides that 
when the President finds that a particular foreign nation extends, to 
works by authors who are nationals or domiciliaries of the United States 
of America or to works first published in the United States, copyright 
protection on substantially the same basis as that on which the foreign 
nation extends protection to works of its own nationals and 
domiciliaries and works first published in that nation, the President 
may by proclamation extend protection under that title to works of which 
one or more of the authors is, on the date of first publication, a 
national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of that nation, or which 
are first published in that nation. Section 104A(g) of title 17 of the 
United States Code provides that when the President finds that a 
particular foreign nation extends, to works by authors who are nationals 
or domiciliaries of the United States, restored copyright protection on 
substantially the same basis as provided under that section, the 
President may by proclamation extend the restored protection provided 
under that section to any work of which one or more of the authors is, 
on the date of first publication, a national, domiciliary, or sovereign 
authority of that nation, or which was first published in that nation.
Satisfactory assurances have been received that as of the date of entry 
into force, December 23, 1998, of the Agreement between the Government 
of the United States of America and the Government of the Socialist 
Republic of

[[Page 131]]

Vietnam on the Establishment of Copyright Relations (the ``Copyright 
Agreement''), Vietnam will extend, to works of United States nationals 
and domiciliaries and works first published in the United States, 
copyright protection in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 
substantially the same basis as works of Vietnamese nationals and 
domiciliaries and works first published in Vietnam, and that Vietnam 
will extend, to works by authors who are nationals or domiciliaries of 
the United States, restored copyright protection on substantially the 
same basis as provided under section 104A of title 17 of the United 
States Code.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of 
America, by the authority vested in me by section 104(b)(5) and section 
104A(g) of title 17 of the United States Code, do declare and proclaim 
that, as of the date of entry into force of the Copyright Agreement, the 
conditions specified in section 104(b)(5) and section 104A(g) of title 
17 of the United States Code have been satisfied in the Socialist 
Republic of Vietnam with respect to works of which one or more of the 
authors is, on the date of first publication, a national or domiciliary 
of the United States of America, or which are first published in the 
United States, and that as of the date of entry into force of the 
Copyright Agreement, works of which one or more of the authors is, on 
the date of first publication, a national, domiciliary, or sovereign 
authority of Vietnam, or which are first published in Vietnam, are 
entitled to copyright protection and restored copyright protection under 
title 17 of the United States Code.
I hereby request the Secretary of State to notify the Government of the 
Socialist Republic of Vietnam that the date on which works of which one 
or more of the authors is, on the date of first publication, a national, 
domiciliary, or sovereign authority of Vietnam, or which are first 
published in Vietnam, are entitled to copyright protection and restored 
copyright protection under title 17 of the United Sates Code is December 
23, 1998, the date on which the Copyright Agreement enters into force.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-third day of 
December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and 
twenty-third.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  

[[Page 133]]

________________________________________________________________________

                            EXECUTIVE ORDERS

________________________________________________________________________



Executive Order 13072 of February 2, 1998

White House Millennium Council

By the authority vested as me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to announce the 
formation of a Council to recognize national and local projects that 
commemorate the millennium, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. The White House, the Department of Education, and all 
executive branch agencies shall lead the country in a national and 
educational celebration of our culture, democracy, and citizenry. The 
Federal Government has a special responsibility to inspire the American 
people to reflect upon and commemorate the achievements of this 
country's past and to celebrate the possibilities of the future. To 
carry forward this country's great democratic tradition and enrich the 
lives of our children and the children of the 21st century, the Federal 
Government shall encourage Americans to make plans to mark the new 
millennium in communities across America. By leading this country in a 
grand educational celebration of the past and future, the Federal 
Government has an unprecedented opportunity to energize and unite the 
Nation with a renewed sense of optimism in the accomplishments and 
promise of America.
Sec. 2. White House Millennium Council. (a) To enable the White House, 
the Department of Education, and executive branch agencies to provide 
national leadership in this historic time, I hereby announce the 
formation of the White House Millennium Council.
    (b) The White House Millennium Council shall be composed of a 
Director, Deputy Director, administrative staff, and a representative 
from each of the following:
    (1) Department of State;
    (2) Department of the Treasury;
    (3) Department of Defense;
    (4) Department of Justice;
    (5) Department of the Interior;
    (6) Department of Agriculture;
    (7) Department of Commerce;

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    (8) Department of Labor;
    (9) Department of Health and Human Services;
    (10) Department of Housing and Urban Development;
    (11) Department of Transportation;
    (12) Department of Energy;
    (13) Department of Education;
    (14) Department of Veterans Affairs;
    (15) Environmental Protection Agency;
    (16) Office of Management and Budget;
    (17) Small Business Administration;
    (18) United States Information Agency; and
    (19) General Services Administration.
At the Director's discretion, the Director may request other agencies to 
be represented on the Council.
    (c) The mission of the Council is to lead the country in a 
celebration of the new millennium by initiating and recognizing national 
and local projects that contribute in educational, creative, and 
productive ways to America's commemoration of this historic time. To 
these ends, the Council shall:

(1)  Mark the 200th anniversary of the occupancy of the White House by American Presidents, the 200th
      anniversary of the establishment of the Federal capital city in Washington, D.C., and the 200th
      anniversary of the first meeting of the Congress in the Capitol, celebrating these events in the year 2000
      as milestones in our democratic system of government;
(2)  Plan events to recognize the history and past accomplishments of America that reflect upon the present
      forces shaping society and that encourage thoughtful planning for the future;
(3)  Produce informational and resource materials to educate the American people concerning our Nation's past
      and to inspire thought concerning the future;
(4)  Encourage communities and citizens to initiate and to participate in local projects that inspire Americans
      to remember their past achievements, understand the present challenges to society, and make concrete
      contributions to the next generations of their families, communities, and country;
(5)  Work with Federal agencies, the Congress, elected officials, and all citizens to plan activities and
      programs that will unite the American people in contemplation and celebration of the next century and the
      new millennium;
(6)  Make recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior regarding the provision of assistance from funds made
      available for Save America's Treasures in the Historic Preservation Fund to public and private entities
      that are protecting America's threatened cultural treasures. These treasures include significant
      documents, works of art, maps, journals, and historic structures that document and illuminate the history
      and culture of the United States;

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(7)  Encourage Federal agencies to develop programs to commemorate and celebrate the new millennium in ways
      consistent with their individual agency missions and that advance a more unified America in the 21st
      century;
(8)  Encourage Federal agencies, through local branches and offices, to reach out into communities and inspire
      citizens to participate in grassroots activities and to give permanent gifts to the future;
(9)  Work in partnership with private-sector and nonprofit entities that initiate productive and worthwhile
      national and community-based efforts to commemorate the new millennium and encourage citizen
      participation, volunteerism, and philanthropy;
(10) Highlight public and private millennium initiatives that promote the goals of the Council; and

(11) Cooperate with other nations that are planning millennium events to expand the opportunities for
      international communication and understanding.

Sec. 3. Administration. To the extent permitted by law, the heads of 
executive departments and agencies shall provide such information and 
assistance as may be necessary for the Council to carry out its 
functions.
Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or 
benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party 
against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other 
person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 2, 1998.



Executive Order 13073 of February 4, 1998

Year 2000 Conversion

The American people expect reliable service from their Government and 
deserve the confidence that critical government functions dependent on 
electronic systems will be performed accurately and in a timely manner. 
Because of a design feature in many electronic systems, a large number 
of activities in the public and private sectors could be at risk 
beginning in the year 2000. Some computer systems and other electronic 
devices will misinterpret the year ``00'' as 1900, rather than 2000. 
Unless appropriate action is taken, this flaw, known as the ``Y2K 
problem,'' can cause systems that support those functions to compute 
erroneously or simply not run. Minimizing the Y2K problem will require a 
major technological and managerial effort, and it is critical that the 
United States Government do its part in addressing this challenge.
Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the 
Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby 
ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. (a) It shall be the policy of the executive branch 
that agencies shall:
    (1) assure that no critical Federal program experiences disruption 
because of the Y2K problem;

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    (2) assist and cooperate with State, local, and tribal governments 
to address the Y2K problem where those governments depend on Federal 
information or information technology or the Federal Government is 
dependent on those governments to perform critical missions;
    (3) cooperate with the private sector operators of critical national 
and local systems, including the banking and financial system, the 
telecommunications system, the public health system, the transportation 
system, and the electric power generation system, in addressing the Y2K 
problem; and
    (4) communicate with their foreign counterparts to raise awareness 
of and generate cooperative international arrangements to address the 
Y2K problem.
    (b) As used in this order, ``agency'' and ``agencies'' refer to 
Federal agencies that are not in the judicial or legislative branches.
Sec. 2. Year 2000 Conversion Council. There is hereby established the 
President's Council on Year 2000 Conversion (the ``Council'').
    (a) The Council shall be led by a Chair who shall be an Assistant to 
the President, and it shall be composed of one representative from each 
of the executive departments and from such other Federal agencies as may 
be determined by the Chair of the Council (the ``Chair'').
    (b) The Chair shall appoint a Vice Chair and assign other 
responsibilities for operations of the council as he or she deems 
necessary.
    (c) The Chair shall oversee the activities of agencies to assure 
that their systems operate smoothly through the year 2000, act as chief 
spokesperson on this issue for the executive branch in national and 
international fora, provide policy coordination of executive branch 
activities with State, local, and tribal governments on the Y2K problem, 
and promote appropriate Federal roles with respect to private sector 
activities in this area.
    (d) The Chair and the Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget shall report jointly at least quarterly to me on the progress of 
agencies in addressing the Y2K problem.
    (e) The Chair shall identify such resources from agencies as the 
Chair deems necessary for the implementation of the policies set out in 
this order, consistent with applicable law.
Sec. 3. Responsibilities of Agency Heads. (a) The head of each agency 
shall:
    (1) assure that efforts to address the Y2K problem receive the 
highest priority attention in the agency and that the policies 
established in this order are carried out; and
    (2) cooperate to the fullest extent with the Chair by making 
available such information, support, and assistance, including 
personnel, as the Chair may request to support the accomplishment of the 
tasks assigned herein, consistent with applicable law.
    (b) The heads of executive departments and the agencies designated 
by the Chair under section 2(a) of this order shall identify a 
responsible official to represent the head of the executive department 
or agency on the Council with sufficient authority and experience to 
commit agency resources to address the Y2K problem.

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Sec. 4. Responsibilities of Interagency and Executive Office Councils. 
Interagency councils and councils within the Executive Office of the 
President, including the President's Management Council, the Chief 
Information Officers Council, the Chief Financial Officers Council, the 
President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency, the Executive Council 
on Integrity and Efficiency, the National Science and Technology 
Council, the National Performance Review, the National Economic Council, 
the Domestic Policy Council, and the National Security Council shall 
provide assistance and support to the Chair upon the Chair's request.
Sec. 5. Judicial Review. This Executive order is intended only to 
improve the internal management of the executive branch and does not 
create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at 
law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, or 
instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 4, 1998.



Executive Order 13074 of February 9, 1998

Amendment to Executive Order 12656

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to reflect the 
appropriate allocation of funding responsibilities for Noncombatant 
Evacuation Operations, it is hereby ordered that Executive Order 12656 
is amended by adding a new section 501(16) to read as follows:
    ``Subject to the direction of the President, and pursuant to 
procedures to be developed jointly by the Secretary of Defense and the 
Secretary of State, be responsible for the deployment and use of 
military forces for the protection of United States citizens and 
nationals and, in connection therewith, designated other persons or 
categories of persons, in support of their evacuation from threatened 
areas overseas.''
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 9, 1998.



Executive Order 13075 of February 19, 1998

Special Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf 
War Chemical and Biological Incidents

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), it is hereby ordered as 
follows:

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Section 1. Establishment. (a) There is hereby established the Special 
Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf War 
Chemical and Biological Incidents (``Special Oversight Board''). The 
Special Oversight Board shall be composed of not more than seven members 
appointed by the President. The members of the Special Oversight Board 
shall have expertise relevant to the functions of the Special Oversight 
Board and shall not be full-time officials or employees of the executive 
branch of the Federal Government.
    (b) The President shall designate a Chairperson and a Vice 
Chairperson from among the members of the Special Oversight Board.
Sec. 2. Functions. (a) The Special Oversight Board shall report to the 
President through the Secretary of Defense.
    (b) The Special Oversight Board shall provide advice and 
recommendations based on its review of Department of Defense 
investigations into possible detections of, and exposures to, chemical 
or biological weapons agents and environmental and other factors that 
may have contributed to Gulf War illnesses.
    (c) It shall not be a function of the Special Oversight Board to 
conduct scientific research.
    (d) It shall not be a function of the Special Oversight Board to 
provide advice or recommendations on any legal liability of the Federal 
Government for any claims or potential claims against the Federal 
Government.
    (e) The Special Oversight Board shall submit an interim report 
within 9 months of its first meeting and a final report within 18 months 
of its first meeting, unless otherwise directed by the President.
Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The heads of executive departments and 
agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Special 
Oversight Board with such information as it may require for purposes of 
carrying out its functions.
    (b) Special Oversight Board members may be allowed travel expenses, 
including per diem in lieu of subsistence, to the extent permitted by 
law for persons serving intermittently in the Government service (5 
U.S.C. 5701-5707). The administrative staff for the Special Oversight 
Board shall be compensated in accordance with Federal law.
    (c) To the extent permitted by law, and subject to the availability 
of appropriations, the Department of Defense shall provide the Special 
Oversight Board with such funds as may be necessary for the performance 
of its functions.
Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any 
other Executive order, the functions of the President under the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act, as amended, that are applicable to the Special 
Oversight Board, except that of reporting annually to the Congress, 
shall be performed by the Secretary of Defense, in accordance with the 
guidelines and procedures established by the Administrator of General 
Services.
    (b) The Special Oversight Board shall terminate 30 days after 
submitting its final report.
    (c) This order is intended only to improve the internal management 
of the executive branch and it is not intended, and shall not be 
construed, to create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, 
substantive or procedural,

[[Page 139]]

enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its 
agencies, its officers, or any person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 19, 1998.



Executive Order 13076 of February 24, 1998

Ordering the Selected Reserve of the Armed Forces to Active Duty

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including sections 121 and 12304 
of title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary 
to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the 
effective conduct of operations in and around Southwest Asia. Further, 
under the stated authority, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, 
and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when 
it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy, to order 
to active duty any units, and any individual members not assigned to a 
unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve.
This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the 
executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, 
substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the 
United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 24, 1998.



Executive Order 13077 of March 10, 1998

Further Amendment to Executive Order 13010, Critical Infrastructure 
Protection

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to provide for the 
review of the report by the President's Commission on Critical 
Infrastructure Protection, and appropriate implementation, it is hereby 
ordered that Executive Order 13010, as amended, is further amended as 
follows:
    Section 6. Section 6(f), as amended, shall be further amended by 
deleting ``March 15, 1998'' and inserting ``September 30, 1998'' in lieu 
thereof.

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    Section 7. Section 7(a) shall be amended by deleting ``March 15, 
1998'' and inserting ``September 30, 1998'' in lieu thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    March 10, 1998.



Executive Order 13078 of March 13, 1998

Increasing Employment of Adults With Disabilities

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to increase the 
employment of adults with disabilities to a rate that is as close as 
possible to the employment rate of the general adult population and to 
support the goals articulated in the findings and purpose section of the 
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, it is hereby ordered as 
follows:
Section 1. Establishment of National Task Force on Employment of Adults 
with Disabilities.
    (a) There is established the ``National Task Force on Employment of 
Adults with Disabilities'' (``Task Force''). The Task Force shall 
comprise the Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Education, Secretary of 
Veterans Affairs, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Commissioner 
of Social Security, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Commerce, 
Secretary of Transportation, Director of the Office of Personnel 
Management, Administrator of the Small Business Administration, the 
Chair of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Chairperson of 
the National Council on Disability, the Chair of the President's 
Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, and such other 
senior executive branch officials as may be determined by the Chair of 
the Task Force.
    (b) The Secretary of Labor shall be the Chair of the Task Force; the 
Chair of the President's Committee on Employment of People with 
Disabilities shall be the Vice Chair of the Task Force.
    (c) The purpose of the Task Force is to create a coordinated and 
aggressive national policy to bring adults with disabilities into 
gainful employment at a rate that is as close as possible to that of the 
general adult population. The Task Force shall develop and recommend to 
the President, through the Chair of the Task Force, a coordinated 
Federal policy to reduce employment barriers for persons with 
disabilities. Policy recommendations may cover such areas as 
discrimination, reasonable accommodations, inadequate access to health 
care, lack of consumer-driven, long-term supports and services, 
transportation, accessible and integrated housing, telecommunications, 
assistive technology, community services, child care, education, 
vocational rehabilitation, training services, job retention, on-the-job 
supports, and economic incentives to work. Specifically, the Task Force 
shall:

[[Page 141]]

(1)  analyze the existing programs and policies of Task Force member agencies to determine what changes,
      modifications, and innovations may be necessary to remove barriers to work faced by people with
      disabilities;
(2)  develop and recommend options to address health insurance coverage as a barrier to employment for people
      with disabilities;
(3)  subject to the availability of appropriations, analyze State and private disability systems (e.g., workers'
      compensation, unemployment insurance, private insurance, and State mental health and mental retardation
      systems) and their effect on Federal programs and employment of adults with disabilities;
(4)  consider statistical and data analysis, cost data, research, and policy studies on public subsidies,
      employment, employment discrimination, and rates of return-to-work for individuals with disabilities;
(5)  evaluate and, where appropriate, coordinate and collaborate on, research and demonstration priorities of
      Task Force member agencies related to employment of adults with disabilities;
(6)  evaluate whether Federal studies related to employment and training can, and should, include a
      statistically significant sample of adults with disabilities;
(7)  subject to the availability of appropriations, analyze youth programs related to employment (e.g.,
      Employment and Training Administration programs, special education, vocational rehabilitation, school-to-
      work transition, vocational education, and Social Security Administration work incentives and other
      programs, as may be determined by the Chair and Vice Chair of the Task Force) and the outcomes of those
      programs for young people with disabilities;
(8)  evaluate whether a single governmental entity or program should be established to provide computer and
      electronic accommodations for Federal employees with disabilities;
(9)  consult with the President's Committee on Mental Retardation on policies to increase the employment of
      people with mental retardation and cognitive disabilities; and
(10) recommend to the President any additional steps that can be taken to advance the employment of adults with
      disabilities, including legislative proposals, regulatory changes, and program and budget initiatives.

    (d)(1) The members of the Task Force shall make the activities and 
initiatives set forth in this order a high priority within their 
respective agencies within the levels provided in the President's 
budget.
    (2) The Task Force shall issue its first report to the President by 
November 15, 1998. The Task Force shall issue a report to the President 
on November 15, 1999, November 15, 2000, and a final report on July 26, 
2002, the 10th anniversary of the initial implementation of the 
employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. 
The reports shall describe the actions taken by, and progress of, each 
member of the Task Force in carrying out this order. The Task Force 
shall terminate 30 days after submitting its final report.
    (e) As used herein, an adult with a disability is a person with a 
physical or mental impairment that substantially limits at least one 
major life activity.
Sec. 2. Specific activities by Task Force members and other agencies.

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    (a) To ensure that the Federal Government is a model employer of 
adults with disabilities, by November 15, 1998, the Office of Personnel 
Management, the Department of Labor, and the Equal Employment 
Opportunity Commission shall submit to the Task Force a review of 
Federal Government personnel laws, regulations, and policies and, as 
appropriate, shall recommend or implement changes necessary to improve 
Federal employment policy for adults with disabilities. This review 
shall include personnel practices and actions such as: hiring, 
promotion, benefits, retirement, workers' compensation, retention, 
accessible facilities, job accommodations, layoffs, and reductions in 
force.
    (b) The Departments of Justice, Labor, Education, and Health and 
Human Services shall report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on 
their work with the States and others to ensure that the Personal 
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act is carried out in 
accordance with section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as 
amended, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, so that 
individuals with disabilities and their families can realize the full 
promise of welfare reform by having an equal opportunity for employment.
    (c) The Departments of Education, Labor, Commerce, and Health and 
Human Services, the Small Business Administration, and the President's 
Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities shall work together 
and report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on their work to 
develop small business and entrepreneurial opportunities for adults with 
disabilities and strategies for assisting low-income adults, including 
those with disabilities to create small businesses and micro-
enterprises. These same agencies, in consultation with the Committee for 
Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, shall assess 
the impact of the Randolph-Sheppard Act vending program and the Javits-
Wagner-O'Day Act on employment and small business opportunities for 
people with disabilities.
    (d) The Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban 
Development shall report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on 
their examination of their programs to see if they can be used to create 
new work incentives and to remove barriers to work for adults with 
disabilities.
    (e) The Departments of Justice, Education, and Labor, the Equal 
Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Social Security 
Administration shall work together and report to the Task Force by 
November 15, 1998, on their work to propose remedies to the prevention 
of people with disabilities from successfully exercising their 
employment rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 
because of the receipt of monetary benefits based on their disability 
and lack of gainful employment.
    (f) The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor and 
the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce, in cooperation with the 
Departments of Education and Health and Human Services, the National 
Council on Disability, and the President's Committee on Employment of 
People with Disabilities shall design and implement a statistically 
reliable and accurate method to measure the employment rate of adults 
with disabilities as soon as possible, but no later than the date of 
termination of the Task Force. Data derived from this methodology shall 
be published on as frequent a basis as possible.
    (g) All executive agencies that are not members of the Task Force 
shall: (1) coordinate and cooperate with the Task Force; and (2) review 
their pro

[[Page 143]]

grams and policies to ensure that they are being conducted and delivered 
in a manner that facilitates and promotes the employment of adults with 
disabilities. Each agency shall file a report with the Task Force on the 
results of its review on November 15, 1998.
Sec. 3. Cooperation. All efforts taken by executive departments and 
agencies under sections 1 and 2 of this order shall, as appropriate, 
further partnerships and cooperation with public and private sector 
employers, organizations that represent people with disabilities, 
organized labor, veteran service organizations, and State and local 
governments whenever such partnerships and cooperation are possible and 
would promote the employment and gainful economic activities of 
individuals with disabilities.
Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or 
benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party 
against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    March 13, 1998.



Executive Order 13079 of April 7, 1998

Waiver Under the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to Vietnam

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including section 402(c)(2) of the 
Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act'') (19 U.S.C. 2432(c)(2)), which 
continues to apply to Vietnam pursuant to section 402(d) of the Act, and 
having made the report to the Congress required by section 402(c)(2) of 
the Act, I hereby waive the application of sections 402(a) and 402(b) of 
the Act with respect to Vietnam.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    April 7, 1998.



Executive Order 13080 of April 7, 1998

American Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States, including the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 
5 U.S.C. App., as amended, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment. There is hereby established the American 
Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee (``Committee''). The 
Committee shall consist of up to 20 members appointed by the President 
from the public and private sectors. Each member of the Committee shall 
be a person who, as a result of his or her training, experience, and 
attainments, is well

[[Page 144]]

qualified to appraise the quality of nominations for selection of rivers 
as American Heritage Rivers submitted by communities across the country. 
The expertise of members of the Committee shall be in areas such as 
natural, cultural, and historic resources; water quality; public health; 
scenic and recreation interests; tourism and economic development 
interests; industry; and agriculture. The President shall designate a 
Chair from among the members of the Committee.
Sec. 2. (a) The Committee shall review nominations from communities and 
recommend to the President up to 20 rivers for consideration for 
designation as American Heritage Rivers. From the rivers recommended for 
consideration, the President shall designate ten as American Heritage 
Rivers.
    (b) In its review of nominations submitted by communities, the 
Committee shall provide its assessment of:

(1)  The scope of each nomination's application and the adequacy of its design to achieve the community's goals;
(2)  Whether the natural, economic (including agricultural), scenic, historic, cultural, and/or recreational
      resources featured in the application are distinctive or unique;
(3)  The extent to which the community's plan of action is clearly defined and the extent to which the plan
      addresses all three American Heritage Rivers objectives--natural resource and environmental protection,
      economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation--either through planned actions or past
      accomplishments, as well as any other characteristics of the proposals that distinguish a nomination, such
      as:
   (A)  Community vision and partnership;
   (B)  Sustainability of products and projects, including project maintenance;
   (C)  Resources, both committed and anticipated, including means of generating additional support from both
         private and public sources;
   (D)  Anticipated Federal role as defined by the applicants;
   (E)  Schedule or timeline;
   (F)  Citizen involvement;
   (G)  Public education relating to the designation of the river;
   (H)  Logistical support, operating procedures, and policies;
   (I)  Prior accomplishments, if relevant, and relationship to existing plans and projects in the area; and
   (J)  Measures of performance.
(4)  The strength and diversity of support for the nomination and plan of action as evidenced by letters from
      local and State governments, Indian tribes, elected officials, any and all parties who participate in the
      life and health of the area to be nominated, or who have an interest in the economic life and cultural and
      environmental vigor of the involved community.
    (c) The Committee also should seek to recommend the selection of 
rivers that as a group:

[[Page 145]]

(1)  Represent the natural, historic, cultural, social, economic, and agricultural diversity of American rivers;
(2)  Showcase a variety of stream sizes and an assortment of urban, rural, and mixed settings from around the
      country, including both relatively pristine and degraded rivers;
(3)  Highlight a variety of innovative programs in such areas as historic preservation, sustainable development
      through tourism, wildlife management, fisheries restoration, recreation, community revitalization,
      agricultural practices, and flood plain and watershed management;
(4)  Include community efforts in early stages of development as well as those that are more well established;
      and
(5)  Stand to benefit from targeted Federal assistance.
    (d) The Committee shall report its recommendations for selection of 
rivers as American Heritage Rivers to the President through the Chair of 
the Council on Environmental Quality.
Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The heads of executive departments and 
agencies shall provide the Committee, to the extent practicable and 
permitted by law, such information with respect to river revitalization 
as the Committee requires to fulfill its functions.
    (b) The Committee shall be supported both administratively and 
financially by the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Assistant 
Secretary of the Army for Civil Works.
Sec. 4. General. The Committee shall terminate no later than 2 years 
from the date of this order. The Chair of the Committee, with the 
approval of the designated Federal officer, shall call meetings of the 
American Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    April 7, 1998.



Executive Order 13081 of April 30, 1998

Amendment to Executive Order No. 13038, Advisory Committee on Public 
Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America and in order to extend the 
reporting deadline of the Advisory Committee on Public Interest 
Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters, it is hereby ordered 
that Executive Order 13038, as amended, is further amended by deleting 
``June 1, 1998'' in section 2 and inserting ``October 1, 1998'' in lieu 
thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    April 30, 1998.

[[Page 146]]


Executive Order 13082 of May 8, 1998

Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to add a member of 
the Joint Staff to the Joint-Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 
it is hereby ordered that the third paragraph of Executive Order 9080 of 
February 27, 1942, as amended by Executive Order 10692 of December 22, 
1956, and by Executive Order 12377 of August 6, 1982, is further amended 
to read as follows:
``The United States membership of the Commission shall consist of an 
Army member, a Navy member, an Air Force member, a Marine Corps member, 
and a Joint Staff member, each of whom shall be designated by the 
Secretary of Defense and serve during the pleasure of the Secretary. The 
Secretary shall designate from among the United States members a Chair 
thereof and may designate alternate United States members of the 
Commission.''
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 8, 1998.



Executive Order 13083 of May 14, 1998

Federalism

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to guarantee the 
division of governmental responsibilities, embodied in the Constitution, 
between the Federal Government and the States that was intended by the 
Framers and application of those principles by the Executive departments 
and agencies in the formulation and implementation of policies, it is 
hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Definitions. For purposes of this order:
    (a) ``State'' or ``States'' refer to the States of the United States 
of America, individually or collectively, and, where relevant, to State 
governments, including units of local government and other political 
subdivisions established by the States.
    (b) ``Policies that have federalism implications'' refers to Federal 
regulations, proposed legislation, and other policy statements or 
actions that have substantial direct effects on the States or on the 
relationship, or the distribution of power and responsibilities, between 
the Federal Government and the States.
    (c) ``Agency'' means any authority of the United States that is an 
``agency'' under 44 U.S.C. 3502(1), other than those considered to be 
independent regulatory agencies, as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(5).

[[Page 147]]

Sec. 2. Fundamental Federalism Principles. In formulating and 
implementing policies that have federalism implications, agencies shall 
be guided by the following fundamental federalism principles:
    (a) The structure of government established by the Constitution is 
premised upon a system of checks and balances.
    (b) The Constitution created a Federal Government of supreme, but 
limited, powers. The sovereign powers not granted to the Federal 
Government are reserved to the people or to the States, unless 
prohibited to the States by the Constitution.
    (c) Federalism reflects the principle that dividing power between 
the Federal Government and the States serves to protect individual 
liberty. Preserving State authority provides an essential balance to the 
power of the Federal Government, while preserving the supremacy of 
Federal law provides an essential balance to the power of the States.
    (d) The people of the States are at liberty, subject only to the 
limitations in the Constitution itself or in Federal law, to define the 
moral, political, and legal character of their lives.
    (e) Our constitutional system encourages a healthy diversity in the 
public policies adopted by the people of the several States according to 
their own conditions, needs, and desires. States and local governments 
are often uniquely situated to discern the sentiments of the people and 
to govern accordingly.
    (f) Effective public policy is often achieved when there is 
competition among the several States in the fashioning of different 
approaches to public policy issues. The search for enlightened public 
policy is often furthered when individual States and local governments 
are free to experiment with a variety of approaches to public issues. 
Uniform, national approaches to public policy problems can inhibit the 
creation of effective solutions to those problems.
    (g) Policies of the Federal Government should recognize the 
responsibility of--and should encourage opportunities for--States, local 
governments, private associations, neighborhoods, families, and 
individuals to achieve personal, social, environmental, and economic 
objectives through cooperative effort.
Sec. 3. Federalism Policymaking Criteria. In addition to adhering to the 
fundamental federalism principles set forth in section 2 of this order, 
agencies shall adhere, to the extent permitted by law, to the following 
criteria when formulating and implementing policies that have federalism 
implications:
    (a) There should be strict adherence to constitutional principles. 
Agencies should closely examine the constitutional and statutory 
authority supporting any Federal action that would limit the 
policymaking discretion of States and local governments, and should 
carefully assess the necessity for such action.
    (b) Agencies may limit the policymaking discretion of States and 
local governments only after determining that there is constitutional 
and legal authority for the action.
    (c) With respect to Federal statutes and regulations administered by 
States and local governments, the Federal Government should grant States

[[Page 148]]

and local governments the maximum administrative discretion possible. 
Any Federal oversight of such State and local administration should not 
unnecessarily intrude on State and local discretion.
    (d) It is important to recognize the distinction between matters of 
national or multi-state scope (which may justify Federal action) and 
matters that are merely common to the States (which may not justify 
Federal action because individual States, acting individually or 
together, may effectively deal with them). Matters of national or multi-
state scope that justify Federal action may arise in a variety of 
circumstances, including:
    (1) When the matter to be addressed by Federal action occurs 
interstate as opposed to being contained within one State's boundaries.
    (2) When the source of the matter to be addressed occurs in a State 
different from the State (or States) where a significant amount of the 
harm occurs.
    (3) When there is a need for uniform national standards.
    (4) When decentralization increases the costs of government thus 
imposing additional burdens on the taxpayer.
    (5) When States have not adequately protected individual rights and 
liberties.
    (6) When States would be reluctant to impose necessary regulations 
because of fears that regulated business activity will relocate to other 
States.
    (7) When placing regulatory authority at the State or local level 
would undermine regulatory goals because high costs or demands for 
specialized expertise will effectively place the regulatory matter 
beyond the resources of State authorities.
    (8) When the matter relates to Federally owned or managed property 
or natural resources, trust obligations, or international obligations.
    (9) When the matter to be regulated significantly or uniquely 
affects Indian tribal governments.
Sec. 4. Consultation. (a) Each agency shall have an effective process to 
permit elected officials and other representatives of State and local 
governments to provide meaningful and timely input in the development of 
regulatory policies that have federalism implications.
    (b) To the extent practicable and permitted by law, no agency shall 
promulgate any regulation that is not required by statute, that has 
federalism implications, and that imposes substantial direct compliance 
costs on States and local governments, unless:
      (1) funds necessary to pay the direct costs incurred by the State 
or local government in complying with the regulation are provided by the 
Federal Government; or
      (2) the agency, prior to the formal promulgation of the 
regulation,
  (A) in a separately identified portion of the preamble to the 
regulation as it is to be issued in the Federal Register, provides to 
the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a description of the 
extent of the agency's prior consultation with representatives of 
affected States and local governments, a summary of the nature of their 
con

[[Page 149]]

cerns, and the agency's position supporting the need to issue the 
regulation; and
  (B) makes available to the Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget any written communications submitted to the agency by States or 
local governments.
Sec. 5. Increasing Flexibility for State and Local Waivers. (a) Agencies 
shall review the processes under which States and local governments 
apply for waivers of statutory and regulatory requirements and take 
appropriate steps to streamline those processes.
    (b) Each agency shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by 
law, consider any application by a State or local government for a 
waiver of statutory or regulatory requirements in connection with any 
program administered by that agency with a general view toward 
increasing opportunities for utilizing flexible policy approaches at the 
State or local level in cases in which the proposed waiver is consistent 
with applicable Federal policy objectives and is otherwise appropriate.
    (c) Each agency shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by 
law, render a decision upon a complete application for a waiver within 
120 days of receipt of such application by the agency. If the 
application for a waiver is not granted, the agency shall provide the 
applicant with timely written notice of the decision and the reasons 
therefor.
    (d) This section applies only to statutory or regulatory 
requirements that are discretionary and subject to waiver by the agency.
Sec. 6. Independent Agencies. Independent regulatory agencies are 
encouraged to comply with the provisions of this order.
Sec. 7. General Provisions. (a) This order is intended only to improve 
the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, 
and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, 
enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its 
agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other 
person.
    (b) This order shall supplement but not supersede the requirements 
contained in Executive Order 12866 (``Regulatory Planning and Review''), 
Executive Order 12988 (``Civil Justice Reform''), and OMB Circular A-19.
    (c) Executive Order 12612 of October 26, 1987, and Executive Order 
12875 of October 26, 1993, are revoked.
    (d) The consultation and waiver provisions in sections 4 and 5 of 
this order shall complement the Executive order entitled, ``Consultation 
and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments,'' being issued on this 
day.
    (e) This order shall be effective 90 days after the date of this 
order.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 14, 1998.

[[Page 150]]


Executive Order 13084 of May 14, 1998

Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments

The United States has a unique legal relationship with Indian tribal 
governments as set forth in the Constitution of the United States, 
treaties, statutes, Executive orders, and court decisions. Since the 
formation of the Union, the United States has recognized Indian tribes 
as domestic dependent nations under its protection. In treaties, our 
Nation has guaranteed the right of Indian tribes to self-government. As 
domestic dependent nations, Indian tribes exercise inherent sovereign 
powers over their members and territory. The United States continues to 
work with Indian tribes on a government-to-government basis to address 
issues concerning Indian tribal self-government, trust resources, and 
Indian tribal treaty and other rights.
    Therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the 
Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order 
to establish regular and meaningful consultation and collaboration with 
Indian tribal governments in the development of regulatory practices on 
Federal matters that significantly or uniquely affect their communities; 
to reduce the imposition of unfunded mandates upon Indian tribal 
governments; and to streamline the application process for and increase 
the availability of waivers to Indian tribal governments; it is hereby 
ordered as follows:
Section 1. Definitions. For purposes of this order:
    (a) ``State'' or ``States'' refer to the States of the United States 
of America, individually or collectively, and, where relevant, to State 
governments, including units of local government and other political 
subdivisions established by the States.
    (b) ``Indian tribe'' means an Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, 
nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of the Interior 
acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to the Federally 
Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C. 479a.
    (c) ``Agency'' means any authority of the United States that is an 
``agency'' under 44 U.S.C. 3502(1), other than those considered to be 
independent regulatory agencies, as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(5).
Sec. 2. Policymaking Criteria. In formulating policies significantly or 
uniquely affecting Indian tribal governments, agencies shall be guided, 
to the extent permitted by law, by principles of respect for Indian 
tribal self-government and sovereignty, for tribal treaty and other 
rights, and for responsibilities that arise from the unique legal 
relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribal 
governments.
Sec. 3. Consultation. (a) Each agency shall have an effective process to 
permit elected officials and other representatives of Indian tribal 
governments to provide meaningful and timely input in the development of 
regulatory policies on matters that significantly or uniquely affect 
their communities.
    (b) To the extent practicable and permitted by law, no agency shall 
promulgate any regulation that is not required by statute, that 
significantly or uniquely affects the communities of the Indian tribal 
governments, and that imposes substantial direct compliance costs on 
such communities, unless:

[[Page 151]]

      (1) funds necessary to pay the direct costs incurred by the 
Indian tribal government in complying with the regulation are provided 
by the Federal Government; or
      (2) the agency, prior to the formal promulgation of the 
regulation,
  (A) in a separately identified portion of the preamble to the 
regulation as it is to be issued in the Federal Register, provides to 
the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a description of the 
extent of the agency's prior consultation with representatives of 
affected Indian tribal governments, a summary of the nature of their 
concerns, and the agency's position supporting the need to issue the 
regulation; and
  (B) makes available to the Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget any written communications submitted to the agency by such Indian 
tribal governments.
Sec. 4. Increasing Flexibility for Indian Tribal Waivers. (a) Agencies 
shall review the processes under which Indian tribal governments apply 
for waivers of statutory and regulatory requirements and take 
appropriate steps to streamline those processes.
    (b) Each agency shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by 
law, consider any application by an Indian tribal government for a 
waiver of statutory or regulatory requirements in connection with any 
program administered by that agency with a general view toward 
increasing opportunities for utilizing flexible policy approaches at the 
Indian tribal level in cases in which the proposed waiver is consistent 
with the applicable Federal policy objectives and is otherwise 
appropriate.
    (c) Each agency shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by 
law, render a decision upon a complete application for a waiver within 
120 days of receipt of such application by the agency. The agency shall 
provide the applicant with timely written notice of the decision and, if 
the application for a waiver is not granted, the reasons for such 
denial.
    (d) This section applies only to statutory or regulatory 
requirements that are discretionary and subject to waiver by the agency.
Sec. 5. Cooperation in developing regulations. On issues relating to 
tribal self-government, trust resources, or treaty and other rights, 
each agency should explore and, where appropriate, use consensual 
mechanisms for developing regulations, including negotiated rulemaking.
Sec. 6. Independent agencies. Independent regulatory agencies are 
encouraged to comply with the provisions of this order.
Sec. 7. General provisions. (a) This order is intended only to improve 
the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, 
and does not, create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, 
substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party 
against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its 
officers or employees, or any other person.
    (b) This order shall supplement but not supersede the requirements 
contained in Executive Order 12866 (``Regulatory Planning and Review''), 
Executive Order 12988 (``Civil Justice Reform''), OMB Circular A-19, and 
the Executive Memorandum of April 29, 1994, on Government-to-Government 
Relations with Native American Tribal Governments.

[[Page 152]]

    (c) This order shall complement the consultation and waiver 
provisions in sections 4 and 5 of the Executive order, entitled 
``Federalism,'' being issued on this day.
    (d) This order shall be effective 90 days after the date of this 
order.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 14, 1998.



Executive Order 13085 of May 26, 1998

Establishment of the Enrichment Oversight Committee

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to further the 
national security and other interests of the United States with regard 
to uranium enrichment and related businesses after the privatization of 
the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), it is ordered as 
follows:
Section 1. Establishment. There is hereby established an Enrichment 
Oversight Committee (EOC).
Sec. 2. Objectives. The EOC shall monitor and coordinate United States 
Government efforts with respect to the privatized USEC and any successor 
entities involved in uranium enrichment and related businesses in 
furtherance of the following objectives:
    (a) The full implementation of the Agreement Between the Government 
of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian 
Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) 
Extracted from Nuclear Weapons, dated February 18, 1993 (``HEU 
Agreement''), and related contracts and agreements by the USEC as 
executive agent or by any other executive agents;
    (b) The application of statutory, regulatory, and contractual 
restrictions on foreign ownership, control, or influence in the USEC, 
any successor entities, and any other executive agents;
    (c) The development and implementation of United States Government 
policy regarding uranium enrichment and related technologies, processes, 
and data; and
    (d) The collection and dissemination of information relevant to any 
of the foregoing on an ongoing basis, including from the Central 
Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Sec. 3. Organization. (a) The EOC shall be Chaired by a senior official 
from the National Security Council (NSC). The Chair shall coordinate the 
carrying out of the purposes and policy objectives of this order. The 
EOC shall meet as often as appropriate, but at least quarterly, and 
shall submit reports to the Assistant to the President for National 
Security Affairs semiannually, or more frequently as appropriate. The 
EOC shall prepare annually the report for the President's transmittal to 
the Congress pursuant to section 3112 of the USEC Privatization Act, 
Public Law 104-134, title III, 3112(b)(10), 110 Stat. 1321-344, 1321-346 
(1996).

[[Page 153]]

    (b) The EOC shall consist of representatives from the Departments of 
State, the Treasury, Defense, Justice, Commerce, Energy, and the Office 
of Management and Budget, the NSC, the National Economic Council, the 
Council of Economic Advisers, and the Intelligence Community. The EOC 
shall formulate internal guidelines for its operations, including 
guidelines for convening meetings.
    (c) The EOC shall coordinate sharing of information and provide 
direction, while operational responsibilities resulting from the EOC's 
oversight activities will rest with EOC member agencies.
    (d) At the request of the EOC, appropriate agencies, including the 
Department of Energy, shall provide day-to-day support for the EOC.
Sec. 4. HEU Agreement Oversight. The EOC shall form an HEU Agreement 
Oversight Subcommittee (the ``Subcommittee'') in order to continue 
coordination of the implementation of the HEU Agreement and related 
contracts and agreements, monitor actions taken by the executive agent, 
and make recommendations regarding steps designed to facilitate full 
implementation of the HEU Agreement, including changes with respect to 
the executive agent. The Subcommittee shall be chaired by a senior 
official from the NSC and shall include representatives of the 
Departments of State, Defense, Justice, Commerce, and Energy, and the 
Office of Management and Budget, the National Economic Council, the 
Intelligence Community, and, as appropriate, the United States Trade 
Representative, and the Council of Economic Advisers. The Subcommittee 
shall meet as appropriate to review the implementation of the HEU 
Agreement and consider steps to facilitate full implementation of that 
Agreement. In particular, the Subcommittee shall:
    (a) have access to all information concerning implementation of the 
HEU Agreement and related contracts and agreements;
    (b) monitor negotiations between the executive agent or agents and 
Russian authorities on implementation of the HEU Agreement, including 
the proposals of both sides on delivery schedules and on price;
    (c) monitor sales of the natural uranium component of low-enriched 
uranium derived from Russian HEU pursuant to applicable law;
    (d) establish procedures for designating alternative executive 
agents to implement the HEU Agreement;
    (e) coordinate policies and procedures regarding the full 
implementation of the HEU purchase agreement and related contracts and 
agreements, consistent with applicable law; and
    (f) coordinate the position of the United States Government on any 
issues that arise in the implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement 
with the USEC for the USEC to serve as the United States Government 
Executive Agent under the HEU Agreement.
Sec. 5. Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI). The EOC shall 
collect information and monitor issues relating to foreign ownership, 
control, or influence of the USEC or any successor entities. 
Specifically, the EOC shall:
    (a) monitor the application and enforcement of the FOCI requirements 
of the National Industrial Security Program established by Executive 
Order 12829 with respect to the USEC and any successor entities (see 
National

[[Page 154]]

Industrial Security Program Operating Manual, Department of Defense 2-3 
(Oct. 1994));
    (b) monitor and review reports and submissions relating to FOCI 
issues made by the USEC or any successor entity to the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 
U.S.C. 2011 et seq. (1994), and the USEC Privatization Act, Public Law 
104-134, title III, 110 Stat. 1321-335 et seq. (1996);
    (c) ensure coordination with the Intelligence Community of the 
collection and analysis of intelligence and ensure coordination of 
intelligence with other information related to FOCI issues; and
    (d) ensure coordination with the Committee on Foreign Investment in 
the United States.
Sec. 6. Domestic Enrichment Services. The EOC shall collect and analyze 
information related to the maintenance of domestic uranium mining, 
enrichment, and conversion industries, provided that such activities 
shall be undertaken in a manner that provides appropriate protection for 
such information. In particular, the EOC shall:
    (a) collect and review all public filings made by or with respect to 
the USEC or any successor entities with the Securities and Exchange 
Commission;
    (b) collect information from all available sources necessary for the 
preparation of the annual report to the Congress required by section 
3112 of the USEC Privatization Act, as noted in section 3(a) of this 
order, including information relating to plans by the USEC or any 
successor entities to expand or contract materially the enrichment of 
uranium-using gaseous diffusion technology;
    (c) collect information relating to the development and 
implementation of atomic vapor laser isotope separation technology;
    (d) to the extent permitted by law, and as necessary to fulfill the 
EOC's oversight functions, collect proprietary information from the 
USEC, or any successor entities, provided that the collection of such 
information shall be undertaken so as to minimize disruption to the 
normal functioning of the private corporation. For example, such 
information would include the USEC's financial statements prepared in 
accordance with standards applicable to public registrants and the 
executive summary of the USEC's strategic plan as shared with its Board 
of Directors, as well as timely information on its unit production 
costs, capacity utilization rates, average pricing and sales for the 
current year and for new contracts, employment levels, overseas 
activities, and research and development initiatives. Such information 
shall be collected on an annual basis, with quarterly updates as 
appropriate; and
    (e) coordinate with relevant agencies in monitoring the levels of 
natural and enriched uranium and enrichment services imported into the 
United States.
Sec. 7. Coordination with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Upon 
notification by the NRC that it seeks the views of other agencies of the 
executive branch regarding determinations necessary for the issuance, 
reissuance, or renewal of a certificate of compliance or license to the 
privatized USEC, the EOC shall convey the relevant views of these other 
agencies of the ex

[[Page 155]]

ecutive branch, including whether the applicant's performance as the 
United States agent for the HEU Agreement is acceptable, on a schedule 
consistent with the NRC's need for timely action on such regulatory 
decisions.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 26, 1998.



Executive Order 13086 of May 27, 1998

1998 Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including chapter 47 of title 10, 
United States Code (Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 801-
946), in order to prescribe amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, 
United States, prescribed by Executive Order No. 12473, as amended by 
Executive Order No. 12484, Executive Order No. 12550, Executive Order 
No. 12586, Executive Order No. 12708, Executive Order No. 12767, 
Executive Order No. 12888, Executive Order No. 12936, and Executive 
Order No. 12960, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Part II of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, is 
amended as follows:
a. R.C.M. 305(g) through 305(k) are amended to read as follows:
    ``(g) Who may direct release from confinement. Any commander of a 
prisoner, an officer appointed under regulations of the Secretary 
concerned to conduct the review under subsections (i) and/or (j) of this 
rule or, once charges have been referred, a military judge detailed to 
the court-martial to which the charges against the accused have been 
referred, may direct release from pretrial confinement. For the purposes 
of this subsection, ``any commander'' includes the immediate or higher 
commander of the prisoner and the commander of the installation on which 
the confinement facility is located.
    (h) Notification and action by commander.
      (1) Report. Unless the commander of the prisoner ordered the 
pretrial confinement, the commissioned, warrant, noncommissioned, or 
petty officer into whose charge the prisoner was committed shall, within 
24 hours after that commitment, cause a report to be made to the 
commander that shall contain the name of the prisoner, the offenses 
charged against the prisoner, and the name of the person who ordered or 
authorized confinement.
      (2) Action by commander.
        (A) Decision. Not later than 72 hours after the commander's 
ordering of a prisoner into pretrial confinement or, after receipt of a 
report that a member of the commander's unit or organization has been 
confined, whichever situation is applicable, the commander shall decide 
whether pretrial

[[Page 156]]

confinement will continue. A commander's compliance with this subsection 
may also satisfy the 48-hour probable cause determination of subsection 
R.C.M. 305(i)(1) below, provided the commander is a neutral and detached 
officer and acts within 48 hours of the imposition of confinement under 
military control. Nothing in subsections R.C.M. 305(d), R.C.M. 
305(i)(1), or this subsection prevents a neutral and detached commander 
from completing the 48-hour probable cause determination and the 72-hour 
commander's decision immediately after an accused is ordered into 
pretrial confinement.
        (B) Requirements for confinement. The commander shall direct the 
prisoner's release from pretrial confinement unless the commander 
believes upon probable cause, that is, upon reasonable grounds, that:
          (i) An offense triable by a court-martial has been committed;
          (ii) The prisoner committed it; and
          (iii) Confinement is necessary because it is foreseeable that:
            (a) The prisoner will not appear at trial, pretrial hearing, 
or investigation, or
            (b) The prisoner will engage in serious criminal misconduct; 
and
          (iv) Less severe forms of restraint are inadequate.
        Serious criminal misconduct includes intimidation of witnesses 
or other obstruction of justice, serious injury to others, or other 
offenses that pose a serious threat to the safety of the community or to 
the effectiveness, morale, discipline, readiness, or safety of the 
command, or to the national security of the United States. As used in 
this rule, ``national security'' means the national defense and foreign 
relations of the United States and specifically includes: military or 
defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; a 
favorable foreign relations position; or a defense posture capable of 
successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or 
without, overt or covert.
        (C) 72-hour memorandum. If continued pretrial confinement is 
approved, the commander shall prepare a written memorandum that states 
the reasons for the conclusion that the requirements for confinement in 
subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule have been met. This memorandum may 
include hearsay and may incorporate by reference other documents, such 
as witness statements, investigative reports, or official records. This 
memorandum shall be forwarded to the 7-day reviewing officer under 
subsection (i)(2) of this rule. If such a memorandum was prepared by the 
commander before ordering confinement, a second memorandum need not be 
prepared; however, additional information may be added to the memorandum 
at any time.
    (i) Procedures for review of pretrial confinement.
      (1) 48-hour probable cause determination. Review of the adequacy 
of probable cause to continue pretrial confinement shall be made by a 
neutral and detached officer within 48 hours of imposition of 
confinement under military control. If the prisoner is apprehended by 
civilian authorities and remains in civilian custody at the request of 
military authorities, reasonable efforts will be made to bring the 
prisoner under military control in a timely fashion.

[[Page 157]]

      (2) 7-day review of pretrial confinement. Within 7 days of the 
imposition of confinement, a neutral and detached officer appointed in 
accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned shall 
review the probable cause determination and necessity for continued 
pretrial confinement. In calculating the number of days of confinement 
for purposes of this rule, the initial date of confinement under 
military control shall count as one day and the date of the review shall 
also count as one day.
        (A) Nature of the 7-day review.
          (i) Matters considered. The review under this subsection shall 
include a review of the memorandum submitted by the prisoner's commander 
under subsection (h)(2)(C) of this rule. Additional written matters may 
be considered, including any submitted by the accused. The prisoner and 
the prisoner's counsel, if any, shall be allowed to appear before the 7-
day reviewing officer and make a statement, if practicable. A 
representative of the command may also appear before the reviewing 
officer to make a statement.
          (ii) Rules of evidence. Except for Mil. R. Evid., Section V 
(Privileges) and Mil. R. Evid. 302 and 305, the Military Rules of 
Evidence shall not apply to the matters considered.
          (iii) Standard of proof. The requirements for confinement 
under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule must be proved by a 
preponderance of the evidence.
        (B) Extension of time limit. The 7-day reviewing officer may, 
for good cause, extend the time limit for completion of the review to 10 
days after the imposition of pretrial confinement.
        (C) Action by 7-day reviewing officer. Upon completion of 
review, the reviewing officer shall approve continued confinement or 
order immediate release.
        (D) Memorandum. The 7-day reviewing officer's conclusions, 
including the factual findings on which they are based, shall be set 
forth in a written memorandum. A copy of the memorandum and of all 
documents considered by the 7-day reviewing officer shall be maintained 
in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned and 
provided to the accused or the Government on request.
        (E) Reconsideration of approval of continued confinement. The 7-
day reviewing officer shall upon request, and after notice to the 
parties, reconsider the decision to confine the prisoner based upon any 
significant information not previously considered.
    (j) Review by military judge. Once the charges for which the accused 
has been confined are referred to trial, the military judge shall review 
the propriety of the pretrial confinement upon motion for appropriate 
relief.
      (1) Release. The military judge shall order release from pretrial 
confinement only if:
        (A) The 7-day reviewing officer's decision was an abuse of 
discretion, and there is not sufficient information presented to the 
military judge justifying continuation of pretrial confinement under 
subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule;

[[Page 158]]

        (B) Information not presented to the 7-day reviewing officer 
establishes that the prisoner should be released under subsection 
(h)(2)(B) of this rule; or
        (C) The provisions of subsection (i)(1) or (2) of this rule have 
not been complied with and information presented to the military judge 
does not establish sufficient grounds for continued confinement under 
subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule.
      (2) Credit. The military judge shall order administrative credit 
under subsection (k) of this rule for any pretrial confinement served as 
a result of an abuse of discretion or failure to comply with the 
provisions of subsections (f), (h), or (i) of this rule.
    (k) Remedy. The remedy for noncompliance with subsections (f), (h), 
(i), or (j) of this rule shall be an administrative credit against the 
sentence adjudged for any confinement served as the result of such 
noncompliance. Such credit shall be computed at the rate of 1 day credit 
for each day of confinement served as a result of such noncompliance. 
The military judge may order additional credit for each day of pretrial 
confinement that involves an abuse of discretion or unusually harsh 
circumstances. This credit is to be applied in addition to any other 
credit to which the accused may be entitled as a result of pretrial 
confinement served. This credit shall be applied first against any 
confinement adjudged. If no confinement is adjudged, or if the 
confinement adjudged is insufficient to offset all the credit to which 
the accused is entitled, the credit shall be applied against adjudged 
hard labor without confinement, restriction, fine, and forfeiture of 
pay, in that order, using the conversion formula under R.C.M. 1003(b)(6) 
and (7). For purposes of this subsection, 1 day of confinement shall be 
equal to 1 day of total forfeitures or a like amount of fine. The credit 
shall not be applied against any other form of punishment.''
b. R.C.M. 405(e) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(e) Scope of investigation. The investigating officer shall 
inquire into the truth and form of the charges, and such other matters 
as may be necessary to make a recommendation as to the disposition of 
the charges. If evidence adduced during the investigation indicates that 
the accused committed an uncharged offense, the investigating officer 
may investigate the subject matter of such offense and make a 
recommendation as to its disposition, without the accused first having 
been charged with the offense. The accused's rights under subsection (f) 
are the same with regard to investigation of both charged and uncharged 
offenses.''
c. R.C.M. 706(c)(2)(D) is amended to read as follows:
        ``(D) Is the accused presently suffering from a mental disease 
or defect rendering the accused unable to understand the nature of the 
proceedings against the accused or to conduct or cooperate intelligently 
in the defense of the case?''
d. R.C.M. 707(b)(3) is amended by adding subsection (E) which reads as 
follows:
        ``(E) Commitment of the incompetent accused. If the accused is 
committed to the custody of the Attorney General for hospitalization as 
provided in R.C.M. 909(f), all periods of such commitment shall be 
excluded when determining whether the period in subsection (a) of this 
rule has run. If, at the end of the period of commitment, the accused is 
returned to the

[[Page 159]]

custody of the general court-martial convening authority, a new 120-day 
time period under this rule shall begin on the date of such return to 
custody.''
e. R.C.M. 707(c) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(c) Excludable delay. All periods of time during which appellate 
courts have issued stays in the proceedings, or the accused is 
hospitalized due to incompetence, or is otherwise in the custody of the 
Attorney General, shall be excluded when determining whether the period 
in subsection (a) of this rule has run. All other pretrial delays 
approved by a military judge or the convening authority shall be 
similarly excluded.''
f. R.C.M. 809(b)(1) is amended by deleting the last sentence, which 
reads:
    ``In such cases, the regular proceedings shall be suspended while 
the contempt is disposed of.''
g. R.C.M. 809(c) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(c) Procedure. The military judge shall in all cases determine 
whether to punish for contempt and, if so, what the punishment shall be. 
The military judge shall also determine when during the court-martial 
the contempt proceedings shall be conducted; however, if the court-
martial is composed of members, the military judge shall conduct the 
contempt proceedings outside the members' presence. The military judge 
may punish summarily under subsection (b)(1) only if the military judge 
recites the facts for the record and states that they were directly 
witnessed by the military judge in the actual presence of the court-
martial. Otherwise, the provisions of subsection (b)(2) shall apply.''
h. R.C.M. 908(a) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(a) In general. In a trial by a court-martial over which a 
military judge presides and in which a punitive discharge may be 
adjudged, the United States may appeal an order or ruling that 
terminates the proceedings with respect to a charge or specification, or 
excludes evidence that is substantial proof of a fact material in the 
proceedings, or directs the disclosure of classified information, or 
that imposes sanctions for nondisclosure of classified information. The 
United States may also appeal a refusal by the military judge to issue a 
protective order sought by the United States to prevent the disclosure 
of classified information or to enforce such an order that has 
previously been issued by the appropriate authority. However, the United 
States may not appeal an order or ruling that is, or amounts to, a 
finding of not guilty with respect to the charge or specification.''
i. R.C.M. 909 is amended to read as follows:
    ``(a) In general. No person may be brought to trial by court-martial 
if that person is presently suffering from a mental disease or defect 
rendering him or her mentally incompetent to the extent that he or she 
is unable to understand the nature of the proceedings against them or to 
conduct or cooperate intelligently in the defense of the case.
    (b) Presumption of capacity. A person is presumed to have the 
capacity to stand trial unless the contrary is established.
    (c) Determination before referral. If an inquiry pursuant to R.C.M. 
706 conducted before referral concludes that an accused is suffering 
from a mental disease or defect that renders him or her mentally 
incompetent to stand trial, the convening authority before whom the 
charges are pending for disposition may disagree with the conclusion and 
take any action au

[[Page 160]]

thorized under R.C.M. 401, including referral of the charges to trial. 
If that convening authority concurs with the conclusion, he or she shall 
forward the charges to the general court-martial convening authority. 
If, upon receipt of the charges, the general court-martial convening 
authority similarly concurs, then he or she shall commit the accused to 
the custody of the Attorney General. If the general court-martial 
convening authority does not concur, that authority may take any action 
that he or she deems appropriate in accordance with R.C.M. 407, 
including referral of the charges to trial.
    (d) Determination after referral. After referral, the military judge 
may conduct a hearing to determine the mental capacity of the accused, 
either sua sponte or upon request of either party. If an inquiry 
pursuant to R.C.M. 706 conducted before or after referral concludes that 
an accused is suffering from a mental disease or defect that renders him 
or her mentally incompetent to stand trial, the military judge shall 
conduct a hearing to determine the mental capacity of the accused. Any 
such hearing shall be conducted in accordance with paragraph (e) of this 
rule.
    (e) Incompetence determination hearing.
      (1) Nature of issue. The mental capacity of the accused is an 
interlocutory question of fact.
      (2) Standard. Trial may proceed unless it is established by a 
preponderance of the evidence that the accused is presently suffering 
from a mental disease or defect rendering him or her mentally 
incompetent to the extent that he or she is unable to understand the 
nature of the proceedings or to conduct or cooperate intelligently in 
the defense of the case. In making this determination, the military 
judge is not bound by the rules of evidence except with respect to 
privileges.
      (3) If the military judge finds the accused is incompetent to 
stand trial, the judge shall report this finding to the general court-
martial convening authority, who shall commit the accused to the custody 
of the Attorney General.
    (f) Hospitalization of the accused. An accused who is found 
incompetent to stand trial under this rule shall be hospitalized by the 
Attorney General as provided in section 4241(d) of title 18, United 
States Code. If notified that the accused has recovered to such an 
extent that he or she is able to understand the nature of the 
proceedings and to conduct or cooperate intelligently in the defense of 
the case, then the general court-martial convening authority shall 
promptly take custody of the accused. If, at the end of the period of 
hospitalization, the accused's mental condition has not so improved, 
action shall be taken in accordance with section 4246 of title 18, 
United States Code.
    (g) Excludable delay. All periods of commitment shall be excluded as 
provided by R.C.M. 707(c). The 120-day time period under R.C.M. 707 
shall begin anew on the date the general court-martial convening 
authority takes custody of the accused at the end of any period of 
commitment.''
j. R.C.M. 916(b) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(b) Burden of proof. Except for the defense of lack of mental 
responsibility and the defense of mistake of fact as to age as described 
in Part IV, para. 45c.(2) in a prosecution for carnal knowledge, the 
prosecution shall

[[Page 161]]

have the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defense 
did not exist. The accused has the burden of proving the defense of lack 
of mental responsibility by clear and convincing evidence, and has the 
burden of proving mistake of fact as to age in a carnal knowledge 
prosecution by a preponderance of the evidence.''
k. R.C.M. 916(j) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(j) Ignorance or mistake of fact.
      (1) Generally. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, it 
is a defense to an offense that the accused held, as a result of 
ignorance or mistake, an incorrect belief of the true circumstances such 
that, if the circumstances were as the accused believed them, the 
accused would not be guilty of the offense. If the ignorance or mistake 
goes to an element requiring premeditation, specific intent, 
willfulness, or knowledge of a particular fact, the ignorance or mistake 
need only have existed in the mind of the accused. If the ignorance or 
mistake goes to any other element requiring only general intent or 
knowledge, the ignorance or mistake must have existed in the mind of the 
accused and must have been reasonable under all the circumstances. 
However, if the accused's knowledge or intent is immaterial as to an 
element, then ignorance or mistake is not a defense.
      (2) Carnal knowledge. It is a defense to a prosecution for carnal 
knowledge that, at the time of the sexual intercourse, the person with 
whom the accused had sexual intercourse was at least 12 years of age, 
and the accused reasonably believed the person was at least 16 years of 
age. The accused must prove this defense by a preponderance of the 
evidence.''
l. R.C.M. 920(e)(5)(D) is amended to read as follows:
        ``(D) The burden of proof to establish the guilt of the accused 
is upon the Government. [When the issue of lack of mental responsibility 
is raised, add: The burden of proving the defense of lack of mental 
responsibility by clear and convincing evidence is upon the accused. 
When the issue of mistake of fact as to age in a carnal knowledge 
prosecution is raised, add: The burden of proving the defense of mistake 
of fact as to age in carnal knowledge by a preponderance of the evidence 
is upon the accused.]''
m. R.C.M. 1005(e) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(e) Required Instructions. Instructions on sentence shall include:
      (1) A statement of the maximum authorized punishment that may be 
adjudged and of the mandatory minimum punishment, if any;
      (2) A statement of the effect any sentence announced including a 
punitive discharge and confinement, or confinement in excess of six 
months, will have on the accused's entitlement to pay and allowances;
      (3) A statement of the procedures for deliberation and voting on 
the sentence set out in R.C.M. 1006;
      (4) A statement informing the members that they are solely 
responsible for selecting an appropriate sentence and may not rely on 
the possibility of any mitigating action by the convening or higher 
authority; and
      (5) A statement that the members should consider all matters in 
extenuation, mitigation, and aggravation, whether introduced before or 
after findings, and matters introduced under R.C.M. 1001(b)(1), (2), 
(3), and (5).''

