[Title 14 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - January 1, 2017 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]



[[Page i]]

          
 
          Title 14

Aeronautics and Space


________________________

Parts 60 to 109

                         Revised as of January 1, 2017

          Containing a codification of documents of general 
          applicability and future effect

          As of January 1, 2017
                    Published by the Office of the Federal Register 
                    National Archives and Records Administration as a 
                    Special Edition of the Federal Register

[[Page ii]]

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                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 14:
          Chapter I--Federal Aviation Administration, 
          Department of Transportation (Continued)                   3
  Finding Aids:
      Table of CFR Titles and Chapters........................    1051
      Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR......    1071
      List of CFR Sections Affected...........................    1081

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                     ----------------------------

                     Cite this Code:  CFR
                     To cite the regulations in 
                       this volume use title, 
                       part and section number. 
                       Thus, 14 CFR 60.1 refers 
                       to title 14, part 60, 
                       section 1.

                     ----------------------------

[[Page v]]



                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
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into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
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name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1

    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

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[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
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[[Page vii]]

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    January 1, 2017.

                                
                                      
                            

  

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                               THIS TITLE

    Title 14--Aeronautics and Space is composed of five volumes. The 
parts in these volumes are arranged in the following order: Parts 1-59, 
60-109, 110-199, 200-1199, and part 1200-End. The first three volumes 
containing parts 1-199 are comprised of chapter I--Federal Aviation 
Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT). The fourth volume 
containing parts 200-1199 is comprised of chapter II--Office of the 
Secretary, DOT (Aviation Proceedings) and chapter III--Commercial Space 
Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. The fifth volume 
containing part 1200-End is comprised of chapter V--National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration and chapter VI--Air Transportation System 
Stabilization. The contents of these volumes represent all current 
regulations codified under this title of the CFR as of January 1, 2017.

    For this volume, Bonnie Fritts was Chief Editor. The Code of Federal 
Regulations publication program is under the direction of John Hyrum 
Martinez, assisted by Stephen J. Frattini.

[[Page 1]]



                     TITLE 14--AERONAUTICS AND SPACE




                  (This book contains parts 60 to 109)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Part

chapter i--Federal Aviation Administration, Department of 
  Transportation (Continued)................................          60

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CHAPTER I--FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 
                               (CONTINUED)




  --------------------------------------------------------------------

                          SUBCHAPTER D--AIRMEN
Part                                                                Page
60              Flight simulation training device initial 
                    and continuing qualification and use....           5
61              Certification: Pilots, flight instructors, 
                    and ground instructors..................         501
63              Certification: Flight crewmembers other than 
                    pilots..................................         626
65              Certification: Airmen other than flight 
                    crewmembers.............................         644
67              Medical standards and certification.........         667
                         SUBCHAPTER E--AIRSPACE
71              Designation of class A, B, C, D, and E 
                    airspace areas; air traffic service 
                    routes; and reporting points............         680
73              Special use airspace........................         684
75              [Reserved]

77              Safe, efficient use, and preservation of the 
                    navigable airspace......................         686
          SUBCHAPTER F--AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES
91              General operating and flight rules..........         696
93              Special air traffic rules...................         976
95              IFR altitudes...............................        1010
97              Standard instrument procedures..............        1018
99              Security control of air traffic.............        1020
101             Moored balloons, kites, amateur rockets, 
                    unmanned free balloons, and certain 
                    model aircraft..........................        1024
103             Ultralight vehicles.........................        1030
105             Parachute operations........................        1032
106             [Reserved]

107             Small unmanned aircraft systems.............        1039

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108-109         [Reserved]

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                           SUBCHAPTER D_AIRMEN





PART 60_FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING 
QUALIFICATION AND USE--Table of Contents



Sec.
60.1  Applicability.
60.2  Applicability of sponsor rules to persons who are not sponsors and 
          who are engaged in certain unauthorized activities.
60.3  Definitions.
60.4  Qualification Performance Standards.
60.5  Quality management system.
60.7  Sponsor qualification requirements.
60.9  Additional responsibilities of the sponsor.
60.11  FSTD use.
60.13  FSTD objective data requirements.
60.14  Special equipment and personnel requirements for qualification of 
          the FSTD.
60.15  Initial qualification requirements.
60.16  Additional qualifications for a currently qualified FSTD.
60.17  Previously qualified FSTDs.
60.19  Inspection, continuing qualification evaluation, and maintenance 
          requirements.
60.20  Logging FSTD discrepancies.
60.21  Interim qualification of FSTDs for new aircraft types or models.
60.23  Modifications to FSTDs.
60.25  Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
          components.
60.27  Automatic loss of qualification and procedures for restoration of 
          qualification.
60.29  Other losses of qualification and procedures for restoration of 
          qualification.
60.31  Recordkeeping and reporting.
60.33  Applications, logbooks, reports, and records: Fraud, 
          falsification, or incorrect statements.
60.35  Specific full flight simulator compliance requirements.
60.37  FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
          Agreement (BASA).

Appendix A to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane 
          Full Flight Simulators
Appendix B to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane 
          Flight Training Devices
Appendix C to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
          Helicopter Full Flight Simulators
Appendix D to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
          Helicopter Flight Training Devices
Appendix E to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for Quality 
          Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices
Appendix F to Part 60--Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight 
          Simulation Training Devices

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, and 44701; Pub. L. 111-
216, 124 Stat. 2348 (49 U.S.C. 44701 note)

    Source: Docket No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006, 
unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 60.1  Applicability.

    (a) This part prescribes the rules governing the initial and 
continuing qualification and use of all aircraft flight simulation 
training devices (FSTD) used for meeting training, evaluation, or flight 
experience requirements of this chapter for flight crewmember 
certification or qualification.
    (b) The rules of this part apply to each person using or applying to 
use an FSTD to meet any requirement of this chapter.
    (c) The requirements of Sec. 60.33 regarding falsification of 
applications, records, or reports also apply to each person who uses an 
FSTD for training, evaluation, or obtaining flight experience required 
for flight crewmember certification or qualification under this chapter.



Sec. 60.2  Applicability of sponsor rules to persons who are not 
sponsors and who are engaged in certain unauthorized activities.

    (a) The rules of this part that are directed to a sponsor of an FSTD 
also apply to any person who uses or causes the use of an FSTD when--
    (1) That person knows that the FSTD does not have an FAA-approved 
sponsor; and
    (2) The use of the FSTD by that person is nonetheless claimed for 
purposes of meeting any requirement of this chapter or that person knows 
or should have known that the person's acts or omissions would cause 
another person to mistakenly credit use of the FSTD for purposes of 
meeting any requirement of this chapter.

[[Page 6]]

    (b) A situation in which paragraph (a) of this section would not 
apply to a person would be when each of the following conditions are 
met:
    (1) The person sold or leased the FSTD and merely represented to the 
purchaser or lessee that the FSTD is in a condition in which it should 
be able to obtain FAA approval and qualification under this part;
    (2) The person does not falsely claim to be the FAA-approved sponsor 
for the FSTD;
    (3) The person does not falsely make representations that someone 
else is the FAA-approved sponsor of the FSTD at a time when that other 
person is not the FAA-approved sponsor of the FSTD; and
    (4) The person's acts or omissions do not cause another person to 
detrimentally rely on such acts or omissions for the mistaken conclusion 
that the FSTD is FAA-approved and qualified under this part at the time 
the FSTD is sold or leased.



Sec. 60.3  Definitions.

    In addition to the definitions in part 1 of this chapter, other 
terms and definitions applicable to this part are found in appendix F of 
this part.



Sec. 60.4  Qualification Performance Standards.

    The Qualification Performance Standards (QPS) are published in 
appendices to this part as follows:
    (a) Appendix A contains the QPS for Airplane Flight Simulators.
    (b) Appendix B contains the QPS for Airplane Flight Training 
Devices.
    (c) Appendix C contains the QPS for Helicopter Flight Simulators.
    (d) Appendix D contains the QPS for Helicopter Flight Training 
Devices.
    (e) Appendix E contains the QPS for Quality Management Systems for 
FSTDs.
    (f) Appendix F contains the QPS for Definitions and Abbreviations 
for FSTDs.



Sec. 60.5  Quality management system.

    (a) After May 30, 2010, no sponsor may use or allow the use of or 
offer the use of an FSTD for flight crewmember training or evaluation or 
for obtaining flight experience to meet any requirement of this chapter 
unless the sponsor has established and follows a quality management 
system (QMS), currently approved by the National Simulator Program 
Manager (NSPM), for the continuing surveillance and analysis of the 
sponsor's performance and effectiveness in providing a satisfactory FSTD 
for use on a regular basis as described in QPS appendix E of this part.
    (b) The QMS program must provide a process for identifying 
deficiencies in the program and for documenting how the program will be 
changed to address these deficiencies.
    (c) Whenever the NSPM finds that the QMS program does not adequately 
address the procedures necessary to meet the requirements of this part, 
the sponsor must, after notification by the NSPM, change the program so 
the procedures meet the requirements of this part. Each such change must 
be approved by the NSPM prior to implementation.
    (d) Within 30 days after the sponsor receives a notice described in 
paragraph (c) of this section, the sponsor may file a petition with the 
Director of Flight Standards Service (the Director) for reconsideration 
of the NSPM finding. The sponsor must address its petition to the 
Director, Flight Standards Service, AFS-1, Federal Aviation 
Administration, 800 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20591. The 
filing of such a petition to reconsider stays the notice pending a 
decision by the Director. However, if the Director finds that there is a 
situation that requires immediate action in the interest of safety in 
air commerce, he may, upon a statement of the reasons, require a change 
effective without stay.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006; Amdt. 60-2, 72 FR 
59599, Oct. 22, 2007]



Sec. 60.7  Sponsor qualification requirements.

    (a) A person is eligible to apply to be a sponsor of an FSTD if the 
following conditions are met:
    (1) The person holds, or is an applicant for, a certificate under 
part 119, 141, or 142 of this chapter; or holds, or is an applicant for, 
an approved flight engineer course in accordance with part 63 of this 
chapter.

[[Page 7]]

    (2) The FSTD will be used, or will be offered for use, in the 
sponsor's FAA-approved flight training program for the aircraft being 
simulated as evidenced in a request for evaluation submitted to the 
NSPM.
    (b) A person is a sponsor if the following conditions are met:
    (1) The person is a certificate holder under part 119, 141, or 142 
of this chapter or has an approved flight engineer course in accordance 
with part 63 of this chapter.
    (2) The person has--
    (i) Operations specifications authorizing the use of the specific 
aircraft or set of aircraft and has an FAA-approved training program 
under which at least one FSTD, simulating the aircraft or set of 
aircraft and for which the person is the sponsor, is used by the sponsor 
as described in paragraphs (b)(5) or (b)(6) of this section; or
    (ii) Training specifications or an FAA-approved course of training 
under which at least one FSTD, simulating that aircraft or set of 
aircraft and for which the person is the sponsor, is used by the sponsor 
as described in paragraphs (b)(5) or (b)(6) of this section.
    (3) The person has a quality management system currently approved by 
the NSPM in accordance with Sec. 60.5.
    (4) The NSPM has accepted the person as the sponsor of the FSTD and 
that acceptance has not been withdrawn by the FAA.
    (5) At least one FSTD (as referenced in paragraph (b)(2)(i) or 
(b)(2)(ii) of this section) that is initially qualified on or after May 
30, 2008, is used within the sponsor's FAA-approved flight training 
program for the aircraft or set of aircraft at least once within the 12-
month period following the initial/upgrade evaluation, and at least once 
within each subsequent 12-month period thereafter.
    (6) At least one FSTD (as referenced in paragraph (b)(2)(i) or 
(b)(2)(ii) of this section) that was qualified before May 30, 2008, is 
used within the sponsor's FAA-approved flight training program for the 
aircraft or set of aircraft at least once within the 12-month period 
following the first continuing qualification evaluation conducted by the 
NSPM after May 30, 2008 and at least once within each subsequent 12-
month period thereafter.
    (c) If the use requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and either (b)(5) 
or (b)(6) of this section are not met, the person will forfeit the right 
to sponsor that FSTD and that person will not be eligible to apply to 
sponsor that FSTD for at least 12 calendar months following the 
expiration of the qualification status.
    (d) In addition to the FSTD described in paragraph (b) of this 
section, an FSTD sponsor may sponsor any number of other FSTDs 
regardless of specific aircraft or set of aircraft provided either--
    (1) During the preceding 12-month period, all of the other FSTDs are 
used within the sponsor's or another certificate holder's FAA-approved 
flight training program for the aircraft or set of aircraft simulated; 
or
    (2) The sponsor obtains a written statement at least annually from a 
qualified pilot who has flown the aircraft or set of aircraft (as 
appropriate) during the preceding 12-month period stating that the 
subject FSTD's performance and handling qualities, within the normal 
operating envelope, represent the aircraft or set of aircraft described 
in the FAA Type Certificate and the type data sheet, if appropriate. The 
sponsor must retain the two most current written statements for review 
by the NSPM.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006; Amdt. 60-2, 72 FR 
59599, Oct. 22, 2007]



Sec. 60.9  Additional responsibilities of the sponsor.

    (a) The sponsor must allow the NSPM upon request to inspect the FSTD 
as soon as practicable. This inspection may include all records and 
documents relating to the FSTD, to determine its compliance with this 
part.
    (b) The sponsor must do the following for each FSTD:
    (1) Establish a mechanism to receive written comments regarding the 
FSTD and its operation in accordance with the QPS appendix E of this 
part.
    (2) Post in or adjacent to the FSTD the Statement of Qualification 
issued by the NSPM. An electronic copy of the Statement of Qualification 
that

[[Page 8]]

may be accessed by an appropriate terminal or display in or adjacent to 
the FSTD is satisfactory.
    (c) Each sponsor of an FSTD must identify to the NSPM by name, one 
individual to be the management representative (MR).
    (1) One person may serve as an MR for more than one FSTD, but one 
FSTD must not have more than one person serving in this capacity.
    (2) Each MR must be an employee of the sponsor with the 
responsibility and authority to--
    (i) Monitor the on-going qualification of assigned FSTDs to ensure 
that all matters regarding FSTD qualification are being carried out as 
provided for in this part;
    (ii) Ensure that the QMS is properly established, implemented, and 
maintained by overseeing the structure (and modifying where necessary) 
of the QMS policies, practices, and procedures; and
    (iii) Regularly brief sponsor's management on the status of the on-
going FSTD qualification program and the effectiveness and efficiency of 
the QMS.
    (3) The MR serves as the primary contact point for all matters 
between the sponsor and the NSPM regarding the qualification of that 
FSTD as provided for in this part.
    (4) The MR may delegate the duties described in paragraph (c)(2) and 
(c)(3) of this section to an individual at each of the sponsor's 
locations.



Sec. 60.11  FSTD use.

    No person may use or allow the use of or offer the use of an FSTD 
for flight crewmember training or evaluation or for obtaining flight 
experience to meet any of the requirements under this chapter unless, in 
accordance with the QPS for the specific device, the FSTD meets all of 
the following:
    (a) Has a single sponsor who is qualified under Sec. 60.7. The 
sponsor may arrange with another person for services of document 
preparation and presentation, as well as FSTD inspection, maintenance, 
repair, and servicing; however, the sponsor remains responsible for 
ensuring that these functions are conducted in a manner and with a 
result of continually meeting the requirements of this part.
    (b) Is qualified as described in the Statement of Qualification.
    (c) Remains qualified, through satisfactory inspection, continuing 
qualification evaluations, appropriate maintenance, and use requirements 
in accordance with this part and the applicable QPS.
    (d) Functions during day-to-day training, evaluation, or flight 
experience activities with the software and hardware that was evaluated 
as satisfactory by the NSPM and, if modified, modified only in 
accordance with the provisions of this part. However, this section does 
not apply to routine software or hardware changes that do not fall under 
the requirements of Sec. 60.23.
    (e) Is operated in accordance with the provisions and limitations of 
Sec. 60.25.



Sec. 60.13  FSTD objective data requirements.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section, for 
the purposes of validating FSTD performance and handling qualities 
during evaluation for qualification, the data made available to the NSPM 
(the validation data package) must include the aircraft manufacturer's 
flight test data and all relevant data developed after the type 
certificate was issued (e.g., data developed in response to an 
airworthiness directive) if such data results from a change in 
performance, handling qualities, functions, or other characteristics of 
the aircraft that must be considered for flight crewmember training, 
evaluation, or for meeting experience requirements of this chapter.
    (b) The validation data package may contain flight test data from a 
source in addition to or independent of the aircraft manufacturer's data 
in support of an FSTD qualification, but only if this data is gathered 
and developed by that source in accordance with flight test methods, 
including a flight test plan, as described in the applicable QPS.
    (c) The validation data package may also contain predicted data, 
engineering simulation data, data from pilot owner or pilot operating 
manuals, or data from public domain sources, provided this data is 
acceptable to the NSPM. If found acceptable the data

[[Page 9]]

may then be used in particular applications for FSTD qualification.
    (d) Data or other material or elements must be submitted in a form 
and manner acceptable to the NSPM.
    (e) The NSPM may require additional objective data, which may 
include flight testing if necessary, if the validation data package does 
not support FSTD qualification requirements as described in this part 
and the applicable QPS appendix.
    (f) When an FSTD sponsor learns, or is advised by an aircraft 
manufacturer or other data provider, that an addition to, an amendment 
to, or a revision of data that may relate to FSTD performance or 
handling characteristics is available, the sponsor must notify the NSPM 
as described in the applicable QPS.



Sec. 60.14  Special equipment and personnel requirements for 
qualification of the FSTD.

    When notified by the NSPM, the sponsor must make available all 
special equipment and qualified personnel needed to accomplish or assist 
in the accomplishment of tests during initial qualification, continuing 
qualification, or special evaluations.



Sec. 60.15  Initial qualification requirements.

    (a) For each FSTD, the sponsor must submit a request to the NSPM to 
evaluate the FSTD for initial qualification at a specific level and 
simultaneously request the Training Program Approval Authority (TPAA) 
forward a concurring letter to the NSPM. The request must be submitted 
in the form and manner described in the applicable QPS.
    (b) The management representative described in Sec. 60.9(c) must 
sign a statement (electronic signature is acceptable for electronic 
transmissions) after confirming the following:
    (1) The performance and handling qualities of the FSTD represent 
those of the aircraft or set of aircraft within the normal operating 
envelope. This determination must be made by a pilot(s) meeting the 
requirements of paragraph (d) of this section after having flown all of 
the Operations Tasks listed in the applicable QPS appendix relevant to 
the qualification level of the FSTD. Exceptions, if any, must be noted. 
The name of the person(s) making this determination must be available to 
the NSPM upon request.
    (2) The FSTD systems and sub-systems (including the simulated 
aircraft systems) functionally represent those in the aircraft or set of 
aircraft. This determination must be made by the pilot(s) described in 
paragraph (b)(1) of this section, or by a person(s) trained on simulator 
systems/sub-systems and trained on the operation of the simulated 
aircraft systems, after having exercised the operation of the FSTD and 
the pertinent functions available through the Instructor Operating 
Station(s). Exceptions, if any, must be noted. The name of the person(s) 
making this determination must be available to the NSPM upon request.
    (3) The cockpit represents the configuration of the specific type; 
or aircraft make, model, and series aircraft being simulated, as 
appropriate. This determination must be made by the pilot(s) described 
in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, or by a person(s) trained on the 
configuration and operation of the aircraft simulated. Exceptions, if 
any, must be noted. The name of the person(s) making this determination 
must be available to the NSPM upon request.
    (c) Except for those FSTDs previously qualified and described in 
Sec. 60.17, each FSTD evaluated for initial qualification must meet the 
standard that is in effect at the time of the evaluation. However--
    (1) If the FAA publishes a change to the existing standard or 
publishes a new standard for the evaluation for initial qualification, a 
sponsor may request that the NSPM apply the standard that was in effect 
when an FSTD was ordered for delivery if the sponsor--
    (i) Within 30 days of the publication of the change to the existing 
standard or publication of the new standard, notifies the NSPM that an 
FSTD has been ordered;
    (ii) Within 90 days of the NSPM notification described in paragraph 
(c)(1)(i) of this section, requests that the standard in effect at the 
time the order was

[[Page 10]]

placed be used for the evaluation for initial qualification; and
    (iii) The evaluation is conducted within 24 months following the 
publication of the change to the existing standard or publication of the 
new standard.
    (2) This notification must include a description of the FSTD; the 
anticipated qualification level of the FSTD; the make, model, and series 
of aircraft simulated; and any other pertinent information.
    (3) Any tests, tolerances, or other requirements that are current at 
the time of the evaluation may be used during the initial evaluation, at 
the request of the sponsor, if the sponsor provides acceptable updates 
to the required qualification test guide.
    (4) The standards used for the evaluation for initial qualification 
will be used for all subsequent evaluations of the FSTD.
    (5) An FSTD sponsor or FSTD manufacturer may submit a request to the 
Administrator for approval of a deviation from the QPS requirements as 
defined in Appendix A through Appendix D of this part.
    (i) Requests for deviation must be submitted in a form and manner 
acceptable to the Administrator and must provide sufficient 
justification that the deviation meets or exceeds the testing 
requirements and tolerances as specified in the part 60 QPS or will 
otherwise not adversely affect the fidelity and capability of the FSTDs 
evaluated and qualified under the deviation.
    (ii) The Administrator may consider deviation from the minimum 
requirements tables, the objective testing tables, the functions and 
subjective testing tables, and other supporting tables and requirements 
in the part 60 QPS.
    (iii) Deviations may be issued to an FSTD manufacturer for the 
initial qualification of multiple FSTDs, subject to terms and 
limitations as determined by Administrator. Approved deviations will 
become a part of the permanent qualification basis of the individual 
FSTD and will be noted in the FSTD's Statement of Qualification.
    (iv) If the FAA publishes a change to the existing part 60 standards 
as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section or issues an FSTD 
Directive as described in Sec. 60.23(b), which conflicts with or 
supersedes an approved deviation, the Administrator may terminate or 
revise a grant of deviation authority issued under this paragraph.
    (d) The pilot(s) who contributes to the confirmation statement 
required by paragraph (b) of this section must--
    (1) Be designated by the sponsor; and
    (2) Be qualified in--
    (i) The aircraft or set of aircraft being simulated; or
    (ii) For aircraft not yet issued a type certificate, or aircraft not 
previously operated by the sponsor or not having previous FAA-approved 
training programs conducted by the sponsor, an aircraft similar in size 
and configuration.
    (e) The subjective tests that form the basis for the statements 
described in paragraph (b) of this section and the objective tests 
referenced in paragraph (f) of this section must be accomplished at the 
sponsor's training facility or other sponsor designated location where 
training will take place, except as provided for in the applicable QPS.
    (f) The person seeking to qualify the FSTD must provide the NSPM 
access to the FSTD for the length of time necessary for the NSPM to 
complete the required evaluation of the FSTD for initial qualification, 
which includes the conduct and evaluation of objective and subjective 
tests, including general FSTD requirements, as described in the 
applicable QPS, to determine that the FSTD meets the standards in that 
QPS.
    (g) When the FSTD passes an evaluation for initial qualification, 
the NSPM issues a Statement of Qualification that includes all of the 
following:
    (1) Identification of the sponsor.
    (2) Identification of the make, model, and series of the aircraft or 
set of aircraft being simulated.
    (3) Identification of the configuration of the aircraft or set of 
aircraft being simulated (e.g., engine model or models, flight 
instruments, or navigation or other systems).
    (4) A statement that the FSTD is qualified as either a full flight 
simulator or a flight training device.
    (5) Identification of the qualification level of the FSTD.

[[Page 11]]

    (6) A statement that (with the exception of the noted exclusions for 
which the FSTD has not been subjectively tested by the sponsor or the 
NSPM and for which qualification is not sought) the qualification of the 
FSTD includes the tasks set out in the applicable QPS appendix relevant 
to the qualification level of the FSTD.
    (7) A statement referencing any deviations that have been granted 
and included in the permanent qualification basis of the FSTD.
    (h) After the NSPM completes the evaluation for initial 
qualification, the sponsor must update the Qualification Test Guide 
(QTG), with the results of the FAA-witnessed tests together with the 
results of all the objective tests described in the applicable QPS.
    (i) Upon issuance of the Statement of Qualification the updated QTG 
becomes the Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG). The MQTG must be 
made available to the NSPM upon request.

[Docket No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006, as amended by 
Docket FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 FR 18217, Mar. 30, 2016]



Sec. 60.16  Additional qualifications for a currently qualified FSTD.

    (a) A currently qualified FSTD is required to undergo an additional 
qualification process if a user intends to use the FSTD for meeting 
training, evaluation, or flight experience requirements of this chapter 
beyond the qualification issued for that FSTD. This process consists of 
the following:
    (1) The sponsor:
    (i) Must submit to the NSPM all modifications to the MQTG that are 
required to support the additional qualification.
    (ii) Must describe to the NSPM all modifications to the FSTD that 
are required to support the additional qualification.
    (iii) Must submit to the NSPM a confirmation statement as described 
in Sec. 60.15(c) that a pilot, designated by the sponsor in accordance 
with Sec. 60.15(d), has subjectively evaluated the FSTD in those areas 
not previously evaluated.
    (2) The FSTD must successfully pass an evaluation--
    (i) Consisting of all the elements of an initial evaluation for 
qualification in those circumstances where the NSPM has determined that 
all the elements of an initial evaluation for qualification is 
necessary; or
    (ii) Consisting of those elements of an initial evaluation for 
qualification designated as necessary by the NSPM.
    (b) In making the determinations described in paragraph (a)(2) of 
this section, the NSPM considers factors including the existing 
qualification of the FSTD, any modifications to the FSTD hardware or 
software that are involved, and any additions or modifications to the 
MQTG.
    (c) The FSTD is qualified for the additional uses when the NSPM 
issues an amended Statement of Qualification in accordance with 
Sec. 60.15(h).
    (d) The sponsor may not modify the FSTD except as described in 
Sec. 60.23.



Sec. 60.17  Previously qualified FSTDs.

    (a) Unless otherwise specified by an FSTD Directive, further 
referenced in the applicable QPS, or as specified in paragraph (e) of 
this section, an FSTD qualified before May 31, 2016 will retain its 
qualification basis as long as it continues to meet the standards, 
including the objective test results recorded in the MQTG and subjective 
tests, under which it was originally evaluated, regardless of sponsor. 
The sponsor of such an FSTD must comply with the other applicable 
provisions of this part.
    (b) For each FSTD qualified before May 30, 2008, no sponsor may use 
or allow the use of or offer the use of such an FSTD after May 30, 2014 
for flight crewmember training, evaluation or flight experience to meet 
any of the requirements of this chapter, unless that FSTD has been 
issued a Statement of Qualification, including the Configuration List 
and the List of Qualified Tasks in accordance with the procedures set 
out in the applicable QPS.
    (c) If the FSTD qualification is lost under Sec. 60.27 and--
    (i) Restored under Sec. 60.27 in less than (2) years, then the 
qualification basis (in terms of objective tests and subjective tests) 
for the re-qualification will be those against which the FSTD was 
originally evaluated and qualified.
    (ii) Not restored under Sec. 60.27 for two (2) years or more, then 
the qualification basis (in terms of objective tests

[[Page 12]]

and subjective tests) for the re-qualification will be those standards 
in effect and current at the time of re-qualification application.
    (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, any change 
in FSTD qualification level initiated on or after May 30, 2008 requires 
an evaluation for initial qualification in accordance with this part.
    (e) A sponsor may request that an FSTD be permanently downgraded. In 
such a case, the NSPM may downgrade a qualified FSTD without requiring 
and without conducting an initial evaluation for the new qualification 
level. Subsequent continuing qualification evaluations will use the 
existing MQTG, modified as necessary to reflect the new qualification 
level.
    (f) When the sponsor has appropriate validation data available and 
receives approval from the NSPM, the sponsor may adopt tests and 
associated tolerances described in the current qualification standards 
as the tests and tolerances applicable for the continuing qualification 
of a previously qualified FSTD. The updated test(s) and tolerance(s) 
must be made a permanent part of the MQTG.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006; Amdt. 60-2, 72 FR 
59599, Oct. 22, 2007, as amended by Docket FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 
FR 18218, Mar. 30, 2016]



Sec. 60.19  Inspection, continuing qualification evaluation,
and maintenance requirements.

    (a) Inspection. No sponsor may use or allow the use of or offer the 
use of an FSTD for flight crewmember training, evaluation, or flight 
experience to meet any of the requirements of this chapter unless the 
sponsor does the following:
    (1) Accomplishes all appropriate objective tests each year as 
specified in the applicable QPS.
    (2) Completes a functional preflight check within the preceding 24 
hours.
    (b) Continuing qualification evaluation. (1) This evaluation 
consists of objective tests, and subjective tests, including general 
FSTD requirements, as described in the applicable QPS or as may be 
amended by an FSTD Directive.
    (2) The sponsor must contact the NSPM to schedule the FSTD for 
continuing qualification evaluations not later than 60 days before the 
evaluation is due.
    (3) The sponsor must provide the NSPM access to the objective test 
results in the MQTG and access to the FSTD for the length of time 
necessary for the NSPM to complete the required continuing qualification 
evaluations.
    (4) The frequency of NSPM-conducted continuing qualification 
evaluations for each FSTD will be established by the NSPM and specified 
in the Statement of Qualification.
    (5) Continuing qualification evaluations conducted in the 3 calendar 
months before or after the calendar month in which these continuing 
qualification evaluations are required will be considered to have been 
conducted in the calendar month in which they were required.
    (6) No sponsor may use or allow the use of or offer the use of an 
FSTD for flight crewmember training or evaluation or for obtaining 
flight experience for the flight crewmember to meet any requirement of 
this chapter unless the FSTD has passed an NSPM-conducted continuing 
qualification evaluation within the time frame specified in the 
Statement of Qualification or within the grace period as described in 
paragraph (b)(5) of this section.
    (c) Maintenance. The sponsor is responsible for continuing 
corrective and preventive maintenance on the FSTD to ensure that it 
continues to meet the requirements of this part and the applicable QPS 
appendix. No sponsor may use or allow the use of or offer the use of an 
FSTD for flight crewmember training, evaluation, or flight experience to 
meet any of the requirements of this chapter unless the sponsor does the 
following:
    (1) Maintains a discrepancy log.
    (2) Ensures that, when a discrepancy is discovered, the following 
requirements are met:
    (i) A description of each discrepancy is entered in the log and 
remains in the log until the discrepancy is corrected as specified in 
Sec. 60.25(b).
    (ii) A description of the corrective action taken for each 
discrepancy, the identity of the individual taking the

[[Page 13]]

action, and the date that action is taken is entered in the log.
    (iii) The discrepancy log is kept in a form and manner acceptable to 
the Administrator and is kept in or adjacent to the FSTD. An electronic 
log that may be accessed by an appropriate terminal or display in or 
adjacent to the FSTD is satisfactory.

[Docket No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006, as amended by 
Docket FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 FR 18218, Mar. 30, 2016]



Sec. 60.20  Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Each instructor, check airman, or representative of the 
Administrator conducting training, evaluation, or flight experience, and 
each person conducting the preflight inspection who discovers a 
discrepancy, including any missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
components in the FSTD, must write or cause to be written a description 
of that discrepancy into the discrepancy log at the end of the FSTD 
preflight or FSTD use session.



Sec. 60.21  Interim qualification of FSTDs for new aircraft 
types or models.

    (a) A sponsor may apply for and the NSPM may issue an interim 
qualification level for an FSTD for a new type or model of aircraft, 
even though the aircraft manufacturer's aircraft data package is 
preliminary, if the sponsor provides the following to the satisfaction 
of the NSPM--
    (1) The aircraft manufacturer's data, which consists of at least 
predicted data, validated by a limited set of flight test data;
    (2) The aircraft manufacturer's description of the prediction 
methodology used to develop the predicted data; and
    (3) The QTG test results.
    (b) An FSTD that has been issued interim qualification is deemed to 
have been issued initial qualification unless the NSPM rescinds the 
qualification. Interim qualification terminates two years after its 
issuance, unless the NSPM determines that specific conditions warrant 
otherwise.
    (c) Within twelve months of the release of the final aircraft data 
package by the aircraft manufacturer, but no later than two years after 
the issuance of the interim qualification status, the sponsor must apply 
for initial qualification in accordance with Sec. 60.15 based on the 
final aircraft data package approved by the aircraft manufacturer, 
unless the NSPM determines that specific conditions warrant otherwise.
    (d) An FSTD with interim qualification may be modified only in 
accordance with Sec. 60.23.



Sec. 60.23  Modifications to FSTDs.

    (a) Description of a modification. For the purposes of this part, an 
FSTD is said to have been modified when:
    (1) Equipment or devices intended to simulate aircraft appliances 
are added to or removed from FSTD, which change the Statement of 
Qualification or the MQTG; or
    (2) Changes are made to either software or hardware that are 
intended to impact flight or ground dynamics; changes are made that 
impact performance or handling characteristics of the FSTD (including 
motion, visual, control loading, or sound systems for those FSTD levels 
requiring sound tests and measurements); or changes are made to the 
MQTG. Changes to the MQTG which do not affect required objective testing 
results or validation data approved during the initial evaluation of the 
FSTD are not considered modifications under this section.
    (b) FSTD Directive. When the FAA determines that FSTD modification 
is necessary for safety of flight reasons, the sponsor of each affected 
FSTD must ensure that the FSTD is modified according to the FSTD 
Directive regardless of the original qualification standards applicable 
to any specific FSTD.
    (c) Using the modified FSTD. The sponsor may not use, or allow the 
use of, or offer the use of, the FSTD with the proposed modification for 
flight crewmember training or evaluation or for obtaining flight 
experience for the flight crewmember to meet any requirement of this 
chapter unless:
    (1) The sponsor has notified the NSPM and the TPAA of their intent 
to incorporate the proposed modification, and one of the following has 
occurred;
    (i) Twenty-one days have passed since the sponsor notified the NSPM

[[Page 14]]

and the TPAA of the proposed modification and the sponsor has not 
received any response from either the NSPM or the TPAA;
    (ii) Twenty-one days have passed since the sponsor notified the NSPM 
and the TPAA of the proposed modification and one has approved the 
proposed modification and the other has not responded;
    (iii) Fewer than twenty-one days have passed since the sponsor 
notified the NSPM and the TPAA of the proposed modification and the NSPM 
and TPAA both approve the proposed modification;
    (iv) The sponsor has successfully completed any evaluation the NSPM 
may require in accordance with the standards for an evaluation for 
initial qualification or any part thereof before the modified FSTD is 
placed in service.
    (2) The notification is submitted with the content as, and in a form 
and manner as, specified in the applicable QPS.
    (d) User notification. When a modification is made to an FSTD that 
affects the Statement of Qualification, the sponsor must post an 
addendum to the Statement of Qualification until such time as a 
permanent, updated statement is posted.
    (e) MQTG update. The MQTG must be updated with current objective 
test results in accordance with Sec. 60.15(h) and (i) and appropriate 
objective data in accordance with Sec. 60.13, each time an FSTD is 
modified and an objective test or other MQTG section is affected by the 
modification. If an FSTD Directive is the cause of this update, the 
direction to make the modification and the record of the modification 
completion must be filed in the MQTG.

[Docket No. FAA-2002-12461, 71 FR 63426, Oct. 30, 2006, as amended by 
Docket FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 FR 18218, Mar. 30, 2016]



Sec. 60.25  Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative
components.

    (a) No person may knowingly use or allow the use of or misrepresent 
the capability of an FSTD for any maneuver, procedure, or task that is 
to be accomplished to meet training, evaluation, or flight experience 
requirements of this chapter for flight crewmember certification or 
qualification when there is a missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
(MMI) component that is required to be present and correctly operate for 
the satisfactory completion of that maneuver, procedure, or task.
    (b) Each MMI component as described in paragraph (a) of this 
section, or any MMI component installed and required to operate 
correctly to meet the current Statement of Qualification, must be 
repaired or replaced within 30 calendar days, unless otherwise required 
or authorized by the NSPM.
    (c) A list of the current MMI components must be readily available 
in or adjacent to the FSTD for review by users of the device. Electronic 
access to this list via an appropriate terminal or display in or 
adjacent to the FSTD is satisfactory. The discrepancy log may be used to 
satisfy this requirement provided each currently MMI component is listed 
in the discrepancy log.



Sec. 60.27  Automatic loss of qualification and procedures for 
restoration of qualification.

    (a) An FSTD qualification is automatically lost when any of the 
following occurs:
    (1) The FSTD is not used in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight 
training program in accordance with Sec. 60.7(b)(5) or (b)(6) and the 
sponsor does not obtain and maintain the written statement as described 
in Sec. 60.7(d)(2).
    (2) The FSTD is not inspected in accordance with Sec. 60.19.
    (3) The FSTD is physically moved from one location and installed in 
a different location, regardless of distance.
    (4) The MQTG is missing or otherwise not available and a replacement 
is not made within 30 days.
    (b) If FSTD qualification is lost under paragraph (a) of this 
section, qualification is restored when either of the following 
provisions is met:
    (1) The FSTD successfully passes an evaluation:
    (i) For initial qualification, in accordance with Secs. 60.15 and 
60.17(c) in those circumstances where the NSPM has determined that a 
full evaluation for initial qualification is necessary; or

[[Page 15]]

    (ii) For those elements of an evaluation for initial qualification, 
in accordance with Secs. 60.15 and 60.17(c), as determined to be 
necessary by the NSPM.
    (2) The NSPM advises the sponsor that an evaluation is not 
necessary.
    (c) In making the determinations described in paragraph (b) of this 
section, the NSPM considers factors including the number of continuing 
qualification evaluations missed, the number of sponsor-conducted 
quarterly inspections missed, and the care that had been taken of the 
device since the last evaluation.



Sec. 60.29  Other losses of qualification and procedures for 
restoration of qualification.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, when the 
NSPM determines that the FSTD no longer meets qualification standards, 
the following procedure applies:
    (1) The NSPM notifies the sponsor in writing that the FSTD no longer 
meets some or all of its qualification standards.
    (2) The NSPM sets a reasonable period (but not less than 7 days) 
within which the sponsor may submit written information, views, and 
arguments on the FSTD qualification.
    (3) After considering all material presented, the NSPM notifies the 
sponsor about the determination with regard to the qualification of the 
FSTD.
    (4) When the NSPM notifies the sponsor that some or all of the FSTD 
is no longer qualified, the action described in the notification becomes 
effective not less than 30 days after the sponsor receives that notice 
unless--
    (i) The NSPM finds under paragraph (c) of this section that there is 
an emergency requiring immediate action with respect to safety in air 
commerce; or
    (ii) The sponsor petitions the Director of Flight Standards Service 
for reconsideration of the NSPM finding under paragraph (b) of this 
section.
    (b) When a sponsor seeks reconsideration of a decision from the NSPM 
concerning the FSTD qualification, the following procedure applies:
    (1) The sponsor must petition for reconsideration of that decision 
within 30 days of the date that the sponsor receives a notice that some 
or all of the FSTD is no longer qualified.
    (2) The sponsor must address its petition to the Director, Flight 
Standards Service, AFS-1, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 
Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20591.
    (3) A petition for reconsideration, if filed within the 30-day 
period, suspends the effectiveness of the determination by the NSPM that 
the FSTD is no longer qualified unless the NSPM has found, under 
paragraph (c) of this section, that an emergency exists requiring 
immediate action with respect to safety in air commerce.
    (c) If the NSPM find that an emergency exists requiring immediate 
action with respect to safety in air commerce that makes the procedures 
set out in this section impracticable or contrary to the public 
interest:
    (1) The NSPM withdraws qualification of some or all of the FSTD and 
makes the withdrawal of qualification effective on the day the sponsor 
receives notice of it.
    (2) In the notice to the sponsor, the NSPM articulates the reasons 
for its finding that an emergency exists requiring immediate action with 
respect to safety in air transportation or air commerce or that makes it 
impracticable or contrary to the public interest to stay the 
effectiveness of the finding.
    (d) FSTD qualification lost under paragraph (a) or (c) of this 
section may be restored when either of the following provisions are met:
    (1) The FSTD successfully passes an evaluation for initial 
qualification, in accordance with Secs. 60.15 and 60.17(c) in those 
circumstances where the NSPM has determined that a full evaluation for 
initial qualification is necessary; or
    (2) The FSTD successfully passes an evaluation for those elements of 
an initial qualification evaluation, in accordance with Secs. 60.15 and 
60.17(c), as determined to be necessary by the NSPM.
    (e) In making the determinations described in paragraph (d) of this 
section, the NSPM considers factors including the reason for the loss of 
qualification, any repairs or replacements that may have to have been 
completed, the number of continuing qualification evaluations missed, 
the number of sponsor-conducted quarterly inspections

[[Page 16]]

missed, and the care that had been taken of the device since the loss of 
qualification.



Sec. 60.31  Recordkeeping and reporting.

    (a) The FSTD sponsor must maintain the following records for each 
FSTD it sponsors:
    (1) The MQTG and each amendment thereto.
    (2) A record of all FSTD modifications affected under Sec. 60.23 
since the issuance of the original Statement of Qualification.
    (3) A copy of all of the following:
    (i) Results of the qualification evaluations (initial and each 
upgrade) since the issuance of the original Statement of Qualification.
    (ii) Results of the objective tests conducted in accordance with 
Sec. 60.19(a) for a period of 2 years.
    (iii) Results of the previous three continuing qualification 
evaluations, or the continuing qualification evaluations from the 
previous 2 years, whichever covers a longer period.
    (iv) Comments obtained in accordance with Sec. 60.9(b) for a period 
of at least 90 days.
    (4) A record of all discrepancies entered in the discrepancy log 
over the previous 2 years, including the following:
    (i) A list of the components or equipment that were or are missing, 
malfunctioning, or inoperative.
    (ii) The action taken to correct the discrepancy.
    (iii) The date the corrective action was taken.
    (iv) The identity of the person determining that the discrepancy has 
been corrected.
    (b) The records specified in this section must be maintained in 
plain language form or in coded form if the coded form provides for the 
preservation and retrieval of information in a manner acceptable to the 
NSPM.



Sec. 60.33  Applications, logbooks, reports, and records: Fraud, 
falsification, or incorrect statements.

    (a) No person may make, or cause to be made, any of the following:
    (1) A fraudulent or intentionally false statement in any application 
or any amendment thereto, or any other report or test result required by 
this part.
    (2) A fraudulent or intentionally false statement in or a known 
omission from any record or report that is kept, made, or used to show 
compliance with this part, or to exercise any privileges under this 
chapter.
    (3) Any reproduction or alteration, for fraudulent purpose, of any 
report, record, or test result required under this part.
    (b) The commission by any person of any act prohibited under 
paragraph (a) of this section is a basis for any one or any combination 
of the following:
    (1) A civil penalty.
    (2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate held by that person 
that was issued under this chapter.
    (3) The removal of FSTD qualification and approval for use in a 
training program.
    (c) The following may serve as a basis for removal of qualification 
of an FSTD including the withdrawal of approval for use of an FSTD; or 
denying an application for a qualification:
    (1) An incorrect statement, upon which the FAA relied or could have 
relied, made in support of an application for a qualification or a 
request for approval for use.
    (2) An incorrect entry, upon which the FAA relied or could have 
relied, made in any logbook, record, or report that is kept, made, or 
used to show compliance with any requirement for an FSTD qualification 
or an approval for use.



Sec. 60.35  Specific full flight simulator compliance requirements.

    (a) No device will be eligible for initial or upgrade qualification 
to a FFS at Level C or Level D under this part unless it includes the 
equipment and appliances installed and operating to the extent necessary 
for the issuance of an airman certificate or rating.
    (b) No device will be eligible for initial or upgrade qualification 
to a FFS at Level A or Level B under this part unless it includes the 
equipment and appliances installed and operating to the extent necessary 
for the training, testing, and/or checking that comprise

[[Page 17]]

the simulation portion of the requirements for issuance of an airman 
certificate or rating.



Sec. 60.37  FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation 
Safety Agreement (BASA).

    (a) The evaluation and qualification of an FSTD by a contracting 
State to the Convention on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor 
of an FSTD located in that contracting State may be used as the basis 
for issuing a U.S. statement of qualification (see applicable QPS, 
attachment 4, figure 4) by the NSPM to the sponsor of that FSTD in 
accordance with--
    (1) A BASA between the United States and the Contracting State that 
issued the original qualification; and
    (2) A Simulator Implementation Procedure (SIP) established under the 
BASA.
    (b) The SIP must contain any conditions and limitations on 
validation and issuance of such qualification by the U.S.



  Sec. Appendix A to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
                     Airplane Full Flight Simulators

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    This appendix establishes the standards for Airplane FFS evaluation 
and qualification. The NSPM is responsible for the development, 
application, and implementation of the standards contained within this 
appendix. The procedures and criteria specified in this appendix will be 
used by the NSPM, or a person assigned by the NSPM, when conducting 
airplane FFS evaluations.

                            Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
2. Applicability (Secs. 60.1 and 60.2).
3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3).
4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4).
5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5).
6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.7).
7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9).
8. FFS Use (Sec. 60.11).
9. FFS Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13).
10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
          the FFS (Sec. 60.14).
11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15).
12. Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS 
          (Sec. 60.16).
13. Previously Qualified FFSs (Sec. 60.17).
14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification Evaluation, and Maintenance 
          Requirements (Sec. 60.19).
15. Logging FFS Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20).
16. Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Airplane Types or Models 
          (Sec. 60.21).
17. Modifications to FFSs (Sec. 60.23).
18. Operations With Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
          (Sec. 60.25).
19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.27).
20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.29).
21. Record Keeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31).
22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
          or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33).
23. Specific FFS Compliance Requirements (Sec. 60.35).
24. [Reserved]
25. FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
          Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37).
Attachment 1 to Appendix A to Part 60--General Simulator Requirements.
Attachment 2 to Appendix A to Part 60--FFS Objective Tests.
Attachment 3 to Appendix A to Part 60--Simulator Subjective Evaluation.
Attachment 4 to Appendix A to Part 60--Sample Documents.
Attachment 5 to Appendix A to Part 60--Simulator Qualification 
          Requirements for Windshear Training Program Use.
Attachment 6 to Appendix A to Part 60--FSTD Directives Applicable to 
          Airplane Flight Simulators.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             1. Introduction

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. This appendix contains background information as well as 
regulatory and informative material as described later in this section. 
To assist the reader in determining what areas are required and what 
areas are permissive, the text in this appendix is divided into two 
sections: ``QPS Requirements'' and ``Information.'' The QPS Requirements 
sections contain details regarding compliance with the part 60 rule 
language. These details are regulatory, but are found only in this 
appendix. The Information sections contain material that is advisory in 
nature, and designed to give the user general information about the 
regulation.