[[Page 162]]

n. The heading for R.C.M. 1101 is amended as follows:
``Rule 1101. Report of result of trial; post-trial restraint; deferment 
of confinement, forfeitures and reduction in grade; waiver of Article 
58b forfeitures''
o. R.C.M. 1101(c) is amended as follows:
    ``(c) Deferment of confinement, forfeitures or reduction in grade.
      (1) In general. Deferment of a sentence to confinement, 
forfeitures, or reduction in grade is a postponement of the running of a 
sentence.
      (2) Who may defer. The convening authority or, if the accused is 
no longer in the convening authority's jurisdiction, the officer 
exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command to which 
the accused is assigned, may, upon written application of the accused at 
any time after the adjournment of the court-martial, defer the accused's 
service of a sentence to confinement, forfeitures, or reduction in grade 
that has not been ordered executed.
      (3) Action on deferment request. The authority acting on the 
deferment request may, in that authority's discretion, defer service of 
a sentence to confinement, forfeitures, or reduction in grade. The 
accused shall have the burden of showing that the interests of the 
accused and the community in deferral outweigh the community's interest 
in imposition of the punishment on its effective date. Factors that the 
authority acting on a deferment request may consider in determining 
whether to grant the deferment request include, where applicable: the 
probability of the accused's flight; the probability of the accused's 
commission of other offenses, intimidation of witnesses, or interference 
with the administration of justice; the nature of the offenses 
(including the effect on the victim) of which the accused was convicted; 
the sentence adjudged; the command's immediate need for the accused; the 
effect of deferment on good order and discipline in the command; the 
accused's character, mental condition, family situation, and service 
record. The decision of the authority acting on the deferment request 
shall be subject to judicial review only for abuse of discretion. The 
action of the authority acting on the deferment request shall be in 
writing and a copy shall be provided to the accused.
      (4) Orders. The action granting deferment shall be reported in the 
convening authority's action under R.C.M. 1107(f)(4)(E) and shall 
include the date of the action on the request when it occurs prior to or 
concurrently with the action. Action granting deferment after the 
convening authority's action under R.C.M. 1107 shall be reported in 
orders under R.C.M. 1114 and included in the record of trial.
      (5) Restraint when deferment is granted. When deferment of 
confinement is granted, no form of restraint or other limitation on the 
accused's liberty may be ordered as a substitute form of punishment. An 
accused may, however, be restricted to specified limits or conditions 
may be placed on the accused's liberty during the period of deferment 
for any other proper reason, including a ground for restraint under 
R.C.M. 304.
      (6) End of deferment. Deferment of a sentence to confinement, 
forfeitures, or reduction in grade ends when:

[[Page 163]]

        (A) The convening authority takes action under R.C.M. 1107, 
unless the convening authority specifies in the action that service of 
confinement after the action is deferred;
        (B) The confinement, forfeitures, or reduction in grade are 
suspended;
        (C) The deferment expires by its own terms; or
        (D) The deferment is otherwise rescinded in accordance with 
subsection (c)(7) of this rule. Deferment of confinement may not 
continue after the conviction is final under R.C.M. 1209.
      (7) Rescission of deferment.
        (A) Who may rescind. The authority who granted the deferment or, 
if the accused is no longer within that authority's jurisdiction, the 
officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command 
to which the accused is assigned, may rescind the deferment.
        (B) Action. Deferment of confinement, forfeitures, or reduction 
in grade may be rescinded when additional information is presented to a 
proper authority which, when considered with all other information in 
the case, that authority finds, in that authority's discretion, is 
grounds for denial of deferment under subsection (c)(3) of this rule. 
The accused shall promptly be informed of the basis for the rescission 
and of the right to submit written matters on the accused's behalf and 
to request that the rescission be reconsidered. However, the accused may 
be required to serve the sentence to confinement, forfeitures, or 
reduction in grade pending this action.
        (C) Execution. When deferment of confinement is rescinded after 
the convening authority's action under R.C.M. 1107, the confinement may 
be ordered executed. However, no such order to rescind a deferment of 
confinement may be issued within 7 days of notice of the rescission of a 
deferment of confinement to the accused under subsection (c)(7)(B) of 
this rule, to afford the accused an opportunity to respond. The 
authority rescinding the deferment may extend this period for good cause 
shown. The accused shall be credited with any confinement actually 
served during this period.
        (D) Orders. Rescission of a deferment before or concurrently 
with the initial action in the case shall be reported in the action 
under R.C.M. 1107(f)(4)(E), which action shall include the dates of the 
granting of the deferment and the rescission. Rescission of a deferment 
of confinement after the convening authority's action shall be reported 
in supplementary orders in accordance with R.C.M. 1114 and shall state 
whether the approved period of confinement is to be executed or whether 
all or part of it is to be suspended.''
p. R.C.M. 101 is amended by adding the following new subparagraph (d):
    ``(d) Waiving forfeitures resulting from a sentence to confinement 
to provide for dependent support.
      (1) With respect to forfeiture of pay and allowances resulting 
only by operation of law and not adjudged by the court, the convening 
authority may waive, for a period not to exceed six months, all or part 
of the forfeitures for the purpose of providing support to the accused's 
dependent(s).

[[Page 164]]

The convening authority may waive and direct payment of any such 
forfeitures when they become effective by operation of Article 57(a).
      (2) Factors that may be considered by the convening authority in 
determining the amount of forfeitures, if any, to be waived include, but 
are not limited to, the length of the accused's confinement, the number 
and age(s) of the accused's family members, whether the accused 
requested waiver, any debts owed by the accused, the ability of the 
accused's family members to find employment, and the availability of 
transitional compensation for abused dependents permitted under 10 
U.S.C. 1059.
      (3) For the purposes of this Rule, a ``dependent'' means any 
person qualifying as a ``dependent'' under 37 U.S.C. 401.''
q. The following new rule is added after R.C.M. 1102:
``Rule 1102A. Post-trial hearing for person found not guilty only by 
reason of lack of mental responsibility
    (a) In general. The military judge shall conduct a hearing not later 
than forty days following the finding that an accused is not guilty only 
by reason of a lack of mental responsibility.
    (b) Psychiatric or psychological examination and report. Prior to 
the hearing, the military judge or convening authority shall order a 
psychiatric or psychological examination of the accused, with the 
resulting psychiatric or psychological report transmitted to the 
military judge for use in the post-trial hearing.
    (c) Post-trial hearing.
      (1) The accused shall be represented by defense counsel and shall 
have the opportunity to testify, present evidence, call witnesses on his 
or her behalf, and to confront and cross-examine witnesses who appear at 
the hearing.
      (2) The military judge is not bound by the rules of evidence 
except with respect to privileges.
      (3) An accused found not guilty only by reason of a lack of mental 
responsibility of an offense involving bodily injury to another, or 
serious damage to the property of another, or involving a substantial 
risk of such injury or damage, has the burden of proving by clear and 
convincing evidence that his or her release would not create a 
substantial risk of bodily injury to another person or serious damage to 
property of another due to a present mental disease or defect. With 
respect to any other offense, the accused has the burden of such proof 
by a preponderance of the evidence.
      (4) If, after the hearing, the military judge finds the accused 
has satisfied the standard specified in subsection (3) of this section, 
the military judge shall inform the general court-martial convening 
authority of this result and the accused shall be released. If, however, 
the military judge finds after the hearing that the accused has not 
satisfied the standard specified in subsection (3) of this section, then 
the military judge shall inform the general court-martial convening 
authority of this result and that authority may commit the accused to 
the custody of the Attorney General.''
r. R.C.M. 1105(b) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(b) Matters that may be submitted.

[[Page 165]]

      (1) The accused may submit to the convening authority any matters 
that may reasonably tend to affect the convening authority's decision 
whether to disapprove any findings of guilt or to approve the sentence. 
The convening authority is only required to consider written 
submissions.
      (2) Submissions are not subject to the Military Rules of Evidence 
and may include:
        (A) Allegations of errors affecting the legality of the findings 
or sentence;
        (B) Portions or summaries of the record and copies of 
documentary evidence offered or introduced at trial;
        (C) Matters in mitigation that were not available for 
consideration at the court-martial; and
        (D) Clemency recommendations by any member, the military judge, 
or any other person. The defense may ask any person for such a 
recommendation.''
s. R.C.M. 1107(b)(4) is amended to read as follows:
      ``(4) When proceedings resulted in a finding of not guilty or not 
guilty only by reason of lack of mental responsibility, or there was a 
ruling amounting to a finding of not guilty. The convening authority 
shall not take action disapproving a finding of not guilty, a finding of 
not guilty only by reason of lack of mental responsibility, or a ruling 
amounting to a finding of not guilty. When an accused is found not 
guilty only by reason of lack of mental responsibility, the convening 
authority, however, shall commit the accused to a suitable facility 
pending a hearing and disposition in accordance with R.C.M. 1102A.''
t. The subheading for R.C.M. 1107(d)(3) is amended to read as follows:
      ``(3) Deferring service of a sentence to confinement.''
u. R.C.M. 1107(d)(3)(A) is amended to read as follows:
        ``(A) In a case in which a court-martial sentences an accused 
referred to in subsection (B), below, to confinement, the convening 
authority may defer service of a sentence to confinement by a court-
martial, without the consent of the accused, until after the accused has 
been permanently released to the armed forces by a state or foreign 
country.''
v. R.C.M. 1109 is amended to read as follows:
``Rule 1109. Vacation of suspension of sentence
    (a) In general. Suspension of execution of the sentence of a court-
martial may be vacated for violation of the conditions of the suspension 
as provided in this rule.
    (b) Timeliness.
      (1) Violation of conditions. Vacation shall be based on a 
violation of the conditions of suspension that occurs within the period 
of suspension.
      (2) Vacation proceedings. Vacation proceedings under this rule 
shall be completed within a reasonable time.
      (3) Order vacating the suspension. The order vacating the 
suspension shall be issued before the expiration of the period of 
suspension.

[[Page 166]]

      (4) Interruptions to the period of suspension. Unauthorized 
absence of the probationer or the commencement of proceedings under this 
rule to vacate suspension interrupts the running of the period of 
suspension.
    (c) Confinement of probationer pending vacation proceedings.
      (1) In general. A probationer under a suspended sentence to 
confinement may be confined pending action under subsection (d)(2) of 
this rule, in accordance with the procedures in this subsection.
      (2) Who may order confinement. Any person who may order pretrial 
restraint under R.C.M. 304(b) may order confinement of a probationer 
under a suspended sentence to confinement.
      (3) Basis for confinement. A probationer under a suspended 
sentence to confinement may be ordered into confinement upon probable 
cause to believe the probationer violated any conditions of the 
suspension.
      (4) Review of confinement. Unless proceedings under subsection 
(d)(1), (e), (f), or (g) of this rule are completed within 7 days of 
imposition of confinement of the probationer (not including any delays 
requested by probationer), a preliminary hearing shall be conducted by a 
neutral and detached officer appointed in accordance with regulations of 
the Secretary concerned.
        (A) Rights of accused. Before the preliminary hearing, the 
accused shall be notified in writing of:
          (i) The time, place, and purpose of the hearing, including the 
alleged violation(s) of the conditions of suspension;
          (ii) The right to be present at the hearing;
          (iii) The right to be represented at the hearing by civilian 
counsel provided by the probationer or, upon request, by military 
counsel detailed for this purpose; and
          (iv) The opportunity to be heard, to present witnesses who are 
reasonably available and other evidence, and the right to confront and 
cross-examine adverse witnesses unless the hearing officer determines 
that this would subject these witnesses to risk or harm. For purposes of 
this subsection, a witness is not reasonably available if the witness 
requires reimbursement by the United States for cost incurred in 
appearing, cannot appear without unduly delaying the proceedings or, if 
a military witness, cannot be excused from other important duties.
        (B) Rules of evidence. Except for Mil. R. Evid. Section V 
(Privileges) and Mil. R. Evid. 302 and 305, the Military Rules of 
Evidence shall not apply to matters considered at the preliminary 
hearing under this rule.
        (C) Decision. The hearing officer shall determine whether there 
is probable cause to believe that the probationer violated the 
conditions of the probationer's suspension. If the hearing officer 
determines that probable cause is lacking, the hearing officer shall 
issue a written order directing that the probationer be released from 
confinement. If the hearing officer determines that there is probable 
cause to believe that the probationer violated the conditions of 
suspension, the hearing officer shall set forth that decision in a 
written memorandum, detailing therein the evidence relied upon and 
reasons for making the decision. The hearing officer shall forward the 
original memorandum or release order to the probationer's com

[[Page 167]]

mander and forward a copy to the probationer and the officer in charge 
of the confinement facility.
    (d) Vacation of suspended general court-martial sentence.
      (1) Action by officer having special court-martial jurisdiction 
over probationer.
        (A) In general. Before vacation of the suspension of any general 
court-martial sentence, the officer having special court-martial 
jurisdiction over the probationer shall personally hold a hearing on the 
alleged violation of the conditions of suspension. If there is no 
officer having special court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer 
who is subordinate to the officer having general court-martial 
jurisdiction over the probationer, the officer exercising general court-
martial jurisdiction over the probationer shall personally hold a 
hearing under subsection (d)(1) of this rule. In such cases, subsection 
(d)(1)(D) of this rule shall not apply.
        (B) Notice to probationer. Before the hearing, the officer 
conducting the hearing shall cause the probationer to be notified in 
writing of:
          (i) The time, place, and purpose of the hearing;
          (ii) The right to be present at the hearing;
          (iii) The alleged violation(s) of the conditions of suspension 
and the evidence expected to be relied on;
          (iv) The right to be represented at the hearing by civilian 
counsel provided by the probationer or, upon request, by military 
counsel detailed for this purpose; and
          (v) The opportunity to be heard, to present witnesses and 
other evidence, and the right to confront and cross-examine adverse 
witnesses, unless the hearing officer determines that there is good 
cause for not allowing confrontation and cross-examination.
        (C) Hearing. The procedure for the vacation hearing shall follow 
that prescribed in R.C.M. 405(g), (h)(1), and (i).
        (D) Record and recommendation. The officer who conducts the 
vacation proceeding shall make a summarized record of the proceeding and 
forward the record and that officer's written recommendation concerning 
vacation to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction 
over the probationer.
        (E) Release from confinement. If the special court-martial 
convening authority finds there is not probable cause to believe that 
the probationer violated the conditions of the suspension, the special 
court-martial convening authority shall order the release of the 
probationer from confinement ordered under subsection (c) of this rule. 
The special court-martial convening authority shall, in any event, 
forward the record and recommendation under subsection (d)(1)(D) of this 
rule.
      (2) Action by officer exercising general court-martial 
jurisdiction over probationer.
        (A) In general. The officer exercising general court-martial 
jurisdiction over the probationer shall review the record produced by 
and the recommendation of the officer exercising special court-martial 
jurisdiction over the probationer, decide whether the probationer 
violated a condition

[[Page 168]]

of suspension, and, if so, decide whether to vacate the suspended 
sentence. If the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction 
decides to vacate the suspended sentence, that officer shall prepare a 
written statement of the evidence relied on and the reasons for vacating 
the suspended sentence.
        (B) Execution. Any unexecuted part of a suspended sentence 
ordered vacated under this subsection shall, subject to R.C.M. 1113(c), 
be ordered executed.
    (e) Vacation of a suspended special court-martial sentence wherein a 
bad-conduct discharge was not adjudged.
      (1) In general. Before vacating the suspension of a special court-
martial punishment that does not include a bad-conduct discharge, the 
special court-martial convening authority for the command in which the 
probationer is serving or assigned shall cause a hearing to be held on 
the alleged violation(s) of the conditions of suspension.
      (2) Notice to probationer. The person conducting the hearing shall 
notify the probationer, in writing, before the hearing of the rights 
specified in subsection (d)(1)(B) of this rule.
      (3) Hearing. The procedure for the vacation hearing shall follow 
that prescribed in R.C.M. 405(g), (h)(1), and (i).
      (4) Authority to vacate suspension. The special court-martial 
convening authority for the command in which the probationer is serving 
or assigned shall have the authority to vacate any punishment that the 
officer has the authority to order executed.
      (5) Record and recommendation. If the hearing is not held by the 
commander with authority to vacate the suspension, the person who 
conducts the hearing shall make a summarized record of the hearing and 
forward the record and that officer's written recommendation concerning 
vacation to the commander with authority to vacate the suspension.
      (6) Decision. The special court-martial convening authority shall 
review the record produced by and the recommendation of the person who 
conducted the vacation proceeding, decide whether the probationer 
violated a condition of suspension, and, if so, decide whether to vacate 
the suspended sentence. If the officer exercising jurisdiction decides 
to vacate the suspended sentence, that officer shall prepare a written 
statement of the evidence relied on and the reasons for vacating the 
suspended sentence.
      (7) Execution. Any unexecuted part of a suspended sentence ordered 
vacated under this subsection shall be ordered executed.
    (f) Vacation of a suspended special court-martial sentence that 
includes a bad-conduct discharge.
      (1) The procedure for the vacation of a suspended approved bad-
conduct discharge shall follow that set forth in subsection (d) of this 
rule.
      (2) The procedure for the vacation of the suspension of any lesser 
special court-martial punishment shall follow that set forth in 
subsection (e) of this rule.
    (g) Vacation of a suspended summary court-martial sentence.
      (1) Before vacation of the suspension of a summary court-martial 
sentence, the summary court-martial convening authority for the command 
in

[[Page 169]]

which the probationer is serving or assigned shall cause a hearing to be 
held on the alleged violation(s) of the conditions of suspension.
      (2) Notice to probationer. The person conducting the hearing shall 
notify the probationer before the hearing of the rights specified in 
subsections (d)(1)(B)(i), (ii), (iii), and (v) of this rule.
      (3) Hearing. The procedure for the vacation hearing shall follow 
that prescribed in R.C.M. 405(g), (h)(1), and (i).
      (4) Authority to vacate suspension. The summary court-martial 
convening authority for the command in which the probationer is serving 
or assigned shall have the authority to vacate any punishment that the 
officer had the authority to order executed.
      (5) Record and recommendation. If the hearing is not held by the 
commander with authority to vacate the suspension, the person who 
conducts the vacation proceeding shall make a summarized record of the 
proceeding and forward the record and that officer's written 
recommendation concerning vacation to the commander with authority to 
vacate the suspension.
      (6) Decision. A commander with authority to vacate the suspension 
shall review the record produced by and the recommendation of the person 
who conducted the vacation proceeding, decide whether the probationer 
violated a condition of suspension, and, if so, decide whether to vacate 
the suspended sentence. If the officer exercising jurisdiction decides 
to vacate the suspended sentence, that officer shall prepare a written 
statement of the evidence relied on and the reasons for vacating the 
suspended sentence.
      (7) Execution. Any unexecuted part of a suspended sentence ordered 
vacated under this subsection shall be ordered executed.''
w. R.C.M. 1201(b)(3)(A) is amended to read as follows:
        ``(A) In general. Notwithstanding R.C.M. 1209, the Judge 
Advocate General may, sua sponte or upon application of the accused or a 
person with authority to act for the accused, vacate or modify, in whole 
or in part, the findings, sentence, or both of a court-martial that has 
been finally reviewed, but has not been reviewed either by a Court of 
Criminal Appeals or by the Judge Advocate General under subsection 
(b)(1) of this rule, on the ground of newly discovered evidence, fraud 
on the court-martial, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the 
offense, error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused, or 
the appropriateness of the sentence.''
x. R.C.M. 1203(c)(1) is amended to read as follows:
      ``(1) Forwarding by the Judge Advocate General to the Court of 
Appeals for the Armed Forces. The Judge Advocate General may forward the 
decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals to the Court of Appeals for 
the Armed Forces for review with respect to any matter of law. In such a 
case, the Judge Advocate General shall cause a copy of the decision of 
the Court of Criminal Appeals and the order forwarding the case to be 
served on the accused and on appellate defense counsel. While a review 
of a forwarded case is pending, the Secretary concerned may defer 
further service of a sentence to confinement that has been ordered 
executed in such a case.''
y. R.C.M. 1210(a) is amended by adding at the end thereof the following 
sentence:

[[Page 170]]

``A petition for a new trial of the facts may not be submitted on the 
basis of newly discovered evidence when the petitioner was found guilty 
of the relevant offense pursuant to a guilty plea.''
Sec. 2. Part III of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, is 
amended as follows:
a. M.R.E. 412 is amended to read as follows:
``Rule 412. Nonconsensual sexual offenses; relevance of victim's 
behavior or sexual predisposition
    (a) Evidence generally inadmissible. The following evidence is not 
admissible in any proceeding involving alleged sexual misconduct except 
as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c) of this rule:
      (1) Evidence offered to prove that any alleged victim engaged in 
other sexual behavior; and
      (2) Evidence offered to prove any alleged victim's sexual 
predisposition.
    (b) Exceptions.
      (1) In a proceeding, the following evidence is admissible, if 
otherwise admissible under these rules:
        (A) Evidence of specific instances of sexual behavior by the 
alleged victim offered to prove that a person other than the accused was 
the source of semen, injury, or other physical evidence;
        (B) Evidence of specific instances of sexual behavior by the 
alleged victim with respect to the person accused of the sexual 
misconduct offered by the accused to prove consent or by the 
prosecution; and
        (C) Evidence the exclusion of which would violate the 
constitutional rights of the accused.
    (c) Procedure to determine admissibility.
      (1) A party intending to offer evidence under subdivision (b) of 
this rule must:
        (A) file a written motion at least 5 days prior to entry of 
pleas specifically describing the evidence and stating the purpose for 
which it is offered unless the military judge, for good cause shown, 
requires a different time for filing or permits filing during trial; and
        (B) serve the motion on the opposing party and the military 
judge and notify the alleged victim or, when appropriate, the alleged 
victim's guardian or representative.
      (2) Before admitting evidence under this rule, the military judge 
must conduct a hearing, which shall be closed. At this hearing, the 
parties may call witnesses, including the alleged victim, and offer 
relevant evidence. The victim must be afforded a reasonable opportunity 
to attend and be heard. In a case before a court-martial composed of a 
military judge and members, the military judge shall conduct the hearing 
outside the presence of the members pursuant to Article 39(a). The 
motion, related papers, and the record of the hearing must be sealed and 
remain under seal unless the court orders otherwise.

[[Page 171]]

      (3) If the military judge determines on the basis of the hearing 
described in paragraph (2) of this subdivision that the evidence that 
the accused seeks to offer is relevant and that the probative value of 
such evidence outweighs the danger of unfair prejudice, such evidence 
shall be admissible in the trial to the extent an order made by the 
military judge specifies evidence that may be offered and areas with 
respect to which the alleged victim may be examined or cross-examined.
    (d) For purposes of this rule, the term ``sexual behavior'' includes 
any sexual behavior not encompassed by the alleged offense. The term 
``sexual predisposition'' refers to an alleged victim's mode of dress, 
speech, or lifestyle that does not directly refer to sexual activities 
or thoughts but that may have a sexual connotation for the factfinder.
    (e) A ``nonconsensual sexual offense'' is a sexual offense in which 
consent by the victim is an affirmative defense or in which the lack of 
consent is an element of the offense. This term includes rape, forcible 
sodomy, assault with intent to commit rape or forcible sodomy, indecent 
assault, and attempts to commit such offenses.''
b. M.R.E. 413 is added to read as follows:
``Rule 413. Evidence of Similar Crimes in Sexual Assault Cases
    (a) In a court-martial in which the accused is charged with an 
offense of sexual assault, evidence of the accused's commission of one 
or more offenses of sexual assault is admissible and may be considered 
for its bearing on any matter to which it is relevant.
    (b) In a court-martial in which the Government intends to offer 
evidence under this rule, the Government shall disclose the evidence to 
the accused, including statements of witnesses or a summary of the 
substance of any testimony that is expected to be offered, at least 5 
days before the scheduled date of trial, or at such later time as the 
military judge may allow for good cause.
    (c) This rule shall not be construed to limit the admission or 
consideration of evidence under any other rule.
    (d) For purposes of this rule, ``offense of sexual assault'' means 
an offense punishable under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, or a 
crime under Federal law or the law of a State that involved--
      (1) any sexual act or sexual contact, without consent, proscribed 
by the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Federal law, or the law of a 
State;
      (2) contact, without consent of the victim, between any part of 
the accused's body, or an object held or controlled by the accused, and 
the genitals or anus of another person;
      (3) contact, without consent of the victim, between the genitals 
or anus of the accused and any part of another person's body;
      (4) deriving sexual pleasure or gratification from the infliction 
of death, bodily injury, or physical pain on another person; or
      (5) an attempt or conspiracy to engage in conduct described in 
paragraphs (1) through (4).
    (e) For purposes of this rule, the term ``sexual act'' means:

[[Page 172]]

      (1) contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the 
anus, and for purposes of this rule, contact occurs upon penetration, 
however slight, of the penis into the vulva or anus;
      (2) contact between the mouth and the penis, the mouth and the 
vulva, or the mouth and the anus;
      (3) the penetration, however slight, of the anal or genital 
opening of another by a hand or finger or by any object, with an intent 
to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual 
desire of any person; or
      (4) the intentional touching, not through the clothing, of the 
genitalia of another person who has not attained the age of 16 years, 
with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or 
gratify the sexual desire of any person.
    (f) For purposes of this rule, the term ``sexual contact'' means the 
intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the 
genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person 
with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or 
gratify the sexual desire of any person.
    (g) For purposes of this rule, the term ``State'' includes a State 
of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the 
Virgin Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United 
States.''
c. M.R.E. 414 is added to read as follows:
``Rule 414. Evidence of Similar Crimes in Child Molestation Cases
    (a) In a court-martial in which the accused is charged with an 
offense of child molestation, evidence of the accused's commission of 
one or more offenses of child molestation is admissible and may be 
considered for its bearing on any matter to which it is relevant.
    (b) In a court-martial in which the Government intends to offer 
evidence under this rule, the Government shall disclose the evidence to 
the accused, including statements of witnesses or a summary of the 
substance of any testimony that is expected to be offered, at least 5 
days before the scheduled date of trial or at such later time as the 
military judge may allow for good cause.
    (c) This rule shall not be construed to limit the admission or 
consideration of evidence under any other rule.
    (d) For purposes of this rule, ``child'' means a person below the 
age of sixteen, and ``offense of child molestation'' means an offense 
punishable under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, or a crime under 
Federal law or the law of a State that involved--
      (1) any sexual act or sexual contact with a child proscribed by 
the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Federal law, or the law of a 
State;
      (2) any sexually explicit conduct with children proscribed by the 
Uniform Code of Military Justice, Federal law, or the law of a State;
      (3) contact between any part of the accused's body, or an object 
controlled or held by the accused, and the genitals or anus of a child;
      (4) contact between the genitals or anus of the accused and any 
part of the body of a child;

[[Page 173]]

      (5) deriving sexual pleasure or gratification from the infliction 
of death, bodily injury, or physical pain on a child; or
      (6) an attempt or conspiracy to engage in conduct described in 
paragraphs (1) through (5) of this subdivision.
    (e) For purposes of this rule, the term ``sexual act'' means:
      (1) contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the 
anus, and for purposes of this rule contact occurs upon penetration, 
however slight, of the penis into the vulva or anus;
      (2) contact between the mouth and the penis, the mouth and the 
vulva, or the mouth and the anus;
      (3) the penetration, however slight, of the anal or genital 
opening of another by a hand or finger or by any object, with an intent 
to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual 
desire of any person; or
      (4) the intentional touching, not through the clothing, of the 
genitalia of another person who has not attained the age of 16 years, 
with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or 
gratify the sexual desire of any person.
    (f) For purposes of this rule, the term ``sexual contact'' means the 
intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the 
genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person 
with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or 
gratify the sexual desire of any person.
    (g) For purpose of this rule, the term ``sexually explicit conduct'' 
means actual or simulated:
      (1) sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, 
anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or 
opposite sex;
      (2) bestiality;
      (3) masturbation;
      (4) sadistic or masochistic abuse; or
      (5) lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of any 
person.
    (h) For purposes of this rule, the term ``State'' includes a State 
of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the 
Virgin Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United 
States.''
d. M.R.E. 1102 is amended to read as follows:
    ``Amendments to the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to the 
Military Rules of Evidence 18 months after the effective date of such 
amendments, unless action to the contrary is taken by the President.''
Sec. 3. Part IV of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, is 
amended as follows:
a. Paragraph 19 is amended to read as follows:
``19. Article 95--Resistance, flight, breach of arrest, and escape
    a. Text.
    ``Any person subject to this chapter who--

[[Page 174]]

      (1) resists apprehension;
      (2) flees from apprehension;
      (3) breaks arrest; or
      (4) escapes from custody or confinement shall be punished as a 
court-martial may direct.''
    b. Elements.
      (1) Resisting apprehension.
        (a) That a certain person attempted to apprehend the accused;
        (b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; 
and
        (c) That the accused actively resisted the apprehension.
      (2) Flight from apprehension.
        (a) That a certain person attempted to apprehend the accused;
        (b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; 
and
        (c) That the accused fled from the apprehension.
      (3) Breaking arrest.
        (a) That a certain person ordered the accused into arrest;
        (b) That said person was authorized to order the accused into 
arrest; and
        (c) That the accused went beyond the limits of arrest before 
being released from that arrest by proper authority.
      (4) Escape from custody.
        (a) That a certain person apprehended the accused;
        (b) That said person was authorized to apprehend the accused; 
and
        (c) That the accused freed himself or herself from custody 
before being released by proper authority.
      (5) Escape from confinement.
        (a) That a certain person ordered the accused into confinement;
        (b) That said person was authorized to order the accused into 
confinement; and
        (c) That the accused freed himself or herself from confinement 
before being released by proper authority. [Note: If the escape was from 
post-trial confinement, add the following element]
        (d) That the confinement was the result of a court-martial 
conviction.
    c. Explanation.
      (1) Resisting apprehension.
        (a) Apprehension. Apprehension is the taking of a person into 
custody. See R.C.M. 302.
        (b) Authority to apprehend. See R.C.M. 302(b) concerning who may 
apprehend. Whether the status of a person authorized that person to 
appre

[[Page 175]]

hend the accused is a question of law to be decided by the military 
judge. Whether the person who attempted to make an apprehension had such 
a status is a question of fact to be decided by the factfinder.
        (c) Nature of the resistance. The resistance must be active, 
such as assaulting the person attempting to apprehend. Mere words of 
opposition, argument, or abuse, and attempts to escape from custody 
after the apprehension is complete, do not constitute the offense of 
resisting apprehension although they may constitute other offenses.
      (d) Mistake. It is a defense that the accused held a reasonable 
belief that the person attempting to apprehend did not have authority to 
do so. However, the accused's belief at the time that no basis existed 
for the apprehension is not a defense.
        (e) Illegal apprehension. A person may not be convicted of 
resisting apprehension if the attempted apprehension is illegal, but may 
be convicted of other offenses, such as assault, depending on all the 
circumstances. An attempted apprehension by a person authorized to 
apprehend is presumed to be legal in the absence of evidence to the 
contrary. Ordinarily the legality of an apprehension is a question of 
law to be decided by the military judge.
      (2) Flight from apprehension. The flight must be active, such as 
running or driving away.
      (3) Breaking arrest.
        (a) Arrest. There are two types of arrest: pretrial arrest under 
Article 9 (see R.C.M. 304), and arrest under Article 15 (see paragraph 
5c.(3), Part V, MCM). This article prohibits breaking any arrest.
        (b) Authority to order arrest. See R.C.M. 304(b) and paragraphs 
2 and 5b, Part V, MCM, concerning authority to order arrest.
        (c) Nature of restraint imposed by arrest. In arrest, the 
restraint is moral restraint imposed by orders fixing the limits of 
arrest.
        (d) Breaking. Breaking arrest is committed when the person in 
arrest infringes the limits set by orders. The reason for the 
infringement is immaterial. For example, innocence of the offense with 
respect to which an arrest may have been imposed is not a defense.
        (e) Illegal arrest. A person may not be convicted of breaking 
arrest if the arrest is illegal. An arrest ordered by one authorized to 
do so is presumed to be legal in the absence of some evidence to the 
contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of an arrest is a question of law to 
be decided by the military judge.
      (4) Escape from custody.
        (a) Custody. ``Custody'' is restraint of free locomotion imposed 
by lawful apprehension. The restraint may be physical or, once there has 
been a submission to apprehension or a forcible taking into custody, it 
may consist of control exercised in the presence of the prisoner by 
official acts or orders. Custody is temporary restraint intended to 
continue until other restraint (arrest, restriction, confinement) is 
imposed or the person is released.
        (b) Authority to apprehend. See subparagraph (1)(b) above.

[[Page 176]]

        (c) Escape. For a discussion of escape, see subparagraph 
c(5)(c), below.
        (d) Illegal custody. A person may not be convicted of this 
offense if the custody was illegal. An apprehension effected by one 
authorized to apprehend is presumed to be lawful in the absence of 
evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of an apprehension is 
a question of law to be decided by the military judge.
        (e) Correctional custody. See paragraph 70.
      (5) Escape from confinement.
        (a) Confinement. Confinement is physical restraint imposed under 
R.C.M. 305, 1101, or paragraph 5b, Part V, MCM. For purposes of the 
element of post-trial confinement (subparagraph b(5)(d), above) and 
increased punishment therefrom (subparagraph e(4), below), the 
confinement must have been imposed pursuant to an adjudged sentence of a 
court-martial, and not as a result of pretrial restraint or nonjudicial 
punishment.
        (b) Authority to order confinement. See R.C.M. 304(b), 1101, and 
paragraphs 2 and 5b, Part V, MCM, concerning who may order confinement.
        (c) Escape. An escape may be either with or without force or 
artifice, and either with or without the consent of the custodian. 
However, where a prisoner is released by one with apparent authority to 
do so, the prisoner may not be convicted of escape from confinement. See 
also paragraph 20c.(l)(b). Any completed casting off of the restraint of 
confinement, before release by proper authority, is an escape, and lack 
of effectiveness of the restraint imposed is immaterial. An escape is 
not complete until the prisoner is momentarily free from the restraint. 
If the movement toward escape is opposed, or before it is completed, an 
immediate pursuit follows, there is no escape until opposition is 
overcome or pursuit is eluded.
        (d) Status when temporarily outside confinement facility. A 
prisoner who is temporarily escorted outside a confinement facility for 
a work detail or other reason by a guard, who has both the duty and 
means to prevent that prisoner from escaping, remains in confinement.
        (e) Legality of confinement. A person may not be convicted of 
escape from confinement if the confinement is illegal. Confinement 
ordered by one authorized to do so is presumed to be lawful in the 
absence of evidence to the contrary. Ordinarily, the legality of 
confinement is a question of law to be decided by the military judge.
    d. Lesser included offenses.
      (1) Resisting apprehension. Article 128--assault; assault 
consummated by a battery
      (2) Breaking arrest.
        (a) Article 134--breaking restriction
        (b) Article 80--attempts
      (3) Escape from custody. Article 80--attempts
      (4) Escape from confinement. Article 80--attempts
    e. Maximum punishment.

[[Page 177]]

      (1) Resisting apprehension. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of 
all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year.
      (2) Flight from apprehension. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of 
all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year.
      (3) Breaking arrest. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay 
and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.
      (4) Escape from custody, pretrial confinement, or confinement on 
bread and water or diminished rations imposed pursuant to Article 15. 
Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and 
confinement for 1 year.
      (5) Escape from post-trial confinement. Dishonorable discharge, 
forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.
    f. Sample specifications.
      (1) Resisting apprehension.
      In that ______________ (personal jurisdiction data), did (at/on 
board--location) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or 
about __________, 19____, resist being apprehended by __________, (an 
armed force policeman) (__________), a person authorized to apprehend 
the accused.
      (2) Flight from apprehension.
    In that ______________ (personal jurisdiction data), did (at/on 
board--location) (subject matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or 
about __________________ 19____, flee apprehension by ________________ 
(an armed force policeman) (__________________), a person authorized to 
apprehend the accused.
      (3) Breaking arrest.
    In that ______________ (personal jurisdiction data), having been 
placed in arrest (in quarters) (in his/her company area) ( 
__________________ ) by a person authorized to order the accused into 
arrest, did, (at/on board--location) on or about ____________________ 
19____, break said arrest.
      (4) Escape from custody.
    In that ______________________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, 
(at/on board--location) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), 
on or about __________________ 19____, escape from the custody of 
__________________, a person authorized to apprehend the accused.
      (5) Escape from confinement.
    In that __________________ (personal jurisdiction data), having been 
placed in (post-trial) confinement in (place of confinement), by a 
person authorized to order said accused into confinement did, (at/on 
board--location) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or 
about ________________ 19____, escape from confinement.''
b. The following new paragraph is added after paragraph 97:
``97a. Article 134--(Parole, Violation of)
    a. Text. See paragraph 60.
    b. Elements.

[[Page 178]]

      (1) That the accused was a prisoner as the result of a court-
martial conviction or other criminal proceeding;
      (2) That the accused was on parole;
      (3) That there were certain conditions of parole that the parolee 
was bound to obey;
      (4) That the accused violated the conditions of parole by doing an 
act or failing to do an act; and
      (5) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was 
to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was 
of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces.
    c. Explanation.
      (1) ``Prisoner'' refers only to those in confinement resulting 
from conviction at a court-martial or other criminal proceeding.
      (2) ``Parole'' is defined as ``word of honor.'' A prisoner on 
parole, or parolee, has agreed to adhere to a parole plan and conditions 
of parole. A ``parole plan'' is a written or oral agreement made by the 
prisoner prior to parole to do or refrain from doing certain acts or 
activities. A parole plan may include a residence requirement stating 
where and with whom a parolee will live, and a requirement that the 
prisoner have an offer of guaranteed employment. ``Conditions of 
parole'' include the parole plan and other reasonable and appropriate 
conditions of parole, such as paying restitution, beginning or 
continuing treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, or paying a fine ordered 
executed as part of the prisoner's court-martial sentence. In return for 
giving his or her ``word of honor'' to abide by a parole plan and 
conditions of parole, the prisoner is granted parole.
    d. Lesser included offense. Article 80--attempts.
    e. Maximum punishment. Bad-conduct discharge, confinement for 6 
months, and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 6 months.
    f. Sample specification.
    In that ____________________ (personal jurisdiction data), a 
prisoner on parole, did, (at/on board--location), on or about 
____________, 19____, violate the conditions of his/her parole by 
______________________________.''
c. Paragraph 45.a and b are amended to read as follows:
``45. Article 120--Rape and carnal knowledge
    a. Text.
    ``(a) Any person subject to this chapter who commits an act of 
sexual intercourse by force and without consent, is guilty of rape and 
shall be punished by death or such other punishment as a court-martial 
may direct.
    (b) Any person subject to this chapter who, under circumstances not 
amounting to rape, commits an act of sexual intercourse with a person--
      (1) who is not his or her spouse; and
      (2) who has not attained the age of sixteen years; is guilty of 
carnal knowledge and shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.
    (c) Penetration, however slight, is sufficient to complete either of 
these offenses.

[[Page 179]]

    (d)(1) In a prosecution under subsection (b), it is an affirmative 
defense that--
        (A) the person with whom the accused committed the act of sexual 
intercourse had at the time of the alleged offense attained the age of 
twelve years; and
        (B) the accused reasonably believed that the person had at the 
time of the alleged offense attained the age of 16 years.
      (2) The accused has the burden of proving a defense under 
subparagraph (d)(1) by a preponderance of the evidence.''
    b. Elements.
      (1) Rape.
          (a) That the accused committed an act of sexual intercourse; 
and
          (b) That the act of sexual intercourse was done by force and 
without consent.
      (2) Carnal knowledge.
          (a) That the accused committed an act of sexual intercourse 
with a certain person;
          (b) That the person was not the accused's spouse; and
          (c) That at the time of the sexual intercourse the person was 
under 16 years of age.''
d. Paragraph 45c.(2) is amended to read as follows:
      ``(2) Carnal knowledge. ``Carnal knowledge'' is sexual intercourse 
under circumstances not amounting to rape, with a person who is not the 
accused's spouse and who has not attained the age of 16 years. Any 
penetration, however slight, is sufficient to complete the offense. It 
is a defense, however, which the accused must prove by a preponderance 
of the evidence, that at the time of the act of sexual intercourse, the 
person with whom the accused committed the act of sexual intercourse was 
at least 12 years of age, and that the accused reasonably believed that 
this same person was at least 16 years of age.''
e. Paragraph 54e.(l) is amended to read as follows:
      ``(1) Simple Assault.
        (A) Generally. Confinement for 3 months and forfeiture of two-
thirds pay per month for 3 months.
        (B) When committed with an unloaded firearm. Dishonorable 
discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 3 
years.''
Sec. 4. These amendments shall take effect on May 27, 1998, subject to 
the following:
    (a) The amendments made to Military Rules of Evidence 412, 413, and 
414 shall apply only to courts-martial in which arraignment has been 
completed on or after June 26, 1998.
    (b) Nothing contained in these amendments shall be construed to make 
punishable any act done or omitted prior to June 26, 1998, which was not 
punishable when done or omitted.

[[Page 180]]

    (c) The amendment made to Part IV, para. 45c.(2), authorizing a 
mistake of fact defense as to age in carnal knowledge prosecutions is 
effective in all cases in which the accused was arraigned on the offense 
of carnal knowledge, or for a greater offense that is later reduced to 
the lesser included offense of carnal knowledge, on or after February 
10, 1996.
    (d) Nothing in these amendments shall be construed to invalidate any 
nonjudicial punishment proceeding, restraint, investigation, referral of 
charges, trial in which arraignment occurred, or other action begun 
prior to May 27, 1998, and any such nonjudicial punishment proceeding, 
restraint, investigation, referral of charges, trial or other action may 
proceed in the same manner and with the same effect as if these 
amendments had not been prescribed.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 27, 1998.


CHANGES TO THE DISCUSSION ACCOMPANYING THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL, 
UNITED STATES.

a. The Discussion following R.C.M. 103 is amended by adding the 
following two sections at the end of the Discussion:
    ``(14) ``Classified information'' (A) means any information or 
material that has been determined by an official of the United States 
pursuant to law, an Executive Order, or regulation to require protection 
against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national security, and 
(B) any restricted data, as defined in section 2014(y) of title 42, 
United States Code.
    (15) ``National security'' means the national defense and foreign 
relations of the United States.''
b. The Discussion following R.C.M. 405(e) is amended by adding the 
following paragraph at the end of the Discussion:
    ``In investigating uncharged misconduct identified during the 
pretrial investigation, the investigating officer will inform the 
accused of the general nature of each uncharged offense investigated, 
and otherwise afford the accused the same opportunity for 
representation, cross examination, and presentation afforded during the 
investigation of any charged offense.''
c. The Discussion following R.C.M. 703(e)(2)(G)(i) is amended by adding 
the following sentence at the end of the second paragraph:
    ``Failing to comply with such a subpoena is a felony offense, and 
may result in a fine or imprisonment, or both, at the discretion of the 
district court.''
d. The following Discussion is inserted after the first two sentences of 
R.C.M. 707(c):
    ``Periods during which the accused is hospitalized due to 
incompetence or otherwise in the custody of the Attorney General are 
excluded when determining speedy trial under this rule.''
e. The following Discussion is added after R.C.M. 909(f):

[[Page 181]]

    ``Under section 4241(d) of title 18, the initial period of 
hospitalization for an incompetent accused shall not exceed four months. 
However, in determining whether there is a substantial probability the 
accused will attain the capacity to permit the trial to proceed in the 
foreseeable future, the accused may be hospitalized for an additional 
reasonable period of time.
    This additional period of time ends either when the accused's mental 
condition is improved so that trial may proceed, or when the pending 
charges against the accused are dismissed. If charges are dismissed 
solely due to the accused's mental condition, the accused is subject to 
hospitalization as provided in section 4246 of title 18.''
f. The Discussion following R.C.M. 916(j) is amended by inserting the 
following paragraph after the third paragraph in the Discussion:
    ``Examples of offenses in which the accused's intent or knowledge is 
immaterial include: carnal knowledge (if the victim is under 12 years of 
age, knowledge or belief as to age is immaterial) and improper use of 
countersign (mistake as to authority of person to whom disclosed not a 
defense). However, such ignorance or mistake may be relevant in 
extenuation and mitigation.''
g. The Discussion following R.C.M. 1003(b)(2) is amended by inserting 
the following paragraph after the first paragraph in the Discussion:
    ``Forfeitures of pay and allowances adjudged as part of a court-
martial sentence, or occurring by operation of Article 58b are effective 
14 days after the sentence is adjudged or when the sentence is approved 
by the convening authority, whichever is earlier.''
h. The Discussion following R.C.M. 1003(b)(2) is amended by adding the 
following at the end of the Discussion:
    ``Forfeiture of pay and allowances under Article 58b is not a part 
of the sentence, but is an administrative result thereof.
    At general courts-martial, if both a punitive discharge and 
confinement are adjudged, then the operation of Article 58b results in 
total forfeiture of pay and allowances during that period of 
confinement. If only confinement is adjudged, then if that confinement 
exceeds six months, the operation of Article 58b results in total 
forfeiture of pay and allowances during that period of confinement. If 
only a punitive discharge is adjudged, Article 58b has no effect on pay 
and allowances. A death sentence results in total forfeiture of pay and 
allowances.
    At a special court-martial, if a bad-conduct discharge and 
confinement are adjudged, then the operation of Article 58b results in a 
forfeiture of two-thirds of pay only during that period of confinement. 
If only confinement is adjudged, however, then Article 58b has no effect 
on adjudged forfeitures.
    If the sentence, as approved by the convening authority or other 
competent authority, does not result in forfeitures by the operation of 
Article 58b, then only adjudged forfeitures are effective.
    Article 58b has no effect on summary courts-martial.''
i. The Discussion following R.C.M. 1101(c)(6) is amended to read as 
follows:
    ``When the sentence is ordered executed, forfeitures or reduction in 
grade may be suspended, but may not be deferred; deferral of confinement

[[Page 182]]

may continue after action in accordance with R.C.M. 1107. A form of 
punishment cannot be both deferred and suspended at the same time. When 
deferment of confinement, forfeitures, or reduction in grade ends, the 
sentence to confinement, forfeitures, or reduction in grade begins to 
run or resumes running, as appropriate. When the convening authority has 
specified in the action that confinement will be deferred after the 
action, the deferment may not be terminated, except under subsections 
(6)(B), (C), or (D), until the conviction is final under R.C.M. 1209.
    See R.C.M. 1203 for deferment of a sentence to confinement pending 
review under Article 67(a)(2).''
j. The following Discussion is added after R.C.M. 1101(d):
    ``Forfeitures resulting by operation of law, rather than those 
adjudged as part of a sentence, may be waived for six months or for the 
duration of the period of confinement, whichever is less. The waived 
forfeitures are paid as support to dependent(s) designated by the 
convening authority. When directing waiver and payment, the convening 
authority should identify by name the dependent(s) to whom the payments 
will be made and state the number of months for which the waiver and 
payment shall apply. In cases where the amount to be waived and paid is 
less than the jurisdictional limit of the court, the monthly dollar 
amount of the waiver and payment should be stated.''
k. The Discussion following R.C.M. 1105(b) is amended by adding the 
following at the end of the Discussion:
    ``Although only written submissions must be considered, the 
convening authority may consider any submission by the accused, 
including, but not limited to, videotapes, photographs, and oral 
presentations.''
l. The following Discussion is added after R.C.M. 1107(b)(4):
    ``Commitment of the accused to the custody of the Attorney General 
for hospitalization is discretionary.''
m. The Discussion following R.C.M. 1109(d)(1)(E) is amended to read as 
follows:
    ``See Appendix 18 for a sample of a Report of Proceedings to Vacate 
Suspension of a General Court-Martial Sentence under Article 72, UCMJ, 
and R.C.M. 1109 (DD Form 455).''
n. The following Discussion is added after R.C.M. 1109(f):
    ``An officer exercising special court-martial jurisdiction may 
vacate any suspended punishments other than an approved suspended bad-
conduct discharge, regardless of whether they are contained in the same 
sentence as a bad-conduct discharge.
    See Appendix 18 for a sample of a Report of Proceedings to Vacate 
Suspension of a Special Court-Martial Sentence including a bad-conduct 
discharge under Article 72, UCMJ, and R.C.M. 1109 (DD Form 455).''



CHANGES TO THE ANALYSIS ACCOMPANYING THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL, 
UNITED STATES.

1. Changes to Appendix 21, the Analysis accompanying the Rules for 
Courts-Martial (Part II, MCM).

[[Page 183]]

a. R.C.M. 103. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 103 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The Discussion was amended to include new 
definitions of ``classified information'' in (14) and ``national 
security'' in (15). They are identical to those used in the Classified 
Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C. App. III Sec. 1, et. seq.). They 
were added in connection with the change to Article 62(a)(1) (Appeals 
Relating to Disclosure of Classified Information). See R.C.M. 908 
(Appeal by the United States) and M.R.E. 505 (Classified Information).''
b. R.C.M. 405. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 405(e) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This change is based on the amendments to 
Article 32 enacted by Congress in section 1131, National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 464 (1996). It authorizes the Article 32 investigating officer to 
investigate uncharged offenses when, during the course of the Article 32 
investigation, the evidence indicates that the accused may have 
committed such offenses. Permitting the investigating officer to 
investigate uncharged offenses and recommend an appropriate disposition 
benefits both the government and the accused. It promotes judicial 
economy while still affording the accused the same rights the accused 
would have in the investigation of preferred charges.''
c. R.C.M. 703. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 703(e)(2)(G)(i) is 
amended by inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The Discussion was amended to reflect the 
amendment of Article 47, UCMJ, in section 1111 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 461 (1996). The amendment removes limitations on the punishment 
that a federal district court may impose for a civilian witness' refusal 
to honor a subpoena to appear or testify before a court-martial. 
Previously, the maximum sentence for a recalcitrant witness was ``a fine 
of not more than $500.00, or imprisonment for not more than six months, 
or both.'' The law now leaves the amount of confinement or fine to the 
discretion of the federal district court.''
d. R.C.M. 706. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 706 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' Subsection (c)(2)(D) was amended to reflect the 
standard for incompetence set forth in Article 76b, UCMJ.''
e. R.C.M. 707(c). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 707(c) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' In creating Article 76b, UCMJ, Congress mandated 
the commitment of an incompetent accused to the custody of the Attorney 
General. As an accused is not under military control during any such 
period of custody, the entire time period is excludable delay under the 
120-day speedy trial rule.''
f. R.C.M. 809. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 809 is amended by adding 
the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' R.C.M. 809 was amended to modernize military 
contempt procedures, as recommended in United States v. Burnett, 27 M.J. 
99, 106 (C.M.A. 1988). Thus, the amendment simplifies the contempt 
procedure in trials by courts-martial by vesting contempt power in the 
military

[[Page 184]]

judge and eliminating the members' involvement in the process. The 
amendment also provides that the court-martial proceedings need not be 
suspended while the contempt proceedings are conducted. The proceedings 
will be conducted by the military judge in all cases, outside of the 
members' presence. The military judge also exercises discretion as to 
the timing of the proceedings and, therefore, may assure that the court-
martial is not otherwise unnecessarily disrupted or the accused 
prejudiced by the contempt proceedings. See Sacher v. United States, 343 
U.S. 1, 10, 72 S. Ct. 451, 455, 96 L. Ed. 717, 724 (1952). The amendment 
also brings court-martial contempt procedures into line with the 
procedure applicable in other courts.''
g. R.C.M. 908. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 908 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The change to R.C.M. 908(a) resulted from the 
amendment to Article 62, UCMJ, in section 1141, National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 466-67 (1996). It permits interlocutory appeal of rulings 
disclosing classified information.''
h. R.C.M. 909. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 909 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The rule was changed to provide for the 
hospitalization of an incompetent accused after the enactment of Article 
76b, UCMJ, in section 1133 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 464-66 (1996).''
i. R.C.M. 916(b). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 916(b) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' In enacting section 1113 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 462 (1996), Congress amended Article 120, UCMJ, to create a mistake 
of fact defense to a prosecution for carnal knowledge. The accused must 
prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the person with whom he or 
she had sexual intercourse was at least 12 years of age, and that the 
accused reasonably believed that this person was at least 16 years of 
age. The changes to R.C.M. 916(b) and (j) implement this amendment.''
j. R.C.M. 916(j). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 916(j) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' In enacting section 1113 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 462 (1996), Congress amended Article 120, UCMJ, to create a mistake 
of fact defense to a prosecution for carnal knowledge. The accused must 
prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the person with whom he or 
she had sexual intercourse was at least 12 years of age, and that the 
accused reasonably believed that this person was at least 16 years of 
age. The changes to R.C.M. 916(b) and (j) implement this amendment.''
k. R.C.M. 920(e). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 920(e) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This change to R.C.M. 920(e) implemented 
Congress' creation of a mistake of fact defense for carnal knowledge. 
Article 120(d), UCMJ, provides that the accused must prove by a 
preponderance of the evidence that the person with whom he or she had 
sexual inter

[[Page 185]]

course was at least 12 years of age, and that the accused reasonably 
believed that this person was at least 16 years of age.''
l. R.C.M. 1005(e). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1005(e) is amended 
by inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The requirement to instruct members on the 
effect a sentence including a punitive discharge and confinement, or 
confinement exceeding six months, may have on adjudged forfeitures was 
made necessary by the creation of Article 58b, UCMJ, in section 1122, 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 
104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 463 (1996).''
m. R.C.M. 1101. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1101(c) is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' In enacting section 1121 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 462, 464 (1996), Congress amended Article 57(a) to make forfeitures 
of pay and allowances and reductions in grade effective either 14 days 
after being adjudged by a court-martial, or when the convening authority 
takes action in the case, whichever was earlier in time. Until this 
change, any forfeiture or reduction in grade adjudged by the court did 
not take effect until convening authority action, which meant the 
accused often retained the privileges of his or her rank and pay for up 
to several months. The intent of the amendment to Article 57(a) was to 
change this situation so that the desired punitive and rehabilitative 
impact on the accused occurred more quickly.
    Congress, however, desired that a deserving accused be permitted to 
request a deferment of any adjudged forfeitures or reduction in grade, 
so that a convening authority, in appropriate situations, might mitigate 
the effect of Article 57(a).
    This change to R.C.M. 1101 is in addition to the change to R.C.M. 
1203. The latter implements Congress' creation of Article 57a, giving 
the Service Secretary concerned the authority to defer a sentence to 
confinement pending review under Article 67(a)(2).''
n. R.C.M. 1101(d). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1101(d) is added as 
follows:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This new subsection implements Article 58b, 
UCMJ, created by section 1122, National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 463 (1996). This 
article permits the convening authority (or other person acting under 
Article 60) to waive any or all of the forfeitures of pay and allowances 
forfeited by operation of Article 58b(a) for a period not to exceed six 
months. The purpose of such waiver is to provide support to some or all 
of the accused's dependent(s) when circumstances warrant. The convening 
authority directs the waiver and identifies those dependent(s) who shall 
receive the payment(s).''
o. R.C.M. 1102A. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1102A is added as 
follows:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This new Rule implements Article 76b(b), UCMJ. 
Created in section 1133 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 464-66 (1996), it 
provides for a post-trial hearing within forty days of the finding that 
the ac

[[Page 186]]

cused is not guilty only by reason of a lack of mental responsibility. 
Depending on the offense concerned, the accused has the burden of 
proving either by a preponderance of the evidence, or by clear and 
convincing evidence, that his or her release would not create a 
substantial risk of bodily injury to another person or serious damage to 
property of another due to a present mental disease or defect. The 
intent of the drafters is for R.C.M. 1102A to mirror the provisions of 
sections 4243 and 4247 of title 18, United States Code.''
p. R.C.M. 1107(b). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1107(b) is amended 
by inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' Congress created Article 76b, UCMJ in section 
1133 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, 
Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 464-66 (1996). It gives the 
convening authority discretion to commit an accused found not guilty 
only by reason of a lack of mental responsibility to the custody of the 
Attorney General.''
q. R.C.M. 1107(d). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1107(d) is amended 
by inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' All references to ``postponing'' service of a 
sentence to confinement were changed to use the more appropriate term, 
``defer.''
r. R.C.M. 1109. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1109 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The Rule is amended to clarify that ``the 
suspension of a special court-martial sentence which as approved 
includes a bad-conduct discharge,'' permits the officer exercising 
special court-martial jurisdiction to vacate any suspended punishments 
other than an approved suspended bad-conduct discharge.''
s. R.C.M. 1203(c). The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1203(c) is amended 
by inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The change to the rule implements the creation 
of Article 57a, UCMJ, contained in section 1123 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 463-64 (1996). A sentence to confinement may be deferred by the 
Secretary concerned when it has been set aside by a Court of Criminal 
Appeals and a Judge Advocate General certifies the case to the Court of 
Appeals for the Armed Forces for further review under Article 67(a)(2). 
Unless it can be shown that the accused is a flight risk or a potential 
threat to the community, the accused should be released from confinement 
pending the appeal. See Moore v. Akins, 30 M.J. 249 (C.M.A. 1990).''
t. R.C.M. 1210. The analysis accompanying R.C.M. 1210 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' R.C.M. 1210(a) was amended to clarify its 
application consistent with interpretations of Fed. R. Crim. P. 33 that 
newly discovered evidence is never a basis for a new trial of the facts 
when the accused has pled guilty. See United States v. Lambert, 603 F.2d 
808, 809 (10th Cir. 1979); see also United States v. Gordon, 4 F.3d 
1567, 1572 n.3 (10th Cir. 1993), cert. denied, 510 U.S. 1184 (1994); 
United States v. Collins, 898 F. 2d 103 (9th Cir. 1990)(per curiam); 
United States v. Prince, 533 F.2d 205 (5th Cir. 1976); Williams v. 
United States, 290 F.2d 217 (5th Cir. 1961). But see United States v. 
Brown, 11 U.S.C.M.A. 207, 211, 29 C.M.R. 23, 27 (1960)(per Latimer, 
J.)(newly discovered evidence could be used to attack guilty plea on 
appeal in era prior to the guilty plea examination

[[Page 187]]

mandated by United States v. Care, 18 U.S.C.M.A. 535, 40 C.M.R. 247 
(1969) and R.C.M. 910(e)). Article 73 authorizes a petition for a new 
trial of the facts when there has been a trial. When there is a guilty 
plea, there is no trial. See R.C.M. 910(j). The amendment is made in 
recognition of the fact that it is difficult, if not impossible, to 
determine whether newly discovered evidence would have an impact on the 
trier of fact when there has been no trier of fact and no previous trial 
of the facts at which other pertinent evidence has been adduced. 
Additionally, a new trial may not be granted on the basis of newly 
discovered evidence unless ``[t]he newly discovered evidence, if 
considered by a court-martial in the light of all other pertinent 
evidence, would probably produce a substantially more favorable result 
for the accused.'' R.C.M. 1210(f)(2)(C).''
2. Changes to Appendix 22, the Analysis accompanying the Military Rules 
of Evidence (Part III, MCM).
a. M.R.E. 412. The analysis accompanying M.R.E. 412 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The revisions to Rule 412 reflect changes made 
to Federal Rule of Evidence 412 by section 40141 of the Violent Crime 
Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, Pub L. No. 103-322, 108 Stat. 
1796, 1918-19 (1994). The purpose of the amendments is to safeguard the 
alleged victim against the invasion of privacy and potential 
embarrassment that is associated with public disclosure of intimate 
sexual details and the infusion of sexual innuendo into the factfinding 
process.
    The terminology ``alleged victim'' is used because there will 
frequently be a factual dispute as to whether the sexual misconduct 
occurred. Rule 412 does not, however, apply unless the person against 
whom the evidence is offered can reasonably be characterized as a 
``victim of alleged sexual misconduct.''
    The term ``sexual predisposition'' is added to Rule 412 to conform 
military practice to changes made to the Federal Rule. The purpose of 
this change is to exclude all other evidence relating to an alleged 
victim of sexual misconduct that is offered to prove a sexual 
predisposition. It is designed to exclude evidence that does not 
directly refer to sexual activities or thoughts but that the accused 
believes may have a sexual connotation for the factfinder. Admission of 
such evidence would contravene Rule 412's objectives of shielding the 
alleged victim from potential embarrassment and safeguarding the victim 
against stereotypical thinking. Consequently, unless an exception under 
(b)(1) is satisfied, evidence such as that relating to the alleged 
victim's mode of dress, speech, or lifestyle is inadmissible.
    In drafting Rule 412, references to civil proceedings were deleted, 
as these are irrelevant to courts-martial practice. Otherwise, changes 
in procedure made to the Federal Rule were incorporated, but tailored to 
military practice. The Military Rule adopts a 5-day notice period, 
instead of the 14-day period specified in the Federal Rule. 
Additionally, the military judge, for good cause shown, may require a 
different time for such notice or permit notice during trial. The 5-day 
period preserves the intent of the Federal Rule that an alleged victim 
receive timely notice of any attempt to offer evidence protected by Rule 
412, however, given the relatively short time period between referral 
and trial, the 5-day period is deemed more compatible with courts-
martial practice.

[[Page 188]]

    Similarly, a closed hearing was substituted for the in camera 
hearing required by the Federal Rule. Given the nature of the in camera 
procedure used in Military Rule of Evidence 505(i)(4), and that an in 
camera hearing in the district courts more closely resembles a closed 
hearing conducted pursuant to Article 39(a), the latter was adopted as 
better suited to trial by courts-martial. Any alleged victim is afforded 
a reasonable opportunity to attend and be heard at the closed Article 
39(a) hearing. The closed hearing, combined with the new requirement to 
seal the motion, related papers, and the record of the hearing, fully 
protects an alleged victim against invasion of privacy and potential 
embarrassment.''
b. M.R.E. 413. The analysis accompanying M.R.E. 413 is added as follows:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This amendment is intended to provide for more 
liberal admissibility of character evidence in criminal cases of sexual 
assault where the accused has committed a prior act of sexual assault.
    Rule 413 is nearly identical to its Federal Rule counterpart. A 
number of changes were made, however, to tailor the Rule to military 
practice. First, all references to Federal Rule 415 were deleted, as it 
applies only to civil proceedings. Second, military justice terminology 
was substituted where appropriate (e.g. accused for defendant, court-
martial for case). Third, the 5-day notice requirement in Rule 413(b) 
replaced a 15-day notice requirement in the Federal Rule. A 5-day 
requirement is better suited to military discovery practice. This 5-day 
notice requirement, however, is not intended to restrict a military 
judge's authority to grant a continuance under R.C.M. 906(b)(1). Fourth, 
Rule 413(d) has been modified to include violations of the Uniform Code 
of Military Justice. Also, the phrase ``without consent'' was added to 
Rule 413(d)(1) to specifically exclude the introduction of evidence 
concerning adultery or consensual sodomy. Last, all incorporation by way 
of reference was removed by adding subsections (e), (f), and (g). The 
definitions in those subsections were taken from title 18, United States 
Code Sec. Sec. 2246(2), 2246(3), and 513(c)(5), respectively.
    Although the Rule states that the evidence ``is admissible,'' the 
drafters intend that the courts apply Rule 403 balancing to such 
evidence. Apparently, this also was the intent of Congress. The 
legislative history reveals that ``the general standards of the rules of 
evidence will continue to apply, including the restrictions on hearsay 
evidence and the court's authority under evidence rule 403 to exclude 
evidence whose probative value is substantially outweighed by its 
prejudicial effect.'' 140 Cong. Rec. S12,990 (daily ed. Sept. 20, 
1994)(Floor Statement of the Principal Senate Sponsor, Senator Bob Dole, 
Concerning the Prior Crimes Evidence Rules for Sexual Assault and Child 
Molestation Cases).
    When ``weighing the probative value of such evidence, the court may, 
as part of its rule 403 determination, consider proximity in time to the 
charged or predicate misconduct; similarity to the charged or predicate 
misconduct; frequency of the other acts; surrounding circumstances; 
relevant intervening events; and other relevant similarities or 
differences.'' (Report of the Judicial Conference of the United States 
on the Admission of Character Evidence in Certain Sexual Misconduct 
Cases).''
c. M.R.E. 414. The analysis accompanying M.R.E. 414 is added as follows:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' This amendment is intended to provide for more 
liberal admissibility of character evidence in criminal cases of child 
moles

[[Page 189]]

tation where the accused has committed a prior act of sexual assault or 
child molestation.
    Rule 414 is nearly identical to its Federal Rule counterpart. A 
number of changes were made, however, to tailor the Rule to military 
practice. First, all references to Federal Rule 415 were deleted, as it 
applies only to civil proceedings. Second, military justice terminology 
was substituted where appropriate (e.g. accused for defendant, court-
martial for case). Third, the 5-day notice requirement in Rule 414(b) 
replaced a 15-day notice requirement in the Federal Rule. A 5-day 
requirement is better suited to military discovery practice. This 5-day 
notice requirement, however, is not intended to restrict a military 
judge's authority to grant a continuance under R.C.M. 906(b)(1). Fourth, 
Rule 414(d) has been modified to include violations of the Uniform Code 
of Military Justice. Last, all incorporation by way of reference was 
removed by adding subsections (e), (f), (g), and (h). The definitions in 
those subsections were taken from title 18, United States Code 
Sec. Sec. 2246(2), 2246(3), 2256(2), and 513(c)(5), respectively.
    Although the Rule states that the evidence ``is admissible,'' the 
drafters intend that the courts apply Rule 403 balancing to such 
evidence. Apparently, this was also the intent of Congress. The 
legislative history reveals that ``the general standards of the rules of 
evidence will continue to apply, including the restrictions on hearsay 
evidence and the court's authority under evidence rule 403 to exclude 
evidence whose probative value is substantially outweighed by its 
prejudicial effect.'' 140 Cong. Rec. S12,990 (daily ed. Sept. 20, 
1994)(Floor Statement of the Principal Senate Sponsor, Senator Bob Dole, 
Concerning the Prior Crimes Evidence Rules for Sexual Assault and Child 
Molestation Cases).
    When ``weighing the probative value of such evidence, the court may, 
as part of its rule 403 determination, consider proximity in time to the 
charged or predicate misconduct; similarity to the charged or predicate 
misconduct; frequency of the other acts; surrounding circumstances; 
relevant intervening events; and other relevant similarities or 
differences.'' (Report of the Judicial Conference of the United States 
on the Admission of Character Evidence in Certain Sexual Misconduct 
Cases).''
d. M.R.E. 1102. The analysis accompanying M.R.E. 1102 is amended by 
inserting the following at the end thereof:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' The Rule is amended to increase to 18 months the 
time period between changes to the Federal Rules of Evidence and 
automatic amendment of the Military Rules of Evidence. This extension 
allows for the timely submission of changes through the annual review 
process.''
3. Changes to Appendix 23, the Analysis accompanying the Punitive 
Articles (Part IV, MCM).
a. Article 95--Resistance, flight, breach of arrest and escape. The 
following analysis is inserted after the analysis to Article 95:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' Subparagraphs a, b, c and f were amended to 
implement the amendment to 10 U.S.C. Sec. 895 (Article 95, UCMJ) 
contained in section 1112 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186, 461 (1996). The 
amendment proscribes fleeing from apprehension without regard to whether 
the accused otherwise resisted apprehension. The amendment responds to 
the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces decisions in United 
States v. Harris,

[[Page 190]]

29 M.J. 169 (C.M.A. 1989), and United States v. Burgess, 32 M.J. 446 
(C.M.A. 1991). In both cases, the court held that resisting apprehension 
does not include fleeing from apprehension, contrary to the then-
existing explanation in Part IV, paragraph 19c.(1)(c), MCM, of the 
nature of the resistance required for resisting apprehension. The 1951 
and 1969 Manuals for Courts-Martial also explained that flight could 
constitute resisting apprehension under Article 95, an interpretation 
affirmed in the only early military case on point, United States v. 
Mercer, 11 C.M.R. 812 (A.F.B.R. 1953). Flight from apprehension should 
be expressly deterred and punished under military law. Military 
personnel are specially trained and routinely expected to submit to 
lawful authority. Rather than being a merely incidental or reflexive 
action, flight from apprehension in the context of the armed forces may 
have a distinct and cognizable impact on military discipline.''
b. Article 120--Rape and carnal knowledge. The following analysis is 
inserted after the analysis to Article 120:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' In enacting section 1113 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 
186, 462 (1996), Congress amended Article 120, UCMJ, to make the offense 
gender neutral and create a mistake of fact as to age defense to a 
prosecution for carnal knowledge. The accused must prove by a 
preponderance of the evidence that the person with whom he or she had 
sexual intercourse was at least 12 years of age, and that the accused 
reasonably believed that this person was at least 16 years of age.''
c. Article 128--Assault. The following analysis is inserted after the 
analysis to Article 128, para. e:
    ``1998 Amendment:'' A separate maximum punishment for assault with 
an unloaded firearm was created due to the serious nature of the 
offense. Threatening a person with an unloaded firearm places the victim 
of that assault in fear of losing his or her life. Such a traumatic 
experience is a far greater injury to the victim than that sustained in 
the course of a typical simple assault. Therefore, it calls for an 
increased punishment.''
d. Article 134--(Parole, Violation of). The following new analysis 
paragraph is inserted after paragraph 97:
``97a. Article 134--(Parole, Violation of)
    1998 Amendment: The addition of paragraph 97a to Part IV, Punitive 
Articles, makes clear that violation of parole is an offense under 
Article 134, UCMJ. Both the 1951 and 1969 Manuals for Courts-Martial 
listed the offense in their respective Table of Maximum Punishments. No 
explanatory guidance, however, was contained in the discussion of 
Article 134, UCMJ in the Manual for Courts-Martial. The drafters added 
paragraph 97a to ensure that an explanation of the offense, to include 
its elements and a sample specification, is contained in the Manual for 
Courts-Martial, Part IV, Punitive Articles. See generally United States 
v. Faist, 41 C.M.R. 720 (A.C.M.R. 1970); United States v. Ford, 43 
C.M.R. 551 (A.C.M.R. 1970).''

[[Page 191]]


Executive Order 13087 of May 28, 1998

Further Amendment to Executive Order 11478, Equal Employment Opportunity 
in the Federal Government

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States, and in order to provide for a uniform policy 
for the Federal Government to prohibit discrimination based on sexual 
orientation, it is hereby ordered that Executive Order 11478, as 
amended, is further amended as follows:
Section 1. The first sentence of section 1 is amended by substituting 
``age, or sexual orientation'' for ``or age''.
Sec. 2. The second sentence of section 1 is amended by striking the 
period and adding at the end of the sentence ``, to the extent permitted 
by law.''.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 28, 1998.



Executive Order 13088 of June 9, 1998

Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the 
Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic 
of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the 
National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and section 301 of 
title 3, United States Code,
I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, find 
that the actions and policies of the Governments of the Federal Republic 
of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Republic of Serbia with 
respect to Kosovo, by promoting ethnic conflict and human suffering, 
threaten to destabilize countries of the region and to disrupt progress 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina in implementing the Dayton peace agreement, 
and therefore constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security and foreign policy of the United States, and hereby 
declare a national emergency to deal with that threat.
I hereby order:
    Section 1. (a) Except to the extent provided in section 2 of this 
order, section 203(b) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)), and in regulations, 
orders, directives, or licenses that may hereafter be issued pursuant to 
this order, all property and interests in property of the Governments of 
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic 
of Serbia, and

[[Page 192]]

the Republic of Montenegro that are in the United States, that hereafter 
come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the 
possession or control of United States persons, including their overseas 
branches, are hereby blocked.
    (b) The blocking of property and property interests in paragraph (a) 
of this section includes the prohibition of financial transactions with, 
including trade financing for, the Governments of the Federal Republic 
of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the 
Republic of Montenegro by United States persons.
    Sec. 2. Nothing in section 1 of this order shall prohibit financial 
transactions, including trade financing, by United States persons within 
the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and 
Montenegro) if (a) conducted exclusively through the domestic banking 
system within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 
in local currency (dinars), or (b) conducted using bank notes or barter.
    Sec. 3. Except as otherwise provided in regulations, orders, 
directives, or licenses that may hereafter be issued pursuant to this 
order, all new investment by United States persons in the territory of 
the Republic of Serbia, and the approval or other facilitation by United 
States persons of other persons' new investment in the territory of the 
Republic of Serbia, are prohibited.
    Sec. 4. Any transaction by a United States person that evades or 
avoids, or has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to 
violate, any of the prohibitions set forth in this order is prohibited.
    Sec. 5. For the purposes of this order:
    (a) The term ``person'' means an individual or entity;
    (b) The term ``entity'' means a partnership, association, trust, 
joint venture, corporation, or other organization;
    (c) The term ``new investment'' means (i) the acquisition of debt or 
equity interests in, (ii) a commitment or contribution of funds or other 
assets to, or (iii) a loan or other extension of credit to, a public or 
private undertaking, entity, or project, including the Government of the 
Republic of Serbia, other than donations of funds for purely 
humanitarian purposes to charitable organizations;
    (d) The term ``United States person'' means any United States 
citizen, permanent resident alien, juridical person organized under the 
laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in 
the United States;
    (e) The term ``Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
(Serbia and Montenegro)'' means the government of the Federal Republic 
of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), its agencies, instrumentalities, 
and controlled entities, including all financial institutions and state-
owned and socially owned entities organized or located in the Federal 
Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) as of June 9, 1998, any 
successors to such entities, and their respective subsidiaries and 
branches, wherever located, and any persons acting or purporting to act 
for or on behalf of any of the foregoing;

[[Page 193]]

    (f) The term ``Government of the Republic of Serbia'' means the 
government of the Republic of Serbia, including any subdivisions thereof 
or local governments therein, its agencies, instrumentalities, and 
controlled entities, including all financial institutions and state-
owned and socially owned entities organized or located in the Republic 
of Serbia as of June 9, 1998, any successors to such entities, and their 
respective subsidiaries and branches, wherever located, and any persons 
acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of any of the foregoing;
    (g) The term ``Government of the Republic of Montenegro'' means the 
government of the Republic of Montenegro, including any subdivisions 
thereof or local governments therein, its agencies, instrumentalities, 
and controlled entities, including all financial institutions and state-
owned and socially owned entities organized or located in the Republic 
of Montenegro as of June 9, 1998, any successors to such entities, and 
their respective subsidiaries and branches, wherever located, and any 
persons acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of any of the 
foregoing.
    Sec. 6. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to take such actions, including 
the promulgation of rules and regulations, and to employ all powers 
granted to me by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, as may 
be necessary to carry out the purposes of this order. The Secretary of 
the Treasury may redelegate any of these functions to other officers and 
agencies of the United States Government, all agencies of which are 
hereby directed to take all appropriate measures within their authority 
to carry out the provisions of this order, including suspension or 
termination of licenses or other authorizations in effect as of the 
effective date of this order.
    Sec. 7. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, shall give special consideration to the 
circumstances of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro and 
persons located in and organized under the laws of the Republic of 
Montenegro in the implementation of this order.
    Sec. 8. Nothing contained in this order shall confer any substantive 
or procedural right or privilege on any person or organization, 
enforceable against the United States, its agencies or its officers.
    Sec. 9. (a) This order is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight 
time on June 10, 1998.
    (b) This order shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in 
the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    June 9, 1998.



Executive Order 13089 of June 11, 1998

Coral Reef Protection

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America and in furtherance of the purposes 
of the

[[Page 194]]

Clean Water Act of 1977, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq.), Coastal 
Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451, et seq.), Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801, et seq.), National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.), 
National Marine Sanctuaries Act, (16 U.S.C. 1431, et seq.), National 
Park Service Organic Act (16 U.S.C. 1, et seq.), National Wildlife 
Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd-ee), and other 
pertinent statutes, to preserve and protect the biodiversity, health, 
heritage, and social and economic value of U.S. coral reef ecosystems 
and the marine environment, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Definitions. (a) ``U.S. coral reef ecosystems'' means those 
species, habitats, and other natural resources associated with coral 
reefs in all maritime areas and zones subject to the jurisdiction or 
control of the United States (e.g., Federal, State, territorial, or 
commonwealth waters), including reef systems in the south Atlantic, 
Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean. (b) ``U.S. Coral Reef 
Initiative'' is an existing partnership between Federal agencies and 
State, territorial, commonwealth, and local governments, nongovernmental 
organizations, and commercial interests to design and implement 
additional management, education, monitoring, research, and restoration 
efforts to conserve coral reef ecosystems for the use and enjoyment of 
future generations. The existing U.S. Islands Coral Reef Initiative 
strategy covers approximately 95 percent of U.S. coral reef ecosystems 
and is a key element of the overall U.S. Coral Reef Initiative. (c) 
``International Coral Reef Initiative'' is an existing partnership, 
founded by the United States in 1994, of governments, intergovernmental 
organizations, multilateral development banks, nongovernmental 
organizations, scientists, and the private sector whose purpose is to 
mobilize governments and other interested parties whose coordinated, 
vigorous, and effective actions are required to address the threats to 
the world's coral reefs.
Sec. 2. Policy. (a) All Federal agencies whose actions may affect U.S. 
coral reef ecosystems shall: (a) identify their actions that may affect 
U.S. coral reef ecosystems; (b) utilize their programs and authorities 
to protect and enhance the conditions of such ecosystems; and (c) to the 
extent permitted by law, ensure that any actions they authorize, fund, 
or carry out will not degrade the conditions of such ecosystems.
    (b) Exceptions to this section may be allowed under terms prescribed 
by the heads of Federal agencies:
    (1) during time of war or national emergency;
    (2) when necessary for reasons of national security, as determined 
by the President;
    (3) during emergencies posing an unacceptable threat to human health 
or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other 
feasible solution; or
    (4) in any case that constitutes a danger to human life or a real 
threat to vessels, aircraft, platforms, or other man-made structures at 
sea, such as cases of force majeure caused by stress of weather or other 
act of God.
Sec. 3. Federal Agency Responsibilities. In furtherance of section 2 of 
this order, Federal agencies whose actions affect U.S. coral reef 
ecosystems, shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, 
provide for implementation of measures needed to research, monitor, 
manage, and restore affected

[[Page 195]]

ecosystems, including, but not limited to, measures reducing impacts 
from pollution, sedimentation, and fishing. To the extent not 
inconsistent with statutory responsibilities and procedures, these 
measures shall be developed in cooperation with the U.S. Coral Reef Task 
Force and fishery management councils and in consultation with affected 
States, territorial, commonwealth, tribal, and local government 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community, and 
commercial interests.
Sec. 4. U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. The Secretary of the Interior and 
the Secretary of Commerce, through the Administrator of the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, shall co-chair a U.S. Coral Reef 
Task Force (``Task Force''), whose members shall include, but not be 
limited to, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, 
the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of 
Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the 
Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation, the Director of the 
National Science Foundation, the Administrator of the Agency for 
International Development, and the Administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Task Force shall oversee 
implementation of the policy and Federal agency responsibilities set 
forth in this order, and shall guide and support activities under the 
U.S. Coral Reef Initiative (``CRI''). All Federal agencies whose actions 
may affect U.S. coral reef ecosystems shall review their participation 
in the CRI and the strategies developed under it, including strategies 
and plans of State, territorial, commonwealth, and local governments, 
and, to the extent feasible, shall enhance Federal participation and 
support of such strategies and plans. The Task Force shall work in 
cooperation with State, territorial, commonwealth, and local government 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community, and 
commercial interests.
Sec. 5. Duties of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force.
    (a) Coral Reef Mapping and Monitoring. The Task Force, in 
cooperation with State, territory, commonwealth, and local government 
partners, shall coordinate a comprehensive program to map and monitor 
U.S. coral reefs. Such programs shall include, but not be limited to, 
territories and commonwealths, special marine protected areas such as 
National Marine Sanctuaries, National Estuarine Research Reserves, 
National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, and other entities having 
significant coral reef resources. To the extent feasible, remote sensing 
capabilities shall be developed and applied to this program and local 
communities should be engaged in the design and conduct of programs.
    (b) Research. The Task Force shall develop and implement, with the 
scientific community, research aimed at identifying the major causes and 
consequences of degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This research 
shall include fundamental scientific research to provide a sound 
framework for the restoration and conservation of coral reef ecosystems 
worldwide. To the extent feasible, existing and planned environmental 
monitoring and mapping programs should be linked with scientific 
research activities. This Executive order shall not interfere with the 
normal conduct of scientific studies on coral reef ecosystems.
    (c) Conservation, Mitigation, and Restoration. The Task Force, in 
cooperation with State, territorial, commonwealth, and local government 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community and

[[Page 196]]

commercial interests, shall develop, recommend, and seek or secure 
implementation of measures necessary to reduce and mitigate coral reef 
ecosystem degradation and to restore damaged coral reefs. These measures 
shall include solutions to problems such as land-based sources of water 
pollution, sedimentation, detrimental alteration of salinity or 
temperature, over-fishing, over-use, collection of coral reef species, 
and direct destruction caused by activities such as recreational and 
commercial vessel traffic and treasure salvage. In developing these 
measures, the Task Force shall review existing legislation to determine 
whether additional legislation is necessary to complement the policy 
objectives of this order and shall recommend such legislation if 
appropriate. The Task Force shall further evaluate existing navigational 
aids, including charts, maps, day markers, and beacons to determine if 
the designation of the location of specific coral reefs should be 
enhanced through the use, revision, or improvement of such aids.
    (d) International Cooperation. The Secretary of State and the 
Administrator of the Agency for International Development, in 
cooperation with other members of the Coral Reef Task Force and drawing 
upon their expertise, shall assess the U.S. role in international trade 
and protection of coral reef species and implement appropriate 
strategies and actions to promote conservation and sustainable use of 
coral reef resources worldwide. Such actions shall include expanded 
collaboration with other International Coral Reef Initiative (``ICRI'') 
partners, especially governments, to implement the ICRI through its 
Framework for Action and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network at 
regional, national, and local levels.
Sec. 6. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or 
procedural, enforceable in law or equity by a party against the United 
States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    June 11, 1998.



Executive Order 13090 of June 29, 1998

President's Commission on the Celebration of Women in American History

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory 
Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), and in order to celebrate the 
role of women in American history, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment. There is established the President's 
Commission on the Celebration of Women in American History 
(``Commission''). The Commission shall be composed of not more than 11 
members appointed by the President from the public and private sectors. 
The public sector members shall include such persons as the President 
deems appropriate, including (a) the Assistant to the President and 
Director of Communications and (b) a person recommended by and who shall 
be the representative of the Administrator of General Services. The 
President may designate two mem

[[Page 197]]

bers as Co-Chairs of the Commission. The private sector members shall 
represent entities interested in the Commission's work on American 
history, particularly the history of women in America. These entities 
may include, but need not be limited to, academic institutions, business 
entities, labor organizations, public interest organizations, arts and 
humanities institutions, State and local governments, athletic groups, 
and organizations devoted to civil rights and opportunities for 
minorities and women. The private sector members shall not be considered 
special Government employees.
Sec. 2. Functions. (a) The Commission shall make recommendations to the 
President, through the Co-Chairs of the Commission, on ways to best 
acknowledge and celebrate the roles and accomplishments of women in 
American history. Recommendations may include, among other things, the 
feasibility of a focal point for women's history located in Washington, 
D.C., and the use of the latest technology to connect existing and 
planned women's history sites, museums, and libraries.
    (b) The Commission shall meet to carry out its work concerning the 
celebration of women in American history.
    (c) The Commission shall report its recommendations, through the Co-
Chairs of the Commission, in a final report to the President by March 1, 
1999.
Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The heads of executive departments and 
agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable, 
provide the Co-Chairs of the Commission with such information with 
respect to women's history in America as the Co-Chairs may request.
    (b) Members of the Commission shall serve without compensation for 
their work on the Commission. While engaged in the work of the 
Commission, members appointed from the private sector may be allowed 
travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as 
authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in Government 
service (5 U.S.C. 5701-5707).
    (c) To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability 
of appropriations, the General Services Administration shall provide the 
Commission with funding, administrative services, facilities, staff, and 
other support services necessary for the performance of the functions of 
the Commission. With respect to the Commission, the Administrator of 
General Services shall perform the administrative functions of the 
President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, except 
that of reporting to the Congress.
    (d) The Commission shall terminate 60 days after the submission of 
its final report.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    June 29, 1998.

[[Page 198]]


Executive Order 13091 of June 29, 1998

Administration of Arms Export Controls and Foreign Assistance

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, 
United States Code, and in order to delegate certain authority to the 
Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, it is hereby ordered as 
follows:
Section 1. Section 1 of Executive Order 11958, as amended, is further 
amended as follows:
    (a) in subsection (k), by inserting after ``State.'' ``Those under 
Section 36(e) of the Act, as added by Public Law 104-164 with respect to 
transmittals pursuant to Section 36(b) to the Secretary of Defense, and 
with respect to transmittals pursuant to Section 36(c), to the Secretary 
of State.'', and
    (b) by redesignating subsections (n) through (s) as subsections (o) 
through (t), respectively, and inserting the following after subsection 
(m):
    ``(n) Those under Section 40A of the Act, as added by Public Law 
104-164, to the Secretary of State insofar as they relate to commercial 
exports licensed under the Act, and to the Secretary of Defense insofar 
as they relate to defense articles and defense services sold, leased, or 
transferred under the Foreign Military Sales Program.''
Sec. 2. Section 1-201 of Executive Order 12163, as amended, is further 
amended as follows:
    (a) in subsection (a)(13),
      (1) by inserting the following before ``and sections'':
  ``, section 620G as added by Public Law 104-164''; and
      (2) by inserting the following after ``law'':
  ``, except that the functions under section 620G as added by 
Public Law 104-164 shall be exercised in consultation with the 
Secretary of Defense'';
    (b) in subsection (a)(23), by deleting ``, except'' and all that 
follows through ``thereof'';
    (c) by redesignating subsections (a)(18) through (36) as (a)(19) 
through (37), respectively; and
    (d) by inserting the following new subsection after subsection 
(a)(17):
    ``(18) section 655 of the Act, insofar as they relate to defense 
articles and defense services licensed for export under section 38 of 
the Arms Export Control Act:''.
Sec. 3. Section 1-301 of Executive Order 12163, as amended, is further 
amended by:
    (a) redesignating subsections (e) through (g) as subsections(f) 
through (h), respectively; and
    (b) inserting the following new subsection (e):
      ``(e) the functions under section 655 of the Act insofar as they 
relate to defense articles, defense services, and international military 
education

[[Page 199]]

and training furnished by grant or sale by the Secretary of Defense, 
except to the extent otherwise delegated.''
Sec. 4. Section 1-501 of Executive Order 12163, as amended, is further 
amended:
    (a) in subsection (a)(2) by striking ``and''; and
    (b) in subsection (a)(3) after ``1754)'' by inserting the following:
      ``; and (4) section 655(c) of the Act''.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    June 29, 1998.



Executive Order 13092 of July 24, 1998

President's Information Technology Advisory Committee, Amendments to 
Executive Order 13035

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-194), and in order to add five 
more members to, and to change the name of the Advisory Committee on 
High-Performance Computing and Communications, Information Technology, 
and the Next Generation Internet, it is hereby ordered that Executive 
Order 13035 of February 11, 1997, is amended as follows:
1. In section 1, the words ``Advisory Committee on High Performance 
Computing and Communications, Information Technology, and the Next 
Generation Internet'' are deleted and the words ``President's 
Information Technology Advisory Committee'' are inserted in lieu thereof 
at the end of the first sentence of section 1; and
2. In section 1, the words ``25 nonfederal members'' are deleted and the 
words ``30 nonfederal members'' are inserted in lieu thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    July 24, 1998.



Executive Order 13093 of July 27, 1998

American Heritage Rivers, Amending Executive Orders 13061 and 13080

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to increase the 
number of rivers that the President may designate as American Heritage 
Rivers, it is hereby ordered that the second sentence of both section 
2(d)(1) of Execu

[[Page 200]]

tive Order 13061 and of section 2(a) of Executive Order 13080 are 
amended by deleting ``ten'' and inserting ``up to 20'' in lieu thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    July 27, 1998.



Executive Order 13094 of July 28, 1998

Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the 
National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the Arms Export 
Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) (AECA), and section 301 of title 3, 
United States Code,
I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, in 
order to take additional steps with respect to the proliferation of 
weapons of mass destruction and means of delivering them and the 
national emergency described and declared in Executive Order 12938 of 
November 14, 1994, hereby order:
Section 1. Amendment of Executive Order 12938.
    (a) Section 4 of Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, is 
revised to read as follows:
    ``Sec. 4. Measures Against Foreign Persons.
      (a) Determination by Secretary of State; Imposition of Measures. 
Except to the extent provided in section 203(b) of the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)), where applicable, if 
the Secretary of State determines that a foreign person, on or after 
November 16, 1990, the effective date of Executive Order 12735, the 
predecessor order to Executive Order 12938, has materially contributed 
or attempted to contribute materially to the efforts of any foreign 
country, project, or entity of proliferation concern to use, acquire, 
design, develop, produce, or stockpile weapons of mass destruction or 
missiles capable of delivering such weapons, the measures set forth in 
subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section shall be imposed on that 
foreign person to the extent determined by the Secretary of State in 
consultation with the implementing agency and other relevant agencies. 
Nothing in this section is intended to preclude the imposition on that 
foreign person of other measures or sanctions available under this order 
or under other authorities.
      (b) Procurement Ban. No department or agency of the United States 
Government may procure, or enter into any contract for the procurement 
of, any goods, technology, or services from any foreign person described 
in subsection (a) of this section.
      (c) Assistance Ban. No department or agency of the United States 
Government may provide any assistance to any foreign person described in 
subsection (a) of this section, and no such foreign person shall be 
eligible to participate in any assistance program of the United States 
Government.

[[Page 201]]

      (d) Import Ban. The Secretary of the Treasury shall prohibit the 
importation into the United States of goods, technology, or services 
produced or provided by any foreign person described in subsection (a) 
of this section, other than information or informational materials 
within the meaning of section 203(b)(3) of the International Emergency 
Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)(3)).
      (e) Termination. Measures pursuant to this section may be 
terminated against a foreign person if the Secretary of State determines 
that there is reliable evidence that such foreign person has ceased all 
activities referred to in subsection (a) of this section.
      (f) Exceptions. Departments and agencies of the United States 
Government, acting in consultation with the Secretary of State, may, by 
license, regulation, order, directive, exception, or otherwise, provide 
for:
  (i) Procurement contracts necessary to meet U.S. operational military 
requirements or requirements under defense production agreements; 
intelligence requirements; sole source suppliers, spare parts, 
components, routine servicing and maintenance of products for the United 
States Government; and medical and humanitarian items; and
  (ii) Performance pursuant to contracts in force on the effective date 
of this order under appropriate circumstances.''
    (b) Section 6 of Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, is 
amended by deleting ``4(c)'' and inserting ``4(e)'' in lieu thereof.
Sec. 2. Preservation of Authorities. Nothing in this order is intended 
to affect the continued effectiveness of any rules, regulations, orders, 
licenses, or other forms of administrative action issued, taken, or 
continued in effect heretofore or hereafter under the authority of 
IEEPA, AECA, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, the Nuclear 
Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994, the Atomic Energy Act, the Export 
Administration Act (50 U.S.C. App. 2401 et seq.), Executive Order 12730 
of September 30, 1990, Executive Order 12735 of November 16, 1990, 
Executive Order 12924 of August 18, 1994, Executive Order 12930 of 
September 29, 1994, or Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994.
Sec. 3. Judicial Review. Nothing contained in this order shall create 
any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any 
party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its 
officers or employees, or any other person.
Sec. 4. Effective Date.
    (a) This order is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on 
July 29, 1998.
    (b) This order shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in 
the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    July 28, 1998.

[[Page 202]]


Executive Order 13095 of August 5, 1998

Suspension of Executive Order 13083

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America and in order to enable full and 
adequate consultation with State and local elected officials, their 
representative organizations, and other interested parties, it is hereby 
ordered that Executive Order 13083, entitled ``Federalism,'' is 
suspended.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 5, 1998.



Executive Order 13096 of August 6, 1998

American Indian and Alaska Native Education

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, in affirmation of the unique 
political and legal relationship of the Federal Government with tribal 
governments, and in recognition of the unique educational and culturally 
related academic needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students, it 
is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Goals. The Federal Government has a special, historic 
responsibility for the education of American Indian and Alaska Native 
students. Improving educational achievement and academic progress for 
American Indian and Alaska Native students is vital to the national goal 
of preparing every student for responsible citizenship, continued 
learning, and productive employment. The Federal Government is committed 
to improving the academic performance and reducing the dropout rate of 
American Indian and Alaska Native students. To help fulfill this 
commitment in a manner consistent with tribal traditions and cultures, 
Federal agencies need to focus special attention on six goals: (1) 
improving reading and mathematics; (2) increasing high school completion 
and postsecondary attendance rates; (3) reducing the influence of long-
standing factors that impede educational performance, such as poverty 
and substance abuse; (4) creating strong, safe, and drug-free school 
environments; (5) improving science education; and (6) expanding the use 
of educational technology.
Sec. 2. Strategy. In order to meet the six goals of this order, a 
comprehensive Federal response is needed to address the fragmentation of 
government services available to American Indian and Alaska Native 
students and the complexity of intergovernmental relationships affecting 
the education of those students. The purpose of the Federal activities 
described in this order is to develop a long-term, comprehensive Federal 
Indian education policy that will accomplish those goals.
    (a)  Interagency Task Force. There is established an Interagency 
Task Force on American Indian and Alaska Native Education (Task Force) 
to oversee the planning and implementation of this order. The Task Force 
shall confer with the National Advisory Council on Indian Education

[[Page 203]]

(NACIE) in carrying out activities under this order. The Task Force 
shall consult with representatives of American Indian and Alaska Native 
tribes and organizations, including the National Indian Education 
Association (NIEA) and the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), 
to gather advice on implementation of the activities called for in this 
order.
    (b) Composition of the Task Force. (1) The membership of the Task 
Force shall include representatives of the Departments of the Treasury, 
Defense, Justice, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and 
Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, 
and Education, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency, the 
Corporation for National and Community Service, and the National Science 
Foundation. With the agreement of the Secretaries of Education and the 
Interior, other agencies may participate in the activities of the Task 
Force.
    (2) Within 30 days of the date of this order, the head of each 
participating agency shall designate a senior official who is 
responsible for management or program administration to serve as a 
member of the Task Force. The official shall report directly to the 
agency head on the agency's activities under this order.
    (3) The Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education 
of the Department of Education and the Assistant Secretary for Indian 
Affairs of the Department of the Interior shall co-chair the Task Force.
    (c) Interagency plan. The Task Force shall, within 90 days of the 
date of this order, develop a Federal interagency plan with 
recommendations identifying initiatives, strategies, and ideas for 
future interagency action supportive of the goals of this order.
    (d) Agency participation. To the extent consistent with law and 
agency priorities, each participating agency shall adopt and implement 
strategies to maximize the availability of the agency's education-
related programs, activities, resources, information, and technical 
assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native students. In keeping 
with the spirit of the Executive Memorandum of April 29, 1994, on 
Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments and Executive Order 13084 of May 14, 1998, each 
participating agency shall consult with tribal governments on their 
education-related needs and priorities, and on how the agency can better 
accomplish the goals of this order. Within 6 months, each participating 
agency shall report to the Task Force regarding the strategies it has 
developed to ensure such consultation.
    (e) Interagency resource guide. The Task Force shall identify, 
within participating Federal agencies, all education-related programs 
and resources that support the goals of this order. Within 12 months, 
the Task Force, in conjunction with the Department of Education, shall 
develop, publish, and widely distribute a guide that describes those 
programs and resources and how American Indians and Alaska Natives can 
benefit from them.
    (f) Research. The Secretary of Education, through the Office of 
Educational Research and Improvement and the Office of Indian Education, 
and in consultation with NACIE and participating agencies, shall develop 
and implement a comprehensive Federal research agenda to:
    (1) establish baseline data on academic achievement and retention of 
American Indian and Alaska Native students in order to monitor 
improvements;

[[Page 204]]

    (2) evaluate promising practices used with those students; and
    (3) evaluate the role of native language and culture in the 
development of educational strategies. Within 1 year, the Secretary of 
Education shall submit the research agenda, including proposed 
timelines, to the Task Force.
    (g) Comprehensive Federal Indian education policy.
    (1) The Task Force shall, within 2 years of the date of this order, 
develop a comprehensive Federal Indian education policy to support the 
accomplishment of the goals of this order. The policy shall be designed 
to:
    (A) improve Federal interagency cooperation;
    (B) promote intergovernmental collaboration; and
    (C) assist tribal governments in meeting the unique educational 
needs of their children, including the need to preserve, revitalize, and 
use native languages and cultural traditions.
    (2) In developing the policy, the Task Force shall consider ideas in 
the Comprehensive Federal Indian Education Policy Statement proposal 
developed by the NIEA and the NCAI.
    (3) The Task Force shall develop recommendations to implement the 
policy, including ideas for future interagency action.
    (4) As appropriate, participating agencies may develop memoranda of 
agreement with one another to enable and enhance the ability of tribes 
and schools to provide, and to coordinate the delivery of, Federal, 
tribal, State, and local resources and services, including social and 
health-related services, to meet the educational needs of American 
Indian and Alaska Native students.
    (h) Reports. The Task Force co-chairs shall submit the comprehensive 
Federal Indian education policy, and report annually on the agencies' 
activities, accomplishments, and progress toward meeting the goals of 
this order, to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Sec. 3. Regional partnership forums. The Departments of Education and 
the Interior, in collaboration with the Task Force and Federal, tribal, 
State, and local government representatives, shall jointly convene, 
within 18 months, a series of regional forums to identify promising 
practices and approaches on how to share information, provide assistance 
to schools, develop partnerships, and coordinate intergovernmental 
strategies supportive of accomplishing the goals of this order. The 
Departments of Education and the Interior shall submit a report on the 
forums to the Task Force, which may include recommendations relating to 
intergovernmental relations.
Sec. 4. School pilot sites. The Departments of Education and the 
Interior shall identify a reasonable number of schools funded by the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and public schools that can serve as a 
model for schools with American Indian and Alaska Native students, and 
provide them with comprehensive technical assistance in support of the 
goals of this order. A special team of technical assistance providers, 
including Federal staff, shall provide assistance to these schools. 
Special attention shall be given, where appropriate, to assistance in 
implementing comprehensive school reform demonstration programs that 
meet the criteria for those programs established by the Departments of 
Labor, Health and Human Services, and Edu

[[Page 205]]

cation, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-
78), and to providing comprehensive service delivery that connects and 
uses diverse Federal agency resources. The team shall disseminate 
effective and promising practices of the school pilot sites to other 
local educational agencies. The team shall report to the Task Force on 
its accomplishments and its recommendations for improving technical 
support to local educational agencies and schools funded by the BIA.
Sec. 5. Administration. The Department of Education shall provide 
appropriate administrative services and staff support to the Task Force. 
With the consent of the Department of Education, other participating 
agencies may provide administrative support to the Task Force, 
consistent with their statutory authority, and may detail agency 
employees to the Department of Education, to the extent permitted by 
law.
Sec. 6. Termination. The Task Force established under section 2 of this 
order shall terminate not later than 5 years from the date of this 
order.
Sec. 7. General provisions. This order is intended only to improve the 
internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, and 
does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, 
enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its 
agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other 
person. This order is not intended to preclude, supersede, replace, or 
otherwise dilute any other Executive order relating to American Indian 
and Alaska Native education.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 6, 1998.



Executive Order 13097 of August 7, 1998

Interparliamentary Union

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of the 
International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288), and having 
found that the Interparliamentary Union is a public international 
organization in which the United States participates within the meaning 
of the International Organizations Immunities Act, I hereby designate 
the Interparliamentary Union as a public international organization 
entitled to enjoy the privileges, exemptions, and immunities conferred 
by the International Organizations Immunities Act. This designation is 
not intended to abridge in any respect privileges, exemptions, or 
immunities that such organization may have acquired or may acquire by 
international agreements or by congressional action.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 7, 1998.

[[Page 206]]


Executive Order 13098 of August 18, 1998

Blocking Property of UNITA and Prohibiting Certain Transactions With 
Respect to UNITA

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the 
National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), section 5 of the 
United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287c) 
(UNPA), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in view of 
United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1173 of June 12, 1998, and 
1176 of June 24, 1998, and in order to take additional steps with 
respect to the actions and policies of the National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the national emergency declared in 
Executive Order 12865, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United 
States of America, hereby order:
Section 1. Except to the extent provided in regulations, orders, 
directives, or licenses issued pursuant to this order, and 
notwithstanding the existence of any rights or obligations conferred or 
imposed by any international agreement or any contract entered into or 
any license or permit granted prior to the effective date of this order, 
all property and interests in property that are in the United States, 
that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter 
come within the possession or control of United States persons, of 
UNITA, or of those senior officials of UNITA, or adult members of their 
immediate families, who are designated pursuant to section 5 of this 
order, are hereby blocked.
Sec. 2. Except to the extent provided in regulations, orders, 
directives, or licenses issued pursuant to this order, and 
notwithstanding the existence of any rights or obligations conferred or 
imposed by any international agreement or any contract entered into or 
any license or permit granted prior to the effective date of this order, 
the following are prohibited:
    (a) the direct or indirect importation into the United States of all 
diamonds exported from Angola on or after the effective date of this 
order that are not controlled through the Certificate of Origin regime 
of the Angolan Government of Unity and National Reconciliation;
    (b) the sale or supply by United States persons or from the United 
States or using U.S.-registered vessels or aircraft, of equipment used 
in mining, regardless of origin, to the territory of Angola other than 
through a point of entry designated pursuant to section 5 of this order;
    (c) the sale or supply by United States persons or from the United 
States or using U.S.-registered vessels or aircraft, of motorized 
vehicles, watercraft, or spare parts for the foregoing, regardless of 
origin, to the territory of Angola other than through a point of entry 
designated pursuant to section 5 of this order; and
    (d) the sale or supply by United States persons or from the United 
States or using U.S.-registered vessels or aircraft, of mining services 
or ground or waterborne transportation services, regardless of origin, 
to persons in areas of Angola to which State administration has not been 
extended, as designated pursuant to section 5 of this order.

[[Page 207]]

Sec. 3. Any transaction by a United States person or within the United 
States that evades or avoids, or has the purpose of evading or avoiding, 
or attempts to violate, any of the prohibitions set forth in this order 
is prohibited.
Sec. 4. For the purposes of this order:
    (a) the term ``person'' means an individual or entity;
    (b) the term ``entity'' means a partnership, association, trust, 
joint venture, corporation, or other organization;
    (c) the term ``United States person'' means any United States 
citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of 
the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the 
United States;
    (d) the term ``UNITA'' includes:
    (i) the Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA), 
known in English as the ``National Union for the Total Independence of 
Angola;''
    (ii) the Forcas Armadas para a Liberacao de Angola (FALA), known in 
English as the ``Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola;'' and
    (iii) any person acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of any 
of the foregoing, including the Center for Democracy in Angola (CEDA);
    (e) the term ``controlled through the Certificate of Origin regime 
of the Angolan Government of Unity and National Reconciliation'' means 
accompanied by any documentation that demonstrates to the satisfaction 
of the United States Customs Service that the diamonds were legally 
exported from Angola with the approval of the Angolan Government of 
Unity and National Reconciliation.
Sec. 5. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to take such actions, including 
designating senior officials of UNITA and adult members of their 
immediate families for purposes of section 1 of this order, designating 
points of entry in Angola and areas of Angola to which State 
administration has not been extended for purposes of section 2 of this 
order, establishing exemptions from the prohibitions set forth in this 
order for medical and humanitarian purposes, and promulgating rules and 
regulations, and to employ all powers granted to the President by IEEPA 
and UNPA, as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this order. 
The Secretary of the Treasury may redelegate any of these functions to 
other officers and agencies of the United States Government. All 
agencies of the United States Government are hereby directed to take all 
appropriate measures within their authority to carry out the provisions 
of this order, including suspension or termination of licenses or other 
authorizations in effect as of the effective date of this order.
Sec. 6. Nothing contained in this order shall create any right or 
benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the 
United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or 
employees, or any other person.
Sec. 7. (a) This order is effective at 12:01 a.m., eastern daylight time 
on August 19, 1998.

[[Page 208]]

    (b) This order shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in 
the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 18, 1998.



Executive Order 13099 of August 20, 1998

Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the 
Middle East Peace Process

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the International 
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the National 
Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and section 301 of title 3, 
United States Code,
I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, in 
order to take additional steps with respect to grave acts of violence 
committed by foreign terrorists that disrupt the Middle East peace 
process and the national emergency described and declared in Executive 
Order 12947 of January 23, 1995, hereby order:
Section 1. The title of the Annex to Executive Order 12947 of January 
23, 1995, is revised to read ``TERRORISTS WHO THREATEN TO DISRUPT THE 
MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS.''
Sec. 2. The Annex to Executive Order 12947 of January 23, 1995, is 
amended by adding thereto the following persons in appropriate 
alphabetical order:
    Usama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Ladin (a.k.a. Usama bin Ladin)
    Islamic Army (a.k.a. Al-Qaida, Islamic Salvation Foundation, The 
Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, The World Islamic 
Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, and The Group for the 
Preservation of the Holy Sites)
    Abu Hafs al-Masri
    Rifa'i Ahmad Taha Musa
Sec. 3. Nothing contained in this order shall create any right or 
benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the 
United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or 
employees, or any other person.
Sec. 4. (a) This order is effective at 12:01 a.m., eastern daylight time 
on August 21, 1998.
    (b) This order shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in 
the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 20, 1998.

[[Page 209]]




Executive Order 13100 of August 25, 1998

President's Council on Food Safety

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to improve the safety 
of the food supply through science-based regulation and well-coordinated 
inspection, enforcement, research, and education programs, it is hereby 
ordered as follows:
Section 1. Establishment of President's Council on Food Safety. (a) 
There is established the President's Council on Food Safety 
(``Council''). The Council shall comprise the Secretaries of 
Agriculture, Commerce, Health and Human Services, the Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Administrator of the 
Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant to the President for 
Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the 
Director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The 
Council shall consult with other Federal agencies and State, local, and 
tribal government agencies, and consumer, producer, scientific, and 
industry groups, as appropriate.
    (b) The Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services 
and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director 
of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall serve as Joint 
Chairs of the Council.
Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of the Council shall be to develop a 
comprehensive strategic plan for Federal food safety activities, taking 
into consideration the findings and recommendations of the National 
Academy of Sciences report ``Ensuring Safe Food from Production to 
Consumption'' and other input from the public on how to improve the 
effectiveness of the current food safety system. The Council shall make 
recommendations to the President on how to advance Federal efforts to 
implement a comprehensive science-based strategy to improve the safety 
of the food supply and to enhance coordination among Federal agencies, 
State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector. The 
Council shall advise Federal agencies in setting priority areas for 
investment in food safety.
Sec. 3. Specific Activities and Functions. (a) The Council shall develop 
a comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan that contains 
specific recommendations on needed changes, including measurable outcome 
goals. The principal goal of the plan should be the establishment of a 
seamless, science-based food safety system. The plan should address the 
steps necessary to achieve this goal, including the key public health, 
resource, and management issues regarding food safety. The planning 
process should consider both short-term and long-term issues including 
new and emerging threats and the special needs of vulnerable populations 
such as children and the elderly. In developing this plan, the Council 
shall consult with all interested parties, including State and local 
agencies, tribes, consumers, producers, industry, and academia.
    (b) Consistent with the comprehensive strategic Federal food safety 
plan described in section 3(a) of this order, the Council shall advise 
agencies of priority areas for investment in food safety and ensure that 
Federal agencies annually develop coordinated food safety budgets for 
submission to

[[Page 210]]

the OMB that sustain and strengthen existing capacities, eliminate 
duplication, and ensure the most effective use of resources for 
improving food safety. The Council shall also ensure that Federal 
agencies annually develop a unified budget for submission to the OMB for 
the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety issues 
as the Council determines appropriate.
    (c) The Council shall ensure that the Joint Institute for Food 
Safety Research (JIFSR), in consultation with the National Science and 
Technology Council, establishes mechanisms to guide Federal research 
efforts toward the highest priority food safety needs. The JIFSR shall 
report to the Council on a regular basis on its efforts: (i) to develop 
a strategic plan for conducting food safety research activities 
consistent with the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other 
food safety activities as the JIFSR determines appropriate; and (ii) to 
coordinate efficiently, within the executive branch and with the private 
sector and academia, all Federal food safety research.
Sec. 4. Cooperation. All actions taken by the Council shall, as 
appropriate, promote partnerships and cooperation with States, tribes, 
and other public and private sector efforts wherever possible to improve 
the safety of the food supply.
Sec. 5. General Provisions. This order is intended only to improve the 
internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor 
does it, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, 
enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, 
its officers or any person. Nothing in this order shall affect or alter 
the statutory responsibilities of any Federal agency charged with food 
safety responsibilities.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 25, 1998.



Executive Order 13101 of September 14, 1998

Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal 
Acquisition

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the Solid Waste Disposal 
Act, Public Law 89-272, 79 Stat. 997, as amended by the Resource 
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Public Law 94-580, 90 Stat. 2795, 
as amended (42 U.S.C. 6901-6907), section 301 of title 3, United States 
Code, and in order to improve the Federal Government's use of recycled 
products and environmentally preferable products and services, it is 
hereby ordered as follows:
PART 1--PREAMBLE
Section 101. Consistent with the demands of efficiency and cost 
effectiveness, the head of each executive agency shall incorporate waste 
prevention and recycling in the agency's daily operations and work to 
increase and expand markets for recovered materials through greater 
Federal Government preference and demand for such products. It is the 
national policy to prefer

[[Page 211]]

pollution prevention, whenever feasible. Pollution that cannot be 
prevented should be recycled; pollution that cannot be prevented or 
recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner. Disposal 
should be employed only as a last resort.
Sec. 102. Consistent with policies established by the Office of Federal 
Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letter 92-4, agencies shall comply with 
executive branch policies for the acquisition and use of environmentally 
preferable products and services and implement cost-effective 
procurement preference programs favoring the purchase of these products 
and services.
Sec. 103. This order creates a Steering Committee, a Federal 
Environmental Executive (FEE), and a Task Force, and establishes Agency 
Environmental Executive (AEE) positions within each agency, to be 
responsible for ensuring the implementation of this order. The FEE, 
AEEs, and members of the Steering Committee and Task Force shall be 
full-time Federal Government employees.
PART 2--DEFINITIONS
For purposes of this order:
Sec. 201. ``Environmentally preferable'' means products or services that 
have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when 
compared with competing products or services that serve the same 
purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, 
production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, 
maintenance, or disposal of the product or service.
Sec. 202. ``Executive agency'' or ``agency'' means an executive agency 
as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105. For the purpose of this order, military 
departments, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 102, are covered under the auspices 
of the Department of Defense.
Sec. 203. ``Postconsumer material'' means a material or finished product 
that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal or 
recovery, having completed its life as a consumer item. ``Postconsumer 
material'' is a part of the broader category of ``recovered material.''
Sec. 204. ``Acquisition'' means the acquiring by contract with 
appropriated funds for supplies or services (including construction) by 
and for the use of the Federal Government through purchase or lease, 
whether the supplies or services are already in existence or must be 
created, developed, demonstrated, and evaluated. Acquisition begins at 
the point when agency needs are established and includes the description 
of requirements to satisfy agency needs, solicitation and selection of 
sources, award of contracts, contract financing, contract performance, 
contract administration, and those technical and management functions 
directly related to the process of fulfilling agency needs by contract.
Sec. 205. ``Recovered materials'' means waste materials and by-products 
that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but such term 
does not include those materials and by-products generated from, and 
commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process (42 U.S.C. 
6903 (19)).
Sec. 206. ``Recyclability'' means the ability of a product or material 
to be recovered from, or otherwise diverted from, the solid waste stream 
for the purpose of recycling.

[[Page 212]]

Sec. 207. ``Recycling'' means the series of activities, including 
collection, separation, and processing, by which products or other 
materials are recovered from the solid waste stream for use in the form 
of raw materials in the manufacture of new products other than fuel for 
producing heat or power by combustion.
Sec. 208. ``Waste prevention'' means any change in the design, 
manufacturing, purchase, or use of materials or products (including 
packaging) to reduce their amount or toxicity before they are discarded. 
Waste prevention also refers to the reuse of products or materials.
Sec. 209. ``Waste reduction'' means preventing or decreasing the amount 
of waste being generated through waste prevention, recycling, or 
purchasing recycled and environmentally preferable products.
Sec. 210. ``Life cycle cost'' means the amortized annual cost of a 
product, including capital costs, installation costs, operating costs, 
maintenance costs, and disposal costs discounted over the lifetime of 
the product.
Sec. 211. ``Life cycle assessment'' means the comprehensive examination 
of a product's environmental and economic aspects and potential impacts 
throughout its lifetime, including raw material extraction, 
transportation, manufacturing, use, and disposal.
Sec. 212. ``Pollution prevention'' means ``source reduction'' as defined 
in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13102), and other 
practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: 
(a) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or 
other resources; or (b) protection of natural resources by conservation.
Sec. 213. ``Biobased product'' means a commercial or industrial product 
(other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable 
domestic agricultural (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials.
Sec. 214. ``Major procuring agencies'' shall include any executive 
agency that procures over $50 million per year of goods and services.
PART 3--THE ROLES AND DUTIES OF THE STEERING COMMITTEE, FEDERAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL EXECUTIVE, TASK FORCE, AND AGENCY ENVIRONMENTAL EXECUTIVES
Sec. 301. Committees, Executives, and Task Force. (a) Steering 
Committee. There is hereby established a Steering Committee on Greening 
the Government through Waste Prevention and Recycling (``Steering 
Committee''). The Steering Committee shall be composed of the Chair of 
the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), the Federal Environmental 
Executive (FEE), and the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy 
(OFPP). The Steering Committee, which shall be chaired by the Chair of 
the CEQ, is directed to charter a Task Force to facilitate 
implementation of this order, and shall provide the Task Force with 
policy direction in such implementation.
    (b) Federal Environmental Executive. A Federal Environmental 
Executive, Environmental Protection Agency, shall be designated by the 
President. The FEE shall chair the Task Force described in subsection 
(c), take all actions necessary to ensure that the agencies comply with 
the requirements of this order, and generate a biennial report to the 
President.
    (c) Task Force. The Steering Committee shall charter a Task Force on 
Greening the Government through Waste Prevention and Recycling (``Task 
Force''), which shall be chaired by the FEE and composed of staff from 
the

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major procuring agencies. The Steering Committee, in consultation with 
the agencies, shall determine the necessary staffing and resources for 
the Task Force. The major procuring agencies shall provide, to the 
extent practicable and permitted by law, resources and support to the 
Task Force and the FEE, upon request from the Steering Committee. The 
Task Force shall have the duty of assisting the FEE and the agencies in 
implementing this order, subject to policy direction provided by the 
Steering Committee. The Task Force shall report through the FEE to the 
Chair of the Steering Committee.
    (d) Agency Environmental Executives (AEEs). Within 90 days after the 
date of this order, the head of each major procuring agency shall 
designate an AEE from among his or her staff, who serves at a level no 
lower than the Assistant Secretary level or equivalent, and shall notify 
the Chair of CEQ and the FEE of such designation.
Sec. 302. Duties. (a) The Federal Environmental Executive. The FEE, 
working through the Task Force, and in consultation with the AEEs, 
shall:
    (1) Develop a Government-wide Waste Prevention and Recycling 
Strategic Plan (``Strategic Plan'') to further implement this order. The 
Strategic Plan should be initially developed within 180 days of the date 
of this order and revised as necessary thereafter. The Strategic Plan 
should include, but is not limited to, the following elements:
    (a) direction and initiatives for acquisition of recycled and 
recyclable products and environmentally preferable products and 
services;
    (b) development of affirmative procurement programs;
    (c) review and revision of standards and product specifications;
    (d) assessment and evaluation of compliance;
    (e) reporting requirements;
    (f) outreach programs to promote adoption of practices endorsed in 
this order; and
    (g) development and implementation of new technologies that are of 
environmental significance.
    (2) Prepare a biennial report to the President on the actions taken 
by the agencies to comply with this order. The report also may 
incorporate information from existing agency reports regarding 
Government-wide progress in implementing the following Executive Orders: 
12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for 
Ozone Depleting Substances; 13031, Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle 
Leadership; 12845, Requiring Agencies to Purchase Energy Efficient 
Computer Equipment; 12856, Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws 
and Pollution Prevention Requirements; 12902, Energy Efficiency and 
Water Conservation at Federal Facilities; and 12969, Federal Acquisition 
and Community Right-to-Know.
    (3) In coordination with the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, 
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the General Services 
Administration (GSA), and the Department of Agriculture (USDA), convene 
a group of acquisition/procurement managers and environmental State, and 
local government managers to work with State and local governments to 
improve the Federal, State, and local governments' use of recycled 
products and environmentally preferable products and services.