[[Page 18]]

    b. Questions regarding the contents of this publication should be 
sent to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation 
Administration, Flight Standards Service, National Simulator Program 
Staff, AFS-205, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia, 30320. Telephone 
contact numbers for the NSP are: phone, 404-474-5620; fax, 404-474-5656. 
The NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/about/
initiatives/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list 
with telephone and email contact information for each NSP staff member, 
a list of qualified flight simulation devices, advisory circulars (ACs), 
a description of the qualification process, NSP policy, and an NSP ``In-
Works'' section. Also linked from this site are additional information 
sources, handbook bulletins, frequently asked questions, a listing and 
text of the Federal Aviation Regulations, Flight Standards Inspector's 
handbooks, and other FAA links.
    c. The NSPM encourages the use of electronic media for all 
communication, including any record, report, request, test, or statement 
required by this appendix. The electronic media used must have adequate 
security provisions and be acceptable to the NSPM. The NSPM recommends 
inquiries on system compatibility, and minimum system requirements are 
also included on the NSP Web site.
    d. Related Reading References.
    (1) 14 CFR part 60.
    (2) 14 CFR part 61.
    (3) 14 CFR part 63.
    (4) 14 CFR part 119.
    (5) 14 CFR part 121.
    (6) 14 CFR part 125.
    (7) 14 CFR part 135.
    (8) 14 CFR part 141.
    (9) 14 CFR part 142.
    (10) AC 120-28, as amended, Criteria for Approval of Category III 
Landing Weather Minima.
    (11) AC 120-29, as amended, Criteria for Approving Category I and 
Category II Landing Minima for part 121 operators.
    (12) AC 120-35, as amended, Line Operational Simulations: Line-
Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line 
Operational Evaluation.
    (13) AC 120-40, as amended, Airplane Simulator Qualification.
    (14) AC 120-41, as amended, Criteria for Operational Approval of 
Airborne Wind Shear Alerting and Flight Guidance Systems.
    (15) AC 120-57, as amended, Surface Movement Guidance and Control 
System (SMGCS).
    (16) AC 150/5300-13, as amended, Airport Design.
    (17) AC 150/5340-1, as amended, Standards for Airport Markings.
    (18) AC 150/5340-4, as amended, Installation Details for Runway 
Centerline Touchdown Zone Lighting Systems.
    (19) AC 150/5340-19, as amended, Taxiway Centerline Lighting System.
    (20) AC 150/5340-24, as amended, Runway and Taxiway Edge Lighting 
System.
    (21) AC 150/5345-28, as amended, Precision Approach Path Indicator 
(PAPI) Systems.
    (22) International Air Transport Association document, ``Flight 
Simulation Training Device Design and Performance Data Requirements,'' 
as amended.
    (23) AC 25-7, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Transport Category Airplanes.
    (24) AC 23-8, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Part 23 Airplanes.
    (25) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual of 
Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices, as 
amended.
    (26) Aeroplane Flight Simulation Training Device Evaluation 
Handbook, Volume I, as amended and Volume II, as amended, The Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK.
    (27) FAA Publication FAA-S-8081 series (Practical Test Standards for 
Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, Type Ratings, Commercial Pilot, and 
Instrument Ratings).
    (28) The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). An electronic 
version of the AIM is on the Internet at http://www.faa.gov/atpubs.
    (29) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document number 436, titled 
Guidelines For Electronic Qualification Test Guide (as amended).
    (30) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document 610, Guidance for 
Design and Integration of Aircraft Avionics Equipment in Simulators (as 
amended).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                 2. Applicability (Secs. 60.1 and 60.2)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.1, Applicability, or to Sec. 60.2, Applicability of sponsor 
rules to persons who are not sponsors and who are engaged in certain 
unauthorized activities.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                       3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    See Appendix F of this part for a list of definitions and 
abbreviations from part 1 and

[[Page 19]]

part 60, including the appropriate appendices of part 60.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

           4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.4, Qualification Performance Standards.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    See Appendix E of this part for additional regulatory and 
informational material regarding Quality Management Systems.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

            6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.7)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The intent of the language in Sec. 60.7(b) is to have a specific 
FFS, identified by the sponsor, used at least once in an FAA-approved 
flight training program for the airplane simulated during the 12-month 
period described. The identification of the specific FFS may change from 
one 12-month period to the next 12-month period as long as the sponsor 
sponsors and uses at least one FFS at least once during the prescribed 
period. No minimum number of hours or minimum FFS periods are required.
    b. The following examples describe acceptable operational practices:
    (1) Example One.
    (a) A sponsor is sponsoring a single, specific FFS for its own use, 
in its own facility or elsewhere--this single FFS forms the basis for 
the sponsorship. The sponsor uses that FFS at least once in each 12-
month period in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight training program for 
the airplane simulated. This 12-month period is established according to 
the following schedule:
    (i) If the FFS was qualified prior to May 30, 2008, the 12-month 
period begins on the date of the first continuing qualification 
evaluation conducted in accordance with Sec. 60.19 after May 30, 2008, 
and continues for each subsequent 12-month period;
    (ii) A device qualified on or after May 30, 2008, will be required 
to undergo an initial or upgrade evaluation in accordance with 
Sec. 60.15. Once the initial or upgrade evaluation is complete, the 
first continuing qualification evaluation will be conducted within 6 
months. The 12-month continuing qualification evaluation cycle begins on 
that date and continues for each subsequent 12-month period.
    (b) There is no minimum number of hours of FFS use required.
    (c) The identification of the specific FFS may change from one 12-
month period to the next 12-month period as long as the sponsor sponsors 
and uses at least one FFS at least once during the prescribed period.
    (2) Example Two.
    (a) A sponsor sponsors an additional number of FFSs, in its facility 
or elsewhere. Each additionally sponsored FFS must be--
    (i) Used by the sponsor in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight 
training program for the airplane simulated (as described in 
Sec. 60.7(d)(1));
        OR
    (ii) Used by another FAA certificate holder in that other 
certificate holder's FAA-approved flight training program for the 
airplane simulated (as described in Sec. 60.7(d)(1)). This 12-month 
period is established in the same manner as in example one;
        OR
    (iii) Provided a statement each year from a qualified pilot (after 
having flown the airplane, not the subject FFS or another FFS, during 
the preceding 12-month period), stating that the subject FFS's 
performance and handling qualities represent the airplane (as described 
in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)). This statement is provided at least once in each 
12-month period established in the same manner as in example one.
    (b) No minimum number of hours of FFS use is required.
    (3) Example Three.
    (a) A sponsor in New York (in this example, a Part 142 certificate 
holder) establishes ``satellite'' training centers in Chicago and 
Moscow.
    (b) The satellite function means that the Chicago and Moscow centers 
must operate under the New York center's certificate (in accordance with 
all of the New York center's practices, procedures, and policies; e.g., 
instructor and/or technician training/checking requirements, record 
keeping, QMS program).
    (c) All of the FFSs in the Chicago and Moscow centers could be dry-
leased (i.e., the certificate holder does not have and use FAA-approved 
flight training programs for the FFSs in the Chicago and Moscow centers) 
because--
    (i) Each FFS in the Chicago center and each FFS in the Moscow center 
is used at least once each 12-month period by another

[[Page 20]]

FAA certificate holder in that other certificate holder's FAA-approved 
flight training program for the airplane (as described in 
Sec. 60.7(d)(1));
        OR
    (ii) A statement is obtained from a qualified pilot (having flown 
the airplane, not the subject FFS or another FFS, during the preceding 
12-month period) stating that the performance and handling qualities of 
each FFS in the Chicago and Moscow centers represents the airplane (as 
described in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

        7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    The phrase ``as soon as practicable'' in Sec. 60.9(a) means without 
unnecessarily disrupting or delaying beyond a reasonable time the 
training, evaluation, or experience being conducted in the FFS.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         8. FFS Use (Sec. 60.11)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.11, Simulator Use.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

             9. FFS Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. Flight test data used to validate FFS performance and handling 
qualities must have been gathered in accordance with a flight test 
program containing the following:
    (1) A flight test plan consisting of:
    (a) The maneuvers and procedures required for aircraft certification 
and simulation programming and validation.
    (b) For each maneuver or procedure--
    (i) The procedures and control input the flight test pilot and/or 
engineer used.
    (ii) The atmospheric and environmental conditions.
    (iii) The initial flight conditions.
    (iv) The airplane configuration, including weight and center of 
gravity.
    (v) The data to be gathered.
    (vi) All other information necessary to recreate the flight test 
conditions in the FFS.
    (2) Appropriately qualified flight test personnel.
    (3) An understanding of the accuracy of the data to be gathered 
using appropriate alternative data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation that is traceable to a recognized standard as described 
in Attachment 2, Table A2E of this appendix.
    (4) Appropriate and sufficient data acquisition equipment or 
system(s), including appropriate data reduction and analysis methods and 
techniques, as would be acceptable to the FAA's Aircraft Certification 
Service.
    b. The data, regardless of source, must be presented as follows:
    (1) In a format that supports the FFS validation process.
    (2) In a manner that is clearly readable and annotated correctly and 
completely.
    (3) With resolution sufficient to determine compliance with the 
tolerances set forth in Attachment 2, Table A2A of this appendix.
    (4) With any necessary instructions or other details provided, such 
as yaw damper or throttle position.
    (5) Without alteration, adjustments, or bias. Data may be corrected 
to address known data calibration errors provided that an explanation of 
the methods used to correct the errors appears in the QTG. The corrected 
data may be re-scaled, digitized, or otherwise manipulated to fit the 
desired presentation.
    c. After completion of any additional flight test, a flight test 
report must be submitted in support of the validation data. The report 
must contain sufficient data and rationale to support qualification of 
the FFS at the level requested.
    d. As required by Sec. 60.13(f), the sponsor must notify the NSPM 
when it becomes aware that an addition to, an amendment to, or a 
revision of data that may relate to FFS performance or handling 
characteristics is available. The data referred to in this paragraph is 
data used to validate the performance, handling qualities, or other 
characteristics of the aircraft, including data related to any relevant 
changes occurring after the type certificate was issued. The sponsor 
must--
    (1) Within 10 calendar days, notify the NSPM of the existence of 
this data; and
    (2) Within 45 calendar days, notify the NSPM of--
    (a) The schedule to incorporate this data into the FFS; or
    (b) The reason for not incorporating this data into the FFS.
    e. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot tests'' results in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady

[[Page 21]]

state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot.'' The steady state condition must exist from 4 seconds prior 
to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by the 
snapshot.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    f. The FFS sponsor is encouraged to maintain a liaison with the 
manufacturer of the aircraft being simulated (or with the holder of the 
aircraft type certificate for the aircraft being simulated if the 
manufacturer is no longer in business), and, if appropriate, with the 
person having supplied the aircraft data package for the FFS in order to 
facilitate the notification required by Sec. 60.13(f).
    g. It is the intent of the NSPM that for new aircraft entering 
service, at a point well in advance of preparation of the Qualification 
Test Guide (QTG), the sponsor should submit to the NSPM for approval, a 
descriptive document (see Table A2C, Sample Validation Data Roadmap for 
Airplanes) containing the plan for acquiring the validation data, 
including data sources. This document should clearly identify sources of 
data for all required tests, a description of the validity of these data 
for a specific engine type and thrust rating configuration, and the 
revision levels of all avionics affecting the performance or flying 
qualities of the aircraft. Additionally, this document should provide 
other information, such as the rationale or explanation for cases where 
data or data parameters are missing, instances where engineering 
simulation data are used or where flight test methods require further 
explanations. It should also provide a brief narrative describing the 
cause and effect of any deviation from data requirements. The aircraft 
manufacturer may provide this document.
    h. There is no requirement for any flight test data supplier to 
submit a flight test plan or program prior to gathering flight test 
data. However, the NSPM notes that inexperienced data gatherers often 
provide data that is irrelevant, improperly marked, or lacking adequate 
justification for selection. Other problems include inadequate 
information regarding initial conditions or test maneuvers. The NSPM has 
been forced to refuse these data submissions as validation data for an 
FFS evaluation. It is for this reason that the NSPM recommends that any 
data supplier not previously experienced in this area review the data 
necessary for programming and for validating the performance of the FFS, 
and discuss the flight test plan anticipated for acquiring such data 
with the NSPM well in advance of commencing the flight tests.
    i. The NSPM will consider, on a case-by-case basis, whether to 
approve supplemental validation data derived from flight data recording 
systems, such as a Quick Access Recorder or Flight Data Recorder.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
                          the FFSs (Sec. 60.14)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. In the event that the NSPM determines that special equipment or 
specifically qualified persons will be required to conduct an 
evaluation, the NSPM will make every attempt to notify the sponsor at 
least one (1) week, but in no case less than 72 hours, in advance of the 
evaluation. Examples of special equipment include spot photometers, 
flight control measurement devices, and sound analyzers. Examples of 
specially qualified personnel include individuals specifically qualified 
to install or use any special equipment when its use is required.
    b. Examples of a special evaluation include an evaluation conducted 
after an FFS is moved, at the request of the TPAA, or as a result of 
comments received from users of the FFS that raise questions about the 
continued qualification or use of the FFS.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

    11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. In order to be qualified at a particular qualification level, the 
FFS must:
    (1) Meet the general requirements listed in Attachment 1 of this 
appendix;
    (2) Meet the objective testing requirements listed in Attachment 2 
of this appendix; and
    (3) Satisfactorily accomplish the subjective tests listed in 
Attachment 3 of this appendix.
    b. The request described in Sec. 60.15(a) must include all of the 
following:
    (1) A statement that the FFS meets all of the applicable provisions 
of this part and all applicable provisions of the QPS.
    (2) Unless otherwise authorized through prior coordination with the 
NSPM, a confirmation that the sponsor will forward to the NSPM the 
statement described in Sec. 60.15(b) in such time as to be received no 
later than 5 business days prior to the scheduled evaluation and may be 
forwarded to the NSPM via traditional or electronic means.
    (3) A QTG, acceptable to the NSPM, that includes all of the 
following:

[[Page 22]]

    (a) Objective data obtained from traditional aircraft testing or 
another approved source.
    (b) Correlating objective test results obtained from the performance 
of the FFS as prescribed in the appropriate QPS.
    (c) The result of FFS subjective tests prescribed in the appropriate 
QPS.
    (d) A description of the equipment necessary to perform the 
evaluation for initial qualification and the continuing qualification 
evaluations.
    c. The QTG described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, must 
provide the documented proof of compliance with the simulator objective 
tests in Attachment 2, Table A2A of this appendix.
    d. The QTG is prepared and submitted by the sponsor, or the 
sponsor's agent on behalf of the sponsor, to the NSPM for review and 
approval, and must include, for each objective test:
    (1) Parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions;
    (2) Pertinent and complete instructions for the conduct of automatic 
and manual tests;
    (3) A means of comparing the FFS test results to the objective data;
    (4) Any other information as necessary, to assist in the evaluation 
of the test results;
    (5) Other information appropriate to the qualification level of the 
FFS.
    e. The QTG described in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b) of this section, 
must include the following:
    (1) A QTG cover page with sponsor and FAA approval signature blocks 
(see Attachment 4, Figure A4C, of this appendix for a sample QTG cover 
page).
    (2) [Reserved]
    (3) An FFS information page that provides the information listed in 
this paragraph (see Attachment 4, Figure A4B, of this appendix for a 
sample FFS information page). For convertible FFSs, the sponsor must 
submit a separate page for each configuration of the FFS.
    (a) The sponsor's FFS identification number or code.
    (b) The airplane model and series being simulated.
    (c) The aerodynamic data revision number or reference.
    (d) The source of the basic aerodynamic model and the aerodynamic 
coefficient data used to modify the basic model.
    (e) The engine model(s) and its data revision number or reference.
    (f) The flight control data revision number or reference.
    (g) The flight management system identification and revision level.
    (h) The FFS model and manufacturer.
    (i) The date of FFS manufacture.
    (j) The FFS computer identification.
    (k) The visual system model and manufacturer, including display 
type.
    (l) The motion system type and manufacturer, including degrees of 
freedom.
    (4) A Table of Contents.
    (5) A log of revisions and a list of effective pages.
    (6) A list of all relevant data references.
    (7) A glossary of terms and symbols used (including sign conventions 
and units).
    (8) Statements of Compliance and Capability (SOCs) with certain 
requirements.
    (9) Recording procedures or equipment required to accomplish the 
objective tests.
    (10) The following information for each objective test designated in 
Attachment 2, Table A2A, of this appendix as applicable to the 
qualification level sought:
    (a) Name of the test.
    (b) Objective of the test.
    (c) Initial conditions.
    (d) Manual test procedures.
    (e) Automatic test procedures (if applicable).
    (f) Method for evaluating FFS objective test results.
    (g) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
automatically conducted test(s).
    (h) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
manually conducted test(s).
    (i) Tolerances for relevant parameters.
    (j) Source of Validation Data (document and page number).
    (k) Copy of the Validation Data (if located in a separate binder, a 
cross reference for the identification and page number for pertinent 
data location must be provided).
    (l) Simulator Objective Test Results as obtained by the sponsor. 
Each test result must reflect the date completed and must be clearly 
labeled as a product of the device being tested.
    f. A convertible FFS is addressed as a separate FFS for each model 
and series airplane to which it will be converted and for the FAA 
qualification level sought. If a sponsor seeks qualification for two or 
more models of an airplane type using a convertible FFS, the sponsor 
must submit a QTG for each airplane model, or a QTG for the first 
airplane model and a supplement to that QTG for each additional airplane 
model. The NSPM will conduct evaluations for each airplane model.
    g. Form and manner of presentation of objective test results in the 
QTG:
    (1) The sponsor's FFS test results must be recorded in a manner 
acceptable to the NSPM, that allows easy comparison of the FFS test 
results to the validation data (e.g., use of a multi-channel recorder, 
line printer, cross plotting, overlays, transparencies).
    (2) FFS results must be labeled using terminology common to airplane 
parameters as opposed to computer software identifications.

[[Page 23]]

    (3) Validation data documents included in a QTG may be 
photographically reduced only if such reduction will not alter the 
graphic scaling or cause difficulties in scale interpretation or 
resolution.
    (4) Scaling on graphical presentations must provide the resolution 
necessary to evaluate the parameters shown in Attachment 2, Table A2A of 
this appendix.
    (5) Tests involving time histories, data sheets (or transparencies 
thereof) and FFS test results must be clearly marked with appropriate 
reference points to ensure an accurate comparison between the FFS and 
the airplane with respect to time. Time histories recorded via a line 
printer are to be clearly identified for cross plotting on the airplane 
data. Over-plots must not obscure the reference data.
    h. The sponsor may elect to complete the QTG objective and 
subjective tests at the manufacturer's facility or at the sponsor's 
training facility (or other sponsor designated location where training 
will take place). If the tests are conducted at the manufacturer's 
facility, the sponsor must repeat at least one-third of the tests at the 
sponsor's training facility in order to substantiate FFS performance. 
The QTG must be clearly annotated to indicate when and where each test 
was accomplished. Tests conducted at the manufacturer's facility and at 
the sponsor's designated training facility must be conducted after the 
FFS is assembled with systems and sub-systems functional and operating 
in an interactive manner. The test results must be submitted to the 
NSPM.
    i. The sponsor must maintain a copy of the MQTG at the FFS location.
    j. All FFSs for which the initial qualification is conducted after 
May 30, 2014, must have an electronic MQTG (eMQTG) including all 
objective data obtained from airplane testing, or another approved 
source (reformatted or digitized), together with correlating objective 
test results obtained from the performance of the FFS (reformatted or 
digitized) as prescribed in this appendix. The eMQTG must also contain 
the general FFS performance or demonstration results (reformatted or 
digitized) prescribed in this appendix, and a description of the 
equipment necessary to perform the initial qualification evaluation and 
the continuing qualification evaluations. The eMQTG must include the 
original validation data used to validate FFS performance and handling 
qualities in either the original digitized format from the data supplier 
or an electronic scan of the original time-history plots that were 
provided by the data supplier. A copy of the eMQTG must be provided to 
the NSPM.
    k. All other FFSs not covered in subparagraph ``j'' must have an 
electronic copy of the MQTG by May 30, 2014. An electronic copy of the 
MQTG must be provided to the NSPM. This may be provided by an electronic 
scan presented in a Portable Document File (PDF), or similar format 
acceptable to the NSPM.
    l. During the initial (or upgrade) qualification evaluation 
conducted by the NSPM, the sponsor must also provide a person who is a 
user of the device (e.g., a qualified pilot or instructor pilot with 
flight time experience in that aircraft) and knowledgeable about the 
operation of the aircraft and the operation of the FFS.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    m. Only those FFSs that are sponsored by a certificate holder as 
defined in Appendix F of this part will be evaluated by the NSPM. 
However, other FFS evaluations may be conducted on a case-by-case basis 
as the Administrator deems appropriate, but only in accordance with 
applicable agreements.
    n. The NSPM will conduct an evaluation for each configuration, and 
each FFS must be evaluated as completely as possible. To ensure a 
thorough and uniform evaluation, each FFS is subjected to the general 
simulator requirements in Attachment 1 of this appendix, the objective 
tests listed in Attachment 2 of this appendix, and the subjective tests 
listed in Attachment 3 of this appendix. The evaluations described 
herein will include, but not necessarily be limited to the following:
    (1) Airplane responses, including longitudinal and lateral-
directional control responses (see Attachment 2 of this appendix);
    (2) Performance in authorized portions of the simulated airplane's 
operating envelope, to include tasks evaluated by the NSPM in the areas 
of surface operations, takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, approach, and 
landing as well as abnormal and emergency operations (see Attachment 2 
of this appendix);
    (3) Control checks (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 of this 
appendix);
    (4) Flight deck configuration (see Attachment 1 of this appendix);
    (5) Pilot, flight engineer, and instructor station functions checks 
(see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this appendix);
    (6) Airplane systems and sub-systems (as appropriate) as compared to 
the airplane simulated (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this 
appendix);
    (7) FFS systems and sub-systems, including force cueing (motion), 
visual, and aural (sound) systems, as appropriate (see Attachment 1 and 
Attachment 2 of this appendix); and
    (8) Certain additional requirements, depending upon the 
qualification level sought, including equipment or circumstances that 
may become hazardous to the occupants. The sponsor may be subject to 
Occupational

[[Page 24]]

Safety and Health Administration requirements.
    o. The NSPM administers the objective and subjective tests, which 
includes an examination of functions. The tests include a qualitative 
assessment of the FFS by an NSP pilot. The NSP evaluation team leader 
may assign other qualified personnel to assist in accomplishing the 
functions examination and/or the objective and subjective tests 
performed during an evaluation when required.
    (1) Objective tests provide a basis for measuring and evaluating FFS 
performance and determining compliance with the requirements of this 
part.
    (2) Subjective tests provide a basis for:
    (a) Evaluating the capability of the FFS to perform over a typical 
utilization period;
    (b) Determining that the FFS satisfactorily simulates each required 
task;
    (c) Verifying correct operation of the FFS controls, instruments, 
and systems; and
    (d) Demonstrating compliance with the requirements of this part.
    p. The tolerances for the test parameters listed in Attachment 2 of 
this appendix reflect the range of tolerances acceptable to the NSPM for 
FFS validation and are not to be confused with design tolerances 
specified for FFS manufacture. In making decisions regarding tests and 
test results, the NSPM relies on the use of operational and engineering 
judgment in the application of data (including consideration of the way 
in which the flight test was flown and the way the data was gathered and 
applied), data presentations, and the applicable tolerances for each 
test.
    q. In addition to the scheduled continuing qualification evaluation, 
each FFS is subject to evaluations conducted by the NSPM at any time 
without prior notification to the sponsor. Such evaluations would be 
accomplished in a normal manner (i.e., requiring exclusive use of the 
FFS for the conduct of objective and subjective tests and an examination 
of functions) if the FFS is not being used for flight crewmember 
training, testing, or checking. However, if the FFS were being used, the 
evaluation would be conducted in a non-exclusive manner. This non-
exclusive evaluation will be conducted by the FFS evaluator accompanying 
the check airman, instructor, Aircrew Program Designee (APD), or FAA 
inspector aboard the FFS along with the student(s) and observing the 
operation of the FFS during the training, testing, or checking 
activities.
    r. Problems with objective test results are handled as follows:
    (1) If a problem with an objective test result is detected by the 
NSP evaluation team during an evaluation, the test may be repeated or 
the QTG may be amended.
    (2) If it is determined that the results of an objective test do not 
support the level requested but do support a lower level, the NSPM may 
qualify the FFS at that lower level. For example, if a Level D 
evaluation is requested and the FFS fails to meet sound test tolerances, 
it could be qualified at Level C.
    s. After an FFS is successfully evaluated, the NSPM issues a 
Statement of Qualification (SOQ) to the sponsor. The NSPM recommends the 
FFS to the TPAA, who will approve the FFS for use in a flight training 
program. The SOQ will be issued at the satisfactory conclusion of the 
initial or continuing qualification evaluation and will list the tasks 
for which the FFS is qualified, referencing the tasks described in Table 
A1B in Attachment 1 of this appendix. However, it is the sponsor's 
responsibility to obtain TPAA approval prior to using the FFS in an FAA-
approved flight training program.
    t. Under normal circumstances, the NSPM establishes a date for the 
initial or upgrade evaluation within ten (10) working days after 
determining that a complete QTG is acceptable. Unusual circumstances may 
warrant establishing an evaluation date before this determination is 
made. A sponsor may schedule an evaluation date as early as 6 months in 
advance. However, there may be a delay of 45 days or more in 
rescheduling and completing the evaluation if the sponsor is unable to 
meet the scheduled date. See Attachment 4 of this appendix, Figure A4A, 
Sample Request for Initial, Upgrade, or Reinstatement Evaluation.
    u. The numbering system used for objective test results in the QTG 
should closely follow the numbering system set out in Attachment 2 of 
this appendix, FFS Objective Tests, Table A2A.
    v. Contact the NSPM or visit the NSPM Web site for additional 
information regarding the preferred qualifications of pilots used to 
meet the requirements of Sec. 60.15(d).
    w. Examples of the exclusions for which the FFS might not have been 
subjectively tested by the sponsor or the NSPM and for which 
qualification might not be sought or granted, as described in 
Sec. 60.15(g)(6), include windshear training and circling approaches.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

12. Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS (Sec. 60.16)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.16, Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 25]]

               13. Previously Qualified FFSs (Sec. 60.17)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. In instances where a sponsor plans to remove an FFS from active 
status for a period of less than two years, the following procedures 
apply:
    (1) The NSPM must be notified in writing and the notification must 
include an estimate of the period that the FFS will be inactive;
    (2) Continuing Qualification evaluations will not be scheduled 
during the inactive period;
    (3) The NSPM will remove the FFS from the list of qualified FSTDs on 
a mutually established date not later than the date on which the first 
missed continuing qualification evaluation would have been scheduled;
    (4) Before the FFS is restored to qualified status, it must be 
evaluated by the NSPM. The evaluation content and the time required to 
accomplish the evaluation is based on the number of continuing 
qualification evaluations and sponsor-conducted quarterly inspections 
missed during the period of inactivity.
    (5) The sponsor must notify the NSPM of any changes to the original 
scheduled time out of service;
    b. Simulators qualified prior to May 31, 2016, are not required to 
meet the general simulation requirements, the objective test 
requirements or the subjective test requirements of attachments 1, 2, 
and 3 of this appendix as long as the simulator continues to meet the 
test requirements contained in the MQTG developed under the original 
qualification basis.
    c. After May 30, 2009, each visual scene or airport model beyond the 
minimum required for the FFS qualification level that is installed in 
and available for use in a qualified FFS must meet the requirements 
described in attachment 3 of this appendix.
    d. Simulators qualified prior to May 31, 2016, may be updated. If an 
evaluation is deemed appropriate or necessary by the NSPM after such an 
update, the evaluation will not require an evaluation to standards 
beyond those against which the simulator was originally qualified.
    e. Other certificate holders or persons desiring to use an FFS may 
contract with FFS sponsors to use FFSs previously qualified at a 
particular level for an airplane type and approved for use within an 
FAA-approved flight training program. Such FFSs are not required to 
undergo an additional qualification process, except as described in 
Sec. 60.16.
    f. Each FFS user must obtain approval from the appropriate TPAA to 
use any FFS in an FAA-approved flight training program.
    g. The intent of the requirement listed in Sec. 60.17(b), for each 
FFS to have a SOQ within 6 years, is to have the availability of that 
statement (including the configuration list and the limitations to 
authorizations) to provide a complete picture of the FFS inventory 
regulated by the FAA. The issuance of the statement will not require any 
additional evaluation or require any adjustment to the evaluation basis 
for the FFS.
    h. Downgrading of an FFS is a permanent change in qualification 
level and will necessitate the issuance of a revised SOQ to reflect the 
revised qualification level, as appropriate. If a temporary restriction 
is placed on an FFS because of a missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
component or on-going repairs, the restriction is not a permanent change 
in qualification level. Instead, the restriction is temporary and is 
removed when the reason for the restriction has been resolved.
    i. The NSPM will determine the evaluation criteria for an FFS that 
has been removed from active status. The criteria will be based on the 
number of continuing qualification evaluations and quarterly inspections 
missed during the period of inactivity. For example, if the FFS were out 
of service for a 1 year period, it would be necessary to complete the 
entire QTG, since all of the quarterly evaluations would have been 
missed. The NSPM will also consider how the FFS was stored, whether 
parts were removed from the FFS and whether the FFS was disassembled.
    j. The FFS will normally be requalified using the FAA-approved MQTG 
and the criteria that was in effect prior to its removal from 
qualification. However, inactive periods of 2 years or more will require 
requalification under the standards in effect and current at the time of 
requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification Evaluation, and Maintenance 
                        Requirements (Sec. 60.19)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. The sponsor must conduct a minimum of four evenly spaced 
inspections throughout the year. The objective test sequence and content 
of each inspection must be developed by the sponsor and must be 
acceptable to the NSPM.
    b. The description of the functional preflight check must be 
contained in the sponsor's QMS.
    c. Record ``functional preflight'' in the FFS discrepancy log book 
or other acceptable location, including any item found to be missing, 
malfunctioning, or inoperative.
    d. During the continuing qualification evaluation conducted by the 
NSPM, the

[[Page 26]]

sponsor must also provide a person knowledgeable about the operation of 
the aircraft and the operation of the FFS.
    e. The NSPM will conduct continuing qualification evaluations every 
12 months unless:
    (1) The NSPM becomes aware of discrepancies or performance problems 
with the device that warrants more frequent evaluations; or
    (2) The sponsor implements a QMS that justifies less frequent 
evaluations. However, in no case shall the frequency of a continuing 
qualification evaluation exceed 36 months.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    f. The sponsor's test sequence and the content of each quarterly 
inspection required in Sec. 60.19(a)(1) should include a balance and a 
mix from the objective test requirement areas listed as follows:
    (1) Performance.
    (2) Handling qualities.
    (3) Motion system (where appropriate).
    (4) Visual system (where appropriate).
    (5) Sound system (where appropriate).
    (6) Other FFS systems.
    g. If the NSP evaluator plans to accomplish specific tests during a 
normal continuing qualification evaluation that requires the use of 
special equipment or technicians, the sponsor will be notified as far in 
advance of the evaluation as practical; but not less than 72 hours. 
Examples of such tests include latencies, control dynamics, sounds and 
vibrations, motion, and/or some visual system tests.
    h. The continuing qualification evaluations, described in 
Sec. 60.19(b), will normally require 4 hours of FFS time. However, 
flexibility is necessary to address abnormal situations or situations 
involving aircraft with additional levels of complexity (e.g., computer 
controlled aircraft). The sponsor should anticipate that some tests may 
require additional time. The continuing qualification evaluations will 
consist of the following:
    (1) Review of the results of the quarterly inspections conducted by 
the sponsor since the last scheduled continuing qualification 
evaluation.
    (2) A selection of approximately 8 to 15 objective tests from the 
MQTG that provide an adequate opportunity to evaluate the performance of 
the FFS. The tests chosen will be performed either automatically or 
manually and should be able to be conducted within approximately one-
third (\1/3\) of the allotted FFS time.
    (3) A subjective evaluation of the FFS to perform a representative 
sampling of the tasks set out in attachment 3 of this appendix. This 
portion of the evaluation should take approximately two-thirds (\2/3\) 
of the allotted FFS time.
    (4) An examination of the functions of the FFS may include the 
motion system, visual system, sound system, instructor operating 
station, and the normal functions and simulated malfunctions of the 
airplane systems. This examination is normally accomplished 
simultaneously with the subjective evaluation requirements.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

               15. Logging FFS Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20)

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.20. Logging FFS Discrepancies.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

   16. Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Airplane Types or Models 
                              (Sec. 60.21)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.21, Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Airplane Types or 
Models.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                 17. Modifications to FFSs (Sec. 60.23)

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. The notification described in Sec. 60.23(c)(2) must include a 
complete description of the planned modification, with a description of 
the operational and engineering effect the proposed modification will 
have on the operation of the FFS and the results that are expected with 
the modification incorporated.
    b. Prior to using the modified FFS:
    (1) All the applicable objective tests completed with the 
modification incorporated, including any necessary updates to the MQTG 
(e.g., accomplishment of FSTD Directives) must be acceptable to the 
NSPM; and
    (2) The sponsor must provide the NSPM with a statement signed by the 
MR that the factors listed in Sec. 60.15(b) are addressed by the 
appropriate personnel as described in that section.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 27]]

                            Begin Information

    FSTD Directives are considered modifications of an FFS. See 
Attachment 4 of this appendix for a sample index of effective FSTD 
Directives. See Attachment 6 of this appendix for a list of all 
effective FSTD Directives applicable to Airplane FFSs.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 18. Operation with Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
                              (Sec. 60.25)

                            Begin Information

    a. The sponsor's responsibility with respect to Sec. 60.25(a) is 
satisfied when the sponsor fairly and accurately advises the user of the 
current status of an FFS, including any missing, malfunctioning, or 
inoperative (MMI) component(s).
    b. It is the responsibility of the instructor, check airman, or 
representative of the administrator conducting training, testing, or 
checking to exercise reasonable and prudent judgment to determine if any 
MMI component is necessary for the satisfactory completion of a specific 
maneuver, procedure, or task.
    c. If the 29th or 30th day of the 30-day period described in 
Sec. 60.25(b) is on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a holiday, the FAA will 
extend the deadline until the next business day.
    d. In accordance with the authorization described in Sec. 60.25(b), 
the sponsor may develop a discrepancy prioritizing system to accomplish 
repairs based on the level of impact on the capability of the FFS. 
Repairs having a larger impact on FFS capability to provide the required 
training, evaluation, or flight experience will have a higher priority 
for repair or replacement.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.27)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FFS will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FFS is to be 
maintained) there is a greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to 
determine the amount of testing required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.29)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FFS will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FFS is to be 
maintained) there is a greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to 
determine the amount of testing required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

              21. Recordkeeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. FFS modifications can include hardware or software changes. For 
FFS modifications involving software programming changes, the record 
required by Sec. 60.31(a)(2) must consist of the name of the aircraft 
system software, aerodynamic model, or engine model change, the date of 
the change, a summary of the change, and the reason for the change.
    b. If a coded form for record keeping is used, it must provide for 
the preservation and retrieval of information with appropriate security 
or controls to prevent the inappropriate alteration of such records 
after the fact.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
                  or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.33, Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, 
Falsification, or Incorrect Statements.

          23. Specific FFS Compliance Requirements (Sec. 60.35)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.35, Specific FFS Compliance Requirements.

[[Page 28]]

                             24. [Reserved]

   25. FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
                      Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.37, FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation 
Safety Agreement (BASA).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  Attachment 1 to Appendix A to Part 60--General Simulator Requirements

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                             1. Requirements

    a. Certain requirements included in this appendix must be supported 
with an SOC as defined in Appendix F, which may include objective and 
subjective tests. The requirements for SOCs are indicated in the 
``General Simulator Requirements'' column in Table A1A of this appendix.
    b. Table A1A describes the requirements for the indicated level of 
FFS. Many devices include operational systems or functions that exceed 
the requirements outlined in this section. However, all systems will be 
tested and evaluated in accordance with this appendix to ensure proper 
operation.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              2. Discussion

    a. This attachment describes the general simulator requirements for 
qualifying an airplane FFS. The sponsor should also consult the 
objective tests in Attachment 2 of this appendix and the examination of 
functions and subjective tests listed in Attachment 3 of this appendix 
to determine the complete requirements for a specific level simulator.
    b. The material contained in this attachment is divided into the 
following categories:
    (1) General flight deck configuration.
    (2) Simulator programming.
    (3) Equipment operation.
    (4) Equipment and facilities for instructor/evaluator functions.
    (5) Motion system.
    (6) Visual system.
    (7) Sound system.
    c. Table A1A provides the standards for the General Simulator 
Requirements.
    d. Table A1B provides the tasks that the sponsor will examine to 
determine whether the FFS satisfactorily meets the requirements for 
flight crew training, testing, and experience, and provides the tasks 
for which the simulator may be qualified.
    e. Table A1C provides the functions that an instructor/check airman 
must be able to control in the simulator.
    f. It is not required that all of the tasks that appear on the List 
of Qualified Tasks (part of the SOQ) be accomplished during the initial 
or continuing qualification evaluation.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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[[Page 49]]



              Table A1B--Table of Tasks vs. Simulator Level
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   QPS requirements                        Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Subjective        Simulator levels
             requirements In order --------------------
               to be qualified at
                 the simulator
              qualification level
                 indicated, the
 Entry No.     simulator must be                              Notes
               able to perform at    A    B    C    D
                least the tasks
              associated with that
                    level of
                 qualification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Preflight Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a........  Preflight Inspection    X    X    X    X
              (flight deck only).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b........  Engine Start.........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c........  Taxiing..............        R    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d........  Pre-takeoff Checks...   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Takeoff and Departure Phase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a........  Normal and Crosswind         R    X    X
              Takeoff
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b........  Instrument Takeoff...   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c........  Engine Failure During   A    X    X    X
              Takeoff.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d........  Rejected Takeoff.....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e........  Departure Procedure..   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Inflight Maneuvers
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a........  Steep Turns..........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b. High
 Angle of
 Attack
 Maneuvers
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.1......  Approaches to Stall..   X    X    X    X
3.b.2......  Full Stall...........             X    X   Stall maneuvers
                                                         at angles of
                                                         attack above
                                                         the activation
                                                         of the stall
                                                         warning system.
                                                        Required only
                                                         for FSTDs
                                                         qualified to
                                                         conduct full
                                                         stall training
                                                         tasks as
                                                         indicated on
                                                         the Statement
                                                         of
                                                         Qualification.
3.c........  Engine Failure--        X    X    X    X
              Multiengine Airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d........  Engine Failure--        X    X    X    X
              Single-Engine
              Airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e........  Specific Flight         A    A    A    A
              Characteristics
              incorporated into
              the user's FAA
              approved flight
              training program.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.f........  Recovery From Unusual   X    X    X    X   Within the
              Attitudes.                                 normal flight
                                                         envelope
                                                         supported by
                                                         applicable
                                                         simulation
                                                         validation
                                                         data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.g........  Upset Prevention and              X    X   Upset recovery
              Recovery Training                          or unusual
              (UPRT).                                    attitude
                                                         training
                                                         maneuvers
                                                         within the
                                                         FSTD's
                                                         validation
                                                         envelope that
                                                         are intended to
                                                         exceed pitch
                                                         attitudes
                                                         greater than 25
                                                         degrees nose
                                                         up; pitch
                                                         attitudes
                                                         greater than 10
                                                         degrees nose
                                                         down, and bank
                                                         angles greater
                                                         than 45
                                                         degrees.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Instrument Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a........  Standard Terminal       X    X    X    X
              Arrival/Flight
              Management System
              Arrivals Procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 50]]

 
4.b........  Holding..............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c........  Precision Instrument.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1......  All Engines Operating   X    X    X    X   e.g., Autopilot,
                                                         Manual (Flt.
                                                         Dir. Assisted),
                                                         Manual (Raw
                                                         Data).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2......  One Engine              X    X    X    X   e.g., Manual
              Inoperative.                               (Flt. Dir.
                                                         Assisted),
                                                         Manual (Raw
                                                         Data).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d........  Non-Precision           X    X    X    X   e.g., NDB, VOR,
              Instrument Approach.                       VOR/DME, VOR/
                                                         TAC, RNAV, LOC,
                                                         LOC/BC, ADF,
                                                         and SDF.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.e........  Circling Approach....   X    X    X    X   Specific
                                                         authorization
                                                         required.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f........  Missed Approach......
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f.1......  Normal...............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f.2......  One Engine              X    X    X    X
              Inoperative.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Landings and Approaches to Landings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a........  Normal and Crosswind         R    X    X
              Approaches and
              Landings.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b........  Landing From a               R    X    X
              Precision/Non-
              Precision Approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c........  Approach and Landing   ...   R    X    X
              with (Simulated)
              Engine Failure--
              Multiengine Airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d........  Landing From Circling        R    X    X
              Approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e........  Rejected Landing.....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.f........  Landing From a No            R    X    X
              Flap or a
              Nonstandard Flap
              Configuration
              Approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Normal and Abnormal Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a........  Engine (including       X    X    X    X
              shutdown and
              restart).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b........  Fuel System..........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c........  Electrical System....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.d........  Hydraulic System.....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.e........  Environmental and       X    X    X    X
              Pressurization
              Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.f........  Fire Detection and      X    X    X    X
              Extinguisher Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.g........  Navigation and          X    X    X    X
              Avionics Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.h........  Automatic Flight        X    X    X    X
              Control System,
              Electronic Flight
              Instrument System,
              and Related
              Subsystems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.i........  Flight Control          X    X    X    X
              Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.j........  Anti-ice and Deice      X    X    X    X
              Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.k........  Aircraft and Personal   X    X    X    X
              Emergency Equipment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Emergency Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a........  Emergency Descent       X    X    X    X
              (Max. Rate).
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 51]]

 
7.b........  Inflight Fire and       X    X    X    X
              Smoke Removal.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.c........  Rapid Decompression..   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d........  Emergency Evacuation.   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Postflight Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.a........  After-Landing           X    X    X    X
              Procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b........  Parking and Securing.   X    X    X   X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
``A''--indicates that the system, task, or procedure may be examined if
  the appropriate aircraft system or control is simulated in the FSTD
  and is working properly.
``R''--indicates that the simulator may be qualified for this task for
  continuing qualification training.
``X''--indicates that the simulator must be able to perform this task
  for this level of qualification.


               Table A1C--Table of Simulator System Tasks
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   QPS requirements                        Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Subjective        Simulator levels
             requirements In order --------------------
               to be qualified at
                 the simulator
              qualification level
                 indicated, the
 Entry No.     simulator must be                              Notes
               able to perform at    A    B    C    D
                least the tasks
              associated with that
                    level of
                 qualification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Instructor Operating Station (IOS), as appropriate
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a........  Power switch(es).....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b........  Airplane conditions..   X    X    X    X   e.g., GW, CG,
                                                         Fuel loading
                                                         and Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c........  Airports/Runways.....   X    X    X    X   e.g., Selection,
                                                         Surface,
                                                         Presets,
                                                         Lighting
                                                         controls.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d........  Environmental           X    X    X    X   e.g., Clouds,
              controls.                                  Visibility,
                                                         RVR, Temp,
                                                         Wind, Ice,
                                                         Snow, Rain, and
                                                         Windshear.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e........  Airplane system         X    X    X    X
              malfunctions
              (Insertion/deletion).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f........  Locks, Freezes, and     X    X    X    X
              Repositioning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Sound Controls
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a........  On/off/adjustment....   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Motion/Control Loading System
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a........  On/off/emergency stop   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Observer Seats/Stations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a........  Position/Adjustment/    X    X    X    X
              Positive restraint
              system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Attachment 2 to Appendix A to Part 60--FFS Objective Tests

                            Table of Contents
------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Paragraph No.                            Title
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.................................  Introduction.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.................................  Test Requirements.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Table A2A, Objective Tests.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.................................  General.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.................................  Control Dynamics.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 52]]

 
5.................................  Ground Effect.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.................................  Motion System.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.................................  Sound System.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.................................  Additional Information About Flight
                                     Simulator Qualification for New or
                                     Derivative Airplanes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.................................  Engineering Simulator--Validation
                                     Data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10................................  [Reserved]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11................................  Validation Test Tolerances.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
12................................  Validation Data Roadmap.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
13................................  Acceptance Guidelines for
                                     Alternative Engines Data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
14................................  Acceptance Guidelines for
                                     Alternative Avionics (Flight-
                                     Related Computers and Controllers).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
15................................  Transport Delay Testing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
16................................  Continuing Qualification
                                     Evaluations--Validation Test Data
                                     Presentation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
17................................  Alternative Data Sources,
                                     Procedures, and Instrumentation:
                                     Level A and Level B Simulators
                                     Only.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                             1. Introduction

    a. For the purposes of this attachment, the flight conditions 
specified in the Flight Conditions Column of Table A2A of this appendix, 
are defined as follows:
    (1) Ground--on ground, independent of airplane configuration;
    (2) Take-off--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified takeoff 
position;
    (3) First segment climb--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified 
takeoff position (normally not above 50 ft AGL);
    (4) Second segment climb--gear up with flaps/slats in any certified 
takeoff position (normally between 50 ft and 400 ft AGL);
    (5) Clean--flaps/slats retracted and gear up;
    (6) Cruise--clean configuration at cruise altitude and airspeed;
    (7) Approach--gear up or down with flaps/slats at any normal 
approach position as recommended by the airplane manufacturer; and
    (8) Landing--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified landing 
position.
    b. The format for numbering the objective tests in Appendix A, 
Attachment 2, Table A2A, and the objective tests in Appendix B, 
Attachment 2, Table B2A, is identical. However, each test required for 
FFSs is not necessarily required for FTDs. Also, each test required for 
FTDs is not necessarily required for FFSs. Therefore, when a test number 
(or series of numbers) is not required, the term ``Reserved'' is used in 
the table at that location. Following this numbering format provides a 
degree of commonality between the two tables and substantially reduces 
the potential for confusion when referring to objective test numbers for 
either FFSs or FTDs.
    c. The reader is encouraged to review the Airplane Flight Simulator 
Evaluation Handbook, Volumes I and II, published by the Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK, and AC 25-7, as amended, Flight Test 
Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes, and AC 23-8, as 
amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes, for 
references and examples regarding flight testing requirements and 
techniques.
    d. If relevant winds are present in the objective data, the wind 
vector should be clearly noted as part of the data presentation, 
expressed in conventional terminology, and related to the runway being 
used for the test.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                          2. Test Requirements

    a. The ground and flight tests required for qualification are listed 
in Table A2A, FFS Objective Tests. Computer generated simulator test 
results must be provided for each test except where an alternative test 
is specifically authorized by the NSPM. If a flight condition or 
operating condition is required for the test but does not apply to the 
airplane being simulated or to the qualification level sought, it may be 
disregarded (e.g., an engine out missed approach for a single-engine 
airplane or a maneuver using reverse thrust for an airplane without 
reverse thrust capability). Each test result is compared against the 
validation data described in Sec. 60.13 and in this appendix. Although 
use of a driver program designed to automatically accomplish the tests 
is encouraged for all simulators and required for Level C and Level D 
simulators, it must be possible to conduct each test manually while 
recording all appropriate parameters. The results must be produced on an 
appropriate recording device acceptable to the NSPM and must include 
simulator number, date, time, conditions, tolerances, and appropriate 
dependent variables portrayed in comparison to the validation data. Time 
histories are required unless otherwise indicated in Table A2A. All 
results must be labeled using the tolerances and units given.
    b. Table A2A in this attachment sets out the test results required, 
including the parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions

[[Page 53]]

for simulator validation. Tolerances are provided for the listed tests 
because mathematical modeling and acquisition and development of 
reference data are often inexact. All tolerances listed in the following 
tables are applied to simulator performance. When two tolerance values 
are given for a parameter, the less restrictive may be used unless 
otherwise indicated. In those cases where a tolerance is expressed only 
as a percentage, the tolerance percentage applies to the maximum value 
of that parameter within its normal operating range as measured from the 
neutral or zero position unless otherwise indicated.
    c. Certain tests included in this attachment must be supported with 
an SOC. In Table A2A, requirements for SOCs are indicated in the ``Test 
Details'' column.
    d. When operational or engineering judgment is used in making 
assessments for flight test data applications for simulator validity, 
such judgment must not be limited to a single parameter. For example, 
data that exhibit rapid variations of the measured parameters may 
require interpolations or a ``best fit'' data selection. All relevant 
parameters related to a given maneuver or flight condition must be 
provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or 
impossible to match simulator to airplane data throughout a time 
history, differences must be justified by providing a comparison of 
other related variables for the condition being assessed.
    e. It is not acceptable to program the FFS so that the mathematical 
modeling is correct only at the validation test points. Unless otherwise 
noted, simulator tests must represent airplane performance and handling 
qualities at operating weights and centers of gravity (CG) typical of 
normal operation. Simulator tests at extreme weight or CG conditions may 
be acceptable where required for concurrent aircraft certification 
testing. Tests of handling qualities must include validation of 
augmentation devices.
    f. When comparing the parameters listed to those of the airplane, 
sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight 
condition and airplane configuration changes. For example, to show that 
control force is within the parameters for a static stability test, data 
to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, airplane 
configuration, altitude, and other appropriate datum identification 
parameters must also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, 
normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the airplane, 
but airspeed, altitude, control input, airplane configuration, and other 
appropriate data must also be given. If comparing landing gear change 
dynamics, pitch, airspeed, and altitude may be used to establish a match 
to the airplane, but landing gear position must also be provided. All 
airspeed values must be properly annotated (e.g., indicated versus 
calibrated). In addition, the same variables must be used for comparison 
(e.g., compare inches to inches rather than inches to centimeters).
    g. The QTG provided by the sponsor must clearly describe how the 
simulator will be set up and operated for each test. Each simulator 
subsystem may be tested independently, but overall integrated testing of 
the simulator must be accomplished to assure that the total simulator 
system meets the prescribed standards. A manual test procedure with 
explicit and detailed steps for completing each test must also be 
provided.
    h. For previously qualified simulators, the tests and tolerances of 
this attachment may be used in subsequent continuing qualification 
evaluations for any given test if the sponsor has submitted a proposed 
MQTG revision to the NSPM and has received NSPM approval.
    i. Simulators are evaluated and qualified with an engine model 
simulating the airplane data supplier's flight test engine. For 
qualification of alternative engine models (either variations of the 
flight test engines or other manufacturer's engines) additional tests 
with the alternative engine models may be required. This attachment 
contains guidelines for alternative engines.
    j. For testing Computer Controlled Aircraft (CCA) simulators, or 
other highly augmented airplane simulators, flight test data is required 
for the Normal (N) and/or Non-normal (NN) control states, as indicated 
in this attachment. Where test results are independent of control state, 
Normal or Non-normal control data may be used. All tests in Table A2A 
require test results in the Normal control state unless specifically 
noted otherwise in the Test Details section following the CCA 
designation. The NSPM will determine what tests are appropriate for 
airplane simulation data. When making this determination, the NSPM may 
require other levels of control state degradation for specific airplane 
tests. Where Non-normal control states are required, test data must be 
provided for one or more Non-normal control states, and must include the 
least augmented state. Where applicable, flight test data must record 
Normal and Non-normal states for:
    (1) Pilot controller deflections or electronically generated inputs, 
including location of input; and
    (2) Flight control surface positions unless test results are not 
affected by, or are independent of, surface positions.
    k. Tests of handling qualities must include validation of 
augmentation devices. FFSs for highly augmented airplanes will be 
validated both in the unaugmented configuration (or failure state with 
the maximum permitted degradation in handling qualities) and the 
augmented configuration. Where various levels of handling qualities 
result from failure

[[Page 54]]

states, validation of the effect of the failure is necessary. 
Requirements for testing will be mutually agreed to between the sponsor 
and the NSPM on a case-by-case basis.
    l. Some tests will not be required for airplanes using airplane 
hardware in the simulator flight deck (e.g., ``side stick controller''). 
These exceptions are noted in Section 2 ``Handling Qualities'' in Table 
A2A of this attachment. However, in these cases, the sponsor must 
provide a statement that the airplane hardware meets the appropriate 
manufacturer's specifications and the sponsor must have supporting 
information to that fact available for NSPM review.
    m. For objective test purposes, see Appendix F of this part for the 
definitions of ``Near maximum,'' ``Light,'' and ``Medium'' gross weight.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    n. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot tests'' results in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot.'' The steady state condition should exist from 4 seconds 
prior to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by 
the snap shot.
    o. For references on basic operating weight, see AC 120-27, 
``Aircraft Weight and Balance;'' and FAA-H-8083-1, ``Aircraft Weight and 
Balance Handbook.''

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                               3. General

    a. If relevant winds are present in the objective data, the wind 
vector should be clearly noted as part of the data presentation, 
expressed in conventional terminology, and related to the runway being 
used for test near the ground.
    b. The reader is encouraged to review the Airplane Flight Simulator 
Evaluation Handbook, Volumes I and II, published by the Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK, and AC 25-7, as amended, Flight Test 
Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes, and AC 23-8, as 
amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes, for 
references and examples regarding flight testing requirements and 
techniques.

                           4. Control Dynamics

    a. General. The characteristics of an airplane flight control system 
have a major effect on handling qualities. A significant consideration 
in pilot acceptability of an airplane is the ``feel'' provided through 
the flight controls. Considerable effort is expended on airplane feel 
system design so that pilots will be comfortable and will consider the 
airplane desirable to fly. In order for an FFS to be representative, it 
should ``feel'' like the airplane being simulated. Compliance with this 
requirement is determined by comparing a recording of the control feel 
dynamics of the FFS to actual airplane measurements in the takeoff, 
cruise and landing configurations.
    (1) Recordings such as free response to an impulse or step function 
are classically used to estimate the dynamic properties of 
electromechanical systems. In any case, it is only possible to estimate 
the dynamic properties as a result of being able to estimate true inputs 
and responses. Therefore, it is imperative that the best possible data 
be collected since close matching of the FFS control loading system to 
the airplane system is essential. The required dynamic control tests are 
described in Table A2A of this attachment.
    (2) For initial and upgrade evaluations, the QPS requires that 
control dynamics characteristics be measured and recorded directly from 
the flight controls (Handling Qualities--Table A2A). This procedure is 
usually accomplished by measuring the free response of the controls 
using a step or impulse input to excite the system. The procedure should 
be accomplished in the takeoff, cruise and landing flight conditions and 
configurations.
    (3) For airplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements 
may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot-static inputs are provided 
to represent airspeeds typical of those encountered in flight. Likewise, 
it may be shown that for some airplanes, takeoff, cruise, and landing 
configurations have like effects. Thus, one may suffice for another. In 
either case, engineering validation or airplane manufacturer rationale 
should be submitted as justification for ground tests or for eliminating 
a configuration. For FFSs requiring static and dynamic tests at the 
controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial and 
upgrade evaluations if the QTG shows both test fixture results and the 
results of an alternate approach (e.g., computer plots that were 
produced concurrently and show satisfactory agreement). Repeat of the 
alternate method during the initial evaluation satisfies this test 
requirement.
    b. Control Dynamics Evaluation. The dynamic properties of control 
systems are often stated in terms of frequency, damping and a number of 
other classical measurements. In order to establish a consistent means 
of validating test results for FFS control loading, criteria are needed 
that will clearly define the measurement interpretation and the applied 
tolerances. Criteria are needed for underdamped, critically damped and 
overdamped systems. In the case of an underdamped system with very light 
damping, the system may be quantified in terms of frequency and damping. 
In critically damped or overdamped systems, the frequency and damping 
are not readily measured from a response time history. Therefore, the 
following suggested measurements may be used:
    (1) For Level C and D simulators. Tests to verify that control feel 
dynamics represent the airplane should show that the dynamic damping 
cycles (free response of the controls) match those of the airplane 
within specified tolerances. The NSPM recognizes that several different 
testing methods may be used to verify the control feel dynamic response. 
The NSPM will consider the merits of testing methods based on 
reliability and consistency. One acceptable method of evaluating the 
response and the tolerance to be applied is described below for the 
underdamped and critically damped cases. A sponsor using this method to 
comply with the QPS requirements should perform the tests as follows:
    (a) Underdamped response. Two measurements are required for the 
period, the time to first zero crossing (in case a rate limit is 
present) and the subsequent frequency of oscillation. It is necessary to 
measure cycles on an individual basis in case there are non-uniform 
periods in the response. Each period will be independently compared to 
the respective period of the airplane control system and, consequently, 
will enjoy the full tolerance specified for that period. The damping 
tolerance will be applied to overshoots on an individual basis. Care 
should be taken when applying the tolerance to small

[[Page 106]]

overshoots since the significance of such overshoots becomes 
questionable. Only those overshoots larger than 5 per cent of the total 
initial displacement should be considered. The residual band, labeled 
T(Ad) on Figure A2A is [5 percent of the initial displacement 
amplitude Ad from the steady state value of the oscillation. 
Only oscillations outside the residual band are considered significant. 
When comparing FFS data to airplane data, the process should begin by 
overlaying or aligning the FFS and airplane steady state values and then 
comparing amplitudes of oscillation peaks, the time of the first zero 
crossing and individual periods of oscillation. The FFS should show the 
same number of significant overshoots to within one when compared 
against the airplane data. The procedure for evaluating the response is 
illustrated in Figure A2A.
    (b) Critically damped and overdamped response. Due to the nature of 
critically damped and overdamped responses (no overshoots), the time to 
reach 90 percent of the steady state (neutral point) value should be the 
same as the airplane within [10 percent. Figure A2B illustrates the 
procedure.
    (c) Special considerations. Control systems that exhibit 
characteristics other than classical overdamped or underdamped responses 
should meet specified tolerances. In addition, special consideration 
should be given to ensure that significant trends are maintained.
    (2) Tolerances.
    (a) The following table summarizes the tolerances, T, for 
underdamped systems, and ``n'' is the sequential period of a full cycle 
of oscillation. See Figure A2A of this attachment for an illustration of 
the referenced measurements.

T(P0).....................................  [10% of P0.
T(P1).....................................  [20% of P1.
T(P2).....................................  [30% of P2.
T(Pn).....................................  [10(n + 1)% of Pn.
T(An).....................................  [10% of A1.
T(Ad).....................................  [5% of Ad = residual band.
 

    Significant overshoots, First overshoot and [1 subsequent 
overshoots.
    (b) The following tolerance applies to critically damped and 
overdamped systems only. See Figure A2B for an illustration of the 
reference measurements:

T(P0).....................................  [10% of P0
 

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

    c. Alternative method for control dynamics evaluation.
    (1) An alternative means for validating control dynamics for 
aircraft with hydraulically powered flight controls and artificial feel 
systems is by the measurement of control force and rate of movement. For 
each axis of pitch, roll, and yaw, the control must be forced to its 
maximum extreme position for the following distinct rates. These tests 
are conducted under normal flight and ground conditions.
    (a) Static test--Slowly move the control so that a full sweep is 
achieved within 95 to 105 seconds. A full sweep is defined as movement 
of the controller from neutral to the stop, usually aft or right stop, 
then to the opposite stop, then to the neutral position.
    (b) Slow dynamic test--Achieve a full sweep within 8-12 seconds.
    (c) Fast dynamic test--Achieve a full sweep within 3-5 seconds.

    Note: Dynamic sweeps may be limited to forces not exceeding 100 lbs. 
(44.5 daN).

    (d) Tolerances
    (i) Static test; see Table A2A, FFS Objective Tests, Entries 2.a.1., 
2.a.2., and 2.a.3.
    (ii) Dynamic test--[2 lbs (0.9 daN) or [10% on dynamic increment 
above static test.

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    d. The FAA is open to alternative means such as the one described 
above. The alternatives should be justified and appropriate to the 
application. For example, the method described here may not apply to all 
manufacturers' systems and certainly not to aircraft with reversible 
control systems. Each case is considered on its own merit on an ad hoc 
basis. If the FAA finds that alternative methods do not result in 
satisfactory performance, more conventionally accepted methods will have 
to be used.

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                            5. Ground Effect

    a. For an FFS to be used for take-off and landing (not applicable to 
Level A simulators in that the landing maneuver may not be credited in a 
Level A simulator) it should reproduce the aerodynamic changes that 
occur in ground effect. The parameters chosen for FFS validation should 
indicate these changes.
    (1) A dedicated test should be provided that will validate the 
aerodynamic ground effect characteristics.
    (2) The organization performing the flight tests may select 
appropriate test methods and procedures to validate ground effect. 
However, the flight tests should be performed with enough duration near 
the ground to sufficiently validate the ground-effect model.
    b. The NSPM will consider the merits of testing methods based on 
reliability and consistency. Acceptable methods of validating ground 
effect are described below. If other methods are proposed, rationale 
should be provided to conclude that the tests performed validate the 
ground-effect model. A sponsor using the methods described below to 
comply with the QPS requirements should perform the tests as follows:
    (1) Level fly-bys. The level fly-bys should be conducted at a 
minimum of three altitudes within the ground effect, including one at no 
more than 10% of the wingspan above the ground, one each at 
approximately 30% and 50% of the wingspan where height refers to main 
gear tire above the ground. In addition, one level-flight trim condition 
should be conducted out of ground effect (e.g., at 150% of wingspan).
    (2) Shallow approach landing. The shallow approach landing should be 
performed at a glide slope of approximately one degree with negligible 
pilot activity until flare.
    c. The lateral-directional characteristics are also altered by 
ground effect. For example, because of changes in lift, roll damping is 
affected. The change in roll damping will affect other dynamic modes 
usually evaluated for FFS validation. In fact, Dutch roll dynamics, 
spiral stability, and roll-rate for a given lateral control input are 
altered by ground effect. Steady heading sideslips will also be 
affected. These effects should be accounted for in the FFS modeling. 
Several tests such as crosswind landing, one engine

[[Page 109]]

inoperative landing, and engine failure on take-off serve to validate 
lateral-directional ground effect since portions of these tests are 
accomplished as the aircraft is descending through heights above the 
runway at which ground effect is an important factor.

                            6. Motion System

    a. General.
    (1) Pilots use continuous information signals to regulate the state 
of the airplane. In concert with the instruments and outside-world 
visual information, whole-body motion feedback is essential in assisting 
the pilot to control the airplane dynamics, particularly in the presence 
of external disturbances. The motion system should meet basic objective 
performance criteria, and should be subjectively tuned at the pilot's 
seat position to represent the linear and angular accelerations of the 
airplane during a prescribed minimum set of maneuvers and conditions. 
The response of the motion cueing system should also be repeatable.
    (2) The Motion System tests in Section 3 of Table A2A are intended 
to qualify the FFS motion cueing system from a mechanical performance 
standpoint. Additionally, the list of motion effects provides a 
representative sample of dynamic conditions that should be present in 
the flight simulator. An additional list of representative, training-
critical maneuvers, selected from Section 1 (Performance tests), and 
Section 2 (Handling Qualities tests), in Table A2A, that should be 
recorded during initial qualification (but without tolerance) to 
indicate the flight simulator motion cueing performance signature have 
been identified (reference Section 3.e). These tests are intended to 
help improve the overall standard of FFS motion cueing.
    b. Motion System Checks. The intent of test 3a, Frequency Response, 
and test 3b, Turn-Around Check, as described in the Table of Objective 
Tests, are to demonstrate the performance of the motion system hardware, 
and to check the integrity of the motion set-up with regard to 
calibration and wear. These tests are independent of the motion cueing 
software and should be considered robotic tests.
    c. Motion System Repeatability. The intent of this test is to ensure 
that the motion system software and motion system hardware have not 
degraded or changed over time. This diagnostic test should be completed 
during continuing qualification checks in lieu of the robotic tests. 
This will allow an improved ability to determine changes in the software 
or determine degradation in the hardware. The following information 
delineates the methodology that should be used for this test.
    (1) Input: The inputs should be such that rotational accelerations, 
rotational rates, and linear accelerations are inserted before the 
transfer from airplane center of gravity to pilot reference point with a 
minimum amplitude of 5 deg/sec/sec, 10 deg/sec and 0.3 g, respectively, 
to provide adequate analysis of the output.
    (2) Recommended output:
    (a) Actual platform linear accelerations; the output will comprise 
accelerations due to both the linear and rotational motion acceleration;
    (b) Motion actuators position.
    d. Objective Motion Cueing Test--Frequency Domain
    (1) Background. This test quantifies the response of the motion 
cueing system from the output of the flight model to the motion platform 
response. Other motion tests, such as the motion system frequency 
response, concentrate on the mechanical performance of the motion system 
hardware alone. The intent of this test is to provide quantitative 
frequency response records of the entire motion system for specified 
degree-of-freedom transfer relationships over a range of frequencies. 
This range should be representative of the manual control range for that 
particular aircraft type and the simulator as set up during 
qualification. The measurements of this test should include the combined 
influence of the motion cueing algorithm, the motion platform dynamics, 
and the transport delay associated with the motion cueing and control 
system implementation. Specified frequency responses describing the 
ability of the FSTD to reproduce aircraft translations and rotations, as 
well as the cross-coupling relations, are required as part of these 
measurements. When simulating forward aircraft acceleration, the 
simulator is accelerated momentarily in the forward direction to provide 
the onset cueing. This is considered the direct transfer relation. The 
simulator is simultaneously tilted nose-up due to the low-pass filter in 
order to generate a sustained specific force. The tilt associated with 
the generation of the sustained specific force, and the angular rates 
and angular accelerations associated with the initiation of the 
sustained specific force, are considered cross-coupling relations. The 
specific force is required for the perception of the aircraft sustained 
specific force, while the angular rates and accelerations do not occur 
in the aircraft and should be minimized.
    (2) Frequency response test. This test requires the frequency 
response to be measured for the motion cueing system. Reference 
sinusoidal signals are inserted at the pilot reference position prior to 
the motion cueing computations. The response of the motion platform in 
the corresponding degree-of-freedom (the direct transfer relations), as 
well as the motions resulting from cross-coupling (the cross-coupling 
relations), are recorded. These are the tests that are important to 
pilot motion cueing and are general tests applicable to all types of 
airplanes.

[[Page 110]]

    (3) This test is only required to be run once for the initial 
qualification of the FSTD and will not be required for continuing 
qualification purposes. The FAA will accept test results provided by the 
FSTD manufacturer as part of a Statement of Compliance confirming that 
the objective motion cueing tests were used to assist in the tuning of 
the FSTD's motion cueing algorithms.
    e. Motion Vibrations.
    (1) Presentation of results. The characteristic motion vibrations 
may be used to verify that the flight simulator can reproduce the 
frequency content of the airplane when flown in specific conditions. The 
test results should be presented as a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot 
with frequencies on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical 
axis. The airplane data and flight simulator data should be presented in 
the same format with the same scaling. The algorithms used for 
generating the flight simulator data should be the same as those used 
for the airplane data. If they are not the same then the algorithms used 
for the flight simulator data should be proven to be sufficiently 
comparable. As a minimum, the results along the dominant axes should be 
presented and a rationale for not presenting the other axes should be 
provided.
    (2) Interpretation of results. The overall trend of the PSD plot 
should be considered while focusing on the dominant frequencies. Less 
emphasis should be placed on the differences at the high frequency and 
low amplitude portions of the PSD plot. During the analysis, certain 
structural components of the flight simulator have resonant frequencies 
that are filtered and may not appear in the PSD plot. If filtering is 
required, the notch filter bandwidth should be limited to 1 Hz to ensure 
that the buffet feel is not adversely affected. In addition, a rationale 
should be provided to explain that the characteristic motion vibration 
is not being adversely affected by the filtering. The amplitude should 
match airplane data as described below. However, if the PSD plot was 
altered for subjective reasons, a rationale should be provided to 
justify the change. If the plot is on a logarithmic scale, it may be 
difficult to interpret the amplitude of the buffet in terms of 
acceleration. For example, a 1  x  10-3 g-rms2/Hz 
would describe a heavy buffet and may be seen in the deep stall regime. 
Alternatively, a 1  x  10-6 g-rms2/Hz buffet is 
almost not perceivable; but may represent a flap buffet at low speed. 
The previous two examples differ in magnitude by 1000. On a PSD plot 
this represents three decades (one decade is a change in order of 
magnitude of 10; and two decades is a change in order of magnitude of 
100).

    Note: In the example, ``g-rms2 is the mathematical 
expression for ``g's root mean squared.''

                             7. Sound System

    a. General. The total sound environment in the airplane is very 
complex, and changes with atmospheric conditions, airplane 
configuration, airspeed, altitude, and power settings. Flight deck 
sounds are an important component of the flight deck operational 
environment and provide valuable information to the flight crew. These 
aural cues can either assist the crew (as an indication of an abnormal 
situation), or hinder the crew (as a distraction or nuisance). For 
effective training, the flight simulator should provide flight deck 
sounds that are perceptible to the pilot during normal and abnormal 
operations, and comparable to those of the airplane. The flight 
simulator operator should carefully evaluate background noises in the 
location where the device will be installed. To demonstrate compliance 
with the sound requirements, the objective or validation tests in this 
attachment were selected to provide a representative sample of normal 
static conditions typically experienced by a pilot.
    b. Alternate propulsion. For FFS with multiple propulsion 
configurations, any condition listed in Table A2A of this attachment 
should be presented for evaluation as part of the QTG if identified by 
the airplane manufacturer or other data supplier as significantly 
different due to a change in propulsion system (engine or propeller).
    c. Data and Data Collection System.
    (1) Information provided to the flight simulator manufacturer should 
be presented in the format suggested by the International Air Transport 
Association (IATA) ``Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data 
Requirements,'' as amended. This information should contain calibration 
and frequency response data.
    (2) The system used to perform the tests listed in Table A2A should 
comply with the following standards:
    (a) The specifications for octave, half octave, and third octave 
band filter sets may be found in American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) S1.11-1986;
    (b) Measurement microphones should be type WS2 or better, as 
described in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 1094-4-
1995.
    (3) Headsets. If headsets are used during normal operation of the 
airplane they should also be used during the flight simulator 
evaluation.
    (4) Playback equipment. Playback equipment and recordings of the QTG 
conditions should be provided during initial evaluations.
    (5) Background noise.
    (a) Background noise is the noise in the flight simulator that is 
not associated with the airplane, but is caused by the flight 
simulator's cooling and hydraulic systems and

[[Page 111]]

extraneous noise from other locations in the building. Background noise 
can seriously impact the correct simulation of airplane sounds and 
should be kept below the airplane sounds. In some cases, the sound level 
of the simulation can be increased to compensate for the background 
noise. However, this approach is limited by the specified tolerances and 
by the subjective acceptability of the sound environment to the 
evaluation pilot.
    (b) The acceptability of the background noise levels is dependent 
upon the normal sound levels in the airplane being represented. 
Background noise levels that fall below the lines defined by the 
following points, may be acceptable:
    (i) 70 dB @ 50 Hz;
    (ii) 55 dB @ 1000 Hz;
    (iii) 30 dB @ 16 kHz
    (Note: These limits are for unweighted \1/3\ octave band sound 
levels. Meeting these limits for background noise does not ensure an 
acceptable flight simulator. Airplane sounds that fall below this limit 
require careful review and may require lower limits on background 
noise.)
    (6) Validation testing. Deficiencies in airplane recordings should 
be considered when applying the specified tolerances to ensure that the 
simulation is representative of the airplane. Examples of typical 
deficiencies are:
    (a) Variation of data between tail numbers;
    (b) Frequency response of microphones;
    (c) Repeatability of the measurements.

 Table A2B--Example of Continuing Qualification Frequency Response Test
                                Tolerance
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Continuing
                                   Initial    qualification    Absolute
     Band center  frequency        results       results      difference
                                   (dBSPL)       (dBSPL)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
50.............................         75.0           73.8          1.2
63.............................         75.9           75.6          0.3
80.............................         77.1           76.5          0.6
100............................         78.0           78.3          0.3
125............................         81.9           81.3          0.6
160............................         79.8           80.1          0.3
200............................         83.1           84.9          1.8
250............................         78.6           78.9          0.3
315............................         79.5           78.3          1.2
400............................         80.1           79.5          0.6
500............................         80.7           79.8          0.9
630............................         81.9           80.4          1.5
800............................         73.2           74.1          0.9
1000...........................         79.2           80.1          0.9
1250...........................         80.7           82.8          2.1
1600...........................         81.6           78.6          3.0
2000...........................         76.2           74.4          1.8
2500...........................         79.5           80.7          1.2
3150...........................         80.1           77.1          3.0
4000...........................         78.9           78.6          0.3
5000...........................         80.1           77.1          3.0
6300...........................         80.7           80.4          0.3
8000...........................         84.3           85.5          1.2
10000..........................         81.3           79.8          1.5
12500..........................         80.7           80.1          0.6
16000..........................         71.1           71.1          0.0
                                ----------------------------------------
    Average....................  ...........  .............          1.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

 8. Additional Information About Flight Simulator Qualification for New 
                         or Derivative Airplanes

    a. Typically, an airplane manufacturer's approved final data for 
performance, handling qualities, systems or avionics is not available 
until well after a new or derivative airplane has entered service. 
However, flight crew training and certification often begins several 
months prior to the entry of the first airplane into service. 
Consequently, it may be necessary to use preliminary data provided by 
the airplane manufacturer for interim qualification of flight 
simulators.
    b. In these cases, the NSPM may accept certain partially validated 
preliminary airplane and systems data, and early release (``red label'') 
avionics data in order to permit the necessary program schedule for 
training, certification, and service introduction.
    c. Simulator sponsors seeking qualification based on preliminary 
data should consult the NSPM to make special arrangements for using 
preliminary data for flight simulator qualification. The sponsor should 
also consult the airplane and flight simulator manufacturers to develop 
a data plan and flight simulator qualification plan.
    d. The procedure to be followed to gain NSPM acceptance of 
preliminary data will vary from case to case and between airplane 
manufacturers. Each airplane manufacturer's new airplane development and 
test program is designed to suit the needs of the particular project and 
may not contain the same events or sequence of events as another 
manufacturer's program, or even the same manufacturer's program for a 
different airplane. Therefore, there cannot be a prescribed invariable 
procedure for acceptance of preliminary data, but instead there should 
be a statement describing the final sequence of events, data sources, 
and validation procedures agreed by the simulator sponsor, the airplane 
manufacturer, the flight simulator manufacturer, and the NSPM.

    Note: A description of airplane manufacturer-provided data needed 
for flight simulator modeling and validation is to be found in the IATA 
Document ``Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements,'' 
as amended.


[[Page 112]]


    e. The preliminary data should be the manufacturer's best 
representation of the airplane, with assurance that the final data will 
not significantly deviate from the preliminary estimates. Data derived 
from these predictive or preliminary techniques should be validated 
against available sources including, at least, the following:
    (1) Manufacturer's engineering report. The report should explain the 
predictive method used and illustrate past success of the method on 
similar projects. For example, the manufacturer could show the 
application of the method to an earlier airplane model or predict the 
characteristics of an earlier model and compare the results to final 
data for that model.
    (2) Early flight test results. This data is often derived from 
airplane certification tests, and should be used to maximum advantage 
for early flight simulator validation. Certain critical tests that would 
normally be done early in the airplane certification program should be 
included to validate essential pilot training and certification 
maneuvers. These include cases where a pilot is expected to cope with an 
airplane failure mode or an engine failure. Flight test data that will 
be available early in the flight test program will depend on the 
airplane manufacturer's flight test program design and may not be the 
same in each case. The flight test program of the airplane manufacturer 
should include provisions for generation of very early flight test 
results for flight simulator validation.
    f. The use of preliminary data is not indefinite. The airplane 
manufacturer's final data should be available within 12 months after the 
airplane's first entry into service or as agreed by the NSPM, the 
simulator sponsor, and the airplane manufacturer. When applying for 
interim qualification using preliminary data, the simulator sponsor and 
the NSPM should agree on the update program. This includes specifying 
that the final data update will be installed in the flight simulator 
within a period of 12 months following the final data release, unless 
special conditions exist and a different schedule is acceptable. The 
flight simulator performance and handling validation would then be based 
on data derived from flight tests or from other approved sources. 
Initial airplane systems data should be updated after engineering tests. 
Final airplane systems data should also be used for flight simulator 
programming and validation.
    g. Flight simulator avionics should stay essentially in step with 
airplane avionics (hardware and software) updates. The permitted time 
lapse between airplane and flight simulator updates should be minimal. 
It may depend on the magnitude of the update and whether the QTG and 
pilot training and certification are affected. Differences in airplane 
and flight simulator avionics versions and the resulting effects on 
flight simulator qualification should be agreed between the simulator 
sponsor and the NSPM. Consultation with the flight simulator 
manufacturer is desirable throughout the qualification process.
    h. The following describes an example of the design data and sources 
that might be used in the development of an interim qualification plan.
    (1) The plan should consist of the development of a QTG based upon a 
mix of flight test and engineering simulation data. For data collected 
from specific airplane flight tests or other flights, the required 
design model or data changes necessary to support an acceptable Proof of 
Match (POM) should be generated by the airplane manufacturer.
    (2) For proper validation of the two sets of data, the airplane 
manufacturer should compare their simulation model responses against the 
flight test data, when driven by the same control inputs and subjected 
to the same atmospheric conditions as recorded in the flight test. The 
model responses should result from a simulation where the following 
systems are run in an integrated fashion and are consistent with the 
design data released to the flight simulator manufacturer:
    (a) Propulsion;
    (b) Aerodynamics;
    (c) Mass properties;
    (d) Flight controls;
    (e) Stability augmentation; and
    (f) Brakes/landing gear.
    i. A qualified test pilot should be used to assess handling 
qualities and performance evaluations for the qualification of flight 
simulators of new airplane types.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

                9. Engineering Simulator--Validation Data

    a. When a fully validated simulation (i.e., validated with flight 
test results) is modified due to changes to the simulated airplane 
configuration, the airplane manufacturer or other acceptable data 
supplier must coordinate with the NSPM if they propose to supply 
validation data from an ``audited'' engineering simulator/simulation to 
selectively supplement flight test data. The NSPM must be provided an 
opportunity to audit the engineering simulation or the engineering 
simulator used to generate the validation data. Validation data from an 
audited engineering simulation may be used for changes that are 
incremental in nature. Manufacturers or other data suppliers must be 
able to demonstrate that the predicted changes in aircraft performance 
are based on acceptable aeronautical principles with proven success

[[Page 113]]

history and valid outcomes. This must include comparisons of predicted 
and flight test validated data.
    b. Airplane manufacturers or other acceptable data suppliers seeking 
to use an engineering simulator for simulation validation data as an 
alternative to flight-test derived validation data, must contact the 
NSPM and provide the following:
    (1) A description of the proposed aircraft changes, a description of 
the proposed simulation model changes, and the use of an integral 
configuration management process, including a description of the actual 
simulation model modifications that includes a step-by-step description 
leading from the original model(s) to the current model(s).
    (2) A schedule for review by the NSPM of the proposed plan and the 
subsequent validation data to establish acceptability of the proposal.
    (3) Validation data from an audited engineering simulator/simulation 
to supplement specific segments of the flight test data.
    c. To be qualified to supply engineering simulator validation data, 
for aerodynamic, engine, flight control, or ground handling models, an 
airplane manufacturer or other acceptable data supplier must:
    (1) Be able to verify their ability able to:
    (a) Develop and implement high fidelity simulation models; and
    (b) Predict the handling and performance characteristics of an 
airplane with sufficient accuracy to avoid additional flight test 
activities for those handling and performance characteristics.
    (2) Have an engineering simulator that:
    (a) Is a physical entity, complete with a flight deck representative 
of the simulated class of airplane;
    (b) Has controls sufficient for manual flight;
    (c) Has models that run in an integrated manner;
    (d) Has fully flight-test validated simulation models as the 
original or baseline simulation models;
    (e) Has an out-of-the-flight deck visual system;
    (f) Has actual avionics boxes interchangeable with the equivalent 
software simulations to support validation of released software;
    (g) Uses the same models as released to the training community 
(which are also used to produce stand-alone proof-of-match and checkout 
documents);
    (h) Is used to support airplane development and certification; and
    (i) Has been found to be a high fidelity representation of the 
airplane by the manufacturer's pilots (or other acceptable data 
supplier), certificate holders, and the NSPM.
    (3) Use the engineering simulator/simulation to produce a 
representative set of integrated proof-of-match cases.
    (4) Use a configuration control system covering hardware and 
software for the operating components of the engineering simulator/
simulation.
    (5) Demonstrate that the predicted effects of the change(s) are 
within the provisions of sub-paragraph ``a'' of this section, and 
confirm that additional flight test data are not required.
    d. Additional Requirements for Validation Data
    (1) When used to provide validation data, an engineering simulator 
must meet the simulator standards currently applicable to training 
simulators except for the data package.
    (2) The data package used must be:
    (a) Comprised of the engineering predictions derived from the 
airplane design, development, or certification process;
    (b) Based on acceptable aeronautical principles with proven success 
history and valid outcomes for aerodynamics, engine operations, avionics 
operations, flight control applications, or ground handling;
    (c) Verified with existing flight-test data; and
    (d) Applicable to the configuration of a production airplane, as 
opposed to a flight-test airplane.
    (3) Where engineering simulator data are used as part of a QTG, an 
essential match must exist between the training simulator and the 
validation data.
    (4) Training flight simulator(s) using these baseline and modified 
simulation models must be qualified to at least internationally 
recognized standards, such as contained in the ICAO Document 9625, the 
``Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators.''

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             10. [Reserved]

                     11. Validation Test Tolerances

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. Non-Flight-Test Tolerances
    (1) If engineering simulator data or other non-flight-test data are 
used as an allowable form of reference validation data for the objective 
tests listed in Table A2A of this attachment, the data provider must 
supply a well-documented mathematical model and testing procedure that 
enables a replication of the engineering simulation results within 40% 
of the corresponding flight test tolerances.
    b. Background
    (1) The tolerances listed in Table A2A of this attachment are 
designed to measure the

[[Page 114]]

quality of the match using flight-test data as a reference.
    (2) Good engineering judgment should be applied to all tolerances in 
any test. A test is failed when the results clearly fall outside of the 
prescribed tolerance(s).
    (3) Engineering simulator data are acceptable because the same 
simulation models used to produce the reference data are also used to 
test the flight training simulator (i.e., the two sets of results should 
be ``essentially'' similar).
    (4) The results from the two sources may differ for the following 
reasons:
    (a) Hardware (avionics units and flight controls);
    (b) Iteration rates;
    (c) Execution order;
    (d) Integration methods;
    (e) Processor architecture;
    (f) Digital drift, including:
    (i) Interpolation methods;
    (ii) Data handling differences; and
    (iii) Auto-test trim tolerances.
    (5) The tolerance limit between the reference data and the flight 
simulator results is generally 40 percent of the corresponding `flight-
test' tolerances. However, there may be cases where the simulator models 
used are of higher fidelity, or the manner in which they are cascaded in 
the integrated testing loop have the effect of a higher fidelity, than 
those supplied by the data provider. Under these circumstances, it is 
possible that an error greater than 40 percent may be generated. An 
error greater than 40 percent may be acceptable if simulator sponsor can 
provide an adequate explanation.
    (6) Guidelines are needed for the application of tolerances to 
engineering-simulator-generated validation data because:
    (a) Flight-test data are often not available due to technical 
reasons;
    (b) Alternative technical solutions are being advanced; and
    (c) High costs.

                       12. Validation Data Roadmap

    a. Airplane manufacturers or other data suppliers should supply a 
validation data roadmap (VDR) document as part of the data package. A 
VDR document contains guidance material from the airplane validation 
data supplier recommending the best possible sources of data to be used 
as validationdata in the QTG. A VDR is of special value when requesting 
interim qualification, qualification of simulators for airplanes 
certificated prior to 1992, and qualification of alternate engine or 
avionics fits. A sponsor seeking to have a device qualified in 
accordance with the standards contained in this QPS appendix should 
submit a VDR to the NSPM as early as possible in the planning stages. 
The NSPM is the final authority to approve the data to be used as 
validation material for the QTG.
    b. The VDR should identify (in matrix format) sources of data for 
all required tests. It should also provide guidance regarding the 
validity of these data for a specific engine type, thrust rating 
configuration, and the revision levels of all avionics affecting 
airplane handling qualities and performance. The VDR should include 
rationale or explanation in cases where data or parameters are missing, 
engineering simulation data are to be used, flight test methods require 
explanation, or there is any deviation from data requirements. 
Additionally, the document should refer to other appropriate sources of 
validation data (e.g., sound and vibration data documents).
    c. The Sample Validation Data Roadmap (VDR) for airplanes, shown in 
Table A2C, depicts a generic roadmap matrix identifying sources of 
validation data for an abbreviated list of tests. This document is 
merely a sample and does not provide actual data. A complete matrix 
should address all test conditions and provide actual data and data 
sources.
    d. Two examples of rationale pages are presented in Appendix F of 
the IATA ``Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements.'' 
These illustrate the type of airplane and avionics configuration 
information and descriptive engineering rationale used to describe data 
anomalies or provide an acceptable basis for using alternative data for 
QTG validation requirements.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 115]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.002


[[Page 116]]



                            Begin Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

         13. Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative Engines Data.

                              a. Background

    (1) For a new airplane type, the majority of flight validation data 
are collected on the first airplane configuration with a ``baseline'' 
engine type. These data are then used to validate all flight simulators 
representing that airplane type.
    (2) Additional flight test validation data may be needed for flight 
simulators representing an airplane with engines of a different type 
than the baseline, or for engines with thrust rating that is different 
from previously validated configurations.
    (3) When a flight simulator with alternate engines is to be 
qualified, the QTG should contain tests against flight test validation 
data for selected cases where engine differences are expected to be 
significant.

   b. Approval Guidelines For Validating Alternate Engine Applications

    (1) The following guidelines apply to flight simulators representing 
airplanes with alternate engine applications or with more than one 
engine type or thrust rating.
    (2) Validation tests can be segmented into two groups, those that 
are dependent on engine type or thrust rating and those that are not.
    (3) For tests that are independent of engine type or thrust rating, 
the QTG can be based on validation data from any engine application. 
Tests in this category should be designated as independent of engine 
type or thrust rating.
    (4) For tests that are affected by engine type, the QTG should 
contain selected engine-specific flight test data sufficient to validate 
that particular airplane-engine configuration. These effects may be due 
to engine dynamic characteristics, thrust levels or engine-related 
airplane configuration changes. This category is primarily characterized 
by variations between different engine manufacturers' products, but also 
includes differences due to significant engine design changes from a 
previously flight-validated configuration within a single engine type. 
See Table A2D, Alternate Engine Validation Flight Tests in this section 
for a list of acceptable tests.
    (5) Alternate engine validation data should be based on flight test 
data, except as noted in sub-paragraphs 13.c.(1) and (2), or where other 
data are specifically allowed (e.g., engineering simulator/simulation 
data). If certification of the flight characteristics of the airplane 
with a new thrust rating (regardless of percentage change) does require 
certifi-cation flight testing with a comprehensive stability and control 
flight instrumentation package, then the conditions described in Table 
A2D in this section should be obtained from flight testing and presented 
in the QTG. Flight test data, other than throttle calibration data, are 
not required if the new thrust rating is certified on the airplane 
without need for a comprehensive stability and control flight 
instrumentation package.
    (6) As a supplement to the engine-specific flight tests listed in 
Table A2D and baseline engine-independent tests, additional engine-
specific engineering validation data should be provided in the QTG, as 
appropriate, to facilitate running the entire QTG with the alternate 
engine configuration. The sponsor and the NSPM should agree in advance 
on the specific validation tests to be supported by engineering 
simulation data.
    (7) A matrix or VDR should be provided with the QTG indicating the 
appropriate validation data source for each test.
    (8) The flight test conditions in Table A2D are appropriate and 
should be sufficient to validate implementation of alternate engines in 
a flight simulator.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

                          c. Test Requirements

    (1) The QTG must contain selected engine-specific flight test data 
sufficient to validate the alternative thrust level when:
    (a) the engine type is the same, but the thrust rating exceeds that 
of a previously flight-test validated configuration by five percent (5%) 
or more; or
    (b) the engine type is the same, but the thrust rating is less than 
the lowest previously flight-test validated rating by fifteen percent 
(15%) or more. See Table A2D for a list of acceptable tests.
    (2) Flight test data is not required if the thrust increase is 
greater than 5%, but flight tests have confirmed that the thrust 
increase does not change the airplane's flight characteristics.
    (3) Throttle calibration data (i.e., commanded power setting 
parameter versus throttle position) must be provided to validate all 
alternate engine types and engine thrust ratings that are higher or 
lower than a previously validated engine. Data from a test airplane or 
engineering test bench with the correct engine controller (both hardware 
and software) are required.

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

[[Page 117]]



                              Table A2D--Alternative Engine Validation Flight Tests
 
                                                                                  Alternative      Alternative
           Entry No.                          Test                                engine type    thrust rating 2
                                       description
 
1.b.1., 1.b.4..................--Normal take-off/ground acceleration time and----------------X----------------X-
                                  distance
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.2..........................  Vmcg, if performed for airplane certification               X                X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.5..........................  Engine-out take-off     Either test may be
1.b.8..........................  Dynamic engine failure   performed.                         X
                                  after take-off..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.7..........................  Rejected take-off if performed for airplane                 X
                                  certification
1.d.1..........................  Cruise performance                                          X
1.f.1., 1.f.2..................  Engine acceleration and deceleration                        X                X
2.a.7..........................  Throttle calibration \1\                                    X                X
2.c.1..........................  Power change dynamics (acceleration)                        X                X
2.d.1..........................  Vmca if performed for airplane certification                X                X
2.d.5..........................  Engine inoperative trim                                     X                X
2.e.1..........................  Normal landing                                              X
 
\1\ Must be provided for all changes in engine type or thrust rating; see paragraph 13.c.(3).
\2\ See paragraphs 13.c.(1) through 13.c.(3), for a definition of applicable thrust ratings.

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

   14. Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative Avionics (Flight-Related 
                       Computers and Controllers)

                              a. Background

    (1) For a new airplane type, the majority of flight validation data 
are collected on the first airplane configuration with a ``baseline'' 
flight-related avionics ship-set; (see subparagraph b.(2) of this 
section). These data are then used to validate all flight simulators 
representing that airplane type.
    (2) Additional validation data may be required for flight simulators 
representing an airplane with avionics of a different hardware design 
than the baseline, or a different software revision than previously 
validated configurations.
    (3) When a flight simulator with additional or alternate avionics 
configurations is to be qualified, the QTG should contain tests against 
validation data for selected cases where avionics differences are 
expected to be significant.

        b. Approval Guidelines for Validating Alternate Avionics

    (1) The following guidelines apply to flight simulators representing 
airplanes with a revised avionics configuration, or more than one 
avionics configuration.
    (2) The baseline validation data should be based on flight test 
data, except where other data are specifically allowed (e.g., 
engineering flight simulator data).
    (3) The airplane avionics can be segmented into two groups, systems 
or components whose functional behavior contributes to the aircraft 
response presented in the QTG results, and systems that do not. The 
following avionics are examples of contributory systems for which 
hardware design changes or software revisions may lead to significant 
differences in the aircraft response relative to the baseline avionics 
configuration: Flight control computers and controllers for engines, 
autopilot, braking system, nosewheel steering system, and high lift 
system. Related avionics such as stall warning and augmentation systems 
should also be considered.
    (4) The acceptability of validation data used in the QTG for an 
alternative avionics fit should be determined as follows:
    (a) For changes to an avionics system or component that do not 
affect QTG validation test response, the QTG test can be based on 
validation data from the previously validated avionics configuration.
    (b) For an avionics change to a contributory system, where a 
specific test is not affected by the change (e.g., the avionics change 
is a Built In Test Equipment (BITE) update or a modification in a 
different flight phase), the QTG test can be based on validation data 
from the previously-validated avionics configuration. The QTG should 
include authoritative justification (e.g., from the airplane 
manufacturer or system supplier) that this avionics change does not 
affect the test.
    (c) For an avionics change to a contributory system, the QTG may be 
based on validation data from the previously-validated avionics 
configuration if no new functionality is added and the impact of the 
avionics change on the airplane response is small and based on 
acceptable aeronautical principles with proven success history and valid 
outcomes. This should be supplemented with avionics-specific validation 
data from the airplane manufacturer's engineering

[[Page 118]]

simulation, generated with the revised avionics configuration. The QTG 
should also include an explanation of the nature of the change and its 
effect on the airplane response.
    (d) For an avionics change to a contributory system that 
significantly affects some tests in the QTG or where new functionality 
is added, the QTG should be based on validation data from the previously 
validated avionics configuration and supplemental avionics-specific 
flight test data sufficient to validate the alternate avionics revision. 
Additional flight test validation data may not be needed if the avionics 
changes were certified without the need for testing with a comprehensive 
flight instrumentation package. The airplane manufacturer should 
coordinate flight simulator data requirements, in advance with the NSPM.
    (5) A matrix or ``roadmap'' should be provided with the QTG 
indicating the appropriate validation data source for each test. The 
roadmap should include identification of the revision state of those 
contributory avionics systems that could affect specific test responses 
if changed.

                       15. Transport Delay Testing

    a. This paragraph explains how to determine the introduced transport 
delay through the flight simulator system so that it does not exceed a 
specific time delay. The transport delay should be measured from control 
inputs through the interface, through each of the host computer modules 
and back through the interface to motion, flight instrument, and visual 
systems. The transport delay should not exceed the maximum allowable 
interval.
    b. Four specific examples of transport delay are:
    (1) Simulation of classic non-computer controlled aircraft;
    (2) Simulation of computer controlled aircraft using real airplane 
black boxes;
    (3) Simulation of computer controlled aircraft using software 
emulation of airplane boxes;
    (4) Simulation using software avionics or re-hosted instruments.
    c. Figure A2C illustrates the total transport delay for a non-
computer-controlled airplane or the classic transport delay test. Since 
there are no airplane-induced delays for this case, the total transport 
delay is equivalent to the introduced delay.
    d. Figure A2D illustrates the transport delay testing method using 
the real airplane controller system.
    e. To obtain the induced transport delay for the motion, instrument 
and visual signal, the delay induced by the airplane controller should 
be subtracted from the total transport delay. This difference represents 
the introduced delay and should not exceed the standards prescribed in 
Table A1A.
    f. Introduced transport delay is measured from the flight deck 
control input to the reaction of the instruments and motion and visual 
systems (See Figure A2C).
    g. The control input may also be introduced after the airplane 
controller system and the introduced transport delay measured directly 
from the control input to the reaction of the instruments, and simulator 
motion and visual systems (See Figure A2D).
    h. Figure A2E illustrates the transport delay testing method used on 
a flight simulator that uses a software emulated airplane controller 
system.
    i. It is not possible to measure the introduced transport delay 
using the simulated airplane controller system architecture for the 
pitch, roll and yaw axes. Therefore, the signal should be measured 
directly from the pilot controller. The flight simulator manufacturer 
should measure the total transport delay and subtract the inherent delay 
of the actual airplane components because the real airplane controller 
system has an inherent delay provided by the airplane manufacturer. The 
flight simulator manufacturer should ensure that the introduced delay 
does not exceed the standards prescribed in Table A1A.
    j. Special measurements for instrument signals for flight simulators 
using a real airplane instrument display system instead of a simulated 
or re-hosted display. For flight instrument systems, the total transport 
delay should be measured and the inherent delay of the actual airplane 
components subtracted to ensure that the introduced delay does not 
exceed the standards prescribed in Table A1A.
    (1) Figure A2FA illustrates the transport delay procedure without 
airplane display simulation. The introduced delay consists of the delay 
between the control movement and the instrument change on the data bus.
    (2) Figure A2FB illustrates the modified testing method required to 
measure introduced delay due to software avionics or re-hosted 
instruments. The total simulated instrument transport delay is measured 
and the airplane delay should be subtracted from this total. This 
difference represents the introduced delay and should not exceed the 
standards prescribed in Table A1A. The inherent delay of the airplane 
between the data bus and the displays is indicated in figure A2FA. The 
display manufacturer should provide this delay time.
    k. Recorded signals. The signals recorded to conduct the transport 
delay calculations should be explained on a schematic block diagram. The 
flight simulator manufacturer should also provide an explanation of why 
each signal was selected and how they relate to the above descriptions.
    l. Interpretation of results. Flight simulator results vary over 
time from test to test due to ``sampling uncertainty.'' All flight 
simulators run at a specific rate where all

[[Page 119]]

modules are executed sequentially in the host computer. The flight 
controls input can occur at any time in the iteration, but these data 
will not be processed before the start of the new iteration. For 
example, a flight simulator running at 60 Hz may have a difference of as 
much as 16.67 msec between test results. This does not mean that the 
test has failed. Instead, the difference is attributed to variations in 
input processing. In some conditions, the host simulator and the visual 
system do not run at the same iteration rate, so the output of the host 
computer to the visual system will not always be synchronized.
    m. The transport delay test should account for both daylight and 
night modes of operation of the visual system. In both cases, the 
tolerances prescribed in Table A1A must be met and the motion response 
should occur before the end of the first video scan containing new 
information.