[[Page 214]]

    (4) Coordinate appropriate Government-wide education and training 
programs for agencies.
    (5) Establish committees and work groups, as needed, to identify, 
assess, and recommend actions to be taken to fulfill the goals, 
responsibilities, and initiatives of the FEE. As these committees and 
work groups are created, agencies are requested to designate appropriate 
personnel in the areas of procurement and acquisition, standards and 
specifications, electronic commerce, facilities management, pollution 
prevention, waste prevention, recycling, and others as needed to staff 
and work on these initiatives. An initial group shall be established to 
develop recommendations for tracking and reporting requirements, taking 
into account the costs and benefits of such tracking and reporting. The 
Steering Committee shall consult with the AEEs before approving these 
recommendations.
    (b) Agency Environmental Executives. The AEEs shall:
    (1) translate the Government-wide Strategic Plan into specific 
agency and service plans;
    (2) implement the specific agency and service plans;
    (3) report to the FEE on the progress of plan implementation;
    (4) work with the FEE and the Task Force in furthering 
implementation of this order; and
    (5) track agencies' purchases of EPA-designated guideline items and 
report agencies' purchases of such guideline items to the FEE per the 
recommendations developed in subsection 302(a)(5) of this order. Agency 
acquisition and procurement personnel shall justify in writing to the 
file and to the AEE the rationale for not purchasing such items, above 
the micropurchase threshold (as set out in the Office of Federal 
Procurement Policy Act at 41 U.S.C. 428), and submit a plan and 
timetable for increasing agency purchases of the designated item(s).
    (6) one year after a product is placed on the USDA Biobased Products 
List, estimate agencies' purchases of products on the list and report 
agencies' estimated purchases of such products to the Secretary of 
Agriculture.
PART 4--ACQUISITION PLANNING, AFFIRMATIVE PROCUREMENT PROGRAMS, AND 
FEDERAL FACILITY COMPLIANCE
Sec. 401. Acquisition Planning. In developing plans, drawings, work 
statements, specifications, or other product descriptions, agencies 
shall consider, as appropriate, a broad range of factors including: 
elimination of virgin material requirements; use of biobased products; 
use of recovered materials; reuse of product; life cycle 
cost;recyclability; use of environmentally preferable products; waste 
prevention (including toxicity reduction or elimination); and ultimate 
disposal. These factors should be considered in acquisition planning for 
all procurement and in the evaluation and award of contracts, as 
appropriate. Program and acquisition managers should take an active role 
in these activities.
Sec. 402. Affirmative Procurement Programs. (a) The head of each 
executive agency shall develop and implement affirmative procurement 
programs in accordance with section 6002 of RCRA (42 U.S.C. 6962) and 
this order and consider use of the procurement tools and methods 
described in 7 U.S.C. 5909. Agencies shall ensure that responsibilities 
for preparation, im

[[Page 215]]

plementation, and monitoring of affirmative procurement programs are 
shared between the program personnel and acquisition and procurement 
personnel. For the purposes of all purchases made pursuant to this 
order, EPA, in consultation with such other executive agencies as 
appropriate, shall endeavor to maximize environmental benefits, 
consistent with price, performance, and availability considerations, and 
constraints imposed by law, and shall adjust solicitation guidelines as 
necessary in order to accomplish this goal.
    (b) Agencies shall establish affirmative procurement programs for 
all EPA-designated guideline items purchased by their agency. For newly 
designated items, agencies shall revise their internal programs within 1 
year from the date the EPA designated the new items.
    (c) Exclusive of the biobased products described in section 504, for 
the EPA-designated guideline items, which are contained in 40 CFR part 
247, and for all future designated guideline items, agencies shall 
ensure that their affirmative procurement programs require 100 percent 
of their purchases of products to meet or exceed the EPA guideline 
unless written justification is provided that a product is not available 
competitively within a reasonable time frame, does not meet appropriate 
performance standards, or is only available at an unreasonable price. 
Written justification is not required for purchases below the 
micropurchase threshold. For micropurchases, agencies shall provide 
guidance regarding purchase of EPA-designated guideline items. This 
guidance should encourage consideration of aggregating purchases when 
this method would promote economy and efficiency.
    (d) Within 90 days after the date of this order, the head of each 
executive agency that has not implemented an affirmative procurement 
program shall ensure that the affirmative procurement program has been 
established and is being implemented to the maximum extent practicable.
Sec. 403. Federal Facility Compliance. (a) Within 6 months of the date 
of this order, the Administrator of the EPA shall, in consultation with 
the Federal Environmental Executive, prepare guidance for use in 
determining Federal facility compliance with section 6002 of RCRA and 
the related requirements of this order.
    (b) EPA inspections of Federal facilities conducted pursuant to RCRA 
and the Federal Facility Compliance Act and EPA ``multi-media'' 
inspections carried out at Federal facilities will include, where 
appropriate, evaluation of facility compliance with section 6002 of RCRA 
and any implementing guidance.
    (c) Where inspections of Federal facilities are carried out by 
authorized States pursuant to RCRA and the Federal Facility Compliance 
Act, the Administrator of the EPA will encourage those States to include 
evaluation of facility compliance with section 6002 of RCRA in light of 
EPA guidance prepared pursuant to subsection (a), where appropriate, 
similar to inspections performed by the EPA. The EPA may provide 
information and technical assistance to the States to enable them to 
include such considerations in their inspection.
    (d) The EPA shall report annually to the Federal Environmental 
Executive on the results of inspections performed by the EPA to 
determine Federal facility compliance with section 6002 of RCRA not 
later than February 1st for those inspections conducted during the 
previous fiscal year.


[[Page 216]]


PART 5--STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS, AND DESIGNATION OF ITEMS
Sec. 501. Specifications, Product Descriptions, and Standards. When 
developing, reviewing, or revising Federal and military specifications, 
product descriptions (including commercial item descriptions), and 
standards, executive agencies shall consider recovered materials and any 
environmentally preferable purchasing criteria developed by the EPA, and 
ensure the criteria are complied with in developing or revising 
standards. Agencies shall report annually to the FEE on their compliance 
with this section for incorporation into the biennial report to the 
President referred to in section 302(a)(2) of this order. (a) If an 
inconsistency with section 6002 of RCRA or this order is identified in a 
specification, standard, or product description, the FEE shall request 
that the Environmental Executive of the pertinent agency advise the FEE 
as to why the specification cannot be revised or submit a plan for 
revising it within 60 days.
    (b) If an agency is able to revise an inconsistent specification but 
cannot do so within 60 days, it is the responsibility of that AEE to 
monitor and implement the plan for revising it.
Sec. 502. Designation of Items that Contain Recovered Materials. In 
order to expedite the process of designating items that are or can be 
made with recovered materials, the EPA shall use the following process 
for designating these items in accordance with section 6002(e) of RCRA. 
(a) The EPA shall designate items that are or can be made with recovered 
material, by promulgating amendments to the Comprehensive Procurement 
Guideline (CPG). The CPG shall be updated every 2 years or as 
appropriate after an opportunity for public comment.
    (b) Concurrent with the issuance of the CPG, the EPA shall publish 
for comment in the Federal Register Recovered Materials Advisory Notices 
that present the range of recovered materials content levels within 
which the designated items are currently available. These levels shall 
be updated periodically, after opportunity for public comment, to 
reflect changes in market conditions.
    (c) Once items containing recovered materials have been designated 
by the EPA in the CPG, agencies shall modify their affirmative 
procurement programs to require that, to the maximum extent practicable, 
their purchases of products meet or exceed the EPA guidelines unless 
written justification is provided that a product is not available 
competitively, not available within a reasonable time frame, does not 
meet appropriate performance standards, or is only available at an 
unreasonable price.
Sec. 503. Guidance on Acquisition of Environmentally Preferable Products 
and Services. (a) The EPA shall develop guidance within 90 days from the 
date of this order to address environmentally preferable purchasing. The 
guidance may be based on the EPA's September 1995 Proposed Guidance on 
the Acquisition of Environmentally Preferable Products and Services and 
comments received thereon. The guidance should be designed for 
Government-wide use and targeted towards products and services that have 
the most effect. The guidance may also address the issues of use of the 
technical expertise of nongovernmental entities and tools such as life 
cycle assessment in decisions on environmentally preferable purchasing. 
The EPA shall update this guidance every 2 years, or as appropriate.
    (b) Agencies are encouraged to immediately test and evaluate the 
principles and concepts contained in the EPA's Guidance on the 
Acquisition

[[Page 217]]

of Environmentally Preferable Products and Services through pilot 
projects to provide practical information to the EPA for further 
updating of the guidance. Specifically:
    (1) These pilot projects shall be focused around those product and 
service categories, including printing, that have wide use within the 
Federal Government. Priorities regarding which product and service 
categories to pilot shall be developed by the individual agencies and 
the EPA, in consultation with the OFPP, the FEE, and the appropriate 
agency procurement executives. Any policy disagreements shall be 
resolved by the Steering Committee.
    (2) Agencies are encouraged to use all of the options available to 
them to determine the environmentally preferable attributes of products 
and services in their pilot and demonstration projects, including the 
use of technical expertise of nongovernmental entities such as labeling, 
certification, or standards-developing organizations, as well as using 
the expertise of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    (3) Upon request and to the extent practicable, the EPA shall assist 
executive agencies in designing, implementing, and documenting the 
results of these pilot and demonstration projects.
    (4) The EPA, in coordination with other executive agencies, shall 
develop a database of information about these projects, including, but 
not limited to, the number and status of pilot projects, examples of 
agencies' policy directives, revisions to specifications, solicitation 
procedures, and grant/contract policies that facilitate adoption of 
environmentally preferable purchasing practices, to be integrated on a 
commonly available electronic medium (e.g., Internet Web site). These 
data are to be reported to the FEE.
    (c) Executive agencies shall use the principles and concepts in the 
EPA Guidance on Acquisition of Environmentally Preferable Products and 
Services, in addition to the lessons from the pilot and demonstration 
projects, to the maximum extent practicable, in identifying and 
purchasing environmentally preferable products and services and shall 
modify their procurement programs as appropriate.
Sec. 504. Designation of Biobased Items by the USDA. The USDA Biobased 
Products Coordination Council shall, in consultation with the FEE, issue 
a Biobased Products List. (a) The Biobased Products List shall be 
published in the Federal Register by the USDA within 180 days after the 
date of this order and shall be updated biannually after publication to 
include additional items.
    (b) Once the Biobased Products List has been published, agencies are 
encouraged to modify their affirmative procurement program to give 
consideration to those products.
Sec. 505. Minimum Content Standard for Printing and Writing Paper. 
Executive agency heads shall ensure that their agencies meet or exceed 
the following minimum materials content standards when purchasing or 
causing the purchase of printing and writing paper: (a) For high speed 
copier paper, offset paper, forms bond, computer printout paper, 
carbonless paper, file folders, white wove envelopes, writing and office 
paper, book paper, cotton fiber paper, and cover stock, the minimum 
content standard shall be no less than 30 percent postconsumer materials 
beginning December 31, 1998.

[[Page 218]]

If paper containing 30 percent postconsumer material is not reasonably 
available, does not meet reasonable performance requirements, or is only 
available at an unreasonable price, then the agency shall purchase paper 
containing no less than 20 percent postconsumer material. The Steering 
Committee, in consultation with the AEEs, may revise these levels if 
necessary.
    (b) As an alternative to meeting the standards in sections 505(a), 
for all printing and writing papers, the minimum content standard shall 
be no less than 50 percent recovered materials that are a waste material 
byproduct of a finished product other than a paper or textile product 
that would otherwise be disposed of in a landfill, as determined by the 
State in which the facility is located.
    (c) Effective January 1, 1999, no executive branch agency shall 
purchase, sell, or arrange for the purchase of, printing and writing 
paper that fails to meet the minimum requirements of this section.
Sec. 506. Revision of Brightness Specifications and Standards. The GSA 
and other executive agencies are directed to identify, evaluate, and 
revise or eliminate any standards or specifications unrelated to 
performance that present barriers to the purchase of paper or paper 
products made by production processes that minimize emissions of harmful 
byproducts. This evaluation shall include a review of unnecessary 
brightness and stock clause provisions, such as lignin content and 
chemical pulp requirements. The GSA shall complete the review and 
revision of such specifications within 6 months after the date of this 
order, and shall consult closely with the Joint Committee on Printing 
during such process. The GSA shall also compile any information or 
market studies that may be necessary to accomplish the objectives of 
this provision.
Sec. 507. Procurement of Re-refined Lubricating Oil and Retread Tires. 
(a) Agencies shall implement the EPA procurement guidelines for re-
refined lubricating oil and retread tires. Fleet and commodity managers 
shall take immediate steps, as appropriate, to procure these items in 
accordance with section 6002 of RCRA. This provision does not preclude 
the acquisition of biobased (e.g., vegetable) oils.
    (b) The FEE shall work to educate executive agencies about the new 
Department of Defense Cooperative Tire Qualification Program, including 
the Cooperative Approval Tire List and Cooperative Plant Qualification 
Program, as they apply to retread tires.

PART 6--AGENCY GOALS AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 601. Agency Goals. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish either a goal 
for solid waste prevention and a goal for recycling or a goal for solid 
waste diversion to be achieved by January 1, 2000. Each agency shall 
further ensure that the established goals include long-range goals to be 
achieved by the years 2005 and 2010. These goals shall be submitted to 
the FEE within 180 days after the date of this order. (2) In addition to 
white paper, mixed paper/cardboard, aluminum, plastic, and glass, 
agencies should incorporate into their recycling programs efforts to 
recycle, reuse, or refurbish pallets and collect toner cartridges for 
remanufacturing. Agencies should also include programs to reduce or 
recycle, as appropriate, batteries, scrap metal, and fluorescent lamps 
and ballasts.

[[Page 219]]

    (b) Agencies shall set goals to increase the procurement of products 
that are made with recovered materials, in order to maximize the number 
of recycled products purchased, relative to non-recycled alternatives.
    (c) Each agency shall set a goal for increasing the use of 
environmentally preferable products and services for those products and 
services for which the agency has completed a pilot program.
    (d) Agencies are encouraged to incorporate into their Government 
Performance Results Act annual performance plans the goals listed in 
subsections (a), (b), and (c) above, starting with the submittal to the 
Office of Management and Budget of the plan accompanying the FY 2001 
budget.
    (e) Progress on attaining these goals should be reported by the 
agencies to the FEE for the biennial report specified in section 
302(a)(2) of this order.
PART 7--APPLICABILITY AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 701. Contractor Applicability. Contracts that provide for 
contractor operation of a Government-owned or -leased facility and/or 
contracts that provide for contractor or other support services at 
Government-owned or -operated facilities awarded by executive agencies 
after the date of this order, shall include provisions that obligate the 
contractor to comply with the requirements of this order within the 
scope of its operations.
Sec. 702. Real Property Acquisition and Management. Within 90 days after 
the date of this order, and to the extent permitted by law and where 
economically feasible, executive agencies shall ensure compliance with 
the provisions of this order in the acquisition and management of 
Federally owned and leased space. The GSA and other executive agencies 
shall also include environmental and recycling provisions in the 
acquisition and management of all leased space and in the construction 
of new Federal buildings.
Sec. 703. Retention of Funds. (a) The Administrator of General Services 
shall continue with the program that retains for the agencies the 
proceeds from the sale of materials recovered through recycling or waste 
prevention programs and specifying the eligibility requirements for the 
materials being recycled.
    (b) Agencies in non-GSA managed facilities, to the extent permitted 
by law, should develop a plan to retain the proceeds from the sale of 
materials recovered through recycling or waste prevention programs.
Sec. 704. Model Facility Programs. Each executive agency shall establish 
a model demonstration program incorporating some or all of the following 
elements as appropriate. Agencies are encouraged to demonstrate and test 
new and innovative approaches such as incorporating environmentally 
preferable and bio-based products; increasing the quantity and types of 
products containing recovered materials; expanding collection programs; 
implementing source reduction programs; composting organic materials 
when feasible; and exploring public/private partnerships to develop 
markets for recovered materials.
Sec. 705. Recycling Programs. (a)(1) Each executive agency that has not 
already done so shall initiate a program to promote cost-effective waste 
prevention and recycling of reusable materials in all of its facilities. 
The recy

[[Page 220]]

cling programs implemented pursuant to this section must be compatible 
with applicable State and local recycling requirements.
    (2) Agencies shall designate a recycling coordinator for each 
facility or installation. The recycling coordinator shall implement or 
maintain waste prevention and recycling programs in the agencies' action 
plans.
    (b) Executive agencies shall also consider cooperative ventures with 
State and local governments to promote recycling and waste reduction in 
the community.
Sec. 706. Review of Implementation. The President's Council on Integrity 
and Efficiency shall request that the Inspectors General periodically 
review agencies' implementation of this order.
PART 8--AWARENESS
Sec. 801. Training. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the 
FEE and OFPP should evaluate the training courses provided by the 
Federal Acquisition Institute and the Defense Acquisition University and 
recommend any appropriate curriculum changes to ensure that procurement 
officials are aware of the requirements of this order.
    (b) Executive agencies shall provide training to program management 
and requesting activities as needed to ensure awareness of the 
requirements of this order.
Sec. 802. Internal Agency Awards Programs. Each agency shall develop an 
internal agency-wide awards program, as appropriate, to reward its most 
innovative environmental programs. Among others, winners of agency-wide 
awards will be eligible for the White House Awards Program.
Sec. 803. White House Awards Program. A Government-wide award will be 
presented annually by the White House to the best, most innovative 
programs implementing the objectives of this order to give greater 
visibility to these efforts so that they can be incorporated Government-
wide. The White House Awards Program will be administered jointly by the 
FEE and the CEQ.
PART 9--REVOCATION, LIMITATION, AND IMPLEMENTATION
Sec. 901. Executive Order 12873 of October 20, 1993, is hereby revoked.
Sec. 902. This order is intended only to improve the internal management 
of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right, 
benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable 
at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, 
or any other person.
Sec. 903. The policies and direction expressed in the EPA guidance to be 
developed pursuant to section 503 of this order shall be implemented and 
incorporated in the Federal Acquisition Regulation within 180 days after 
issuance of the guidance.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    September 14, 1998.

[[Page 221]]


Executive Order 13102 of September 25, 1998

Further Amendment to Executive Order 13038, Advisory Committee on Public 
Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to extend the 
reporting deadline of the Advisory Committee on Public Interest 
Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters, it is hereby ordered 
that Executive Order 13038, as previously amended, is further amended by 
deleting ``October 1, 1998'' in section 2 and inserting ``December 31, 
1998'' in lieu thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    September 25, 1998.



Executive Order 13103 of September 30, 1998

Computer Software Piracy

The United States Government is the world's largest purchaser of 
computer-related services and equipment, purchasing more than $20 
billion annually. At a time when a critical component in discussions 
with our international trading partners concerns their efforts to combat 
piracy of computer software and other intellectual property, it is 
incumbent on the United States to ensure that its own practices as a 
purchaser and user of computer software are beyond reproach. 
Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the 
Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby 
ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. It shall be the policy of the United States 
Government that each executive agency shall work diligently to prevent 
and combat computer software piracy in order to give effect to 
copyrights associated with computer software by observing the relevant 
provisions of international agreements in effect in the United States, 
including applicable provisions of the World Trade Organization 
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, the 
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and 
relevant provisions of Federal law, including the Copyright Act.
    (a) Each agency shall adopt procedures to ensure that the agency 
does not acquire, reproduce, distribute, or transmit computer software 
in violation of applicable copyright laws.
    (b) Each agency shall establish procedures to ensure that the agency 
has present on its computers and uses only computer software not in 
violation of applicable copyright laws. These procedures may include:
    (1) preparing agency inventories of the software present on its 
computers;
    (2) determining what computer software the agency has the 
authorization to use; and

[[Page 222]]

    (3) developing and maintaining adequate recordkeeping systems.
    (c) Contractors and recipients of Federal financial assistance, 
including recipients of grants and loan guarantee assistance, should 
have appropriate systems and controls in place to ensure that Federal 
funds are not used to acquire, operate, or maintain computer software in 
violation of applicable copyright laws. If agencies become aware that 
contractors or recipients are using Federal funds to acquire, operate, 
or maintain computer software in violation of copyright laws and 
determine that such actions of the contractors or recipients may affect 
the integrity of the agency's contracting and Federal financial 
assistance processes, agencies shall take such measures, including the 
use of certifications or written assurances, as the agency head deems 
appropriate and consistent with the requirements of law.
    (d) Executive agencies shall cooperate fully in implementing this 
order and shall share information as appropriate that may be useful in 
combating the use of computer software in violation of applicable 
copyright laws.
Sec. 2. Responsibilities of Agency Heads. In connection with the 
acquisition and use of computer software, the head of each executive 
agency shall:
    (a) ensure agency compliance with copyright laws protecting computer 
software and with the provisions of this order to ensure that only 
authorized computer software is acquired for and used on the agency's 
computers;
    (b) utilize performance measures as recommended by the Chief 
Information Officers Council pursuant to section 3 of this order to 
assess the agency's compliance with this order;
    (c) educate appropriate agency personnel regarding copyrights 
protecting computer software and the policies and procedures adopted by 
the agency to honor them; and
    (d) ensure that the policies, procedures, and practices of the 
agency related to copyrights protecting computer software are adequate 
and fully implement the policies set forth in this order.
Sec. 3. Chief Information Officers Council. The Chief Information 
Officers Council (``Council'') established by section 3 of Executive 
Order No. 13011 of July 16, 1996, shall be the principal interagency 
forum to improve executive agency practices regarding the acquisition 
and use of computer software, and monitoring and combating the use of 
unauthorized computer software. The Council shall provide advice and 
make recommendations to executive agencies and to the Office of 
Management and Budget regarding appropriate government-wide measures to 
carry out this order. The Council shall issue its initial 
recommendations within 6 months of the date of this order.
Sec. 4. Office of Management and Budget. The Director of the Office of 
Management and Budget, in carrying out responsibilities under the 
Clinger-Cohen Act, shall utilize appropriate oversight mechanisms to 
foster agency compliance with the policies set forth in this order. In 
carrying out these responsibilities, the Director shall consider any 
recommendations made by the Council under section 3 of this order 
regarding practices and policies to be instituted on a government-wide 
basis to carry out this order.

[[Page 223]]

Sec. 5. Definition. ``Executive agency'' and ``agency'' have the meaning 
given to that term in section 4(1) of the Office of Federal Procurement 
Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(1)).
Sec. 6. National Security. In the interest of national security, nothing 
in this order shall be construed to require the disclosure of 
intelligence sources or methods or to otherwise impair the authority of 
those agencies listed at 50 U.S. 401a(4) to carry out intelligence 
activities.
Sec. 7. Law Enforcement Activities. Nothing in this order shall be 
construed to require the disclosure of law enforcement investigative 
sources or methods or to prohibit or otherwise impair any lawful 
investigative or protective activity undertaken for or by any officer, 
agent, or employee of the United States or any person acting pursuant to 
a contract or other agreement with such entities.
Sec. 8. Scope. Nothing in this order shall be construed to limit or 
otherwise affect the interpretation, application, or operation of 28 
U.S.C. 1498.
Sec. 9. Judicial Review. This Executive order is intended only to 
improve the internal management of the executive branch and does not 
create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, at law or equity 
by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, 
its officers or employees, or any other person.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    September 30, 1998.



Executive Order 13104 of October 19, 1998

Amendment to Executive Order 13021, Tribal Colleges and Universities

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in accordance with the 
provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. 
App.), and in order to provide for the continuation of the President's 
Board of Advisors on Tribal Colleges and Universities, it is hereby 
ordered that section 7 of Executive Order 13021 is amended to read ``The 
Board shall terminate on September 30, 1999, unless the Board is renewed 
by the President prior to that date.''
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    October 19, 1998.

[[Page 224]]


Executive Order 13105 of November 2, 1998

Open Enrollment Season for Participants in the Foreign
Service Retirement and Disability System and the Central
Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including section 827 of the 
Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4067) and section 292 of the 
Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 (50 U.S.C. 2141), and 
in order to conform further the Foreign Service Retirement and 
Disability System and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and 
Disability System to the Civil Service Retirement and Disability System, 
it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. In conjunction with section 860 of the Foreign Service Act of 
1980 (22 U.S.C. 4071i), the Secretary of State shall issue regulations 
providing for an open enrollment period from November 1, 1998, to April 
30, 1999, during which employee participants in the Foreign Service 
Retirement and Disability System may elect to become subject to the 
Foreign Service Pension System.
Sec. 2. In conjunction with section 307(a) of the Central Intelligence 
Agency Retirement Act of 1964 (50 U.S.C. 2157(a)), the Director shall 
provide for an open enrollment period from November 1, 1998, to April 
30, 1999, during which employee participants in the Central Intelligence 
Agency Retirement and Disability System may elect to become subject to 
the Federal Employees' Retirement System, comparable to the election for 
civil service employees provided for by the Federal Employees' 
Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997, Public Law 105-61.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    November 2, 1998.



Executive Order 13106 of December 7, 1998

Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay and Delegation of a
Federal Pay Administration Authority

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, including the laws cited herein, 
it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of 
the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted 
under 5 U.S.C. 5303(a), in accordance with section 647(a) of the 
Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999, as 
incorporated in Division A, section 101(h) of Public Law 105-277, are 
set forth on the schedules attached hereto and made a part hereof:
    (a) The General Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5332(a)) at Schedule 1;
    (b) The Foreign Service Schedule (22 U.S.C. 3963) at Schedule 2; and

[[Page 225]]

    (c) The schedules for the Veterans Health Administration of the 
Department of Veterans Affairs (38 U.S.C. 7306, 7404; section 301(a) of 
Public Law 102-40) at Schedule 3.
Sec. 2. Senior Executive Service. The rates of basic pay for senior 
executives in the Senior Executive Service, as adjusted under 5 U.S.C. 
5382, are set forth on Schedule 4 attached hereto and made a part 
hereof.
Sec. 3. Executive Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the 
following offices and positions, which remain unchanged pursuant to 
section 621 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 
1999, as incorporated in Division A, section 101(h) of Public Law 105-
277, are set forth on the schedules attached hereto and made a part 
hereof:
    (a) The Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5312-5318) at Schedule 5;
    (b) The Vice President (3 U.S.C. 104) and the Congress (2 U.S.C. 31) 
at Schedule 6; and
    (c) Justices and judges (28 U.S.C. 5, 44(d), 135, 252, and 461(a)) 
at Schedule 7.
Sec. 4. Uniformed Services. Pursuant to sections 601 and 604 of Public 
Law 105-85, the rates of monthly basic pay (37 U.S.C. 203(a)) for 
members of the uniformed services and the rate of monthly cadet or 
midshipman pay (37 U.S.C. 203(c)) are set forth on Schedule 8 attached 
hereto and made a part hereof.
Sec. 5. Locality-Based Comparability Payments. (a) Pursuant to section 
5304 of title 5, United States Code, and in accordance with section 
647(a) of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999, 
as incorporated in Division A, section 101(h) of Public Law 105-277, 
locality-based comparability payments shall be paid in accordance with 
Schedule 9 attached hereto and made a part hereof.
    (b) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall take 
such actions as may be necessary to implement these payments and to 
publish appropriate notice of such payments in the Federal Register.
Sec. 6. Effective Dates. Schedule 8 is effective on January 1, 1999. The 
other schedules contained herein are effective on the first day of the 
first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 1999.
Sec. 7. Prior Order Superseded. Executive Order 13071 of December 29, 
1997, is superseded.
Sec. 8. Delegation of a Federal Pay Administration Authority. Executive 
Order 12748, as amended, is further amended in section 2(c) by deleting 
``5304(h)'' and inserting ``5304(g)-(h)'' in lieu thereof.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    December 7, 1998.

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Executive Order 13107 of December 10, 1998

Implementation of Human Rights Treaties

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and bearing in mind the 
obligations of the United States pursuant to the International Covenant 
on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the Convention Against Torture 
and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the 
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 
(CERD), and other relevant treaties concerned with the protection and 
promotion of human rights to which the United States is now or may 
become a party in the future, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Implementation of Human Rights Obligations. (a) It shall be 
the policy and practice of the Government of the United States, being 
committed to the protection and promotion of human rights and 
fundamental freedoms, fully to respect and implement its obligations 
under the international human rights treaties to which it is a party, 
including the ICCPR, the CAT, and the CERD.
    (b) It shall also be the policy and practice of the Government of 
the United States to promote respect for international human rights, 
both in our relationships with all other countries and by working with 
and strengthening the various international mechanisms for the promotion 
of human rights, including, inter alia, those of the United Nations, the 
International Labor Organization, and the Organization of American 
States.
Sec. 2. Responsibility of Executive Departments and Agencies. (a) All 
executive departments and agencies (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 101-105, 
including boards and commissions, and hereinafter referred to 
collectively as ``agency'' or ``agencies'') shall maintain a current 
awareness of United States international human rights obligations that 
are relevant to their functions and shall perform such functions so as 
to respect and implement those obligations fully. The head of each 
agency shall designate a single contact officer who will be responsible 
for overall coordination of the implementation of this order. Under this 
order, all such agencies shall retain their established institutional 
roles in the implementation, interpretation, and enforcement of Federal 
law and policy.
    (b) The heads of agencies shall have lead responsibility, in 
coordination with other appropriate agencies, for questions concerning 
implementation of human rights obligations that fall within their 
respective operating and program responsibilities and authorities or, to 
the extent that matters do not fall within the operating and program 
responsibilities and authorities of any agency, that most closely relate 
to their general areas of concern.
Sec. 3. Human Rights Inquiries and Complaints. Each agency shall take 
lead responsibility, in coordination with other appropriate agencies, 
for responding to inquiries, requests for information, and complaints 
about violations of human rights obligations that fall within its areas 
of responsibility or, if the matter does not fall within its areas of 
responsibility, referring it to the appropriate agency for response.
Sec. 4. Interagency Working Group on Human Rights Treaties. (a) There is 
hereby established an Interagency Working Group on Human Rights Treaties 
for the purpose of providing guidance, oversight, and coordination

[[Page 235]]

with respect to questions concerning the adherence to and implementation 
of human rights obligations and related matters.
    (b) The designee of the Assistant to the President for National 
Security Affairs shall chair the Interagency Working Group, which shall 
consist of appropriate policy and legal representatives at the Assistant 
Secretary level from the Department of State, the Department of Justice, 
the Department of Labor, the Department of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, and other agencies as the chair deems appropriate. The principal 
members may designate alternates to attend meetings in their stead.
    (c) The principal functions of the Interagency Working Group shall 
include:
    (i) coordinating the interagency review of any significant issues 
concerning the implementation of this order and analysis and 
recommendations in connection with pursuing the ratification of human 
rights treaties, as such questions may from time to time arise;
    (ii) coordinating the preparation of reports that are to be 
submitted by the United States in fulfillment of treaty obligations;
    (iii) coordinating the responses of the United States Government to 
complaints against it concerning alleged human rights violations 
submitted to the United Nations, the Organization of American States, 
and other international organizations;
    (iv) developing effective mechanisms to ensure that legislation 
proposed by the Administration is reviewed for conformity with 
international human rights obligations and that these obligations are 
taken into account in reviewing legislation under consideration by the 
Congress as well;
    (v) developing recommended proposals and mechanisms for improving 
the monitoring of the actions by the various States, Commonwealths, and 
territories of the United States and, where appropriate, of Native 
Americans and Federally recognized Indian tribes, including the review 
of State, Commonwealth, and territorial laws for their conformity with 
relevant treaties, the provision of relevant information for reports and 
other monitoring purposes, and the promotion of effective remedial 
mechanisms;
    (vi) developing plans for public outreach and education concerning 
the provisions of the ICCPR, CAT, CERD, and other relevant treaties, and 
human rights-related provisions of domestic law;
    (vii) coordinating and directing an annual review of United States 
reservations, declarations, and understandings to human rights treaties, 
and matters as to which there have been nontrivial complaints or 
allegations of inconsistency with or breach of international human 
rights obligations, in order to determine whether there should be 
consideration of any modification of relevant reservations, 
declarations, and understandings to human rights treaties, or United 
States practices or laws. The results and recommendations of this review 
shall be reviewed by the head of each participating agency;
    (viii) making such other recommendations as it shall deem 
appropriate to the President, through the Assistant to the President for 
National Security Affairs, concerning United States adherence to or 
implementation of human rights treaties and related matters; and

[[Page 236]]

    (ix) coordinating such other significant tasks in connection with 
human rights treaties or international human rights institutions, 
including the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Special 
Rapporteurs and complaints procedures established by the United Nations 
Human Rights Commission.
    (d) The work of the Interagency Working Group shall not supplant the 
work of other interagency entities, including the President's Committee 
on the International Labor Organization, that address international 
human rights issues.
Sec. 5. Cooperation Among Executive Departments and Agencies. All 
agencies shall cooperate in carrying out the provisions of this order. 
The Interagency Working Group shall facilitate such cooperative 
measures.
Sec. 6. Judicial Review, Scope, and Administration. (a) Nothing in this 
order shall create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, 
enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or 
instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.
    (b) This order does not supersede Federal statutes and does not 
impose any justiciable obligations on the executive branch.
    (c) The term ``treaty obligations'' shall mean treaty obligations as 
approved by the Senate pursuant to Article II, section 2, clause 2 of 
the United States Constitution.
    (d) To the maximum extent practicable and subject to the 
availability of appropriations, agencies shall carry out the provisions 
of this order.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    December 10, 1998.



Executive Order 13108 of December 11, 1998

Further Amendment to Executive Order 13037, Commission To Study Capital 
Budgeting

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, and in order to extend the 
reporting deadline for, and the expiration date of, the Commission to 
Study Capital Budgeting, it is hereby ordered that Executive Order 
13037, as amended, is further amended by deleting in section 3 of that 
order ``within 1 year from its first meeting'' and inserting in lieu 
thereof ``by February 1, 1999'' and by deleting in section 5 of that 
order ``30 days after submitting its report'' and inserting in lieu 
thereof ``on September 30, 1999''.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    December 11, 1998.

[[Page 237]]


Executive Order 13109 of December 17, 1998

Half-Day Closing of Executive Departments and Agencies of the Federal 
Government on Thursday, December 24, 1998

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the 
laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. All executive departments and agencies of the Federal 
Government shall be closed and their employees excused from duty for the 
last half of the scheduled workday on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1998, 
except as provided in section 2 below.
Sec. 2. The heads of executive departments and agencies may determine 
that certain offices and installations of their organizations, or parts 
thereof, must remain open and that certain employees must remain on duty 
for the full scheduled workday on December 24, 1998, for reasons of 
national security or defense or for other essential public reasons.
Sec. 3. Thursday, December 24, 1998, shall be considered as falling 
within the scope of Executive Order 11582 and of 5 U.S.C. 5546 and 
6103(b) and other similar statutes insofar as they relate to the pay and 
leave of employees of the United States.
Sec. 4. This order shall apply to executive departments and agencies of 
the Federal Government only and is not intended to direct or otherwise 
implicate departments or agencies of State or local governments.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    December 17, 1998.

[[Page 239]]

________________________________________________________________________

                      OTHER PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS

________________________________________________________________________

                                                                    Page
Subchapter A--[Reserved]
Subchapter B--Administrative Orders                                  239
Subchapter C--Reorganization Plans                                [None]
Subchapter D--Designations                                        [None]
Appendix A--List of Messages to Congress Transmitting Budget Rescissions 
and Deferrals                                                        309
Appendix B--List of Presidential Determinations                      309
Appendix C--List of Final Rule Documents                          [None]
                                                                        


________________________________________________________________________


Subchapter B--Administrative Orders


________________________________________________________________________


Notice of January 2, 1998

Continuation of Libyan Emergency

    On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan 
declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary 
threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States 
constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On 
January 8, 1986, by Executive Order 12544, the President took additional 
measures to block Libyan assets in the United States. The President has 
transmitted a notice continuing this emergency to the Congress and the 
Federal Register every year since 1986.
    The crisis between the United States and Libya that led to the 
declaration of a national emergency on January 7, 1986, has not been 
resolved. The Government of Libya has continued its actions and policies 
in support of terrorism, despite the calls by the United Nations 
Security Council, in Resolutions 731 (1992), 748 (1992), and 883 (1993), 
that it demonstrate by concrete actions its renunciation of terrorism. 
Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)),

[[Page 240]]

I am continuing the national emergency with respect to Libya. This 
notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the 
Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    January 2, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-9 of January 6, 1998

Designation of Argentina as a Major Non-NATO Ally

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
I hereby designate the Republic of Argentina a major non-NATO ally of 
the United States pursuant to section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act 
of 1961, as amended, for the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, January 6, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-10 of January 12, 1998

Certification Pursuant to Section (b)(1) of Public Law 99-183 and to 
Section 902(a)(6)(B) of Public Law 101-246

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section (b)(1) of Public Law 99-183 of December 16, 1985, 
relating to the approval and implementation of the Agreement for 
Cooperation Between the United States and the People's Republic of 
China, I hereby certify that:

    (A) the reciprocal arrangements made pursuant to Article 8 of the 
Agreement have been designed to be effective in ensuring that any 
nuclear material, facilities, or components provided under the Agreement 
shall be utilized solely for intended peaceful purposes as set forth in 
the Agreement;

    (B) the Government of the People's Republic of China has provided 
additional information concerning its nuclear nonproliferation policies 
and that, based on this and all other information available to the 
United States Government, the People's Republic of China is not in 
violation of paragraph (2) of section 129 of the Atomic Energy Act of 
1954; and

    (C) the obligation to consider favorably a request to carry out 
activities described in Article 5(2) of the Agreement shall not 
prejudice the decision of the United States to approve or disapprove 
such a request.

[[Page 241]]

Pursuant to section 902(a)(6)(B)(i) of Public Law 101-246, I hereby 
certify that the People's Republic of China has provided clear and 
unequivocal assurances to the United States that it is not assisting and 
will not assist any nonnuclear-weapon state, either directly or 
indirectly, in acquiring nuclear explosive devices or the material and 
components for such devices.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, January 12, 1998.



Notice of January 21, 1998

Continuation of Emergency Regarding Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt 
the Middle East Peace Process

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, I declared a national 
emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States 
constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists 
that disrupt the Middle East peace process. By Executive Order 12947 of 
January 23, 1995, I blocked the assets in the United States, or in the 
control of United States persons, of foreign terrorists who threaten to 
disrupt the Middle East peace process. I also prohibited transactions or 
dealings by United States persons in such property. In 1996 and 1997, I 
transmitted notices of the continuation of this national emergency to 
the Congress and the Federal Register. Last year's notice of 
continuation was published in the Federal Register on January 22, 1997. 
Because terrorist activities continue to threaten the Middle East peace 
process and vital interests of the United States in the Middle East, the 
national emergency declared on January 23, 1995, and the measures that 
took effect on January 24, 1995, to deal with that emergency must 
continue in effect beyond January 23, 1998. Therefore, in accordance 
with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), 
I am continuing the national emergency with respect to foreign 
terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    January 21, 1998.

[[Page 242]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-12 of January 28, 1998

Determination Pursuant to Section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export 
Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 
105-118)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and 
Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118), I hereby 
certify that withholding from international financial institutions and 
other international organizations and programs funds appropriated or 
otherwise made available pursuant to that Act is contrary to the 
national interest of the United States.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, January 28, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-13 of January 30, 1998

Renewal of Trade Agreement With the People's Republic of China

Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative
Pursuant to my authority under subsection 405(b)(1)(B) of the Trade Act 
of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2435(b)(1)(B)), I have determined that actual or 
foreseeable reductions in United States tariffs and nontariff barriers 
to trade resulting from multilateral negotiations are being 
satisfactorily reciprocated by the People's Republic of China. I have 
further found that a satisfactory balance of concessions in trade and 
services has been maintained during the life of the Agreement on Trade 
Relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic 
of China.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, January 30, 1998.

[[Page 243]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-14 of February 9, 1998

U.S. Contribution to the Korean Peninsula Energy Development 
Organization (KEDO)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading 
``Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs'' in 
title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related 
Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118), I certify that:

    (1)(A) the parties to the Agreed Framework are taking steps to 
assure that progress is made on the implementation of the January 1, 
1992, Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula 
and the implementation of the North-South dialogue, and (B) North Korea 
is complying with the other provisions of the Agreed Framework between 
North Korea and the United States and with the Confidential Minute;
    (2) North Korea is cooperating fully in the canning and safe 
storage of all spent fuel from its graphite-moderated nuclear reactors 
and that such canning and safe storage is scheduled to be completed by 
April 1, 1998; and
    (3) North Korea has not significantly diverted assistance provided 
by the United States for purposes for which it was not intended.

You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the 
Congress and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, February 9, 1998.



Notice of February 25, 1998

Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the 
Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and 
Movement of Vessels

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, I declared a national emergency 
to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international 
relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Government 
of Cuba of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in 
international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1995, the Government of 
Cuba demonstrated a ready and reckless use of force against U.S.-
registered vessels that entered into Cuban territorial waters that 
resulted in damage and injury to persons on board. In July 1996, the 
Government of Cuba stated its intent to forcefully defend its 
sovereignty against any U.S.-registered vessels or aircraft that might 
enter Cuban territorial waters or airspace while involved in a memorial 
flotilla and peaceful protest. Since these events, the Government of 
Cuba has not demonstrated that it will refrain from the future use of 
reckless and excessive force against U.S. vessels or aircraft that may 
engage

[[Page 244]]

in memorial activities or peaceful protest north of Cuba. Therefore, in 
accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 
U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with respect to 
Cuba and the emergency authority relating to the regulation of the 
anchorage and movement of vessels set out in Proclamation 6867.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    February 25, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-15 of February 26, 1998

Certification for Major Illicit Drug Producing and Drug Transit 
Countries

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 490(b)(1)(A) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, (``the Act''), I hereby 
determine and certify that the following major illicit drug producing 
and/or major illicit drug transit countries/dependent territories have 
cooperated fully with the United States, or have taken adequate steps on 
their own, to achieve full compliance with the goals and objectives of 
the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic 
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances:

    Aruba, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Laos, 
Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and 
Vietnam.

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 490(b)(1)(B) of the 
Act, I hereby determine that it is in the vital national interests of 
the United States to certify the following major illicit drug producing 
and/or major illicit drug transit countries:

    Cambodia, Colombia, Pakistan, and Paraguay.

Analysis of the relevant U.S. vital national interests, as required 
under section 490(b)(3) of the Act, is attached.
I have determined that the following major illicit drug producing and/or 
major illicit drug transit countries do not meet the standards set forth 
in section 490(b) for certification:

    Afghanistan, Burma, Iran, and Nigeria.

In making these determinations, I have considered the factors set forth 
in section 490 of the Act, based on the information contained in the 
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report of 1998. Given that the 
performance of each of these countries/dependent territories has 
differed, I have attached an explanatory statement for each of the 
countries/dependent territories subject to this determination.

[[Page 245]]

You are hereby authorized and directed to report this determination to 
the Congress immediately and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, February 26, 1998.



STATEMENTS OF EXPLANATION


Aruba
    Aruba is a major trafficking and staging point for international 
narcotics trafficking organizations which transship cocaine and heroin 
from Colombia, Venezuela and Suriname to the United States and Europe. 
Its key position near the Venezuelan coast with air and sea links to 
South America, Europe, Puerto Rico and other Caribbean locations makes 
it a prime transshipment point. Drug shipments are made primarily via 
containerized cargo, but commercial airlines and cruise ships are also 
used.
    Money laundering organizations use legitimate companies as fronts to 
invest in land development and other construction projects. The 
Government of Aruba's (GOA) Free Trade Zone (FTZ), casinos and resort 
complexes are reported to be attractive venues for money laundering and 
smuggling. Legislation recommended by four joint Aruba-Dutch commissions 
to enhance monitoring of the FTZ, casinos, import and export of money, 
and legal entities is pending.
    Although Aruba is a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (GON), it 
has autonomy over its internal affairs and has independent decision-
making ability in many drug policy areas. In 1997, the GOA passed and 
implemented a new criminal procedural code which allows for expanded 
investigative powers for local law enforcement as well as for 
extradition of nationals subject to service of sentences in Aruba. The 
change in criminal procedure removed one of the last remaining barriers 
to the GOA's full compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention standards. 
The GOA has yet to ask the Kingdom of the Netherlands (GON), a party to 
the 1988 UN Drug Convention, to extend it to Aruba.
    The GOA, as part of a joint Netherlands-Netherlands Antilles-Aruba 
Coast Guard, received two small fast patrol boats to patrol the coastal 
waters and interdict drug shipments. The GOA established money 
transaction monitoring entities to review unusual transactions in the 
banking sector. Aruban law enforcement officials participated in USG-
sponsored training courses for drug enforcement during 1997.
    Indications of corruption still hinder the effectiveness of GOA 
efforts against international narcotics traffickers and money 
launderers. The withdrawal of the OLA party from the Eman coalition 
government and the government's subsequent fall in late 1997 was linked 
in the press to the efforts of elements within Aruban society and 
political circles who are seeking to halt or reverse recent government 
actions, including progress in trans-national crime, counternarcotics 
and money laundering issues. Elections in December returned no one party 
with a parliamentary majority and efforts to form a new coalition 
government have moved slowly. Progress in imple

[[Page 246]]

menting anti-drug measures approved in 1997 may be delayed as a result 
of the political impasse.
    Despite these problems, Aruba generally cooperated in 1997 with the 
USG to meet the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

The Bahamas
    The USG and the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) 
have enjoyed an excellent, cooperative working relationship on 
counternarcotics over the past decade. The GCOB places a high priority 
on combating drug transshipments through its archipelago, as 
demonstrated by the extensive resources it devotes to this initiative. 
Nevertheless, significant quantities of illicit drugs continue to 
transit The Bahamas en route to the U.S., and The Bahamas remains a 
major drug transit country. The GCOB cooperates very closely with the 
USG on Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT). U.S. and Bahamian 
law enforcement agencies worked diligently together throughout the year 
to respond to increases in air and maritime transshipment incidents.
    The first country to ratify the 1988 UN Drug Convention, The Bahamas 
continues to take steps to implement it. Following passage of anti-money 
laundering legislation (March 1996) and implementing regulations 
(December 1996), in November 1997 The Bahamas submitted its strong anti-
money laundering regime to mutual evaluation by the Caribbean Financial 
Action Task Force (CFATF).
    During the year, the GCOB continued to strengthen its judicial 
system, with assistance from the USG. However, procedural delays 
continue to plague the court system, leading to delays in drug cases. 
The Bahamas needs to improve the effectiveness of its court system in 
disposing of drug cases more expeditiously.
    The GCOB should also put greater emphasis on forfeiture of the 
proceeds of crime and trafficker assets, including early disposal of 
commodities used in trafficking before they lose value. The Bahamas has 
not yet designated the U.S. under the Bahamian law concerning execution 
of foreign forfeiture orders in The Bahamas, despite repeated U.S. 
requests since 1993. In past years, The Bahamas has prosecuted and 
convicted some middle- and low-level officials on charges of narcotics 
corruption.


Belize
    The Government of Belize (GOB) recognizes the problem of drug 
transit through its territory and the effect drug trafficking has on 
domestic crime. Anti-narcotics activities are centralized in a committee 
consisting of various components of the Belize Police Force (BPF) and 
the Belize Defense Force (BDF), with a dedicated group of investigative 
police and a rapid response force called the Dragon Unit. They are 
active in the fight against drugs and work closely with the USG. The GOB 
is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

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    With USG help, the GOB continued to work to upgrade the 
professionalism and equipment of the BPF to combat violent crime and 
narcotics trafficking. A new two-officer money-laundering unit has 
recently completed training with USG support. The GOB has continued its 
support of cooperative efforts to reduce drug trafficking through its 
borders and to combat the crime associated with such trafficking. The 
GOB has also maintained its support of regional and unilateral 
counternarcotics efforts.
    1997 was a record year for cocaine interdiction with more than two 
metric tons seized. Indications are that marijuana cultivation remained 
stable. The efforts of the Belizean security forces to control narco-
traffic have been hampered by the lack of manpower, training and 
equipment, corruption within the ranks, and the relatively large expanse 
of uninhabited territory of the country.
    This improved performance, however, was tempered by the mixed record 
of convictions and sentencing, including the dismissal of an important 
case involving Colombian, Mexican, and Belizean defendants. The Belizean 
judicial system remains weak, understaffed, and underfunded. Although 
the GOB and the USG reached tentative agreement on a new extradition 
treaty and a MLAT in late 1996, the GOB subsequently raised new concerns 
about certain aspects of these treaties and negotiations were stalled 
during 1997. While the new extradition treaty has not been completed, 
Belize continues to extradite alleged criminals to the United States 
under the 1972 US-UK extradition treaty.
    The GOB needs to continue to fully cooperate with the USG and take 
action to meet the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention 
and other UN drug conventions. Of particular importance, the GOB should 
improve its prosecution of major drug cases, provide more support for 
the judicial branch, and conclude negotiations on mutual legal 
assistance and extradition treaties with the US. A renewed commitment to 
confronting corruption is essential.


Bolivia
    Bolivia is the world's second leading producer of cocaine 
hydrochloride, and has an illegal coca-cocaine industry, including 
sophisticated operations to smuggle essential chemicals, that is 
increasingly under the control of Bolivians. The participation of 
foreigners is more and more relegated to the refining of base into 
cocaine hydrochloride and to transporting cocaine out of Bolivia, 
however, this will diminish as Bolivian traffickers improve their 
refining capabilities.
    The former GOB never implemented an eradication program in the 
Yungas, and quickly discontinued its policy of arresting and prosecuting 
persons who plant new coca. The new Banzer government has promised 
prompt action on both issues. Additionally, although eradication slowed 
in April and did not effectively resume until early October, Bolivia 
exceeded its gross eradication goal for 1997 of 7,000 hectares and 
produced a net reduction in coca cultivation of 2 percent. This is an 
improvement over the one percent net reduction in 1996 and was largely 
conducted after the inauguration of the new Banzer government.

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    Bolivia's new government is building a consensus, via a series of 
national dialogues, for the country's first national counternarcotics 
strategy. Their five-year plan includes the goal of totally eliminating 
illicit coca cultivation by the year 2002.
    Total narcotics-related arrests increased substantially in 1997, as 
did seizures of cocaine products and essential chemicals. The Special 
Investigative Units--vetted and trained in the U.S.--have returned to 
Bolivia and are actively engaged in their own operations and in 
supporting the on-going investigations of other Bolivian 
counternarcotics units. The Bolivian Navy's Blue Devil Task Force has 
been granted law enforcement authority, a change which will almost 
certainly result in greatly improved interdiction results on the 
country's waterways.
    The legislature is considering critical judicial reforms, including 
revisions to Law 1008, Bolivia's basic counternarcotics law, which will, 
when enacted, greatly improve the country's court system and result in a 
fairer and more transparent judicial system.
    Alternative development initiatives have been highly successful in 
providing farmers viable, licit alternatives and have helped solidify 
public opinion against coca cultivation.
    In 1998, the Bolivian government must act to prevent new coca 
plantings and conduct eradication efforts in a sustained and intensified 
manner. A net reduction of 20 percent (or 7,000 hectares) of coca 
plantings must be achieved in 1998 if the Bolivians are to garner 
success for their 5-year plan to eliminate illicit coca. They must 
eliminate individually compensated eradication for controlling the 
cultivation of new coca fields and prosecute those who plant them. The 
Blue Devil Task Force must implement their new law enforcement authority 
to effect seizures of narcotics and chemicals, and arrests of narco-
traffickers on Bolivia's waterways. Enforcement of recently enacted 
legislation criminalizing money laundering was delayed, in 1997, pending 
clarification of lines of authority and identification of funding 
sources. Bolivia must move forward to vigorously implement these laws.

Brazil
    Brazil is a major transit country for cocaine shipped by air, river, 
and maritime routes from Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia to the U.S. and 
Europe. Because of increased interdiction of trafficker aircraft in Peru 
(along the Peru/Colombia air corridor), traffickers have shifted illicit 
narcotics flights into Brazilian air space. Brazil's vast and sparsely 
populated Amazon region provides ample opportunity for traffickers to 
transship drugs and chemicals by air and riverine routes. A southern 
``drug route'' also exists along Brazil's borders with Paraguay and 
Bolivia.
    While not a significant cultivation country, Brazil is a major 
producer of essential/precursor chemicals and synthetic drugs. There is 
also a growing domestic drug consumption and addiction problem, 
primarily among young people. Several key pieces of counter-narcotics 
legislation, including an anti-money laundering law, are under review in 
the congress. Brazil's

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bank secrecy laws and its highly developed financial networks make it 
fertile ground for money laundering of drug profits.
    Although police drug seizures in 1997 were only slightly above those 
in 1996, anti-narcotics law enforcement units stepped up interdiction 
activities in the Amazon region and along the southern ``drug route.'' 
The government implemented a new national defense policy (since 1996) to 
allow the military to assist police anti-drug operations in the Amazon. 
During two major operations in that region, the police put a majority of 
all clandestine airfields out of operation. In cooperation with 
neighboring countries, Brazilian police carried out investigations which 
disrupted several major drug smuggling organizations. Brazil also 
continues to cooperate in extradition cases of non-Brazilian citizens.
    To signal its continued resolve to deal with narcotics trafficking 
problems, Brazil signed a new Letter of Agreement (LOU) for bilateral 
cooperation in narcotics control with the U.S. in 1997. Brazil has 
bilateral narcotics control agreements with all its South American 
neighbors as well as Germany and Italy. During a visit by President 
Clinton in October, Brazil signed a mutual legal assistance treaty 
(MLAT) with the U.S. In another positive step, the government 
incorporated anti-money laundering provisions in a packet of emergency 
measures sent to Congress in conjunction with a growing economic/fiscal 
crisis. This packet has cleared the lower house of the legislature and 
is still being considered by the Brazilian senate with passage possible 
in early 1998. Senior government officials made clear to U.S. 
interlocutors during 1997 that Brazil was fully committed to working 
with the U.S. and other nations in reducing the traffic in illicit drugs 
in South America.

China
    China both remains a major transit route for Southeast Asian heroin 
destined for the U.S. and other Western markets and has had increasingly 
to deal with the phenomenon of itself becoming such a market. China 
continues to take a strong stand to battle this trend. In 1997, it 
further intensified its nation-wide efforts to combat drugs by focusing 
special attention on anti-drug education. Narcotics seizures also 
increased, as did the monitoring of precursor chemicals: there was a 
four-fold increase over 1996 in the seizures of such chemicals. China 
also moved to strengthen anti-drug legislation and for the first time 
identified money laundering as a crime. In 1997, China signed a Mutual 
Legal Assistance Agreement with India which placed special emphasis on 
narcotics trafficking. China is also a party to all of the UN narcotics 
conventions.
    USG-PRC cooperation on counternarcotics issues improved in 1997. In 
October, as part of the Joint Statement issued during the Summit between 
Presidents Jiang and Clinton, China agreed to the opening of reciprocal 
drug enforcement offices in Beijing and Washington and to the 
establishment of a Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement which 
specifically included narcotics trafficking as one of the issues to be 
addressed. China hosted two Drug Enforcement Administration seminars on 
chemical control, sent officials to the United States to take part in 
airport interdiction training and continued working-level exchanges of 
information on inter

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national drug trafficking cases with USG law enforcement officials. A 
direct e-mail link with DEA to facilitate information exchange on drug 
cases has been established. In April, China transferred to the U.S. for 
prosecution on drug trafficking charges a Burmese national in its 
custody.
    China continues to struggle with the corruption and greed which have 
accompanied economic success and prosperity. The Government has passed 
specific laws to deal with officials guilty of the use, manufacture, or 
delivery of narcotics. Penalties for such transgressions include 
execution. There is no evidence of high-level official involvement in 
the drug trade. The juxtaposition, however, of low-paid law enforcement 
and other officials with the lucrative drug business creates the 
potential for corruption.
    Chinese officials have noted that 90 percent of the heroin flowing 
into China comes from Burma. China's close trade and political 
relationship with Burma has facilitated misuse of their shared 2,000-
kilometer border by drug traffickers. China has pledged cooperation in 
helping the Burmese fight narcotics production and has supported 
international programs to wean Burmese farmers away from drug 
production. China's success--or its failure--with regard to addressing 
the problem of Burmese drug production has serious implications for 
China, for the rest of Asia and for the West.

Dominican Republic
    The Dominican Republic is an active transshipment point for drugs 
destined for the United States and Europe. Traffickers smuggle narcotics 
through Dominican territory by air, sea, and along the country's porous 
border with Haiti. A weak Dominican judicial system continues to hamper 
efforts to combat the narcotics trade, but a promising reform process 
began in 1997.
    The Government of the Dominican Republic (GODR) continued to 
cooperate with the United States Government (USG) on counternarcotics 
objectives and goals. The GODR is party to the 1988 United Nations Drug 
Convention. It has enacted a money laundering and asset forfeiture law 
that complies with the Organization of American States (OAS)/Inter-
American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) model. The GODR and the 
USG have a bilateral maritime agreement that allows for consensual 
boarding of sea vessels by host country authorities. Dominican 
authorities cooperate closely on drug investigation matters with the 
USG. The GODR had a mixed record of drug-related seizures and arrests. 
There was a decrease in marijuana seizures and arrests for drug-related 
offenses (1,481 arrests) in 1997, but an increase in heroin seizures 
(8.3 kgs). Cocaine seizures rose slightly from 1996 to 1,354 kgs. in 
1997.
    This cooperation has been marred by the disappointing record of 
judicial and legislative reforms. Dominican law prohibits the 
extradition of Dominican nationals, creating a refuge in the Dominican 
Republic for Dominican nationals who are believed to have committed 
serious crimes in the U.S. Pursuant to an extraordinary and rarely used 
Executive Order, the GODR did extradite two Dominican nationals to the 
United States in August 1997 to stand trial on charges of narcotics 
trafficking and homicide. Dominican judicial authorities have yet to act 
on more than two dozen additional U.S.

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extradition requests. An absence of effective government supervision of 
exchange houses or remittance operations and the presence of large cash 
flows, which could hide money laundering activity, continue to make the 
Dominican Republic vulnerable to further money laundering. Money 
laundering is not likely to diminish until the GODR aggressively 
implements the money laundering legislation.
    Neither the GODR itself nor senior government officials encourage, 
facilitate, or engage in drug trafficking or money laundering as a 
matter of government policy. No evidence exists that senior government 
officials are involved in drug distribution or money laundering. No 
senior government official has been indicted for drug-related corruption 
in 1997.