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.004

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

     16. Continuing Qualification Evaluations--Validation Test Data 
                              Presentation

                              a. Background

    (1) The MQTG is created during the initial evaluation of a flight 
simulator. This is the master document, as amended, to which flight 
simulator continuing qualification evaluation test results are compared.
    (2) The currently accepted method of presenting continuing 
qualification evaluation test results is to provide flight simulator 
results over-plotted with reference data. Test results are carefully 
reviewed to determine if the test is within the specified tolerances. 
This can be a time consuming process, particularly when reference data 
exhibits rapid variations or an apparent anomaly requiring engineering 
judgment in the application of the tolerances. In these cases, the 
solution is to compare the results to the MQTG. The continuing 
qualification results are compared to the results in the MQTG for 
acceptance. The flight simulator operator and the NSPM should look for 
any change in the flight simulator performance since initial 
qualification.

    b. Continuing Qualification Evaluation Test Results Presentation

    (1) Flight simulator operators are encouraged to over-plot 
continuing qualification validation test results with MQTG flight 
simulator results recorded during the initial evaluation and as amended. 
Any change in a validation test will be readily apparent. In addition to 
plotting continuing qualification validation test and MQTG results, 
operators may elect to plot reference data as well.
    (2) There are no suggested tolerances between flight simulator 
continuing qualification and MQTG validation test results. Investigation 
of any discrepancy between the MQTG and continuing qualification flight 
simulator performance is left to the discretion of the flight simulator 
operator and the NSPM.

[[Page 122]]

    (3) Differences between the two sets of results, other than 
variations attributable to repeatability issues that cannot be 
explained, should be investigated.
    (4) The flight simulator should retain the ability to over-plot both 
automatic and manual validation test results with reference data.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

 17. Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation: Level A 
                       and Level B Simulators Only

    a. Sponsors are not required to use the alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation. However, a sponsor may choose to use 
one or more of the alternative sources, procedures, and instrumentation 
described in Table A2E.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    b. It has become standard practice for experienced simulator 
manufacturers to use modeling techniques to establish data bases for new 
simulator configurations while awaiting the availability of actual 
flight test data. The data generated from the aerodynamic modeling 
techniques is then compared to the flight test data when it becomes 
available. The results of such comparisons have become increasingly 
consistent, indicating that these techniques, applied with the 
appropriate experience, are dependable and accurate for the development 
of aerodynamic models for use in Level A and Level B simulators.
    c. Based on this history of successful comparisons, the NSPM has 
concluded that those who are experienced in the development of 
aerodynamic models may use modeling techniques to alter the method for 
acquiring flight test data for Level A or Level B simulators.
    d. The information in Table A2E (Alternative Data Sources, 
Procedures, and Instrumentation) is presented to describe an acceptable 
alternative to data sources for simulator modeling and validation and an 
acceptable alternative to the procedures and instrumentation 
traditionally used to gather such modeling and validation data.
    (1) Alternative data sources that may be used for part or all of a 
data requirement are the Airplane Maintenance Manual, the Airplane 
Flight Manual (AFM), Airplane Design Data, the Type Inspection Report 
(TIR), Certification Data or acceptable supplemental flight test data.
    (2) The sponsor should coordinate with the NSPM prior to using 
alternative data sources in a flight test or data gathering effort.
    e. The NSPM position regarding the use of these alternative data 
sources, procedures, and instrumentation is based on the following 
presumptions:
    (1) Data gathered through the alternative means does not require 
angle of attack (AOA) measurements or control surface position 
measurements for any flight test. However, AOA can be sufficiently 
derived if the flight test program ensures the collection of acceptable 
level, unaccelerated, trimmed flight data. All of the simulator time 
history tests that begin in level, unaccelerated, and trimmed flight, 
including the three basic trim tests and ``fly-by'' trims, can be a 
successful validation of angle of attack by comparison with flight test 
pitch angle. (Note: Due to the criticality of angle of attack in the 
development of the ground effects model, particularly critical for 
normal landings and landings involving cross-control input applicable to 
Level B simulators, stable ``fly-by'' trim data will be the acceptable 
norm for normal and cross-control input landing objective data for these 
applications.)
    (2) The use of a rigorously defined and fully mature simulation 
controls system model that includes accurate gearing and cable stretch 
characteristics (where applicable), determined from actual aircraft 
measurements. Such a model does not require control surface position 
measurements in the flight test objective data in these limited 
applications.
    f. The sponsor is urged to contact the NSPM for clarification of any 
issue regarding airplanes with reversible control systems. Table A2E is 
not applicable to Computer Controlled Aircraft FFSs.
    g. Utilization of these alternate data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation (Table A2E) does not relieve the sponsor from compliance 
with the balance of the information contained in this document relative 
to Level A or Level B FFSs.
    h. The term ``inertial measurement system'' is used in the following 
table to include the use of a functional global positioning system 
(GPS).
    i. Synchronized video for the use of alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation should have:
    (1) Sufficient resolution to allow magnification of the display to 
make appropriate measurement and comparisons; and
    (2) Sufficient size and incremental marking to allow similar 
measurement and comparison. The detail provided by the video should 
provide sufficient clarity and accuracy to measure the necessary 
parameter(s) to at least \1/2\ of the tolerance authorized for the 
specific test being conducted and allow

[[Page 123]]

an integration of the parameter(s) in question to obtain a rate of 
change.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                      Table A2E--Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    QPS REQUIREMENTS The standards in this table are required if the data gathering            Information
             methods described in paragraph 9 of Appendix A are not used.              -------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Table of objective tests            Sim level       Alternative data sources,
--------------------------------------------------------        procedures, and                   Notes
     Test entry number and title          A        B            instrumentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1. Performance. Taxi. Minimum           X        X   TIR, AFM, or Design data may
 Radius turn.                                             be used.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.2. Performance. Taxi Rate of Turn                X   Data may be acquired by using  A single procedure may
 vs. Nosewheel Steering Angle.                            a constant tiller position,    not be adequate for all
                                                          measured with a protractor     airplane steering
                                                          or full rudder pedal           systems, therefore
                                                          application for steady state   appropriate measurement
                                                          turn, and synchronized video   procedures must be
                                                          of heading indicator. If       devised and proposed
                                                          less than full rudder pedal    for NSPM concurrence.
                                                          is used, pedal position must
                                                          be recorded.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.1. Performance. Takeoff. Ground         X        X   Preliminary certification
 Acceleration Time and Distance.                          data may be used. Data may
                                                          be acquired by using a stop
                                                          watch, calibrated airspeed,
                                                          and runway markers during a
                                                          takeoff with power set
                                                          before brake release. Power
                                                          settings may be hand
                                                          recorded. If an inertial
                                                          measurement system is
                                                          installed, speed and
                                                          distance may be derived from
                                                          acceleration measurements.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.2. Performance. Takeoff. Minimum        X        X   Data may be acquired by using  Rapid throttle
 Control Speed--ground (Vmcg) using                       an inertial measurement        reductions at speeds
 aerodynamic controls only (per                           system and a synchronized      near Vmcg may be used
 applicable airworthiness standard)                       video of calibrated airplane   while recording
 or low speed, engine inoperative                         instruments and force/         appropriate parameters.
 ground control characteristics.                          position measurements of       The nosewheel must be
                                                          flight deck controls.          free to caster, or
                                                                                         equivalently freed of
                                                                                         sideforce generation.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.3. Performance. Takeoff. Minimum        X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Unstick Speed (Vmu) or equivalent                        an inertial measurement
 test to demonstrate early rotation                       system and a synchronized
 takeoff characteristics.                                 video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and the force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.4. Performance. Takeoff. Normal         X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Takeoff.                                                 an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. AOA
                                                          can be calculated from pitch
                                                          attitude and flight path.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.5. Performance. Takeoff. Critical       X        X   Data may be acquired by using  Record airplane dynamic
 Engine Failure during Takeoff.                           an inertial measurement        response to engine
                                                          system and a synchronized      failure and control
                                                          video of calibrated airplane   inputs required to
                                                          instruments and force/         correct flight path.
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.6. Performance. Takeoff.                X        X   Data may be acquired by using  The ``1:7 law'' to 100
 Crosswind Takeoff.                                       an inertial measurement        feet (30 meters) is an
                                                          system and a synchronized      acceptable wind
                                                          video of calibrated airplane   profile.
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 124]]

 
1.b.7. Performance. Takeoff. Rejected       X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Takeoff.                                                 synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position, engine parameters,
                                                          and distance (e.g., runway
                                                          markers). A stop watch is
                                                          required..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c. 1. Performance. Climb. Normal          X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Climb all engines operating..                            synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and engine power
                                                          throughout the climb range.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.2. Performance. Climb. One engine       X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Inoperative Climb.                                       synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and engine power
                                                          throughout the climb range.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.4. Performance. Climb. One Engine       X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Inoperative Approach Climb (if                           synchronized video of
 operations in icing conditions are                       calibrated airplane
 authorized).                                             instruments and engine power
                                                          throughout the climb range.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.1. Cruise/Descent. Level flight         X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 acceleration..                                           synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position, engine parameters,
                                                          and elapsed time.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.2. Cruise/Descent. Level flight         X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 deceleration..                                           synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position, engine parameters,
                                                          and elapsed time.
1.d.4. Cruise/Descent. Idle descent..       X        X   Data may be acquired with a
                                                          synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position, engine parameters,
                                                          and elapsed time.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.5. Cruise/Descent. Emergency            X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Descent.                                                 synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position, engine parameters,
                                                          and elapsed time.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e.1. Performance. Stopping.               X        X   Data may be acquired during
 Deceleration time and distance,                          landing tests using a stop
 using manual application of wheel                        watch, runway markers, and a
 brakes and no reverse thrust on a                        synchronized video of
 dry runway.                                              calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position and the pertinent
                                                          parameters of engine power.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e.2. Performance. Ground.                 X        X   Data may be acquired during
 Deceleration Time and Distance,                          landing tests using a stop
 using reverse thrust and no wheel                        watch, runway markers, and a
 brakes.                                                  synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments, thrust lever
                                                          position and pertinent
                                                          parameters of engine power.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f.1. Performance. Engines.                X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Acceleration.                                            synchronized video recording
                                                          of engine instruments and
                                                          throttle position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f.2. Performance. Engines.                X        X   Data may be acquired with a
 Deceleration.                                            synchronized video recording
                                                          of engine instruments and
                                                          throttle position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 125]]

 
2.a.1.a. Handling Qualities. Static         X        X   Surface position data may be   For airplanes with
 Control Checks. Pitch Controller                         acquired from flight data      reversible control
 Position vs. Force and Surface                           recorder (FDR) sensor or, if   systems, surface
 Position Calibration.                                    no FDR sensor, at selected,    position data
                                                          significant column positions   acquisition should be
                                                          (encompassing significant      accomplished with winds
                                                          column position data           less than 5 kts.
                                                          points), acceptable to the
                                                          NSPM, using a control
                                                          surface protractor on the
                                                          ground. Force data may be
                                                          acquired by using a hand
                                                          held force gauge at the same
                                                          column position data points.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.a. Handling Qualities. Static         X        X   Surface position data may be   For airplanes with
 Control Checks. Roll Controller                          acquired from flight data      reversible control
 Position vs. Force and Surface                           recorder (FDR) sensor or, if   systems, surface
 Position Calibration.                                    no FDR sensor, at selected,    position data
                                                          significant wheel positions    acquisition should be
                                                          (encompassing significant      accomplished with winds
                                                          wheel position data points),   less than 5 kts.
                                                          acceptable to the NSPM,
                                                          using a control surface
                                                          protractor on the ground.
                                                          Force data may be acquired
                                                          by using a hand held force
                                                          gauge at the same wheel
                                                          position data points.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3.a. Handling Qualities. Static         X        X   Surface position data may be   For airplanes with
 Control Checks. Rudder Pedal                             acquired from flight data      reversible control
 Position vs. Force and Surface                           recorder (FDR) sensor or, if   systems, surface
 Position Calibration.                                    no FDR sensor, at selected,    position data
                                                          significant rudder pedal       acquisition should be
                                                          positions (encompassing        accomplished with winds
                                                          significant rudder pedal       less than 5 kts.
                                                          position data points),
                                                          acceptable to the NSPM,
                                                          using a control surface
                                                          protractor on the ground.
                                                          Force data may be acquired
                                                          by using a hand held force
                                                          gauge at the same rudder
                                                          pedal position data points.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.4. Handling Qualities. Static           X        X   Breakout data may be acquired
 Control Checks. Nosewheel Steering                       with a hand held force
 Controller Force and Position.                           gauge. The remainder of the
                                                          force to the stops may be
                                                          calculated if the force
                                                          gauge and a protractor are
                                                          used to measure force after
                                                          breakout for at least 25% of
                                                          the total displacement
                                                          capability.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.5. Handling Qualities. Static           X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Control Checks. Rudder Pedal                             the use of force pads on the
 Steering Calibration.                                    rudder pedals and a pedal
                                                          position measurement device,
                                                          together with design data
                                                          for nosewheel position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.6. Handling Qualities. Static           X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Control Checks. Pitch Trim Indicator                     calculations.
 vs. Surface Position Calibration.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.7. Handling qualities. Static           X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 control tests. Pitch trim rate.                          a synchronized video of
                                                          pitch trim indication and
                                                          elapsed time through range
                                                          of trim indication.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.8. Handling Qualities. Static           X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Control tests. Alignment of Flight                       the use of a temporary
 deck Throttle Lever Angle vs.                            throttle quadrant scale to
 Selected engine parameter.                               document throttle position.
                                                          Use a synchronized video to
                                                          record steady state
                                                          instrument readings or hand-
                                                          record steady state engine
                                                          performance readings.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 126]]

 
2.a.9. Handling qualities. Static           X        X   Use of design or predicted
 control tests. Brake pedal position                      data is acceptable. Data may
 vs. force and brake system pressure                      be acquired by measuring
 calibration.                                             deflection at ``zero'' and
                                                          ``maximum'' and calculating
                                                          deflections between the
                                                          extremes using the airplane
                                                          design data curve.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.1. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Power                        an inertial measurement
 change dynamics.                                         system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and throttle
                                                          position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.2. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Flap/                        an inertial measurement
 slat change dynamics.                                    system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and flap/slat
                                                          position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.3. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Spoiler/                     an inertial measurement
 speedbrake change dynamics.                              system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and spoiler/
                                                          speedbrake position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.4. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Gear                         an inertial measurement
 change dynamics.                                         system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and gear
                                                          position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.5. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Longitudinal control tests.                              use of an inertial
 Longitudinal trim.                                       measurement system and a
                                                          synchronized video of flight
                                                          deck controls position
                                                          (previously calibrated to
                                                          show related surface
                                                          position) and the engine
                                                          instrument readings.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.6. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Longitudinal control tests.                              the use of an inertial
 Longitudinal maneuvering stability                       measurement system and a
 (stick force/g).                                         synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments; a temporary,
                                                          high resolution bank angle
                                                          scale affixed to the
                                                          attitude indicator; and a
                                                          wheel and column force
                                                          measurement indication.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.7. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired through
 Longitudinal control tests.                              the use of a synchronized
 Longitudinal static stability.                           video of airplane flight
                                                          instruments and a hand held
                                                          force gauge.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.8. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired through   Airspeeds may be cross
 Longitudinal control tests. Stall                        a synchronized video           checked with those in
 characteristics.                                         recording of a stop watch      the TIR and AFM.
                                                          and calibrated airplane
                                                          airspeed indicator. Hand-
                                                          record the flight conditions
                                                          and airplane configuration.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.9. Handling qualities.                  X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Phugoid                      an inertial measurement
 dynamics.                                                system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.10. Handling qualities.                          X   Data may be acquired by using
 Longitudinal control tests. Short                        an inertial measurement
 period dynamics.                                         system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 127]]

 
2.d.1. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Minimum control                       an inertial measurement
 speed, air (Vmca or Vmci), per                           system and a synchronized
 applicable airworthiness standard or                     video of calibrated airplane
 Low speed engine inoperative                             instruments and force/
 handling characteristics in the air.                     position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.2. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using  May be combined with
 directional tests. Roll response                         an inertial measurement        step input of flight
 (rate).                                                  system and a synchronized      deck roll controller
                                                          video of calibrated airplane   test, 2.d.3.
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck lateral controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.3. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Roll response to                      an inertial measurement
 flight deck roll controller step                         system and a synchronized
 input.                                                   video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck lateral controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.4. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Spiral stability.                     an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments; force/position
                                                          measurements of flight deck
                                                          controls; and a stop watch.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.5. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be hand recorded in-  Trimming during second
 directional tests. Engine                                flight using high resolution   segment climb is not a
 inoperative trim.                                        scales affixed to trim         certification task and
                                                          controls that have been        should not be conducted
                                                          calibrated on the ground       until a safe altitude
                                                          using protractors on the       is reached.
                                                          control/trim surfaces with
                                                          winds less than 5 kts.OR
                                                          Data may be acquired during
                                                          second segment climb (with
                                                          proper pilot control input
                                                          for an engine-out condition)
                                                          by using a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.6. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Rudder response.                      an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          rudder pedals.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.7. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Dutch roll, (yaw                      an inertial measurement
 damper OFF).                                             system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.8. Handling qualities. Lateral          X        X   Data may be acquired by using
 directional tests. Steady state                          an inertial measurement
 sideslip.                                                system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
                                                         Ground track and wind
                                                          corrected heading may be
                                                          used for sideslip angle..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.1. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 Normal landing.                                          an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 128]]

 
2.e.3. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 Crosswind landing.                                       an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.4. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 One engine inoperative landing.                          an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and the force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.5. Handling qualities. Landings.   .......       X   Data may be acquired by using
 Autopilot landing (if applicable).                       an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.6. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 All engines operating, autopilot, go                     an inertial measurement
 around.                                                  system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.7. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 One engine inoperative go around.                        an inertial measurement
                                                          system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.8. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 Directional control (rudder                              an inertial measurement
 effectiveness with symmetric thrust).                    system and a synchronized
                                                          video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.9. Handling qualities. Landings.                 X   Data may be acquired by using
 Directional control (rudder                              an inertial measurement
 effectiveness with asymmetric                            system and a synchronized
 reverse thrust).                                         video of calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls. Normal
                                                          and lateral accelerations
                                                          may be recorded in lieu of
                                                          AOA and sideslip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.f. Handling qualities. Ground                      X   Data may be acquired by using  ........................
 effect. Test to demonstrate ground                       calibrated airplane
 effect.                                                  instruments, an inertial
                                                          measurement system, and a
                                                          synchronized video of
                                                          calibrated airplane
                                                          instruments and force/
                                                          position measurements of
                                                          flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 129]]

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 Attachment 3 to Appendix A to Part 60--Simulator Subjective Evaluation

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                             1. Requirements

    a. Except for special use airport models, described as Class III, 
all airport models required by this part must be representations of 
real-world, operational airports or representations of fictional 
airports and must meet the requirements set out in Tables A3B or A3C of 
this attachment, as appropriate.
    b. If fictional airports are used, the sponsor must ensure that 
navigational aids and all appropriate maps, charts, and other 
navigational reference material for the fictional airports (and 
surrounding areas as necessary) are compatible, complete, and accurate 
with respect to the visual presentation of the airport model of this 
fictional airport. An SOC must be submitted that addresses navigation 
aid installation and performance and other criteria (including 
obstruction clearance protection) for all instrument approaches to the 
fictional airports that are available in the simulator. The SOC must 
reference and account for information in the terminal instrument 
procedures manual and the construction and availability of the required 
maps, charts, and other navigational material. This material must be 
clearly marked ``for training purposes only.''
    c. When the simulator is being used by an instructor or evaluator 
for purposes of training, checking, or testing under this chapter, only 
airport models classified as Class I, Class II, or Class III may be used 
by the instructor or evaluator. Detailed descriptions/definitions of 
these classifications are found in Appendix F of this part.
    d. When a person sponsors an FFS maintained by a person other than a 
U.S. certificate holder, the sponsor is accountable for that FFS 
originally meeting, and continuing to meet, the criteria under which it 
was originally qualified and the appropriate Part 60 criteria, including 
the airport models that may be used by instructors or evaluators for 
purposes of training, checking, or testing under this chapter.
    e. Neither Class II nor Class III airport visual models are required 
to appear on the SOQ, and the method used for keeping instructors and 
evaluators apprised of the airport models that meet Class II or Class 
III requirements on any given simulator is at the option of the sponsor, 
but the method used must be available for review by the TPAA.
    f. When an airport model represents a real world airport and a 
permanent change is made to that real world airport (e.g., a new runway, 
an extended taxiway, a new lighting system, a runway closure) without a 
written extension grant from the NSPM (described in paragraph 1.g. of 
this section), an update to that airport model must be made in 
accordance with the following time limits:
    (1) For a new airport runway, a runway extension, a new airport 
taxiway, a taxiway extension, or a runway/taxiway closure--within 90 
days of the opening for use of the new airport runway, runway extension, 
new airport taxiway, or taxiway extension; or within 90 days of the 
closure of the runway or taxiway.
    (2) For a new or modified approach light system--within 45 days of 
the activation of the new or modified approach light system.
    (3) For other facility or structural changes on the airport (e.g., 
new terminal, relocation of Air Traffic Control Tower)--within 180 days 
of the opening of the new or changed facility or structure.
    g. If a sponsor desires an extension to the time limit for an update 
to a visual scene or airport model or has an objection to what must be 
updated in the specific airport model requirement, the sponsor must 
provide a written extension request to the NSPM stating the reason for 
the update delay and a proposed completion date, or explain why the 
update is not necessary (i.e., why the identified airport change will 
not have an impact on flight training, testing, or checking). A copy of 
this request or objection must also be sent to the POI/TCPM. The NSPM 
will send the official response to the sponsor and a copy to the POI/
TCPM. If there is an objection, after consultation with the appropriate 
POI/TCPM regarding the training, testing, or checking impact, the NSPM 
will send the official response to the sponsor and a copy to the POI/
TCPM.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              2. Discussion

    a. The subjective tests provide a basis for evaluating the 
capability of the simulator to perform over a typical utilization 
period; determining that the simulator accurately simulates each 
required maneuver, procedure, or task; and verifying correct operation 
of the simulator controls, instruments, and systems. The items listed in 
the following Tables are for simulator evaluation purposes only. They 
may not be used to limit or exceed the authorizations for use of a given 
level of simulator, as described on the SOQ, or as approved by the TPAA.
    b. The tests in Table A3A, Operations Tasks, in this attachment, 
address pilot functions, including maneuvers and procedures (called 
flight tasks), and are divided by

[[Page 130]]

flight phases. The performance of these tasks by the NSPM includes an 
operational examination of the visual system and special effects. There 
are flight tasks included to address some features of advanced 
technology airplanes and innovative training programs. For example, 
``high angle-of-attack maneuvering'' is included to provide a required 
alternative to ``approach to stalls'' for airplanes employing flight 
envelope protection functions.
    c. The tests in Table A3A, Operations Tasks, and Table A3G, 
Instructor Operating Station of this attachment, address the overall 
function and control of the simulator including the various simulated 
environmental conditions; simulated airplane system operations (normal, 
abnormal, and emergency); visual system displays; and special effects 
necessary to meet flight crew training, evaluation, or flight experience 
requirements.
    d. All simulated airplane systems functions will be assessed for 
normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal, 
and emergency operations associated with a flight phase will be assessed 
during the evaluation of flight tasks or events within that flight 
phase. Simulated airplane systems are listed separately under ``Any 
Flight Phase'' to ensure appropriate attention to systems checks. 
Operational navigation systems (including inertial navigation systems, 
global positioning systems, or other long-range systems) and the 
associated electronic display systems will be evaluated if installed. 
The NSP pilot will include in his report to the TPAA, the effect of the 
system operation and any system limitation.
    e. Simulators demonstrating a satisfactory circling approach will be 
qualified for the circling approach maneuver and may be approved for 
such use by the TPAA in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight training 
program. To be considered satisfactory, the circling approach will be 
flown at maximum gross weight for landing, with minimum visibility for 
the airplane approach category, and must allow proper alignment with a 
landing runway at least 90[deg] different from the instrument approach 
course while allowing the pilot to keep an identifiable portion of the 
airport in sight throughout the maneuver (reference--14 CFR 91.175(e)).
    f. At the request of the TPAA, the NSPM may assess a device to 
determine if it is capable of simulating certain training activities in 
a sponsor's training program, such as a portion of a Line Oriented 
Flight Training (LOFT) scenario. Unless directly related to a 
requirement for the qualification level, the results of such an 
evaluation would not affect the qualification level of the simulator. 
However, if the NSPM determines that the simulator does not accurately 
simulate that training activity, the simulator would not be approved for 
that training activity.
    g. The FAA intends to allow the use of Class III airport models when 
the sponsor provides the TPAA (or other regulatory authority) an 
appropriate analysis of the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) 
necessary for competent performance of the tasks in which this 
particular media element is used. The analysis should describe the 
ability of the FFS/visual media to provide an adequate environment in 
which the required SKAs are satisfactorily performed and learned. The 
analysis should also include the specific media element, such as the 
airport model. Additional sources of information on the conduct of task 
and capability analysis may be found on the FAA's Advanced Qualification 
Program (AQP) Web site at: http://www.faa.gov/education_research/
training/aqp/.
    h. The TPAA may accept Class III airport models without individual 
observation provided the sponsor provides the TPAA with an acceptable 
description of the process for determining the acceptability of a 
specific airport model, outlines the conditions under which such an 
airport model may be used, and adequately describes what restrictions 
will be applied to each resulting airport or landing area model. 
Examples of situations that may warrant Class--III model designation by 
the TPAA include the following:
    (a) Training, testing, or checking on very low visibility 
operations, including SMGCS operations.
    (b) Instrument operations training (including instrument takeoff, 
departure, arrival, approach, and missed approach training, testing, or 
checking) using--
    (i) A specific model that has been geographically ``moved'' to a 
different location and aligned with an instrument procedure for another 
airport.
    (ii) A model that does not match changes made at the real-world 
airport (or landing area for helicopters) being modeled.
    (iii) A model generated with an ``off-board'' or an ``on-board'' 
model development tool (by providing proper latitude/longitude 
reference; correct runway or landing area orientation, length, width, 
marking, and lighting information; and appropriate adjacent taxiway 
location) to generate a facsimile of a real world airport or landing 
area.
    i. Previously qualified simulators with certain early generation 
Computer Generated Image (CGI) visual systems, are limited by the 
capability of the Image Generator or the display system used. These 
systems are:
    (1) Early CGI visual systems that are excepted from the requirement 
of including runway numbers as a part of the specific runway marking 
requirements are:
    (a) Link NVS and DNVS.
    (b) Novoview 2500 and 6000.
    (c) FlightSafety VITAL series up to, and including, VITAL III, but 
not beyond.
    (d) Redifusion SP1, SP1T, and SP2.

[[Page 131]]

    (2) Early CGI visual systems are excepted from the requirement of 
including runway numbers unless the runways are used for LOFT training 
sessions. These LOFT airport models require runway numbers but only for 
the specific runway end (one direction) used in the LOFT session. The 
systems required to display runway numbers only for LOFT scenes are:
    (a) FlightSafety VITAL IV.
    (b) Redifusion SP3 and SP3T.
    (c) Link-Miles Image II.
    (3) The following list of previously qualified CGI and display 
systems are incapable of generating blue lights. These systems are not 
required to have accurate taxi-way edge lighting:
    (a) Redifusion SP1.
    (b) FlightSafety Vital IV.
    (c) Link-Miles Image II and Image IIT
    (d) XKD displays (even though the XKD image generator is capable of 
generating blue colored lights, the display cannot accommodate that 
color).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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                Table A3C--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Additional airport models beyond    Simulator level
                          minimum required for       -------------------
    Entry No.       qualification--Class II airport
                                 models                A    B    C    D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
This table specifies the minimum airport model content and functionality
 necessary to add airport models to a simulator's model library, beyond
 those necessary for qualification at the stated level, without the
 necessity of further involvement of the NSPM or TPAA.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Begin QPS Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1................  Airport model management. The following is the
                    minimum airport model management requirements for
                    simulators at Levels A, B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1.a..........  The direction of strobe lights,     X    X    X    X
                    approach lights, runway edge
                    lights, visual landing aids,
                    runway centerline lights,
                    threshold lights, and touchdown
                    zone lights on the ``in-use''
                    runway must be replicated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2................  Visual feature recognition. The following are the
                    minimum distances at which runway features must be
                    visible for simulators at Levels A, B, C, and D.
                    Distances are measured from runway threshold to an
                    airplane aligned with the runway on an extended
                    3[deg] glide-slope in simulated meteorological
                    conditions that recreate the minimum distances for
                    visibility. For circling approaches, all
                    requirements of this section apply to the runway
                    used for the initial approach and to the runway of
                    intended landing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.a..........  Runway definition, strobe lights,   X    X    X    X
                    approach lights, and runway edge
                    white lights from 5 sm (8 km)
                    from the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.b..........  Visual Approach Aid lights (VASI              X    X
                    or PAPI) from 5 sm (8 km) from
                    the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.c..........  Visual Approach Aid lights (VASI    X    X
                    or PAPI) from 3 sm (5 km) from
                    the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.d..........  Runway centerline lights and        X    X    X    X
                    taxiway definition from 3 sm (5
                    km) from the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.e..........  Threshold lights and touchdown      X    X    X    X
                    zone lights from 2 sm (3 km)
                    from the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.f..........  Runway markings within range of     X    X    X    X
                    landing lights for night scenes
                    and as required by the surface
                    resolution requirements on day
                    scenes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.g..........  For circling approaches, the        X    X    X    X
                    runway of intended landing and
                    associated lighting must fade
                    into view in a non-distracting
                    manner.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3................  Airport model content. The following prescribes the
                    minimum requirements for what must be provided in an
                    airport model and identifies other aspects of the
                    airport environment that must correspond with that
                    model for simulators at Levels A, B, C, and D. The
                    detail must be developed using airport pictures,
                    construction drawings and maps, or other similar
                    data, or developed in accordance with published
                    regulatory material; however, this does not require
                    that airport models contain details that are beyond
                    the designed capability of the currently qualified
                    visual system. For circling approaches, all
                    requirements of this section apply to the runway
                    used for the initial approach and to the runway of
                    intended landing. Only one ``primary'' taxi route
                    from parking to the runway end will be required for
                    each ``in-use'' runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.a..........  The surface and markings for each ``in-use'' runway:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.1....  Threshold markings...............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.2....  Runway numbers...................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.3....  Touchdown zone markings..........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.4....  Fixed distance markings..........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.5....  Edge markings....................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.a.6....  Centerline stripes...............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.b..........  The lighting for each ``in-use'' runway
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.1....  Threshold lights.................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.2....  Edge lights......................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.3....  End lights.......................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.4....  Centerline lights................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 147]]

 
        3.b.5....  Touchdown zone lights, if           X    X    X    X
                    appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.6....  Leadoff lights, if appropriate...   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.7....  Appropriate visual landing aid(s)   X    X    X    X
                    for that runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.b.8....  Appropriate approach lighting       X    X    X    X
                    system for that runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.c..........  The taxiway surface and markings associated with each
                    ``in-use'' runway:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.c.1....  Edge.............................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.c.2....  Centerline.......................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.c.3....  Runway hold lines................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.c.4....  ILS critical area markings.......   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.d..........  The taxiway lighting associated with each ``in-use''
                    runway:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.d.1....  Edge.............................             X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.d.2....  Centerline.......................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        3.d.3....  Runway hold and ILS critical area   X    X    X    X
                    lights.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4................  Required model correlation with
                    other aspects of the airport
                    environment simulation The
                    following are the minimum model
                    correlation tests that must be
                    conducted for simulators at
                    Levels A, B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.a..........  The airport model must be           X    X    X    X
                    properly aligned with the
                    navigational aids that are
                    associated with operations at
                    the ``in-use'' runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.b..........  Slopes in runways, taxiways, and    X    X    X    X
                    ramp areas, if depicted in the
                    visual scene, must not cause
                    distracting or unrealistic
                    effects.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5................  Correlation with airplane and associated equipment.
                    The following are the minimum correlation
                    comparisons that must be made for simulators at
                    Levels A, B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  5.a............  Visual system compatibility with    X    X    X    X
                    aerodynamic programming.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    5.b..........  Accurate portrayal of environment   X    X    X    X
                    relating to flight simulator
                    attitudes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    5.c..........  Visual cues to assess sink rate          X    X    X
                    and depth perception during
                    landings.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    5.d..........  Visual effects for each visible,         X    X    X
                    own-ship, airplane external
                    light(s).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6................  Scene quality. The following are the minimum scene
                    quality tests that must be conducted for simulators
                    at Levels A, B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6.a..........  Surfaces and textural cues must               X    X
                    be free of apparent and
                    distracting quantization
                    (aliasing).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b..............  Correct color and realistic                   X    X
                    textural cues.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c..............  Light points free from              X    X    X    X
                    distracting jitter, smearing or
                    streaking.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7................  Instructor controls of the following: The following
                    are the minimum instructor controls that must be
                    available in simulators at Levels A, B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    7.a..........  Environmental effects, e.g.,        X    X    X    X
                    cloud base (if used), cloud
                    effects, cloud density,
                    visibility in statute miles/
                    kilometers and RVR in feet/
                    meters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    7.b..........  Airport selection................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    7.c..........  Airport lighting including          X    X    X    X
                    variable intensity.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    7.d..........  Dynamic effects including ground              X    X
                    and flight traffic.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 148]]

 
                          End QPS Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Begin Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8................  Sponsors are not required to        X    X    X    X
                    provide every detail of a
                    runway, but the detail that is
                    provided must be correct within
                    the capabilities of the system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             End Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------


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                Table A3E--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS Requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Simulator level
   Entry No.                 Sound system            -------------------
                                                       A    B    C    D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 The following checks are performed during a normal flight profile with
                            motion system ON.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1..............  Precipitation......................             X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2..............  Rain removal equipment.............             X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3..............  Significant airplane noises                     X    X
                  perceptible to the pilot during
                  normal operations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4..............  Abnormal operations for which there             X    X
                  are associated sound cues
                  including, engine malfunctions,
                  landing gear/tire malfunctions,
                  tail and engine pod strike and
                  pressurization malfunction.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5..............  Sound of a crash when the flight      X    X
                  simulator is landed in excess of
                  limitations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


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                Table A3G--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS Requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Simulator level
   Entry No.               Special effects           -------------------
                                                       A    B    C    D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Functions in this table are subject to evaluation only if appropriate
     for the airplane and/or the system is installed on the specific
                               simulator.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1..............  Simulator Power Switch(es).........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2..............  Airplane conditions
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.a........  Gross weight, center of gravity,      X    X    X    X
                  fuel loading and allocation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.b........  Airplane systems status............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.c........  Ground crew functions (e.g., ext.     X    X    X    X
                  power, push back).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3..............  Airports
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.a........  Number and selection...............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.b........  Runway selection...................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.c........  Runway surface condition (e.g.,       X    X
                  rough, smooth, icy, wet).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.d........  Preset positions (e.g., ramp, gate,   X    X    X    X
                  1 for takeoff, takeoff position,
                  over FAF).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3.e........  Lighting controls..................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4..............  Environmental controls
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.a........  Visibility (statute miles             X    X    X    X
                  (kilometers)).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.b........  Runway visual range (in feet          X    X    X    X
                  (meters)).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.c........  Temperature........................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.d........  Climate conditions (e.g., ice,        X    X    X    X
                  snow, rain).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.e........  Wind speed and direction...........   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.f........  Windshear..........................   X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4.g........  Clouds (base and tops).............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5..............  Airplane system malfunctions          X    X    X    X
                  (Inserting and deleting
                  malfunctions into the simulator).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6..............  Locks, Freezes, and Repositioning
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6.a........  Problem (all) freeze/release.......   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6.b........  Position (geographic) freeze/         X    X    X    X
                  release.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6.c........  Repositioning (locations, freezes,    X    X    X    X
                  and releases).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    6.d........  Ground speed control...............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7..............  Remote IOS.........................   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8..............  Sound Controls. On/off/adjustment..   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9..............  Motion/Control Loading System
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    9.a........  On/off/emergency stop..............   X    X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.............  Observer Seats/Stations. Position/    X    X    X    X
                  Adjustment/Positive restraint
                  system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 158]]

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                             1. Introduction

    a. The following is an example test schedule for an Initial/Upgrade 
evaluation that covers the majority of the requirements set out in the 
Functions and Subjective test requirements. It is not intended that the 
schedule be followed line by line, rather, the example should be used as 
a guide for preparing a schedule that is tailored to the airplane, 
sponsor, and training task.
    b. Functions and subjective tests should be planned. This 
information has been organized as a reference document with the 
considerations, methods, and evaluation notes for each individual aspect 
of the simulator task presented as an individual item. In this way the 
evaluator can design his or her own test plan, using the appropriate 
sections to provide guidance on method and evaluation criteria. Two 
aspects should be present in any test plan structure:
    (1) An evaluation of the simulator to determine that it replicates 
the aircraft and performs reliably for an uninterrupted period 
equivalent to the length of a typical training session.
    (2) The simulator should be capable of operating reliably after the 
use of training device functions such as repositions or malfunctions.
    c. A detailed understanding of the training task will naturally lead 
to a list of objectives that the simulator should meet. This list will 
form the basis of the test plan. Additionally, once the test plan has 
been formulated, the initial conditions and the evaluation criteria 
should be established. The evaluator should consider all factors that 
may have an influence on the characteristics observed during particular 
training tasks in order to make the test plan successful.

                                2. Events

                          a. Initial Conditions

    (1) Airport.
    (2) QNH.
    (3) Temperature.
    (4) Wind/Crosswind.
    (5) Zero Fuel Weight /Fuel/Gross Weight /Center of Gravity.

                            b. Initial Checks

    (1) Documentation of Simulator.
    (a) Simulator Acceptance Test Manuals.
    (b) Simulator Approval Test Guide.
    (c) Technical Logbook Open Item List.
    (d) Daily Functional Pre-flight Check.
    (2) Documentation of User/Carrier Flight Logs.
    (a) Simulator Operating/Instructor Manual.
    (b) Difference List (Aircraft/Simulator).
    (c) Flight Crew Operating Manuals.
    (d) Performance Data for Different Fields.
    (e) Crew Training Manual.
    (f) Normal/Abnormal/Emergency Checklists.
    (3) Simulator External Checks.
    (a) Appearance and Cleanliness.
    (b) Stairway/Access Bridge.
    (c) Emergency Rope Ladders.
    (d) ``Motion On''/``Flight in Progress'' Lights.
    (4) Simulator Internal Checks.
    (a) Cleaning/Disinfecting Towels (for cleaning oxygen masks).
    (b) Flight deck Layout (compare with difference list).
    (5) Equipment.
    (a) Quick Donning Oxygen Masks.
    (b) Head Sets.
    (c) Smoke Goggles.
    (d) Sun Visors.
    (e) Escape Rope.
    (f) Chart Holders.
    (g) Flashlights.
    (h) Fire Extinguisher (inspection date).
    (i) Crash Axe.
    (j) Gear Pins.

                  c. Power Supply and APU Start Checks

    (1) Batteries and Static Inverter.
    (2) APU Start with Battery.
    (3) APU Shutdown using Fire Handle.
    (4) External Power Connection.
    (5) APU Start with External Power.
    (6) Abnormal APU Start/Operation.

                          d. Flight deck Checks

    (1) Flight deck Preparation Checks.
    (2) FMC Programming.
    (3) Communications and Navigational Aids Checks.

                             e. Engine Start

    (1) Before Start Checks.
    (2) Battery start with Ground Air Supply Unit.
    (3) Engine Crossbleed Start.
    (4) Normal Engine Start.
    (5) Abnormal Engine Starts.
    (6) Engine Idle Readings.
    (7) After Start Checks.

                             f. Taxi Checks

    (1) Pushback/Powerback.
    (2) Taxi Checks.
    (3) Ground Handling Check:
    (a) Power required to initiate ground roll.
    (b) Thrust response.
    (c) Nosewheel and Pedal Steering.
    (d) Nosewheel Scuffing.
    (e) Perform 180 degree turns.
    (f) Brakes Response and Differential Braking using Normal, Alternate 
and Emergency.
    (g) Brake Systems.
    (h) Eye height and fore/aft position.
    (4) Runway Roughness.

[[Page 159]]

    g. Visual Scene--Ground Assessment. Select 3 different airport 
models and perform the following checks with Day, Dusk and Night 
selected, as appropriate:
    (1) Visual Controls.
    (a) Daylight, Dusk, Night Scene Controls.
    (b) Flight deck ``Daylight'' ambient lighting.
    (c) Environment Light Controls.
    (d) Runway Light Controls.
    (e) Taxiway Light Controls.
    (2) Airport Model Content.
    (a) Ramp area for buildings, gates, airbridges, maintenance ground 
equipment, parked aircraft.
    (b) Daylight shadows, night time light pools.
    (c) Taxiways for correct markings, taxiway/runway, marker boards, 
CAT I and II/III hold points, taxiway shape/grass areas, taxiway light 
(positions and colors).
    (d) Runways for correct markings, lead-off lights, boards, runway 
slope, runway light positions, and colors, directionality of runway 
lights.
    (e) Airport environment for correct terrain and significant 
features.
    (f) Visual scene quantization (aliasing), color, and occulting 
levels.
    (3) Ground Traffic Selection.
    (4) Environment Effects.
    (a) Low cloud scene.
    (i) Rain:
    (A) Runway surface scene.
    (B) Windshield wiper--operation and sound.
    (ii) Hail:
    (A) Runway surface scene.
    (B) Windshield wiper--operation and sound.
    (b) Lightning/thunder.
    (c) Snow/ice runway surface scene.
    (d) Fog.
    h. Takeoff. Select one or several of the following test cases:
    (1) T/O Configuration Warnings.
    (2) Engine Takeoff Readings.
    (3) Rejected Takeoff (Dry/Wet/Icy Runway) and check the following:
    (a) Autobrake function.
    (b) Anti-skid operation.
    (c) Motion/visual effects during deceleration.
    (d) Record stopping distance (use runway plot or runway lights 
remaining).
    Continue taxiing along the runway while applying brakes and check 
the following:
    (e) Center line lights alternating red/white for 2000 feet/600 
meters.
    (f) Center line lights all red for 1000 feet/300 meters.
    (g) Runway end, red stop bars.
    (h) Braking fade effect.
    (i) Brake temperature indications.
    (4) Engine Failure between VI and V2.
    (5) Normal Takeoff:
    (a) During ground roll check the following:
    (i) Runway rumble.
    (ii) Acceleration cues.
    (iii) Groundspeed effects.
    (iv) Engine sounds.
    (v) Nosewheel and rudder pedal steering.
    (b) During and after rotation, check the following:
    (i) Rotation characteristics.
    (ii) Column force during rotation.
    (iii) Gear uplock sounds/bumps.
    (iv) Effect of slat/flap retraction during climbout.
    (6) Crosswind Takeoff (check the following):
    (a) Tendency to turn into or out of the wind.
    (b) Tendency to lift upwind wing as airspeed increases.
    (7) Windshear during Takeoff (check the following):
    (a) Controllable during windshear encounter.
    (b) Performance adequate when using correct techniques.
    (c) Windshear Indications satisfactory.
    (d) Motion cues satisfactory (particularly turbulence).
    (8) Normal Takeoff with Control Malfunction.
    (9) Low Visibility T/O (check the following):
    (a) Visual cues.
    (b) Flying by reference to instruments.
    (c) SID Guidance on LNAV.
    i. Climb Performance. Select one or several of the following test 
cases:
    (1) Normal Climb--Climb while maintaining recommended speed profile 
and note fuel, distance and time.
    (2) Single Engine Climb--Trim aircraft in a zero wheel climb at V2.

    Note: Up to 5[deg] bank towards the operating engine(s) is 
permissible. Climb for 3 minutes and note fuel, distance, and time. 
Increase speed toward en route climb speed and retract flaps. Climb for 
3 minutes and note fuel, distance, and time.

    j. Systems Operation During Climb.
    Check normal operation and malfunctions as appropriate for the 
following systems:
    (1) Air conditioning/Pressurization/Ventilation.
    (2) Autoflight.
    (3) Communications.
    (4) Electrical.
    (5) Fuel.
    (6) Icing Systems.
    (7) Indicating and Recording Systems.
    (8) Navigation/FMS.
    (9) Pneumatics.
    k. Cruise Checks. Select one or several of the following test cases:
    (1) Cruise Performance.
    (2) High Speed/High Altitude Handling (check the following):
    (a) Overspeed warning.
    (b) High Speed buffet.
    (c) Aircraft control satisfactory.

[[Page 160]]

    (d) Envelope limiting functions on Computer Controlled Aircraft.
    Reduce airspeed to below level flight buffet onset speed, start a 
turn, and check the following:
    (e) High Speed buffet increases with G loading.
    Reduce throttles to idle and start descent, deploy the speedbrake, 
and check the following:
    (f) Speedbrake indications.
    (g) Symmetrical deployment.
    (h) Airframe buffet.
    (i) Aircraft response hands off.
    (3) Yaw Damper Operation. Switch off yaw dampers and autopilot. 
Initiate a Dutch roll and check the following:
    (a) Aircraft dynamics.
    (b) Simulator motion effects.
    Switch on yaw dampers, re-initiate a Dutch roll and check the 
following:
    (c) Damped aircraft dynamics.
    (4) APU Operation.
    (5) Engine Gravity Feed.
    (6) Engine Shutdown and Driftdown Check: FMC operation Aircraft 
performance.
    (7) Engine Relight.
    l. Descent. Select one of the following test cases:
    (1) Normal Descent. Descend while maintaining recommended speed 
profile and note fuel, distance and time.
    (2) Cabin Depressurization/Emergency Descent.
    m. Medium Altitude Checks. Select one or several of the following 
test cases:
    (1) High Angle of Attack/Stall. Trim the aircraft at 1.4 Vs, 
establish 1 kt/sec \2\ deceleration rate, and check the following--
    (a) System displays/operation satisfactory.
    (b) Handling characteristics satisfactory.
    (c) Stall and Stick shaker speed.
    (d) Buffet characteristics and onset speed.
    (e) Envelope limiting functions on Computer Controlled Aircraft.
    Recover to straight and level flight and check the following:
    (f) Handling characteristics satisfactory.
    (2) Turning Flight. Roll aircraft to left, establish a 30[deg] to 
45[deg] bank angle, and check the following:
    (a) Stick force required, satisfactory.
    (b) Wheel requirement to maintain bank angle.
    (c) Slip ball response, satisfactory.
    (d) Time to turn 180[deg].
    Roll aircraft from 45[deg] bank one way to 45[deg] bank the opposite 
direction while maintaining altitude and airspeed--check the following:
    (e) Controllability during maneuver.
    (3) Degraded flight controls.
    (4) Holding Procedure (check the following:)
    (a) FMC operation.
    (b) Autopilot auto thrust performance.
    (5) Storm Selection (check the following:)
    (a) Weather radar controls.
    (b) Weather radar operation.
    (c) Visual scene corresponds with WXR pattern.
    (Fly through storm center, and check the following:)
    (d) Aircraft enters cloud.
    (e) Aircraft encounters representative turbulence.
    (f) Rain/hail sound effects evident.
    As aircraft leaves storm area, check the following:
    (g) Storm effects disappear.
    (6) TCAS (check the following:)
    (a) Traffic appears on visual display.
    (b) Traffic appears on TCAS display(s).
    As conflicting traffic approaches, take relevant avoiding action, 
and check the following:
    (c) Visual and TCAS system displays.
    n. Approach and Landing. Select one or several of the following test 
cases while monitoring flight control and hydraulic systems for normal 
operation and with malfunctions selected:
    (1) Flaps/Gear Normal Operation. Check the following:
    (a) Time for extension/retraction.
    (b) Buffet characteristics.
    (2) Normal Visual Approach and Landing.
    Fly a normal visual approach and landing--check the following:
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Spoiler operation.
    (c) Reverse thrust operation.
    (d) Directional control on the ground.
    (e) Touchdown cues for main and nosewheel.
    (f) Visual cues.
    (g) Motion cues.
    (h) Sound cues.
    (i) Brake and anti-skid operation.
    (3) Flaps/Gear Abnormal Operation or with hydraulic malfunctions.
    (4) Abnormal Wing Flaps/Slats Landing.
    (5) Manual Landing with Control Malfunction.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (6) Non-precision Approach--All Engines Operating.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (7) Circling Approach.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (c) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (d) Airport model content and cues.
    (e) Motion cues.
    (f) Sound cues.
    (8) Non-precision Approach--One Engine Inoperative.