Ecuador
    Ecuador continues to be a major transit country for the shipment of 
cocaine from Colombia to the United States and Europe. Ecuador is also 
used by traffickers for money laundering of drug profits and to transit 
essential/precursor chemicals destined for Colombian drug labs. Cocaine 
is shipped primarily by road from the Colombian border to major 
Ecuadorian ports where it is concealed in bulk cargo transported in 
large ocean-going commercial vessels.
    In 1997, Ecuador increased the number of interdiction checkpoints 
along inland transit routes leading to ports. With U.S. aid, Ecuador is 
establishing a Joint Information Coordination Center (JICC) in the major 
port city of Guayaquil. Ecuador also hosted a U.S. Customs/U.S. Coast 
Guard team which assessed port operations for top government officials. 
The Ecuadorian Congress passed legislation authorizing the forfeiture of 
drug assets and the use of forfeiture funds in support of prevention, 
rehabilitation, and police counter-narcotics activities. Police assigned 
personnel for U.S.-sponsored training to form a ``controlled chemical'' 
investigative unit. The government submitted new legislation to help 
police carry out money laundering investigations.
    There is a long tradition of cooperation between Ecuadorian National 
Police and U.S. law enforcement in the area of narcotics control. Still, 
the police lack many of the resources needed to deal effectively with a 
narcotics trade directed by powerful criminal organizations in its 
neighbor to the north, Colombia, and, to a lesser extent, in Peru to the 
south. Cooperation between the Ecuadorian and Peruvian governments is 
complicated by an on-going, serious, and occasionally violent border 
dispute.
    Ecuador cooperated with the U.S. to eradicate most of its coca crop 
in the 1980's and thus avoided the production problems that currently 
plague its neighbors Colombia and Peru. In 1997, Ecuador continued to 
demonstrate its willingness to work closely with the U.S. in dealing 
with other narcotics issues including major vulnerabilities such as 
cocaine transshipments, chemical diversions, money laundering, and 
judicial corruption/inefficiency. The police's canine unit, for 
instance, was created with U.S. assistance and had a number of 
outstanding successes in interdicting cocaine shipments in 1997. Ecuador 
has also signalled a willingness to discuss and work out ways in the 
near future to cooperate with the U.S. in maritime interdiction.

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Guatemala
    With peace a reality after thirty six-years of internal conflict, 
President Arzu has made public security a top priority and has shown 
special interest in ensuring maximum cooperation with the United States 
in combatting counternarcotics trafficking through Guatemala and in the 
region.
    Guatemala is located half way between the U.S. and Colombia and 
continues to be a transshipment and storage point for cocaine destined 
for the US via Mexico. There has been a marked increase in the use of 
truck and shipping containers. Guatemala has made major improvements to 
a self-financed port security program which expanded operations.
    A major initiative resulted in the transition from the old national 
and treasury police forces to the new National Civilian Police (PNC) and 
the consolidation of various paramilitary law enforcement agencies. The 
Department of Anti-Narcotics Operations (DOAN), a specially equipped 
civilian police command, was transferred to the PNC after re-training 
and a major pay increase. With USG assistance, the DOAN seized almost 6 
metric tons of cocaine in 1997. There was also steady progress in the 
successful prosecution of narcotics-related crimes with over 90 per cent 
of those accused being convicted.
    Guatemala works closely with USG organizations to stem the flow of 
drugs through Guatemala, but has not yet enacted necessary legislation 
to implement all the provisions of the 1988 UN Convention on narco-
trafficking. The Government of Guatemala (GOG) does not encourage or 
facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or 
psychotropic drugs or controlled substances.
    Guatemalan studies show that drug use is on the rise in most age 
groups with cocaine use increasing rapidly. However, Guatemala has 
recently completed a comprehensive national drug plan which is scheduled 
to be implemented starting in January 1998 and which includes an 
ambitious demand reduction program.

Haiti
    Already confronted by a wide array of issues that compete for the 
attention of its limited professional and managerial talent, the 
Government of Haiti (GOH) and its criminal justice institutions are 
severely strained by increased international narcotics trafficking 
activities. Haiti's fledgling national police force is hampered by a 
lack of manpower, training, equipment, and experience. The poorest 
nation in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti is particularly vulnerable to 
the corrosive effects of narcotics-related corruption. Haiti's weak and 
ineffective judicial system has a poor track record of narcotics 
prosecutions. Haiti is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
    Because of a significant increase in the detected activities of 
Colombian drug trafficking organizations in Haiti in 1994, Haiti was 
added to the list of major drug producing and transit countries in 1995. 
Due in measure to effective USG interdiction efforts around Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands in 1997, traffickers have increasingly targeted 
Haiti's long, undefended coastline for narcotics deliveries intended for 
transshipment (often through

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the Dominican Republic) to the US. In response to this growing threat, 
the GOH, within its existing capacity, cooperated fully with the United 
States Government (USG) in counternarcotics efforts in 1997. The GOH 
must build upon the positive steps it has already taken to more 
aggressively seize narcotics shipments, pursue and prosecute narcotics 
traffickers, and investigate all allegations of governmental corruption 
with a view to effective prosecution.
    The GOH is slowly but incrementally putting into place the legal 
mechanisms and governmental policies to counter organized trafficking 
elements. This effort has been hampered overall by the ongoing political 
impasse over a parliamentary quorum. In 1997, the GOH and the USG signed 
a Maritime Counterdrug Agreement. In 1997, the Haitian Coast Guard (HCG) 
and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) cooperated in four separate maritime 
interdictions that yielded over 2 metric tons of cocaine and five tons 
of marijuana. With USG support, the Counternarcotics Unit of the Haitian 
National Police (CNU) was staffed, trained and partially deployed in 
1997. A fully-deployed CNU is scheduled to move to a permanent 
headquarters facility at the Port au Prince airport in 1998.
    In response to allegations of drug-related corruption within the 
Haitian government, the Haitian National Police arrested 21 police and 
judicial officials for suspected complicity in narcotics trafficking in 
1997. A Ministry of Justice (MOJ) Special Advisor on Narcotics Matters 
drafted a national narcotics strategic plan, completed draft legislation 
on money laundering, and updated archaic Haitian narcotics laws. That 
said, corruption remains an important USG concern, as does the need for 
successful prosecutions of narcotics trafficking cases.
    In 1997, the GOH continued to give USG officials high-level 
assurances of its commitment to drug control, and those assurances have 
been supported by progress in establishing Haitian counter-drug 
institutions. However, Haiti still has a number of major goals to 
achieve before it will be able to take significant, independent action 
in counternarcotics.
    Once a new Prime Minister and a new government are installed, the 
Maritime Counterdrug Agreement and the MOJ's legislation can be 
submitted for Parliamentary approval and a National Narcotics Plan 
approved at the cabinet level. The USG will continue to work with the 
GOH to achieve Parliamentary passage of pending and planned legislation 
and its vigorous implementation, continued training the CNU, and the 
institution of anti-corruption steps within the ranks in further 
compliance with the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention 
and the terms of our bilateral agreements and treaties.
    The USG will remain engaged in increasing the capacity of the HCG 
and CNU to meet the threat posed by traffickers. The USG will also help 
improve the overall security of the Port-au-Prince Airport to inhibit 
the flow of drugs via air links to the U.S. Additional counternarcotics 
objectives for Haiti include targeting at least one major international 
narcotics organization for significant interdiction efforts and enacting 
civil and administrative asset forfeiture provisions to facilitate 
targeting of trafficker assets and companion legislation requiring use 
of the forfeited funds solely for counternarcotics interdiction and 
enforcement operations.

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Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
    The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region remains a target point 
for money launderers and drug traffickers. USG officials believe that 
Hong Kong traffickers control large portions of Southeast Asian 
narcotics destined for the West, including the United States. In 1997, 
however, there were no seizures of heroin destined for the U.S. which 
could be tied to Hong Kong itself. Hong Kong has strengthened money 
laundering guidelines applicable to its financial institutions, 
securities firms and the insurance sector. It also enacted the 1997 Drug 
Trafficking Order, which allows for the enforcement of confiscation 
orders issued by countries that are signatories to the 1988 UN Drug 
Convention, thus enhancing Hong Kong's ability to recover the proceeds 
of drug trafficking. With Hong Kong's reversion to Chinese sovereignty 
in July 1997, the 1988 UN Drug Convention has for the first time been 
made applicable to Hong Kong. The U.S.-Hong Kong Extradition Agreement 
was ratified by the U.S. in November 1997 and came into force in January 
of this year. The new U.S.-Hong Kong Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement 
awaits Senate action.
    Close cooperation between Hong Kong law enforcement agencies and the 
Public Security Bureau of Guangdong Province resulted in increased 
seizures on the mainland of heroin which would otherwise have entered 
Hong Kong. In conformity with the 1988 UN Drug Convention, Hong Kong 
amended Schedules 1 and 2 of its Control of Chemicals Ordinance to place 
the salts of 17 chemicals under licensing control. Hong Kong also issues 
pre-export notifications to destination countries of precursor chemical 
shipments so as to prevent diversions. As noted by the International 
Narcotics Control Board, Hong Kong stopped three suspicious chemical 
shipments in 1997. Hong Kong will face the second review of its system 
by the Financial Action Task Force in 1998 and has carefully reviewed 
its existing body of narcotics-related legislation and practices in 
preparation for that review.
    There is no reported narcotics-related corruption among senior 
government or law enforcement officials in Hong Kong. Cooperation 
between the U.S. and Hong Kong on counternarcotics matters remains both 
wide-ranging and excellent. Hong Kong and USG personnel conducted 
several joint narcotics investigations in 1997, resulting in a number of 
arrests and drug seizures, as well as in financial seizures. In August, 
U.S., Hong Kong and Mexican officials also successfully coordinated a 
controlled delivery to Mexico of 150 kilograms of pseudoephedrine 
originating in China. Hong Kong Customs and Excise authorities provided 
two instructors to assist DEA's diversion training team in conducting 
two one-week seminars in China. Locally posted DEA officers continue to 
provide monthly briefings at the Hong Kong Police Command School.

India
    India, an important producer both of licit and illicit narcotics, is 
a crossroads for international narcotics trafficking. It is the world's 
largest producer of licit opiates for pharmaceutical use and the only 
producer of licit gum opium. Some opium is diverted from the country's 
legal production, although it is difficult to ascertain the exact 
amount. The Government of India estimates diversion at about 10 percent, 
although it may be as high

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as 30 per cent. Illicit poppy cultivation declined significantly in the 
past year, form 47 metric tons (mts) to 30 mts, according to USG 
estimates. India's location between the two main sources of illicitly 
grown opium, Burma and Afghanistan, as well as its well-developed 
transportation infrastructure, makes it an ideal transit point but 
heroin transshipment is not as significant as in neighboring Pakistan, 
Thailand and China and there is no evidence that opiates transshipped 
through India reach the U.S. in significant amounts.
    As a licit producer of opium, India must meet an additional 
certification requirement. In accordance with Section 490(c) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act, it must maintain licit production and stockpiles 
at levels no higher than those consistent with licit market demand and 
take adequate steps to prevent significant diversion of its licit 
cultivation and production into illicit markets and to prevent illicit 
cultivation and production.
    Indian opium gum, the principal source of thebaine, and alkaloid 
essential to certain pharmaceuticals, is purchased by U.S. 
pharmaceutical firms. Between 1994 and 1996, India had difficulty 
meeting its production goals and satisfying the world demand for this 
narcotic raw material. Reduction in acreage, a severe drought which 
limited crops and inaccurate physical inventories over the last 20 years 
led to a depleted stockpile and large discrepancies in inventory which 
were discovered in 1994.
    Starting in 1995, India took a number of steps to increase licit 
opium productivity and the licit opium stockpile. To increase future 
inventory accuracy, the traditional method of storing liquid opium in 
large, open vats, resulting in undetermined losses due to evaporation, 
was changed to a system of sealed cans. To ensure a more secure 
stockpile, the GOI increased the opium crop by increasing each year the 
minimum qualifying yield per hectare with which each farmer must comply. 
Opium output grew each year, from 833 mts in 1995 to 849 mts in 1996 to 
1,341 mts in 1997. The GOI also sharply increased its seizures of 
diverted licit opium. Greater GOI attention to increasing licit opium 
yields both increased the amount of narcotic raw material available to 
purchasers and ensured a more stable stockpile. Following years of an 
inadequate supply, this year's increased production finally gives India 
a licit stockpile consistent with market demand.
    In 1997, India took five important steps to increase licit opium 
production to meet market demand while curtailing the diversion of licit 
opium. These steps include: A) raising the minimum qualifying yield 
(MQY) for relicensing to cultivate opium poppy from 48 to 52 kilograms 
per hectare; B) increasing GOI vigilance of poppy farmers with direct 
farm visitation by enforcement personnel to ensure all harvested opium 
is turned in to government warehouses; C) seizing 11 mts of raw opium 
harvested by licit cultivators, but not declared to the government in 
1997 as opposed to the 2 mts of diverted licit opium seized in 1996; D) 
quickly averting the harmful effects of a cultivator strike by licensing 
new farmers to replace the striking cultivators; and E) making offenses 
relating to cultivation and embezzlement of opium by licensing 
cultivators on par with other trafficking offenses, resulting in long 
prison terms and heavy fines upon conviction.
    While these are adequate steps to curb diversion, the USG believes 
even more could be done and will work with the GOI to increase diversion 
controls. USG offers to help the Government of India (GOI) with a survey 
of the licit opium fields have not yet been acted upon. A well-designed 
crop

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study would provide accurate data on crop yields and would be an 
important step in establishing practicable levels of minimum qualifying 
yield. The data could also be used to extrapolate the level of 
diversion. The USG hopes to work with the GOI on a future joint opium 
crop yield survey. Scientists from the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
and the GOI have collaborated on the design of a poppy survey.
    India also has illicit cultivation, primarily in Jammu and Kashmir, 
where GOI control is challenged by insurgent groups and in the remote 
hills of Uttar Pradesh. USG surveys between 1994 and 1997 indicated 
illicit cultivation of opium poppy decreased steadily, with the 
estimated yield declining from 82 mts of opium to 30 mts. The GOI 
locates and destroys illicit cultivation with vigor, but in some areas, 
such as Jammu and Kashmir, GOI control is challenged by insurgencies. 
The USG supplies satellite data along with coordinates of suspected 
areas of illicit poppy cultivation and the GOI has carried out extensive 
field surveys and some random aerial surveys, some with DEA assistance.
    The GOI has made significant progress in controlling the production 
and export of precursor chemicals. Trafficking in illegally produced 
methaqualone (mandrax), a popular drug in Africa, is still a major 
problem. The GOI has a cooperative relationship with the DEA, which is 
appreciative of Indian efforts to control trafficking in precursor 
chemicals. However, authorities have had limited success in prosecuting 
major narcotics offenders because of the lack of enforcement funding and 
weaknesses in the intelligence infrastructure.
    India met formally several times in 1997 with Pakistan to discuss 
narcotics matters and is committed to continuing consultations in 1998. 
Although these meetings have produced limited results, they are an 
important step toward much-needed regional narcotics cooperation. India 
has also met with Burmese officials along the border.
    India is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, but has not yet 
enacted supporting legislation on asset seizures or money laundering. 
The substantive steps India has taken in controlling illicit narcotics 
growth and in increasing the harvest of licit opium while at the same 
time tightening controls on the licit crop to prevent diversion qualify 
India for certification.

Jamaica
    Jamaica is a producer of marijuana and an increasingly significant 
cocaine transshipment country. The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) made some 
progress during 1997 toward meeting the goals and objectives of the 1988 
UN Drug Convention, to which it became a party in December 1995, and of 
our bilateral cooperation agreements and treaties. Counterdrug 
cooperation between DEA and the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) 
remained at high levels, and cannabis eradication increased from 473 
hectares in 1996 to 683 hectares in 1997, despite severe resource 
constraints. In October, parliament passed a master national drug abuse 
prevention and control plan which complies with the OAS/CICAD model. 
Many important actions, however, still remain to be taken by the GOJ to 
fully meet the counterdrug goals and objectives.

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    During 1997, the GOJ extradited to the U.S. three Jamaican national 
fugitives from U.S. justice, compared to 1996, when the GOJ returned one 
Jamaican national under a waiver of extradition, one U.S.-Jamaican dual 
national who returned voluntarily and six U.S. national fugitives who 
returned voluntarily or were deported to the U.S. One U.S. national died 
in Jamaica in 1996 while extradition proceedings were pending. The U.S. 
seeks early resolution of the 26 active extradition cases currently 
pending with Jamaica. Although both countries have begun to utilize the 
bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT), Jamaica needs to speed 
up its execution of U.S. mutual legal assistance requests.
    By year's end, the GOJ had not yet tabled in parliament any 
precursor and essential chemical control legislation. In September 1997, 
however, the GOJ signed with the USG a letter of agreement (LOA) which 
details USG counternarcotics assistance to be provided and GOJ actions 
to be taken. This agreement includes a GOJ commitment to introduce into 
parliament a precursor chemical control law by April 1998.
    In November 1997, the GOJ amended its 1996 anti-money laundering law 
to mandate reporting of all cash transactions of U.S. $10,000 equivalent 
or more. Previously, the law incorporated a threshold reporting 
requirement for all transaction types. Further amendments are required 
to bring Jamaica into full compliance with the recommendations of the 
Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF). Although there are four 
cases pending, to date there has been no adjudication of money 
laundering cases. In February 1998, a Jamaican court granted the first 
forfeiture order, under the 1994 law, of assets of a convicted drug 
dealer; however, Jamaica has not provided for earmarking of forfeited 
assets for counterdrug purposes.
    In the area of drug enforcement, GOJ drug arrests and cocaine and 
hashish oil seizures increased in 1997 from 1996 levels, but marijuana 
seizures were down substantially. A maritime law enforcement cooperation 
agreement was signed by the GOJ and USG in May 1997; on February 24, 
1998, the GOJ notified the USG that it had completed its constitutional 
requirements for the entry into force of the agreement. A return 
notification from the USG brings the agreement into force. The United 
States hopes that, with the agreement in force, maritime cooperation 
with Jamaica will improve. The GOJ needs to reinvigorate the previously 
successful joint Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF)-DEA Operation Prop 
Lock, which seized only one trafficker plane during 1997, and that had 
to be returned to its owner for lack of probable cause.
    Drugs in export shipments continued to threaten Jamaica's legitimate 
commerce during 1997. At GOJ invitation, U.S. agencies conducted an 
export security assessment and recommended remedial actions to improve 
security at air- and seaports. The GOJ needs to carry out these 
recommendations. During 1997, there were reports in the Jamaican media 
about drug-related corruption of police and a resident magistrate, the 
latter of whom was arrested on corruption charges. The GOJ also needs to 
take strong steps to control drug-related public corruption. A wide-
ranging bill dealing with corruption of public officials was tabled in 
parliament, with passage expected in early 1998.
    Parliamentary passage of introduced and planned legislation and its 
vigorous implementation will be necessary for Jamaica to meet fully the 
goals

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and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the terms of our 
bilateral agreements and treaties.

Laos
    Laos remains the world's third largest producer of illicit opium. 
Despite concerted efforts by the government, Laos' estimated potential 
production as a result of the 1997 growing season was 210 metric tons, 
up 5 percent from 1996. Cultivation increased by 12 percent, with most 
of the increase in the more isolated northwest of the country. Opium 
production remained low, however, within the USG-funded Houaphanh 
alternative development project area. Laos' proximity to important ports 
and trade routes also places it on the trafficking routes for drugs 
destined for the West, including the U.S. Recognizing the phenomenon of 
``economic opportunism'' suggested by UNDCP experts as contributing to 
increased opium production, Lao authorities agreed in 1997 to a USG 
proposal to begin, for the first time, an eradication program in areas 
where alternative development projects are in place. Lao law enforcement 
officials made their largest heroin seizure ever (62.3 kilograms) in 
Luang Prabhang Province in May, highlighting the increased effectiveness 
of Laos' counternarcotics enforcement efforts. Laos also ratified the 
1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and has indicated it may 
ratify the 1988 UN Drug Convention in 1998, after passage of required 
legislation.
    In keeping with its plan to address all aspects of the drug problem 
in Laos, the Government of Laos has emerged as an increasingly active 
player in regional and international counternarcotics efforts. In July, 
it hosted a trilateral ministerial meeting with Burma and Thailand to 
address problems of illicit drug production and trafficking. Laos also 
signed bilateral counternarcotics cooperation agreements with Burma and 
the Philippines. It was selected to serve a four-year term on the UN 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs, which began this January.
    USG-Lao counternarcotics cooperation remains a center point of the 
overall relationship and continues to be excellent. USG counternarcotics 
assistance to Laos has increased as the Lao have moved toward a 
counternarcotics policy which seeks to balance alternative development, 
law enforcement, eradication and demand reduction regimes. In order for 
Laos to avoid the stigma attached to narco-societies, it must control 
opium cultivation, production and trafficking before modernization 
exacerbates those problems. It will also have to deal with the problems 
posed by corruption, including possible narcotics-related corruption, 
among military and government officials. The USG's commitment to Laos 
has been made both in response to the determination thus far shown by 
the Government of Laos and in recognition of Laos' need for assistance 
in accomplishing its stated counternarcotics goals.

Malaysia
    For geographic and historical reasons Malaysia remains, and likely 
will remain for some time, a significant transit country for U.S. and 
European-

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bound heroin. Top Malaysian leaders, including the Prime Minister, are 
deeply concerned by Malaysia's drug problem and have made combating 
illicit drugs one of Malaysia's top national priorities. Police, armed 
with stiff anti-trafficking laws that provide for detention without 
trial and, in some cases, mandatory death sentences, prosecute drug 
crimes vigorously. The Anti-Narcotics Division of the police now enjoys 
department status. Unlike some of its neighbors, Malaysia is prepared to 
move against corruption. Several police officers were arrested and 
prosecuted for drugs-related corruption. Police also arrested several 
mid-level police officers and other government officials including a 
Malaysian diplomat, who was later acquitted of drug smuggling charges. A 
newly amended anti-corruption act gave the police additional powers to 
prosecute corruption in 1997.
    The government has also devoted new resources to drug 
rehabilitation. In 1997 Malaysian authorities launched new initiatives 
aimed at combatting drug use among the young, improving drug 
rehabilitation techniques, and combatting the spread of psychotropic 
pills. Cooperation with the USG on combatting drug trafficking has been 
excellent. The U.S.-Malaysian Extradition Treaty came into force in 
1997. Positive discussions on a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty 
continued. Malaysia is working on legislation governing asset forfeiture 
and management of seized assets to complement the MLAT. Malaysia is a 
party to the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, the 1971 
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 UN Drug 
Convention.

Mexico
    The issue of illicit narcotics trafficking, and related crimes, 
remains at the top of the bilateral agenda between the U.S. and Mexico. 
These issues figured prominently in meetings in which Presidents Clinton 
and Zedillo approved documents which form the basis of counternarcotics 
cooperation between the United States and Mexico. In May, the two 
Presidents issued the ``Declaration of the U.S.-Mexico Alliance Against 
Drugs'' and released the Bi-National Drug Threat Assessment. In 
November, the two Presidents approved a summary of a binational drug 
strategy. Both leaders have committed to strengthen their governments' 
respective anti-drug efforts and to continue to work toward closer and 
more effective bilateral anti-drug cooperation.
    The U.S./Mexico High-Level Contact Group on Narcotics Control (HLCG) 
and the Senior Law Enforcement Plenary continued to serve as the 
principal senior-level fora for expanding and enhancing bilateral 
counter-drug cooperation. The HLCG met three times in 1997, the Plenary 
twice, and their technical working groups, which cover issues ranging 
from chemical control to demand reduction, met throughout the year. The 
HLCG supervised the preparation of the bilateral threat analysis and the 
United States/Mexico Binational Drug Strategy, which was released on 
February 6, 1998.
    During 1997, the Government of Mexico (GOM) took steps to begin 
implementing the important legislative reforms of 1996 to advance its 
national efforts against drug trafficking and organized crime. It 
developed a number of specialized investigative units, such as the 
Organized Crime and Financial Intelligence Units, to implement those 
laws. The Bilateral Border Task

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Forces, created in 1996, had to be reconstituted in 1997, however; 
Mexican personnel are assigned and working in these units, but are 
cooperating with U.S. law enforcement counterparts on a limited basis. 
Agents assigned to the new Special Prosecutor's Office and to the elite 
investigative units underwent more rigorous screening and background 
checks than their predecessors and the process is being expanded to all 
parts of the Office of the Attorney General (PGR). The GOM improved 
training for the new agents, and plans to improve salaries and benefits 
as well. The U.S. provided training, technical and material support.
    The GOM published regulations needed to implement anti-money 
laundering legislation passed in 1996 and began to work with financial 
institutions to improve the effectiveness of its national reporting 
system for suspicious and large currency transactions. The Mexican 
Congress began its review of new asset forfeiture legislation. In 
December, the Mexican Congress passed a comprehensive chemical control 
bill enabling the GOM to regulate all aspects of commerce in precursor 
and essential chemicals to prevent their diversion to illicit drug 
production. The Chemical Experts Working Group promotes bilateral 
cooperation and information sharing.
    The GOM wrestled with very serious corruption issues in 1997, 
including an internal investigation which implicated General Jesus 
Gutierrez Rebollo, the head of its federal drug law enforcement agency. 
He and a number of co-conspirators are being prosecuted, and the agency 
he headed was replaced by a new institution. Mexico is seeking both to 
uncover ongoing cases of corruption as well as to strengthen justice 
sector institutions to withstand corrupting influences and pressures. 
President Zedillo has made this a national priority, but acknowledged 
that lasting reform will take time.
    Drug seizures in 1997 generally increased over 1996 levels. Mexican 
authorities seized 34.9 MT of cocaine, 115 kgs of heroin, 343 kgs of 
opium gum, 1,038 MT of marijuana, 39 kgs of methamphetamine, and 
destroyed 8 clandestine laboratories. The GOM's massive drug crop 
eradication effort reduced net production of opium gum from an estimated 
54 MT in 1996 to 46 MT in 1997, and of marijuana from 3,400 MT in 1996 
to 2,500 MT in 1997. Authorities arrested 10,742 suspects on drug-
related charges. At least eight individuals considered by U.S. law 
enforcement authorities to be major traffickers were tried and sentenced 
to prison terms of 9 to 40 years, including Joaquin Guzman Loera (21 
years), Hector Luis Palma Salazar (22 years), Miguel Angel Felix 
Gallardo (12 years), Raul Valladares del Angel (29 years). 
Unfortunately, Humberto Garcia Abrego was released and Rafael Caro 
Quintero succeeded in obtaining a reduction in his sentence.
    In 1997, the U.S. and Mexico made further progress in the return of 
fugitives. A new Protocol to the Extradition Treaty, signed at the time 
of President Zedillo's visit to Washington in November, will aid the two 
governments in their efforts to combat transnational crime by permitting 
``temporary'' extradition of fugitives sentenced in one country to face 
criminal charges in the other. The GOM approved the extradition of 27 
fugitives from U.S. justice (12 for drug charges) although nine (all 
Mexican nationals, five facing drug charges) are appealing the GOM's 
extradition order, or face charges in Mexico. Thirteen fugitives (seven 
on drug charges) were formally extradited; ten other fugitives (eight 
U.S. citizens and two third-

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country nationals) were expelled by the GOM to the U.S. in lieu of 
extradition.
    Mexico made progress in its anti-drug effort in 1997 and cooperated 
well with the United States. Nevertheless, the problems that Mexico 
faces in countering powerful criminal organizations, and the persistent 
corrupting influence that they exert within the justice sector, cannot 
be minimized. There are also areas of bilateral cooperation which must 
be improved for the two governments to achieve greater success in 
attacking and dismantling the trans-border drug trafficking 
organizations. The U.S. is convinced, however, of the Zedillo 
Administration's firm intention to persist in its campaign against the 
drug cartels and its broad-sweeping reform effort. Through daily 
interaction between agencies of the two governments, formal discussions 
in the HLCG and other bilateral groups, as well as collaboration in 
multilateral fora, the two governments are finding increasingly 
productive ways to work together against the common threats our nations 
face.

Panama
    Panama is major transit point for Colombian cocaine and heroin on 
its way to the United States. Cocaine passes through Panamanian 
territorial waters concealed in fishing boats or ``go-fast'' boats. Some 
of it is off-loaded on the Panamanian coast and then transported by 
truck up the Pan-American Highway into Costa Rica where it is then bound 
for the US. It is also carried by ``mules'' traveling by air to the US 
and Europe. There is no evidence that any senior official of the 
Government of Panama is involved in any drug scenarios nor does 
government policy encourage or facilitate drug-related criminal 
activity. However, the amount of drugs seized by Costa Rican border 
officials from tractor trailers entering from Panama is suggestive of 
either inadequate inspections or corruption on the part of Panamanian 
border officials. Corruption in the Judiciary remains a concern, 
particularly because judges are vulnerable to political influence and 
are susceptible to threats.
    Panama continued to cooperate with U.S. in counternarcotics efforts 
in 1997. In 1997, they took steps to implement its counternarcotics 
masterplan, which was developed by the National Commission for the Study 
and Prevention of Drug Related Crimes, a part of their public ministry. 
The plan deals with prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and re-entry 
into the workforce; control of supply; and illicit trafficking. It 
encompasses state and non-governmental organizations. Panama also hosted 
the ``First Hemispheric Congress on the Prevention of Money Laundering'' 
and became the first Latin American country to be admitted to the Egmont 
Group, an alliance of 30 nations with centralized financial analysis 
units to combat money laundering. Panama is also an active participant 
in the Commission Against Addiction and Illicit Trafficking of Drugs 
(CICAD), the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF) and the Basel 
Committee's Offshore Group of Bank Supervisors.
    In 1997, Panamanian officials seized 21.62 metric tons (MT) of 
illegal drugs, including 7 MT of cocaine. Although Panama gives law 
enforcement a high priority, this is not reflected by the scant 
resources and low wages

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it provides some of its law enforcement agencies which lack equipment, 
training and base facilities.
    Panama needs to sign the maritime interdiction treaty with the U.S. 
that was negotiated and approved by the General Directorate of Consular 
and Maritime Affairs earlier this year. They need to undertake a 
fundamental and wide-ranging reform of the judicial system to ensure it 
is protected from political influence and corruption. Panama needs to 
sign the agreement with the U.S. to establish a Multinational 
Counternarcotics Center (MCC) at Howard Air Force Base. Negotiations 
were essentially completed on this agreement in late 1997, when the GOP 
raised new concerns. The GOP also needs to enact bank reforms it 
announced in 1997 and enact legislation to extend the existing law 
against drug money laundering to include the proceeds from all serious 
crimes.

Peru
    Following the 1996 reduction in coca cultivation, Peruvian coca 
cultivation declined dramatically in 1997, from 115,300 hectares (with 
the potential to produce 460 metric tons of cocaine) in 1995 to less 
than 69,000 hectares (with the potential to produce 325 metric tons of 
cocaine) in 1997. The 1997 percentage decrease in the total area under 
coca cultivation was 27 percent, following the 18 percent decline in 
1996. A strong commitment by the Government of Peru (GOP) to forcibly 
eradicate illicit mature coca in national parks and other areas by 
manual labor means resulted in over 3,462 hectares destroyed in 1997, a 
175 percent increase over 1996.
    This success was the offspring of a combined Peruvian Air Force 
(FAP) and Peruvian National Police Drug Directorate (DINANDRO) 
``airbridge denial'' interdiction program and increasingly effective 
narcotics law enforcement. These two USG-supported programs continued to 
deter traffickers from using their preferred method of exporting large 
quantities of cocaine base by air for further refining into cocaine 
hydrochloride (HCl) in Colombia and elsewhere. ``Airbridge denial'' 
success maintained a cocaine base glut in the coca cultivation zones and 
below-production-cost farmgate coca prices. The collapse of coca leaf 
prices spurred greater numbers of farmers to accept the economic 
alternatives to coca offered by the USG-Peru alternative development 
project, which expanded in 1997.
    The joint U.S.-GOP alternative development program was successful in 
strengthening local governments, providing access to basic health 
services and promoting licit economic activities, thereby establishing 
the social and economic basis for the permanent elimination of coca. A 
total of 239 communities have signed coca reduction agreements to reduce 
coca by approximately 16,300 hectares over the next five years.
    Responding to traffickers developing new smuggling methods on Peru's 
rivers, across land borders and via maritime routes, Peruvian 
counternarcotics agencies, in particular DINANDRO and the Peruvian Coast 
Guard, established several riverine counternarcotics bases and increased 
resources for riverine anti-drug operations. Cooperating with USG law 
enforcement partners and advisors, DINANDRO worked extensively with drug 
police from Colombia and Brazil to share counternarcotics intelligence 
and to par

[[Page 263]]

ticipate in joint law enforcement operations in the Amazonian tri-border 
area.
    In 1997, the Government of Peru (GOP) cooperated fully with the USG 
in fulfilling the objectives of the USG-Peruvian counternarcotics 
framework agreement and of the 1988 UN Drug Convention, to which Peru is 
a party. Counternarcotics activities remained a GOP national priority, 
and Peru's 1997 ``National Plan for Alternative Development, Drug 
Prevention and Rehabilitation'' set goals of reducing illicit coca 
production by approximately 50 percent within five years.

Taiwan
    Given trafficking patterns in the region and Taiwan's role as a 
shipping center, the U.S. believes Taiwan remains a transit point for 
drugs significantly affecting the U.S. While Taiwan authorities dispute 
this assessment, there is no disagreement with regard to the fact that 
individuals from Taiwan continue to be involved in international 
narcotics trafficking. Some 67 percent of all drugs smuggled into Taiwan 
are believed to come from China. Whatever their belief about Taiwan's 
transit role, Taiwan authorities continue to mount an aggressive 
counternarcotics campaign that involves both social rehabilitation 
programs and harsh sentences for narco-trafficking. Although Taiwan is 
not a UN member and cannot be a signatory to the 1988 UN Drug 
Convention, it tries to meet Convention goals regarding precursor 
chemicals via an active program to control the products of its large 
chemical industry. In addition, Taiwan authorities have come to 
recognize that money laundering is a growing problem. In 1997, a Money 
Laundering Prevention Center was established under the auspices of the 
Ministry of Justice Investigation Bureau.
    Cooperation between USG law enforcement agencies (under the auspices 
of the American Institute in Taiwan) and Taiwan law enforcement 
institutions continued to expand in 1997. Drug Enforcement 
Administration (DEA) and Financial Crimes Enforcement Network officials 
have led training seminars for Taiwan counterparts and have broadened 
their range of contacts within Taiwan's law enforcement community. 
Taiwan authorities have generally responded positively and 
constructively to U.S. requests on counternarcotics issues. With the 
opening of the Money Laundering Prevention Center, authorities have 
started sharing with USG law enforcement officials Taiwan-originated 
information related to money laundering cases where the flow of money 
leads to the U.S. In addition, Taiwan Ministry of Justice investigation 
officers assisted DEA agents with a case involving a shipment of drugs 
to Guam.
    Taiwan's counternarcotics enforcement activities led to a 19.1 
percent increase in drug convictions in the first ten months of 1997 
over all of 1996. Drug seizures also increased. The Money Laundering 
Prevention Center pursued investigations in all 360 cases of reported 
suspicious transactions. Taiwan also continues to prosecute cases of 
public corruption. There are, however, no known cases of official 
involvement in narcotics trafficking.

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Thailand
    Throughout 1997 Thailand continued its long tradition of cooperation 
with the United States and the international community in anti-drug 
programs. The U.S.-Thai Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty has been in 
effect since the middle of 1993, and USG requests for assistance under 
the Treaty have been consistently honored by the RTG. Cooperation 
between the USG and Thailand in a number of areas, not specifically 
covered by formal agreements, is long standing, close and productive. 
DEA works closely with Thai drug authorities in investigating major 
heroin trafficking organizations, providing training and developing Thai 
drug enforcement capabilities. The U.S. Customs Service and Department 
of Defense have cooperated with various agencies on anti-smuggling 
projects. DOD is also supporting training initiatives with selected 
Border Patrol and Narcotics Police units, and has assisted development 
of the regional Drug Task Forces.
    In another example of responsive drug enforcement cooperation, after 
the illegal release on bail of a major drug fugitive awaiting 
extradition to the United States, Thai authorities moved quickly to 
secure his return from Burma, expedited his extradition and ultimately 
removed the judge responsible for granting the bail. Thailand's 
continuing cooperation on extraditions involved sending 17 individuals 
to the U.S., all but one of whom were defendants in drug cases, and some 
of whom were Thai nationals or claimed Thai citizenship.
    USG experts estimated that Thai opium production in the 1996-97 
growing season declined seventeen percent from the previous year's 
production, to 25 metric tons. Control programs have resulted in a 
reduction of the amount of poppy grown from an estimate of up to 200 
metric tons in the 1970's, to an estimated 25 metric tons in 1997.
    Although Thailand has yet to become a party to the 1988 UN Drug 
Convention due to its lack of anti-money laundering laws, progress was 
achieved with money laundering legislation, previously approved in 
Cabinet, introduced in Parliament and passed through the first of three 
readings. Thai officials have committed to the passage of the laws 
during upcoming parliamentary sessions. Thailand is generally in 
compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention except for enacting anti-
money laundering statutes. It enforces laws against the cultivation, 
production, distribution, sale, transport, and financing of illicit 
drugs. Last year penalties for possession of methamphetamines were 
increased. As of October 1997, 282 cases opened under the asset seizure 
and conspiracy statutes amounted to over 17 million dollars seized or 
frozen. Thai authorities do, however, need to strengthen the conspiracy 
law and create additional legal tools to make prosecutions of higher 
level offenders possible. Thailand's level of international and 
bilateral cooperation on drug control is expected to remain high, with 
the Kingdom setting an example regionally for effective drug control 
programs, despite current economic difficulties.

Venezuela
    Venezuela continues to be a major transit country for cocaine 
shipped from South America to the United States and Europe. Law 
enforcement

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agencies estimate that over 100 metric tons (mt) of cocaine transit 
yearly. Venezuela is also a transit country for chemicals used in the 
production of drugs in source countries. Venezuela is not a significant 
producer of illegal drugs, but small-scale opium poppy cultivation 
occurs near the country's border with Colombia. In recent years, 
Venezuela's relatively vulnerable financial institutions have become 
targets for money laundering of illegal drug profits.
    In 1997, Venezuela took significant steps to improve its counter-
narcotics activity. A new drug czar (appointed at the end of 1996) 
received ministerial rank and a mandate to step up implementation of 
Venezuela's comprehensive 1993 anti-drug law. Seizure statistics 
increased more that 150 percent over those in 1996. Venezuela's congress 
passed legislation to control gambling casinos (a prime money laundering 
target) and the government adopted new banking regulations with strict 
reporting requirements. The National Anti-Drug Commission (CNA, formerly 
CONACUID) released a national anti-narcotics strategy containing a 
comprehensive set of goals for the next four years. These goals include 
judicial reform and a new organized crime bill with conspiracy, asset 
forfeiture, and additional anti-money laundering provisions.
    Bilateral cooperation between Venezuela and the U.S. received a 
boost during the October 1997 visit of President Clinton to Caracas. The 
two countries signed a joint declaration of ``Strategic Alliance Against 
Drugs.'' The declaration addressed most of the areas of the 1988 UN 
Convention (ratified by Venezuela in 1991) and specific areas of 
bilateral concern raised in the course of bilateral discussions during 
the year. During this visit, the two countries also signed a mutual 
legal assistance treaty (MLAT). 1997 also saw increased cooperation 
between Venezuela and the U.S. in maritime interdiction of illegal drug 
shipments.
    Some problem areas remain. Narcotics-related corruption in law 
enforcement, the judiciary, financial institutions, and the prison 
system are continuing concerns. The Government of Venezuela does not as 
a matter of policy or practice encourage or facilitate drug trafficking 
or money laundering, nor do its senior officials engage in, encourage, 
or facilitate such activities. Port control needs to be improved. The 
new anti-money laundering legislation needs to be implemented with an 
effective control regime and organized-crime/asset forfeiture 
legislation should be given a high priority. Venezuela continues to lack 
an effective air interdiction strategy.
    Nevertheless, Venezuela demonstrated a high-level political 
commitment to combat narcotics trafficking and related crime during 
1997. The U.S. will support Venezuela's stepped-up counternarcotics 
effort and will work closely with Venezuela in areas of common concern 
as money laundering and diversion of precursor/essential chemicals. The 
U.S. will also seek ways to support judicial reform and to enhance 
cooperation in maritime interdiction efforts.

Vietnam
    Drug trafficking through Vietnam and domestic drug abuse continue to 
increase, particularly among young people with rising incomes. At the 
same time, intense media coverage of narcotics arrests and trials, 
especially

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stiff sentences, including several executions, highlighted a ``get 
tough'' approach with traffickers and corrupt mid-and-lower level 
government officials. Law enforcement authorities also increased drug 
seizures, investigations, and prosecutions, generally. The number of 
drug arrests increased by 25 percent in the first six months of 1997, 
compared with the same period last year. This followed an even larger 
increase (66 per cent) in 1996. Some 70 percent of the cases involved 
heroin. A spot raid in Ho Chi Minh City netted 96 youngsters (mostly age 
15-16) who were dealing in heroin. In another incident, a judge in Ky 
Son District (the area of heaviest drug production and transit) was 
arrested in March for trafficking in opium, but he later escaped. A 
Haiphong Court also imposed stiff sentences on several drug pushers said 
to have lured teenagers into heroin use. Traffickers seem to have 
modified their transit routes somewhat in response to these stepped-up 
enforcement efforts.
    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV) took two major initiatives 
during 1997: it established an Anti-Narcotics Division (AND) of the 
People's Police and reorganized and elevated responsibility for drug 
policy coordination, which is now under a Deputy Prime Minister. It also 
ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention in November. After considerable 
success reducing opium poppy cultivation in the past few years, 
cultivation may once again be increasing. Vietnam claims to have reduced 
poppy cultivation from over 20,000 hectares in the late 1980's and early 
1990's to 2,885 hectares in 1995/96. USG experts, however, estimated an 
increase from 3,150 hectares in 1996 to 6,150 hectares in 1997. The 
United States and Vietnam are negotiating a narcotics cooperation letter 
of agreement. During 1997, the Vietnamese welcomed a visit by the Drug 
Enforcement Administration's (DEA) Chief of International Operations. 
There were also regular visits by DEA officers based in Embassy Bangkok.


VITAL NATIONAL INTERESTS JUSTIFICATIONS

Cambodia
    A transit point for Southeast Asian heroin as well as a source 
country for marijuana, Cambodia experienced violent internal conflict in 
early July 1997. This conflict, and the high-level political infighting 
leading up to it, disrupted USG counternarcotics efforts aimed at 
helping to build a credible counternarcotics and law enforcement 
infrastructure. Indeed, all direct USG assistance to the government has 
been suspended, although some humanitarian and democracy-building 
programs continue.
    In recent months, Cambodia appears to have begun to try to refocus 
its counternarcotics efforts. Counternarcotics agencies appear to be 
targeting trafficking organizations more aggressively, but their staffs 
remain poorly trained and equipped. Military and police personnel have 
been arrested for their involvement in narcotics-related activities, 
suggesting an effort at rooting out at least some drug corruption. DEA, 
U.S. Customs and other USG agencies continue to have access to Cambodian 
counterparts and generally characterize cooperation as good, in that 
interlocutors are willing to share information and to respond, to the 
extent possible, to requests for assistance.

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    However, the continuing instability has politicized the 
counternarcotics effort. Various Cambodian factions have charged 
political opponents with engaging in illegal narcotics activities, often 
with the objective of drawing US personnel into appearing to support one 
or another party or individual. Politicization of the counternarcotics 
effort has undermined some of the value of USG assistance and harmed 
cooperation. Moreover, little has been done by the Royal Government of 
Cambodia (RGC) to assuage international concerns about allegations of 
high-level government corruption, leaving Cambodia's commitment to 
counternarcotics efforts in doubt at this time.
    The US, jointly with ASEAN and the UN, is now engaged in a 
diplomatic effort to urge the RGC to restore the Paris Peace Accords' 
framework by permitting free and fair elections this year. Should this 
effort to promote accountable democratic governance in Cambodia succeed, 
it will be vital to maintain our ability to provide all types of 
counternarcotics, as well as other assistance, if appropriate, to 
strengthen independent judicial systems and foster accountable 
institutions of civil society in Cambodia. Assistance to support 
democratic development and long-term economic stability in Cambodia is a 
key element of our overall long-term commitment to stability and 
openness in the Asia-Pacific region. Cambodia figures in our own 
strategic interest in ASEAN's long-term political and economic 
stability, especially since Cambodia continues to have an interest in 
becoming a member of ASEAN. Accordingly, while it is not appropriate at 
this time to certify Cambodia as either fully cooperating with the 
United States or taking adequate steps on its own to combat drug 
production and trafficking, the risks posed by inadequate 
counternarcotics performance are outweighed by the risks posed to US 
vital national interest if assistance is not available.

Colombia
    As in previous years, Colombia remained the world's leading producer 
and distributor of cocaine and an important supplier of heroin and 
marijuana. Notwithstanding significant eradication in the Guaviare 
region, coca cultivation in southern Colombia grew markedly, leading to 
an increase in coca cultivation overall.
    In November 1997, the Colombian Congress passed a constitutional 
amendment reversing the 1991 Constitutional ban on the extradition of 
Colombian citizens. This represents significant progress, and is due in 
large part to effective lobbying of the Government of Colombia (GOC) and 
the Colombian Congress and Senate by the Colombian private sector. 
Unfortunately, the final bill falls short because it contains a ban on 
retroactive application. The Government and members of the Colombian 
Congress have filed challenges to this ban. However, if the ban is 
upheld by Colombia's Constitutional Court, then the Cali kingpins would 
be placed beyond the reach of U.S. justice for crimes committed before 
December 1997. Moreover, the constitutional bill may also require 
implementing legislation, which the GOC has promised to seek before 
President Samper leaves office in August 1998. This legislation could 
give opponents of extradition another opportunity to weaken extradition.
    In early 1997, Colombia passed excellent legislation which stiffened 
sentences for narcotics traffickers, strengthened regulations affecting 
money-

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laundering and permitted forfeiture of the assets of narcotics 
traffickers. Implementation of these strong laws by the GOC has been 
disappointingly slow and the GOC has yet to apply them aggressively.
    The GOC also took measures to improve prison security in Colombia, 
giving the Colombian National Police (CNP) responsibility for security 
in the maximum security pavilions housing the major narcotics 
traffickers, a great improvement. However, continued attention has not 
been given to the problem. The U.S. Embassy has heard fewer reports of 
traffickers carrying out their illicit business activities with impunity 
from their cells, but there are still indications that the drug kingpins 
maintain some ability to operate their criminal enterprises and exert 
influence from prison.
    The Colombian Government made only limited progress in 1997 against 
narcotics-related corruption. Several former congressmen and the mayor 
of Cali were sentenced on corruption charges stemming from the ``Caso 
8000'' investigation. The GOC has demonstrated little inclination to 
root out official corruption and to strengthen democratic institutions 
from the corrupting influence of narcotraffickers.
    The Colombian National Police and selected units of the military 
involved in counternarcotics activities produced impressive results in 
1997. Figures for both eradication and seizures were up, despite 
significant challenges from heavily-armed narcotics traffickers and 
several elements of the guerrilla movements which support them. The 
maritime agreement signed in early 1997 has been successfully 
implemented and resulted in interdiction of several cocaine shipments.
    Although the GOC has made important progress in some areas this 
year, the USG cannot certify Colombia as fully cooperating with the 
United States on drug control, or as having taken adequate steps on its 
own to meet the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. 
Poor government performance in the extradition debate, lack of a 
concentrated effort to combat official narcotics-related corruption and 
still lagging enforcement of strong counternarcotics laws all argue 
against certification.
    However, the vital national interests of the United States requires 
that U.S. assistance to Colombia be provided. The continuing dominance 
of Colombian cartels in the cocaine industry, their growing role in the 
heroin trade and the growing role of the guerrillas in shielding and 
protecting illicit drug production make the challenges in Colombia 
greater than ever before. To meet these challenges, we need to work even 
more closely with the GOC to expand joint eradication efforts in new 
coca growing areas in southern Colombia and in opium cultivation zones, 
to enhance interdiction, and to strengthen law enforcement. The GOC 
would not likely approve such an expanded program if denied 
certification for a third straight time. We have a unique opportunity 
with significant US-supplied assets deployed and the commitment of the 
CNP and elements of the armed forces to strong efforts in these areas. 
However, they will need increased resources and training to perform 
these tasks adequately. Strong leadership must come from the Colombian 
government to reform and defend essential democratic institutions, such 
as the country's judiciary. The coming elections may provide 
opportunities for further cooperation.
    Moreover, key elements of US assistance which could help in this 
effort, such as potential foreign military financing (FMF) and 
international military education and training (IMET), could not be 
provided to our allies for

[[Page 269]]

counternarcotics operations if Colombia were denied certification again. 
Indeed, this year the President deemed necessary the provision of FY97 
IMET and previous year FMF by means of a waiver under Section 614(b) of 
the FAA.
    U.S. economic engagement is also a critical element in 
counterbalancing the influence of drug money in the Colombian economy. 
After two years of denial of certification, U.S. companies, without 
access to OPIC and EXIM Bank financing, have lost significant business 
to competitors. With a vital national interest certification, U.S. 
companies will be able to compete on a level playing field for up to $10 
billion in upcoming major contracts.
    In making the decision to provide a vital national interests 
certification to Colombia this year, we were mindful of the 
deteriorating security and human rights environment in Colombia, the 
threat to that country's democracy, and the threat posed to Colombia's 
neighbors and to regional stability. The cumulative effects of 
Colombia's forty-year old insurgency, narco-corruption, the rise of 
paramilitaries, the growing number of internally displaced Colombians, 
growing incidents of human rights abuses, and the potential threat that 
Colombia's violence and instability pose to the region all require a 
vital national interests certification. Such a certification is 
necessary so that the USG can provide assistance in order to broaden and 
deepen its engagement with this and the next Colombian government in an 
effort to effectively confront and eliminate narcotrafficking. The 
threats to U.S. vital national interests posed by a bar on assistance 
outweigh the risks posed by Colombia's inadequate counternarcotics 
performance.

Pakistan
    Pakistan is a major producer and an important transit country for 
opiates and cannabis destined for international markets. In 1997, 
Pakistan produced approximately 85 metric tons (mts) of opium, an 
estimated increase of 13.3% from 1996. Heroin and opium seizures 
increased, but the overall record of law enforcement action continued to 
be poor. Seizures of precursor chemicals improved substantially. The 
Nawaz Sharif government, which took office in February 1997, voiced 
greater concern about Pakistan's narcotics problems, although this has 
not yet manifested itself in essential counternarcotics actions.
    The 1997 counternarcotics efforts of the Government of Pakistan 
(GOP) were seriously deficient. The two major accomplishments were 
passage of the comprehensive drug control legislation and destruction of 
heroin processing laboratories in Pakistan's Northwest Frontier 
Province. One major arrest requested by the USG took place, but there 
were no known trials of previously arrested drug kingpins and no 
extraditions of the 23 individuals requested by the USG for narcotics-
related offenses. Opium and heroin seizures increased and acetic 
anhydride seizures sharply increased, but the GOP did not interdict any 
large opiate smuggling caravans on the well-traveled Baluchistan route 
from Afghanistan into Iran.
    The GOP made no progress in crop eradication. Poppy cultivation 
increased 21% and opium production increased 13%, despite USG programs 
and USG-assisted UNDCP programs which had made steady progress in de

[[Page 270]]

creasing production and poppy cultivation in the past five years. The 
increase was primarily due to the GOP's failure to enforce the poppy ban 
in Dir District, the site of highest opium poppy growth, despite 
warnings from both UNDCP and the USG that the GOP must continue to press 
tribal groups living in that district to eradicate illicit opium poppy. 
The GOP also made no progress in demand reduction. There were no new 
programs designed to control Pakistan's addict population, estimated to 
be between 3 and 5 million. The GOP estimates the addict population 
growth at 7% a year.
    USG/GOP law enforcement cooperation was severely strained by the 
arrest, torture, courtmartial and conviction of a DEA employee involved 
in an operation which identified Pakistani Air Force Officers involved 
in drug smuggling to the U.S. These steps were taken by elements of the 
GOP with the full involvement of the country's Anti Narcotics Force 
(ANF). Recently, the GOP reduced the DEA employee's prison sentence on 
appeal. The Administration remains engaged with the GOP in seeking the 
release of this employee from prison.
    Pakistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, which it 
ratified in October 1991, but implementing legislation on money 
laundering has not yet been drafted. While Pakistan's Control of 
Narcotics Substances Act, passed in 1997, deals with drug-related money 
laundering, Pakistan must still criminalize money laundering from non-
drug related offenses.
    The USG/GOP bilateral agreement provides funding for law 
enforcement, roads and crop substitution in the NWFP, and demand 
reduction activities. The GOP made very little progress in meeting the 
goals of the bilateral agreement and 1988 UN Drug Convention in 1997. 
The continued detention of the DEA employee, despite repeated urgings at 
the highest levels for his release, seriously complicates the 
counternarcotics relationship. Because of this and because of the GOP's 
poor counternarcotics law enforcement record and the substantial upsurge 
in illicit poppy growth, Pakistan cannot be judged to have cooperated 
fully with the USG or taken adequate steps on its own to meet the 
requirements of the 1988 U.N. Drug Convention.
    However, vital U.S. national interests would be damaged if Pakistan 
were to be denied certification. Implementing sanctions would vitiate 
the broader U.S. policy of high-level engagement, including strong 
support for Prime Minister Sharif's commitment to hold a dialogue with 
India as well as to strengthen democracy and reform the economy.
    Helping the GOP to strengthen its economy and to move towards a more 
liberal, broader-based market economy is one of the USG's major goals. 
Yet, a number of new or potential initiatives would be halted or thrown 
into question by denial of certification. This could include such 
fundamental programs such as those funded by OPIC and EX-IM, PL 480 
projects involving commodities other than food, and possibly the funding 
of NGOs. Certification denial would also require the U.S. to vote 
against Pakistan in multilateral development banks (``MDBs'') at a time 
when Pakistan is vulnerable to a financial crisis. The combination of 
such negative votes and removal of possible assistance could weaken 
Pakistan's investment climate, increase its prospects for sliding into 
financial insolvency and sharply inhibit our ability to help the GOP 
modernize its economy.
    In addition to this statutory basis for a vital national interests 
certification, it should also be recognized that denial of certification 
could jeop

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ardize broader interests between the U.S. and Pakistan, including the 
ability to achieve meaningful progress with the GOP on such important 
goals as nonproliferation and Afghanistan.
    Accordingly, while it is not appropriate at this time to certify 
Pakistan as either fully cooperating with the United States or taking 
adequate steps on its own to combat drug production and trafficking, the 
risks posed by inadequate counternarcotics performance are outweighed by 
the risks posed to US vital national interests if U.S. assistance was no 
longer available and the U.S. was required to vote against loans to 
Pakistan in MDBs, thus justifying a vital national interests 
certification.

Paraguay
    A determination to decertify Paraguay would be justified in view of 
its substantial lack of achievement in meeting its counternarcotics 
goals in 1997. However, the vital national interests of the United 
States require certification, so that the assistance, withheld pursuant 
to provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, can be provided.
    Paraguay is a transit country for cocaine, primarily Bolivian, en 
route to Argentina, Brazil, the United States, Europe and Africa, as 
well as a source country for high-quality marijuana. Paraguay was fully 
certified for 1996, after the Government of Paraguay (GOP) adopted a 
national drug control strategy, promulgated an anti-money laundering 
law, and increased its counternarcotics cooperation with the United 
States and regional countries. Paraguay's counternarcotics goals for 
1997 included investigating major cocaine traffickers, making 
significant seizures and arrests, preventing the escape of arrested drug 
traffickers, implementing the money laundering law and provisions of the 
anti-drug law (Law 1340/88) aimed at punishing and preventing official 
corruption, enacting legislation authorizing controlled deliveries and 
undercover operations, as well as criminalizing drug-related conspiracy.
    Unfortunately, Paraguay did not come close to meeting any of these 
objectives. Responsibility for the failure to do so is shared by all 
branches of the Paraguayan government. There were no successful 
investigations of significant traffickers. Although cocaine seizures 
showed a minimal increase over 1996, all involved minor traffickers. The 
largest seizure was accompanied by the arrest of four suspects caught in 
possession of over 21 kilos of cocaine. However, a criminal court judge 
freed all four on what appear to be spurious grounds; this judge 
received a minor disciplinary sanction and continues to serve in office. 
Judicial corruption was also suspected in connection with Paraguay's 
refusal to extradite a suspected narcotics trafficker to France. In that 
case, a lawyer was recorded accepting an alleged bribe to pass on to an 
appellate judge; the judge subsequently was removed from office for his 
actions in yet another case.
    Paraguay is a major money laundering center, but it is unclear what 
portion is drug-related. The promulgation of the 1996 money laundering 
law, and the creation of an anti-money laundering secretariat 
(SEPRELAV), in January 1997, now provides the GOP with the legal tools 
necessary to move against this criminal activity, but little has been 
done so far to apply the

[[Page 272]]

law. SEPRELAV also has not been provided with a budget to enable it to 
operate as an independent organization.
    The Paraguayan Congress, controlled by the opposition parties, made 
no progress on a major revision of the anti-drug law, which was 
submitted by the GOP in 1995. The GOP did not submit new legislation to 
authorize controlled deliveries, undercover operations or criminalize 
drug-related conspiracy. It also failed to complete a precursor chemical 
monitoring survey that was promised in 1996.
    In part, these failures were due to the GOP's allowing itself to 
become distracted by election-year politics, particularly by its 
opposition to the presidential candidacy of former Army Commander, and 
unsuccessful 1996 coup plotter, Lino Oviedo. The GOP and opposition 
parties also demonstrated reduced political will to confront the 
politically influential and economically powerful frontier commercial 
and contraband interests during an election year.
    The GOP, realizing its shortfalls on counternarcotics cooperation 
and cognizant of the USG decision on certification, recently has 
reaffirmed its political will to prioritize counternarcotics efforts, 
including taking law enforcement action against significant narco-
traffickers, agreeing to negotiate a new bilateral extradition treaty 
with the USG, and preparing a draft law to explicitly authorize 
controlled deliveries. While positive steps, these measures have yet to 
bear fruit; their possible fulfillment will have a bearing on next 
year's certification decision, not this year's.
    Denial of certification would, however, cut off assistance programs 
designed to meet the priority US goal of strengthening Paraguay's 
democratic institutions, at precisely the moment when those institutions 
are being severely tested by the stress of hotly-contested presidential, 
congressional and gubernatorial election campaigns. Denial of 
certification at this time could have an unintended negative impact on 
the ongoing election campaign. Denial of certification would also 
jeopardize ongoing cooperation and assistance programs with the GOP 
against other international crimes (smuggling, intellectual property 
piracy, terrorism). Moreover, vital national interests certification 
would help to promote the political will and positive action against 
narcotics trafficking that we will seek from the next GOP.
    The risks posed to all of these US interests (promoting democracy, 
cooperation against other crimes and continued counter-terrorism 
cooperation) by a cutoff of bilateral assistance outweigh the risks 
posed by Paraguay's failure to cooperate fully with the USG, or to take 
adequate steps to combat narcotics on its own.


STATEMENTS OF EXPLANATION

Afghanistan
    Afghanistan continued as the world's second largest producer of 
opium poppy, according to USG estimates. Land under poppy cultivation 
and opium production rose 3 percent in 1997 according to US satellite 
surveys. Continued warfare, destruction of the economic infrastructure 
and the absence of a recognized central government with control over the 
entire country remain obstacles to effective drug control.

[[Page 273]]

    The inaction and lack of political will of the Taliban faction, 
which controls 96 per cent of Afghanistan's opium-growing areas, as well 
as substantial drug trade involvement on the part of some local Taliban 
authorities impede meaningful counternarcotics progress as well. The 
Taliban, formed by religious students, began its military campaign in 
Afghanistan in 1994 and assumed effective control over two thirds of the 
country in fall 1996. There is no evidence that the Taliban or any other 
faction controlling Afghan territory took substantive law enforcement or 
crop eradication action in 1997.
    Although the Taliban condemned illicit drug cultivation, production, 
trafficking and use in 1997, there is no evidence that Taliban 
authorities took action to decrease poppy cultivation, arrest and 
prosecute major narcotics traffickers, interdict large shipments of 
illicit drugs or precursor chemicals or to eliminate opiate processing 
laboratories anywhere in Afghanistan in 1997. Narcotics remain 
Afghanistan's largest source of income, and some Taliban authorities 
reportedly benefit financially from the trade and provide protection to 
heroin laboratories. There are numerous reports of drug traffickers 
operating in Taliban territory with the consent or involvement of some 
Taliban officials. Taliban authorities called for international 
alternative development assistance as a precondition to eradicating 
opium poppy cultivation. Afghanistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug 
Convention.
    In November 1997, the Taliban responded to a UNDCP initiative by 
agreeing to eliminate poppy cultivation in districts where alternative 
development was provided, to control poppy cultivation in areas where 
poppy was not previously grown and to eliminate morphine and heroin 
laboratories when these sites were brought to their attention. To date, 
these commitments have not been tested.
    The USG strongly supports the UN Secretary General's Special Envoy 
for Afghanistan, Ambassador Lakhdar Brahimi, and the UN Special Mission 
to Afghanistan in their efforts to promote a cease-fire, followed by 
negotiations leading to a broad-based government that can address the 
problems of narcotics, terrorism and humanitarian concerns. We assist 
the peoples of Afghanistan, subject to resource availability, primarily 
through UN programs aimed at humanitarian relief, reconstruction and 
counternarcotics. In 1997, USG transferred $1.6 million in FY-95 and FY-
96 funds earmarked for UNDCP to help finance UNDCP's capacity building 
project and poppy reduction projects in Afghanistan. The USG also 
provided an initial $269,202 of a $772,905 poppy reduction/alternative 
development project being implemented by an American non-governmental 
organization (NGO), Mercy Corps International (MCI) in Helmand Province.
    Since U.S. legislation makes special allowance for continuation of 
such assistance generally, notwithstanding any other provision of law, 
denying certification of Afghanistan would have minimal effect in terms 
of implementation of this policy.
    Continuation of large-scale opium cultivation and trafficking in 
Afghanistan, plus the failure of the authorities to initiative law 
enforcement actions, preclude a determination that Afghanistan has taken 
adequate steps on its own or that it has sufficiently cooperated with 
USG counternarcotics efforts to meet the goals and objectives of the UN 
1988 Drug Convention,

[[Page 274]]

to which Afghanistan is a party. Accordingly, denial of certification is 
appropriate.

Burma
    Burma continues to be the world's largest source of illicit opium 
and heroin. In 1997, production declined slightly from the previous 
year's levels; estimates indicated there were 155,150 hectares under 
cultivation, which could yield a maximum of 2,365 metric tons of opium.
    On the law enforcement front, the Government of Burma (GOB) seized 
more opium and heroin, and raided more laboratories than in the past. 
These were welcome developments, but, given the extent of the problem, 
they were insufficient to make noticeable inroads against drug 
trafficking and production. Seizures of amphetamines and the precursor 
chemical acetic anhydride declined. There were no arrests of major 
traffickers. Drug lord Chang Qifu (Khun Sa), who ``surrendered'' to 
Burmese authorities in 1996, was not brought to justice, and the GOB 
continued to refuse to render him to the United States. The GOB did 
return a U.S. fugitive to Thailand, which extradited him to the United 
States.
    Several ethnic groups declared that they would establish opium free 
zones in their territories by the year 2000, and the GOB undertook some 
eradication efforts as well. Establishment of opium free zones would 
require considerable time and investment of resources. The Government of 
Burma approved a United Nations Drug Control Program, a five-year 
alternative development project in the ethnic Wa region; as the year 
closed, UNDCP was making arrangements to initiate work.
    Money laundering and the return of narcotics profits laundered 
elsewhere appear to be a significant factor in the overall Burmese 
economy. An underdeveloped banking system and lack of enforcement 
against money laundering have created a business and investment 
environment conducive to the use of drug-related proceeds in legitimate 
commerce. The GOB has encouraged leading narcotics traffickers 
systematically to invest in infrastructure and other domestic projects.
    USG counternarcotics cooperation with the Burmese regime is 
restricted to basic law enforcement operations and involves no bilateral 
material or training assistance. The USG remains concerned over Burma's 
commitment to effective counternarcotics measures, human rights, and 
political reform. The USG is prepared to consider resuming appropriate 
assistance contingent upon the GOB's unambiguous demonstration of a 
strong commitment to counternarcotics, the rule of law, punishment of 
traffickers and major trafficking organizations (including asset 
forfeiture and seizure), anti-corruption, eradication of opium 
cultivation, destruction of drug processing laboratories, and 
enforcement of money laundering legislation.

[[Page 275]]

Iran
    Iran has strengthened its counternarcotics performance during the 
past year--particularly in the area of interdiction--but direct 
information is limited because the United States has no diplomatic 
presence in the country.
    Iran's interdiction efforts are apparently vigorous, if partially 
effective. Costly physical barriers and aggressive patrolling of its 
eastern borders have led to Iranian claims of record narcotics seizures 
of nearly 200 tons last year--and significant Iranian casualties as 
well. But with an estimated 1,000 tons of opiates crossing the country 
each year, Iran remains the major transit route for opiates from 
Afghanistan and Pakistan to the West, although we do not have recent 
data on the amount that may reach the United States. Punishment of 
traffickers is harsh but drug trafficking continues on a large scale.
    Cultivation of opium poppies continues in Iran, but the extent of 
cultivation is difficult to ascertain conclusively. The 1993 United 
States Government survey of opium cultivation in Iran estimated that 
3,500 hectares were under cultivation. U.S. crop estimates were a major 
factor in placing Iran on the majors' list of drug producing and transit 
countries. Iran claims complete eradication of the opium poppy crop. 
Recent statements by the Dublin Group that opium cultivation has 
markedly decreased give at least partial credence to the Iranian claims, 
but a new crop survey would help--and will be undertaken--to confirm 
such eradication.
    Iran has taken some steps to confront corruption among customs, 
police and military personnel. Observers have noted several convictions 
of corrupt officials but the corruption of low-level officials 
continues; multi-ton shipments of opiates could not traverse Iran 
without assistance from complicit law enforcement or military personnel. 
There have been no recent, credible reports concerning high-level 
complicity in narcotics trafficking and high-ranking officials of the 
GOI have clearly stated Iran's official aversion to narcotics 
trafficking.
    Iran has ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention, but the United States 
Government and other observers remain unaware of implementing 
legislation to bring Iran into full compliance with the Convention. A 
1997 proposal approved by the Expediency Council appears to allow for 
stronger drug laws and demand reduction programs, but the extent to 
which the proposal helps Iran to comply with the Convention cannot be 
predicted before the proposal is enacted as unforceable laws or 
regulations. No bilateral narcotics agreement exists between Iran and 
the United States.
    Iran has recently stated, at the highest level, a desire to 
cooperate in international counternarcotics programs. With the exception 
of the Iran/Pakistan/UNDCP border interdiction program and a UNDCP 
demand reduction survey, however, Iran does not yet participate in 
important cooperative counternarcotics efforts. Such programs of 
international cooperation would add significantly to external 
understanding of Iran's narcotics problems and counter-narcotics 
efforts.

[[Page 276]]

Nigeria
    Nigeria is the hub of African narcotics trafficking and the 
headquarters for global poly-crime organizations. Nigerian narcotics 
traffickers operate worldwide networks that transport heroin from Asia 
to Africa, the NIS and the United States, and cocaine from South America 
to Europe, Africa and East Asia. Nigerian traffickers are responsible 
for a significant portion of the heroin that is abused in the United 
States. Marijuana is the only narcotic cultivated in Nigeria; large 
quantities are exported to other African nations and to Europe, but have 
little impact upon the United States.
    The need to repatriate their criminal gains has motivated Nigerian 
traffickers to develop a sophisticated and flexible money laundering 
system capable of handling not only narcotics profits, but the ill-
gotten gains of Nigerian sponsored financial fraud as well. The 
dislocations of Nigeria's economy have helped to engender a vast 
informal commercial sector, immune to most regulation and well suited to 
illegal activities.
    The record of Nigerian law enforcement against the narcotics trade 
is, at best, mixed. The one force capable of making headway against 
narcotics, the Nigerian Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), has been 
handicapped by deficiencies in political and financial support. The 
NDLEA arrests many couriers, but few organization leaders. NDLEA efforts 
at Nigeria's international airports have led to increased seizures of 
narcotics, and may be a factor contributing to traffickers's expansion 
into bulk shipments and across borders into Nigeria's neighbors.
    The Government of Nigeria has failed to react responsibly to the 
ease with which criminals function in Nigeria. Appropriate criminal 
narcotics and money-laundering legislation has been enacted, but remains 
unenforced, with no evidence that prosecutions, convictions or asset 
seizures have been made against any major criminal figures. Nigeria 
failed to provide consistent policy advice to its law enforcement 
organs, lacked the political will to attack pervasive corruption, and 
again neglected to provide sufficient material support for even the most 
basic operations of its law enforcement agencies.
    Nigeria again failed to meet its obligations to the United States 
and other nations with regard to extraditions and other forms of 
counter-narcotics cooperation. Even direct promises of action have 
remained unredeemed. A December, 1996, United States mission to Nigeria 
received the Government of Nigeria's assurance that extraditions of 
criminals to the United States could resume immediately. No action has 
been taken on extraditions over one year later.


Notice of March 4, 1998

Continuation of Iran Emergency

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, I declared a national 
emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency 
Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the threat to the 
national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States 
constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iran, 
including

[[Page 277]]

its support for international terrorism, efforts to undermine the Middle 
East peace process, and acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and 
the means to deliver them. On May 6, 1995, I issued Executive Order 
12959 imposing more comprehensive sanctions to further respond to this 
threat, and on August 19, 1997, I issued Executive Order 13059 
consolidating and clarifying these previous orders.
Because the actions and policies of the Government of Iran continue to 
threaten the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the 
United States, the national emergency declared on March 15, 1995, must 
continue in effect beyond March 15, 1998. Therefore, in accordance with 
section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am 
continuing the national emergency with respect to Iran. Because the 
emergency declared by Executive Order 12957 constitutes an emergency 
separate from that declared on November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 
12170, this renewal is distinct from the emergency renewal of October 
1997. This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and 
transmitted to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    March 4, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-16 of March 4, 1998

Vietnamese Cooperation in Accounting for United States Prisoners of War 
and Missing in Action (POW/MIA)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
As provided under section 609 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, 
and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998, 
Public Law 105-119, I hereby determine, based on all information 
available to the United States Government, that the Government of the 
Socialist Republic of Vietnam is fully cooperating in good faith with 
the United States in the following four areas related to achieving the 
fullest possible accounting for Americans unaccounted for as a result of 
the Vietnam War:
    (1) resolving discrepancy cases, live sightings, and field 
        activities;
    (2) recovering and repatriating American remains;
    (3) accelerating efforts to provide documents that will help lead to 
        the fullest possible accounting of POW/MIAs; and
    (4) providing further assistance in implementing trilateral 
        investigations with Laos.
I further determine that the appropriate laboratories associated with 
POW/MIA accounting are thoroughly analyzing remains, material, and other 
information, and fulfilling their responsibilities as set forth in 
subsection (B) of section 609, and information pertaining to this 
accounting is being made available to immediate family members in 
compliance with 50 U.S.C. 435 note.
I have been advised by the Department of Justice and believe that 
section 609 is unconstitutional because it purports to use a condition 
on appropria

[[Page 278]]

tions as a means to direct my execution of responsibilities that the 
Constitution commits exclusively to the President. I am providing this 
determination as a matter of comity, while reserving the position that 
the condition enacted in section 609 is unconstitutional.
In making this determination I have taken into account all information 
available to the United States Government as reported to me, the full 
range of ongoing accounting activities in Vietnam, including joint and 
unilateral Vietnamese efforts, and the concrete results we have attained 
as a result.
Finally, in making this determination, I wish to reaffirm my continuing 
personal commitment to the entire POW/MIA community, especially to the 
immediate families, relatives, friends, and supporters of these brave 
individuals, and to reconfirm that the central, guiding principle of my 
Vietnam policy is to achieve the fullest possible accounting of our 
prisoners of war and missing in action.
You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the 
appropriate committees of the Congress and to publish it in the Federal 
Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, March 4, 1998.



Memorandum of March 5, 1998

Delegation of Authority With Respect to Reporting Obligations Regarding 
Counterterrorism and Antiterrorism Programs and Activities

Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United 
States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States 
Code, and section 1051(b) of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 1998 (Public Law 105-85), I hereby delegate to you the 
reporting function vested in me by section 1051(b) of that Act.
You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, March 5, 1998.

[[Page 279]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-17 of March 9, 1998

Presidential Determination on Section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 
1974--Vietnam

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 
93-618, January 3, 1975; 88 Stat. 1978, 19 U.S.C. 2432(c)(2)(A)) as 
amended (the ``Act''), I determine that a waiver by Executive order of 
the application of subsections (a) and (b) of section 402 of the Act 
with respect to Vietnam will substantially promote the objectives of 
section 402.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, March 9, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-18 of March 9, 1998

Presidential Determination Under Subsection 2(b)(2)(D) of the Export-
Import Bank Act of 1945, as Amended--Vietnam

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to subsection 2(b)(2)(D) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, 
as amended, I determine that it is in the national interest for the 
Export-Import Bank of the United States to guarantee, insure, extend 
credit, and participate in the extension of credit in connection with 
the purchase or lease of any product or service by, for use in, or for 
sale or lease to Vietnam.
You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the 
Congress and publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, March 9, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-19 of March 13, 1998

Military Drawdown for Jordan

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Defense
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws and Constitution of 
the United States, including Title III (Military Assistance) of the 
Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs 
Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118) (``Title III''), I hereby 
direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the 
Department of Defense, defense services of

[[Page 280]]

the Department of Defense, and military education and training of an 
aggregate value of $25,000,000 under the authority of the fifth proviso 
under the heading ``Foreign Military Financing Program'' in Title III 
for Jordan for the purposes of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to report this 
determination to the Congress and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, March 13, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-20 of April 3, 1998

Use of Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs 
Account Funds for the U.S. Contribution to the Korean Peninsula Energy 
Development Organization (KEDO)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1), I 
hereby determine that it is important to the security interests of the 
United States to furnish up to $30 million in funds made available under 
the heading ``Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related 
Programs'' in title II of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and 
Related Programs Appropriation Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118) for the 
United States contribution to the Korean Peninsula Energy Development 
Organization without regard to any provision of law within the scope of 
section 614(a)(1). I hereby authorize the furnishing of such assistance.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, April 3, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-21 of April 28, 1998

Presidential Determination on the Proposed Agreement for Cooperation 
Between the United States of America and Ukraine Concerning Peaceful 
Uses of Nuclear Energy

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Energy
I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the 
United States of America and Ukraine Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear 
Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the 
interested agencies.

[[Page 281]]

I have determined that the performance of the agreement will promote, 
and will not constitute an unreasonable risk to, the common defense and 
security. Pursuant to section 123b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as 
amended (42 U.S.C. 2153(b)), I hereby approve the proposed agreement and 
authorize you to arrange for its execution.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this 
determination in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, April 28, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-22 of May 13, 1998

Sanctions Against India for Detonation of a Nuclear Explosive Device

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
In accordance with section 102(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I 
hereby determine that India, a non-nuclear-weapon state, detonated a 
nuclear explosive device on May 11, 1998. The relevant agencies and 
instrumentalities of the United States Government are hereby directed to 
take the necessary actions to impose the sanctions described in section 
102(b)(2) of that Act.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the appropriate committees of the Congress and to arrange for its 
publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, May 13, 1998.



Notice of May 18, 1998

Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Burma

On May 20, 1997, I issued Executive Order 13047, effective at 12:01 a.m. 
eastern daylight time on May 21, 1997, certifying to the Congress under 
section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related 
Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the 
Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the 
democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, 1996, thereby 
invoking the prohibition on new investment in Burma by United States 
persons, contained in that section. I also declared a national emergency 
to deal with the threat posed to the national security and foreign 
policy of the United States by the actions and policies of the 
Government of Burma, invoking the authority, inter alia, of the 
International emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706).

[[Page 282]]

The national emergency declared on May 20, 1997, must continue beyond 
May 20, 1998, as long as the Government of Burma continues its policies 
of committing large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in 
Burma. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National 
Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national 
emergency with respect to Burma. This notice shall be published in the 
Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 18, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-23 of May 23, 1998

Assistance Program for the Government of the Russian Federation

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section 577(a) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, 
and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118), I 
hereby determine and certify that the Government of the Russian 
Federation has implemented no statute, executive order, regulation, or 
similar government action that would discriminate, or would have as its 
principal effect discrimination, against religious groups or religious 
communities in the Russian Federation in violation of accepted 
international agreements on human rights and religious freedoms to which 
the Russian Federation is a party. During the period under review, the 
Government of Russia has applied the new Russian Law on Religion in a 
manner that is not in conflict with its international obligations on 
religious freedom. However, this issue requires continued and close 
monitoring as the Law on Religion furnishes regional officials with an 
instrument that can be interpreted and used to restrict the activities 
of religious minorities.
You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress of this 
determination and to arrange for its publication in the Federal 
Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, May 23, 1998.



Memorandum of Justification Regarding Determination Under Section 577(a) 
of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs 
Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118)

Summary: During the period under review, the Government of Russia has 
applied the new Law on Religion in a manner that is not in conflict with 
its international obligations on religious freedom. To the extent that 
violations of internationally recognized rights have occurred, they have 
been the consequence of actions taken by regional or local officials and 
do not appear to be a manifestation of federal government policy.

[[Page 283]]

At the same time, the Law on Religion furnishes regional officials with 
an instrument that can be interpreted and used to restrict the 
activities of religious minorities. Thus, this issue requires continued 
and close monitoring.
1. The New Law on Religion: On October 1, 1997, the Russian Federation 
enacted a restrictive and potentially discriminatory law ``On Freedom of 
Conscience and Religious Associations'' (Law on Religion). The new law 
is complex, with many ambiguous and contradictory provisions.
The law accords more favorable legal status and privileges to religions 
that have been present in Russia for an extended period of time. New 
religious associations must wait 15 years before acquiring all of the 
rights of a juridical person, such as the right to own property and open 
a bank account, as well as the right to engage in a range of religious 
activities. Article 27(3) of the law is also controversial because it 
applies certain aspects of the 15-year rule to religious organizations 
that enjoyed full legal status under prior legislation. Portions of the 
law appear inconsistent with Russia's constitution and civil code as 
well as its international commitments. Some Russian officials had 
indicated that the implementing regulations would clarify ambiguities, 
but the regulations share the ambiguities of the law.
2. Key Concern: Through its acceptance and accession to international 
human rights instruments, the Government of Russia has committed itself 
to respecting freedom of association and assembly and, more 
specifically, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including 
freedom to change religion or belief and freedom to manifest religion or 
belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance. The Law on 
Religion is of great concern because it could be applied to restrict the 
ability of communities of believers to establish organizations with full 
legal rights.
3. Application: Over the past year, Russian government officials, 
including President Yeltsin and then-Prime Minister Chernomyrdin, 
pledged to Vice President Gore that the new law would not result in any 
erosion of religious freedom in Russia. Officials in the Presidential 
Administration and the Cabinet of Ministers have echoed and clarified 
Yeltsin's promises. In particular, the Ministry of Justice has adopted a 
permissive approach to registering religious organizations with full 
legal rights, effectively bypassing elements of the 15-year rule. In 
addition, Presidential Administration officials have announced the 
establishment of two consultative mechanisms to facilitate government 
interaction with religious communities and to monitor application of the 
new law.
The Presidential Administration and the Ministry of Justice have also 
promised to support efforts now underway by nongovernmental 
organizations to challenge the constitutionality of the law's 
retroactive provisions (article 27(3)) before the Constitutional Court. 
Officials in these organs have indicated their view that article 27(3) 
violates Russia's constitution.
Despite the federal government's efforts, however, a number of regional 
officials continue to violate rights of minority religious 
organizations, in some cases citing the new federal law. Based on 
anecdotal, limited information we have to date, we are aware of about 25 
cases of harassment between the date of enactment of the Law on Religion 
and early May 1998.
4. Evaluation: Local and regional abuses of religious rights raise 
serious concerns, especially if the new law is being used by some 
officials to justify such actions. At the same time, reported incidents 
represent a rel

[[Page 284]]

atively small number of problems when viewed against the size of the 
country and complexity of political and social changes underway. 
Moreover, we have no evidence to suggest that these local actions result 
from a deliberate policy of the federal government. Finally, these 
incidents are, unfortunately, consistent with a pattern of local and 
regional harassment and restrictions on minority religious communities 
that was clearly discernible prior to passage of the law.
Regional and local abuses reflect a larger problem in Russia--which is 
also evidenced in matters ranging from tax collection to elections to 
law enforcement--of the center exercising weak control over events 
throughout the regions. We believe local officials have taken advantage 
of a poorly developed legal tradition and weak oversight to advance 
intolerant ideas at odds with Russia's constitution and the flexible and 
fair interpretation of the Law on Religion articulated by the central 
authorities.
Nevertheless, it remains to be seen how the Law on Religion's 
restrictions will be interpreted in the longer run, and whether the 
federal government will respond appropriately over time to cases in 
which local officials apply the law in a manner at odds with Russia's 
international commitments. Given the political commitments made and 
constitutional positions taken by the central government, the fact that 
the implementing regulations are only now making their way to regional 
officials and the fact that federal officials are only now establishing 
mechanisms for addressing differences in interpretation, we believe that 
the relatively small number of local incidents does not require a 
finding that the ``Government of the Russian Federation'' has 
implemented discriminatory measures. Similarly, we believe it would be 
premature to conclude that the law's restrictions, as implemented, 
constitute violations of Russia's international obligations.
5. U.S. Engagement: Freedom of conscience has been a central element of 
the U.S. bilateral agenda with Moscow since the early 1970's, and the 
Law on Religion has been the subject of numerous high-level 
communications between the Administration and the Russian Government, 
involving the President, the Vice President, Secretary Albright, and 
other senior U.S. officials.
The Department of State and the U.S. Embassy in Moscow will continue to 
maintain close contact with religious communities and NGOs to assess the 
effects of the new law and solicit views on appropriate responses. In 
addition, we will continue to make clear to the Russian Government the 
requirements of Section 577(a) of the Foreign Operations Appropriations 
Act for FY 1998 and urge that the federal authorities both reverse 
discriminatory actions taken at the local level and, when necessary, 
reprimand the officials at fault. We will also encourage federal action 
to ensure that regional laws do not contradict Russia's constitutional 
and international guarantees of religious freedom, and continue to make 
clear our view that the federal law should ultimately be changed so it 
cannot be used to justify curtailing religious freedom in Russia.

[[Page 285]]


Notice of May 28, 1998

Continuation of Emergency With Respect to the Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Bosnian Serbs

On May 30, 1992, by Executive Order 12808, President Bush declared a 
national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to 
the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States 
constituted by the actions and policies of the Governments of Serbia and 
Montenegro, blocking all property and interests in property of those 
Governments. President Bush took additional measures to prohibit trade 
and other transactions with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia 
and Montenegro) by Executive Order 12810 and 12831, issued on June 5, 
1992, and January 15, 1993, respectively. On April 25, 1993, I issued 
Executive Order 12846, blocking the property and interests in property 
of all commercial, industrial, or public utility undertakings or 
entities organized or located in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
(Serbia and Montenegro), and prohibiting trade-related transactions by 
United States persons involving those areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
controlled by Bosnian Serb forces and the United Nations Protected Areas 
in the Republic of Croatia. On October 25, 1994, because of the actions 
and policies of the Bosnian Serbs, I expanded the scope of the national 
emergency by issuing Executive Order 12934 to block the property of the 
Bosnian Serb forces and the authorities in the territory that they 
control within Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the property of any 
entity organized or located in, or controlled by any person in, or 
resident in, those areas.
On December 27, 1995, I issued Presidential Determination No. 96-7, 
directing the Secretary of the Treasury, inter alia, to suspend the 
application of sanctions imposed on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
(Serbia and Montenegro) pursuant to the above-referenced Executive 
orders and to continue to block property previously blocked until 
provision is made to address claims or encumbrances, including the 
claims of the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia. This 
sanctions relief, in conformity with United Nations Security Council 
Resolution 1022 of November 22, 1995 (hereinafter the ``Resolution''), 
was an essential factor motivating Serbia and Montenegro's acceptance of 
the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina 
initialed by the parties in Dayton on November 21, 1995, and signed in 
Paris on December 14, 1995 (hereinafter the ``Peace Agreement''). The 
sanctions imposed on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and 
Montenegro) were accordingly suspended prospectively, effective January 
16, 1996. Sanctions imposed on the Bosnian Serb forces and authorities 
and on the territory that they control within Bosnia and Herzegovina 
were subsequently suspended prospectively, effective May 10, 1996, also 
in conformity with the Peace Agreement and the Resolution. Sanctions 
against both the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 
and the Bosnian Serbs were subsequently terminated by United Nations 
Security Council Resolution 1074 of October 1, 1996. This termination, 
however, did not end the requirement of the Resolution that blocked 
funds and assets that are subject to claims and encumbrances remain 
blocked, until unblocked in accordance with applicable law.

[[Page 286]]

In the last year, further substantial progress has been achieved to 
bring about a settlement of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia 
acceptable to the parties. Another set of elections occurred in Bosnia 
and Herzegovina, as provided for in the Peace Agreement, and the Bosnian 
Serb forces have continued to respect the zones of separation as 
provided in the Peace Agreement. The ultimate disposition of the various 
remaining categories of blocked assets is being addressed on a case-by-
case basis.
Until the status of all remaining blocked property is resolved, the 
Peace Agreement implemented, and the terms of the Resolution met, the 
national emergency declared on May 30, 1992, as expanded in scope on 
October 25, 1994, and the measures adopted pursuant thereto to deal with 
that emergency must continue beyond May 30, 1998.
Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with 
respect to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 
and the Bosnian Serb forces and those areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
under the control of the Bosnian Serb forces. This notice shall be 
published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    May 28, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-24 of May 29, 1998

Determination Pursuant to Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee 
Assistance Act of 1962, as Amended

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act 
of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is 
important to the national interest that up to $37,000,000 be made 
available from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration 
Assistance Fund to meet the urgent and unexpected needs of refugees, 
victims of conflict, and other persons at risk in Africa and Southeast 
Asia. These funds may be used, as appropriate, to provide contributions 
to international and nongovernmental agencies.
You are authorized and directed to inform the appropriate committees of 
the Congress of this determination and the obligation of funds under 
this authority and to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, May 29, 1998.

[[Page 287]]


Memorandum of May 30, 1998

Action Under Section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 Concerning Wheat 
Gluten

Memorandum for the Secretary of the Treasury[,] the Secretary of 
Agriculture[, and] the United States Trade Representative
On March 18, 1998, the United States International Trade Commission 
(USITC) submitted to me a report that contained: (1) a determination 
pursuant to section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2252) (the 
``Trade Act'') that imports of wheat gluten are being imported into the 
United States in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause 
of serious injury to the domestic industry; and (2) negative findings 
made pursuant to section 311(a) of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement Implementation Act (the ``NAFTA Implementation Act'') (19 
U.S.C. 3371(a)) with respect to imports of wheat gluten from Canada and 
Mexico.
After considering all relevant aspects of the investigation, including 
the factors set forth in section 203(a)(2) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 
2253), I have implemented actions of a type described in section 
203(a)(3). Specifically, I have determined that the most appropriate 
action is a quantitative limitation on imports of wheat gluten. I have 
proclaimed such action for a period of approximately 3 years in order to 
provide time for the domestic industry to implement an adjustment plan 
that will facilitate its positive adjustment to import competition. I 
have set the quantitative limitation at an amount equal to 126.812 
million pounds in the first year, an amount which represents total 
average imports in the crop years ending June 30, 1993, through June 30, 
1995. This amount will increase by six percent annually for the duration 
of the relief period. I believe that this amount is the relief necessary 
to remedy the serious injury and to promote positive adjustment. The 
quota is allocated based on average import shares in the period covered 
by the crop years ending June 30, 1993, through June 30, 1995. Shares of 
countries excluded from the quota are assigned on a pro rata basis to 
countries subject to the quota. To ensure that the quota is 
substantially filled, I have authorized the United States Trade 
Representative to reallocate any significant unused quota allocations. I 
considered taking other forms of action, such as increasing tariffs on 
imports of wheat gluten, and have determined that action in such forms 
would not, in light of the nature of trade in wheat gluten, meet the 
goals of remedying serious injury and facilitating industry adjustment.
I agree with the USITC's findings under section 311(a) of the NAFTA 
Implementation Act, and therefore determine, pursuant to section 312(a) 
of the NAFTA Implementation Act, that imports of wheat gluten produced 
in Canada do not contribute importantly to the serious injury caused by 
imports and that imports of wheat gluten produced in Mexico do not 
account for a substantial share of total imports of such wheat gluten. 
Therefore, pursuant to section 312(b) of the NAFTA Implementation Act, 
the quantitative limitation will not apply to imports of wheat gluten 
from Canada or Mexico. Similarly, the limitation will not apply to 
imports of wheat gluten from Israel, and beneficiary countries under the 
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and the Andean Trade 
Preference Act (ATPA), in light of the USITC's statement that its 
recommendation does not apply to im

[[Page 288]]

ports from those countries. Moreover, other developing countries that 
have accounted for a minor share of wheat gluten imports are excluded 
from the quantitative limitation.
As an additional means of arriving at a long-term solution to this trade 
issue, I have directed the United States Trade Representative, with the 
assistance of the Secretary of Agriculture, to seek to initiate 
international negotiations to address the underlying cause of the 
increase in imports of the article or otherwise to alleviate the injury 
found to exist.
I have determined that the actions described above will facilitate 
efforts by the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import 
competition and provide greater economic and social benefits than costs. 
This action provides the domestic industry with necessary temporary 
relief from increased import competition, while also assuring our 
trading partners significant continued access to the United States 
market.
I also note that, pursuant to section 204 of the Trade Act, the USITC 
will monitor developments with respect to the domestic industry, 
including progress and specific efforts made by workers and firms in the 
domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition, 
and will provide to me and to the Congress a report of its monitoring no 
later than the date that is the midpoint of the period the action is in 
effect.
The United States Trade Representative is authorized and directed to 
publish this determination in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, May 30, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-25 of May 30, 1998

Sanctions Against Pakistan for Detonation of a Nuclear Explosive Device

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
In accordance with section 102(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I 
hereby determine that Pakistan, a non-nuclear-weapon state, detonated a 
nuclear explosive device on May 28, 1998. The relevant agencies and 
instrumentalities of the United States Government are hereby directed to 
take the necessary actions to impose the sanctions described in section 
102(b)(2) of that Act.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the appropriate committees of the Congress and to arrange for its 
publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, May 30, 1998.

[[Page 289]]


Memorandum of June 1, 1998

Plain Language in Government Writing

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies
The Vice President and I have made reinventing the Federal Government a 
top priority of my Administration. We are determined to make the 
Government more responsive, accessible, and understandable in its 
communications with the public.
The Federal Government's writing must be in plain language. By using 
plain language, we send a clear message about what the Government is 
doing, what it requires, and what services it offers. Plain language 
saves the Government and the private sector time, effort, and money.
Plain language requirements vary from one document to another, depending 
on the intended audience. Plain language documents have logical 
organization, easy-to-read design features, and use:
     common, everyday words, except for necessary technical 
        terms;
     ``you'' and other pronouns;
     the active voice; and
     short sentences.
To ensure the use of plain language, I direct you to do the following:
     By October 1, 1998, use plain language in all new 
        documents, other than regulations, that explain how to obtain a 
        benefit or service or how to comply with a requirement you 
        administer or enforce. For example, these documents may include 
        letters, forms, notices, and instructions. By January 1, 2002, 
        all such documents created prior to October 1, 1998, must also 
        be in plain language.
     By January 1, 1999, use plain language in all proposed and 
        final rulemaking documents published in the Federal Register, 
        unless you proposed the rule before that date. You should 
        consider rewriting existing regulations in plain language when 
        you have the opportunity and resources to do so.
The National Partnership for Reinventing Government will issue guidance 
to help you comply with these directives and to explain more fully the 
elements of plain language. You should also use customer feedback and 
common sense to guide your plain language efforts.
I ask the independent agencies to comply with these directives.
This memorandum does not confer any right or benefit enforceable by law 
against the United States or its representatives. The Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget will publish this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 1, 1998.

[[Page 290]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-26 of June 3, 1998

Determination Under Section 402(d)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as 
Amended--Continuation of Waiver Authority

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as 
amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter ``the Act''), I 
determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 
2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted 
by section 402 of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of 
section 402 of the Act. I further determine that continuation of the 
waiver applicable to the People's Republic of China will substantially 
promote the objectives of section 402 of the Act.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 3, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-27 of June 3, 1998

Determination Under Subsection 402(d)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as 
Amended--Continuation of Waiver Authority

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as 
amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the ``Act''), I 
determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 
2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted 
by section 402 of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of 
section 402 of the Act. I further determine that continuation of the 
waiver applicable to Vietnam will substantially promote the objectives 
of section 402 of the Act.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 3, 1998.

[[Page 291]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-28 of June 3, 1998

Determination Under Subsection 402(d)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as 
Amended--Continuation of Waiver Authority

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as 
amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the ``Act''), I 
determine, pursuant to subsection 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 
2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted 
by section 402 of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of 
section 402 of the Act. I further determine that continuation of the 
waiver applicable to the Republic of Belarus will substantially promote 
the objectives of section 402 of the Act.
You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 3, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-29 of June 3, 1998

Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions Regarding the Palestine 
Liberation Organization

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me under section 539(d) of the 
Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs 
Appropriations Act, 1998, Public Law 105-118, I hereby determine and 
certify that it is important to the national security interests of the 
United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 of the Anti-
Terrorism Act of 1987, Public Law 100-204, through November 26, 1998.
You are authorized and directed to transmit this determination to the 
Congress and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 3, 1998.

[[Page 292]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-30 of June 15, 1998

Report to Congress Regarding Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy Toward 
Burma

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading ``Policy Toward 
Burma'' in section 570(d) of the FY 1997 Foreign Operations 
Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated 
Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 
months following enactment concerning:
    1) progress towards democratization in Burma;
    2) progress on improving the quality of life of the Burmese people, 
        including progress on market reforms, living standards, labor 
        standards, use of forced labor in the tourism industry, and 
        environmental quality; and
    3) progress made in developing a comprehensive multilateral strategy 
        to bring democracy to and improve human rights practices and the 
        quality of life in Burma, including the development of a 
        dialogue between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) 
        and democratic opposition groups in Burma.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit the attached report 
fulfilling this requirement to the appropriate committees of the 
Congress and to arrange for publication of this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 15, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-31 of June 19, 1998

Presidential Determination on U.S. Assistance to the Korean Peninsula 
Energy Development Organization (KEDO)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the 
``Act''), I hereby determine that it is important to the security 
interests of the United States to furnish up to $5 million in funds made 
available under Chapter IV, Part II of the Act for a U.S. contribution 
to KEDO without regard to any provision of law within the scope of 
section 614(a)(1). I hereby authorize this contribution.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, June 19, 1998.

[[Page 293]]


Memorandum of July 8, 1998

Delegation of Authority Under Section 1406(b) of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense
By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the 
United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United 
States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the functions 
conferred upon the President by section 1406(b) of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 (Public Law 105-85).
The authority delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated not lower 
than the Under Secretary level.
You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, July 8, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-33 of July 15, 1998

Presidential Determination on the Proposed Agreement for Cooperation 
Between the Government of the United States of America and the 
Government of Romania Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

Memorandum for the Secretary of State, [and] the Secretary of Energy
I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the 
Government of the United States of America and the Government of Romania 
Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, 
recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies.
I have determined that the performance of the agreement will promote, 
and will not constitute an unreasonable risk to, the common defense and 
security. Pursuant to section 123b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as 
amended (42 U.S.C. 2153(b)), I hereby approve the proposed agreement and 
authorize you to arrange for its execution.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this 
determination in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, July 15, 1998.

[[Page 294]]


Notice of July 28, 1998

Continuation of Iraqi Emergency

On August 2, 1990, by Executive Order 12722, President Bush declared a 
national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to 
the national security and foreign policy of the United States 
constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iraq. By 
Executive Orders 12722 of August 2, 1990, and 12724 of August 9, 1990, 
the President imposed trade sanctions on Iraq and blocked Iraqi 
government assets. Because the Government of Iraq has continued its 
activities hostile to United States interests in the Middle East, the 
national emergency declared on August 2, 1990, and the measures adopted 
on August 2 and August 9, 1990, to deal with that emergency must 
continue in effect beyond August 2, 1998. Therefore, in accordance with 
section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am 
continuing the national emergency with respect to Iraq.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    July 28, 1998.



Notice of August 13, 1998

Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations

On August 19, 1994, consistent with the authority provided me under the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), I 
issued Executive Order 12924. In that order, I declared a national 
emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States in 
light of the expiration of the Export Administration Act of 1979, as 
amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2401 et seq.). Because the Export Administration 
Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency 
declared on August 19, 1994, must continue in effect beyond August 19, 
1998. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National 
Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national 
emergency declared in Executive Order 12924.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    August 13, 1998.

[[Page 295]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-34 of September 9, 1998

Determination Pursuant to Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee 
Assistance Act of 1962, as Amended

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act 
of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is 
important to the national interest that up to $20,000,000 be made 
available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund 
to meet the urgent and unexpected needs of refugees, displaced persons, 
conflict victims, and other persons at risk due to the Kosovo crisis. 
These funds may be used, as appropriate, to provide contributions to 
international and nongovernmental organizations.
You are authorized and directed to inform the appropriate committees of 
the Congress of this determination and the obligation of funds under 
this authority and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 9, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-35 of September 11, 1998

Extension of the Exercise of Certain Authorities Under the Trading With 
the Enemy Act

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of the
 Treasury
Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 
5(b) note), and a previous determination made by me on September 12, 
1997 (62 Fed. Reg. 49729), the exercise of certain authorities under the 
Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 
1998.
I hereby determine that the extension for 1 year of the exercise of 
those authorities with respect to the applicable countries is in the 
national interest of the United States.
Therefore, pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 101(b) of 
Public Law 95-223, I extend for 1 year, until September 14, 1999, the 
exercise of those authorities with respect to countries affected by:
    (1) the Foreign Assets Control Regulations, 31 CFR Part 500;
    (2) the Transaction Control Regulations, 31 CFR Part 505; and
    (3) the Cuban Assets Control Regulations, 31 CFR Part 515.


[[Page 296]]


The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to publish this 
determination in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 11, 1998.



Notice of September 23, 1998

Continuation of Emergency With Respect to UNITA

On September 26, 1993, by Executive Order 12865, I declared a national 
emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and 
policies of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
(``UNITA''), prohibiting the sale or supply by United States persons or 
from the United States, or using U.S. registered vessels or aircraft, of 
arms, related materiel of all types, petroleum, and petroleum products 
to the territory of Angola, other than through designated points of 
entry. The order also prohibits the sale or supply of such commodities 
to UNITA. On December 12, 1997, in order to take additional steps with 
respect to the national emergency declared in Executive Order 12865, I 
issued Executive Order 13069, closing all UNITA offices in the United 
States and imposing additional sanctions with regard to the sale or 
supply of aircraft or aircraft parts, the granting of take-off, landing 
and overflight permission, and the provision of certain aircraft-related 
services. Most recently, on August 19, 1998, in order to take further 
steps with respect to the national emergency declared in Executive Order 
12865, I issued Executive Order 13098, blocking all property and 
interests in property of UNITA and designated UNITA officials and adult 
members of their immediate families, prohibiting the importation of 
certain diamonds exported from Angola, and imposing additional sanctions 
with regard to the sale or supply of equipment used in mining, motorized 
vehicles, watercraft, spare parts for motorized vehicles or watercraft, 
mining services, and ground or waterborne transportation services.
Because of our continuing international obligations and because of the 
prejudicial effect that discontinuation of the sanctions would have on 
the Angolan peace process, the national emergency declared on September 
26, 1993, and the measures adopted pursuant thereto to deal with that 
emergency, must continue in effect beyond September 26, 1998. Therefore, 
in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 
U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with respect to 
UNITA.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    September 23, 1998.

[[Page 297]]


Presidential Determination No. 98-37 of September 29, 1998

Use of $10 Million in Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and 
Related Programs Account Funds and $5 Million in Economic Support Funds 
for a U.S. Contribution to the Korean Peninsula Development Organization 
(KEDO)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the 
``Act''), I hereby determine that it is important to the security 
interests of the United States to furnish up to $10 million in funds 
made available under the heading ``Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, 
Demining and Related Programs'' in title II of the Foreign Operations, 
Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public 
Law 105-118), and $5 million in funds made available under Chapter 4 of 
Part II of the Act for the U.S. contribution to KEDO without regard to 
any provision of law within the scope of section 614(a)(1). I hereby 
authorize this contribution.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 29, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-38 of September 29, 1998

Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 582(a) of the Foreign 
Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 
1998, on Withholding Assistance to the Government of Chad

Memorandum for the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, [and] 
the Administrator of the Agency for International Development
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 582(a) of the Foreign 
Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 
1998 (the ``Act''), I hereby:

   (1) determine and certify that the Government of the Republic of Chad is violating a sanction against Libya
    imposed pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 748; and
   (2) direct that funds not yet obligated that were allocated for Chad under section 653(a) of the Foreign
    Assistance Act of 1961 (the ``FAA'') out of appropriations in the Act for programs under chapters 4 and 5 of
    Part II of the FAA shall be withheld from obligation and expenditure for Chad.

[[Page 298]]

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to report this 
determination to the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 29, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-39 of September 30, 1998

Presidential Determination on FY 1999 Refugee Admissions Numbers and 
Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status Pursuant to Sections 207 and 
101(a)(42), Respectively, of the Immigration and Nationality Act, and 
Determination Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee 
Assistance Act, as Amended

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
(the ``Act'') (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate 
consultation with the Congress, I hereby make the following 
determinations and authorize the following actions:
    The admission of up to 78,000 refugees to the United States during 
FY 1999 is justified by humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the 
national interest; provided, however, that this number shall be 
understood as including persons admitted to the United States during FY 
1999 with Federal refugee resettlement assistance under the Amerasian 
immigrant admissions program, as provided below.
The 78,000 admissions numbers shall be allocated among refugees of 
special humanitarian concern to the United States in accordance with the 
following regional allocations; provided, however, that the number 
allocated to the East Asia region shall include persons admitted to the 
United States during FY 1999 with Federal refugee resettlement 
assistance under section 584 of the Foreign Operations, Export 
Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act of 1988, as contained 
in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-202 (Amerasian immigrants and their 
family members); provided further that the number allocated to the 
former Soviet Union shall include persons admitted who were nationals of 
the former Soviet Union, or in the case of persons having no 
nationality, who were habitual residents of the former Soviet Union, 
prior to September 2, 1991:

  Africa...................................................     12,000
  East Asia................................................      9,000
  Europe (includes 3,000 unfunded).........................     48,000
  Latin America/Caribbean..................................      3,000
  Near East/South Asia.....................................      4,000
  Unallocated..............................................      2,000

    Within the Europe ceiling are 3,000 unfunded numbers allocated to 
the former Soviet Union for use as needed provided that resources within

[[Page 299]]

existing appropriations are available to fund the cost of their 
admission. The 2,000 unallocated numbers shall be allocated as needed to 
regional ceilings where shortfalls develop. Unused admissions numbers 
allocated to a particular region may be transferred to one or more other 
regions if there is an overriding need for greater numbers for the 
region or regions to which the numbers are being transferred. You are 
hereby authorized and directed to consult with the Judiciary Committees 
of the Congress prior to any such use of the unallocated numbers or 
reallocation of numbers from one region to another.
    Pursuant to section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance 
Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(b)(2), I hereby determine that 
assistance to or on behalf of persons applying for admission to the 
United States as part of the overseas refugee admissions program will 
contribute to the foreign policy interests of the United States and 
designate such persons for this purpose.
    An additional 10,000 refugee admissions numbers shall be made 
available during FY 1999 for the adjustment to permanent resident status 
under section 209(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 
1159(b)) of aliens who have been granted asylum in the United States 
under section 208 of the Act (8 U.S.C. 1158), as this is justified by 
humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest.
In accordance with section 101(a)(42) of the Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42)) 
and after appropriate consultation with the Congress, I also specify 
that, for FY 1999, the following persons may, if otherwise qualified, be 
considered refugees for the purpose of admission to the United States 
within their countries of nationality or habitual residence:
    a. Persons in Vietnam
    b. Persons in Cuba
    c. Persons in the former Soviet Union
You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the 
Congress immediately and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 30, 1998.


Presidential Determination No. 98-40 of September 30, 1998

Transfer of Funds To Support Court To Try Accused
Perpetrators of Pan Am 103 Bombing

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, 
including section 610(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as 
amended (the ``Act''), I hereby determine that, to provide support for 
the establishment and functioning of the court proposed to be 
established in The Netherlands for the trial of suspects in the Pan Am 
103 bombing case, it is necessary for the purposes of the Act that $3 
million of funds made available

[[Page 300]]

for section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act for fiscal year 1998 for 
the costs of direct loans, and $4,945,800 of funds made available for 
section 551 of the Act for fiscal year 1998, be transferred to, and 
consolidated with, funds made available for Chapter 4 of Part II of the 
Act, and such funds are hereby so transferred and consolidated.
You are hereby authorized and directed to report this determination to 
the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 30, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 98-41 of September 30, 1998

Drawdrawn Under Section 506(a)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act To 
Provide Counternarcotics Assistance to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, 
Trinidad and Tobago, and the Countries of the Eastern Caribbean

Memorandum for the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, [and] the Secretary of 
Transportation
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(2) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(2) (the 
``Act''), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the 
United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory and 
resources of the Department of Defense, military education and training 
from the Department of Defense, and articles and services from the 
inventory and resources of the Departments of Justice, State, 
Transportation, and the Treasury for the purpose of providing 
international narcotics assistance to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, 
and Trinidad and Tobago; and to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, 
Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the 
Grenadines (hereinafter, ``the Eastern Caribbean countries'').
Therefore, I direct the drawdown of up to $75 million of articles and 
services from the inventory and resources of the Departments of Defense, 
Transportation, Justice, State, and the Treasury, and military education 
and training from the Department of Defense, for Bolivia, Brazil, 
Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, 
Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Eastern Caribbean countries 
for the purposes and under the authorities of chapter 8 of part I of the 
Act.
As a matter of policy and consistent with past practice, the 
Administration will seek to ensure that the assistance furnished under 
this drawdown is not provided to any unit of any foreign country's 
security forces if that unit is credibly alleged to have committed gross 
violations of human rights unless the government of such country is 
taking effective measures to bring the responsible members of that unit 
to justice.

[[Page 301]]

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to report this 
determination to the Congress immediately and to arrange for its 
publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, September 30, 1998.



Notice of October 19, 1998

Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics 
Traffickers Centered in Colombia

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, I declared a national 
emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States 
constituted by the actions of significant foreign narcotics traffickers 
centered in Colombia, and the unparalleled violence, corruption, and 
harm that they cause in the United States and abroad. The order blocks 
all property and interests in property of foreign persons listed in an 
Annex to the order, as well as foreign persons determined to play a 
significant role in international narcotics trafficking centered in 
Colombia, to materially assist in, or provide financial or technological 
support for or goods or services in support of, the narcotics 
trafficking activities of persons designated in or pursuant to the 
order, or to be owned or controlled by, or to act for or on behalf of, 
persons designated in or pursuant to the order. The order also prohibits 
any transaction or dealing by United States persons or within the United 
States in such property or interests in property. Because the activities 
of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia continue to 
threaten the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the 
United States and to cause unparalleled violence, corruption, and harm 
in the United States and abroad, the national emergency declared on 
October 21, 1995, and the measures adopted pursuant thereto to deal with 
that emergency, must continue in effect beyond October 21, 1998. 
Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency for 1 
year with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in 
Colombia.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    October 19, 1998.

[[Page 302]]


Presidential Determination No. 99-1 of October 21, 1998

Determination To Waive Requirements Relating to Blocked Property of 
Terrorist-List States

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of the 
Treasury
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws 
of the United States of America, including section 117 of the Treasury 
and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999, as contained in the 
Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 
(approved October 21, 1998), I hereby determine that the requirements of 
section 117, including the requirement that any property with respect to 
which financial transactions are prohibited or regulated pursuant to 
section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 5(b)), 
section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 
2370(a)), sections 202 and 203 of the International Emergency Economic 
Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1702), and proclamations, orders, 
regulations, and licenses issued pursuant thereto, be subject to 
execution or attachment in aid of execution of any judgment relating to 
a claim for which a foreign state claiming such property is not immune 
from the jurisdiction of courts of the United States or of the States 
under section 1605(a)(7) of title 28, United States Code, would impede 
the ability of the President to conduct foreign policy in the interest 
of national security and would, in particular, impede the effectiveness 
of such prohibitions and regulations upon financial transactions, and, 
therefore, pursuant to section 117(d), I hereby waive the requirements 
of section 117 in the interest of national security.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this 
determination in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, October 21, 1998.



Memorandum of October 27, 1998

Report to the Congress Regarding Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy 
Toward Burma

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading ``Policy Toward 
Burma'' in section 570(d) of the FY 97 Foreign Operations Appropriations 
Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public 
Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment 
concerning:

(1)  progress toward democratization in Burma;

[[Page 303]]

(2)  progress on improving the quality of life of the Burmese people, including progress on market reforms,
      living standards, labor standards, use of forced labor in the tourism industry, and environmental quality;
      and
(3)  progress made in developing a comprehensive, multilateral strategy to bring democracy to, and improve human
      rights practices and the quality of life in Burma, including the development of a dialogue between the
      State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and democratic opposition groups in Burma.

You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit the attached report 
fulfilling these requirements to the appropriate committees of the 
Congress and to arrange for publication of this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, October 27, 1998.



Notice of October 27, 1998

Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Sudan

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, I declared a national 
emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by 
the actions and policies of the Government of Sudan. By Executive Order 
13067, I imposed trade sanctions on Sudan and blocked Sudanese 
government assets. Because the Government of Sudan has continued its 
activities hostile to United States interests, the national emergency 
declared on November 3, 1997, and the measures adopted on that date to 
deal with that emergency must continue in effect beyond November 3, 
1998. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National 
Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national 
emergency for 1 year with respect to Sudan.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    October 27, 1998.

[[Page 304]]


Presidential Determination No. 99-3 of November 6, 1998

Drawdown Under Section 506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of the Foreign Assistance Act 
of 1961, as Amended To Provide Emergency Disaster Relief Assistance for 
Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Defense
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of 
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (``the Act''), 22 U.S.C. 
2318(a)(2), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of 
the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory 
and resources of the Department of Defense, for the purpose of providing 
international disaster relief assistance to Honduras, Nicaragua, El 
Salvador, and Guatemala.
Therefore, I direct the drawdown of up to $30 million of articles and 
services from the inventory and resources of the Department of Defense 
for the Governments of Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala 
for the purposes and under the authorities of chapter 9 of part I of the 
Act.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to report this 
determination to the Congress immediately and to arrange for its 
publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, November 6, 1998.



Notice of November 9, 1998

Continuation of Iran Emergency

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a 
national emergency to deal with the threat to the national security, 
foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the 
situation in Iran. Notices of the continuation of this national 
emergency have been transmitted annually by the President to the 
Congress and the Federal Register. The most recent notice appeared in 
the Federal Register on October 1, 1997. Because our relations with Iran 
have not yet returned to normal, and the process of implementing the 
January 19, 1981, agreements with Iran is still underway, the national 
emergency declared on November 14, 1979, must continue in effect beyond 
November 14, 1998. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the 
National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the 
national emergency with respect to Iran. This notice shall be published 
in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    November 9, 1998.

[[Page 305]]


Notice of November 12, 1998

Continuation of Emergency Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, I declared a national 
emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the 
national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States 
posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons 
(``weapons of mass destruction'') and the means of delivering such 
weapons. Because the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and 
the means of delivering them continues to pose an unusual and 
extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and 
economy of the United States, the national emergency first declared on 
November 14, 1994, and extended on November 14, 1995, November 12, 1996, 
and November 13, 1997, must continue in effect beyond November 14, 1998. 
Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency declared 
in Executive Order 12938.
This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted 
to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    November 12, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 99-4 of November 14, 1998

Drawdown Under Section 506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of the Foreign Assistance Act 
To Provide Emergency Disaster Relief Assistance for Honduras, Nicaragua, 
El Salvador, and Guatemala

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of Defense
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of 
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (``the Act''), 22 U.S.C. 
2318(a)(2), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of 
the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory 
and resources of the Department of Defense, for the purpose of providing 
international disaster relief assistance to Honduras, Nicaragua, El 
Salvador, and Guatemala.
Therefore, I direct the drawdown of up to $45 million of articles and 
services from the inventory and resources of the Department of Defense 
for the Governments of Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala 
for the purposes and under the authorities of chapter 9 of part I of the 
Act.

[[Page 306]]

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to report this 
determination to the Congress immediately and to arrange for its 
publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, November 14, 1998.



Memorandum of November 16, 1998

Delegation of Authority Under Section 5(d)(2) of the International Anti-
Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of 
the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the 
United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the 
functions and authorities vested in the President by section 5(d)(2) of 
the International Anti-Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998 (Public 
Law 105-366).
You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the 
Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, November 16, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 99-5 of November 25, 1998

Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions Regarding the Palestine 
Liberation Organization

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me under section 540(d) of the 
Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs 
Appropriations Act, 1999, Public Law 105-277, I hereby determine and 
certify that it is important to the national security interests of the 
United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 of the Anti-
Terrorism Act of 1987, Public Law 100-204, through May 24, 1999.
You are authorized and directed to transmit this determination to the 
Congress and to publish it in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, November 25, 1998.

[[Page 307]]


Presidential Determination No. 99-8 of December 8, 1998

Assistance Program for the New Independent States of the Former Soviet 
Union

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to Section 517(b) in Title V of the Foreign Operations, Export 
Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 
105-277), I hereby determine that it is in the national security 
interest of the United States to make available funds appropriated under 
the heading ``Assistance for the New Independent States of the Former 
Soviet Union'' in Title II of that Act without regard to the restriction 
in that section.
You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress of this 
determination and to arrange for its publication in the Federal 
Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, December 8, 1998.



Presidential Determination No. 99-9 of December 24, 1998

Use of $12 Million in Economic Support Funds for
a U.S. Contribution to the Korean Peninsula Development Organization 
(KEDO)

Memorandum for the Secretary of State
Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the 
``Act''), I hereby determine that it is important to the security 
interests of the United States to furnish up to $12 million in funds 
made available under Chapter 4 of Part II of the Act for assistance for 
KEDO without regard to any provision of law within the scope of section 
614(a)(1). I hereby authorize furnishing of this assistance.
You are hereby authorized and directed to transmit this determination to 
the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    Washington, December 24, 1998.



Notice of December 30, 1998

Continuation of Libyan Emergency

On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan declared 
a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat 
to the national security and foreign policy of the United States 
constituted by

[[Page 308]]

the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On January 8, 1986, 
by Executive Order 12544, the President took additional measures to 
block Libyan assets in the United States. Every President has 
transmitted to the Congress and the Federal Register a notice continuing 
this emergency each year since 1986.
The crisis between the United States and Libya that led to the 
declaration of a national emergency on January 7, 1986, has not been 
resolved. The Government of Libya has continued its actions and policies 
in support of terrorism, despite the calls by the United Nations 
Security Council, in Resolutions 731 (1992), 748 (1992), and 883 (1993), 
that it demonstrate by concrete actions its renunciation of terrorism. 
Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies 
Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with 
respect to Libya. This notice shall be published in the Federal Register 
and transmitted to the Congress.
                                                    WILLIAM J. CLINTON  
THE WHITE HOUSE,
    December 30, 1998.

[[Page 309]]

                Appendices--Other Presidential Documents

________________________________________________________________________


Editorial note: The following tables include documents issued by the 
Executive Office of the President and published in the Federal Register 
but not included in title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


________________________________________________________________________


Appendix A--List of Messages to Congress Transmitting Budget Rescissions 
and Deferrals

________________________________________________________________________


                                                                   63 FR

Date of Message                                                     Page

February 3, 1998....................................................7004

February 20, 1998..................................................10076

July 24, 1998......................................................41303

October 22, 1998...................................................63949


________________________________________________________________________


Appendix B--List of Presidential Determinations

________________________________________________________________________


                                                                   63 FR

Date of Presidential Determination                                  Page

September 25, 1998 (No. 98-36).....................................56921


________________________________________________________________________


[[Page 311]]



              CHAPTER I--EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT




  --------------------------------------------------------------------

Part                                                                Page
100             Standards of conduct........................         312
101             Public information provisions of the 
                    Administrative Procedures Act...........         323
102             Enforcement of nondiscrimination on the 
                    basis of handicap in programs or 
                    activities conducted by the Executive 
                    Office of the President.................         324

[[Page 312]]



PART 100--STANDARDS OF CONDUCT--Table of Contents




                      Subpart A--General Standards

Sec.
100.735-1   Purpose and scope.
100.735-2   Definitions.
100.735-3   Special Government employees.
100.735-4   General standards of conduct.
100.735-5   Responsibilities of employees.
100.735-6   Interpretation and advisory service; counseling.
100.735-7   Disciplinary action.
100.735-8   Conflicts of interest.
100.735-9   Disqualification because of private financial interests.
100.735-10  Additional prohibitions--regular employees.
100.735-11  Additional prohibitions--special Government employees.
100.735-12  Exemptions and exceptions from prohibitions of conflict of 
          interest statutes.
100.735-13  Salary of employee payable only by United States.
100.735-14  Gifts, entertainment, and favors.
100.735-15  Outside employment and other activity.
100.735-16  Financial interests.
100.735-17  Use of Government property.
100.735-18  Misuse of information.
100.735-19  Indebtedness.
100.735-20  Gambling, betting, and lotteries.
100.735-21  General conduct prejudicial to the Government.
100.735-22  Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
100.735-23  Conduct and responsibilities of special Government 
          employees.
100.735-24  Reporting of employment and financial interests--regular 
          employees.
100.735-25  Reporting of employment and financial interests--special 
          Government employees.
100.735-26  Reviewing statements of financial interests.
100.735-27  Supplemental regulations or instructions.

         Subpart B--Special Procedures; Counsel to the President

100.735-31  Members of part-time committees, boards, and commissions.
100.735-32  Special delegation of authority to the Counsel to the 
          President.

    Authority: EO 12731 of Oct. 17, 1990, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp.

    Source: 33 FR 3608, Feb. 29, 1968, unless otherwise noted.



                      Subpart A--General Standards



Sec. 100.735-1  Purpose and scope.