[[Page 161]]

    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (9) One Engine Inoperative Go-around.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (10) CAT I Approach and Landing with raw-data ILS.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (11) CAT I Approach and Landing with Limiting Crosswind.
    (a) Aircraft handling.
    (b) Radio Aids and instruments.
    (c) Airport model content and cues.
    (d) Motion cues.
    (e) Sound cues.
    (12) CAT I Approach with Windshear. Check the following:
    (a) Controllable during windshear encounter.
    (b) Performance adequate when using correct techniques.
    (c) Windshear indications/warnings.
    (d) Motion cues (particularly turbulence).
    (13) CAT II Approach and Automatic Go-Around.
    (14) CAT III Approach and Landing--System Malfunctions.
    (15) CAT III Approach and Landing--1 Engine Inoperative.
    (16) GPWS evaluation.
    o. Visual Scene--In-Flight Assessment.
    Select three (3) different visual models and perform the following 
checks with ``day,'' ``dusk,'' and ``night'' (as appropriate) selected. 
Reposition the aircraft at or below 2000 feet within 10 nm of the 
airfield. Fly the aircraft around the airport environment and assess 
control of the visual system and evaluate the Airport model content as 
described below:
    (1) Visual Controls.
    (a) Daylight, Dusk, Night Scene Controls.
    (b) Environment Light Controls.
    (c) Runway Light Controls.
    (d) Taxiway Light Controls.
    (e) Approach Light Controls.
    (2) Airport model Content.
    (a) Airport environment for correct terrain and significant 
features.
    (b) Runways for correct markings, runway slope, directionality of 
runway lights.
    (c) Visual scene for quantization (aliasing), color, and occulting.
    Reposition the aircraft to a long, final approach for an ``ILS 
runway.'' Select flight freeze when the aircraft is 5-statute miles 
(sm)/8-kilometers (km) out and on the glide slope. Check the following:
    (3) Airport model content.
    (a) Airfield features.
    (b) Approach lights.
    (c) Runway definition.
    (d) Runway definition.
    (e) Runway edge lights and VASI lights.
    (f) Strobe lights.
    Release flight freeze. Continue flying the approach with NP engaged. 
Select flight freeze when aircraft is 3 sm/5 km out and on the glide 
slope. Check the following:
    (4) Airport model Content.
    (a) Runway centerline light.
    (b) Taxiway definition and lights.
    Release flight freeze and continue flying the approach with A/P 
engaged. Select flight freeze when aircraft is 2 sm/3 km out and on the 
glide slope. Check the following:
    (5) Airport model content.
    (a) Runway threshold lights.
    (b) Touchdown zone lights.
    At 200 ft radio altitude and still on glide slope, select Flight 
Freeze. Check the following:
    (6) Airport model content.
    (a) Runway markings.
    Set the weather to Category I conditions and check the following:
    (7) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual ground segment.
    Set the weather to Category II conditions, release Flight Freeze, 
re-select Flight Freeze at 100 feet radio altitude, and check the 
following:
    (8) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual ground segment.
    Select night/dusk (twilight) conditions and check the following:
    (9) Airport model content.
    (a) Runway markings visible within landing light lobes.
    Set the weather to Category III conditions, release Flight Freeze, 
re-select Flight Freeze at 50 feet radio altitude and check the 
following:
    (10) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual ground segment.
    Set WX to a typical ``missed approach? weather condition, release 
Flight Freeze, re-select Flight Freeze at 15 feet radio altitude, and 
check the following:
    (11) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual ground segment.
    When on the ground, stop the aircraft. Set 0 feet RVR, ensure 
strobe/beacon tights are switched on and check the following:
    (12) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual effect of strobe and beacon.
    Reposition to final approach, set weather to ``Clear,'' continue 
approach for an automatic landing, and check the following:
    (13) Airport model content.
    (a) Visual cues during flare to assess sink rate.

[[Page 162]]

    (b) Visual cues during flare to assess Depth perception.
    (c) Flight deck height above ground.
    After Landing Operations.
    (1) After Landing Checks.
    (2) Taxi back to gate. Check the following:
    (a) Visual model satisfactory.
    (b) Parking brake operation satisfactory.
    (3) Shutdown Checks.
    q. Crash Function.
    (1) Gear-up Crash.
    (2) Excessive rate of descent Crash.
    (3) Excessive bank angle Crash.
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      Attachment 4 to Appendix A to Part 60--Figure A4H [Reserved]

      

[[Page 174]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.019

     Attachment 5 to Appendix A to Part 60--Simulator Qualification 
             Requirements for Windshear Training Program Use

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                            1. Applicability

    This attachment applies to all simulators, regardless of 
qualification level, that are used to satisfy the training requirements 
of an FAA-approved low-altitude windshear flight training program, or 
any FAA-approved training program that addresses windshear encounters.

             2. Statement of Compliance and Capability (SOC)

    a. The sponsor must submit an SOC confirming that the aerodynamic 
model is based on flight test data supplied by the airplane manufacturer 
or other approved data provider. The SOC must also confirm that any 
change to environmental wind parameters, including variances in those 
parameters for windshear conditions, once inserted for computation, 
result in the correct simulated performance. This statement must also 
include examples of environmental wind parameters currently evaluated in 
the simulator (such as crosswind takeoffs, crosswind approaches, and 
crosswind landings).
    b. For simulators without windshear warning, caution, or guidance 
hardware in the original equipment, the SOC must also state that the 
simulation of the added hardware and/or software, including associated 
flight deck displays and annunciations, replicates the system(s) 
installed in the airplane. The statement must be accompanied by a block 
diagram depicting the input and output signal flow, and comparing the 
signal flow to the equipment installed in the airplane.

                                3. Models

    The windshear models installed in the simulator software used for 
the qualification evaluation must do the following:
    a. Provide cues necessary for recognizing windshear onset and 
potential performance degradation requiring a pilot to initiate recovery 
procedures. The cues must include all of the following, as appropriate 
for the portion of the flight envelope:
    (1) Rapid airspeed change of at least [15 knots (kts).
    (2) Stagnation of airspeed during the takeoff roll.
    (3) Rapid vertical speed change of at least [500 feet per minute 
(fpm).
    (4) Rapid pitch change of at least [5[deg].
    b. Be adjustable in intensity (or other parameter to achieve an 
intensity effect) to at

[[Page 175]]

least two (2) levels so that upon encountering the windshear the pilot 
may identify its presence and apply the recommended procedures for 
escape from such a windshear.
    (1) If the intensity is lesser, the performance capability of the 
simulated airplane in the windshear permits the pilot to maintain a 
satisfactory flightpath; and
    (2) If the intensity is greater, the performance capability of the 
simulated airplane in the windshear does not permit the pilot to 
maintain a satisfactory flightpath (crash). Note: The means used to 
accomplish the ``nonsurvivable'' scenario of paragraph 3.b.(2) of this 
attachment, that involve operational elements of the simulated airplane, 
must reflect the dispatch limitations of the airplane.
    c. Be available for use in the FAA-approved windshear flight 
training program.

                            4. Demonstrations

    a. The sponsor must identify one survivable takeoff windshear 
training model and one survivable approach windshear training model. The 
wind components of the survivable models must be presented in graphical 
format so that all components of the windshear are shown, including 
initiation point, variance in magnitude, and time or distance 
correlations. The simulator must be operated at the same gross weight, 
airplane configuration, and initial airspeed during the takeoff 
demonstration (through calm air and through the first selected 
survivable windshear), and at the same gross weight, airplane 
configuration, and initial airspeed during the approach demonstration 
(through calm air and through the second selected survivable windshear).
    b. In each of these four situations, at an ``initiation point'' 
(i.e., where windshear onset is or should be recognized), the 
recommended procedures for windshear recovery are applied and the 
results are recorded as specified in paragraph 5 of this attachment.
    c. These recordings are made without inserting programmed random 
turbulence. Turbulence that results from the windshear model is to be 
expected, and no attempt may be made to neutralize turbulence from this 
source.
    d. The definition of the models and the results of the 
demonstrations of all four?(4) cases described in paragraph 4.a of this 
attachment, must be made a part of the MQTG.

                         5. Recording Parameters

    a. In each of the four MQTG cases, an electronic recording (time 
history) must be made of the following parameters:
    (1) Indicated or calibrated airspeed.
    (2) Indicated vertical speed.
    (3) Pitch attitude.
    (4) Indicated or radio altitude.
    (5) Angle of attack.
    (6) Elevator position.
    (7) Engine data (thrust, N1, or throttle position).
    (8) Wind magnitudes (simple windshear model assumed).
    b. These recordings must be initiated at least 10 seconds prior to 
the initiation point, and continued until recovery is complete or ground 
contact is made.

                 6. Equipment Installation and Operation

    All windshear warning, caution, or guidance hardware installed in 
the simulator must operate as it operates in the airplane. For example, 
if a rapidly changing wind speed and/or direction would have caused a 
windshear warning in the airplane, the simulator must respond 
equivalently without instructor/evaluator intervention.

                       7. Qualification Test Guide

    a. All QTG material must be forwarded to the NSPM.
    b. A simulator windshear evaluation will be scheduled in accordance 
with normal procedures. Continuing qualification evaluation schedules 
will be used to the maximum extent possible.
    c. During the on-site evaluation, the evaluator will ask the 
operator to run the performance tests and record the results. The 
results of these on-site tests will be compared to those results 
previously approved and placed in the QTG or MQTG, as appropriate.
    d. QTGs for new (or MQTGs for upgraded) simulators must contain or 
reference the information described in paragraphs 2, 3, 4, and 5 of this 
attachment.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                        8. Subjective Evaluation

    The NSPM will fly the simulator in at least two of the available 
windshear scenarios to subjectively evaluate simulator performance as it 
encounters the programmed windshear conditions.
    a. One scenario will include parameters that enable the pilot to 
maintain a satisfactory flightpath.
    b. One scenario will include parameters that will not enable the 
pilot to maintain a satisfactory flightpath (crash).
    c. Other scenarios may be examined at the NSPM's discretion.

                         9. Qualification Basis

    The addition of windshear programming to a simulator in order to 
comply with the qualification for required windshear training

[[Page 176]]

does not change the original qualification basis of the simulator.

                     10. Demonstration Repeatability

    For the purposes of demonstration repeatability, it is recommended 
that the simulator be flown by means of the simulator's autodrive 
function (for those simulators that have autodrive capability) during 
the demonstrations.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  Attachment 6 to Appendix A to Part 60--FSTD Directives Applicable to 
                       Airplane Flight Simulators

           Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Directive

    FSTD Directive 1. Applicable to all Full Flight Simulators (FFS), 
regardless of the original qualification basis and qualification date 
(original or upgrade), having Class II or Class III airport models 
available.
    Agency: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.
    Action: This is a retroactive requirement to have all Class II or 
Class III airport models meet current requirements.
 _______________________________________________________________________
    Summary: Notwithstanding the authorization listed in paragraph 13b 
in Appendices A and C of this part, this FSTD Directive requires each 
certificate holder to ensure that by May 30, 2009, except for the 
airport model(s) used to qualify the simulator at the designated level, 
each airport model used by the certificate holder's instructors or 
evaluators for training, checking, or testing under this chapter in an 
FFS, meets the definition of a Class II or Class III airport model as 
defined in 14CFR part 60. The completion of this requirement will not 
require a report, and the method used for keeping instructors and 
evaluators apprised of the airport models that meet Class II or Class 
III requirements on any given simulator is at the option of the 
certificate holder whose employees are using the FFS, but the method 
used must be available for review by the TPAA for that certificate 
holder.
    Dates: FSTD Directive 1 becomes effective on May 30, 2008.
    For Further Information Contact: Ed Cook, Senior Advisor to the 
Division Manager, Air Transportation Division, AFS-200, 800 Independence 
Ave, SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (404) 832-4701; fax: (404) 
761-8906.

                         Specific Requirements:

    1. Part 60 requires that each FSTD be:
    a. Sponsored by a person holding or applying for an FAA operating 
certificate under Part 119, Part 141, or Part 142, or holding or 
applying for an FAA-approved training program under Part 63, Appendix C, 
for flight engineers, and
    b. Evaluated and issued an SOQ for a specific FSTD level.
    2. FFSs also require the installation of a visual system that is 
capable of providing an out-of-the-flight-deck view of airport models. 
However, historically these airport models were not routinely evaluated 
or required to meet any standardized criteria. This has led to qualified 
simulators containing airport models being used to meet FAA-approved 
training, testing, or checking requirements with potentially incorrect 
or inappropriate visual references.
    3. To prevent this from occurring in the future, by May 30, 2009, 
except for the airport model(s) used to qualify the simulator at the 
designated level, each certificate holder must assure that each airport 
model used for training, testing, or checking under this chapter in a 
qualified FFS meets the definition of a Class II or Class III airport 
model as defined in Appendix F of this part.
    4. These references describe the requirements for visual scene 
management and the minimum distances from which runway or landing area 
features must be visible for all levels of simulator. The airport model 
must provide, for each ``in-use runway'' or ``in-use landing area,'' 
runway or landing area surface and markings, runway or landing area 
lighting, taxiway surface and markings, and taxiway lighting. Additional 
requirements include correlation of the v airport models with other 
aspects of the airport environment, correlation of the aircraft and 
associated equipment, scene quality assessment features, and the control 
of these models the instructor must be able to exercise.
    5. For circling approaches, all requirements of this section apply 
to the runway used for the initial approach and to the runway of 
intended landing.
    6. The details in these models must be developed using airport 
pictures, construction drawings and maps, or other similar data, or 
developed in accordance with published regulatory material. However, 
this FSTD DIRECTIVE 1 does not require that airport models contain 
details that are beyond the initially designed capability of the visual 
system, as currently qualified. The recognized limitations to visual 
systems are as follows:
    a. Visual systems not required to have runway numbers as a part of 
the specific runway marking requirements are:
    (1) Link NVS and DNVS.
    (2) Novoview 2500 and 6000.
    (3) FlightSafety VITAL series up to, and including, VITAL III, but 
not beyond.
    (4) Redifusion SP1, SP1T, and SP2.
    b. Visual systems required to display runway numbers only for LOFT 
scenes are:
    (1) FlightSafety VITAL IV.
    (2) Redifusion SP3 and SP3T.
    (3) Link-Miles Image II.

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    c. Visual systems not required to have accurate taxiway edge 
lighting are:
    (1) Redifusion SP1.
    (2) FlightSafety Vital IV.
    (3) Link-Miles Image II and Image IIT
    (4) XKD displays (even though the XKD image generator is capable of 
generating blue colored lights, the display cannot accommodate that 
color).
    7. A copy of this Directive must be filed in the MQTG in the 
designated FSTD Directive Section, and its inclusion must be annotated 
on the Index of Effective FSTD Directives chart. See Attachment 4, 
Appendices A through D for a sample MQTG Index of Effective FSTD 
Directives chart.

           Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Directive

    FSTD Directive 2. Applicable to all airplane Full Flight Simulators 
(FFS), regardless of the original qualification basis and qualification 
date (original or upgrade), used to conduct full stall training, upset 
recovery training, airborne icing training, and other flight training 
tasks as described in this Directive.
    Agency: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.
    Action: This is a retroactive requirement for any FSTD being used to 
obtain training, testing, or checking credit in an FAA approved flight 
training program for the specific training maneuvers as defined in this 
Directive.
    Summary: Notwithstanding the authorization listed in paragraph 13b 
in Appendix A of this Part, this FSTD Directive requires that each FSTD 
sponsor conduct additional subjective and objective testing, conduct 
required modifications, and apply for additional FSTD qualification 
under Sec. 60.16 to support continued qualification of the following 
flight training tasks where training, testing, or checking credit is 
being sought in a selected FSTD being used in an FAA approved flight 
training program:

a. Recognition of and Recovery from a Full Stall
b. Upset Prevention and Recovery
c. Engine and Airframe Icing
d. Takeoff and Landing with Gusting Crosswinds
e. Recovery from a Bounced Landing

The FSTD sponsor may elect to apply for additional qualification for 
any, all, or none of the above defined training tasks for a particular 
FSTD. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD used to conduct the above training 
tasks must be evaluated and issued additional qualification by the 
National Simulator Program Manager (NSPM) as defined in this Directive.
    Dates: FSTD Directive No. 2 becomes effective on May 31, 2016.
    For Further Information Contact: Larry McDonald, Air Transportation 
Division/National Simulator Program Branch, AFS-205, Federal Aviation 
Administration, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, GA 30320; telephone (404) 474-
5620; email [email protected]

                          Specific Requirements

    1. Part 60 requires that each FSTD be:

    a. Sponsored by a person holding or applying for an FAA operating 
certificate under Part 119, Part 141, or Part 142, or holding or 
applying for an FAA-approved training program under Part 63, Appendix C, 
for flight engineers, and
    b. Evaluated and issued a Statement of Qualification (SOQ) for a 
specific FSTD level.
    2. The evaluation criteria contained in this Directive is intended 
to address specific training tasks that require additional evaluation to 
ensure adequate FSTD fidelity.
    3. The requirements described in this Directive define additional 
qualification criteria for specific training tasks that are applicable 
only to those FSTDs that will be utilized to obtain training, testing, 
or checking credit in an FAA approved flight training program. In order 
to obtain additional qualification for the tasks described in this 
Directive, FSTD sponsors must request additional qualification in 
accordance with Sec. 60.16 and the requirements of this Directive. FSTDs 
that are found to meet the requirements of this Directive will have 
their Statement of Qualification (SOQ) amended to reflect the additional 
training tasks that the FSTD has been qualified to conduct. The 
additional qualification requirements as defined in this Directive are 
divided into the following training tasks:

a. Section I--Additional Qualification Requirements for Full Stall 
Training Tasks
b. Section II--Additional Qualification Requirements for Upset 
Prevention and Recovery Training Tasks
c. Section III--Additional Qualification Requirements for Engine and 
Airframe Icing Training Tasks
d. Section IV--Additional Qualification Requirements for Takeoff and 
Landing in Gusting Crosswinds
e. Section V--Additional Qualification Requirements for Bounced Landing 
Recovery Training Tasks

    4. A copy of this Directive (along with all required Statements of 
Compliance and objective test results) must be filed in the MQTG in the 
designated FSTD Directive Section, and its inclusion must be annotated 
on the Index of Effective FSTD Directives chart. See Attachment 4, 
Appendix A for a sample MQTG Index of Effective FSTD Directives chart.

[[Page 178]]

    Section I--Evaluation Requirements for Full Stall Training Tasks

    1. This section applies to previously qualified Level C and Level D 
FSTDs being used to obtain credit for stall training maneuvers beyond 
the first indication of a stall (such as stall warning system 
activation, stick shaker, etc.) in an FAA approved training program.
    2. The evaluation requirements in this Directive are intended to 
validate FSTD fidelity at angles of attack sufficient to identify the 
stall, to demonstrate aircraft performance degradation in the stall, and 
to demonstrate recovery techniques from a fully stalled flight 
condition.
    3. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD being used to obtain credit for 
full stall training maneuvers in an FAA approved training program must 
be evaluated and issued additional qualification in accordance with this 
Directive and the following sections of Appendix A of this Part:

a. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 2.m. (High Angle of Attack 
Modeling)
b. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 3.f. (Stick Pusher System) 
[where applicable]
c. Table A2A, Objective Testing Requirements, Test 2.a.10 (Stick Pusher 
Force Calibration) [where applicable]
d. Table A2A, Objective Testing Requirements, Test 2.c.8.a (Stall 
Characteristics)
e. Table A2A, Objective Testing Requirements, Test 3.f.5 (Characteristic 
Motion Vibrations--Stall Buffet) [See paragraph 4 of this section for 
applicability on previously qualified FSTDs]
f. Table A3A, Functions and Subjective Testing Requirements, Test 
5.b.1.b. (High Angle of Attack Maneuvers)
g. Attachment 7, Additional Simulator Qualification Requirements for 
Stall, Upset Prevention and Recovery, and Engine and Airframe Icing 
Training Tasks (High Angle of Attack Model Evaluation)

    4. For FSTDs initially qualified before May 31, 2016, including 
FSTDs that are initially qualified under the grace period conditions as 
defined in Sec. 60.15(c):

a. Objective testing for stall characteristics (Table A2A, test 
2.c.8.a.) will only be required for the (wings level) second segment 
climb and approach or landing flight conditions. In lieu of objective 
testing for the high altitude cruise and turning flight stall 
conditions, these maneuvers may be subjectively evaluated by a qualified 
subject matter expert (SME) pilot and addressed in the required 
statement of compliance.
b. Where existing flight test validation data in the FSTD's Master 
Qualification Test Guide (MQTG) is missing required parameters or is 
otherwise unsuitable to fully meet the objective testing requirements of 
this Directive, the FAA may accept alternate sources of validation, 
including subjective validation by an SME pilot with direct experience 
in the stall characteristics of the aircraft.
c. Objective testing for characteristic motion vibrations (Stall 
buffet--Table A2A, test 3.f.5) is not required where the FSTD's stall 
buffets have been subjectively evaluated by an SME pilot. For previously 
qualified Level D FSTDs that currently have objective stall buffet tests 
in their approved MQTG, the results of these existing tests must be 
provided to the FAA with the updated stall and stall buffet models in 
place.
d. As described in Attachment 7 of this Appendix, the FAA may accept a 
statement of compliance from the data provider which confirms the stall 
characteristics have been subjectively evaluated by an SME pilot on an 
engineering simulator or development simulator that is acceptable to the 
FAA. Where this evaluation takes place on an engineering or development 
simulator, additional objective ``proof-of-match'' testing for all 
flight conditions as described in tests 2.c.8.a. and 3.f.5.will be 
required to verify the implementation of the stall model and stall 
buffets on the training FSTD.

    5. Where qualification is being sought to conduct full stall 
training tasks in accordance with this Directive, the FSTD Sponsor must 
conduct the required evaluations and modifications as prescribed in this 
Directive and report compliance to the NSPM in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23 using the NSP's standardized FSTD Sponsor Notification Form. 
At a minimum, this form must be accompanied with the following 
information:

a. A description of any modifications to the FSTD (in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23) necessary to meet the requirements of this Directive.
b. Statements of Compliance (High Angle of Attack Modeling/Stick Pusher 
System)--See Table A1A, Section 2.m., 3.f., and Attachment 7
c. Statement of Compliance (SME Pilot Evaluation)--See Table A1A, 
Section 2.m. and Attachment 7
d. Copies of the required objective test results as described above in 
sections 3.c., 3.d., and 3.e.

    6. The NSPM will review each submission to determine if the 
requirements of this Directive have been met and respond to the FSTD 
Sponsor as described in Sec. 60.23(c). Additional NSPM conducted FSTD 
evaluations may be required before the modified FSTD is placed into 
service. This response, along with any noted restrictions, will serve as 
interim qualification for full stall training tasks until such time that 
a permanent

[[Page 179]]

change is made to the Statement of Qualification (SOQ) at the FSTD's 
next scheduled evaluation.

 Section II--Evaluation Requirements for Upset Prevention and Recovery 
                             Training Tasks

    1. This section applies to previously qualified FSTDs being used to 
obtain training, testing, or checking credits for upset prevention and 
recovery training tasks (UPRT) as defined in Appendix A, Table A1A, 
Section 2.n. of this part. Additionally, FSTDs being used for unusual 
attitude training maneuvers that are intended to exceed the parameters 
of an aircraft upset must also be evaluated and qualified for UPRT under 
this section. These parameters include pitch attitudes greater than 25 
degrees nose up; pitch attitudes greater than 10 degrees nose down, and 
bank angles greater than 45 degrees.
    2. The requirements contained in this section are intended to define 
minimum standards for evaluating an FSTD for use in upset prevention and 
recovery training maneuvers that may exceed an aircraft's normal flight 
envelope. These standards include the evaluation of qualified training 
maneuvers against the FSTD's validation envelope and providing the 
instructor with minimum feedback tools for the purpose of determining if 
a training maneuver is conducted within FSTD validation limits and the 
aircraft's operating limits.
    3. This Directive contains additional subjective testing that 
exceeds the evaluation requirements of previously qualified FSTDs. Where 
aerodynamic modeling data or validation data is not available or 
insufficient to meet the requirements of this Directive, the NSPM may 
limit additional qualification to certain upset prevention and recovery 
maneuvers where adequate data exists.
    4. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD being used to obtain training, 
testing, or checking credit for upset prevention and recovery training 
tasks in an FAA approved flight training program must be evaluated and 
issued additional qualification in accordance with this Directive and 
the following sections of Appendix A of this part:

a. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 2.n. (Upset Prevention and 
Recovery)
b. Table A3A, Functions and Subjective Testing, Test 5.b.3. (Upset 
Prevention and Recovery Maneuvers)
c. Attachment 7, Additional Simulator Qualification Requirements for 
Stall, Upset Prevention and Recovery, and Engine and Airframe Icing 
Training Tasks (Upset Prevention and Recovery Training Maneuver 
Evaluation)
    5. Where qualification is being sought to conduct upset prevention 
and recovery training tasks in accordance with this Directive, the FSTD 
Sponsor must conduct the required evaluations and modifications as 
prescribed in this Directive and report compliance to the NSPM in 
accordance with Sec. 60.23 using the NSP's standardized FSTD Sponsor 
Notification Form. At a minimum, this form must be accompanied with the 
following information:

a. A description of any modifications to the FSTD (in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23) necessary to meet the requirements of this Directive.
b. Statement of Compliance (FSTD Validation Envelope)--See Table A1A, 
Section 2.n. and Attachment 7
c. A confirmation statement that the modified FSTD has been subjectively 
evaluated by a qualified pilot as described in Sec. 60.16(a)(1)(iii).

    6. The NSPM will review each submission to determine if the 
requirements of this Directive have been met and respond to the FSTD 
Sponsor as described in Sec. 60.23(c). Additional NSPM conducted FSTD 
evaluations may be required before the modified FSTD is placed into 
service. This response, along with any noted restrictions, will serve as 
an interim qualification for upset prevention and recovery training 
tasks until such time that a permanent change is made to the Statement 
of Qualification (SOQ) at the FSTD's next scheduled evaluation.

   Section III--Evaluation Requirements for Engine and Airframe Icing 
                             Training Tasks

    1. This section applies to previously qualified Level C and Level D 
FSTDs being used to obtain training, testing, or checking credits in 
maneuvers that demonstrate the effects of engine and airframe ice 
accretion.
    2. The requirements in this section are intended to supersede and 
improve upon existing Level C and Level D FSTD evaluation requirements 
on the effects of engine and airframe icing. The requirements define a 
minimum level of fidelity required to adequately simulate the aircraft 
specific aerodynamic characteristics of an in-flight encounter with 
engine and airframe ice accretion as necessary to accomplish training 
objectives.
    3. This Directive contains additional subjective testing that 
exceeds the evaluation requirements of previously qualified FSTDs. Where 
aerodynamic modeling data is not available or insufficient to meet the 
requirements of this Directive, the NSPM may limit qualified engine and 
airframe icing maneuvers where sufficient aerodynamic modeling data 
exists.
    4. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD being used to conduct training 
tasks that demonstrate the effects of engine and airframe icing must be 
evaluated and issued additional qualification in accordance with this 
Directive and the following sections of Appendix A of this part:

a. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 2.j. (Engine and Airframe 
Icing)

[[Page 180]]

b. Attachment 7, Additional Simulator Qualification Requirements for 
Stall, Upset Prevention and Recovery, and Engine and Airframe Icing 
Training Tasks (Engine and Airframe Icing Evaluation; Paragraphs 1, 2, 
and 3). Objective demonstration tests of engine and airframe icing 
effects (Attachment 2, Table A2A, test 2.i. of this Appendix) are not 
required for previously qualified FSTDs.

    5. Where continued qualification is being sought to conduct engine 
and airframe icing training tasks in accordance with this Directive, the 
FSTD Sponsor must conduct the required evaluations and modifications as 
prescribed in this Directive and report compliance to the NSPM in 
accordance with Sec. 60.23 using the NSP's standardized FSTD Sponsor 
Notification Form. At a minimum, this form must be accompanied with the 
following information:

a. A description of any modifications to the FSTD (in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23) necessary to meet the requirements of this Directive;
b. Statement of Compliance (Ice Accretion Model)--See Table A1A, Section 
2.j., and Attachment 7; and
c. A confirmation statement that the modified FSTD has been subjectively 
evaluated by a qualified pilot as described in Sec. 60.16(a)(1)(iii).

    6. The NSPM will review each submission to determine if the 
requirements of this Directive have been met and respond to the FSTD 
Sponsor as described in Sec. 60.23(c). Additional NSPM conducted FSTD 
evaluations may be required before the modified FSTD is placed into 
service. This response, along with any noted restrictions, will serve as 
an interim update to the FSTD's Statement of Qualification (SOQ) until 
such time that a permanent change is made to the SOQ at the FSTD's next 
scheduled evaluation.

 Section IV--Evaluation Requirements for Takeoff and Landing in Gusting 
                                Crosswind

    1. This section applies to previously qualified FSTDs that will be 
used to obtain training, testing, or checking credits in takeoff and 
landing tasks in gusting crosswinds as part of an FAA approved training 
program. The requirements of this Directive are applicable only to those 
Level B and higher FSTDs that are qualified to conduct takeoff and 
landing training tasks.
    2. The requirements in this section introduce new minimum simulator 
requirements for gusting crosswinds during takeoff and landing training 
tasks as well as additional subjective testing that exceeds the 
evaluation requirements of previously qualified FSTDs.
    3. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD that is used to conduct gusting 
crosswind takeoff and landing training tasks must be evaluated and 
issued additional qualification in accordance with this Directive and 
the following sections of Appendix A of this part:

a. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 2.d.3. (Ground Handling 
Characteristics);
b. Table A3A, Functions and Subjective Testing Requirements, test 3.a.3 
(Takeoff, Crosswind--Maximum Demonstrated and Gusting Crosswind); and
c. Table A3A, Functions and Subjective Testing Requirements, test 8.d. 
(Approach and landing with crosswind--Maximum Demonstrated and Gusting 
Crosswind).

    4. Where qualification is being sought to conduct gusting crosswind 
training tasks in accordance with this Directive, the FSTD Sponsor must 
conduct the required evaluations and modifications as prescribed in this 
Directive and report compliance to the NSPM in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23 using the NSP's standardized FSTD Sponsor Notification Form. 
At a minimum, this form must be accompanied with the following 
information:

a. A description of any modifications to the FSTD (in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23) necessary to meet the requirements of this Directive.
b. Statement of Compliance (Gusting Crosswind Profiles)--See Table A1A, 
Section 2.d.3.
c. A confirmation statement that the modified FSTD has been subjectively 
evaluated by a qualified pilot as described in Sec. 60.16(a)(1)(iii).

    5. The NSPM will review each submission to determine if the 
requirements of this Directive have been met and respond to the FSTD 
Sponsor as described in Sec. 60.23(c). Additional NSPM conducted FSTD 
evaluations may be required before the modified FSTD is placed into 
service. This response, along with any noted restrictions, will serve as 
an interim qualification for gusting crosswind training tasks until such 
time that a permanent change is made to the Statement of Qualification 
(SOQ) at the FSTD's next scheduled evaluation.

Section V--Evaluation Requirements for Bounced Landing Recovery Training 
                                  Tasks

    1. This section applies to previously qualified FSTDs that will be 
used to obtain training, testing, or checking credits in bounced landing 
recovery as part of an FAA approved training program. The requirements 
of this Directive are applicable only to those Level B and higher FSTDs 
that are qualified to conduct takeoff and landing training tasks.
    2. The evaluation requirements in this section are intended to 
introduce new evaluation requirements for bounced landing recovery 
training tasks and contains additional subjective testing that exceeds 
the evaluation requirements of previously qualified FSTDs.
    3. After March 12, 2019, any FSTD that is used to conduct bounced 
landing training

[[Page 181]]

tasks must be evaluated and issued additional qualification in 
accordance with this Directive and the following sections of Appendix A 
of this Part:

a. Table A1A, General Requirements, Section 2.d.2. (Ground Reaction 
Characteristics)
b. Table A3A, Functions and Subjective Testing Requirements, test 9.e. 
(Missed Approach--Bounced Landing)

    4. Where qualification is being sought to conduct bounced landing 
training tasks in accordance with this Directive, the FSTD Sponsor must 
conduct the required evaluations and modifications as prescribed in this 
Directive and report compliance to the NSPM in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23 using the NSP's standardized FSTD Sponsor Notification Form. 
At a minimum, this form must be accompanied with the following 
information:

a. A description of any modifications to the FSTD (in accordance with 
Sec. 60.23) necessary to meet the requirements of this Directive; and
b. A confirmation statement that the modified FSTD has been subjectively 
evaluated by a qualified pilot as described in Sec. 60.16(a)(1)(iii).

    5. The NSPM will review each submission to determine if the 
requirements of this Directive have been met and respond to the FSTD 
Sponsor as described in Sec. 60.23(c). Additional NSPM conducted FSTD 
evaluations may be required before the modified FSTD is placed into 
service. This response, along with any noted restrictions, will serve as 
an interim qualification for bounced landing recovery training tasks 
until such time that a permanent change is made to the Statement of 
Qualification (SOQ) at the FSTD's next scheduled evaluation.

      Attachment 7 to Appendix A to Part 60--Additional Simulator 
Qualification Requirements for Stall, Upset Prevention and Recovery, and 
                Engine and Airframe Icing Training Tasks

                         Begin QPS Requirements

   A. High Angle of Attack Model Evaluation (Table A1A, Section 2.m.)

    1. Applicability: This attachment applies to all simulators that are 
used to satisfy training requirements for stall maneuvers that are 
conducted at angles of attack beyond the activation of the stall warning 
system. This attachment is not applicable for those FSTDs that are only 
qualified for approach to stall maneuvers where recovery is initiated at 
the first indication of the stall. The material in this section is 
intended to supplement the general requirements, objective testing 
requirements, and subjective testing requirements contained within 
Tables A1A, A2A, and A3A, respectively.
    2. General Requirements: The requirements for high angle of attack 
modeling are intended to evaluate the recognition cues and performance 
and handling qualities of a developing stall through the stall 
identification angle-of-attack and recovery. Strict time-history-based 
evaluations against flight test data may not adequately validate the 
aerodynamic model in an unsteady and potentially unstable flight regime, 
such as stalled flight. As a result, the objective testing requirements 
defined in Table A2A do not prescribe strict tolerances on any parameter 
at angles of attack beyond the stall identification angle of attack. In 
lieu of mandating such objective tolerances, a Statement of Compliance 
(SOC) will be required to define the source data and methods used to 
develop the stall aerodynamic model.
    3. Fidelity Requirements: The requirements defined for the 
evaluation of full stall training maneuvers are intended to provide the 
following levels of fidelity:

a. Airplane type specific recognition cues of the first indication of 
the stall (such as the stall warning system or aerodynamic stall 
buffet);
b. Airplane type specific recognition cues of an impending aerodynamic 
stall; and
c. Recognition cues and handling qualities from the stall break through 
recovery that are sufficiently exemplar of the airplane being simulated 
to allow successful completion of the stall recovery training tasks.

For the purposes of stall maneuver evaluation, the term ``exemplar'' is 
defined as a level of fidelity that is type specific of the simulated 
airplane to the extent that the training objectives can be 
satisfactorily accomplished.
    4. Statement of Compliance (Aerodynamic Model): At a minimum, the 
following must be addressed in the SOC:
a. Source Data and Modeling Methods: The SOC must identify the sources 
of data used to develop the aerodynamic model. These data sources may be 
from the airplane original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the original 
FSTD manufacturer/data provider, or other data provider acceptable to 
the FAA. Of particular interest is a mapping of test points in the form 
of alpha/beta envelope plot for a minimum of flaps up and flaps down 
aircraft configurations. For the flight test data, a list of the types 
of maneuvers used to define the aerodynamic model for angle of attack 
ranges greater than the first indication of stall must be provided per 
flap setting. In cases where it is impractical to develop and validate a 
stall model with flight-test data (e.g., due to safety concerns 
involving the collection of flight test data past a certain angle of 
attack), the data provider is expected to make a reasonable attempt to 
develop a stall model through the required

[[Page 182]]

angle of attack range using analytical methods and empirical data (e.g., 
wind-tunnel data);
b. Validity Range: The FSTD sponsor must declare the range of angle of 
attack and sideslip where the aerodynamic model remains valid for 
training. For stall recovery training tasks, satisfactory aerodynamic 
model fidelity must be shown through at least 10 degrees beyond the 
stall identification angle of attack. For the purposes of determining 
this validity range, the stall identification angle of attack is defined 
as the angle of attack where the pilot is given a clear and distinctive 
indication to cease any further increase in angle of attack where one or 
more of the following characteristics occur:

i. No further increase in pitch occurs when the pitch control is held at 
the full aft stop for 2 seconds, leading to an inability to arrest 
descent rate;
ii. An uncommanded nose down pitch that cannot be readily arrested, 
which may be accompanied by an uncommanded rolling motion;
iii. Buffeting of a magnitude and severity that is a strong and 
effective deterrent to further increase in angle of attack; and
iv. Activation of a stick pusher.

The model validity range must also be capable of simulating the airplane 
dynamics as a result of a pilot initially resisting the stick pusher in 
training. For aircraft equipped with a stall envelope protection system, 
the model validity range must extend to 10 degrees of angle of attack 
beyond the stall identification angle of attack with the protection 
systems disabled or otherwise degraded (such as a degraded flight 
control mode as a result of a pitot/static system failure).
c. Model Characteristics: Within the declared range of model validity, 
the SOC must address, and the aerodynamic model must incorporate, the 
following stall characteristics where applicable by aircraft type:

i. Degradation in static/dynamic lateral-directional stability;
ii. Degradation in control response (pitch, roll, yaw);
iii. Uncommanded roll acceleration or roll-off requiring significant 
control deflection to counter;
iv. Apparent randomness or non-repeatability;
v. Changes in pitch stability;
vi. Stall hysteresis;
vii. Mach effects;
viii. Stall buffet; and
ix. Angle of attack rate effects.

An overview of the methodology used to address these features must be 
provided.

    5. Statement of Compliance (Subject Matter Expert Pilot Evaluation): 
The sponsor must provide an SOC that confirms the FSTD has been 
subjectively evaluated by a subject matter expert (SME) pilot who is 
knowledgeable of the aircraft's stall characteristics. In order to 
qualify as an acceptable SME to evaluate the FSTD's stall 
characteristics, the SME must meet the following requirements:

a. Has held a type rating/qualification in the aircraft being simulated;
b. Has direct experience in conducting stall maneuvers in an aircraft 
that shares the same type rating as the make, model, and series of the 
simulated aircraft. This stall experience must include hands on 
manipulation of the controls at angles of attack sufficient to identify 
the stall (e.g., deterrent buffet, stick pusher activation, etc.) 
through recovery to stable flight;
c. Where the SME's stall experience is on an airplane of a different 
make, model, and series within the same type rating, differences in 
aircraft specific stall recognition cues and handling characteristics 
must be addressed using available documentation. This documentation may 
include aircraft operating manuals, aircraft manufacturer flight test 
reports, or other documentation that describes the stall characteristics 
of the aircraft; and
d. Must be familiar with the intended stall training maneuvers to be 
conducted in the FSTD (e.g., general aircraft configurations, stall 
entry methods, etc.) and the cues necessary to accomplish the required 
training objectives. The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that 
the stall model has been sufficiently evaluated in those general 
aircraft configurations and stall entry methods that will likely be 
conducted in training.

This SOC will only be required once at the time the FSTD is initially 
qualified for stall training tasks as long as the FSTD's stall model 
remains unmodified from what was originally evaluated and qualified. 
Where an FSTD shares common aerodynamic and flight control models with 
that of an engineering simulator or development simulator that is 
acceptable to the FAA, the FAA will accept an SOC from the data provider 
that confirms the stall characteristics have been subjectively assessed 
by an SME pilot on the engineering or development simulator.
    An FSTD sponsor may submit a request to the Administrator for 
approval of a deviation from the SME pilot experience requirements in 
this paragraph. This request for deviation must include the following 
information:

a. An assessment of pilot availability that demonstrates that a suitably 
qualified pilot meeting the experience requirements of this section 
cannot be practically located; and
b. Alternative methods to subjectively evaluate the FSTD's capability to 
provide

[[Page 183]]

the stall recognition cues and handling characteristics needed to 
accomplish the training objectives.

  B. Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) Maneuver Evaluation 
                        (Table A1A, Section 2.n.)

    1. Applicability: This attachment applies to all simulators that are 
used to satisfy training requirements for upset prevention and recovery 
training (UPRT) maneuvers. For the purposes of this attachment (as 
defined in the Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid), an aircraft upset 
is generally defined as an airplane unintentionally exceeding the 
following parameters normally experienced in line operations or 
training:

a. Pitch attitude greater than 25 degrees nose up;
b. Pitch attitude greater than 10 degrees nose down;
c. Bank angles greater than 45 degrees; and
d. Within the above parameters, but flying at airspeeds inappropriate 
for the conditions.

FSTDs that will be used to conduct training maneuvers where the FSTD is 
either repositioned into an aircraft upset condition or an artificial 
stimulus (such as weather phenomena or system failures) is applied that 
is intended to result in a flightcrew entering an aircraft upset 
condition must be evaluated and qualified in accordance with this 
section.
    2. General Requirements: The general requirement for UPRT 
qualification in Table A1A defines three basic elements required for 
qualifying an FSTD for UPRT maneuvers:

a. FSTD Training Envelope: Valid UPRT should be conducted within the 
high and moderate confidence regions of the FSTD validation envelope as 
defined in paragraph 3 below.
b. Instructor Feedback: Provides the instructor/evaluator with a minimum 
set of feedback tools to properly evaluate the trainee's performance in 
accomplishing an upset recovery training task.
c. Upset Scenarios: Where dynamic upset scenarios or aircraft system 
malfunctions are used to stimulate the FSTD into an aircraft upset 
condition, specific guidance must be available to the instructor on the 
IOS that describes how the upset scenario is driven along with any 
malfunction or degradation in FSTD functionality that is required to 
stimulate the upset.

    3. FSTD Validation Envelope: For the purposes of this attachment, 
the term ``flight envelope'' refers to the entire domain in which the 
FSTD is capable of being flown with a degree of confidence that the FSTD 
responds similarly to the airplane. This envelope can be further divided 
into three subdivisions (see Appendix 3-D of the Airplane Upset Recovery 
Training Aid):
a. Flight test validated region: This is the region of the flight 
envelope which has been validated with flight test data, typically by 
comparing the performance of the FSTD against the flight test data 
through tests incorporated in the QTG and other flight test data 
utilized to further extend the model beyond the minimum requirements. 
Within this region, there is high confidence that the simulator responds 
similarly to the aircraft. Note that this region is not strictly limited 
to what has been tested in the QTG; as long as the aerodynamics 
mathematical model has been conformed to the flight test results, that 
portion of the mathematical model can be considered to be within the 
flight test validated region.
b. Wind tunnel and/or analytical region: This is the region of the 
flight envelope for which the FSTD has not been compared to flight test 
data, but for which there has been wind tunnel testing or the use of 
other reliable predictive methods (typically by the aircraft 
manufacturer) to define the aerodynamic model. Any extensions to the 
aerodynamic model that have been evaluated in accordance with the 
definition of an exemplar stall model (as described in the stall 
maneuver evaluation section) must be clearly indicated. Within this 
region, there is moderate confidence that the simulator will respond 
similarly to the aircraft.
c. Extrapolated: This is the region extrapolated beyond the flight test 
validated and wind tunnel/analytical regions. The extrapolation may be a 
linear extrapolation, a holding of the last value before the 
extrapolation began, or some other set of values. Whether this 
extrapolated data is provided by the aircraft or simulator manufacturer, 
it is a ``best guess'' only. Within this region, there is low confidence 
that the simulator will respond similarly to the aircraft. Brief 
excursions into this region may still retain a moderate confidence level 
in FSTD fidelity; however, the instructor should be aware that the 
FSTD's response may deviate from the actual aircraft.

    4. Instructor Feedback Mechanism: For the instructor/evaluator to 
provide feedback to the student during UPRT maneuver training, 
additional information must be accessible that indicates the fidelity of 
the simulation, the magnitude of trainee's flight control inputs, and 
aircraft operational limits that could potentially affect the successful 
completion of the maneuver(s). At a minimum, the following must be 
available to the instructor/evaluator:
a. FSTD Validation Envelope: The FSTD must employ a method to display 
the FSTD's expected fidelity with respect to the FSTD validation 
envelope. This may be displayed as an angle of attack vs sideslip

[[Page 184]]

(alpha/beta) envelope cross-plot on the Instructor Operating System 
(IOS) or other alternate method to clearly convey the FSTD's fidelity 
level during the maneuver. The cross-plot or other alternative method 
must display the relevant validity regions for flaps up and flaps down 
at a minimum. This validation envelope must be derived by the 
aerodynamic data provider or derived using information and data sources 
provided by the original aerodynamic data provider.
b. Flight Control Inputs: The FSTD must employ a method for the 
instructor/evaluator to assess the trainee's flight control inputs 
during the upset recovery maneuver. Additional parameters, such as 
cockpit control forces (forces applied by the pilot to the controls) and 
the flight control law mode for fly-by-wire aircraft, must be portrayed 
in this feedback mechanism as well. For passive sidesticks, whose 
displacement is the flight control input, the force applied by the pilot 
to the controls does not need to be displayed. This tool must include a 
time history or other equivalent method of recording flight control 
positions.
c. Aircraft Operational Limits: The FSTD must employ a method to provide 
the instructor/evaluator with real-time information concerning the 
aircraft operating limits. The simulated aircraft's parameters must be 
displayed dynamically in real-time and also provided in a time history 
or equivalent format. At a minimum, the following parameters must be 
available to the instructor:
i. Airspeed and airspeed limits, including the stall speed and maximum 
operating limit airspeed (Vmo/Mmo);
ii. Load factor and operational load factor limits; and
iii. Angle of attack and the stall identification angle of attack. See 
section A, paragraph 4.b. of this attachment for additional information 
concerning the definition of the stall identification angle of attack. 
This parameter may be displayed in conjunction with the FSTD validation 
envelope.

                          End QPS Requirements

                            Begin Information

    An example FSTD ``alpha/beta'' envelope display and IOS feedback 
mechanism are shown below in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The following 
examples are provided as guidance material on one possible method to 
display the required UPRT feedback parameters on an IOS display. FSTD 
sponsors may develop other methods and feedback mechanisms that provide 
the required parameters and support the training program objectives.

[[Page 185]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR30MR16.116


[[Page 186]]



                             End Information

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    C. Engine and Airframe Icing Evaluation (Table A1A, Section 2.j.)