    (a) The maintenance of the highest standards of honesty, integrity, 
impartiality, and conduct by regular employees and special Government 
employees is essential to assure the proper performance of Government 
business and the maintenance of confidence by citizens in their 
Government. The avoidance of misconduct and conflicts of interest on the 
part of regular employees and special Government employees through 
informed judgment is indispensable to the maintenance of these 
standards.
    (b) This part is intended to foster the foregoing concepts. It is 
issued in compliance with the requirements of Executive Order No. 11222 
of May 8, 1965, and is based upon the provisions of that order, the 
regulations of the Civil Service Commission issued thereunder (part 735 
of 5 CFR Ch. I), and the statutes cited elsewhere in this part.
    (c) This part, among other things reflects prohibitions and 
requirements imposed by the criminal and civil laws of the United 
States. However, the paraphrased restatements of criminal and civil 
statutes contained in this part are designed for informational purposes 
only and in no way constitute an interpretation or construction thereof 
that is binding upon the Federal Government. Moreover, this part does 
not purport to paraphrase or enumerate all restrictions or requirements 
imposed by statutes, Executive Orders, regulations or otherwise upon 
Federal employees and former Federal employees. The omission of a 
reference to any such restriction or requirement in no way alters the 
legal effect of that restriction or requirement and any such restriction 
or requirement, as the case may be, continues to be applicable to 
employees and former employees in accordance with its own terms. 
Furthermore, attorneys employed by an agency are subject to the canons 
of professional ethics of the American Bar Association.



Sec. 100.735-2  Definitions.

    In this subpart:
    (a) Agency means the following agencies in the Executive Office of 
the

[[Page 313]]

President: The White House Office, the Council of Economic Advisers, the 
National Security Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Council, 
the Office of Science and Technology, and the Office of the Special 
Representative for Trade Negotiations, and any committee, board, 
commission, or similar group established in the Executive Office of the 
President.
    (b) Agency head means the President for the White House Office, the 
Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers for the Council of Economic 
Advisers, the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council for 
the National Security Council, the Executive Secretary of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council for the National Aeronautics and Space 
Council, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology for the 
Office of Science and Technology, and the Special Representative for 
Trade Negotiations for the Office of the Special Representative for 
Trade Negotiations, and the Chairman or comparable member of any 
committee, board, commission, or similar group established by the 
President.
    (c) Employee or regular employee means an officer or employee of an 
agency but does not include a special Government employee.
    (d) Special Government employee means an officer or employee of an 
agency who is retained, designated, appointed, or employed to perform, 
with or without compensation, for not to exceed 130 days during any 
period of 365 consecutive days, temporary duties, either on a full-time 
or intermittent basis.
    (e) The term person means an individual, a corporation, a company, 
an association, a firm, a partnership, a society, a joint stock company, 
or any other organization or institution.



Sec. 100.735-3  Special Government employees.

    Except where specifically provided otherwise, or where limited in 
terms or by the context to regular employees, all provisions of this 
subpart relating to employees are applicable also to special Government 
employees.



Sec. 100.735-4  General standards of conduct.

    (a) All employees shall conduct themselves on the job in such a 
manner that the work of their agency is efficiently accomplished and 
courtesy, consideration, and promptness are observed in dealings with 
the Congress, the public, and other governmental agencies.
    (b) All employees shall conduct themselves off the job in such a 
manner as not to reflect adversely upon their agency or the Federal 
service.
    (c) In all circumstances employees shall conduct themselves so as to 
exemplify the highest standards of integrity. An employee shall avoid 
any action, whether or not specifically prohibited by this subpart, 
which might result in, or create the appearance of:
    (1) Using public office for private gain;
    (2) Giving preferential treatment to any person;
    (3) Impeding Government efficiency or economy;
    (4) Losing complete independence or impartiality;
    (5) Making a Government decision outside official channels; or
    (6) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the 
integrity of the Government.



Sec. 100.735-5  Responsibilities of employees.

    (a) The Executive Clerk for the White House Office and the Counselor 
for each other agency shall distribute copies of this subpart to each 
employee and special Government employee within 30 days after the 
effective date thereof. In the case of a new employee or special 
Government employee entering on duty after the date of such 
distribution, a copy shall be furnished at the time of his entrance on 
duty. All employees and special Government employees shall familiarize 
themselves with the contents of this subpart.
    (b) Copies of Executive Order 11222, regulations, and statutes 
referred to in Sec. 100.735-1, together with various explanatory 
materials are available for inspection in the Office of the Executive 
Clerk for the White House Office and the Counselor for each other agency 
at any time during regular business

[[Page 314]]

hours. Employees are encouraged to consult these basic materials in any 
case of doubt as to the proper application or interpretation of the 
provisions of this subpart.
    (c) Attention of all employees is directed to House Concurrent 
Resolution 175, 85th Congress, 2d session, 72 Stat. B12, the ``Code of 
Ethics for Government Service'', which is attached to this subpart as 
Appendix A.



Sec. 100.735-6  Interpretation and advisory service; counseling.

    (a) The agency head shall appoint a Counselor for the agency who 
shall serve also as the agency's designee to the Civil Service 
Commission on matters covered by this part. Communications between the 
Counselor and employee shall be confidential, except as otherwise 
determined by the agency head.
    (b) The Counselor for the agency shall notify all employees and 
special Government employees of the availability of counseling services, 
and of how and where such services are available. Such notification 
shall be made within 90 days after the effective date of this subpart 
and periodically thereafter. In the case of a new employee or special 
Government employee appointed after the date of such notification, 
notification shall be given at the time of his entrance on duty.



Sec. 100.735-7  Disciplinary action.

    (a) A violation of any provision of this subpart by an employee may 
be cause for appropriate disciplinary action which may be in addition to 
any penalties prescribed by law. (As to remedial action in cases where 
an employee's financial interests result in a conflict or apparent 
conflict of interest, see Sec. 100.735-26.)
    (b) Any disciplinary or remedial action taken pursuant to this 
subpart shall be effected in accordance with any applicable laws, 
Executive orders, and regulations.



Sec. 100.735-8  Conflicts of interest.

    (a) A conflict of interest may exist whenever an employee has a 
substantial personal or private interest in a matter which involves his 
duties and responsibilities as an employee. The maintenance of public 
confidence in Government clearly demands that an employee take no action 
which would constitute the use of his official position to advance his 
personal or private interest. It is equally important that each employee 
avoid becoming involved in situations which present the possibility, or 
even the appearance, that his official position might be used to his 
private advantage.
    (b) Neither the pertinent statutes nor the standards of conduct 
prescribed in this subpart are to be regarded as entirely comprehensive. 
Each employee must, in each instance involving a personal or private 
interest in a matter which also involves his duties and responsibilities 
as an employee, make certain that his actions do not have the effect or 
the appearance of the use of his official position for the furtherance 
of his own interests or those of his family or his business associates.
    (c) The principal statutory provisions relating to bribery, graft, 
and conflicts of interest are contained in Chapter 11 of the Criminal 
Code, 18 U.S.C. 201-224. Severe penalties are provided for violations, 
including variously fine, imprisonment, dismissal from office, and 
disqualification from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit 
under the United States.



Sec. 100.735-9  Disqualification because of private financial interests.

    (a) Unless authorized to do so as provided hereafter in this 
section, no employee shall participate personally and substantially as a 
Government employee in a particular matter in which to his knowledge he 
has a financial interest (18 U.S.C. 208).
    (1) For the purposes of this section--
    (i) An employee participates personally and substantially in a 
particular matter through decision, approval, disapproval, 
recommendation, the rendering of advice, investigation, or otherwise;
    (ii) A particular matter is a judicial or other proceeding, 
application, request for ruling or other determination, contract, claim, 
controversy, charge, accusation, arrest, or other particular matter; and
    (iii) A financial interest is the interest of the employee himself 
or his

[[Page 315]]

spouse, minor child, partner, organization in which he is serving as 
officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee, or any person or 
organization with whom he is negotiating or has any arrangement 
concerning prospective employment.
    (b) An employee who has a financial interest (other than a financial 
interest exempted under paragraph (c) of this section) in a particular 
matter which is within the scope of his official duties shall make a 
full disclosure of that interest to the Counselor for the agency in 
writing. He shall not participate in such matter unless and until he 
receives a written determination by the agency head pursuant to section 
208 of Title 18, United States Code, that the interest is not so 
substantial as to be deemed likely to affect the integrity of the 
services which the Government may expect of him. If the agency head does 
not make such a determination he shall direct such remedial action as 
may be appropriate under the provisions of Sec. 100.735-26.
    (c) The financial interests described in this paragraph are hereby 
exempted pursuant to the provisions of section 208 of Title 18, United 
States Code, from the restrictions of paragraph (a) of this section and 
of section 208 of Title 18 as being too remote or inconsequential to 
affect the integrity of an employee's services in a matter.
    (1) Stocks, bonds, policies, properties, or interests in a mutual 
fund, investment company, trust, bank, or insurance company, as to which 
the employee has no managerial control or directorship. In the case of a 
mutual fund or investment company, this exemption applies only where the 
assets of the fund or company are diversified; it does not apply where 
the fund or company advertises that it specializes in a particular 
industry or commodity.
    (2) Interest in an investment club: Provided, That the fair value of 
the interest involved does not exceed $5,000, and that the interest does 
not exceed one-fourth of the total assets of the investment club.



Sec. 100.735-10  Additional prohibitions--regular employees.

    (a) In addition to the disqualification described in Sec. 100.735-9, 
a regular employee is subject to the following major prohibitions.
    (1) He may not, except in the discharge of his official duties, 
represent anyone else before a court or Government agency in a matter in 
which the United States is a party or has an interest. This prohibition 
applies both to paid and unpaid representation of another (18 U.S.C. 203 
and 205).
    (2) He may not, after his Government employment has ended, represent 
anyone other than the United States in connection with a matter in which 
the United States is a party or has an interest and in which he 
participated personally and substantially for the Government (18 U.S.C. 
207(a)).
    (3) He may not, for 1 year after his Government employment has 
ended, represent anyone other than the United States in connection with 
a matter in which the United States is a party or has an interest and 
which was within the boundaries of his official responsibility during 
the last year of his Government service (18 U.S.C. 207(b)). (This 
temporary restraint is permanent if the matter is one in which he 
participated personally and substantially. See subparagraph (2) of this 
paragraph.)
    (4) He may not receive any salary, or supplementation of his 
Government salary, from a private source as compensation for his 
services to the Government (18 U.S.C. 209). (See Sec. 100.735-13.)
    (b) Exemptions or exceptions from the prohibitions described in 
paragraph (a) of this section are permitted under certain circumstances. 
For the method of obtaining such exemptions or exceptions, see paragraph 
(d) of Sec. 100.735-12.



Sec. 100.735-11  Additional prohibitions--special Government employees.

    (a) In addition to the disqualification described in Sec. 100.735-9, 
a special Government employee is subject to the following major 
prohibitions.
    (1) He may not, except in the discharge of his official duties--
    (i) Represent anyone else before a court or Government agency in a 
matter in which the United States is a party or has an interest and in 
which he has at any time participated personally and substantially for 
the Government (18 U.S.C. 203 and 205), or

[[Page 316]]

    (ii) Represent anyone else in a matter pending before his agency 
unless he served there no more than 60 days during the previous 365 (18 
U.S.C. 203 and 205). He is bound by this restraint despite the fact that 
the matter is not one in which he has ever participated personally and 
substantially.
    (2) He may not, after his Government employment has ended, represent 
anyone other than the United States in connection with a matter in which 
the United States is a party or has an interest and in which he 
participated personally and substantially for the Government (18 U.S.C. 
207(a)).
    (3) He may not, for 1 year after his Government employment has 
ended, represent anyone other than the United States in connection with 
a matter in which the United States is a party or has an interest and 
which was within the boundaries of his official responsibility during 
the last year of his Government service (18 U.S.C. 207(b)). (This 
temporary restraint is permanent if the matter is one in which he 
participated personally and substantially. See subparagraph (2) of this 
paragraph.)
    (b) Exemptions or exceptions from the prohibitions described in 
paragraph (a) of this section are permitted under certain circumstances; 
for the method of obtaining such exemptions or exceptions, see paragraph 
(d) of Sec. 100.735-12.



Sec. 100.735-12  Exemptions and exceptions from prohibitions of conflict of interest statutes.

    (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be deemed to prohibit an employee, 
if it is not otherwise inconsistent with the faithful performance of his 
duties, from acting without compensation as agent or attorney for any 
person in a disciplinary, loyalty, or other Federal personnel 
administration proceeding involving such person.
    (b) Nothing in this subpart shall be deemed to prohibit an employee 
from acting, with or without compensation, as agent or attorney for his 
parents, spouse, child, or any person for whom, or for any estate for 
which, he is serving as guardian, executor, administrator, trustee or 
other personal fiduciary, except in those matters in which he has 
participated personally and substantially as a Government employee, 
through decision, approval, disapproval, recommendation, the rendering 
of advice, investigation, or otherwise, or which are the subject of his 
official responsibility, as defined in section 202(b) of Title 18 of the 
United States Code, provided that the agency head approves.
    (c) Nothing in this subpart shall be deemed to prohibit an employee 
from giving testimony under oath or from making statements required to 
be made under penalty for perjury or contempt.
    (d) In addition to the exemptions and exceptions described in this 
section and in Sec. 100.735-9, the conflict of interest statutes permit 
certain exemptions and exceptions in specific circumstances. The 
procedure for effecting such exemptions or exceptions is as follows:
    (1) Any regular employee or special Government employee who desires 
approval or certification of his activities as provided for by section 
205 of Title 18, United States Code, shall make application therefor in 
writing to the Counselor for the agency.
    (2) A former employee, including a former special Government 
employee, who desires certification with regard to his activities under 
section 207 of Title 18, United States Code, shall make application 
therefor in writing to the Counselor for the agency.
    (3) The Counselor for the agency shall report promptly to the agency 
head all matters reported to him under this subpart which require 
consideration of approvals, certifications, or determinations provided 
for in sections 205, 207, or 208 of Title 18, United States Code.



Sec. 100.735-13  Salary of employee payable only by United States.

    (a) No employee, other than a special Government employee or an 
employee serving without compensation, shall receive any salary, or any 
contribution to or supplementation of salary, as compensation for his 
services as an employee, from any source other than the Government of 
the United States, except as may be contributed out of the treasury of 
any State, county, or municipality (18 U.S.C. 209).
    (b) Nothing in this subpart shall be deemed to prohibit an employee 
from

[[Page 317]]

continuing to participate in a bona fide pension, retirement, group 
life, health, or accident insurance, profit-sharing, stock bonus, or 
other employee welfare or benefit plan maintained by a former employer 
nor from accepting contributions, awards, or other expenses under 
Chapter 41 of Title 5, United States Code (the former Government 
Employees Training Act).



Sec. 100.735-14  Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an employee 
shall not solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, 
favor, entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value from a 
person who:
    (1) Has, or is seeking to obtain, contractual or other business or 
financial relations with his agency;
    (2) Conducts operations or activities which are regulated by his 
agency; or
    (3) Has interests which may be substantially affected by the 
performance or nonperformance of his official duty.
    (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an employee may:
    (1) Accept a gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or other 
thing of monetary value from a friend, parent, spouse, child, or other 
close relative when the circumstances make it clear that the family or 
personal relationships involved are the motivating factors;
    (2) Accept food or refreshments of nominal value on infrequent 
occasions in the ordinary course of a luncheon or dinner meeting or 
other meeting or on an inspection tour whom an employee may properly be 
in attendance;
    (3) Accept loans from banks or other financial institutions on 
customary terms to finance proper or usual activities of employees, such 
as home mortgage loans; and
    (4) Accept unsolicited advertising or promotional materials such as 
pens, pencils, note pads, calendars, or other items of nominal intrinsic 
value.
    (c) An employee shall not solicit contributions from another 
employee for a gift to an employee in a superior official position. An 
employee in a superior official position shall not accept a gift 
presented as a contribution from employees receiving less salary than 
himself. An employee shall not make a donation as a gift to an employee 
in a superior official position (5 U.S.C. 7351). However, this paragraph 
does not prohibit a voluntary gift of nominal value or donation in a 
nominal amount made on a special occasion such as marriage, illness or 
retirement.
    (d) The Constitution (Art. 1, sec. 9, par. 8) prohibits acceptance 
from foreign governments, except with the consent of Congress, of any 
emolument, office, or title. The Congress has provided for the receipt 
and disposition of foreign gifts and decorations in 5 U.S.C. 7342. See 
also Executive Order 11320, 31 FR 15789, and the regulations pursuant 
thereto in 22 CFR part 3 (as added, 32 FR 6569). Any such gift or thing 
which cannot appropriately be refused shall be submitted to the 
Counselor for transmittal to the State Department.



Sec. 100.735-15  Outside employment and other activity.

    (a) An employee shall not engage in outside employment or other 
outside activity not compatible with the full and proper discharge of 
the duties and responsibilities of his Government employment. 
Incompatible activities include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Acceptance of a fee, compensation, gift, payment of expense, or 
any other thing of monetary value in circumstances in which acceptance 
may result in, or create the appearance of, a conflict of interest; or
    (2) Outside employment which tends to impair the employee's mental 
or physical capacity to perform his Government duties and 
responsibilities in an acceptable manner.
    (b) Within the limitations imposed by this section, employees are 
encouraged to engage in teaching, lecturing, and writing. However, an 
employee shall not, either for or without compensation, engage in 
teaching, lecturing, or writing that is dependent on information 
obtained as a result of his Government employment, except when that 
information has been made available to the general public or will be 
made available on request, or when the agency head gives written 
authorization for the use of non-public information on the basis that 
the use is in the

[[Page 318]]

public interest. In addition, an employee who is a Presidential 
appointee covered by section 401(a) of Executive Order No. 11222 of May 
8, 1965, shall not receive compensation or anything of monetary value 
for any consultation, lecture, discussion, writing, or appearance the 
subject matter of which is devoted substantially to the 
responsibilities, programs, or operations of his agency, or which draws 
substantially on official data or ideas which have not become part of 
the body of public information.
    (c) An employee shall not engage in outside employment under a State 
or local government, except in accordance with applicable regulations of 
the Civil Service Commission (part 734 of 5 CFR Ch. I).
    (d) Neither this section nor Sec. 100.735-14 precludes an employee 
from:
    (1) Receipt of bona fide reimbursement, unless prohibited by law, 
for actual expenses for travel and such other necessary subsistence as 
is compatible with this subpart and for which no Government payment or 
reimbursement is made. However, an employee may not be reimbursed, and 
payment may not be made on his behalf, for excessive personal living 
expenses, gifts, entertainment, or other personal benefits, nor does it 
allow an employee to be reimbursed by a person for travel on official 
business under agency orders when reimbursement is proscribed by 
Decision B-128527 of the Comptroller General dated March 7, 1967.
    (2) Participation in the activities of national or State political 
parties not proscribed by law. (See paragraph (o) of Sec. 100.735-22 
regarding proscribed political activities.)
    (3) Participation in the affairs of, or acceptance of an award for a 
meritorious public contribution or achievement given by, a charitable, 
religious, professional, social, fraternal, nonprofit educational or 
recreational, public service, or civic organization.
    (e) An employee who intends to engage in outside employment shall 
obtain the approval, through his official superior, of his agency head. 
A record of each approval under this paragraph shall be filed in the 
employee's official personnel folder.
    (f) This section does not apply to special Government employees, who 
are subject to the provisions of Sec. 100.735-23.



Sec. 100.735-16  Financial interests.

    (a) An employee may not have financial interests which--
    (1) Establish a substantial personal or private interest in a matter 
which involves his duties and responsibilities as an employee (an 
employee may not have financial interests, except as permitted by 
Sec. 100.735-9(c) or authorized pursuant to Sec. 100.735-12(d); or
    (2) Are entered into in reliance upon, or as a result of, 
information obtained through his employment; or
    (3) Result from active and continuous trading (as distinguished from 
the making of bona fide investments) which is conducted on such a scale 
as to interfere with the proper performance of his duties.
    (b) Aside from the restrictions prescribed or cited in this subpart, 
employees are free to engage in lawful financial transactions to the 
same extent as private citizens. Employees should be aware that the 
financial interests of their wives of minor children and blood relatives 
who are full-time residents of their households may be regarded, for the 
purposes of this section, as financial interests of the employees 
themselves.
    (c) This section does not apply to special Government employees, who 
are subject to the provisions of Sec. 100.735-23.



Sec. 100.735-17  Use of Government property.

    An employee shall not directly or indirectly use, or allow the use 
of, Government property of any kind, including property leased to the 
Government, for other than officially approved activities. An employee 
has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property 
including equipment, supplies, and other property entrusted or issued to 
him.



Sec. 100.735-18  Misuse of information.

    For the purpose of furthering a private interest, an employee shall 
not, except as provided in paragraph (b) of Sec. 100.735-15, directly or 
indirectly use, or allow the use of, official information obtained 
through or in connection with

[[Page 319]]

his Government employment which has not been made available to the 
general public.



Sec. 100.735-19  Indebtedness.

    An employee shall pay each just financial obligation in a proper and 
timely manner, especially one imposed by law such as Federal, State, or 
local taxes. For the purpose of this section, a just financial 
obligation means one acknowledged by the employee, or reduced to 
judgment by a court, and in a proper and timely manner means in a manner 
which his agency determines does not, under the circumstances, reflect 
adversely on the Government as his employer. In the event of dispute 
between an employee and an alleged creditor, this section does not 
require an agency to determine the validity or amount of the disputed 
debt.



Sec. 100.735-20  Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    An employee shall not participate, while on Government-owned or 
leased property or while on duty for the Government, in any gambling 
activity, including the operation of a gambling device, in conducting a 
lottery or pool, in a game for money or property, or in selling or 
purchasing a numbers slip or ticket.



Sec. 100.735-21  General conduct prejudicial to the Government.

    An employee shall not engage in criminal, infamous, dishonest, 
immoral, or notoriously disgraceful conduct, or other conduct 
prejudicial to the Government.



Sec. 100.735-22  Miscellaneous statutory provisions.

    Each employee shall acquaint himself with each statute that relates 
to his ethical and other conduct as an employee of his agency and of the 
Government. In particular, attention of employees is directed to the 
following statutory provisions:
    (a) Chapter 11 of Title 18, United States Code, relating to bribery, 
graft, and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees 
concerned (see Secs. 100.735-9, 100.735-10, and 100.735-11).
    (b) The prohibition against lobbying with appropriated funds (18 
U.S.C. 1913).
    (c) The prohibitions against disloyalty and striking (5 U.S.C. 7311, 
18 U.S.C. 1918).
    (d) The prohibition against the employment of a member of a 
Communist organization (50 U.S.C. 784).
    (e) The prohibitions against (1) the disclosure of classified 
information (18 U.S.C. 798, 50 U.S.C. 783) and (2) the disclosure of 
confidential information (18 U.S.C. 1905).
    (f) The provision relating to the habitual use of intoxicants to 
excess (5 U.S.C. 7352).
    (g) The prohibition against the misuse of a Government vehicle (31 
U.S.C. 638a(c)).
    (h) The prohibition against the misuse of the franking privilege (18 
U.S.C. 1719).
    (i) The prohibition against the use of deceit in an examination or 
personnel action in connection with Government employment (5 U.S.C. 
1917).
    (j) The prohibition against fraud or false statements in a 
Government matter (18 U.S.C. 1001).
    (k) The prohibition against mutilating or destroying a public record 
(18 U.S.C. 2071).
    (l) The prohibition against counterfeiting and forging 
transportation requests (18 U.S.C. 508).
    (m) The prohibitions against (1) embezzlement of Government money or 
property (18 U.S.C. 641); (2) failing to account for public money (18 
U.S.C. 643); and (3) embezzlement of the money or property of another 
person in the possession of an employee by reason of his employment (18 
U.S.C. 654).
    (n) The prohibition against unauthorized use of documents relating 
to claims from or by the Government (18 U.S.C. 285).
    (o) The prohibition against political activities in subchapter III 
of chapter 73 of title 5, United States Code and 18 U.S.C. 602, 603, 
607, and 608.
    (p) The prohibition against an employee acting as the agent of a 
foreign principal registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
(18 U.S.C. 219).

[[Page 320]]



Sec. 100.735-23  Conduct and responsibilities of special Government employees.

    (a) A special Government employee shall not use his Government 
employment for a purpose that is, or gives the appearance of being, 
motivated by the desire for private gain for himself or another person, 
particularly one with whom he has family, business, or financial ties.
    (b) A special Government employee shall not use inside information 
obtained as a result of his Government employment for private gain for 
himself or another person whether by direct action on his part or by 
counsel, recommendation, or suggestion to another person, particularly 
one with whom he has family, business, or financial ties. For the 
purposes of this section, inside information means information obtained 
under Government authority which has not become part of the body of 
public information.
    (c) A special Government employee who engages in teaching, 
lecturing, or writing, whether for or without compensation, shall not 
for such purposes make use of information obtained as a result of his 
Government employment, except when that information has been made 
available to the general public or will be made available on request, or 
when the agency head gives written authorization for the use of 
nonpublic information on the basis that such use is in the public 
interest.
    (d) A special Government employee shall not use his Government 
employment to coerce, or give the appearance of coercing, a person to 
provide financial benefit to himself or another person, particularly one 
with whom he has family, business, or financial ties.
    (e) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, a special 
Government employee, while so employed or in connection with his 
employment, shall not receive or solicit from a person having business 
with his agency anything of value as a gift, gratuity, loan, 
entertainment, or favor for himself or another person, particularly one 
with whom he has family, business, or financial ties.
    (f) Notwithstanding paragraph (e) of this section a special 
Government employee shall be allowed the same latitude as is authorized 
for regular Government employees by paragraph (b) of Sec. 100.735-14.
    (g) Attention of special Government employees is directed to the 
provisions of Sec. 100.735-3, making the provisions of this subpart 
generally applicable to their activities.



Sec. 100.735-24  Reporting of employment and financial interests--regular employees.

    (a) Not later than 90 days after the effective date of this subpart, 
an employee designated in paragraph (d) of this section shall submit to 
his agency head a statement, on a form made available in the office of 
the Executive Clerk for the White House Office and the Counselor for 
each other agency, setting forth the following information:
    (1) A list of the names of all corporations, companies, firms, or 
other business enterprises, partnerships, nonprofit organizations, and 
educational or other institutions with or in which he, his spouse, minor 
child or other member of his immediate household has--
    (i) Any connection as an employee, officer, owner, director, member, 
trustee, partner, adviser or consultant; or
    (ii) Any continuing financial interest, through a pension or 
retirement plan, shared income, or other arrangement as a result of any 
current or prior employment or business or professional association; or
    (iii) Any financial interest through the ownership of stock, stock 
options, bonds, securities, or other arrangements including trusts.
    However, an employee need not report any financial interest exempted 
under Sec. 100.735-9(c) as too remote or inconsequential to affect the 
integrity of an employee's services in a matter.
    (2) A list of the names of his creditors and the creditors of his 
spouse, minor child or other member of his immediate household, other 
than those creditors to whom they may be indebted by reason of a 
mortgage on property which he occupies as a personal residence or to 
whom they may be indebted for current and ordinary household and living 
expenses such as

[[Page 321]]

those incurred for household furnishings, an automobile, education, 
vacations, or the like.
    (3) A list of his interests and those of his spouse, minor child or 
other member of his immediate household in real property or rights in 
lands, other than property which he occupies as a personal residence.
    (b) For the purpose of this section member of his immediate 
household means a full-time resident of the employee's household who is 
related to him by blood.
    (c) Each employee designated in paragraph (d) of this section who 
enters on duty after the effective date of this subpart shall submit 
such statement not later than 30 days after the date of his entrance on 
duty, but not earlier than 90 days after the effective date of this 
subpart.
    (d) Statements of employment and financial interests are required of 
the following:
    (1) Employees paid at a level of the Executive Schedule in 
subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, except a 
Presidential appointee required to file a statement of financial 
interests under section 401 of Executive Order No. 11222 of May 8, 1965.
    (2) Employees in classified positions of grade GS-13 or above, or 
the equivalent thereof.
    (e) Changes in, or additions to, the information contained in an 
employee's statement of employment and financial interests shall be 
reported in a supplementary statement as of June 30 each year. If no 
changes or additions occur, a negative report is required. 
Notwithstanding the filing of the annual report required by this 
paragraph, each employee shall at all times avoid acquiring a financial 
interest that could result, or taking an action that would result, in a 
violation of the conflicts-of-interest provisions of 18 U.S.C. 208 or 
this subpart.
    (f) If any information required to be included on a statement of 
employment and financial interests or supplementary statement, including 
holdings placed in trust, is not known to the employee but is known to 
another person, the employee shall request that other person to submit 
the information in his behalf.
    (g) Paragraph (a) of this section does not require an employee to 
submit any information relating to his connection with, or interest in, 
a professional society or a charitable, religious, social, fraternal, 
recreational, public service, civic, or political organization or a 
similar organization not conducted as a business enterprise. For the 
purpose of this section, educational and other institutions doing 
research and development or related work involving grants of money from 
or contracts with the Government are deemed ``business enterprises'' and 
are required to be included in an employee's statement of employment and 
financial interests.
    (h) Each agency shall hold each statement of employment and 
financial interests in confidence. Each person designated to review a 
statement of employment and financial interests under section 100.735-26 
is responsible for maintaining the statement in confidence and shall not 
allow access to, or allow information to be disclosed from, a statement 
except to carry out the purpose of this subpart. An agency may not 
disclose information from a statement except as the Civil Service 
Commission or the agency head may determine for good cause shown.
    (i) The statements of employment and financial interests and 
supplementary statements required of employees are in addition to, and 
not in substitution for, or in derogation of, any similar requirement 
imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement by 
an employee does not permit him or any other person to participate in a 
matter in which his or the other person's participation is prohibited by 
law, order, or regulation.
    (j) An employee who believes that his position has been improperly 
included as one requiring the submission of a statement of employment 
and financial interests is entitled to obtain a review of his complaint 
under his agency's grievance procedure.
    (k) This section does not apply to special Government employees, who 
are subject to the provisions of Sec. 100.735-25.

[[Page 322]]



Sec. 100.735-25  Reporting of employment and financial interests--special Government employees.

    (a) A special Government employee shall submit to the agency head a 
statement of employment and financial interests which reports (1) all 
current Federal Government employment, (2) the names of all 
corporations, companies, firms, State of local governmental 
organizations, research organizations, and educational or other 
institutions in or for which he is an employee, officer, member, owner, 
trustee, director, adviser, or consultant, with or without compensation, 
(3) those financial interests which the agency determines are relevant 
in the light of the duties he is to perform, and (4) the names of all 
partnerships in which he is engaged.
    (b) A statement required under this section shall be submitted at 
the time of employment and shall be kept current throughout the term of 
a special Government employee's service with an agency. A supplementary 
statement shall be submitted at the time of any reappointment; a 
negative report will suffice if no changes have occurred since the 
submission of the last statement.



Sec. 100.735-26  Reviewing statements of financial interests.

    (a) A designee of the agency head shall review the statements 
required by Secs. 100.735-24 and Secs. 100.735-25 to determine whether 
there exists a conflict, or appearance of conflict, between the 
interests of the employee or special Government employee concerned and 
the performance of his service for the Government. If the designee 
determines that such a conflict or appearance of conflict exists, he 
shall provide the employee with an opportunity to explain the conflict 
or appearance of conflict. If he concludes that remedial action should 
be taken, he shall refer the statement to the agency head through the 
Counselor for the agency designated pursuant to Sec. 100.735-6, with his 
recommendation for such action. The agency head, after consideration of 
the employee's explanation and such investigation as he deems 
appropriate shall direct appropriate remedial action if he deems it 
necessary.
    (b) Remedial action pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may 
include, but is not limited to:
    (1) Changes in assigned duties.
    (2) Divestment by the employee of his conflicting interest.
    (3) Disqualification for a particular action.
    (4) Exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of Sec. 100.735-9 or 
paragraph (d) of Sec. 100.735-12.
    (5) Disciplinary action.



Sec. 100.735-27  Supplemental regulations or instructions.

    An agency head may issue supplemental and implementing regulations 
or instructions not inconsistent with this subpart as necessary to carry 
out the full purpose and intent of Executive Order 11222 and this 
subpart as may be required by the particular circumstances of his 
agency. Such regulations or instructions may include but are not limited 
to, delegations of any authority allowed by law pertaining to the 
functions placed upon the agency head by this subpart. Such regulations 
or instructions must be made available to employees and special 
Government employees in the same manner as this subpart (see 
Sec. 100.735-5).



         Subpart B--Special Procedures; Counsel to the President



Sec. 100.735-31  Members of part-time committees, boards, and commissions.

    (a) This section applies to each part-time member of a committee, 
board, or commission appointed by the President (referred to in this 
section as a Member).
    (b) When the Counsel to the President determines that the functions 
and responsibilities of a committee, board, or commission are such that 
consistent with the policy and purpose of Executive Order 11222 the 
Members thereof should submit statements of employment and financial 
interests, he shall request each Member thereof to submit such a 
statement to the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission.
    (c) A statement of employment and financial interests required under 
this section shall be submitted not later than 30 days after the 
Member's receipt

[[Page 323]]

of the request therefor from the Counsel to the President, and shall be 
kept up to date by submission of amended statements of any changes in, 
or additions to, the information required to be included in the original 
statement, on a quarterly basis. The statement shall be submitted in the 
format prescribed by the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission.
    (d) The Chairman of the Civil Service Commission shall review each 
statement of employment and financial interests and any amendment 
thereto submitted under this section and shall report to the Counsel to 
the President any information contained in a statement which may 
indicate a conflict between the financial interests of the Member 
concerned and the performance of his services for the Government.



Sec. 100.735-32  Special delegation of authority to the Counsel to the President.

    The authority of the President under sections 205 and 208(b) of 
Title 18, United States Code, to permit certain actions by an officer or 
employee of the Government, including a special Government employee, for 
appointment to whose position the President is responsible, reserved to 
the President by section 505(c) of Executive Order 11222, is delegated 
to the Counsel to the President.



PART 101--PUBLIC INFORMATION PROVISIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT--Table of Contents




Sec.
101.1  Executive Office of the President.
101.2  Office of Management and Budget.
101.3  Office of Administration.
101.4  National Security Council.
101.5  Council on Environmental Quality.
101.6  Office of National Drug Control Policy.
101.7  Office of Science and Technology Policy.
101.8  Office of the United States Trade Representative.

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552.

    Source: 40 FR 8061, Feb. 25, 1975 and 55 FR 46067, November 1, 1990, 
unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 101.1  Executive Office of the President.

    Until further regulations are promulgated, the remainder of the 
entities within the Executive Office of the President, to the extent 
that 5 U.S.C. 552 is applicable, shall follow the procedures set forth 
in the regulations applicable to the Office of Management and Budget (5 
CFR Ch. III). Requests for information from these other entities should 
be submitted directly to such entity.



Sec. 101.2  Office of Management and Budget.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of Management and 
Budget appear at 5 CFR Ch. III.



Sec. 101.3  Office of Administration.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of Administration 
appear at 5 CFR part 2502.

[55 FR 46037, Nov. 1, 1990]



Sec. 101.4  National Security Council.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council 
appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI.



Sec. 101.5  Council on Environmental Quality.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Council on Environmental 
Quality appear at 40 CFR Ch. V.

[42 FR 65131, Dec. 30, 1977]



Sec. 101.6  Office of National Drug Control Policy.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of National Drug 
Control Policy appear at 21 CFR parts 1400-1499.

[55 FR 46037, Nov. 1, 1990]



Sec. 101.7  Office of Science and Technology Policy.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy appear at 32 CFR part 2402.

[55 FR 46037, Nov. 1, 1990]



Sec. 101.8  Office of the United States Trade Representative.

    Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of the United 
States

[[Page 324]]

Trade Representative appear at 15 CFR part 2004.

[55 FR 46037, Nov. 1, 1990]



PART 102--ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT--Table of Contents




Sec.
102.101  Purpose.
102.102  Application.
102.103  Definitions.
102.104-102.109  [Reserved]
102.110  Self-evaluation.
102.111  Notice.
102.112-102.129  [Reserved]
102.130  General prohibitions against discrimination.
102.131-102.139  [Reserved]
102.140  Employment.
102.141-102.148  [Reserved]
102.149  Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.
102.150  Program accessibility: Existing facilities.
102.151  Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.
102.152-102.159  [Reserved]
102.160  Communications.
102.161-102.169  [Reserved]
102.170  Compliance procedures.
102.171-102.999  [Reserved]

    Authority: 29 U.S.C. 794.

    Source: 53 FR 25879, July 8, 1988, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 102.101  Purpose.

    The purpose of this regulation is to effectuate section 119 of the 
Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities 
Amendments of 1978, which amended section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 
of 1973 to prohibit discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs 
or activities conducted by Executive agencies or the United States 
Postal Service.



Sec. 102.102  Application.

    This regulation (Secs. 102.101-102.170) applies to all programs or 
activities conducted by the agency, except for programs or activities 
conducted outside the United States that do not involve individuals with 
handicaps in the United States.



Sec. 102.103  Definitions.

    For purposes of this regulation, the term--
    Agency means, for purposes of this regulation only, the following 
entities in the Executive Office of the President: the White House 
Office, the Office of the Vice President, the Office of Management and 
Budget, the Office of Policy Development, the National Security Council, 
the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Office of the United 
States Trade Representative, the Council on Environmental Quality, the 
Council of Economic Advisers, the Office of Administration, the Office 
of Federal Procurement Policy, and any committee, board, commission, or 
similar group established in the Executive Office of the President.
    Agency head or head of the agency; as used in Secs. 102.150(a)(3), 
102.160(d) and 102.170 (i) and (j), shall be a three-member board which 
will include the Director, Office of Administration, the head of the 
Executive Office of the President, agency in which the issue needing 
resolution or decision arises and one other agency head selected by the 
two other board members. In the event that an issue needing resolution 
or decision arises within the Office of Administration, one of the board 
members shall be the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
    Assistant Attorney General means the Assistant Attorney General, 
Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice.
    Auxiliary aids means services or devices that enable persons with 
impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills to have an equal 
opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, programs or 
activities conducted by the agency. For example, auxiliary aids useful 
for persons with impaired vision include readers, Brailled materials, 
audio recordings, and other similar services and devices. Auxiliary aids 
useful for persons with impaired hearing include telephone handset 
amplifiers, telephones compatible with hearing aids, telecommunication 
devices for deaf persons (TDD's), interpreters, notetakers, written 
materials, and other similar services and devices.

[[Page 325]]

    Complete complaint means a written statement that contains the 
complainant's name and address and describes the agency's alleged 
discriminatory action in sufficient detail to inform the agency of the 
nature and date of the alleged violation of section 504. It shall be 
signed by the complainant or by someone authorized to do so on his or 
her behalf. Complaints filed on behalf of classes or third parties shall 
describe or identify (by name, if possible) the alleged victims of 
discrimination.
    Facility means all or any portion of buildings, structures, 
equipment, roads, walks, parking lots, rolling stock or other 
conveyances, or other real or personal property.
    Historic preservation programs means programs conducted by the 
agency that have preservation of historic properties as a primary 
purpose.
    Historic properties means those properties that are listed or 
eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places or 
properties designated as historic under a statute of the appropriate 
State or local government body.
    Individual with handicaps means any person who has a physical or 
mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life 
activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having 
such an impairment.
    As used in this definition, the phrase:
    (1) Physical or mental impairment includes--
    (i) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, 
or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: 
Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, 
including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive; digestive; 
genitourinary; hemic and lymphatic; skin; and endocrine; or
    (ii) Any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental 
retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and 
specific learning disabilities. The term ``physical or mental 
impairment'' includes, but is not limited to, such diseases and 
conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech, and hearing impairments, 
cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, 
cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental retardation, emotional illness, 
and drug addiction and alcoholism.
    (2) Major life activities includes functions such as caring for 
one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, 
breathing, learning, and working.
    (3) Has a record of such an impairment means has a history of, or 
has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that 
substantially limits one or more major life activities.
    (4) Is regarded as having an impairment means--
    (i) Has a physical or mental impairment that does not substantially 
limit major life activities but is treated by the agency as constituting 
such a limitation;
    (ii) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits 
major life activities only as a result of the attitudes of others toward 
such impairment; or
    (iii) Has none of the impairments defined in paragraph (1) of this 
definition but is treated by the agency as having such an impairment.
    Qualified individual with handicaps means--
    (1) With respect to preschool, elementary, or secondary education 
services provided by the agency, an individual with handicaps who is a 
member of a class of persons otherwise entitled by statute, regulation, 
or agency policy to receive education services from the agency;
    (2) With respect to any other agency program or activity under which 
a person is required to perform services or to achieve a level of 
accomplishment, an individual with handicaps who meets the essential 
eligibility requirements and who can achieve the purpose of the program 
or activity without modifications in the program or activity that the 
agency can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in its 
nature;
    (3) With respect to any other program or activity, an individual 
with handicaps who meets the essential eligibility requirements for 
participation in, or receipt of benefits from, that program or activity; 
and

[[Page 326]]

    (4) ``Qualified handicapped person'' as that term is defined for 
purposes of employment in 29 CFR 1613.702(f), which is made applicable 
to this regulation by Sec. 102.140.
    Section 504 means section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 
(Pub. L. 93-112, 87 Stat. 394 (29 U.S.C. 794)), as amended by the 
Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-516, 88 Stat. 1617); 
the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental 
Disabilities Amendments of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-602, 92 Stat. 2955); and the 
Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-506, 100 Stat. 1810). 
As used in this regulation, section 504 applies only to programs or 
activities conducted by Executive agencies and not to federally assisted 
programs.
    Substantial impairment means a significant loss of the integrity of 
finished materials, design quality, or special character resulting from 
a permanent alteration.



Secs. 102.104--102.109  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.110  Self-evaluation.

    (a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current 
policies and practices, and the effects thereof, that do not or may not 
meet the requirements of this regulation and, to the extent modification 
of any such policies and practices is required, the agency shall proceed 
to make the necessary modifications.
    (b) The agency shall provide an opportunity to interested persons, 
including individuals with handicaps or organizations representing 
individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation 
process by submitting comments (both oral and written).
    (c) The agency shall, for at least three years following completion 
of the self-evaluation, maintain on file and make available for public 
inspection:
    (1) A description of areas examined and any problems identified; and
    (2) A description of any modifications made.



Sec. 102.111  Notice.

    The agency shall make available to employees, applicants, 
participants, beneficiaries, and other interested persons such 
information regarding the provisions of this regulation and its 
applicability to the programs or activities conducted by the agency, and 
make such information available to them in such manner as the head of 
the agency finds necessary to apprise such persons of the protections 
against discrimination assured them by section 504 and this regulation.



Secs. 102.112--102.129  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.130  General prohibitions against discrimination.

    (a) No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of 
handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, 
or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or 
activity conducted by the agency.
    (b)(1) The agency, in providing any aid, benefit, or service, may 
not, directly or through contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, 
on the basis of handicap--
    (i) Deny a qualified individual with handicaps the opportunity to 
participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service;
    (ii) Afford a qualified individual with handicaps an opportunity to 
participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service that is not 
equal to that afforded others;
    (iii) Provide a qualified individual with handicaps with an aid, 
benefit, or service that is not as effective in affording equal 
opportunity to obtain the same result, to gain the same benefit, or to 
reach the same level of achievement as that provided to others;
    (iv) Provide different or separate aid, benefits, or services to 
individuals with handicaps or to any class of individuals with handicaps 
than is provided to others unless such action is necessary to provide 
qualified individuals with handicaps with aid, benefits, or services 
that are as effective as those provided to others;
    (v) Deny a qualified individual with handicaps the opportunity to 
participate as a member of planning or advisory boards;

[[Page 327]]

    (vi) Otherwise limit a qualified individual with handicaps in the 
enjoyment of any right, privilege, advantage, or opportunity enjoyed by 
others receiving the aid, benefit, or service.
    (2) The agency may not deny a qualified individual with handicaps 
the opportunity to participate in programs or activities that are not 
separate or different, despite the existence of permissibly separate or 
different programs or activities.
    (3) The agency may not, directly or through contractual or other 
arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration the purpose 
or effect of which would--
    (i) Subject qualified individuals with handicaps to discrimination 
on the basis of handicap; or
    (ii) Defeat or substantially impair accomplishment of the objectives 
of a program or activity with respect to individuals with handicaps.
    (4) The agency may not, in determining the site or location of a 
facility, make selections the purpose or effect of which would--
    (i) Exclude individuals with handicaps from, deny them the benefits 
of, or otherwise subject them to discrimination under any program or 
activity conducted by the agency; or
    (ii) Defeat or substantially impair the accomplishment of the 
objectives of a program or activity with respect to individuals with 
handicaps.
    (5) The agency, in the selection of procurement contractors, may not 
use criteria that subject qualified individuals with handicaps to 
discrimination on the basis of handicap.
    (6) The agency may not administer a licensing or certification 
program in a manner that subjects qualified individuals with handicaps 
to discrimination on the basis of handicap, nor may the agency establish 
requirements for the programs or activities of licensees or certified 
entities that subject qualified individuals with handicaps to 
discrimination on the basis of handicap. However, the programs or 
activities of entities that are licensed or certified by the agency are 
not, themselves, covered by this regulation.
    (c) The exclusion of nonhandicapped persons from the benefits of a 
program limited by Federal statute or Executive order to individuals 
with handicaps or the exclusion of a specific class of individuals with 
handicaps from a program limited by Federal statute or Executive order 
to a different class of individuals with handicaps is not prohibited by 
this regulation.
    (d) The agency shall administer programs and activities in the most 
integrated setting appropriate to the needs of qualified individuals 
with handicaps.



Secs. 102.131--102.139  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.140  Employment.

    No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of 
handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under any program 
or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and 
procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 
791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 
29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted 
programs or activities.



Sec. 102.141--102.148  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.149  Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Except as otherwise provided in Sec. 102.150, no qualified 
individual with handicaps shall, because the agency's facilities are 
inaccessible to or unusable by individuals with handicaps, be denied the 
benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be 
subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by 
the agency.



Sec. 102.150  Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    (a) General. The agency shall operate each program or activity so 
that the program or activity, when viewed in its entirety, is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. This paragraph 
does not--
    (1) Necessarily require the agency to make each of its existing 
facilities accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps;
    (2) In the case of historic preservation programs, require the 
agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment 
of significant

[[Page 328]]

historic features of an historic property; or
    (3) Require the agency to take any action that it can demonstrate 
would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a program or 
activity or in undue financial and administrative burdens. In those 
circumstances where agency personnel believe that the proposed action 
would fundamentally alter the program or activity or would result in 
undue financial and administrative burdens, the agency has the burden of 
proving that compliance with Sec. 102.150(a) would result in such 
alteration or burdens. The decision that compliance would result in such 
alteration or burdens must be made by the agency head or his or her 
designee after considering all agency resources available for use in the 
funding and operation of the conducted program or activity, and must be 
accompanied by a written statement of the reasons for reaching that 
conclusion. If an action would result in such an alteration or such 
burdens, the agency shall take any other action that would not result in 
such an alteration or such burdens but would nevertheless ensure that 
individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the 
program or activity.
    (b) Methods--(1) General. The agency may comply with the 
requirements of this section through such means as redesign of 
equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment 
of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at 
alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and 
construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any 
other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The agency is 
not required to make structural changes in existing facilities where 
other methods are effective in achieving compliance with this section. 
The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet 
accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the Architectural 
Barriers Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), and any 
regulations implementing it. In choosing among available methods for 
meeting the requirements of this section, the agency shall give priority 
to those methods that offer programs and activities to qualified 
individuals with handicaps in the most integrated setting appropriate.
    (2) Historic preservation programs. In meeting the requirements of 
Sec. 102.150(a) in historic preservation programs, the agency shall give 
priority to methods that provide physical access to individuals with 
handicaps. In cases where a physical alteration to an historic property 
is not required because of Sec. 102.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative 
methods of achieving program accessibility include--
    (i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those 
portions of an historic property that cannot otherwise be made 
accessible;
    (ii) Assigning persons to guide individuals with handicaps into or 
through portions of historic properties that cannot otherwise be made 
accessible; or
    (iii) Adopting other innovative methods.
    (c) Time period for compliance. The agency shall comply with the 
obligations established under this section by November 7, 1988, except 
that where structural changes in facilities are undertaken, such changes 
shall be made by September 6, 1991, but in any event as expeditiously as 
possible.
    (d) Transition plan. In the event that structural changes to 
facilities will be undertaken to achieve program accessibility, the 
agency shall develop, by March 6, 1989, a transition plan setting forth 
the steps necessary to complete such changes. The agency shall provide 
an opportunity to interested persons, including individuals with 
handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to 
participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting 
comments (both oral and written). A copy of the transition plan shall be 
made available for public inspection. The plan shall, at a minimum--
    (1) Identify physical obstacles in the agency's facilities that 
limit the accessibility of its programs or activities to individuals 
with handicaps;
    (2) Describe in detail the methods that will be used to make the 
facilities accessible;

[[Page 329]]

    (3) Specify the schedule for taking the steps necessary to achieve 
compliance with this section and, if the time period of the transition 
plan is longer than one year, identify steps that will be taken during 
each year of the transition period; and
    (4) Indicate the official responsible for implementation of the 
plan.



Sec. 102.151   Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Each building or part of a building that is constructed or altered 
by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, 
constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards 
of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established 
in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this 
section.



Secs. 102.152--102.159  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.160  Communications.

    (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective 
communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal 
entities, and members of the public.
    (1) The agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where 
necessary to afford an individual with handicaps an equal opportunity to 
participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, a program or activity 
conducted by the agency.
    (i) In determining what type of auxiliary aid is necessary, the 
agency shall give primary consideration to the requests of the 
individual with handicaps.
    (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, 
readers for personal use or study, or other devices of a personal 
nature.
    (2) Where the agency communicates with applicants and beneficiaries 
by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or 
equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to communicate 
with persons with impaired hearing.
    (b) The agency shall ensure that interested persons, including 
persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to 
the existence and location of accessible services, activities, and 
facilities.
    (c) The agency shall provide signage at a primary entrance to each 
of its inaccessible facilities, directing users to a location at which 
they can obtain information about accessible facilities. The 
international symbol for accessibility shall be used at each primary 
entrance of an accessible facility.
    (d) This section does not require the agency to take any action that 
it can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in the 
nature of a program or activity or in undue financial and administrative 
burdens. In those circumstances where agency personnel believe that the 
proposed action would fundamentally alter the program or activity or 
would result in undue financial and administrative burdens, the agency 
has the burden of proving that compliance with Sec. 102.160 would result 
in such alteration or burdens. The decision that compliance would result 
in such alteration or burdens must be made by the agency head or his or 
her designee after considering all agency resources available for use in 
the funding and operation of the conducted program or activity and must 
be accompanied by a written statement of the reasons for reaching that 
conclusion. If an action required to comply with this section would 
result in such an alteration or such burdens, the agency shall take any 
other action that would not result in such an alteration or such burdens 
but would nevertheless ensure that, to the maximum extent possible, 
individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the 
program or activity.



Secs. 102.161--102.169  [Reserved]



Sec. 102.170  Compliance procedures.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this 
section applies to all allegations of discrimination on the basis of 
handicap in programs and activities conducted by the agency.
    (b) The agency shall process complaints alleging violations of 
section 504 with respect to employment according to the procedures 
established by the Equal Employment Opportunity

[[Page 330]]

Commission in 29 CFR part 1613 pursuant to section 501 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791).
    (c) The Director, Facilities Management, Office of Administration, 
Executive Office of the President, shall be responsible for coordinating 
implementation of this section. Complaints may be sent to the Director 
at the following address: Room 486, Old Executive Office Building, 17th 
and Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20500.
    (d) The agency shall accept and investigate all complete complaints 
for which it has jurisdiction. All complete complaints must be filed 
within 180 days of the alleged act of discrimination. The agency may 
extend this time period for good cause.
    (e) If the agency receives a complaint over which it does not have 
jurisdiction, it shall promptly notify the complainant and shall make 
reasonable efforts to refer the complaint to the appropriate Government 
entity.
    (f) The agency shall notify the Architectural and Transportation 
Barriers Compliance Board upon receipt of any complaint alleging that a 
building or facility that is subject to the Architectural Barriers Act 
of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), is not readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with handicaps.
    (g) Within 180 days of the receipt of a complete complaint for which 
it has jurisdiction, the agency shall notify the complainant of the 
results of the investigation in a letter containing--
    (1) Findings of fact and conclusions of law;
    (2) A description of a remedy for each violation found; and
    (3) A notice of the right to appeal.
    (h) Appeals of the findings of fact and conclusions of law or 
remedies must be filed by the complainant within 90 days of receipt from 
the agency of the letter required by Sec. 102.170(g). The agency may 
extend this time for good cause.
    (i) Timely appeals shall be accepted and processed by the head of 
the agency.
    (j) The head of the agency shall notify the complainant of the 
results of the appeal within 60 days of the receipt of the request. If 
the head of the agency determines that additional information is needed 
from the complainant, he or she shall have 60 days from the date of 
receipt of the additional information to make his or her determination 
on the appeal.
    (k) The time limits cited in paragraphs (g) and (j) of this section 
may be extended with the permission of the Assistant Attorney General.
    (l) The agency may delegate its authority for conducting complaint 
investigations to other Federal agencies, except that the authority for 
making the final determination may not be delegated to another agency.



Secs. 102.171--102.999  [Reserved]

[[Page 331]]

                          TITLE 3 FINDING AIDS

________________________________________________________________________


Table 1--Proclamations
Table 2--Executive Orders
Table 3--Other Presidential Documents
Table 4--Presidential Documents Affected During 1997
Table 5--Statutes Cited as Authority for Presidential Documents
List of CFR Sections Affected
Index

[[Page 333]]

                         Table 1--PROCLAMATIONS

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  63 FR
  No.         Signature Date                  Subject              Page
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        1998......................

  7062  Jan. 14...................  Suspension of Entry as          2871
                                     Immigrants and
                                     Nonimmigrants of Persons
                                     Who Are Members of the
                                     Military Junta in Sierra
                                     Leone and Members of Their
                                     Families.
  7063  Jan. 15...................  Religious Freedom Day, 1998     3243
  7064  Jan. 16...................  Martin Luther King, Jr.,        3245
                                     Federal Holiday, 1998.
  7065  Jan. 28...................  Year of the Ocean, 1998....     4553
  7066  Jan. 30...................  American Heart Month, 1998.     5717
  7067  Jan. 30...................  National African American       5719
                                     History Month, 1998.
  7068  Feb. 26...................  Save Your Vision Week, 1998    10289
  7069  Feb. 27...................  American Red Cross Month,      10487
                                     1998.
  7070  Feb. 27...................  Irish-American Heritage        10489
                                     Month, 1998.
  7071  Mar. 2....................  Women's History Month, 1998    10741
  7072  Mar. 5....................  National Older Workers         11983
                                     Employment Week, 1998.
  7073  Mar. 12...................  National Poison Prevention     12973
                                     Week, 1998.
  7074  Mar. 12...................  Greek Independence Day: A      12975
                                     National Day of
                                     Celebration of Greek and
                                     American Democracy, 1998.
  7075  Mar. 31...................  Cancer Control Month, 1998.    16385
  7076  Apr. 1....................  National Child Abuse           16667
                                     Prevention Month, 1998.
  7077  Apr. 2....................  National Equal Pay Day,        16875
                                     1998.
  7078  Apr. 7....................  Education and Sharing Day,     17307
                                     U.S.A., 1998.
  7079  Apr. 9....................  National Former Prisoner of    18111
                                     War Recognition Day, 1998.
  7080  Apr. 9....................  National D.A.R.E. Day, 1998    18115
  7081  Apr. 10...................  Pan American Day and Pan       18811
                                     American Week, 1998.
  7082  Apr. 15...................  National Recall Round-Up       19167
                                     Day, 1998.
  7083  Apr. 17...................  National Organ and Tissue      19795
                                     Donor Awareness Week, 1998.
  7084  Apr. 20...................  National Crime Victims'        20051
                                     Rights Week, 1998.
  7085  Apr. 21...................  National Volunteer Week,       20293
                                     1998.
  7086  Apr. 22...................  National Park Week, 1998...    20511
  7087  Apr. 24...................  Jewish Heritage Week, 1998.    23369
  7088  Apr. 29...................  National Day of Prayer,        24383
                                     1998.
  7089  Apr. 30...................  Asian/Pacific American         25145
                                     Heritage Month, 1998.
  7090  May 1.....................  Law Day, U.S.A., 1998......    25147
  7091  May 1.....................  Loyalty Day, 1998..........    25149
  7092  May 4.....................  Older Americans Month, 1998    25151
  7093  May 7.....................  Mother's Day, 1998.........    26415
  7094  May 8.....................  National Defense               26711
                                     Transportation Day and
                                     National Transportation
                                     Week, 1998.
  7095  May 12....................  Peace Officers Memorial Day    27191
                                     and Police Week, 1998.
  7096  May 14....................  National Safe Boating Week,    27663
                                     1998.
  7097  May 15....................  World Trade Week, 1998.....    27813
  7098  May 21....................  National Maritime Day, 1998    28887

[[Page 334]]

  7099  May 22....................  Prayer for Peace, Memorial     28889
                                     Day, 1998.
  7100  May 29....................  Death of Barry M. Goldwater    30099
  7101  May 29....................  National Alternative Fuels     30101
                                     Week, 1998.
  7102  May 29....................  Small Business Week, 1998..    30103
  7103  May 30....................  To Facilitate Positive         30359
                                     Adjustment to Competition
                                     From Imports of Wheat
                                     Gluten.
  7104  June 5....................  National Homeownership         31591
                                     Week, 1998.
  7105  June 12...................  Flag Day and National Flag     33229
                                     Week, 1998.
  7106  June 17...................  Father's Day, 1998.........    33833
  7107  June 30...................  To Modify Duty-Free            36531
                                     Treatment Under the
                                     Generalized System of
                                     Preferences.
  7108  July 13...................  50th Anniversary of the        38073
                                     Integration of the Armed
                                     Services, 1998.
  7109  July 20...................  Captive Nations Week, 1998.    39475
  7110  July 24...................  National Korean War            40353
                                     Veterans Armistice Day,
                                     1998.
  7111  July 24...................  Parents' Day, 1998.........    40355
  7112  July 30...................  Designation of American        41949
                                     Heritage Rivers.
  7113  July 31...................  To Implement an Accelerated    41951
                                     Schedule of Duty
                                     Elimination Under the
                                     North American Free Trade
                                     Agreement.
  7114  Aug. 5....................  Designating Klondike Gold      42563
                                     Rush International
                                     Historical Park.
  7115  Aug. 7....................  Victims of the Bombing         43061
                                     Incidents in Africa.
  7116  Aug. 20...................  Women's Equality Day, 1998.    45165
  7117  Aug. 25...................  Death of Lewis F. Powell,      45931
                                     Jr..
  7118  Sept. 9...................  America Goes Back to           49261
                                     School, 1998.
  7119  Sept. 10..................  Minority Enterprise            49263
                                     Development Week, 1998.
  7120  Sept. 12..................  Ovarian Cancer Awareness       49411
                                     Week, 1998.
  7121  Sept. 15..................  National Hispanic Heritage     49815
                                     Month, 1998.
  7122  Sept. 15..................  National Historically Black    49817
                                     Colleges and Universities
                                     Week, 1998.
  7123  Sept. 16..................  Citizenship Day and            50449
                                     Constitution Week, 1998.
  7124  Sept. 17..................  National POW/MIA               50459
                                     Recognition Day, 1998.
  7125  Sept. 18..................  To Modify Certain              50739
                                     Provisions of the Special
                                     Textile and Apparel Regime
                                     Implemented Under the
                                     North American Free Trade
                                     Agreement.
  7126  Sept. 18..................  National Farm Safety and       50743
                                     Health Week, 1998.
  7127  Sept. 25..................  Gold Star Mother's Day,        52129
                                     1998.
  7128  Sept. 29..................  National Disability            52957
                                     Employment Awareness
                                     Month, 1998.
  7129  Sept. 30..................  National Domestic Violence     53271
                                     Awareness Month, 1998.
  7130  Oct. 1....................  National Breast Cancer         53541
                                     Awareness Month, 1998.
  7131  Oct. 2....................  Fire Prevention Week, 1998.    53777
  7132  Oct. 5....................  Child Health Day, 1998.....    54027
  7133  Oct. 5....................  German-American Day, 1998..    54029
  7134  Oct. 7....................  National Day of Concern        54551
                                     About Young People and Gun
                                     Violence, 1998.
  7135  Oct. 8....................  Leif Erikson Day, 1998.....    55309
  7136  Oct. 9....................  Columbus Day, 1998.........    55311
  7137  Oct. 9....................  National School Lunch Week,    55315
                                     1998.
  7138  Oct. 9....................  General Pulaski Memorial       55317
                                     Day, 1998.
  7139  Oct. 9....................  National Children's Day,       55319
                                     1998.