    1. Applicability: This section applies to all FSTDs that are used to 
satisfy training requirements for engine and airframe icing. New general 
requirements and objective requirements for simulator qualification have 
been developed to define aircraft specific icing models that support 
training objectives for the recognition and recovery from an in-flight 
ice accretion event.
    2. General Requirements: The qualification of engine and airframe 
icing consists of the following elements that must be considered when 
developing ice accretion models for use in training:
    a. Ice accretion models must be developed to account for training 
the specific skills required for recognition of ice accumulation and 
execution of the required response.
    b. Ice accretion models must be developed in a manner to contain 
aircraft specific recognition cues as determined with aircraft OEM 
supplied data or other suitable analytical methods.
    c. At least one qualified ice accretion model must be objectively 
tested to demonstrate that the model has been implemented correctly and 
generates the correct cues as necessary for training.
    3. Statement of Compliance: The SOC as described in Table A1A, 
Section 2.j. must contain the following information to support FSTD 
qualification of aircraft specific ice accretion models:
    a. A description of expected aircraft specific recognition cues and 
degradation effects due to a typical in-flight icing encounter. Typical 
cues may include loss of lift, decrease in stall angle of attack, 
changes in pitching moment, decrease in control effectiveness, and 
changes in control forces in addition to any overall increase in drag. 
This description must be based upon relevant source data, such as 
aircraft OEM supplied data, accident/incident data, or other acceptable 
data sources. Where a particular airframe has demonstrated 
vulnerabilities to a specific type of ice accretion (due to accident/
incident history) which requires specific training (such as supercooled 
large-droplet icing or tailplane icing), ice accretion models must be 
developed that address the training requirements.
    b. A description of the data sources utilized to develop the 
qualified ice accretion models. Acceptable data sources may be, but are 
not limited to, flight test data, aircraft certification data, aircraft 
OEM engineering simulation data, or other analytical methods based upon 
established engineering principles.
    4. Objective Demonstration Testing: The purpose of the objective 
demonstration test is to demonstrate that the ice accretion models as 
described in the Statement of Compliance have been implemented correctly 
and demonstrate the proper cues and effects as defined in the approved 
data sources. At least one ice accretion model must be selected for 
testing and included in the Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG). Two 
tests are required to demonstrate engine and airframe icing effects. One 
test will demonstrate the FSTDs baseline performance without icing, and 
the second test will demonstrate the aerodynamic effects of ice 
accretion relative to the baseline test.
    a. Recorded Parameters: In each of the two required MQTG cases, a 
time history recording must be made of the following parameters:

i. Altitude;
ii. Airspeed;
iii. Normal Acceleration;
iv. Engine Power/settings;
v. Angle of Attack/Pitch attitude;
vi. Bank Angle;
vii. Flight control inputs;
viii. Stall warning and stall buffet onset; and
ix. Other parameters as necessary to demonstrate the effects of ice 
accretions.

    b. Demonstration maneuver: The FSTD sponsor must select an ice 
accretion model as identified in the SOC for testing. The selected 
maneuver must demonstrate the effects of ice accretion at high angles of 
attack from a trimmed condition through approach to stall and ``full'' 
stall as compared to a baseline (no ice buildup) test. The ice accretion 
models must demonstrate the cues necessary to recognize the onset of ice 
accretion on the airframe, lifting surfaces, and engines and provide 
representative degradation in performance and handling qualities to the 
extent that a recovery can be executed. Typical recognition cues that 
may be present depending upon the simulated aircraft include:

i. Decrease in stall angle of attack;
ii. Increase in stall speed;
iii. Increase in stall buffet threshold of perception speed;
iv. Changes in pitching moment;
v. Changes in stall buffet characteristics;
vi. Changes in control effectiveness or control forces; and
vii. Engine effects (power variation, vibration, etc.);

The demonstration test may be conducted by initializing and maintaining 
a fixed amount of ice accretion throughout the maneuver in order to 
consistently evaluate the aerodynamic effects.

[[Page 187]]

                          End QPS Requirements

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 73 FR 26490, May 9, 2008, as amended by Docket 
FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 FR 18218, 18219, 18240, 18283, 18300, and 
18303, Mar. 30, 2016; 81 FR 32016 and 32066, May 20, 2016]



  Sec. Appendix B to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
                    Airplane Flight Training Devices

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    This appendix establishes the standards for Airplane FTD evaluation 
and qualification at Level 4, Level 5, or Level 6. The Flight Standards 
Service, NSPM, is responsible for the development, application, and 
implementation of the standards contained within this appendix. The 
procedures and criteria specified in this appendix will be used by the 
NSPM, or a person or persons assigned by the NSPM when conducting 
airplane FTD evaluations.

                            Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Applicability (Secs. 60.1 and 60.2).
3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3).
4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4).
5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5).
6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.7).
7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9).
8. FTD Use (Sec. 60.11).
9. FTD Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13).
10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
          the FTD (Sec. 60.14).
11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15).
12. Additional Qualifications for Currently Qualified FTDs (Sec. 60.16).
13. Previously Qualified FTDs (Sec. 60.17).
14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification Evaluation, and Maintenance 
          Requirements (Sec. 60.19).
15. Logging FTD Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20).
16. Interim Qualification of FTDs for New Airplane Types or Models 
          (Sec. 60.21).
17. Modifications to FTDs (Sec. 60.23).
18. Operations with Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
          (Sec. 60.25).
19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.27).
20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.29).
21. Record Keeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31).
22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
          or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33).
23. [Reserved]
24. Levels of FTD.
25. FTD Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
          Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37).
Attachment 1 to Appendix B to Part 60--General FTD Requirements.
Attachment 2 to Appendix B to Part 60--Flight Training Device (FTD) 
          Objective Tests.
Attachment 3 to Appendix B to Part 60--Flight Training Device (FTD) 
          Subjective Evaluation.
Attachment 4 to Appendix B to Part 60--Sample Documents.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             1. Introduction

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. This appendix contains background information as well as 
regulatory and informative material as described later in this section. 
To assist the reader in determining what areas are required and what 
areas are permissive, the text in this appendix is divided into two 
sections: ``QPS Requirements'' and ``Information.'' The QPS Requirements 
sections contain details regarding compliance with the part 60 rule 
language. These details are regulatory, but are found only in this 
appendix. The Information sections contain material that is advisory in 
nature, and designed to give the user general information about the 
regulation.
    b. Questions regarding the contents of this publication should be 
sent to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation 
Administration, Flight Standards Service, National Simulator Program 
Staff, AFS-205, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320. Telephone 
contact numbers for the NSP are: Phone, 404-474-5620; fax, 404-474-5656. 
The NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/about/
initiatives/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list 
with telephone and email contact information for each NSP staff member, 
a list of qualified flight simulation devices, advisory circulars (ACs), 
a description of the qualification process, NSP policy, and an NSP ``In-
Works'' section. Also linked from this site are additional information 
sources, handbook bulletins, frequently asked questions, a listing and 
text of the Federal Aviation Regulations, Flight Standards Inspector's 
handbooks, and other FAA links.
    c. The NSPM encourages the use of electronic media for all 
communication, including any record, report, request, test, or

[[Page 188]]

statement required by this appendix. The electronic media used must have 
adequate security provisions and be acceptable to the NSPM. The NSPM 
recommends inquiries on system compatibility, and minimum system 
requirements are also included on the NSP Web site.
    d. Related Reading References.
    (1) 14 CFR part 60.
    (2) 14 CFR part 61.
    (3) 14 CFR part 63.
    (4) 14 CFR part 119.
    (5) 14 CFR part 121.
    (6) 14 CFR part 125.
    (7) 14 CFR part 135.
    (8) 14 CFR part 141.
    (9) 14 CFR part 142.
    (10) AC 120-28, as amended, Criteria for Approval of Category III 
Landing Weather Minima.
    (11) AC 120-29, as amended, Criteria for Approving Category I and 
Category II Landing Minima for part 121 operators.
    (12) AC 120-35, as amended, Line Operational Simulations: Line-
Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line 
Operational Evaluation.
    (13) AC 120-41, as amended, Criteria for Operational Approval of 
Airborne Wind Shear Alerting and Flight Guidance Systems.
    (14) AC 120-45, as amended, Airplane Flight Training Device 
Qualification.
    (14) AC 120-57, as amended, Surface Movement Guidance and Control 
System (SMGCS).
    (15) AC 150/5300-13, as amended, Airport Design.
    (16) AC 150/5340-1, as amended, Standards for Airport Markings.
    (17) AC 150/5340-4, as amended, Installation Details for Runway 
Centerline Touchdown Zone Lighting Systems.
    (18) AC 150/5340-19, as amended, Taxiway Centerline Lighting System.
    (19) AC 150/5340-24, as amended, Runway and Taxiway Edge Lighting 
System.
    (20) AC 150/5345-28, as amended, Precision Approach Path Indicator 
(PAPI) Systems.
    (21) International Air Transport Association document, ``Flight 
Simulation Training Device Design and Performance Data Requirements,'' 
as amended.
    (22) AC 25-7, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Transport Category Airplanes.
    (23) AC 23-8A, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Part 23 Airplanes.
    (24) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual of 
Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices, as 
amended.
    (25) Aeroplane Flight Simulation Training Device Evaluation 
Handbook, Volume I, as amended and Volume II, as amended, The Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK.
    (26) FAA Publication FAA-S-8081 series (Practical Test Standards for 
Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, Type Ratings, Commercial Pilot, and 
Instrument Ratings).
    (27) The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). An electronic 
version of the AIM is on the Internet at http://www.faa.gov/atpubs.
    (28) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document number 436, titled 
Guidelines For Electronic Qualification Test Guide (as amended).
    (29) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document 610, Guidance for 
Design and Integration of Aircraft Avionics Equipment in Simulators (as 
amended).
 _______________________________________________________________________

                             End Information

                 2. Applicability (Secs. 60.1 and 60.2)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.1, Applicability, or to Sec. 60.2, Applicability of sponsor 
rules to person who are not sponsors and who are engaged in certain 
unauthorized activities.

                       3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3)

    See appendix F of this part for a list of definitions and 
abbreviations from part 1, part 60, and the QPS appendices of part 60.

           4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.4, Qualification Performance Standards.

                5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5)

    Additional regulatory material and informational material regarding 
Quality Management Systems for FTDs may be found in appendix E of this 
part.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

           6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements. (Sec. 60.7).

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The intent of the language in Sec. 60.7(b) is to have a specific 
FTD, identified by the sponsor, used at least once in an FAA-approved 
flight training program for the airplane simulated during the 12-month 
period described. The identification of the specific FTD may change from 
one 12-month period to the next 12-month period as long as that sponsor 
sponsors and uses at least one FTD at least once during the prescribed 
period.

[[Page 189]]

There is no minimum number of hours or minimum FTD periods required.
    b. The following examples describe acceptable operational practices:
    (1) Example One.
    (a) A sponsor is sponsoring a single, specific FTD for its own use, 
in its own facility or elsewhere-- this single FTD forms the basis for 
the sponsorship. The sponsor uses that FTD at least once in each 12-
month period in that sponsor's FAA-approved flight training program for 
the airplane simulated. This 12-month period is established according to 
the following schedule:
    (i) If the FTD was qualified prior to May 30, 2008, the 12-month 
period begins on the date of the first continuing qualification 
evaluation conducted in accordance with Sec. 60.19 after May 30, 2008, 
and continues for each subsequent 12-month period;
    (ii) A device qualified on or after May 30, 2008, will be required 
to undergo an initial or upgrade evaluation in accordance with 
Sec. 60.15. Once the initial or upgrade evaluation is complete, the 
first continuing qualification evaluation will be conducted within 6 
months. The 12 month continuing qualification evaluation cycle begins on 
that date and continues for each subsequent 12-month period.
    (b) There is no minimum number of hours of FTD use required.
    (c) The identification of the specific FTD may change from one 12-
month period to the next 12-month period as long as that sponsor 
sponsors and uses at least one FTD at least once during the prescribed 
period.
    (2) Example Two.
    (a) A sponsor sponsors an additional number of FTDs, in its facility 
or elsewhere. Each additionally sponsored FTD must be--
    (i) Used by the sponsor in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight 
training program for the airplane simulated (as described in 
Sec. 60.7(d)(1)); or
    (ii) Used by another FAA certificate holder in that other 
certificate holder's FAA-approved flight training program for the 
airplane simulated (as described in Sec. 60.7(d)(1)). This 12-month 
period is established in the same manner as in example one; or
    (iii) Provided a statement each year from a qualified pilot, (after 
having flown the airplane, not the subject FTD or another FTD, during 
the preceding 12-month period) stating that the subject FTD's 
performance and handling qualities represent the airplane (as described 
in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)). This statement is provided at least once in each 
12-month period established in the same manner as in example one.
    (b) There is no minimum number of hours of FTD use required.
    (3) Example Three.
    (a) A sponsor in New York (in this example, a Part 142 certificate 
holder) establishes ``satellite'' training centers in Chicago and 
Moscow.
    (b) The satellite function means that the Chicago and Moscow centers 
must operate under the New York center's certificate (in accordance with 
all of the New York center's practices, procedures, and policies; e.g., 
instructor and/or technician training/checking requirements, record 
keeping, QMS program).
    (c) All of the FTDs in the Chicago and Moscow centers could be dry-
leased (i.e., the certificate holder does not have and use FAA-approved 
flight training programs for the FTDs in the Chicago and Moscow centers) 
because--
    (i) Each FTD in the Chicago center and each FTD in the Moscow center 
is used at least once each 12-month period by another FAA certificate 
holder in that other certificate holder's FAA-approved flight training 
program for the airplane (as described in Sec. 60.7(d)(1)); or
    (ii) A statement is obtained from a qualified pilot (having flown 
the airplane, not the subject FTD or another FTD during the preceding 
12-month period) stating that the performance and handling qualities of 
each FTD in the Chicago and Moscow centers represents the airplane (as 
described in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

        7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    The phrase ``as soon as practicable'' in Sec. 60.9(a) means without 
unnecessarily disrupting or delaying beyond a reasonable time the 
training, evaluation, or experience being conducted in the FTD.

                         8. FTD Use (Sec. 60.11)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.11, FTD use.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________
    9. FTD Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13)
 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. Flight test data used to validate FTD performance and handling 
qualities must have been gathered in accordance with a flight test 
program containing the following:
    (1) A flight test plan consisting of:
    (a) The maneuvers and procedures required for aircraft certification 
and simulation programming and validation.

[[Page 190]]

    (b) For each maneuver or procedure--
    (i) The procedures and control input the flight test pilot and/or 
engineer used.
    (ii) The atmospheric and environmental conditions.
    (iii) The initial flight conditions.
    (iv) The airplane configuration, including weight and center of 
gravity.
    (v) The data to be gathered.
    (vi) All other information necessary to recreate the flight test 
conditions in the FTD.
    (2) Appropriately qualified flight test personnel.
    (3) An understanding of the accuracy of the data to be gathered 
using appropriate alternative data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation that is traceable to a recognized standard as described 
in Attachment 2, Table B2F of this appendix.
    (4) Appropriate and sufficient data acquisition equipment or 
system(s), including appropriate data reduction and analysis methods and 
techniques, acceptable to the FAA's Aircraft Certification Service.
    b. The data, regardless of source, must be presented:
    (1) In a format that supports the FTD validation process;
    (2) In a manner that is clearly readable and annotated correctly and 
completely;
    (3) With resolution sufficient to determine compliance with the 
tolerances set forth in Attachment 2, Table B2A, Appendix B;
    (4) With any necessary guidance information provided; and
    (5) Without alteration, adjustments, or bias. Data may be corrected 
to address known data calibration errors provided that an explanation of 
the methods used to correct the errors appears in the QTG. The corrected 
data may be re-scaled, digitized, or otherwise manipulated to fit the 
desired presentation.
    c. After completion of any additional flight test, a flight test 
report must be submitted in support of the validation data. The report 
must contain sufficient data and rationale to support qualification of 
the FTD at the level requested.
    d. As required by Sec. 60.13(f), the sponsor must notify the NSPM 
when it becomes aware that an addition to or a revision of the flight 
related data or airplane systems related data is available if this data 
is used to program and operate a qualified FTD. The data referred to in 
this sub-section are those data that are used to validate the 
performance, handling qualities, or other characteristics of the 
aircraft, including data related to any relevant changes occurring after 
the type certification is issued. The sponsor must--
    (1) Within 10 calendar days, notify the NSPM of the existence of 
this data; and
    (2) Within 45 calendar days, notify the NSPM of--
    (i) The schedule to incorporate this data into the FTD; or
    (ii) The reason for not incorporating this data into the FTD.
    e. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot test results'' in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot.'' The steady state condition must exist from 4 seconds prior 
to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by the snap 
shot.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    f. The FTD sponsor is encouraged to maintain a liaison with the 
manufacturer of the aircraft being simulated (or with the holder of the 
aircraft type certificate for the aircraft being simulated if the 
manufacturer is no longer in business), and if appropriate, with the 
person having supplied the aircraft data package for the FTD in order to 
facilitate the notification described in this paragraph.
    g. It is the intent of the NSPM that for new aircraft entering 
service, at a point well in advance of preparation of the QTG, the 
sponsor should submit to the NSPM for approval, a descriptive document 
(see Appendix A, Table A2C, Sample Validation Data Roadmap for 
Airplanes) containing the plan for acquiring the validation data, 
including data sources. This document should clearly identify sources of 
data for all required tests, a description of the validity of these data 
for a specific engine type and thrust rating configuration, and the 
revision levels of all avionics affecting the performance or flying 
qualities of the aircraft. Additionally, this document should provide 
other information such as the rationale or explanation for cases where 
data or data parameters are missing, instances where engineering 
simulation data are used, or where flight test methods require further 
explanations. It should also provide a brief narrative describing the 
cause and effect of any deviation from data requirements. The aircraft 
manufacturer may provide this document.
    h. There is no requirement for any flight test data supplier to 
submit a flight test plan or program prior to gathering flight test 
data. However, the NSPM notes that inexperienced data gatherers often 
provide data that is irrelevant, improperly marked, or lacking adequate 
justification for selection. Other problems include inadequate 
information regarding initial conditions or test maneuvers. The NSPM has 
been forced to refuse these data submissions as validation data for an 
FTD evaluation. It is for

[[Page 191]]

this reason that the NSPM recommends that any data supplier not 
previously experienced in this area review the data necessary for 
programming and for validating the performance of the FTD and discuss 
the flight test plan anticipated for acquiring such data with the NSPM 
well in advance of commencing the flight tests.
    i. The NSPM will consider, on a case-by-case basis, whether to 
approve supplemental validation data derived from flight data recording 
systems such as a Quick Access Recorder or Flight Data Recorder.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
                          the FTD (Sec. 60.14).

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. In the event that the NSPM determines that special equipment or 
specifically qualified persons will be required to conduct an 
evaluation, the NSPM will make every attempt to notify the sponsor at 
least one (1) week, but in no case less than 72 hours, in advance of the 
evaluation. Examples of special equipment include flight control 
measurement devices, accelerometers, or oscilloscopes. Examples of 
specially qualified personnel include individuals specifically qualified 
to install or use any special equipment when its use is required.
    b. Examples of a special evaluation include an evaluation conducted 
after: An FTD is moved; at the request of the TPAA; or as a result of 
comments received from users of the FTD that raise questions about the 
continued qualification or use of the FTD.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

   11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15).

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

    a. In order to be qualified at a particular qualification level, the 
FTD must:
    (1) Meet the general requirements listed in Attachment 1 of this 
appendix;
    (2) Meet the objective testing requirements listed in Attachment 2 
of this appendix (Level 4 FTDs do not require objective tests); and
    (3) Satisfactorily accomplish the subjective tests listed in 
Attachment 3 of this appendix.
    b. The request described in Sec. 60.15(a) must include all of the 
following:
    (1) A statement that the FTD meets all of the applicable provisions 
of this part and all applicable provisions of the QPS.
    (2) Unless otherwise authorized through prior coordination with the 
NSPM, a confirmation that the sponsor will forward to the NSPM the 
statement described in Sec. 60.15(b) in such time as to be received no 
later than 5 business days prior to the scheduled evaluation and may be 
forwarded to the NSPM via traditional or electronic means.
    (3) Except for a Level 4 FTD, a QTG, acceptable to the NSPM, that 
includes all of the following:
    (a) Objective data obtained from aircraft testing or another 
approved source.
    (b) Correlating objective test results obtained from the performance 
of the FTD as prescribed in the appropriate QPS.
    (c) The result of FTD subjective tests prescribed in the appropriate 
QPS.
    (d) A description of the equipment necessary to perform the 
evaluation for initial qualification and the continuing qualification 
evaluations.
    c. The QTG described in paragraph a(3) of this section, must provide 
the documented proof of compliance with the FTD objective tests in 
Attachment 2, Table B2A of this appendix.
    d. The QTG is prepared and submitted by the sponsor, or the 
sponsor?s agent on behalf of the sponsor, to the NSPM for review and 
approval, and must include, for each objective test:
    (1) Parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions;
    (2) Pertinent and complete instructions for conducting automatic and 
manual tests;
    (3) A means of comparing the FTD test results to the objective data;
    (4) Any other information as necessary to assist in the evaluation 
of the test results;
    (5) Other information appropriate to the qualification level of the 
FTD.
    e. The QTG described in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b) of this section, 
must include the following:
    (1) A QTG cover page with sponsor and FAA approval signature blocks 
(see Attachment 4, Figure B4C, of this appendix, for a sample QTG cover 
page).
    (2) [Reserved]
    (3) An FTD information page that provides the information listed in 
this paragraph, if applicable (see Attachment 4, Figure B4B, of this 
appendix, for a sample FTD information page). For convertible FTDs, the 
sponsor must submit a separate page for each configuration of the FTD.
    (a) The sponsor's FTD identification number or code.
    (b) The airplane model and series being simulated.
    (c) The aerodynamic data revision number or reference.

[[Page 192]]

    (d) The source of the basic aerodynamic model and the aerodynamic 
coefficient data used to modify the basic model.
    (e) The engine model(s) and its data revision number or reference.
    (f) The flight control data revision number or reference.
    (g) The flight management system identification and revision level.
    (h) The FTD model and manufacturer.
    (i) The date of FTD manufacture.
    (j) The FTD computer identification.
    (k) The visual system model and manufacturer, including display 
type.
    (l) The motion system type and manufacturer, including degrees of 
freedom.
    (4) A Table of Contents.
    (5) A log of revisions and a list of effective pages.
    (6) List of all relevant data references.
    (7) A glossary of terms and symbols used (including sign conventions 
and units).
    (8) Statements of compliance and capability (SOCs) with certain 
requirements.
    (9) Recording procedures or equipment required to accomplish the 
objective tests.
    (10) The following information for each objective test designated in 
Attachment 2 of this appendix, as applicable to the qualification level 
sought:
    (a) Name of the test.
    (b) Objective of the test.
    (c) Initial conditions.
    (d) Manual test procedures.
    (e) Automatic test procedures (if applicable).
    (f) Method for evaluating FTD objective test results.
    (g) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
automatic test(s).
    (h) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
manual test(s).
    (i) Tolerances for relevant parameters.
    (j) Source of Validation Data (document and page number).
    (k) Copy of the Validation Data (if located in a separate binder, a 
cross reference for the identification and page number for pertinent 
data location must be provided).
    (l) FTD Objective Test Results as obtained by the sponsor. Each test 
result must reflect the date completed and must be clearly labeled as a 
product of the device being tested.
    f. A convertible FTD is addressed as a separate FTD for each model 
and series airplane to which it will be converted and for the FAA 
qualification level sought. The NSPM will conduct an evaluation for each 
configuration. If a sponsor seeks qualification for two or more models 
of an airplane type using a convertible FTD, the sponsor must provide a 
QTG for each airplane model, or a QTG for the first airplane model and a 
supplement to that QTG for each additional airplane model. The NSPM will 
conduct evaluations for each airplane model.
    g. The form and manner of presentation of objective test results in 
the QTG must include the following:
    (1) The sponsor's FTD test results must be recorded in a manner 
acceptable to the NSPM, that allows easy comparison of the FTD test 
results to the validation data (e.g., use of a multi-channel recorder, 
line printer, cross plotting, overlays, transparencies).
    (2) FTD results must be labeled using terminology common to airplane 
parameters as opposed to computer software identifications.
    (3) Validation data documents included in a QTG may be 
photographically reduced only if such reduction will not alter the 
graphic scaling or cause difficulties in scale interpretation or 
resolution.
    (4) Scaling on graphical presentations must provide the resolution 
necessary to evaluate the parameters shown in Attachment 2, Table B2A of 
this appendix.
    (5) Tests involving time histories, data sheets (or transparencies 
thereof) and FTD test results must be clearly marked with appropriate 
reference points to ensure an accurate comparison between FTD and 
airplane with respect to time. Time histories recorded via a line 
printer are to be clearly identified for cross-plotting on the airplane 
data. Over-plots may not obscure the reference data.
    h. The sponsor may elect to complete the QTG objective and 
subjective tests at the manufacturer's facility or at the sponsor's 
training facility (or other sponsor designated location where training 
will take place). If the tests are conducted at the manufacturer's 
facility, the sponsor must repeat at least one-third of the tests at the 
sponsor's training facility in order to substantiate FTD performance. 
The QTG must be clearly annotated to indicate when and where each test 
was accomplished. Tests conducted at the manufacturer's facility and at 
the sponsor's designated training facility must be conducted after the 
FTD is assembled with systems and sub-systems functional and operating 
in an interactive manner. The test results must be submitted to the 
NSPM.
    i. The sponsor must maintain a copy of the MQTG at the FTD location.
    j. All FTDs for which the initial qualification is conducted after 
May 30, 2014, must have an electronic MQTG (eMQTG) including all 
objective data obtained from airplane testing, or another approved 
source (reformatted or digitized), together with correlating objective 
test results obtained from the performance of the FTD (reformatted or 
digitized) as prescribed in this appendix. The eMQTG must also contain 
the general FTD performance or demonstration results (reformatted or 
digitized) prescribed in this appendix, and a description of the 
equipment necessary to perform the initial qualification evaluation and 
the continuing qualification evaluations. The eMQTG must include the

[[Page 193]]

original validation data used to validate FTD performance and handling 
qualities in either the original digitized format from the data supplier 
or an electronic scan of the original time-history plots that were 
provided by the data supplier. A copy of the eMQTG must be provided to 
the NSPM.
    k. All other FTDs (not covered in subparagraph ``j'') must have an 
electronic copy of the MQTG by and after May 30, 2014. An electronic 
copy of the copy of the MQTG must be provided to the NSPM. This may be 
provided by an electronic scan presented in a Portable Document File 
(PDF), or similar format acceptable to the NSPM.
    l. During the initial (or upgrade) qualification evaluation 
conducted by the NSPM, the sponsor must also provide a person 
knowledgeable about the operation of the aircraft and the operation of 
the FTD.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    m. Only those FTDs that are sponsored by a certificate holder as 
defined in Appendix F will be evaluated by the NSPM. However, other FTD 
evaluations may be conducted on a case-by-case basis as the 
Administrator deems appropriate, but only in accordance with applicable 
agreements.
    n. The NSPM will conduct an evaluation for each configuration, and 
each FTD must be evaluated as completely as possible. To ensure a 
thorough and uniform evaluation, each FTD is subjected to the general 
FTD requirements in Attachment 1 of this appendix, the objective tests 
listed in Attachment 2 of this appendix, and the subjective tests listed 
in Attachment 3 of this appendix. The evaluations described herein will 
include, but not necessarily be limited to the following:
    (1) Airplane responses, including longitudinal and lateral-
directional control responses (see Attachment 2 of this appendix);
    (2) Performance in authorized portions of the simulated airplane's 
operating envelope, to include tasks evaluated by the NSPM in the areas 
of surface operations, takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, approach and 
landing, as well as abnormal and emergency operations (see Attachment 2 
of this appendix);
    (3) Control checks (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 of this 
appendix);
    (4) Flight deck configuration (see Attachment 1 of this appendix);
    (5) Pilot, flight engineer, and instructor station functions checks 
(see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this appendix);
    (6) Airplane systems and sub-systems (as appropriate) as compared to 
the airplane simulated (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this 
appendix);
    (7) FTD systems and sub-systems, including force cueing (motion), 
visual, and aural (sound) systems, as appropriate (see Attachment 1 and 
Attachment 2 of this appendix); and
    (8) Certain additional requirements, depending upon the 
qualification level sought, including equipment or circumstances that 
may become hazardous to the occupants. The sponsor may be subject to 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements.
    o. The NSPM administers the objective and subjective tests, which 
includes an examination of functions. The tests include a qualitative 
assessment of the FTD by an NSP pilot. The NSP evaluation team leader 
may assign other qualified personnel to assist in accomplishing the 
functions examination and/or the objective and subjective tests 
performed during an evaluation when required.
    (1) Objective tests provide a basis for measuring and evaluating FTD 
performance and determining compliance with the requirements of this 
part.
    (2) Subjective tests provide a basis for:
    (a) Evaluating the capability of the FTD to perform over a typical 
utilization period;
    (b) Determining that the FTD satisfactorily simulates each required 
task;
    (c) Verifying correct operation of the FTD controls, instruments, 
and systems; and
    (d) Demonstrating compliance with the requirements of this part.
    p. The tolerances for the test parameters listed in Attachment 2 of 
this appendix reflect the range of tolerances acceptable to the NSPM for 
FTD validation and are not to be confused with design tolerances 
specified for FTD manufacture. In making decisions regarding tests and 
test results, the NSPM relies on the use of operational and engineering 
judgment in the application of data (including consideration of the way 
in which the flight test was flown and way the data was gathered and 
applied), data presentations, and the applicable tolerances for each 
test.
    q. In addition to the scheduled continuing qualification evaluation, 
each FTD is subject to evaluations conducted by the NSPM at any time 
without prior notification to the sponsor. Such evaluations would be 
accomplished in a normal manner (i.e., requiring exclusive use of the 
FTD for the conduct of objective and subjective tests and an examination 
of functions) if the FTD is not being used for flight crewmember 
training, testing, or checking. However, if the FTD were being used, the 
evaluation would be conducted in a non-exclusive manner. This non-
exclusive evaluation will be conducted by the FTD evaluator accompanying 
the check airman, instructor, Aircrew Program Designee (APD), or FAA 
inspector aboard the FTD along with the student(s) and observing the

[[Page 194]]

operation of the FTD during the training, testing, or checking 
activities.
    r. Problems with objective test results are handled as follows:
    (1) If a problem with an objective test result is detected by the 
NSP evaluation team during an evaluation, the test may be repeated or 
the QTG may be amended.
    (2) If it is determined that the results of an objective test do not 
support the qualification level requested but do support a lower level, 
the NSPM may qualify the FTD at a lower level. For example, if a Level 6 
evaluation is requested, but the FTD fails to meet the spiral stability 
test tolerances, it could be qualified at Level 5.
    s. After an FTD is successfully evaluated, the NSPM issues an SOQ to 
the sponsor, the NSPM recommends the FTD to the TPAA, who will approve 
the FTD for use in a flight training program. The SOQ will be issued at 
the satisfactory conclusion of the initial or continuing qualification 
evaluation and will list the tasks for which the FTD is qualified, 
referencing the tasks described in Table B1B in Attachment 1 of this 
appendix. However, it is the sponsor's responsibility to obtain TPAA 
approval prior to using the FTD in an FAA-approved flight training 
program.
    t. Under normal circumstances, the NSPM establishes a date for the 
initial or upgrade evaluation within ten (10) working days after 
determining that a complete QTG is acceptable. Unusual circumstances may 
warrant establishing an evaluation date before this determination is 
made. A sponsor may schedule an evaluation date as early as 6 months in 
advance. However, there may be a delay of 45 days or more in 
rescheduling and completing the evaluation if the sponsor is unable to 
meet the scheduled date. See Attachment 4, Figure B4A, Sample Request 
for Initial, Upgrade, or Reinstatement Evaluation, of this appendix.
    u. The numbering system used for objective test results in the QTG 
should closely follow the numbering system set out in Attachment 2, FTD 
Objective Tests, Table B2A, of this appendix.
    v. Contact the NSPM or visit the NSPM Web site for additional 
information regarding the preferred qualifications of pilots used to 
meet the requirements of Sec. 60.15(d).
    w. Examples of the exclusions for which the FTD might not have been 
subjectively tested by the sponsor or the NSPM and for which 
qualification might not be sought or granted, as described in 
Sec. 60.15(g)(6), include engine out maneuvers or circling approaches.

12. Additional Qualifications for Currently Qualified FTDs (Sec. 60.16).

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.16, Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FTD.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

               13. Previously Qualified FTDs (Sec. 60.17).

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. In instances where a sponsor plans to remove an FTD from active 
status for a period of less than two years, the following procedures 
apply:
    (1) The NSPM must be notified in writing and the notification must 
include an estimate of the period that the FTD will be inactive;
    (2) Continuing Qualification evaluations will not be scheduled 
during the inactive period;
    (3) The NSPM will remove the FTD from the list of qualified FTDs on 
a mutually established date not later than the date on which the first 
missed continuing qualification evaluation would have been scheduled;
    (4) Before the FTD is restored to qualified status, it must be 
evaluated by the NSPM. The evaluation content and the time required to 
accomplish the evaluation is based on the number of continuing 
qualification evaluations and sponsor-conducted quarterly inspections 
missed during the period of inactivity.
    (5) The sponsor must notify the NSPM of any changes to the original 
scheduled time out of service;
    b. FTDs qualified prior to May 31, 2016, and replacement FTD 
systems, are not required to meet the general FTD requirements, the 
objective test requirements, and the subjective test requirements of 
Attachments 1, 2, and 3 of this appendix as long as the FTD continues to 
meet the test requirements contained in the MQTG developed under the 
original qualification basis.
    c. [Reserved]
    d. FTDs qualified prior to May 31, 2016, may be updated. If an 
evaluation is deemed appropriate or necessary by the NSPM after such an 
update, the evaluation will not require an evaluation to standards 
beyond those against which the FTD was originally qualified.
    e. Other certificate holders or persons desiring to use an FTD may 
contract with FTD sponsors to use FTDs previously qualified at a 
particular level for an airplane type and approved for use within an 
FAA-approved flight training program. Such FTDs are not required to 
undergo an additional qualification process, except as described in 
Sec. 60.16.
    f. Each FTD user must obtain approval from the appropriate TPAA to 
use any FTD in an FAA-approved flight training program.
    g. The intent of the requirement listed in Sec. 60.17(b), for each 
FTD to have an SOQ within 6 years, is to have the availability of that 
statement (including the configuration list

[[Page 195]]

and the limitations to authorizations) to provide a complete picture of 
the FTD inventory regulated by the FAA. The issuance of the statement 
will not require any additional evaluation or require any adjustment to 
the evaluation basis for the FTD.
    h. Downgrading of an FTD is a permanent change in qualification 
level and will necessitate the issuance of a revised SOQ to reflect the 
revised qualification level, as appropriate. If a temporary restriction 
is placed on an FTD because of a missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
component or on-going repairs, the restriction is not a permanent change 
in qualification level. Instead, the restriction is temporary and is 
removed when the reason for the restriction has been resolved.
    i. The NSPM will determine the evaluation criteria for an FTD that 
has been removed from active status for a prolonged period. The criteria 
will be based on the number of continuing qualification evaluations and 
quarterly inspections missed during the period of inactivity. For 
example, if the FTD were out of service for a 1 year period, it would be 
necessary to complete the entire QTG, since all of the quarterly 
evaluations would have been missed. The NSPM will also consider how the 
FTD was stored, whether parts were removed from the FTD and whether the 
FTD was disassembled.
    j. The FTD will normally be requalified using the FAA-approved MQTG 
and the criteria that was in effect prior to its removal from 
qualification. However, inactive periods of 2 years or more will require 
re-qualification under the standards in effect and current at the time 
of requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification, Evaluation, and Maintenance 
                       Requirements (Sec. 60.19).

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

    a. The sponsor must conduct a minimum of four evenly spaced 
inspections throughout the year. The objective test sequence and content 
of each inspection in this sequence must be developed by the sponsor and 
must be acceptable to the NSPM.
    b. The description of the functional preflight check must be 
contained in the sponsor's QMS.
    c. Record ``functional preflight'' in the FTD discrepancy log book 
or other acceptable location, including any item found to be missing, 
malfunctioning, or inoperative.
    d. During the continuing qualification evaluation conducted by the 
NSPM, the sponsor must also provide a person knowledgeable about the 
operation of the aircraft and the operation of the FTD.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    e. The sponsor's test sequence and the content of each quarterly 
inspection required in Sec. 60.19(a)(1) should include a balance and a 
mix from the objective test requirement areas listed as follows:
    (1) Performance.
    (2) Handling qualities.
    (3) Motion system (where appropriate).
    (4) Visual system (where appropriate).
    (5) Sound system (where appropriate).
    (6) Other FTD systems.
    f. If the NSP evaluator plans to accomplish specific tests during a 
normal continuing qualification evaluation that requires the use of 
special equipment or technicians, the sponsor will be notified as far in 
advance of the evaluation as practical; but not less than 72 hours. 
Examples of such tests include latencies, control sweeps, or motion or 
visual system tests.
    g. The continuing qualification evaluations described in 
Sec. 60.19(b) will normally require 4 hours of FTD time. However, 
flexibility is necessary to address abnormal situations or situations 
involving aircraft with additional levels of complexity (e.g., computer 
controlled aircraft). The sponsor should anticipate that some tests may 
require additional time. The continuing qualification evaluations will 
consist of the following:
    (1) Review of the results of the quarterly inspections conducted by 
the sponsor since the last scheduled continuing qualification 
evaluation.
    (2) A selection of approximately 8 to 15 objective tests from the 
MQTG that provide an adequate opportunity to evaluate the performance of 
the FTD. The tests chosen will be performed either automatically or 
manually and should be able to be conducted within approximately one-
third (1/3) of the allotted FTD time.
    (3) A subjective evaluation of the FTD to perform a representative 
sampling of the tasks set out in attachment 3 of this appendix. This 
portion of the evaluation should take approximately two-thirds (2/3) of 
the allotted FTD time.
    (4) An examination of the functions of the FTD may include the 
motion system, visual system, sound system as applicable, instructor 
operating station, and the normal functions and simulated malfunctions 
of the airplane systems. This examination is normally accomplished 
simultaneously with the subjective evaluation requirements.
    h. The requirement established in Sec. 60.19(b)(4) regarding the 
frequency of

[[Page 196]]

NSPM-conducted continuing qualification evaluations for each FTD is 
typically 12 months. However, the establishment and satisfactory 
implementation of an approved QMS for a sponsor will provide a basis for 
adjusting the frequency of evaluations to exceed 12-month intervals.

               15. Logging FTD Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.20. Logging FTD Discrepancies.

   16. Interim Qualification of FTDs for New Airplane Types or Models 
                              (Sec. 60.21)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.21, Interim Qualification of FTDs for New Airplane Types or 
Models.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                 17. Modifications to FTDs (Sec. 60.23)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. The notification described in Sec. 60.23(c)(2) must include a 
complete description of the planned modification, with a description of 
the operational and engineering effect the proposed modification will 
have on the operation of the FTD and the results that are expected with 
the modification incorporated.
    b. Prior to using the modified FTD:
    (1) All the applicable objective tests completed with the 
modification incorporated, including any necessary updates to the MQTG 
(e.g., accomplishment of FSTD Directives) must be acceptable to the 
NSPM; and
    (2) The sponsor must provide the NSPM with a statement signed by the 
MR that the factors listed in Sec. 60.15(b) are addressed by the 
appropriate personnel as described in that section.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    c. FSTD Directives are considered modification of an FTD. See 
Attachment 4 of this appendix for a sample index of effective FSTD 
Directives.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 18. Operation with Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
                              (Sec. 60.25)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The sponsor's responsibility with respect to Sec. 60.25(a) is 
satisfied when the sponsor fairly and accurately advises the user of the 
current status of an FTD, including any missing, malfunctioning, or 
inoperative (MMI) component(s).
    b. It is the responsibility of the instructor, check airman, or 
representative of the administrator conducting training, testing, or 
checking to exercise reasonable and prudent judgment to determine if any 
MMI component is necessary for the satisfactory completion of a specific 
maneuver, procedure, or task.
    c. If the 29th or 30th day of the 30-day period described in 
60.25(b) is on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a holiday, the FAA will extend 
the deadline until the next business day.
    d. In accordance with the authorization described in Sec. 60.25(b), 
the sponsor may develop a discrepancy prioritizing system to accomplish 
repairs based on the level of impact on the capability of the FTD. 
Repairs having a larger impact on the FTD's ability to provide the 
required training, evaluation, or flight experience will have a higher 
priority for repair or replacement.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.27)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FTD will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FTD is to be 
maintained) there is a greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to 
determine the amount of testing that required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.29)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FTD will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FTD is to be 
maintained) there is a

[[Page 197]]

greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to determine the amount of 
testing that required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

              21. Recordkeeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. FTD modifications can include hardware or software changes. For 
FTD modifications involving software programming changes, the record 
required by Sec. 60.31(a)(2) must consist of the name of the aircraft 
system software, aerodynamic model, or engine model change, the date of 
the change, a summary of the change, and the reason for the change.
    b. If a coded form for record keeping is used, it must provide for 
the preservation and retrieval of information with appropriate security 
or controls to prevent the inappropriate alteration of such records 
after the fact.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
                  or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.33, Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, 
Falsification, or Incorrect Statements.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             23. [Reserved]

                           24. Levels of FTD.

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The following is a general description of each level of FTD. 
Detailed standards and tests for the various levels of FTDs are fully 
defined in Attachments 1 through 3 of this appendix.
    (1) Level 4. A device that may have an open airplane-specific flight 
deck area, or an enclosed airplane-specific flight deck and at least one 
operating system. Air/ground logic is required (no aerodynamic 
programming required). All displays may be flat/LCD panel 
representations or actual representations of displays in the aircraft. 
All controls, switches, and knobs may be touch sensitive activation (not 
capable of manual manipulation of the flight controls) or may physically 
replicate the aircraft in control operation.
    (2) Level 5. A device that may have an open airplane-specific flight 
deck area, or an enclosed airplane-specific flight deck; generic 
aerodynamic programming; at least one operating system; and control 
loading that is representative of the simulated airplane only at an 
approach speed and configuration. All displays may be flat/LCD panel 
representations or actual representations of displays in the aircraft. 
Primary and secondary flight controls (e.g., rudder, aileron, elevator, 
flaps, spoilers/speed brakes, engine controls, landing gear, nosewheel 
steering, trim, brakes) must be physical controls. All other controls, 
switches, and knobs may be touch sensitive activation.
    (3) Level 6. A device that has an enclosed airplane-specific flight 
deck; airplane-specific aerodynamic programming; all applicable airplane 
systems operating; control loading that is representative of the 
simulated airplane throughout its ground and flight envelope; and 
significant sound representation. All displays may be flat/LCD panel 
representations or actual representations of displays in the aircraft, 
but all controls, switches, and knobs must physically replicate the 
aircraft in control operation.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________
    (4) Level 7. A Level 7 device is one that has an enclosed airplane-
specific flight deck and aerodynamic program with all applicable 
airplane systems operating and control loading that is representative of 
the simulated airplane throughout its ground and flight envelope and 
significant sound representation. All displays may be flat/LCD panel 
representations or actual representations of displays in the aircraft, 
but all controls, switches, and knobs must physically replicate the 
aircraft in control operation. It also has a visual system that provides 
an out-of-the-flight deck view, providing cross-flight deck viewing (for 
both pilots simultaneously) of a field-of-view of at least 180[deg] 
horizontally and 40[deg] vertically.

   25. FTD Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
                      Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.37, FTD Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation 
Safety Agreement (BASA).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 198]]

     Attachment 1 to Appendix B to Part 60--General FTD REQUIREMENTS

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                             1. Requirements

    a. Certain requirements included in this appendix must be supported 
with an SOC as defined in Appendix F, which may include objective and 
subjective tests. The requirements for SOCs are indicated in the 
``General FTD Requirements'' column in Table B1A of this appendix.
    b. Table B1A describes the requirements for the indicated level of 
FTD. Many devices include operational systems or functions that exceed 
the requirements outlined in this section. In any event, all systems 
will be tested and evaluated in accordance with this appendix to ensure 
proper operation.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              2. Discussion

    a. This attachment describes the general requirements for qualifying 
Level 4 through Level 6 FTDs. The sponsor should also consult the 
objectives tests in Attachment 2 of this appendix and the examination of 
functions and subjective tests listed in Attachment 3 of this appendix 
to determine the complete requirements for a specific level FTD.
    b. The material contained in this attachment is divided into the 
following categories:
    (1) General Flight deck Configuration.
    (2) Programming.
    (3) Equipment Operation.
    (4) Equipment and facilities for instructor/evaluator functions.
    (5) Motion System.
    (6) Visual System.
    (7) Sound System.
    c. Table B1A provides the standards for the General FTD 
Requirements.
    d. Table B1B provides the tasks that the sponsor will examine to 
determine whether the FTD satisfactorily meets the requirements for 
flight crew training, testing, and experience, and provides the tasks 
for which the simulator may be qualified.
    e. Table B1C provides the functions that an instructor/check airman 
must be able to control in the simulator.
    f. It is not required that all of the tasks that appear on the List 
of Qualified Tasks (part of the SOQ) be accomplished during the initial 
or continuing qualification evaluation.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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          Table B1C--Table of FTD System Tasks QPS requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 QPS Requirements                       Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Subjective         FTD level
             Requirements In order ---------------
               to be qualified at
             the FTD qualification
              level indicated, the
 Entry No.    FTD must be able to                          Notes
              perform at least the   4    5    6
             tasks associated with
                 that level of
                 qualification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Instructor Operating Station (IOS).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a........  Power switch(es).....   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b........  Airplane conditions..   A    X    X   e.g., GW, CG, Fuel
                                                    loading, Systems,
                                                    Ground Crew.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c........  Airports/Runways.....   X    X    X   e.g., Selection and
                                                    Presets; Surface and
                                                    Lighting controls if
                                                    equipped with a
                                                    visual system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d........  Environmental           X    X    X   e.g., Temp, Wind.
              controls.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e........  Airplane system         A    X    X
              malfunctions
              (Insertion/deletion).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f........  Locks, Freezes, and     X    X    X
              Repositioning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.g........  Sound Controls. (On/    X    X    X
              off/adjustment).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.h........  Motion/Control          A    A    A
              Loading System, as
              appropriate. On/off/
              emergency stop.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Observer Seats/Stations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a........  Position/Adjustment/    X    X   X
              Positive restraint
              system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note 1: An ``A'' in the table indicates that the system, task, or
  procedure, although not required to be present, may be examined if the
  appropriate system is in the FTD and is working properly.

  Attachment 2 to Appendix B to Part 60--Flight Training Device (FTD) 
                             Objective Tests

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              1. Discussion

    a. For the purposes of this attachment, the flight conditions 
specified in the Flight Conditions Column of Table B2A, are defined as 
follows:
    (1) Ground--on ground, independent of airplane configuration;
    (2) Take-off--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified takeoff 
position;
    (3) First segment climb--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified 
takeoff position (normally not above 50 ft AGL);
    (4) Second segment climb--gear up with flaps/slats in any certified 
takeoff position (normally between 50 ft and 400 ft AGL);
    (5) Clean--flaps/slats retracted and gear up;
    (6) Cruise--clean configuration at cruise altitude and airspeed;
    (7) Approach--gear up or down with flaps/slats at any normal 
approach position as recommended by the airplane manufacturer; and
    (8) Landing--gear down with flaps/slats in any certified landing 
position.
    b. The format for numbering the objective tests in Appendix A, 
Attachment 2, Table A2A, and the objective tests in Appendix B, 
Attachment 2, Table B2A, is identical. However, each test required for 
FFSs is not necessarily required for FTDs. Also, each test required for 
FTDs is not necessarily required for FFSs. Therefore, when a test number 
(or series of numbers) is not required, the term ``Reserved'' is used in 
the table at that location. Following this numbering format provides a 
degree of commonality between the two tables and substantially reduces 
the potential for confusion when referring to objective test numbers for 
either FFSs or FTDs.
    c. The reader is encouraged to review the Airplane Flight Simulator 
Evaluation Handbook, Volumes I and II, published by the Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK, and FAA AC 25-7, as amended, Flight 
Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes, and AC 23-
8, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes, 
for references and examples regarding flight testing requirements and 
techniques.
    d. If relevant winds are present in the objective data, the wind 
vector should be clearly noted as part of the data presentation, 
expressed in conventional terminology, and related to the runway being 
used for the test.
    e. A Level 4 FTD does not require objective tests and therefore, 
Level 4 is not addressed in the following table.

[[Page 223]]

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                          2. Test Requirements

    a. The ground and flight tests required for qualification are listed 
in Table B2A Objective Tests. Computer generated FTD test results must 
be provided for each test except where an alternate test is specifically 
authorized by the NSPM. If a flight condition or operating condition is 
required for the test but does not apply to the airplane being simulated 
or to the qualification level sought, it may be disregarded (e.g., an 
engine out missed approach for a single-engine airplane; a maneuver 
using reverse thrust for an airplane without reverse thrust capability). 
Each test result is compared against the validation data described in 
Sec. 60.13, and in Appendix B. The results must be produced on an 
appropriate recording device acceptable to the NSPM and must include FTD 
number, date, time, conditions, tolerances, and appropriate dependent 
variables portrayed in comparison to the validation data. Time histories 
are required unless otherwise indicated in Table B2A. All results must 
be labeled using the tolerances and units given.
    b. Table B2A in this attachment sets out the test results required, 
including the parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions for FTD 
validation. Tolerances are provided for the listed tests because 
mathematical modeling and acquisition and development of reference data 
are often inexact. All tolerances listed in the following tables are 
applied to FTD performance. When two tolerance values are given for a 
parameter, the less restrictive may be used unless otherwise indicated. 
In those cases where a tolerance is expressed only as a percentage, the 
tolerance percentage applies to the maximum value of that parameter 
within its normal operating range as measured from the neutral or zero 
position unless otherwise indicated.
    c. Certain tests included in this attachment must be supported with 
a SOC. In Table B2A, requirements for SOCs are indicated in the ``Test 
Details'' column.
    d. When operational or engineering judgment is used in making 
assessments for flight test data applications for FTD validity, such 
judgment may not be limited to a single parameter. For example, data 
that exhibit rapid variations of the measured parameters may require 
interpolations or a ``best fit'' data section. All relevant parameters 
related to a given maneuver or flight condition must be provided to 
allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or impossible to 
match FTD to airplane data throughout a time history, differences must 
be justified by providing a comparison of other related variables for 
the condition being assessed.
    e. It is not acceptable to program the FTD so that the mathematical 
modeling is correct only at the validation test points. Unless otherwise 
noted, FTD tests must represent airplane performance and handling 
qualities at operating weights and centers of gravity (CG) typical of 
normal operation. FTD tests at extreme weight or CG conditions may be 
acceptable where required for concurrent aircraft certification testing. 
Tests of handling qualities must include validation of augmentation 
devices.
    f. When comparing the parameters listed to those of the airplane, 
sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight 
condition and airplane configuration changes. For example, to show that 
control force is within the parameters for a static stability test, data 
to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, airplane 
configuration, altitude, and other appropriate datum identification 
parameters must also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, 
normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the airplane, 
but airspeed, altitude, control input, airplane configuration, and other 
appropriate data must also be given. If comparing landing gear change 
dynamics, pitch, airspeed, and altitude may be used to establish a match 
to the airplane, but landing gear position must also be provided. All 
airspeed values must be properly annotated (e.g., indicated versus 
calibrated). In addition, the same variables must be used for comparison 
(e.g., compare inches to inches rather than inches to centimeters).
    g. The QTG provided by the sponsor must clearly describe how the FTD 
will be set up and operated for each test. Each FTD subsystem may be 
tested independently, but overall integrated testing of the FTD must be 
accomplished to assure that the total FTD system meets the prescribed 
standards. A manual test procedure with explicit and detailed steps for 
completing each test must also be provided.
    h. For previously qualified FTDs, the tests and tolerances of this 
attachment may be used in subsequent continuing qualification 
evaluations for any given test if the sponsor has submitted a proposed 
MQTG revision to the NSPM and has received NSPM approval.
    i. FTDs are evaluated and qualified with an engine model simulating 
the airplane data supplier's flight test engine. For qualification of 
alternative engine models (either variations of the flight test engines 
or other manufacturer's engines) additional tests with the alternative 
engine models may be required. This attachment contains guidelines for 
alternative engines.
    j. Testing Computer Controlled Aircraft (CCA) simulators, or other 
highly augmented airplane simulators, flight test data is required for 
the Normal (N) and/or Non-normal

[[Page 224]]

(NN) control states, as indicated in this attachment. Where test results 
are independent of control state, Normal or Non-normal control data may 
be used. All tests in Table B2A require test results in the Normal 
control state unless specifically noted otherwise in the Test Details 
section following the CCA designation. The NSPM will determine what 
tests are appropriate for airplane simulation data. When making this 
determination, the NSPM may require other levels of control state 
degradation for specific airplane tests. Where Non-normal control states 
are required, test data must be provided for one or more Non-normal 
control states, and must include the least augmented state. Where 
applicable, flight test data must record Normal and Non-normal states 
for:
    (1) Pilot controller deflections or electronically generated inputs, 
including location of input; and
    (2) Flight control surface positions unless test results are not 
affected by, or are independent of, surface positions.
    k. Tests of handling qualities must include validation of 
augmentation devices. FTDs for highly augmented airplanes will be 
validated both in the unaugmented configuration (or failure state with 
the maximum permitted degradation in handling qualities) and the 
augmented configuration. Where various levels of handling qualities 
result from failure states, validation of the effect of the failure is 
necessary. Requirements for testing will be mutually agreed to between 
the sponsor and the NSPM on a case-by-case basis.
    l. Some tests will not be required for airplanes using airplane 
hardware in the FTD flight deck (e.g., ``side stick controller''). These 
exceptions are noted in Section 2 ``Handling Qualities'' in Table B2A of 
this attachment. However, in these cases, the sponsor must provide a 
statement that the airplane hardware meets the appropriate 
manufacturer's specifications and the sponsor must have supporting 
information to that fact available for NSPM review.
    m. For objective test purposes, see Appendix F of this part for the 
definitions of ``Near maximum,'' ``Light,'' and ``Medium'' gross weight.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    n. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot test results'' in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot.'' The steady state condition must exist from 4 seconds prior 
to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by the snap 
shot.
    o. Refer to AC 120-27, ``Aircraft Weight and Balance'' and FAA-H-
8083-1, ``Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook'' for more information.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

 3. For additional information on the following topics, please refer to 
   Appendix A, Attachment 2, and the indicated paragraph within that 
                               attachment

      Control Dynamics, paragraph 4.
      Motion System, paragraph 6.
      Sound System, paragraph 7.
      Engineering Simulator Validation Data, paragraph 9.
      Validation Test Tolerances, paragraph 11.
      Validation Data Road Map, paragraph 12.
      Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative Engines Data, 
paragraph 13.
      Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative Avionics, paragraph 
14.
      Transport Delay Testing, paragraph 15.
      Continuing Qualification Evaluation Validation Data 
Presentation, paragraph 16.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

              4. Alternative Objective Data for FTD Level 5

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. This paragraph (including the following tables) is relevant only 
to FTD Level 5. It is provided because this level is required to 
simulate the performance and handling characteristics of a set of 
airplanes with similar characteristics, such as normal airspeed/altitude 
operating envelope and the same number and type of propulsion systems 
(engines).
    b. Tables B2B through B2E reflect FTD performance standards that are 
acceptable to the FAA. A sponsor must demonstrate that a device performs 
within these parameters, as applicable. If a device does not meet the 
established performance parameters for some or for all of the applicable 
tests listed in Tables B2B through B2E, the sponsor may use NSP accepted 
flight test data for comparison purposes for those tests.
    c. Sponsors using the data from Tables B2B through B2E must comply 
with the following:
    (1) Submit a complete QTG, including results from all of the 
objective tests appropriate for the level of qualification sought as set 
out in Table B2A. The QTG must highlight those results that demonstrate 
the performance of the FTD is within the allowable performance ranges 
indicated in Tables B2B through B2E, as appropriate.
    (2) The QTG test results must include all relevant information 
concerning the conditions under which the test was conducted; e.g., 
gross weight, center of gravity, airspeed, power setting, altitude 
(climbing, descending, or level), temperature, configuration, and any 
other parameter that impacts the conduct of the test.
    (3) The test results become the validation data against which the 
initial and all subsequent continuing qualification evaluations are 
compared. These subsequent evaluations will use the tolerances listed in 
Table B2A.
    (4) Subjective testing of the device must be performed to determine 
that the device performs and handles like an airplane within the 
appropriate set of airplanes.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    d. The reader is encouraged to consult the Airplane Flight Simulator 
Evaluation Handbook, Volumes I and II, published by the Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK, and AC 25-7, Flight Test Guide for 
Certification of Transport Category Airplanes, and AC 23-8A, Flight Test 
Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes, as amended, for references 
and examples regarding flight testing requirements and techniques.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

 5. Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation: Level 6 
                                FTD Only

    a. Sponsors are not required to use the alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation. However, a sponsor may choose to use 
one or more of the alternative sources, procedures, and instrumentation 
described in Table B2F.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    b. It has become standard practice for experienced FTD manufacturers 
to use such techniques as a means of establishing data bases for new FTD 
configurations while awaiting the availability of actual flight test 
data; and then comparing this new data with the newly available flight 
test data. The results of such comparisons have, as reported by some 
recognized and experienced simulation experts, become increasingly 
consistent and indicate that these techniques, applied with appropriate 
experience, are becoming dependably accurate for the development of 
aerodynamic models for use in Level 6 FTDs.
    c. In reviewing this history, the NSPM has concluded that, with 
proper care, those who are experienced in the development of aerodynamic 
models for FTD application can successfully use these modeling 
techniques to acceptably alter the method by which flight test data may 
be acquired and, when applied to Level 6 FTDs, does not compromise the 
quality of that simulation.
    d. The information in the table that follows (Table of Alternative 
Data Sources, Procedures, and Information: Level 6 FTD Only) is 
presented to describe an acceptable alternative to data sources for 
Level 6 FTD modeling and validation, and an acceptable alternative to 
the procedures and instrumentation found in the flight test methods 
traditionally accepted for gathering modeling and validation data.
    (1) Alternative data sources that may be used for part or all of a 
data requirement are the Airplane Maintenance Manual, the Airplane 
Flight Manual (AFM), Airplane Design Data, the Type Inspection Report 
(TIR), Certification Data or acceptable supplemental flight test data.
    (2) The NSPM recommends that use of the alternative instrumentation 
noted in Table B2F be coordinated with the NSPM prior to employment in a 
flight test or data gathering effort.
    e. The NSPM position regarding the use of these alternative data 
sources, procedures, and instrumentation is based on three primary 
preconditions and presumptions regarding the objective data and FTD 
aerodynamic program modeling.
    (1) Data gathered through the alternative means does not require 
angle of attack (AOA) measurements or control surface position 
measurements for any flight test. AOA can be sufficiently derived if the 
flight test program insures the collection of acceptable level, 
unaccelerated, trimmed flight data. Angle of attack may be validated by 
conducting the three basic ``fly-by'' trim tests. The FTD time history 
tests should begin in level, unaccelerated, and trimmed flight, and the 
results should be compared with the flight test pitch angle.
    (2) A simulation controls system model should be rigorously defined 
and fully mature. It should also include accurate gearing and cable 
stretch characteristics (where applicable) that are determined from 
actual aircraft measurements. Such a model does not require control 
surface position measurements in the flight test objective data for 
Level 6 FTD applications.
    f. Table B2F is not applicable to Computer Controlled Aircraft FTDs.
    g. Utilization of these alternate data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation does not relieve the sponsor from compliance with the 
balance of the information contained in this document relative to Level 
6 FTDs.
    h. The term ``inertial measurement system'' allows the use of a 
functional global positioning system (GPS).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                Table B2F--Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation Level 6 FTD
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   QPS Requirements The standards in this table are required if the data gathering          Information
            methods described in paragraph 9 of Appendix B are not used.             ---------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Objective test reference number and     Alternative data sources, procedures, and             Notes
                  title                                 instrumentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.1...................................  Data may be acquired through a              This test is required only
Performance.............................   synchronized video recording of a stop      if RTO is sought.
Takeoff.................................   watch and the calibrated airplane
Ground acceleration time................   airspeed indicator. Hand-record the
                                           flight conditions and airplane
                                           configuration.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

[[Page 282]]

 
1.b.7...................................  Data may be acquired through a              This test is required only
Performance.............................   synchronized video recording of a stop      if RTO is sought.
Takeoff.................................   watch and the calibrated airplane
Rejected takeoff........................   airspeed indicator. Hand-record the
                                           flight conditions and airplane
                                           configuration.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
1.c.1...................................  Data may be acquired with a synchronized
Performance.............................   video of calibrated airplane instruments
Climb...................................   and engine power throughout the climb
Normal climb all engines operating......   range.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
1.f.1...................................  Data may be acquired with a synchronized
Performance.............................   video recording of engine instruments and
Engines.................................   throttle position.
Acceleration............................
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
1.f.2...................................  Data may be acquired with a synchronized
Performance.............................   video recording of engine instruments and
Engines.................................   throttle position.
Deceleration............................
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.a.1.a.................................  Surface position data may be acquired from  For airplanes with
Handling qualities......................   flight data recorder (FDR) sensor or, if    reversible control
Static control tests....................   no FDR sensor, at selected, significant     systems, surface position
Pitch controller position vs. force and    column positions (encompassing              data acquisition should
 surface position calibration..            significant column position data points),   be accomplished with
                                           acceptable to the NSPM, using a control     winds less than 5 kts.
                                           surface protractor on the ground. Force
                                           data may be acquired by using a hand held
                                           force gauge at the same column position
                                           data points.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.a.2.a.................................  Surface position data may be acquired from  For airplanes with
Handling qualities......................   flight data recorder (FDR) sensor or, if    reversible control
Static control tests....................   no FDR sensor, at selected, significant     systems, surface position
Wheel position vs. force and surface       wheel positions (encompassing significant   data acquisition should
 position calibration..                    wheel position data points), acceptable     be accomplished with
                                           to the NSPM, using a control surface        winds less than 5 kts.
                                           protractor on the ground. Force data may
                                           be acquired by using a hand held force
                                           gauge at the same wheel position data
                                           points.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.a.3.a.................................  Surface position data may be acquired from  For airplanes with
Handling qualities......................   flight data recorder (FDR) sensor or, if    reversible control
Static control tests....................   no FDR sensor, at selected, significant     systems, surface position
Rudder pedal position vs. force and        rudder pedal positions (encompassing        data acquisition should
 surface position calibration..            significant rudder pedal position data      be accomplished with
                                           points), acceptable to the NSPM, using a    winds less than 5 kts.
                                           control surface protractor on the ground.
                                           Force data may be acquired by using a
                                           hand held force gauge at the same rudder
                                           pedal position data points.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.a.4...................................  Breakout data may be acquired with a hand
Handling qualities......................   held force gauge. The remainder of the
Static control tests....................   force to the stops may be calculated if
Nosewheel steering force................   the force gauge and a protractor are used
                                           to measure force after breakout for at
                                           least 25% of the total displacement
                                           capability.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.a.5...................................  Data may be acquired through the use of
Handling qualities......................   force pads on the rudder pedals and a
Static control tests....................   pedal position measurement device,
Rudder pedal steering calibration.......   together with design data for nosewheel
                                           position.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll

[[Page 283]]

 
2.a.6...................................  Data may be acquired through calculations.
Handling qualities......................
Static control tests....................
Pitch trim indicator vs. surface
 position calibration..
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.a.8...................................  Data may be acquired through the use of a
Handling qualities......................   temporary throttle quadrant scale to
Static control tests....................   document throttle position. Use a
Alignment of power lever angle vs.         synchronized video to record steady state
 selected engine parameter (e.g., EPR,     instrument readings or hand-record steady
 N1, Torque, Manifold pressure)..          state engine performance readings.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.a.9...................................  Use of design or predicted data is
Handling qualities......................   acceptable. Data may be acquired by
Static control tests....................   measuring deflection at ``zero'' and at
Brake pedal position vs. force..........   ``maximum.''
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.1...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial   Power change dynamics test
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized       is acceptable using the
Longitudinal control tests..............   video of the calibrated airplane            same data acquisition
Power change force......................   instruments, throttle position, and the     methodology.
                                           force/position measurements of flight
                                           deck controls.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.c.2...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial   Flap/slat change dynamics
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized       test is acceptable using
Longitudinal control tests..............   video of calibrated airplane instruments,   the same data acquisition
Flap/slat change force..................   flap/slat position, and the force/          methodology.
                                           position measurements of flight deck
                                           controls.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.c.4...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial   Gear change dynamics test
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized       is acceptable using the
Longitudinal control tests..............   video of the calibrated airplane            same data acquisition
Gear change force.......................   instruments, gear position, and the force/  methodology.
                                           position measurements of flight deck
                                           controls.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
2.c.5...................................  Data may be acquired through use of an
Handling qualities......................   inertial measurement system and a
Longitudinal control tests..............   synchronized video of flight deck
Longitudinal trim.......................   controls position (previously calibrated
                                           to show related surface position) and
                                           engine instrument readings.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.6...................................  Data may be acquired through the use of an
Handling qualities......................   inertial measurement system and a
Longitudinal control tests..............   synchronized video of the calibrated
Longitudinal maneuvering stability         airplane instruments; a temporary, high
 (stick force/g)..                         resolution bank angle scale affixed to
                                           the attitude indicator; and a wheel and
                                           column force measurement indication.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.7...................................  Data may be acquired through the use of a
Handling qualities......................   synchronized video of the airplane flight
Longitudinal control tests..............   instruments and a hand held force gauge.
Longitudinal static stability...........
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.8...................................  Data may be acquired through a              Airspeeds may be cross
Handling qualities......................   synchronized video recording of a stop      checked with those in the
Longitudinal control tests..............   watch and the calibrated airplane           TIR and AFM.
Stall Warning (activation of stall         airspeed indicator. Hand-record the
 warning device)..                         flight conditions and airplane
                                           configuration.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

[[Page 284]]

 
2.c.9.a.................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Longitudinal control tests..............   video of the calibrated airplane
Phugoid dynamics........................   instruments and the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck controls.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.10..................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Longitudinal control tests..............   video of the calibrated airplane
Short period dynamics...................   instruments and the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck controls.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.c.11..................................  May use design data, production flight
Handling qualities......................   test schedule, or maintenance
Longitudinal control tests..............   specification, together with an SOC.
Gear and flap/slat operating times......
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.2...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
Roll response (rate)....................   instruments and the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck lateral
                                           controls.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.3...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
(a) Roll overshoot......................   instruments and the force/position
OR......................................   measurements of flight deck lateral
(b) Roll response to flight deck roll      controls.
 controller step input..
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.4...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
Spiral stability........................   instruments; the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck controls; and
                                           a stop watch.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.6.a.................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
Rudder response.........................   instruments; the force/position
                                           measurements of rudder pedals.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.7...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
Dutch roll, (yaw damper OFF)............   instruments and the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck controls.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
2.d.8...................................  Data may be acquired by using an inertial
Handling qualities......................   measurement system and a synchronized
Lateral directional tests...............   video of the calibrated airplane
Steady state sideslip...................   instruments and the force/position
                                           measurements of flight deck controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Attachment 3 to Appendix B to Part 60--Flight Training Device (FTD) 
                          Subjective Evaluation

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              1. Discussion

    a. The subjective tests provide a basis for evaluating the 
capability of the FTD to perform over a typical utilization period. The 
items listed in the Table of Functions and Subjective Tests are used to 
determine whether the FTD competently simulates each required maneuver, 
procedure, or task; and verifying correct operation of the FTD controls, 
instruments, and systems. The tasks do not limit or exceed the 
authorizations for use of a given level of FTD as described on the SOQ 
or as approved by the TPAA. All items in the following paragraphs are 
subject to examination.
    b. All simulated airplane systems functions will be assessed for 
normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Simulated airplane 
systems are listed separately under ``Any Flight Phase'' to ensure 
appropriate attention to systems checks. Operational

[[Page 285]]

navigation systems (including inertial navigation systems, global 
positioning systems, or other long-range systems) and the associated 
electronic display systems will be evaluated if installed. The NSP pilot 
will include in his report to the TPAA, the effect of the system 
operation and any system limitation.
    c. At the request of the TPAA, the NSP Pilot may assess the FTD for 
a special aspect of a sponsor's training program during the functions 
and subjective portion of an evaluation. Such an assessment may include 
a portion of a specific operation (e.g., a Line Oriented Flight Training 
(LOFT) scenario) or special emphasis items in the sponsor's training 
program. Unless directly related to a requirement for the qualification 
level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the 
qualification of the FTD.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

     Table B3A--Table of Functions and Subjective Tests Level 6 FTD
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Entry No.                        Operations tasks
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Tasks in this table are subject to evaluation if appropriate for the
      airplane system or systems simulated as indicated in the SOQ
 Configuration List as defined in Appendix B, Attachment 2 of this part.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Preflight
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Accomplish a functions check of all installed
                       switches, indicators, systems, and equipment at
                       all crewmembers' and instructors' stations, and
                       determine that the flight deck (or flight deck
                       area) design and functions replicate the
                       appropriate airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Surface Operations (pre-takeoff)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.................  Engine start:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.1...............  Normal start.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2...............  Alternative procedures start.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3...............  Abnormal procedures start/shut down.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.................  Pushback/Powerback (powerback requires visual
                       system).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Takeoff (requires appropriate visual system as set out in Table B1A,
 item 6; Appendix B, Attachment 1.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.................  Instrument takeoff:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.1...............  Engine checks (e.g., engine parameter
                       relationships, propeller/mixture controls).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.2...............  Acceleration characteristics.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.3...............  Nosewheel/rudder steering.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.4...............  Landing gear, wing flap, leading edge device
                       operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.................  Rejected takeoff:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.1...............  Deceleration characteristics.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.2...............  Brakes/engine reverser/ground spoiler operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.3...............  Nosewheel/rudder steering.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. In-Flight Operations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a.................  Normal climb.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.................  Cruise:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.1...............  Demonstration of performance characteristics
                       (speed vs. power).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.2...............  Normal turns.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.3...............  Demonstration of high altitude handling.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.4...............  Demonstration of high airspeed handling/overspeed
                       warning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.5...............  Demonstration of Mach effects on control and trim.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 286]]

 
4.b.6...............  Steep turns.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.7...............  In-Flight engine shutdown (procedures only).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.8...............  In-Flight engine restart (procedures only).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.9...............  Specific flight characteristics.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.10..............  Response to loss of flight control power.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.11..............  Response to other flight control system failure
                       modes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.12..............  Operations during icing conditions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.13..............  Effects of airframe/engine icing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.................  Other flight phase:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1...............  Approach to stalls in the following
                       configurations:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1.a.............  Cruise.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1.b.............  Takeoff or approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1.c.............  Landing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2...............  High angle of attack maneuvers in the following
                       configurations:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2.a.............  Cruise.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2.b.............  Takeoff or approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2.c.............  Landing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.3...............  Slow flight.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.4...............  Holding.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Approaches
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.                  Non-precision Instrument Approaches:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.1...............  With use of autopilot and autothrottle, as
                       applicable.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.2...............  Without use of autopilot and autothrottle, as
                       applicable.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.3...............  With 10 knot tail wind.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.4...............  With 10 knot crosswind.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.................  Precision Instrument Approaches:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.1...............  With use of autopilot, autothrottle, and autoland,
                       as applicable.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.2...............  Without use of autopilot, autothrottle, and
                       autoland, as applicable.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.3...............  With 10 knot tail wind.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.4...............  With 10 knot crosswind.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Missed Approach
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.................  Manually controlled.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.................  Automatically controlled (if applicable).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Any Flight Phase, as appropriate
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a.................  Normal system operation (installed systems).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b.................  Abnormal/Emergency system operation (installed
                       systems).
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 287]]

 
7.c.................  Flap operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d.................  Landing gear operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e.................  Engine Shutdown and Parking.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e.1...............  Systems operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e.2...............  Parking brake operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Instructor Operating Station (IOS), as appropriate. Functions in this
 section are subject to evaluation only if appropriate for the airplane
 and/or installed on the specific FTD involved
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.a.................  Power Switch(es).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.................  Airplane conditions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.1...............  Gross weight, center of gravity, and fuel loading
                       and allocation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.2...............  Airplane systems status.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.3...............  Ground crew functions (e.g., external power, push
                       back).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.................  Airports.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.1...............  Selection.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.2...............  Runway selection.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.3...............  Preset positions (e.g., ramp, over FAF).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d.................  Environmental controls.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d.1...............  Temperature.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d.2...............  Climate conditions (e.g., ice, rain).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d.3...............  Wind speed and direction.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e.................  Airplane system malfunctions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e.1...............  Insertion/deletion.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e.2...............  Problem clear.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.................  Locks, Freezes, and Repositioning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.1...............  Problem (all) freeze/release.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.2...............  Position (geographic) freeze/release.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.3...............  Repositioning (locations, freezes, and releases).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.4...............  Ground speed control.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f.5...............  Remote IOS, if installed.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Sound Controls. On/off/adjustment
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. Control Loading System (as applicable) On/off/emergency stop.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11. Observer Stations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a................  Position.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b................  Adjustments.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          End QPS Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 288]]


     Table B3B--Table of Functions and Subjective Tests Level 5 FTD
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Operations tasks Tasks in this table are subject
                         to evaluation if appropriate for the airplane
      Entry No.         system or systems simulated as indicated in the
                       SOQ Configuration List as defined in Appendix B,
                                  Attachment 2 of this part.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Preflight
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Accomplish a functions check of all installed
                       switches, indicators, systems, and equipment at
                       all crewmembers' and instructors' stations, and
                       determine that the flight deck (or flight deck
                       area) design and functions replicate the
                       appropriate airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Surface Operations (pre-takeoff)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.................  Engine start (if installed):
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.1...............  Normal start.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2...............  Alternative procedures start.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3...............  Abnormal/Emergency procedures start/shut down.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. In-Flight Operations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.................  Normal climb.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.................  Cruise:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.1...............  Performance characteristics (speed vs. power).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.2...............  Normal turns.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c.................  Normal descent.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Approaches
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a.................  Coupled instrument approach maneuvers (as
                       applicable for the systems installed).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Any Flight Phase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.................  Normal system operation (Installed systems).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.................  Abnormal/Emergency system operation (Installed
                       systems).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c.................  Flap operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d.................  Landing gear operation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.................  Engine Shutdown and Parking (if installed).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.1...............  Systems operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.2...............  Parking brake operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Instructor Operating Station (IOS)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.................  Power Switch(es).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.................  Preset positions--ground, air.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.................  Airplane system malfunctions (Installed systems).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.1...............  Insertion/deletion.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.2...............  Problem clear.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 289]]


     Table B3C--Table of Functions and Subjective Tests Level 4 FTD
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Operations tasks Tasks in this table are subject
                         to evaluation if appropriate for the airplane
      Entry No.         system or systems simulated as indicated in the
                       SOQ Configuration List as defined in Appendix B,
                                  Attachment 2 of this part.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1...................  Level 4 FTDs are required to have at least one
                       operational system. The NSPM will accomplish a
                       functions check of all installed systems,
                       switches, indicators, and equipment at all
                       crewmembers' and instructors' stations, and
                       determine that the flight deck (or flight deck
                       area) design and functions replicate the
                       appropriate airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


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         Attachment 4 to Appendix B to Part 60--Sample Documents

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                            Table of Contents

                             Title of Sample

Figure B4A  Sample Letter, Request for Initial, Upgrade, or 
          Reinstatement Evaluation
Figure B4B  Attachment: FTD Information Form
Figure B4C  Sample Letter of Compliance
Figure B4D  Sample Qualification Test Guide Cover Page
Figure B4E  Sample Statement of Qualification--Certificate
Figure B4F  Sample Statement of Qualification--Configuration List
Figure B4G  Sample Statement of Qualification--List of Qualified Tasks
Figure B4H  Sample Continuing Qualification Evaluation Requirements Page
Figure B4I  Sample MQTG Index of Effective FTD Directives

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[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 73 FR 26490, May 9, 2008, as amended by Docket 
FAA-2014-0391, Amdt. 60-4, 81 FR 18306, 18307, 18327, and 18376, Mar. 
30, 2016; 81 FR 32087, 32110, 32111, and 32165, May 20, 2016]
      
      



  Sec. Appendix C to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
                    Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    This appendix establishes the standards for Helicopter FFS 
evaluation and qualification. The NSPM is responsible for the 
development, application, and implementation of the standards contained 
within this appendix. The procedures and criteria specified in this 
appendix will be used by the NSPM, or a person assigned by the NSPM, 
when conducting helicopter FFS evaluations.

                            Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
2. Applicability (Sec. 60.1) and (Sec. 60.2).
3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3).
4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4).
5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5).
6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.7).
7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9).
8. FFS Use (Sec. 60.11).
9. FFS Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13).
10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
          the FFS (Sec. 60.14).
11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15).
12. Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS 
          (Sec. 60.16).
13. Previously Qualified FFSs (Sec. 60.17).
14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification Evaluation, and Maintenance 
          Requirements (Sec. 60.19).
15. Logging FFS Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20).
16. Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Helicopter Types or Models 
          (Sec. 60.21).
17. Modifications to FFSs (Sec. 60.23).
18. Operations with Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
          (Sec. 60.25).
19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.27).
20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
          Qualification (Sec. 60.29).
21. Record Keeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31).
22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
          or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33).
23. [Reserved]
24. [Reserved]

[[Page 316]]

25. FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
          Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37).
Attachment 1 to Appendix C to Part 60--General Simulator Requirements.
Attachment 2 to Appendix C to Part 60--FFS Objective Tests.
Attachment 3 to Appendix C to Part 60--Simulator Subjective Evaluation.
Attachment 4 to Appendix C to Part 60--Sample Documents.
Attachment 5 to Appendix C to Part 60--FSTD Directives Applicable to 
          Helicopter FFSs

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             1. Introduction

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. This appendix contains background information as well as 
regulatory and informative material as described later in this section. 
To assist the reader in determining what areas are required and what 
areas are permissive, the text in this appendix is divided into two 
sections: ``QPS Requirements'' and ``Information.'' The QPS Requirements 
sections contain details regarding compliance with the part 60 rule 
language. These details are regulatory, but are found only in this 
appendix. The Information sections contain material that is advisory in 
nature, and designed to give the user general information about the 
regulation.
    b. Questions regarding the contents of this publication should be 
sent to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation 
Administration, Flight Standards Service, National Simulator Program 
Staff, AFS-205, 100 Hartsfield Centre Parkway, Suite 400, Atlanta, 
Georgia, 30354. Telephone contact numbers for the NSP are: phone, 404-
832-4700; fax, 404-761-8906. The general e-mail address for the NSP 
office is: [email protected] The NSP Internet Web site address 
is: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/
nsp/. On this Web Site you will find an NSP personnel list with 
telephone and e-mail contact information for each NSP staff member, a 
list of qualified flight simulation devices, ACs, a description of the 
qualification process, NSP policy, and an NSP ``In-Works'' section. Also 
linked from this site are additional information sources, handbook 
bulletins, frequently asked questions, a listing and text of the Federal 
Aviation Regulations, Flight Standards Inspector's handbooks, and other 
FAA links.
    c. The NSPM encourages the use of electronic media for all 
communication, including any record, report, request, test, or statement 
required by this appendix. The electronic media used must have adequate 
security provisions and be acceptable to the NSPM. The NSPM recommends 
inquiries on system compatibility, and minimum system requirements are 
also included on the NSP Web site.
    d. Related Reading References.
    (1) 14 CFR part 60.
    (2) 14 CFR part 61.
    (3) 14 CFR part 63.
    (4) 14 CFR part 119.
    (5) 14 CFR part 121.
    (6) 14 CFR part 125.
    (7) 14 CFR part 135.
    (8) 14 CFR part 141.
    (9) 14 CFR part 142.
    (10) AC 120-35, as amended, Line Operational Simulations: Line-
Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line 
Operational Evaluation.
    (11) AC 120-57, as amended, Surface Movement Guidance and Control 
System (SMGCS).
    (12) AC 120-63, as amended, Helicopter Simulator Qualification.
    (13) AC 150/5300-13, as amended, Airport Design.
    (14) AC 150/5340-1, as amended, Standards for Airport Markings.
    (15) AC 150/5340-4, as amended, Installation Details for Runway 
Centerline Touchdown Zone Lighting Systems.
    (16) AC 150/5340-19, as amended, Taxiway Centerline Lighting System.
    (17) AC 150/5340-24, as amended, Runway and Taxiway Edge Lighting 
System.
    (18) AC 150/5345-28, as amended, Precision Approach Path Indicator 
(PAPI) Systems
    (19) AC 150/5390-2, as amended, Heliport Design
    (20) International Air Transport Association document, ``Flight 
Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements,'' as amended.
    (21) AC 29-2, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Transport Category Rotorcraft.
    (22) AC 27-1, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of 
Normal Category Rotorcraft.
    (23) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual of 
Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators, as amended.
    (24) Airplane Flight Simulator Evaluation Handbook, Volume I, as 
amended and Volume II, as amended, The Royal Aeronautical Society, 
London, UK.
    (25) FAA Publication FAA-S-8081 series (Practical Test Standards for 
Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, Type Ratings, Commercial Pilot, and 
Instrument Ratings).
    (26) The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). An electronic 
version of the AIM is on the Internet at http://www.faa.gov/atpubs.

[[Page 317]]

    (27) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document number 436, titled 
Guidelines For Electronic Qualification Test Guide (as amended).
    (28) Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) document 610, Guidance for 
Design and Integration of Aircraft Avionics Equipment in Simulators (as 
amended).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                 2. Applicability (Secs. 60.1 and 60.2)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.1, Applicability, or to Sec. 60.2, Applicability of sponsor 
rules to person who are not sponsors and who are engaged in certain 
unauthorized activities.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                       3. Definitions (Sec. 60.3)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    See Appendix F of this part for a list of definitions and 
abbreviations from part 1 and part 60, including the appropriate 
appendices of part 60.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

           4. Qualification Performance Standards (Sec. 60.4)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.4, Qualification Performance Standards.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                5. Quality Management System (Sec. 60.5)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    See Appendix E of this part for additional regulatory and 
informational material regarding Quality Management Systems.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

            6. Sponsor Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.7)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The intent of the language in Sec. 60.7(b) is to have a specific 
FFS, identified by the sponsor, used at least once in an FAA-approved 
flight training program for the helicopter simulated during the 12-month 
period described. The identification of the specific FFS may change from 
one 12-month period to the next 12-month period as long as that sponsor 
sponsors and uses at least one FFS at least once during the prescribed 
period. There is no minimum number of hours or minimum FFS periods 
required.
    b. The following examples describe acceptable operational practices:
    (1) Example One.
    (a) A sponsor is sponsoring a single, specific FFS for its own use, 
in its own facility or elsewhere--this single FFS forms the basis for 
the sponsorship. The sponsor uses that FFS at least once in each 12-
month period in that sponsor's FAA-approved flight training program for 
the helicopter simulated. This 12-month period is established according 
to the following schedule:
    (i) If the FFS was qualified prior to May 30, 2008, the 12-month 
period begins on the date of the first continuing qualification 
evaluation conducted in accordance with Sec. 60.19 after May 30, 2008, 
and continues for each subsequent 12-month period;
    (ii) A device qualified on or after May 30, 2008, will be required 
to undergo an initial or upgrade evaluation in accordance with 
Sec. 60.15. Once the initial or upgrade evaluation is complete, the 
first continuing qualification evaluation will be conducted within 6 
months. The 12 month continuing qualification evaluation cycle begins on 
that date and continues for each subsequent 12-month period.
    (b) There is no minimum number of hours of FFS use required.
    (c) The identification of the specific FFS may change from one 12-
month period to the next 12-month period as long as that sponsor 
sponsors and uses at least one FFS at least once during the prescribed 
period.
    (2) Example Two.
    (a) A sponsor sponsors an additional number of FFSs, in its facility 
or elsewhere. Each additionally sponsored FFS must be--
    (i) Used by the sponsor in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight 
training program for the helicopter simulated (as described in 
Sec. 60.7(d)(1)); or
    (ii) Used by another FAA certificate holder in that other 
certificate holder's FAA-approved flight training program for the 
helicopter simulated (as described in Sec. 60.7(d)(1)). This 12-month 
period is established in the same manner as in example one; or
    (iii) Provided a statement each year from a qualified pilot, (after 
having flown the helicopter, not the subject FFS or another FFS,

[[Page 318]]

during the preceding 12-month period) stating that the subject FFS's 
performance and handling qualities represent the helicopter (as 
described in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)). This statement is provided at least once 
in each 12-month period established in the same manner as in example 
one.
    (b) There is no minimum number of hours of FFS use required.
    (3) Example Three.
    (a) A sponsor in New York (in this example, a Part 142 certificate 
holder) establishes ``satellite'' training centers in Chicago and 
Moscow.
    (b) The satellite function means that the Chicago and Moscow centers 
must operate under the New York center's certificate (in accordance with 
all of the New York center's practices, procedures, and policies; e.g., 
instructor and/or technician training/checking requirements, record 
keeping, QMS program).
    (c) All of the FFSs in the Chicago and Moscow centers could be dry-
leased (i.e., the certificate holder does not have and use FAA-approved 
flight training programs for the FFSs in the Chicago and Moscow centers) 
because--
    (i) Each FFS in the Chicago center and each FFS in the Moscow center 
is used at least once each 12-month period by another FAA certificate 
holder in that other certificate holder's FAA-approved flight training 
program for the helicopter (as described in Sec. 60.7(d)(1)); OR
    (ii) A statement is obtained from a qualified pilot (having flown 
the helicopter, not the subject FFS or another FFS during the preceding 
12-month period) stating that the performance and handling qualities of 
each FFS in the Chicago and Moscow centers represents the helicopter (as 
described in Sec. 60.7(d)(2)).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________
    7. Additional Responsibilities of the Sponsor (Sec. 60.9).

                            Begin Information

    The phrase ``as soon as practicable'' in Sec. 60.9(a) means without 
unnecessarily disrupting or delaying beyond a reasonable time the 
training, evaluation, or experience being conducted in the FFS.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         8. FFS Use (Sec. 60.11)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.11, FFS Use.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

             9. FFS Objective Data Requirements (Sec. 60.13)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. Flight test data used to validate FFS performance and handling 
qualities must have been gathered in accordance with a flight test 
program containing the following:
    (1) A flight test plan consisting of:
    (a) The maneuvers and procedures required for aircraft certification 
and simulation programming and validation
    (b) For each maneuver or procedure--
    (i) The procedures and control input the flight test pilot and/or 
engineer used.
    (ii) The atmospheric and environmental conditions.
    (iii) The initial flight conditions.
    (iv) The helicopter configuration, including weight and center of 
gravity.
    (v) The data to be gathered.
    (vi) All other information necessary to recreate the flight test 
conditions in the FFS.
    (2) Appropriately qualified flight test personnel.
    (3) An understanding of the accuracy of the data to be gathered 
using appropriate alternative data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation that is traceable to a recognized standard as described 
in Attachment 2, Table C2D of this appendix.
    (4) Appropriate and sufficient data acquisition equipment or 
system(s), including appropriate data reduction and analysis methods and 
techniques, acceptable to the FAA's Aircraft Certification Service.
    b. The data, regardless of source, must be presented:
    (1) In a format that supports the FFS validation process;
    (2) In a manner that is clearly readable and annotated correctly and 
completely;
    (3) With resolution sufficient to determine compliance with the 
tolerances set forth in Attachment 2, Table C2A of this appendix.
    (4) With any necessary instructions or other details provided, such 
as Stability Augmentation System (SAS) or throttle position; and
    (5) Without alteration, adjustments, or bias. Data may be corrected 
to address known data calibration errors provided that an explanation of 
the methods used to correct the errors appears in the QTG. The corrected 
data may be re-scaled, digitized, or otherwise manipulated to fit the 
desired presentation.
    c. After completion of any additional flight test, a flight test 
report must be submitted in support of the validation data. The report 
must contain sufficient data and rationale to

[[Page 319]]

support qualification of the FFS at the level requested.
    d. As required by Sec. 60.13(f), the sponsor must notify the NSPM 
when it becomes aware that an addition to, an amendment to, or a 
revision of data that may relate to FFS performance or handling 
characteristics is available. The data referred to in this paragraph is 
data used to validate the performance, handling qualities, or other 
characteristics of the aircraft, including data related to any relevant 
changes occurring after the type certificate was issued. The sponsor 
must--
    (1) Within 10 calendar days, notify the NSPM of the existence of 
this data; and
    (2) Within 45 calendar days, notify the NSPM of--
    (a) The schedule to incorporate this data into the FFS; or
    (b) The reason for not incorporating this data into the FFS.
    e. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot test results'' in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot.'' The steady state condition must exist from 4 seconds prior 
to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by the snap 
shot.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    f. The FFS sponsor is encouraged to maintain a liaison with the 
manufacturer of the aircraft being simulated (or with the holder of the 
aircraft type certificate for the aircraft being simulated if the 
manufacturer is no longer in business), and, if appropriate, with the 
person who supplied the aircraft data package for the FFS in order to 
facilitate the notification required by Sec. 60.13(f).
    g. It is the intent of the NSPM that for new aircraft entering 
service, at a point well in advance of preparation of the QTG, the 
sponsor should submit to the NSPM for approval, a descriptive document 
(see Table C2D, Sample Validation Data Roadmap for Helicopters) 
containing the plan for acquiring the validation data, including data 
sources. This document should clearly identify sources of data for all 
required tests, a description of the validity of these data for a 
specific engine type and thrust rating configuration, and the revision 
levels of all avionics affecting the performance or flying qualities of 
the aircraft. Additionally, this document should provide other 
information, such as the rationale or explanation for cases where data 
or data parameters are missing, instances where engineering simulation 
data are used or where flight test methods require further explanations. 
It should also provide a brief narrative describing the cause and effect 
of any deviation from data requirements. The aircraft manufacturer may 
provide this document.
    h. There is no requirement for any flight test data supplier to 
submit a flight test plan or program prior to gathering flight test 
data. However, the NSPM notes that inexperienced data gatherers often 
provide data that is irrelevant, improperly marked, or lacking adequate 
justification for selection. Other problems include inadequate 
information regarding initial conditions or test maneuvers. The NSPM has 
been forced to refuse these data submissions as validation data for an 
FFS evaluation. It is for this reason that the NSPM recommends that any 
data supplier not previously experienced in this area review the data 
necessary for programming and for validating the performance of the FFS, 
and discuss the flight test plan anticipated for acquiring such data 
with the NSPM well in advance of commencing the flight tests.
    i. The NSPM will consider, on a case-by-case basis, whether to 
approve supplemental validation data derived from flight data recording 
systems such as a Quick Access Recorder or Flight Data Recorder.

                             End Information

 10. Special Equipment and Personnel Requirements for Qualification of 
                          the FFS (Sec. 60.14)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. In the event that the NSPM determines that special equipment or 
specifically qualified persons will be required to conduct an 
evaluation, the NSPM will make every attempt to notify the sponsor at 
least one (1) week, but in no case less than 72 hours, in advance of the 
evaluation. Examples of special equipment include spot photometers, 
flight control measurement devices, and sound analyzers. Examples of 
specially qualified personnel include individuals specifically qualified 
to install or use any special equipment when its use is required.
    b. Examples of a special evaluation include an evaluation conducted 
after an FFS is moved, at the request of the TPAA, or as a result of 
comments received from users of the FFS that raise questions about the 
continued qualification or use of the FFS.

                            End Information 

 _______________________________________________________________________

    11. Initial (and Upgrade) Qualification Requirements (Sec. 60.15)

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 320]]

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. In order to be qualified at a particular qualification level, the 
FFS must:
    (1) Meet the general requirements listed in Attachment 1 of this 
appendix;
    (2) Meet the objective testing requirements listed in Attachment 2 
of this appendix; and
    (3) Satisfactorily accomplish the subjective tests listed in 
Attachment 3 of this appendix.
    b. The request described in Sec. 60.15(a) must include all of the 
following:
    (1) A statement that the FFS meets all of the applicable provisions 
of this part and all applicable provisions of the QPS.
    (2) A confirmation that the sponsor will forward to the NSPM the 
statement described in Sec. 60.15(b) in such time as to be received no 
later than 5 business days prior to the scheduled evaluation and may be 
forwarded to the NSPM via traditional or electronic means.
    (3) A QTG, acceptable to the NSPM, that includes all of the 
following:
    (a) Objective data obtained from aircraft testing or another 
approved source.
    (b) Correlating objective test results obtained from the performance 
of the FFS as prescribed in the appropriate QPS.
    (c) The result of FFS subjective tests prescribed in the appropriate 
QPS.
    (d) A description of the equipment necessary to perform the 
evaluation for initial qualification and the continuing qualification 
evaluations.
    c. The QTG described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, must 
provide the documented proof of compliance with the simulator objective 
tests in Attachment 2, Table C2A of this appendix.
    d. The QTG is prepared and submitted by the sponsor, or the 
sponsor's agent on behalf of the sponsor, to the NSPM for review and 
approval, and must include, for each objective test:
    (1) Parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions.
    (2) Pertinent and complete instructions for the conduct of automatic 
and manual tests.
    (3) A means of comparing the FFS test results to the objective data.
    (4) Any other information as necessary, to assist in the evaluation 
of the test results.
    (5) Other information appropriate to the qualification level of the 
FFS.
    e. The QTG described in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b) of this section, 
must include the following:
    (1) A QTG cover page with sponsor and FAA approval signature blocks 
(see Attachment 4, Figure C4C, of this appendix, for a sample QTG cover 
page).
    (2) A continuing qualification evaluation schedule requirements 
page. This page will be used by the NSPM to establish and record the 
frequency with which continuing qualification evaluations must be 
conducted and any subsequent changes that may be determined by the NSPM 
in accordance with Sec. 60.19. See Attachment 4 of this appendix, Figure 
C4G, for a sample Continuing Qualification Evaluation Requirements page.
    (3) An FFS information page that provides the information listed in 
this paragraph (see Attachment 4, Figure C4B, of this appendix for a 
sample FFS information page). For convertible FFSs, the sponsor must 
submit a separate page for each configuration of the FFS.
    (a) The sponsor's FFS identification number or code.
    (b) The helicopter model and series being simulated.
    (c) The aerodynamic data revision number or reference.
    (d) The source of the basic aerodynamic model and the aerodynamic 
coefficient data used to modify the basic model.
    (e) The engine model(s) and its data revision number or reference.
    (f) The flight control data revision number or reference.
    (g) The flight management system identification and revision level.
    (h) The FFS model and manufacturer.
    (i) The date of FFS manufacture.
    (j) The FFS computer identification.
    (k) The visual system model and manufacturer, including display 
type.
    (l) The motion system type and manufacturer, including degrees of 
freedom.
    (4) A Table of Contents.
    (5) A log of revisions and a list of effective pages.
    (6) List of all relevant data references.
    (7) A glossary of terms and symbols used (including sign conventions 
and units).
    (8) Statements of compliance and capability (SOCs) with certain 
requirements.
    (9) Recording procedures or equipment required to accomplish the 
objective tests.
    (10) The following information for each objective test designated in 
Attachment 2 of this appendix, Table C2A, as applicable to the 
qualification level sought:
    (a) Name of the test.
    (b) Objective of the test.
    (c) Initial conditions.
    (d) Manual test procedures.
    (e) Automatic test procedures (if applicable).
    (f) Method for evaluating FFS objective test results.
    (g) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
automatically conducted test(s).
    (h) List of all relevant parameters driven or constrained during the 
manually conducted test(s).
    (i) Tolerances for relevant parameters.
    (j) Source of Validation Data (document and page number).