[[Page 335]]

  7140  Oct. 15...................  White Cane Safety Day, 1998    55935
  7141  Oct. 16...................  National Character Counts      56073
                                     Week, 1998.
  7142  Oct. 16...................  National Forest Products       56075
                                     Week, 1998.
  7143  Oct. 23...................  United Nations Day, 1998...    57889
  7144  Oct. 29...................  National American Indian       59199
                                     Heritage Month, 1998.
  7145  Oct. 29...................  National Adoption Month,       59203
                                     1998.
  7146  Nov. 9....................  Veterans Day, 1998.........    63121
  7147  Nov. 17...................  National Farm-City Week,       64405
                                     1998.
  7148  Nov. 17...................  Thanksgiving Day, 1998.....    64407
  7149  Nov. 19...................  National Great American        64839
                                     Smokeout Day, 1998.
  7150  Nov. 20...................  World Fisheries Day, 1998..    65511
  7151  Nov. 20...................  National Family Caregivers     65513
                                     Week, 1998.
  7152  Nov. 20...................  National Family Week, 1998.    65515
  7153  Dec. 1....................  World AIDS Day, 1998.......   66977,
                                                                   67724
  7154  Dec. 3....................  To Terminate Temporary         67761
                                     Duties on Imports of Broom
                                     Corn Brooms.
  7155  Dec. 4....................  National Drunk and Drugged     67765
                                     Driving Prevention Month,
                                     1998.
  7156  Dec. 4....................  National Pearl Harbor          67767
                                     Remembrance Day, 1998.
  7157  Dec. 7....................  Death of Albert Gore, Sr...    68149
  7158  Dec. 10...................  Human Rights Day, Bill of      68989
                                     Rights Day, and Human
                                     Rights Week, 1998.
  7159  Dec. 11...................  National Children's            69173
                                     Memorial Day, 1998.
  7160  Dec. 17...................  Wright Brothers Day, 1998..    70629
  7161  Dec. 23...................  Extending United States        71571
                                     Copyright Protections to
                                     the Works of the Socialist
                                     Republic of Vietnam.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 337]]

                        Table 2--EXECUTIVE ORDERS

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  63 FR
  No.         Signature Date                  Subject              Page
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        1998......................

 13072  Feb. 2....................  White House Millennium          6041
                                     Council.
 13073  Feb. 4....................  Year 2000 Conversion.......     6467
 13074  Feb. 9....................  Amendment to Executive          7277
                                     Order 12656.
 13075  Feb. 19...................  Special Oversight Board for     9085
                                     Department of Defense
                                     Investigations of Gulf War
                                     Chemical and Biological
                                     Incidents.
 13076  Feb. 24...................  Ordering the Selected           9719
                                     Reserve of the Armed
                                     Forces to Active Duty.
 13077  Mar. 10...................  Further Amendment to           12381
                                     Executive Order 13010,
                                     Critical Infrastructure
                                     Protection.
 13078  Mar. 13...................  Increasing Employment of       13111
                                     Adults With Disabilities.
 13079  Apr. 7....................  Waiver Under the Trade Act     17309
                                     of 1974 With Respect to
                                     Vietnam.
 13080  Apr. 7....................  American Heritage Rivers       17667
                                     Initiative Advisory
                                     Committee.
 13081  Apr. 30...................  Amendment to Executive         24385
                                     Order No. 13038, Advisory
                                     Committee on Public
                                     Interest Obligations of
                                     Digital Television
                                     Broadcasters.
 13082  May 8.....................  Joint Mexican-United States    26709
                                     Defense Commission.
 13083  May 14....................  Federalism.................    27651
 13084  May 14....................  Consultation and               27655
                                     Coordination With Indian
                                     Tribal Governments.
 13085  May 26....................  Establishment of the           29335
                                     Enrichment Oversight
                                     Committee.
 13086  May 27....................  1998 Amendments to the         30065
                                     Manual for Courts-Martial,
                                     United States.
 13087  May 28....................  Further Amendment to           30097
                                     Executive Order 11478,
                                     Equal Employment
                                     Opportunity in the Federal
                                     Government.
 13088  June 9....................  Blocking Property of the       32109
                                     Governments of the Federal
                                     Republic of Yugoslavia
                                     (Serbia and Montenegro),
                                     the Republic of Serbia,
                                     and the Republic of
                                     Montenegro, and
                                     Prohibiting New Investment
                                     in the Republic of Serbia
                                     in Response to the
                                     Situation in Kosovo.
 13089  June 11...................  Coral Reef Protection......    32701
 13090  June 29...................  President's Commission on      36151
                                     the Celebration of Women
                                     in American History.
 13091  June 29...................  Administration of Arms         36153
                                     Export Controls and
                                     Foreign Assistance.
 13092  July 24...................  President's Information        40167
                                     Technology Advisory
                                     Committee, Amendments to
                                     Executive Order 13035.
 13093  July 27...................  American Heritage Rivers,      40357
                                     Amending Executive Orders
                                     13061 and 13080.

[[Page 338]]

 13094  July 28...................  Proliferation of Weapons of    40803
                                     Mass Destruction.
 13095  Aug. 5....................  Suspension of Executive        42565
                                     Order 13083.
 13096  Aug. 6....................  American Indian and Alaska     42681
                                     Native Education.
 13097  Aug. 7....................  Interparliamentary Union...    43065
 13098  Aug. 18...................  Blocking Property of UNITA     44771
                                     and Prohibiting Certain
                                     Transactions With Respect
                                     to UNITA.
 13099  Aug. 20...................  Prohibiting Transactions       45167
                                     With Terrorists Who
                                     Threaten To Disrupt the
                                     Middle East Peace Process.
 13100  Aug. 25...................  President's Council on Food    45661
                                     Safety.
 13101  Sept. 14..................  Greening the Government        49643
                                     Through Waste Prevention,
                                     Recycling, and Federal
                                     Acquisition.
 13102  Sept. 25..................  Further Amendment to           52125
                                     Executive Order 13038,
                                     Advisory Committee on
                                     Public Interest
                                     Obligations of Digital
                                     Television Broadcasters.
 13103  Sept. 30..................  Computer Software Piracy...    53273
 13104  Oct. 19...................  Amendment to Executive         56535
                                     Order 13021, Tribal
                                     Colleges and Universities.
 13105  Nov. 2....................  Open Enrollment Season for     60201
                                     Participants in the
                                     Foreign Service Retirement
                                     and Disability System and
                                     the Central Intelligence
                                     Agency Retirement and
                                     Disability System.
 13106  Dec. 7....................  Adjustments of Certain         68151
                                     Rates of Pay and
                                     Delegation of a Federal
                                     Pay Administration
                                     Authority.
 13107  Dec. 10...................  Implementation of Human        68991
                                     Rights Treaties.
 13108  Dec. 11...................  Further Amendment to           69175
                                     Executive Order 13037,
                                     Commission To Study
                                     Capital Budgeting.
 13109  Dec. 17...................  Half-Day Closing of            70631
                                     Executive Departments and
                                     Agencies of the Federal
                                     Government on Thursday,
                                     December 24, 1998.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 339]]

                  Table 3--OTHER PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 63 FR
      Signature Date                     Subject                  Page
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1998

Jan. 2...................  Notice: Continuation of Libyan            653
                            Emergency.
Jan. 6...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-       3635
                            9: Designation of Argentina as a
                            Major Non-NATO Ally.
Jan. 12..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-       3447
                            10: Certification Pursuant to
                            Section (b)(1) of Public Law 99-
                            183 and to Section 902(a)(6)(B)
                            of Public Law 101-246.
Jan. 21..................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency        3445
                            Regrading Terrorists Who Threaten
                            To Disrupt the Middle East Peace
                            Process.
Jan. 28..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-       6469
                            12: Determination Pursuant to
                            Section 523 of the Foreign
                            Operations, Export Financing, and
                            Related Programs Appropriations
                            Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118).
Jan. 30..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-       5857
                            13: Renewal of Trade Agreement
                            With the People's Republic of
                            China.
Feb. 3...................  Message to Congress transmitting         7004
                            budget rescissions and deferrals.
Feb. 9...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-       9399
                            14: U.S. Contribution to the
                            Korean Peninsula Energy
                            Development Organization (KEDO).
Feb. 20..................  Message to Congress transmitting        10076
                            budget rescissions and deferrals.
Feb. 25..................  Notice: Continuation of the              9923
                            National Emergency Relating to
                            Cuba and of the Emergency
                            Authority Relating to the
                            Regulation of the Anchorage and
                            Movement of Vessels.
Feb. 26..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      12937
                            15: Certification for Major
                            Illicit Drug Producing and Drug
                            Transit Countries.
Mar. 4...................  Notice: Continuation of Iran            11099
                            Emergency.
Mar. 4...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      13109
                            16: Vietnamese Cooperation in
                            Accounting for United States
                            Prisoners of War and Missing in
                            Action (POW/MIA).
Mar. 5...................  Memorandum: Delegation of               12377
                            Authority With Respect to
                            Reporting Obligations Regarding
                            Counterterrorism and
                            Antiterrorism Programs and
                            Activities.
Mar. 9...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      14329
                            17: Presidential Determination on
                            Section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade
                            Act of 1974--Vietnam.
Mar. 9...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      14331
                            18: Presidential Determination
                            Under Subsection 2(b)(2)(D) of
                            the Export-Import Bank Act of
                            1945, as Amended--Vietnam.
Mar. 13..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      14019
                            19: Military Drawdown for Jordan.
Apr. 3...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      18815
                            20: Use of Nonproliferation, Anti-
                            Terrorism, Demining and Related
                            Programs Account Funds for the
                            U.S. Contribution to the Korean
                            Peninsula Energy Development
                            Organization (KEDO).

[[Page 340]]

Apr. 28..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      26419
                            21: Presidential Determination on
                            the Proposed Agreement for
                            Cooperation Between the United
                            States of America and Ukraine
                            Concerning Peaceful Uses of
                            Nuclear Energy.
May 13...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      27665
                            22: Sanctions Against India for
                            Detonation of a Nuclear Explosive
                            Device.
May 18...................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       27661
                            With Respect to Burma.
May 23...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      30365
                            23: Assistance Program for the
                            Government of the Russian
                            Federation.
May 28...................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       29527
                            With Respect to the Federal
                            Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia
                            and Montenegro) and the Bosnian
                            Serbs.
May 29...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      31879
                            24: Determination Pursuant to
                            Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration
                            and Refugee Assistance Act of
                            1962, as Amended.
May 30...................  Memorandum: Action Under Section        30363
                            203 of the Trade Act of 1974
                            Concerning Wheat Gluten.
May 30...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      31881
                            25: Sanctions Against Pakistan
                            for Detonation of a Nuclear
                            Explosive Device.
June 1...................  Memorandum: Plain Language in           31885
                            Government Writing.
June 3...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      32705
                            26: Determination Under Section
                            402(d)(1) of the Trade Act of
                            1974, as Amended--Continuation of
                            Waiver Authority.
June 3...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      32707
                            27: Determination Under
                            Subsection 402(d)(1) of the Trade
                            Act of 1974, as Amended--
                            Continuation of Waiver Authority.
June 3...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      32709
                            28: Determination Under
                            Subsection 402(d)(1) of the Trade
                            Act of 1974, as Amended--
                            Continuation of Waiver Authority.
June 3...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      32711
                            29: Waiver and Certification of
                            Statutory Provisions Regarding
                            the Palestine Liberation
                            Organization.
June 15..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      34255
                            30: Report to Congress Regarding
                            Conditions in Burma and U.S.
                            Policy Toward Burma.
June 19..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      36149
                            31: Presidential Determination on
                            U.S. Assistance to the Korean
                            Peninsula Energy Development
                            Organization (KEDO).
July 8...................  Memorandum: Delegation of               38277
                            Authority Under Section 1406(b)
                            of the National Defense
                            Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
                            1998.
July 15..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      39695
                            33: Presidential Determination on
                            the Proposed Agreement for
                            Cooperation Between the
                            Government of the United States
                            of America and the Government of
                            Romania Concerning Peaceful Uses
                            of Nuclear Energy.
July 24..................  Message to Congress transmitting        41303
                            budget rescissions and deferrals.
July 28..................  Notice: Continuation of Iraqi           41175
                            Emergency.
Aug. 13..................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       44121
                            Regarding Export Control
                            Regulations.
Sept. 9..................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      50453
                            34: Determination Pursuant to
                            Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration
                            and Refugee Assistance Act of
                            1962, as Amended.

[[Page 341]]

Sept. 11.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      50455
                            35: Extension of the Exercise of
                            Certain Authorities Under the
                            Trading With the Enemy Act.
Sept. 23.................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       51509
                            With Respect to UNITA.
Sept. 25.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      56921
                            36: Presidential Determination on
                            Classified Information Concerning
                            the Air Force's Operating
                            Location Near Groom Lake, Nevada.
Sept. 29.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      54031
                            37: Use of $10 Million in
                            Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism,
                            Demining and Related Programs
                            Account Funds and $5 Million in
                            Economic Support Funds for a U.S.
                            Contribution to the Korean
                            Peninsula Development
                            Organization (KEDO).
Sept. 29.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      54033
                            38: Presidential Determination
                            Pursuant to Section 582(a) of the
                            Foreign Operations, Export
                            Financing, and Related Programs
                            Appropriations Act, 1998, on
                            Withholding Assistance to the
                            Government of Chad.
Sept. 30.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      55001
                            39: Presidential Determination on
                            FY 1999 Refugee Admissions
                            Numbers and Authorizations of In-
                            Country Refugee Status Pursuant
                            to Sections 207 and 101(a)(42),
                            Respectively, of the Immigration
                            and Nationality Act, and
                            Determination Pursuant to Section
                            2(b)(2) of the Migration and
                            Refugee Assistance Act, as
                            Amended.
Sept. 30.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      55003
                            40: Transfer of Funds To Support
                            Court To Try Accused Perpetrators
                            of Pan Am 103 Bombing.
Sept. 30.................  Presidential Determination No. 98-      54035
                            41: Drawdrawn Under Section
                            506(a)(2) of the Foreign
                            Assistance Act To Provide
                            Counternarcotics Assistance to
                            Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia,
                            Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
                            Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica,
                            Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and
                            Tobago, and the Countries of the
                            Eastern Caribbean.
Oct. 19..................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       56079
                            With Respect to Significant
                            Narcotics Traffickers Centered in
                            Colombia.
Oct. 21..................  Presidential Determination No. 99-      59201
                            1: Determination To Waive
                            Requirements Relating to Blocked
                            Property of Terrorist-List States.
Oct. 22..................  Message to Congress transmitting        63949
                            budget rescissions and deferrals.
Oct. 27..................  Memorandum: Report to the Congress      63123
                            Regarding Conditions in Burma and
                            U.S. Policy Toward Burma.
Oct. 27..................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       58617
                            With Respect to Sudan.
Nov. 6...................  Presidential Determination No. 99-      64169
                            3: Drawdown Under Section
                            506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of the
                            Foreign Assistance Act of 1961,
                            as Amended To Provide Emergency
                            Disaster Relief Assistance for
                            Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador,
                            and Guatemala.
Nov. 9...................  Notice: Continuation of Iran            63125
                            Emergency.
Nov. 12..................  Notice: Continuation of Emergency       63589
                            Regarding Weapons of Mass
                            Destruction.

[[Page 342]]

Nov. 14..................  Presidential Determination No. 99-      65995
                            4: Drawdown Under Section
                            506(a)(2)(A)(i)(II) of the
                            Foreign Assistance Act To Provide
                            Emergency Disaster Relief
                            Assistance for Honduras,
                            Nicaragua, El Salvador, and
                            Guatemala.
Nov. 16..................  Memorandum: Delegation of               65997
                            Authority Under Section 5(d)(2)
                            of the International Anti-Bribery
                            and Fair Competition Act of 1998.
Nov. 25..................  Presidential Determination No. 99-     68145,
                            5: Waiver and Certification of         68829
                            Statutory Provisions Regarding
                            the Palestine Liberation
                            Organization.
Dec. 8...................  Presidential Determination No. 99-      70309
                            8: Assistance Program for the New
                            Independent States of the Former
                            Soviet Union.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 64 FR
      Signature Date                     Subject                  Page
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1998

Dec. 24..................  Presidential Determination No. 99-        983
                            9: Use of $12 Million in Economic
                            Support Funds for a U.S.
                            Contribution to the Korean
                            Peninsula Development
                            Organization (KEDO).
Dec. 30..................  Notice: Continuation of Libyan            383
                            Emergency.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Title 3--The President

[[Page 343]]


          Table 4--PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS AFFECTED DURING 1998

________________________________________________________________________


Editorial note: The following abbreviations are used in this table:

EO        Executive Order

FR        Federal Register

PLO       Public Land Order (43 CFR, Appendix to Chapter II)

Proc.     Proclamation

Pub. L.   Public Law

Stat.     U.S. Statutes at Large

WCPD      Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents


________________________________________________________________________


                              Proclamations

                             Date or Number

                                         Comment

Feb. 11, 1916....See Pub. L. 105-376 (sec. 2)...........................
1191.............See Pub. L. 105-376 (sec. 2)...........................
2416.............See Pub. L. 105-321 (sec. 4)...........................
3388.............See Pub. L. 105-376 (sec. 2)...........................
3539.............See Pub. L. 105-376 (sec. 2)...........................
6636.............Terminated by Department of State Public Notice No. ...
                  2932 (63 FR 64139)
6641.............Modified by Proc. 7113; See Proc. 7154.................
6857.............See 63 FR 11946........................................
6867.............See Notice of Feb. 25, p. 243..........................
6961.............See Proc. 7154.........................................
6969.............See Proc. 7154.........................................
7107.............See Office of the U.S. Trade Representative notice (63 
                  FR 37163)
                            Executive Orders

                             Date or Number

                                         Comment

April 3, 1847....Revoked in part by PLO 7353 (63 FR 42061)..............
December 9, 1852.Revoked in part by PLO 7353 (63 FR 42061); PLO 7374 (63 
                  FR 69646)

[[Page 344]]

July 2, 1910.....Revoked in part by PLO 7310 (63 FR 2260, 24189); PLO ..
                  7324 (63 FR 17014); PLO 7326 (63 FR 19745); PLO 7332 
                  (63 FR 30250); PLO 7344 (63 FR 35941)
July 9, 1910.....Revoked in part by PLO 7346 (63 FR 34921)..............
July 10, 1910....Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
October 29, 1910.Revoked by PLO 7328 (63 FR 25231)......................
November 23, 1911Revoked in part by PLO 7332 (63 FR 30250)..............
April 16, 1912...Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
April 19, 1912...Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
October 18, 1912.Revoked by PLO 7352 (63 FR 41862)......................
October 22, 1912.Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
December 14, 1912Revoked by PLO 7352 (63 FR 41862)......................
December 17, 1912Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
January 29, 1913.Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
February 18, 1913Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
May 19, 1913.....Revoked in part by PLO 7363 (63 FR 49710)..............
July 1, 1913.....Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
July 10, 1913....Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
July 24, 1913....Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
October 22, 1913.Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
January 13, 1914.Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
February 25, 1914Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014); Revoked by .
                  PLO 7355 (63 FR 45860)
March 21, 1914...Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
April 21, 1914...Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
February 11, 1915Revoked by PLO 7338 (63 FR 30774)......................

[[Page 345]]

February 23, 1915Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
May 14, 1915.....Revoked in part by PLO 7317 (63 FR 7824)...............
February 19, 1916Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
August 2, 1916...Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516); PLO 7347 (63 
                  FR 35941)
October 13, 1916.Revoked by PLO 7334 (63 FR 29426)......................
November 5, 1916.Revoked in part by PLO 7363 (63 FR 49710)..............
August 16, 1917..Revoked by PLO 7350 (63 FR 41587)......................
September 22, 191Revoked in part by PLO 7363 (63 FR 49710)..............
December 12, 1917Revoked by PLO 7327 (63 FR 29426)......................
September 10, 191Revoked in part by PLO 7324 (63 FR 17014)..............
February 25, 1919Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
May 6, 1919......Revoked in part by PLO 7363 (63 FR 49710)..............
October 27, 1920.Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
April 17, 1926...Revoked in part by PLO 7332 (63 FR 30250); Modified and 
                  revoked in part by PLO 7356 (63 FR 45858)
March 9, 1927....Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
February 14, 1933Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
March 3, 1933....Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
November 16, 1933Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
June 15, 1934....Revoked in part by PLO 7330 (63 FR 28516)..............
1819.............See Department of the Interior notice (63 FR 32676)....
5327.............See Bureau of Land Management notice (63 FR 46803).....
5907.............Modified and revoked in part by PLO 7364 (63 FR 49710).
6582.............Revoked by Pub. L. 105-312 (sec. 203)..................
6614.............See Pub. L. 105-225 (sec. 2111)........................
7523.............See Pub. L. 105-321 (sec. 4)...........................

[[Page 346]]

7722.............Revoked in part by PLO 7369 (63 FR 58064)..............
7895.............See Pub. L. 105-321 (sec. 4)...........................
8152.............Revoked by Pub. L. 105-312 (sec. 204)..................
8648.............Revoked by Pub. L. 105-312 (sec. 203)..................
9080.............Amended by EO 13082....................................
9981.............See Proc. 7108; Pub. L. 105-355 (sec. 302).............
10057............See Pub. L. 105-225 (sec. 2111)........................
10087............See Pub. L. 105-225 (sec. 2111)........................
10692............See EO 13082...........................................
11246............See Department of the Interior notice (63 FR 60380)....
11478............Amended by EO 13087....................................
11958............Amended by EO 13091....................................
12163............Amended by EO 13091; Revoked in part by Pub. L. 105-277 
                  (sec. 1422)
12170............See Notice of Nov. 9, p. 304...........................
12377............See EO 13082...........................................
12473............Amended by EO 13086....................................
12484............See EO 13086...........................................
12543............See Notices of Jan. 2, p. 239; Dec. 30, p. 307.........
12544............See Notices of Jan. 2, p. 239; Dec. 30, p. 307.........
12550............See EO 13086...........................................
12586............See EO 13086...........................................
12612............Revoked by EO 13083....................................
12656............Amended by EO 13074....................................
12708............See EO 13086...........................................
12722............See Notice of July 28, p. 294..........................
12724............See Notice of July 28, p. 294..........................
12748............Amended by EO 13106....................................
12767............See EO 13086...........................................
12808............See Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
12810............See Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
12831............See Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
12843............See EO 13101...........................................
12845............See EO 13101...........................................
12846............See Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
12856............See EO 13101...........................................
12865............See EO 13098; Notice of Sept. 23, p. 296...............
12866............Supplemented by EO's 13083, 13084......................
12873............Revoked by EO 13101....................................
12875............Revoked by EO 13083....................................

[[Page 347]]

12884............Revoked in part by Pub. L. 105-277 (sec. 1422).........
12888............See EO 13086...........................................
12902............See EO 13101...........................................
12924............See Notice of Aug. 13, p. 294..........................
12934............See Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
12936............See EO 13086...........................................
12938............Amended by EO 13094; See Notice of Nov. 12, p. 305.....
12947............Amended by EO 13099; See Notice of Jan. 21, p. 241.....
12957............See Notice of Mar. 4, p. 276...........................
12959............See Notice of Mar. 4, p. 276...........................
12960............See EO 13086...........................................
12969............See EO 13101...........................................
12978............See Notice of Oct. 19, p. 301..........................
12988............Supplemented by EO's 13083, 13084; See Pub. L. 105-156 
                  (sec. 4)
13010............Amended by EO 13077....................................
13011............See EO 13103...........................................
13021............Amended by EO 13104....................................
13031............See EO 13101...........................................
13035............Amended by EO 13092....................................
13037............Amended by EO 13108....................................
13038............Amended by EO's 13081, 13102...........................
13047............See Notice of May 18, p. 281...........................
13059............See Notice of Mar. 4, p. 276...........................
13061............Amended by EO 13093; See Proc. 7112....................
13067............See Notice of Oct. 27, p. 303..........................
13069............See Notice of Sept. 23, p. 296.........................
13071............Superseded by EO 13106.................................
13080............Amended by EO 13093; See Proc. 7112....................
13083............Suspended by EO 13095; See EO 13084; Pub. L. 105-276 ..
                  (sec. 425)
13084............See EO 13083...........................................
13093............See Proc. 7112.........................................
13096............See Department of Education notice (63 FR 52246).......
13098............See Notice of Sept. 23, p. 296.........................
                      Other Presidential Documents

                             Date or Number

                                         Comment

Memorandum of AprSupplemented by EO 13084...............................
Memorandum of AugSee GSA notice (63 FR 10631)...........................
Memorandum of JulSee EPA final rule (63 FR 57364).......................

[[Page 348]]

Presidential DeteAmended by Presidential Determination No. 98-32 (WCPD, 
                  Vol. 34, No. 26, p. 1181)
Presidential DeteSee Presidential Determination No. 98-32 (WCPD, Vol. ..
                  34, No. 26, p. 1181)
Presidential DeteRevoked by Presidential Determination No. 98-32 (WCPD, 
                  Vol. 34, No. 26, p. 1181)
Presidential DeteSee Notice of May 28, p. 285...........................
Presidential DeteSee Presidential Determination No. 98-35, p. 295.......
Presidential DeteSee Department of the Air Force notice (63 FR 56921)...
Reorganization PlRevoked by Pub. L. 105-277 (sec. 1422).................
                         Title 3--The President

[[Page 349]]




     Table 5--STATUTES CITED AS AUTHORITY FOR PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS


________________________________________________________________________


Editorial note: Statutes which were cited as authority for the issuance 
of Presidential documents contained in this volume are listed under one 
of these headings. For authority cites for hortatory proclamations, see 
the text of each proclamation:

    United States Code
    United States Statutes at Large
    Public Laws
    Short Title of Act

Citations have been set forth in the style in which they appear in the 
documents. Since the form of citations varies from document to document, 
users of this table should search under all headings for pertinent 
references.


________________________________________________________________________


                           United States Code

      U.S. Code Citation                 Presidential Document

2 U.S.C. 31..................  EO 13106
3 U.S.C. 104.................  EO 13106
3 U.S.C. 301.................  Procs. 7103, 7125; EO's 13088, 13091,
                                13094, 13098, 13099; Memorandums of Mar.
                                5, p. 278; July 8, p. 293; Nov. 16, p.
                                306
5 U.S.C. 5303(a).............  EO 13106
5 U.S.C. 5304................  EO 13106
5 U.S.C. 5312-5318...........  EO 13106
5 U.S.C. 5332(a).............  EO 13106
5 U.S.C. 5382................  EO 13106
5 U.S.C. App.................  EO's 13075, 13080, 13090, 13104
8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42), 1157,    Presidential Determination No. 98-39, p.
 1158, 1159(b).                 298
8 U.S.C. 1182(f), 1185.......  Proc. 7062
10 U.S.C. 121, 12304.........  EO 13076
10 U.S.C. 801-946............  EO 13086
16 U.S.C. 1 et seq...........  EO 13089
16 U.S.C. 668dd-ee...........  EO 13089
16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq........  EO 13089
16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq........  EO 13089
16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq........  EO 13089
17 U.S.C. 104(b)(5), 104A(g).  Proc. 7161
19 U.S.C. 2252...............  Proc. 7154
19 U.S.C. 2253...............  Proc. 7103; Memorandum of May 30, p. 287

[[Page 350]]

19 U.S.C. 2254...............  Proc. 7154
19 U.S.C. 2432(c)(2).........  EO 13079; Presidential Determination No.
                                98-17, p. 279
19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1).........  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-26, p.
                                290; 98-27, p. 290; 98-28, p. 291
19 U.S.C. 2435(b)(1)(B)......  Presidential Determination No. 98-13, p.
                                242
19 U.S.C. 2483...............  Procs. 7103, 7107, 7113, 7154
19 U.S.C. 3331(b)............  Proc. 7113
22 U.S.C. 287................  EO 13098
22 U.S.C. 288................  EO 13097
22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(2).........  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-41, p.
                                300; 99-3, p. 304; 99-4, p. 305
22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1).........  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-20, p.
                                280; 98-31, p. 292; 98-37, p. 297; 99-9,
                                p. 307
22 U.S.C. 2601(b)(2).........  Presidential Determination No. 98-39, p.
                                298
22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1).........  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-24, p.
                                286; 98-34, p. 295
22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq........  EO 13094
22 U.S.C. 3963...............  EO 13106
22 U.S.C. 4067...............  EO 13105
28 U.S.C. 5, 44(d), 135, 252,  EO 13106
 461(a).
33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq........  EO 13089
36 U.S.C. 175................  Proc. 7115
37 U.S.C. 203(a), (c)........  EO 13106
38 U.S.C. 7306, 7404.........  EO 13106
42 U.S.C. 2153(b)............  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-21, p.
                                280; 98-33, p. 293
42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq........  EO 13089
50 U.S.C. 435................  Presidential Determination No. 98-16, p.
                                277
50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq........  EO's 13088, 13094, 13098, 13099
50 U.S.C. 1622...............  Notices of Jan. 2, p. 239; Jan. 21, p.
                                241; Feb. 25, p. 243; Mar. 4, p. 276;
                                May 18, p. 281; May 28, p. 285; July 28,
                                p. 294; Aug. 13, p. 294; Sept. 23, p.
                                296; Oct. 19, p. 301; Oct. 27, p. 303;
                                Nov. 9, p. 304; Nov. 12, p. 305; Dec.
                                30, p. 307
50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq........  EO's 13088, 13094, 13098, 13099
50 U.S.C. 2141...............  EO 13105
50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note.....  Presidential Determination No. 98-35, p.
                                295

                            Statutes at Large

              Title                        Presidential Document

79 Stat. 997....................  EO 13101
88 Stat. 1978...................  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-26,
                                   p. 290; 98-27, p. 290; 98-28, p. 291

                               Public Laws

          Law Number                     Presidential Document

94-323.......................  Proc. 7114
95-223.......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-35, p.
                                295
99-183.......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-10, p.
                                240
100-202......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-39, p.
                                298

[[Page 351]]

101-246......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-10, p.
                                240
102-40.......................  EO 13106
102-194......................  EO 13092
104-208......................  Memorandum of Oct. 27, p. 302;
                                Presidential Determination No. 98-30, p.
                                292
105-85.......................  Memorandum of Mar. 5, p. 278
105-118......................  Presidential Determination Nos. 98-12, p.
                                242; 98-14, p. 243; 98-19, p. 279; 98-
                                20, p. 280; 98-23, p. 282; 98-29, p.
                                291; 98-37, p. 297
105-119......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-16, p.
                                277
105-277......................  EO 13106; Presidential Determination Nos.
                                99-5, p. 306; 99-8, p. 307

                           Short Title of Act

              Title                        Presidential Document

Arms Export Control Act (sec.     Presidential Determination Nos. 98-22,
 102(b)(1)).                       p. 281; 98-25, p. 288
Export-Import Bank Act of 1945    Presidential Determination No. 98-18,
 (sec. 2(b)(2)(D)).                p. 279
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961    ......................................
  Sec. 490(b)(1)(A), (B)........  Presidential Determination No. 98-15,
                                   p. 244
  Sec. 517......................  Presidential Determination No. 98-9,
                                   p. 240
  Sec. 610(a)...................  Presidential Determination No. 98-40,
                                   p. 299
Foreign Operations, Export        Presidential Determination No. 98-38,
 Financing, and Related Programs   p. 297
 Appropriations Act, 1998 (sec.
 582(a)).
North American Free Trade         ......................................
 Agreement Implementation Act
  Secs. 103(a), 201(b)..........  Proc. 7125
  Secs. 311, 312................  Memorandum of May 30, p. 287
Omnibus Consolidated and          Presidential Determination No. 99-1,
 Emergency Supplemental            p. 302
 Appropriations Act, 1999.
Trade Act of 1974                 ......................................
  Sec. 204......................  Memorandum of May 30, p. 287
  Sec. 604......................  Procs. 7107, 7125
  Title V.......................  Proc. 7107

[[Page 353]]

                      LIST OF CFR SECTIONS AFFECTED

________________________________________________________________________


Editorial note: All changes in Chapter I of this volume of the Code of 
Federal Regulations which were made by documents published in the 
Federal Register since January 1, 1986, are enumerated in the following 
list. Entries indicate the nature of the changes effected. Page numbers 
refer to Federal Register pages. The user should consult the entries for 
chapters and parts as well as sections for revisions.
  For the period before January 1, 1986, see the ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected, 1949-1963, 1964-1972, and 1973-1985'' published in seven 
separate volumes.
  Presidential documents affected during 1998 are set forth in Table 4 
on page 343.


________________________________________________________________________


                                1986-1987
3 CFR

                         (No regulations issued)

                                  1988
3 CFR
                                                                   53 FR
                                                                    Page
Chapter I
102
Added
                                                                   25879
                                  1989
3 CFR

                         (No regulations issued)

                                  1990
3 CFR
                                                                   55 FR
                                                                    Page
Chapter I
101
Authority citation added
                                                                   46037
101.3
Revised
                                                                   46037
101.6
Added
                                                                   46037
101.7
Added
                                                                   46037
101.8
Added
                                                                   46037
                                1991-1998
3 CFR

                         (No regulations issued)
INDEX



[[Page 355]]

A

Adoption Month, National (Proc. 7145)
Advisory commission, committee, council. See other part of title
Afghanistan; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 
244)
Africa; migration and refugee assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-
24, p. 286)
African American History Month, National (Proc. 7067)
Agriculture. See specific agricultural commodity
AIDS Day, World (Proc. 7153)
Alaska Natives. See Native Americans
Alternative Fuels Week, National (Proc. 7101)
American. See other part of title.
Angola, National Union for the Total Independence of (UNITA)
    Blocking property and prohibiting certain transactions (EO 13098)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notice of Sept. 23, p. 296)
Anti-Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998, International; delegation of 
authority (Memorandum of Nov. 16, p. 306)
Antigua and Barbuda; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination 
No. 98-41, p. 300)
Argentina; designation as major non-NATO ally (Presidential Determination 
No. 98-9, p. 240)
Armed Forces, U.S.
    See also Special observances
    Courts-Martial Manual; amendments (EO 13086)
    Selected reserve, ordering to active duty to Southwest Asia (EO 13076)
Arms and munitions. See Weapons
Aruba; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Asia, Southeast; migration and refugee assistance (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-24, p. 286)
Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month (Proc. 7089)


B

Bahamas; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Barbados; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, 
p. 300)
Belarus; Trade Act of 1974; continuation of waiver authority (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-28, p. 291)
Belize; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Bill of Rights Day (Proc. 7158)
Boards. See other part of title; Commissions, boards, committees, etc.
Bolivia
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Bosnian Serbs; state of emergency with U.S. (Notice of May 28, p. 285)
Brazil
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Breast Cancer Awareness Month, National (Proc. 7130)
Broom corn brooms; termination of temporary duties on imports (Proc. 7154)
Burma
    Conditions and U.S. policy (Memorandum of Oct. 27, p. 302; Presidential 
Determination No. 98-30, p. 292)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notice of May 18, p. 281)

[[Page 356]]

C

Cambodia; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Cancer Control Month (Proc. 7075)
Capital Budgeting, Commission To Study; amendment (EO 13108)
Captive Nations Week (Proc. 7109)
Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System; open 
enrollment season (EO 13105)
Chad; withholding financial assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-
38, p. 297)
Character Counts Week, National (Proc. 7141)
Child Abuse Prevention Month, National (Proc. 7076)
Child Health Day (Proc. 7132)
Children's Day, National (Proc. 7139)
Children's Memorial Day, National (Proc. 7159)
China
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    Nuclear energy, certification regarding peaceful uses (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-10, p. 240)
    Trade Act of 1974; continuation of waiver authority (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-26, p. 290)
    Trade agreement; renewal (Presidential Determination No. 98-13, p. 242)
Citizenship Day (Proc. 7123)
Colombia
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notice of Oct. 19, p. 301)
Columbus Day (Proc. 7136)
Commissions, boards, committees, etc.
    Capital Budgeting, Commission To Study; amendment (EO 13108)
    Critical Infrastructure Protection, President's Commission on; amendment 
(EO 13077)
    Digital Television Broadcasters, Advisory Committee on Public Interest 
Obligations of; amendments (EO's 13081, 13102)
    Employment of Adults with Disabilities, National Task Force on; 
establishment (EO 13078)
    Enrichment Oversight Committee; establishment (EO 13085)
    Food Safety, President's Council on; establishment (EO 13100)
    Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents, Special Oversight Board for 
Department of Defense Investigations of; establishment (EO 13075)
    Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee, American; establishment 
(EO 13080)
    Information Technology Advisory Committee, President's; amendments (EO 
13092)
    Mexican-United States Defense Commission, Joint; amendment (EO 13082)
    Tribal Colleges and Universities, President's Board of Advisors on; 
continuation (EO 13104)
    White House Millennium Council; establishment (EO 13072)
    Women in American History, President's Commission on the Celebration of; 
establishment (EO 13090)
    Year 2000 Conversion, President's Council on; establishment (EO 13073)
Computer software piracy (EO 13103)
Constitution Week (Proc. 7123)
Copyrights
    Computer software piracy (EO 13103)
    Vietnam; extending U.S. protections to works (Proc. 7161)
Courts-Martial Manual; amendments (EO 13086)
Crime Victims' Rights Week, National (Proc. 7084)
Critical Infrastructure Protection, President's Commission on; amendment (EO 
13077)
Cuba; state of emergency with U.S. and vessels' regulation (Notice of Feb. 
25, p. 243)


D

D.A.R.E. Day, National (Proc. 7080)
Day. See other part of title
Defense and national security; overseas emergency evacuation preparedness 
(EO 13074)
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998, National; delegation of 
authority (Memorandum of July 8, p. 293)
Defense Investigations of Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents, 
Special Oversight Board for Department of; establishment (EO 13075)

[[Page 357]]

Defense Transportation Day, National (Proc. 7094)
Digital Television Broadcasters, Advisory Committee on Public Interest 
Obligations of; amendments (EO's 13081, 13102)
Disabilities, National Task Force on Employment of Adults with; 
establishment (EO 13078)
Disability Employment Awareness Month, National (Proc. 7128)
Domestic Violence Awareness Month, National (Proc. 7129)
Dominica; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, 
p. 300)
Dominican Republic
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, National (Proc. 7155)


E

Ecuador
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Education; American Indian and Alaska Native (EO 13096)
Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A. (Proc. 7078)
El Salvador; emergency disaster relief assistance (Presidential 
Determination Nos. 99-3, p. 304; 99-4, p. 305)
Emergency preparedness
    Federal agency assignment (EO 13074)
    Overseas emergency evacuation preparedness (EO 13074)
Employment of Adults with Disabilities, National Task Force on; 
establishment (EO 13078)
Employment; equal opportunity in the Federal Government (EO 13087)
Enrichment Oversight Committee; establishment (EO 13085)
Environment
    See also Special observances
    Coral reef protection (EO 13089)
    Heritage rivers, American
Amendments (EO 13093)
Designation (Proc. 7112)
    Protection through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition 
(EO 13101)
Equal opportunity. See Government agencies and employees; Special 
observances
Equal Pay Day, National (Proc. 7077)
Erikson Day, Leif (Proc. 7135)
Exports. See Trade


F

Family Caregivers Week, National (Proc. 7151)
Family Week, National (Proc. 7152)
Farm-City Week, National (Proc. 7147)
Farm Safety and Health Week, National (Proc. 7126)
Father's Day (Proc. 7106)
Federal. See other part of title
Federalism
    Revision (EO 13083)
    Suspension (EO 13095)
Fire Prevention Week (Proc. 7131)
Fisheries Day, World (Proc. 7150)
Flag Day and National Flag Week (Proc. 7105)
Food Safety, President's Council on; establishment (EO 13100)
Foreign assistance
    See also specific country; region
    Administration (EO 13091)
    International financial institutions and other organizations and 
programs (Presidential Determination No. 98-12, p. 242)
Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System; open enrollment season (EO 
13105)
Forest Products Week, National (Proc. 7142)
Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, National (Proc. 7079)


G

Generalized System of Preferences. See Trade
German-American Day (Proc. 7133)
Gold Star Mother's Day (Proc. 7127)
Goldwater, Barry M., death (Proc. 7100)
Gore, Albert, Sr., death (Proc. 7157)
Government agencies and employees
    See also Commissions, boards, committees, etc.
    Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System; open 
enrollment season (EO 13105)
    Electronic systems, year 2000 conversion (EO 13073)
    Emergency preparedness, agency assignment (EO 13074)

[[Page 358]]

    Environmental protection through waste prevention, recycling, and 
Federal acquisition (EO 13101)
    Equal employment opportunity (EO 13087)
    Federalism
Revision (EO 13083)
Suspension (EO 13095)
    Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System; open enrollment season 
(EO 13105)
    Half-day closing on Dec. 24 (EO 13109)
    Indian tribal governments, consultation and coordination (EO 13084)
    Pay administration; delegation of authority (EO 13106)
    Plain language in writing (Memorandum of June 1, p. 289)
    Rates of pay; adjustments (EO 13106)
Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American 
Independence (Proc. 7074)
Grenada; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, 
p. 300)
Guatemala
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Emergency disaster relief assistance (Presidential Determination Nos. 
99-3, p. 304; 99-4, p. 305)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents, Special Oversight Board for 
Department of Defense Investigations of; establishment (EO 13075)
Gun Violence, National Day of Concern About Young People and (Proc. 7134)


H

Haiti; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the U.S. (HTS). See Trade
Health and safety. See Environment; Commissions, boards, committees, etc.; 
Special observances
Heart Month, American (Proc. 7066)
Heritage rivers, American
    Amendments (EO 13093)
    Designation (Proc. 7112)
Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee, American; establishment (EO 
13080)
Hispanic Heritage Month, National (Proc. 7121)
Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, National (Proc. 7122)
Homeownership Week, National (Proc. 7104)
Honduras
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Emergency disaster relief assistance (Presidential Determination Nos. 
99-3, p. 304; 99-4, p. 305)
Hong Kong; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week (Proc. 7158)
Human rights; implementation of treaties (EO 13107)


I

Immigration
    See also specific country; region
    Kosovo; migration and refugee assistance due to situation (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-34, p. 295)
    Refugee admissions to U.S. (Presidential Determination No. 98-39, p. 
298)
India
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    Nuclear device, sanctions for detonation (Presidential Determination No. 
98-22, p. 281)
Indians, American. See Native Americans
Information Technology Advisory Committee, President's; amendments (EO 
13092)
International. See other part of title
Interparliamentary Union; designation as international public organization 
(EO 13097)
Iran
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notices of Mar. 4, p. 276; Nov. 9, p. 304)
Iraq; state of emergency with U.S. (Notice of July 28, p. 294)
Irish-American Heritage Month (Proc. 7070)


J

Jamaica
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)

[[Page 359]]

    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Jewish Heritage Week (Proc. 7087)
Jordan; defense drawdown (Presidential Determination No. 98-19, p. 279)


K

Kenya; bombing of U.S. Embassy in Nairobi (Proc. 7115)
King, Jr., Martin Luther, Federal Holiday (Proc. 7064)
Klondike Gold Rush International Historic Park; designation (Proc. 7114)
Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO); U.S. contribution 
(Presidential Determination Nos. 98-14, p. 243; 98-20, p. 280; 98-31, p. 
292; 98-37, p. 297; 99-9, p. 307)
Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, National (Proc. 7110)


L

Laos; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Law Day, U.S.A. (Proc. 7090)
Libya; state of emergency with U.S. (Notices of Jan. 2, p. 239; Dec. 30, p. 
307)
Loyalty Day (Proc. 7091)


M

Malaysia; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Maritime Day, National (Proc. 7098)
Mexican-United States Defense Commission, Joint; amendment (EO 13082)
Mexico
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Middle East; terrorists who threaten to disrupt the peace process
    Prohibiting transactions (EO 13099)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notice of Jan. 21, p. 241)
Minority Enterprise Development Week (Proc. 7119)
Montenegro, Republic of; blocking property (EO 13088)
Mother's Day (Proc. 7093)


N

National. See other part of title
Narcotics and drugs. See specific country
Native Americans
    American Indian and Alaska Native education (EO 13096)
    American Indian Heritage Month, National (Proc. 7144)
    Indian tribal governments, consultation and coordination (EO 13084)
    Tribal Colleges and Universities, President's Board of Advisors on; 
continuation (EO 13104)
Nicaragua; emergency disaster relief assistance (Presidential Determination 
Nos. 99-3, p. 304; 99-4, p. 305)
Nigeria; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
North American Free Trade Agreement. See Trade
Nuclear energy
    See also specific country
    Enrichment Oversight Committee; establishment (EO 13085)
Nuclear weapons. See specific country


O

Ocean, Year of the (Proc. 7065)
Office. See other part of title
Older Americans Month (Proc. 7092)
Older Workers Employment Week, National (Proc. 7072)
Organ and Tissue Donor Awareness Week, National (Proc. 7083)
Ovarian Cancer Awareness Week (Proc. 7120)


P

Pakistan
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    Nuclear device, sanctions for detonation (Presidential Determination No. 
98-25, p. 288)
Palestine Liberation Organization; suspending restrictions on U.S. relations 
(Presidential Determination Nos. 98-29, p. 291; 99-5, p. 306)
Pan Am 103 bombing; financial assistance for court to try accused 
perpetrators (Presidential Determination No. 98-40, p. 299)
Pan American Day and Pan American Week (Proc. 7081)
Panama; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Paraguay; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Parents' Day (Proc. 7111)
Park Week, National (Proc. 7086)

[[Page 360]]

Peace Officers Memorial Day (Proc. 7095)
Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, National (Proc. 7156)
Peru
    Counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-41, p. 
300)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Poison Prevention Week, National (Proc. 7073)
Police Week (Proc. 7095)
POW/MIA Recognition Day, National (Proc. 7124)
Powell, Lewis F., Jr., death (Proc. 7117)
Prayer for Peace, Memorial Day (Proc. 7099)
Prayer, National Day of (Proc. 7088)
President's; Presidential. See other part of title
Pulaski Memorial Day, General (Proc. 7138)


R

Recall Round-Up Day, National (Proc. 7082)
Red Cross Month, American (Proc. 7069)
Refugees. See Immigration
Religious Freedom Day (Proc. 7063)
Romania; proposed agreement on peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-33, p. 293)
Russian Federation; assistance program (Presidential Determination No. 98-
23, p. 282)


S

Safe Boating Week, National (Proc. 7096)
St. Kitts and Nevis; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination 
No. 98-41, p. 300)
St. Lucia; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-
41, p. 300)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-41, p. 300)
School, America Goes Back to (Proc. 7118)
School Lunch Week, National (Proc. 7137)
Serbia, Republic of; blocking property and prohibiting new investment (EO 
13088)
Serbia and Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    Blocking property (EO 13088)
    State of emergency with U.S. (Notice of May 28, p. 285)
Sierra Leone; suspension of entry of persons who are members of the military 
junta and members of their families (Proc. 7062)
Small Business Week (Proc. 7102)
Smokeout Day, National Great American (Proc. 7149)
Soviet Union, New Independent States of the Former; assistance (Presidential 
Determination No. 99-8, p. 307)
Special observances
    America Goes Back to School (Proc. 7118)
    American Heart Month (Proc. 7066)
    American Red Cross Month (Proc. 7069)
    Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month (Proc. 7089)
    Bill of Rights Day (Proc. 7158)
    Cancer Control Month (Proc. 7075)
    Captive Nations Week (Proc. 7109)
    Child Health Day (Proc. 7132)
    Citizenship Day and Constitution Week (Proc. 7123)
    Columbus Day (Proc. 7136)
    Death of Albert Gore, Sr. (Proc. 7157)
    Death of Barry M. Goldwater (Proc. 7100)
    Death of Lewis F. Powell, Jr. (Proc. 7117)
    Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A. (Proc. 7078)
    Father's Day (Proc. 7106)
    50th Anniversary of the Integration of the Armed Services (Proc. 7108)
    Fire Prevention Week (Proc. 7131)
    Flag Day and National Flag Week (Proc. 7105)
    General Pulaski Memorial Day (Proc. 7138)
    German-American Day (Proc. 7133)
    Gold Star Mother's Day (Proc. 7127)
    Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and 
American Democracy (Proc. 7074)
    Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week (Proc. 7158)
    Irish-American Heritage Month (Proc. 7070)
    Jewish Heritage Week (Proc. 7087)
    Law Day, U.S.A. (Proc. 7090)
    Leif Erikson Day (Proc. 7135)
    Loyalty Day (Proc. 7091)
    Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday (Proc. 7064)

[[Page 361]]

    Minority Enterprise Development Week (Proc. 7119)
    Mother's Day (Proc. 7093)
    National Adoption Month (Proc. 7145)
    National African American History Month (Proc. 7067)
    National Alternative Fuels Week (Proc. 7101)
    National American Indian Heritage Month (Proc. 7144)
    National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (Proc. 7130)
    National Character Counts Week (Proc. 7141)
    National Child Abuse Prevention Month (Proc. 7076)
    National Children's Day (Proc. 7139)
    National Children's Memorial Day (Proc. 7159)
    National Crime Victims' Rights Week (Proc. 7084)
    National D.A.R.E. Day (Proc. 7080)
    National Day of Concern About Young People and Gun Violence (Proc. 7134)
    National Day of Prayer (Proc. 7088)
    National Defense Transportation Day (Proc. 7094)
    National Disability Employment Awareness Month (Proc. 7128)
    National Domestic Violence Awareness Month (Proc. 7129)
    National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month (Proc. 7155)
    National Equal Pay Day (Proc. 7077)
    National Family Caregivers Week (Proc. 7151)
    National Family Week (Proc. 7152)
    National Farm-City Week (Proc. 7147)
    National Farm Safety and Health Week (Proc. 7126)
    National Forest Products Week (Proc. 7142)
    National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day (Proc. 7079)
    National Great American Smokeout Day (Proc. 7149)
    National Hispanic Heritage Month (Proc. 7121)
    National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week (Proc. 7122)
    National Homeownership Week (Proc. 7104)
    National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day (Proc. 7110)
    National Maritime Day (Proc. 7098)
    National Older Workers Employment Week (Proc. 7072)
    National Organ and Tissue Donor Awareness Week (Proc. 7083)
    National Park Week (Proc. 7086)
    National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (Proc. 7156)
    National Poison Prevention Week (Proc. 7073)
    National POW/MIA Recognition Day (Proc. 7124)
    National Recall Round-Up Day (Proc. 7082)
    National Safe Boating Week (Proc. 7096)
    National School Lunch Week (Proc. 7137)
    National Transportation Week (Proc. 7094)
    National Volunteer Week (Proc. 7085)
    Older Americans Month (Proc. 7092)
    Ovarian Cancer Awareness Week (Proc. 7120)
    Pan American Day and Pan American Week (Proc. 7081)
    Parents' Day (Proc. 7111)
    Peace Officers Memorial Day (Proc. 7095)
    Police Week (Proc. 7095)
    Prayer for Peace, Memorial Day (Proc. 7099)
    Religious Freedom Day (Proc. 7063)
    Save Your Vision Week (Proc. 7068)
    Small Business Week (Proc. 7102)
    Thanksgiving Day (Proc. 7148)
    United Nations Day (Proc. 7143)
    Veterans Day (Proc. 7146)
    Victims of Bombing Incidents in Africa (Proc. 7115)
    White Cane Safety Day (Proc. 7140)
    Women's Equality Day (Proc. 7116)
    Women's History Month (Proc. 7071)
    World AIDS Day (Proc. 7153)
    World Fisheries Day (Proc. 7150)
    World Trade Week (Proc. 7097)
    Wright Brothers Day (Proc. 7160)
    Year of the Ocean (Proc. 7065)
Sudan; state of emergency with U.S. (Notice of Oct. 27, p. 303)


T

Taiwan; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Tanzania; bombing of U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam (Proc. 7115)
Terrorism
    See also specific country or region
    Reporting obligations regarding counterterrorism and antiterrorism 
activities and programs; delegation of authority (Memorandum of Mar. 5, p. 
278)

[[Page 362]]

    Terrorist-list states; waiver of requirements relating to blocked 
property (Presidential Determination No. 99-1, p. 302)
Thailand; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Thanksgiving Day (Proc. 7148)
Trade
    See also specific commodity
    Export control regulations; continuation of emergency (Notice of Aug. 
13, p. 294)
    Fair trade (Memorandum of Nov. 16, p. 306)
    Generalized System of Preferences (Proc. 7107)
    North American Free Trade Agreement
Duty elimination, accelerated schedule (Proc. 7113)
Textile and apparel regime; modification of provisions (Proc. 7125)
    Trade Act of 1974
    See also specific country
Broom corn brooms, terminating temporary duties (Proc. 7154)
Waiver of restrictions (EO 13079)
Wheat gluten (Proc. 7103; Memorandum of May 30, p. 287)
    Trading With the Enemy Act; extension of authorities (Presidential 
Determination No. 98-35, p. 295)
Trade Week, World (Proc. 7097)
Transportation Week, National (Proc. 7094)
Trinidad and Tobago; counternarcotics assistance (Presidential Determination 
No. 98-41, p. 300)


U

Ukraine; peaceful uses of nuclear energy, cooperation with U.S. 
(Presidential Determination No. 98-21, p. 280)
UNITA. See Angola
United Nations Day (Proc. 7143)


V

Venezuela; narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
Veterans Day (Proc. 7146)
Vietnam
    Copyright; extending U.S. protections to works (Proc. 7161)
    Export-Import Bank; assistance (Presidential Determination No. 98-18, p. 
279)
    Narcotics control (Presidential Determination No. 98-15, p. 244)
    Prisoners of War/Missing in Action, cooperation in accounting for U.S. 
(Presidential Determination No. 98-16, p. 277)
    Trade Act of 1974; waiver of restrictions (EO 13079; Presidential 
Determination Nos. 98-17, p. 279; 98-27, p. 290)
Vision Week, Save Your (Proc. 7068)
Volunteer Week, National (Proc. 7085)


W

Weapons
    Export controls; administration (EO 13091)
    Weapons of mass destruction
Emergency; continuation (Notice of Nov. 12, p. 305)
Proliferation; amendments (EO 13094)
Wheat gluten
    Competition from imports; positive adjustment (Proc. 7103)
    Trade Act of 1974 (Memorandum of May 30, p. 287)
White Cane Safety Day (Proc. 7140)
White House Millennium Council; establishment (EO 13072)
Women in American History, President's Commission on the Celebration of; 
establishment (EO 13090)
Women's Equality Day (Proc. 7116)
Women's History Month (Proc. 7071)
World. See other part of title
Wright Brothers Day (Proc. 7160)


Y

Year 2000 Conversion, President's Council on; establishment (EO 13073)
Young People and Gun Violence, National Day of Concern About (Proc. 7134)
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of. See Serbia and Montenegro


[[Page 363]]

                            CFR FINDING AIDS


________________________________________________________________________


Editorial note: A list of CFR titles, subtitles, chapters, subchapters, 
and parts, and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR 
are included in the CFR Index and Finding Aids volume to the Code of 
Federal Regulations, which is published separately and revised annually 
as of January 1.

The two finding aids on the following pages, the ``Table of CFR Titles 
and Chapters'' and the ``Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the 
CFR'' apply to all 50 titles of the Code of Federal Regulations. 
Reference aids specific to this volume appear in the section entitled 
``Title 3 Finding Aids,'' found on page 331.



[[Page 365]]



                    Table of CFR Titles and Chapters




                     (Revised as of January 1, 1999)

                      Title 1--General Provisions

         I  Administrative Committee of the Federal Register 
                (Parts 1--49)
        II  Office of the Federal Register (Parts 50--299)
        IV  Miscellaneous Agencies (Parts 400--500)

                          Title 2--[Reserved]

                        Title 3--The President

         I  Executive Office of the President (Parts 100--199)

                           Title 4--Accounts

         I  General Accounting Office (Parts 1--99)
        II  Federal Claims Collection Standards (General 
                Accounting Office--Department of Justice) (Parts 
                100--299)

                   Title 5--Administrative Personnel

         I  Office of Personnel Management (Parts 1--1199)
        II  Merit Systems Protection Board (Parts 1200--1299)
       III  Office of Management and Budget (Parts 1300--1399)
        IV  Advisory Committee on Federal Pay (Parts 1400--1499)
         V  The International Organizations Employees Loyalty 
                Board (Parts 1500--1599)
        VI  Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Parts 
                1600--1699)
       VII  Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations 
                (Parts 1700--1799)
      VIII  Office of Special Counsel (Parts 1800--1899)
        IX  Appalachian Regional Commission (Parts 1900--1999)
        XI  Armed Forces Retirement Home (Part 2100)
       XIV  Federal Labor Relations Authority, General Counsel of 
                the Federal Labor Relations Authority and Federal 
                Service Impasses Panel (Parts 2400--2499)
        XV  Office of Administration, Executive Office of the 
                President (Parts 2500--2599)
       XVI  Office of Government Ethics (Parts 2600--2699)
       XXI  Department of the Treasury (Parts 3100--3199)

[[Page 366]]

      XXII  Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (Part 3201)
     XXIII  Department of Energy (Part 3301)
      XXIV  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Part 3401)
       XXV  Department of the Interior (Part 3501)
      XXVI  Department of Defense (Part 3601)
    XXVIII  Department of Justice (Part 3801)
      XXIX  Federal Communications Commission (Parts 3900--3999)
       XXX  Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation (Parts 4000--
                4099)
      XXXI  Farm Credit Administration (Parts 4100--4199)
    XXXIII  Overseas Private Investment Corporation (Part 4301)
      XXXV  Office of Personnel Management (Part 4501)
        XL  Interstate Commerce Commission (Part 5001)
       XLI  Commodity Futures Trading Commission (Part 5101)
      XLII  Department of Labor (Part 5201)
     XLIII  National Science Foundation (Part 5301)
       XLV  Department of Health and Human Services (Part 5501)
      XLVI  Postal Rate Commission (Part 5601)
     XLVII  Federal Trade Commission (Part 5701)
    XLVIII  Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Part 5801)
         L  Department of Transportation (Part 6001)
       LII  Export-Import Bank of the United States (Part 6201)
      LIII  Department of Education (Parts 6300--6399)
       LIV  Environmental Protection Agency (Part 6401)
      LVII  General Services Administration (Part 6701)
     LVIII  Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Part 
                6801)
       LIX  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Part 
                6901)
        LX  United States Postal Service (Part 7001)
       LXI  National Labor Relations Board (Part 7101)
      LXII  Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (Part 7201)
     LXIII  Inter-American Foundation (Part 7301)
       LXV  Department of Housing and Urban Development (Part 
                7501)
      LXVI  National Archives and Records Administration (Part 
                7601)
      LXIX  Tennessee Valley Authority (Part 7901)
      LXXI  Consumer Product Safety Commission (Part 8101)
     LXXIV  Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (Part 
                8401)
     LXXVI  Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Part 8601)
    LXXVII  Office of Management and Budget (Part 8701)

                          Title 6--[Reserved]

                         Title 7--Agriculture

            Subtitle A--Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 
                (Parts 0--26)
            Subtitle B--Regulations of the Department of 
                Agriculture

[[Page 367]]

         I  Agricultural Marketing Service (Standards, 
                Inspections, Marketing Practices), Department of 
                Agriculture (Parts 27--209)
        II  Food and Nutrition Service, Department of Agriculture 
                (Parts 210--299)
       III  Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Department