[[Page 321]]

    (k) Copy of the Validation Data (if located in a separate binder, a 
cross reference for the identification and page number for pertinent 
data location must be provided).
    (l) Simulator Objective Test Results as obtained by the sponsor. 
Each test result must reflect the date completed and must be clearly 
labeled as a product of the device being tested.
    f. A convertible FFS is addressed as a separate FFS for each model 
and series helicopter to which it will be converted and for the FAA 
qualification level sought. If a sponsor seeks qualification for two or 
more models of a helicopter type using a convertible FFS, the sponsor 
must submit a QTG for each helicopter model, or a QTG for the first 
helicopter model and a supplement to that QTG for each additional 
helicopter model. The NSPM will conduct evaluations for each helicopter 
model.
    g. Form and manner of presentation of objective test results in the 
QTG:
    (1) The sponsor's FFS test results must be recorded in a manner 
acceptable to the NSPM, that allows easy comparison of the FFS test 
results to the validation data (e.g., use of a multi-channel recorder, 
line printer, cross plotting, overlays, transparencies).
    (2) FFS results must be labeled using terminology common to 
helicopter parameters as opposed to computer software identifications.
    (3) Validation data documents included in a QTG may be 
photographically reduced only if such reduction will not alter the 
graphic scaling or cause difficulties in scale interpretation or 
resolution.
    (4) Scaling on graphical presentations must provide the resolution 
necessary to evaluate the parameters shown in Attachment 2, Table C2A of 
this appendix.
    (5) Tests involving time histories, data sheets (or transparencies 
thereof) and FFS test results must be clearly marked with appropriate 
reference points to ensure an accurate comparison between the FFS and 
the helicopter with respect to time. Time histories recorded via a line 
printer are to be clearly identified for cross plotting on the 
helicopter data. Over-plots must not obscure the reference data.
    h. The sponsor may elect to complete the QTG objective and 
subjective tests at the manufacturer's facility or at the sponsor's 
training facility. If the tests are conducted at the manufacturer's 
facility, the sponsor must repeat at least one-third of the tests at the 
sponsor's training facility in order to substantiate FFS performance. 
The QTG must be clearly annotated to indicate when and where each test 
was accomplished. Tests conducted at the manufacturer's facility and at 
the sponsor's training facility must be conducted after the FFS is 
assembled with systems and sub-systems functional and operating in an 
interactive manner. The test results must be submitted to the NSPM.
    i. The sponsor must maintain a copy of the MQTG at the FFS location.
    j. All FFSs for which the initial qualification is conducted after 
May 30, 2014, must have an electronic MQTG (eMQTG) including all 
objective data obtained from helicopter testing, or another approved 
source (reformatted or digitized), together with correlating objective 
test results obtained from the performance of the FFS (reformatted or 
digitized) as prescribed in this appendix. The eMQTG must also contain 
the general FFS performance or demonstration results (reformatted or 
digitized) prescribed in this appendix, and a description of the 
equipment necessary to perform the initial qualification evaluation and 
the continuing qualification evaluations. The eMQTG must include the 
original validation data used to validate FFS performance and handling 
qualities in either the original digitized format from the data supplier 
or an electronic scan of the original time-history plots that were 
provided by the data supplier. A copy of the eMQTG must be provided to 
the NSPM.
    k. All other FFSs not covered in subparagraph ``j'' must have an 
electronic copy of the MQTG by May 30, 2014. An electronic copy of the 
MQTG must be provided to the NSPM. This may be provided by an electronic 
scan presented in a Portable Document File (PDF), or similar format 
acceptable to the NSPM.
    l. During the initial (or upgrade) qualification evaluation 
conducted by the NSPM, the sponsor must also provide a person who is a 
user of the device (e.g., a qualified pilot or instructor pilot with 
flight time experience in that aircraft) and knowledgeable about the 
operation of the aircraft and the operation of the FFS.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    m. Only those FFSs that are sponsored by a certificate holder as 
defined in Appendix F of this part will be evaluated by the NSPM. 
However, other FFS evaluations may be conducted on a case-by-case basis 
as the Administrator deems appropriate, but only in accordance with 
applicable agreements.
    n. The NSPM will conduct an evaluation for each configuration, and 
each FFS must be evaluated as completely as possible. To ensure a 
thorough and uniform evaluation, each FFS is subjected to the general 
simulator requirements in Attachment 1 of this appendix, the objective 
tests listed in Attachment 2 of this appendix, and the subjective tests 
listed in Attachment 3 of this appendix. The evaluations described 
herein will

[[Page 322]]

include, but not necessarily be limited to the following:
    (1) Helicopter responses, including longitudinal and lateral-
directional control responses (see Attachment 2 of this appendix).
    (2) Performance in authorized portions of the simulated helicopter's 
operating envelope, to include tasks evaluated by the NSPM in the areas 
of surface operations, takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, approach, and 
landing as well as abnormal and emergency operations (see Attachment 2 
of this appendix).
    (3) Control checks (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 of this 
appendix).
    (4) Flight deck configuration (see Attachment 1 of this appendix).
    (5) Pilot, flight engineer, and instructor station functions checks 
(see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this appendix).
    (6) Helicopter systems and sub-systems (as appropriate) as compared 
to the helicopter simulated (see Attachment 1 and Attachment 3 of this 
appendix).
    (7) FFS systems and sub-systems, including force cueing (motion), 
visual, and aural (sound) systems, as appropriate (see Attachment 1 and 
Attachment 2 of this appendix).
    (8) Certain additional requirements, depending upon the 
qualification level sought, including equipment or circumstances that 
may become hazardous to the occupants. The sponsor may be subject to 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements.
    o. The NSPM administers the objective and subjective tests, which 
includes an examination of functions. The tests include a qualitative 
assessment of the FFS by an NSP pilot. The NSP evaluation team leader 
may assign other qualified personnel to assist in accomplishing the 
functions examination and/or the objective and subjective tests 
performed during an evaluation when required.
    (1) Objective tests provide a basis for measuring and evaluating FFS 
performance and determining compliance with the requirements of this 
part.
    (2) Subjective tests provide a basis for:
    (a) Evaluating the capability of the FFS to perform over a typical 
utilization period;
    (b) Determining that the FFS satisfactorily simulates each required 
task;
    (c) Verifying correct operation of the FFS controls, instruments, 
and systems; and
    (d) Demonstrating compliance with the requirements of this part.
    p. The tolerances for the test parameters listed in Attachment 2 of 
this appendix reflect the range of tolerances acceptable to the NSPM for 
FFS validation and are not to be confused with design tolerances 
specified for FFS manufacture. In making decisions regarding tests and 
test results, the NSPM relies on the use of operational and engineering 
judgment in the application of data (including consideration of the way 
in which the flight test was flown and way the data was gathered and 
applied), data presentations, and the applicable tolerances for each 
test.
    q. In addition to the scheduled continuing qualification evaluation, 
each FFS is subject to evaluations conducted by the NSPM at any time 
without prior notification to the sponsor. Such evaluations would be 
accomplished in a normal manner (i.e., requiring exclusive use of the 
FFS for the conduct of objective and subjective tests and an examination 
of functions) if the FFS is not being used for flight crewmember 
training, testing, or checking. However, if the FFS were being used, the 
evaluation would be conducted in a non-exclusive manner. This non-
exclusive evaluation will be conducted by the FFS evaluator accompanying 
the check airman, instructor, Aircrew Program Designee (APD), or FAA 
inspector aboard the FFS along with the student(s) and observing the 
operation of the FFS during the training, testing, or checking 
activities.
    r. Problems with objective test results are handled as follows:
    (1) If a problem with an objective test result is detected by the 
NSP evaluation team during an evaluation, the test may be repeated or 
the QTG may be amended.
    (2) If it is determined that the results of an objective test do not 
support the level requested but do support a lower level, the NSPM may 
qualify the FFS at that lower level. For example, if a Level D 
evaluation is requested and the FFS fails to meet sound test tolerances, 
it could be qualified at Level C.
    s. After an FFS is successfully evaluated, the NSPM issues a 
certificate of qualification (COQ) to the sponsor. The NSPM recommends 
the FFS to the TPAA, who will approve the FFS for use in a flight 
training program. The COQ will be issued at the satisfactory conclusion 
of the initial or continuing qualification evaluation and will list the 
tasks for which the FFS is qualified, referencing the tasks described in 
Table C1B in Attachment 1 of this appendix. However, it is the sponsor's 
responsibility to obtain TPAA approval prior to using the FFS in an FAA-
approved flight training program.
    t. Under normal circumstances, the NSPM establishes a date for the 
initial or upgrade evaluation within ten (10) working days after 
determining that a complete QTG is acceptable. Unusual circumstances may 
warrant establishing an evaluation date before this determination is 
made. A sponsor may schedule an evaluation date as early as 6 months in 
advance. However, there may be a delay of 45 days or more in 
rescheduling and completing the evaluation if the sponsor is unable to 
meet the scheduled date. See Attachment 4, of this appendix, Figure C4A, 
Sample Request for Initial, Upgrade, or Reinstatement Evaluation.

[[Page 323]]

    u. The numbering system used for objective test results in the QTG 
should closely follow the numbering system set out in Attachment 2, FFS 
Objective Tests, Table C2A of this appendix.
    v. Contact the NSPM or visit the NSPM Web site for additional 
information regarding the preferred qualifications of pilots used to 
meet the requirements of Sec. 60.15(d).
    w. Examples of the exclusions for which the FFS might not have been 
subjectively tested by the sponsor or the NSPM and for which 
qualification might not be sought or granted, as described in 
Sec. 60.15(g)(6), include takeoffs and landing from slopes and 
pinnacles.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

12. Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS (Sec. 60.16)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.16, Additional Qualifications for a Currently Qualified FFS.

               13. Previously Qualified FFSs (Sec. 60.17)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. In instances where a sponsor plans to remove an FFS from active 
status for a period of less than two years, the following procedures 
apply:
    (1) The NSPM must be notified in writing and the notification must 
include an estimate of the period that the FFS will be inactive.
    (2) Continuing Qualification evaluations will not be scheduled 
during the inactive period.
    (3) The NSPM will remove the FFS from the list of qualified FSTDs on 
a mutually established date not later than the date on which the first 
missed continuing qualification evaluation would have been scheduled.
    (4) Before the FFS is restored to qualified status, it must be 
evaluated by the NSPM. The evaluation content and the time required to 
accomplish the evaluation is based on the number of continuing 
qualification evaluations and sponsor-conducted quarterly inspections 
missed during the period of inactivity.
    (5) The sponsor must notify the NSPM of any changes to the original 
scheduled time out of service.
    b. Simulators qualified prior to May 30, 2008, are not required to 
meet the general simulation requirements, the objective test 
requirements, and the subjective test requirements of attachments 1, 2, 
and 3, of this appendix as long as the simulator continues to meet the 
test requirements contained in the MQTG developed under the original 
qualification basis.
    c. After May 30, 2009, each visual scene or airport model beyond the 
minimum required for the FFS qualification level that is installed in 
and available for use in a qualified FFS must meet the requirements 
described in Attachment 3 of this appendix.
    d. Simulators qualified prior to May 30, 2008, may be updated. If an 
evaluation is deemed appropriate or necessary by the NSPM after such an 
update, the evaluation will not require an evaluation to standards 
beyond those against which the simulator was originally qualified.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    e. Other certificate holders or persons desiring to use an FFS may 
contract with FFS sponsors to use FFSs previously qualified at a 
particular level for a helicopter type and approved for use within an 
FAA-approved flight training program. Such FFSs are not required to 
undergo an additional qualification process, except as described in 
Sec. 60.16.
    f. Each FFS user must obtain approval from the appropriate TPAA to 
use any FFS in an FAA-approved flight training program.
    g. The intent of the requirement listed in Sec. 60.17(b), for each 
FFS to have an SOQ within 6 years, is to have the availability of that 
statement (including the configuration list and the limitations to 
authorizations) to provide a complete picture of the FFS inventory 
regulated by the FAA. The issuance of the statement will not require any 
additional evaluation or require any adjustment to the evaluation basis 
for the FFS.
    h. Downgrading of an FFS is a permanent change in qualification 
level and will necessitate the issuance of a revised SOQ to reflect the 
revised qualification level, as appropriate. If a temporary restriction 
is placed on an FFS because of a missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative 
component or on-going repairs, the restriction is not a permanent change 
in qualification level. Instead, the restriction is temporary and is 
removed when the reason for the restriction has been resolved.
    i. The NSPM will determine the evaluation criteria for an FFS that 
has been removed from active status. The criteria will be based on the 
number of continuing qualification evaluations and quarterly inspections 
missed during the period of inactivity. For example, if the FFS were out 
of service for a 1 year period, it would be necessary to complete the 
entire QTG, since all of the quarterly evaluations would have been 
missed. The NSPM will also consider how the FFS was stored, whether 
parts were removed from the FFS and whether the FFS was disassembled.

[[Page 324]]

    j. The FFS will normally be requalified using the FAA-approved MQTG 
and the criteria that was in effect prior to its removal from 
qualification. However, inactive periods of 2 years or more will require 
requalification under the standards in effect and current at the time of 
requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  14. Inspection, Continuing Qualification Evaluation, and Maintenance 
                        Requirements (Sec. 60.19)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. The sponsor must conduct a minimum of four evenly spaced 
inspections throughout the year. The objective test sequence and content 
of each inspection must be developed by the sponsor and must be 
acceptable to the NSPM.
    b. The description of the functional preflight check must be 
contained in the sponsor's QMS.
    c. Record ``functional preflight'' in the FFS discrepancy log book 
or other acceptable location, including any item found to be missing, 
malfunctioning, or inoperative.
    d. During the continuing qualification evaluation conducted by the 
NSPM, the sponsor must also provide a person knowledgeable about the 
operation of the aircraft and the operation of the FFS.
    e. The NSPM will conduct continuing qualification evaluations every 
12 months unless:
    (1) The NSPM becomes aware of discrepancies or performance problems 
with the device that warrants more frequent evaluations; or
    (2) The sponsor implements a QMS that justifies less frequent 
evaluations. However, in no case shall the frequency of a continuing 
qualification evaluation exceed 36 months.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    f. The sponsor's test sequence and the content of each quarterly 
inspection required in Sec. 60.19(a)(1) should include a balance and a 
mix from the objective test requirement areas listed as follows:
    (1) Performance.
    (2) Handling qualities.
    (3) Motion system (where appropriate).
    (4) Visual system (where appropriate).
    (5) Sound system (where appropriate).
    (6) Other FFS systems.
    g. If the NSP evaluator plans to accomplish specific tests during a 
normal continuing qualification evaluation that requires the use of 
special equipment or technicians, the sponsor will be notified as far in 
advance of the evaluation as practical; but not less than 72 hours. 
Examples of such tests include latencies, control dynamics, sounds and 
vibrations, motion, and/or some visual system tests.
    h. The continuing qualification evaluations, described in 
Sec. 60.19(b), will normally require 4 hours of FFS time. However, 
flexibility is necessary to address abnormal situations or situations 
involving aircraft with additional levels of complexity (e.g., computer 
controlled aircraft). The sponsor should anticipate that some tests may 
require additional time. The continuing qualification evaluations will 
consist of the following:
    (1) Review of the results of the quarterly inspections conducted by 
the sponsor since the last scheduled continuing qualification 
evaluation.
    (2) A selection of approximately 8 to 15 objective tests from the 
MQTG that provide an adequate opportunity to evaluate the performance of 
the FFS. The tests chosen will be performed either automatically or 
manually and should be able to be conducted within approximately one-
third (1/3) of the allotted FFS time.
    (3) A subjective evaluation of the FFS to perform a representative 
sampling of the tasks set out in attachment 3 of this appendix. This 
portion of the evaluation should take approximately two-thirds (2/3) of 
the allotted FFS time.
    (4) An examination of the functions of the FFS may include the 
motion system, visual system, sound system, instructor operating 
station, and the normal functions and simulated malfunctions of the 
simulated helicopter systems. This examination is normally accomplished 
simultaneously with the subjective evaluation requirements.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

               15. Logging FFS Discrepancies (Sec. 60.20)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.20. Logging FFS Discrepancies.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  16. Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Helicopter Types or Models 
                              (Sec. 60.21)

 _______________________________________________________________________

[[Page 325]]

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.21, Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Helicopter Types or 
Models.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                 17. Modifications to FFSs (Sec. 60.23)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. The notification described in Sec. 60.23(c)(2) must include a 
complete description of the planned modification, with a description of 
the operational and engineering effect the proposed modification will 
have on the operation of the FFS and the results that are expected with 
the modification incorporated.
    b. Prior to using the modified FFS:
    (1) All the applicable objective tests completed with the 
modification incorporated, including any necessary updates to the MQTG 
(e.g., accomplishment of FSTD Directives) must be acceptable to the 
NSPM; and
    (2) The sponsor must provide the NSPM with a statement signed by the 
MR that the factors listed in Sec. 60.15(b) are addressed by the 
appropriate personnel as described in that section.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    (3) FSTD Directives are considered modifications of an FFS. See 
Attachment 4 of this appendix for a sample index of effective FSTD 
Directives. See Attachment 6 of this appendix for a list of all 
effective FSTD Directives applicable to Helicopter FFSs.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 18. Operation with Missing, Malfunctioning, or Inoperative Components 
                              (Sec. 60.25)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. The sponsor's responsibility with respect to Sec. 60.25(a) is 
satisfied when the sponsor fairly and accurately advises the user of the 
current status of an FFS, including any missing, malfunctioning, or 
inoperative (MMI) component(s).
    b. It is the responsibility of the instructor, check airman, or 
representative of the administrator conducting training, testing, or 
checking to exercise reasonable and prudent judgment to determine if any 
MMI component is necessary for the satisfactory completion of a specific 
maneuver, procedure, or task.
    c. If the 29th or 30th day of the 30-day period described in 
Sec. 60.25(b) is on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a holiday, the FAA will 
extend the deadline until the next business day.
    d. In accordance with the authorization described in Sec. 60.25(b), 
the sponsor may develop a discrepancy prioritizing system to accomplish 
repairs based on the level of impact on the capability of the FFS. 
Repairs having a larger impact on FFS capability to provide the required 
training, evaluation, or flight experience will have a higher priority 
for repair or replacement.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

 19. Automatic Loss of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.27)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FFS will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FFS is to be 
maintained) there is a greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to 
determine the amount of testing required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  20. Other Losses of Qualification and Procedures for Restoration of 
                       Qualification (Sec. 60.29)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    If the sponsor provides a plan for how the FFS will be maintained 
during its out-of-service period (e.g., periodic exercise of mechanical, 
hydraulic, and electrical systems; routine replacement of hydraulic 
fluid; control of the environmental factors in which the FFS is to be 
maintained) there is a greater likelihood that the NSPM will be able to 
determine the amount of testing required for requalification.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

              21. Record Keeping and Reporting (Sec. 60.31)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

    a. FFS modifications can include hardware or software changes. For 
FFS modifications

[[Page 326]]

involving software programming changes, the record required by 
Sec. 60.31(a)(2) must consist of the name of the aircraft system 
software, aerodynamic model, or engine model change, the date of the 
change, a summary of the change, and the reason for the change.
    b. If a coded form for record keeping is used, it must provide for 
the preservation and retrieval of information with appropriate security 
or controls to prevent the inappropriate alteration of such records 
after the fact.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

22. Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, Falsification, 
                  or Incorrect Statements (Sec. 60.33)

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.33, Applications, Logbooks, Reports, and Records: Fraud, 
Falsification, or Incorrect Statements.

                             23. [Reserved]

                             24. [Reserved]

   25. FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety 
                      Agreement (BASA) (Sec. 60.37)

    No additional regulatory or informational material applies to 
Sec. 60.37, FFS Qualification on the Basis of a Bilateral Aviation 
Safety Agreement (BASA).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

  Attachment 1 to Appendix C to Part 60--GENERAL SIMULATOR REQUIREMENTS

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                             1. Requirements

    a. Certain requirements included in this appendix must be supported 
with an SOC as defined in Appendix F of this part, which may include 
objective and subjective tests. The requirements for SOCs are indicated 
in the ``General Simulator Requirements'' column in Table C1A of this 
appendix.
    b. Table C1A describes the requirements for the indicated level of 
FFS. Many devices include operational systems or functions that exceed 
the requirements outlined in this section. However, all systems will be 
tested and evaluated in accordance with this appendix to ensure proper 
operation.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              2. Discussion

    a. This attachment describes the general simulator requirements for 
qualifying a helicopter FFS. The sponsor should also consult the 
objective tests in Attachment 2 of this appendix and the examination of 
functions and subjective tests listed in Attachment 3 of this appendix 
to determine the complete requirements for a specific level simulator.
    b. The material contained in this attachment is divided into the 
following categories:
    (1) General flight deck configuration.
    (2) Simulator programming.
    (3) Equipment operation.
    (4) Equipment and facilities for instructor/evaluator functions.
    (5) Motion system.
    (6) Visual system.
    (7) Sound system.
    c. Table C1A provides the standards for the General Simulator 
Requirements.
    d. Table C1B provides the tasks that the sponsor will examine to 
determine whether the FFS satisfactorily meets the requirements for 
flight crew training, testing, and experience, and provides the tasks 
for which the simulator may be qualified.
    e. Table C1C provides the functions that an instructor/check airman 
must be able to control in the simulator.
    f. It is not required that all of the tasks that appear on the List 
of Qualified Tasks (part of the SOQ) be accomplished during the initial 
or continuing qualification evaluation.
    g. Table C1A addresses only Levels B, C, and D helicopter simulators 
because there are no Level A Helicopter simulators.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                Table C1A--Minimum Simulator Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                QPS requirements    Simulator levels      Information
              ----------------------------------------------------------
  Entry No.    General simulator
                  requirements      B      C      D          Notes
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1............  General Flight Deck Configuration
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 327]]

 
1.a..........  The simulator         X      X      X   For simulator
                must have a                             purposes, the
                flight deck that                        flight deck
                is a replica of                         consists of all
                the helicopter                          that space
                being simulated.                        forward of a
               The simulator                            cross section of
                must have                               the fuselage at
                controls,                               the most extreme
                equipment,                              aft setting of
                observable                              the pilots'
                flight deck                             seats including
                indicators,                             additional,
                circuit                                 required flight
                breakers, and                           crewmember duty
                bulkheads                               stations and
                properly                                those required
                located,                                bulkheads aft of
                functionally                            the pilot seats.
                accurate and                            For
                replicating the                         clarification,
                helicopter. The                         bulkheads
                direction of                            containing only
                movement of                             items such as
                controls and                            landing gear pin
                switches must be                        storage
                identical to                            compartments,
                that in the                             fire axes and
                helicopter.                             extinguishers,
                Pilot seats must                        spare light
                afford the                              bulbs, and
                capability for                          aircraft
                the occupant to                         documents
                be able to                              pouches are not
                achieve the                             considered
                design ``eye                            essential and
                position''                              may be omitted.
                established for
                the helicopter
                being simulated.
                Equipment for
                the operation of
                the flight deck
                windows must be
                included, but
                the actual
                windows need not
                be operable.
                Fire axes,
                extinguishers,
                and spare light
                bulbs must be
                available in the
                FFS but may be
                relocated to a
                suitable
                location as near
                as practical to
                the original
                position. Fire
                axes, landing
                gear pins, and
                any similar
                purpose
                instruments need
                only be
                represented in
                silhouette.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b..........  Those circuit         X      X      X
                breakers that
                affect
                procedures or
                result in
                observable
                flight deck
                indications must
                be properly
                located and
                functionally
                accurate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2............  Programming
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a..........  A flight dynamics     X      X      X
                model that
                accounts for
                various
                combinations of
                air speed and
                power normally
                encountered in
                flight must
                correspond to
                actual flight
                conditions,
                including the
                effect of change
                in helicopter
                attitude,
                aerodynamic and
                propulsive
                forces and
                moments,
                altitude,
                temperature,
                mass, center of
                gravity
                location, and
                configuration.
               An SOC is
                required.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have the
                computer
                capacity,
                accuracy,
                resolution, and
                dynamic response
                needed to meet
                the
                qualification
                level sought.
               An SOC is
                required.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c..........  Ground handling
                (where
                appropriate) and
                aerodynamic
                programming must
                include the
                following:.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.1........  Ground effect....     X      X      X   Applicable areas
               Level B does not                         include flare
                require hover                           and touch down
                programming.                            from a running
               An SOC is                                landing as well
                required.                               as for in-ground-
                                                        effect (IGE)
                                                        hover. A
                                                        reasonable
                                                        simulation of
                                                        ground effect
                                                        includes
                                                        modeling of
                                                        lift, drag,
                                                        pitching moment,
                                                        trim, and power
                                                        while in ground
                                                        effect.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.2........  Ground reaction..     X      X      X   Reaction of the
               Level B does not                         helicopter upon
                require hover                           contact with the
                programming.                            landing surface
               An SOC is                                during landing
                required.                               (e.g., strut
                                                        deflection, tire
                                                        or skid
                                                        friction, side
                                                        forces) may
                                                        differ with
                                                        changes in gross
                                                        weight,
                                                        airspeed, rate
                                                        of descent on
                                                        touchdown, and
                                                        slide slip.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 328]]

 
2.d..........  The simulator                X      X   This may include
                must provide for                        an automated
                manual and                              system, which
                automatic                               could be used
                testing of                              for conducting
                simulator                               at least a
                hardware and                            portion of the
                software                                QTG tests.
                programming to                          Automatic
                determine                               ``flagging'' of
                compliance with                         out-of-tolerance
                simulator                               situations is
                objective tests                         encouraged.
                as prescribed in
                Attachment 2 of
                this appendix.
               An SOC is
                required.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e..........  The relative                            The intent is to
                responses of the                        verify that the
                motion system,                          simulator
                visual system,                          provides
                and flight deck                         instrument,
                instruments must                        motion, and
                be measured by                          visual cues that
                latency tests or                        are like the
                transport delay                         helicopter
                tests. Motion                           responses within
                onset must occur                        the stated time
                before the end                          delays. It is
                of the scan of                          preferable
                that video                              motion onset
                field.                                  occur before the
                Instrument                              start of the
                response may not                        visual scene
                occur prior to                          change (the
                motion onset.                           start of the
                Test results                            scan of the
                must be within                          first video
                the following                           field containing
                limits:                                 different
                                                        information).
                                                        For helicopter
                                                        response,
                                                        acceleration in
                                                        the appropriate
                                                        corresponding
                                                        rotational axis
                                                        is preferred.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.1........  Response must be      X
                within 150
                milliseconds of
                the helicopter
                response.
2.e.2........  Response must be             X      X
                within 100
                milliseconds of
                the helicopter
                response.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.f..........  The simulator                X      X   The simulator
                must simulate                           should represent
                brake and tire                          the motion (in
                failure dynamics                        the appropriate
                (including                              axes) and the
                antiskid                                directional
                failure, if                             control
                appropriate).                           characteristics
               An SOC is                                of the
                required..                              helicopter when
                                                        experiencing
                                                        simulated brake
                                                        or tire
                                                        failures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.g..........  The aerodynamic              X      X   See Attachment 2
                modeling in the                         of this appendix
                simulator must                          for further
                include:.                               information on
               (1) Ground                               ground effect.
                effect,.
               (2) Effects of
                airframe and
                rotor icing (if
                applicable),.
               (3) Aerodynamic
                interference
                effects between
                the rotor wake
                and fuselage,.
               (4) Influence of
                the rotor on
                control and
                stabilization
                systems,.
               (5)
                Representations
                of settling with
                power, and.
               (6) Retreating
                blade stall..
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.h..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must provide for
                realistic mass
                properties,
                including gross
                weight, center
                of gravity, and
                moments of
                inertia as a
                function of
                payload and fuel
                loading.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3............  Equipment Operation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a..........  All relevant          X      X      X
                instrument
                indications
                involved in the
                simulation of
                the helicopter
                must
                automatically
                respond to
                control movement
                or external
                disturbances to
                the simulated
                helicopter;
                e.g., turbulence
                or windshear.
                Numerical values
                must be
                presented in the
                appropriate
                units.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b..........  Communications,       X      X      X   See Attachment 3
                navigation,                             of this appendix
                caution, and                            for further
                warning                                 information
                equipment must                          regarding long-
                be installed and                        range navigation
                operate within                          equipment.
                the tolerances
                applicable for
                the helicopter
                being simulated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c..........  Simulated             X      X      X
                helicopter
                systems must
                operate as the
                helicopter
                systems operate
                under normal,
                abnormal, and
                emergency
                operating
                conditions on
                the ground and
                in flight.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 329]]

 
3.d..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must provide
                pilot controls
                with control
                forces and
                control travel
                that correspond
                to the simulated
                helicopter. The
                simulator must
                also react in
                the same manner
                as the
                helicopter under
                the same flight
                conditions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e..........  Simulator control            X      X
                feel dynamics
                must replicate
                the helicopter
                simulated. This
                must be
                determined by
                comparing a
                recording of the
                control feel
                dynamics of the
                simulator to
                helicopter
                measurements.
                For initial and
                upgrade
                evaluations, the
                control dynamic
                characteristics
                must be measured
                and recorded
                directly from
                the flight deck
                controls, and
                must be
                accomplished in
                takeoff, cruise,
                and landing
                conditions and
                configurations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4............  Instructor/Evaluator Facilities
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a..........  In addition to        X      X      X   The NSPM will
                the flight                              consider
                crewmember                              alternatives to
                stations, the                           this standard
                simulator must                          for additional
                have at least                           seats based on
                two suitable                            unique flight
                seats for the                           deck
                instructor/check                        configurations.
                airman and FAA
                inspector. These
                seats must
                provide adequate
                vision to the
                pilot's panel
                and forward
                windows. All
                seats other than
                flight crew
                seats need not
                represent those
                found in the
                helicopter but
                must be
                adequately
                secured to the
                floor and
                equipped with
                similar positive
                restraint
                devices.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have
                controls that
                enable the
                instructor/
                evaluator to
                control all
                required system
                variables and
                insert all
                abnormal or
                emergency
                conditions into
                the simulated
                helicopter
                systems as
                described in the
                sponsor's FAA-
                approved
                training
                program, or as
                described in the
                relevant
                operating manual
                as appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have
                instructor
                controls for all
                environmental
                effects expected
                to be available
                at the IOS;
                e.g., clouds,
                visibility,
                icing,
                precipitation,
                temperature,
                storm cells, and
                wind speed and
                direction.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d..........  The simulator                X      X   For example,
                must provide the                        another aircraft
                instructor or                           crossing the
                evaluator the                           active runway
                ability to                              and converging
                present ground                          airborne
                and air hazards.                        traffic.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.e..........  The simulator                X      X   This is a
                must provide the                        selectable
                instructor or                           condition that
                evaluator the                           is not required
                ability to                              for all
                present the                             operations on or
                effect of re-                           near the
                circulating                             surface.
                dust, water
                vapor, or snow
                conditions that
                develop as a
                result of rotor
                downwash.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5............  Motion System
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a..........  The simulator         X      X      X   For example,
                must have motion                        touchdown cues
                (force) cues                            should be a
                perceptible to                          function of the
                the pilot that                          rate of descent
                are                                     (RoD) of the
                representative                          simulated
                of the motion in                        helicopter.
                a helicopter.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b..........  The simulator         X
                must have a
                motion (force
                cueing) system
                with a minimum
                of three degrees
                of freedom (at
                least pitch,
                roll, and heave).
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 330]]

 
5.c..........  The simulator                X      X
                must have a
                motion (force
                cueing) system
                that produces
                cues at least
                equivalent to
                those of a six-
                degrees-of-
                freedom,
                synergistic
                platform motion
                system (i.e.,
                pitch, roll,
                yaw, heave,
                sway, and surge).
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must provide for
                the recording of
                the motion
                system response
                time.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e..........  The simulator
                must provide
                motion effects
                programming to
                include the
                following:.
               (1) Runway            X      X      X
                rumble, oleo
                deflections,
                effects of
                ground speed,
                uneven runway,
                characteristics.
               (2) Buffets due
                to transverse
                flow effects.
               (3) Buffet during
                extension and
                retraction of
                landing gear.
               (4) Buffet due to
                retreating blade
                stall.
               (5) Buffet due to
                vortex ring
                (settling with
                power).
               (6)
                Representative
                cues resulting
                from touchdown.
               (7) High speed
                rotor
                vibrations.
               (8) Tire failure             X      X
                dynamics.
               (9) Engine
                malfunction and
                engine damage
               (10) Airframe
                ground strike
               (11) Motion                         X   For air
                vibrations that                         turbulence,
                result from                             general purpose
                atmospheric                             disturbance
                disturbances.                           models are
                                                        acceptable if,
                                                        when used, they
                                                        produce test
                                                        results that
                                                        approximate
                                                        demonstrable
                                                        flight test
                                                        data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.f..........  The simulator                       X   The simulator
                must provide                            should be
                characteristic                          programmed and
                motion                                  instrumented in
                vibrations that                         such a manner
                result from                             that the
                operation of the                        characteristic
                helicopter (for                         buffet modes can
                example,                                be measured and
                retreating blade                        compared to
                stall, extended                         helicopter data.
                landing gear,
                settling with
                power) in so far
                as vibration
                marks an event
                or helicopter
                state, which can
                be sensed in the
                flight deck.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6............  Visual System....                       Additional
                                                        horizontal field-
                                                        of-view
                                                        capability may
                                                        be added at the
                                                        sponsor's
                                                        discretion
                                                        provided the
                                                        minimum field-of-
                                                        view is
                                                        retained.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have a
                visual system
                providing an out-
                of-the-flight
                deck view.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b..........  The simulator         X
                must provide a
                continuous field-
                of-view of at
                least 75[deg]
                horizontally and
                30[deg]
                vertically per
                pilot seat. Both
                pilot seat
                visual systems
                must be operable
                simultaneously.
                The minimum
                horizontal field-
                of-view coverage
                must be plus and
                minus one-half
                (\1/2\) of the
                minimum
                continuous field-
                of-view
                requirement,
                centered on the
                zero degree
                azimuth line
                relative to the
                aircraft
                fuselage. An SOC
                must explain the
                geometry of the
                installation.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 331]]

 
6.c..........  The simulator                X          Optimization of
                must provide a                          the vertical
                continuous                              field-of-view
                visual field-of-                        may be
                view of at least                        considered with
                146[deg]                                respect to the
                horizontally and                        specific
                36[deg]                                 helicopter
                vertically per                          flight deck cut-
                pilot seat. Both                        off angle. The
                pilot seat                              sponsor may
                visual systems                          request the NSPM
                must be operable                        to evaluate the
                simultaneously.                         FFS for specific
                Horizontal field-                       authorization(s)
                of-view is                              for the
                centered on the                         following:
                zero degree                            (1) Specific
                azimuth line                            areas within the
                relative to the                         database needing
                aircraft                                higher
                fuselage. The                           resolution to
                minimum                                 support
                horizontal field-                       landings, take-
                of-view coverage                        offs and ground
                must be plus and                        cushion
                minus one-half                          exercises and
                (\1/2\) of the                          training away
                minimum                                 from a heliport,
                continuous field-                       including
                of-view                                 elevated
                requirement,                            heliport,
                centered on the                         helidecks and
                zero degree                             confined areas.
                azimuth line                           (2) For cross-
                relative to the                         country flights,
                aircraft                                sufficient scene
                fuselage.                               details to allow
               An SOC must                              for ground to
                explain the                             map navigation
                geometry of the                         over a sector
                installation.                           length equal to
                Capability for a                        30 minutes at an
                field-of-view in                        average cruise
                excess of the                           speed.
                minimum is not                         (3) For offshore
                required for                            airborne radar
                qualification at                        approaches
                Level C.                                (ARA),
                However, where                          harmonized
                specific tasks                          visual/radar
                require extended                        representations
                fields of view                          of
                beyond the                              installations.
                146[deg] by
                36[deg] (e.g.,
                to accommodate
                the use of
                ``chin windows''
                where the
                accommodation is
                either integral
                with or separate
                from the primary
                visual system
                display), then
                the extended
                fields of view
                must be
                provided. When
                considering the
                installation and
                use of augmented
                fields of view,
                the sponsor must
                meet with the
                NSPM to
                determine the
                training,
                testing,
                checking, and
                experience tasks
                for which the
                augmented field-
                of-view
                capability may
                be required.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.d..........  The simulator                       X   Optimization of
                must provide a                          the vertical
                continuous                              field-of-view
                visual field-of-                        may be
                view of at least                        considered with
                176[deg]                                respect to the
                horizontally and                        specific
                56[deg]                                 helicopter
                vertically per                          flight deck cut-
                pilot seat. Both                        off angle.The
                pilot seat                              sponsor may
                visual systems                          request the NSPM
                must be operable                        to evaluate the
                simultaneously.                         FFS for specific
                Horizontal field-                       authorization(s)
                of-view is                              for the
                centered on the                         following:
                zero degree                            (1) Specific
                azimuth line                            areas within the
                relative to the                         database needing
                aircraft                                higher
                fuselage. The                           resolution to
                minimum                                 support
                horizontal field-                       landings, take-
                of-view coverage                        offs and ground
                must be plus and                        cushion
                minus one-half                          exercises and
                (\1/2\) of the                          training away
                minimum                                 from a heliport,
                continuous field-                       including
                of-view                                 elevated
                requirement,                            heliport,
                centered on the                         helidecks and
                zero degree                             confined areas.
                azimuth line                           (2) For cross-
                relative to the                         country flights,
                aircraft                                sufficient scene
                fuselage. An SOC                        details to allow
                must explain the                        for ground to
                geometry of the                         map navigation
                installation.                           over a sector
                Capability for a                        length equal to
                field-of-view in                        30 minutes at an
                excess of the                           average cruise
                minimum is not                          speed.
                required for                           (3) For offshore
                qualification at                        airborne radar
                Level D.                                approaches
                However, where                          (ARA),
                specific tasks                          harmonized
                require extended                        visual/radar
                fields of view                          representations
                beyond the                              of
                176[deg] by                             installations.
                56[deg] (e.g.,
                to accommodate
                the use of
                ``chin windows''
                where the
                accommodation is
                either integral
                with or separate
                from the primary
                visual system
                display), then
                the extended
                fields of view
                must be
                provided. When
                considering the
                installation and
                use of augmented
                fields of view,
                the sponsor must
                meet with the
                NSPM to
                determine the
                training,
                testing,
                checking, and
                experience tasks
                for which the
                augmented field-
                of-view
                capability may
                be required.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.e..........  The visual system     X      X      X   Nonrealistic cues
                must be free                            might include
                from optical                            image
                discontinuities                         ``swimming'' and
                and artifacts                           image ``roll-
                that create non-                        off,'' that may
                realistic cues.                         lead a pilot to
                                                        make incorrect
                                                        assessments of
                                                        speed,
                                                        acceleration and/
                                                        or situational
                                                        awareness.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 332]]

 
6.f..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have
                operational
                landing lights
                for night
                scenes.Where
                used, dusk (or
                twilight) scenes
                require
                operational
                landing lights..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.g..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must have
                instructor
                controls for the
                following:
               (1) Visibility in
                statute miles
                (kilometers) and
                runway visual
                range (RVR) in
                ft. (meters)..
               (2) Airport or
                landing area
                selection.
               (3) Airport or
                landing area
                lighting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.h..........  Each airport          X      X      X
                scene displayed
                must include the
                following:
               (1) Airport
                runways and
                taxiways.
               (2) Runway
                definition.
               (a) Runway
                surface and
                markings.
               (b) Lighting for
                the runway in
                use, including
                runway
                threshold, edge,
                centerline,
                touchdown zone,
                VASI (or PAPI),
                and approach
                lighting of
                appropriate
                colors, as
                appropriate.
               (c) Taxiway
                lights.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.i..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must provide
                visual system
                compatibility
                with dynamic
                response
                programming.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.j..........  The simulator         X      X      X   This will show
                must show that                          the modeling
                the segment of                          accuracy of the
                the ground                              scene with
                visible from the                        respect to a
                simulator flight                        predetermined
                deck is the same                        position from
                as from the                             the end of the
                helicopter                              runway ``in
                flight deck                             use.''
                (within
                established
                tolerances) when
                at the correct
                airspeed and
                altitude above
                the touchdown
                zone.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.k..........  The simulator         X
                must provide
                visual cues
                necessary to
                assess rate of
                change of
                height, height
                AGL, and
                translational
                displacement and
                rates during
                takeoffs and
                landings.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.l..........  The simulator                X      X
                must provide
                visual cues
                necessary to
                assess rate of
                change of
                height, height
                AGL, as well as
                translational
                displacement and
                rates during
                takeoff, low
                altitude/low
                airspeed
                maneuvering,
                hover, and
                landing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.m..........  The simulator         X      X      X   Visual attitude
                must provide for                        vs. simulator
                accurate                                attitude is a
                portrayal of the                        comparison of
                visual                                  pitch and roll
                environment                             of the horizon
                relating to the                         as displayed in
                simulator                               the visual scene
                attitude.                               compared to the
                                                        display on the
                                                        attitude
                                                        indicator.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.n..........  The simulator                X      X
                must provide for
                quick
                confirmation of
                visual system
                color, RVR,
                focus, and
                intensity.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.o..........  The simulator                X      X
                must be capable
                of producing at
                least 10 levels
                of occulting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 333]]

 
6.p..........  Night Visual          X      X      X
                Scenes. The
                simulator must
                provide night
                visual scenes
                with sufficient
                scene content to
                recognize the
                airport, the
                terrain, and
                major landmarks
                around the
                airport. The
                scene content
                must allow a
                pilot to
                successfully
                accomplish a
                visual landing.
                Night scenes, as
                a minimum, must
                provide
                presentations of
                sufficient
                surfaces with
                appropriate
                textural cues
                that include
                self-illuminated
                objects such as
                road networks,
                ramp lighting,
                and airport
                signage, to
                conduct a visual
                approach, a
                landing, and
                airport movement
                (taxi). Scenes
                must include a
                definable
                horizon and
                typical terrain
                characteristics
                such as fields,
                roads and bodies
                of water and
                surfaces
                illuminated by
                helicopter
                landing lights.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.q..........  Dusk (Twilight)              X      X
                Visual Scenes.
                The simulator
                must provide
                dusk (or
                twilight) visual
                scenes with
                sufficient scene
                content to
                recognize the
                airport, the
                terrain, and
                major landmarks
                around the
                airport. The
                scene content
                must allow a
                pilot to
                successfully
                accomplish a
                visual landing.
                Dusk (or
                twilight)
                scenes, as a
                minimum, must
                provide full
                color
                presentations of
                reduced ambient
                intensity,
                sufficient
                surfaces with
                appropriate
                textural cues
                that include
                self-illuminated
                objects such as
                road networks,
                ramp lighting
                and airport
                signage, to
                conduct a visual
                approach,
                landing and
                airport movement
                (taxi). Scenes
                must include a
                definable
                horizon and
                typical terrain
                characteristics
                such as fields,
                roads and bodies
                of water and
                surfaces
                illuminated by
                representative
                aircraft
                lighting (e.g.,
                landing lights).
                If provided,
                directional
                horizon lighting
                must have
                correct
                orientation and
                be consistent
                with surface
                shading effects.
                Total scene
                content must be
                comparable in
                detail to that
                produced by
                10,000 visible
                textured
                surfaces and
                15,000 visible
                lights with
                sufficient
                system capacity
                to display 16
                simultaneously
                moving objects.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.r..........  Daylight Visual              X      X
                Scenes. The
                simulator must
                have daylight
                visual scenes
                with sufficient
                scene content to
                recognize the
                airport, the
                terrain, and
                major landmarks
                around the
                airport. The
                scene content
                must allow a
                pilot to
                successfully
                accomplish a
                visual landing.
                No ambient
                lighting may
                ``washout'' the
                displayed visual
                scene. Total
                scene content
                must be
                comparable in
                detail to that
                produced by
                10,000 visible
                textured
                surfaces and
                6,000 visible
                lights with
                sufficient
                system capacity
                to display 16
                simultaneously
                moving objects.
                The visual
                display must be
                free of apparent
                and distracting
                quantization and
                other
                distracting
                visual effects
                while the
                simulator is in
                motion.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.s..........  The simulator                X      X   For example:
                must provide                            short runways,
                operational                             landing
                visual scenes                           approaches over
                that portray                            water, uphill or
                physical                                downhill
                relationships                           runways, rising
                known to cause                          terrain on the
                landing                                 approach path,
                illusions to                            unique
                pilots.                                 topographic
                                                        features.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 334]]

 
6.t..........  The simulator                X      X
                must provide
                special weather
                representations
                of light,
                medium, and
                heavy
                precipitation
                near a
                thunderstorm on
                takeoff and
                during approach
                and landing.
                Representations
                need only be
                presented at and
                below an
                altitude of
                2,000 ft. (610
                m) above the
                airport surface
                and within 10
                miles (16 km) of
                the airport.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.u..........  The simulator                X      X   The NSPM will
                must present                            consider
                visual scenes of                        suitable
                wet and snow-                           alternative
                covered runways,                        effects.
                including runway
                lighting
                reflections for
                wet conditions,
                and partially
                obscured lights
                for snow
                conditions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.v..........  The simulator                X      X
                must present
                realistic color
                and
                directionality
                of all airport
                lighting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7............  Sound System
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a..........  The simulator         X      X      X
                must provide
                flight deck
                sounds that
                result from
                pilot actions
                that correspond
                to those that
                occur in the
                helicopter.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b..........  Volume control,       X      X      X
                if installed,
                must have an
                indication of
                the sound level
                setting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.c..........  The simulator                X      X
                must accurately
                simulate the
                sound of
                precipitation,
                windshield
                wipers, and
                other
                significant
                helicopter
                noises
                perceptible to
                the pilot during
                normal and
                abnormal
                operations, and
                include the
                sound of a crash
                (when the
                simulator is
                landed in an
                unusual attitude
                or in excess of
                the structural
                gear
                limitations);
                normal engine
                sounds; and the
                sounds of gear
                extension and
                retraction.
               An SOC is
                required..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d..........  The simulator                       X
                must provide
                realistic
                amplitude and
                frequency of
                flight deck
                noises and
                sounds.
                Simulator
                performance must
                be recorded,
                compared to
                amplitude and
                frequency of the
                same sounds
                recorded in the
                helicopter, and
                made a part of
                the QTG.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


              Table C1B--Table of Tasks vs. Simulator Level
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   QPS requirements                       Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Subjective requirements    Simulator
                The simulator must be       levels
                 able to perform the   ---------------
  Entry No.     tasks associated with                        Notes
                    that level of        B    C    D
                    qualification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Preflight Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a..........  Preflight Inspection      X    X    X
                (Flight deck Only)
                switches, indicators,
                systems, and equipment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b..........  APU/Engine start and
                run-up.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.1........  Normal start procedures   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.2........  Alternate start           X    X    X
                procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.3........  Abnormal starts and       X    X    X
                shutdowns (hot start,
                hung start).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c..........  Taxiing--Ground........   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 335]]

 
1.d..........  Taxiing--Hover.........   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e..........  Pre-takeoff Checks.....   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Takeoff and Departure Phase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a..........  Normal takeoff.........
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.1........  From ground............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2........  From hover.............        X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3........  Running................   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b..........  Instrument.............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c..........  Powerplant Failure        X    X    X
                During Takeoff.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d..........  Rejected Takeoff.......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e..........  Instrument Departure...   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Climb
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a..........  Normal.................   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b..........  Obstacle clearance.....   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c..........  Vertical...............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d..........  One engine inoperative.   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. In-flight Maneuvers
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a..........  Turns (timed, normal,     X    X    X
                steep).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b..........  Powerplant Failure--      X    X    X
                Multiengine
                Helicopters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c..........  Powerplant Failure--      X    X    X
                Single-Engine
                Helicopters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d..........  Recovery From Unusual     X    X    X
                Attitudes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.e..........  Settling with Power....   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f..........  Specific Flight           A    A    A
                Characteristics
                incorporated into the
                user's FAA approved
                flight training
                program.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Instrument Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a..........  Instrument Arrival.....   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b..........  Holding................   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c..........  Precision Instrument
                Approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c.1........  Normal--All engines       X    X    X
                operating.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c.2........  Manually controlled--     X    X    X
                One or more engines
                inoperative.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d..........  Non-precision             X    X    X
                Instrument Approach.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e..........  Missed Approach........
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.1........  All engines operating..   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.2........  One or more engines       X    X    X
                inoperative.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.3........  Stability augmentation    X    X    X
                system failure.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 336]]

 
6. Landings and Approaches to Landings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a..........  Visual Approaches         X    X    X
                (normal, steep,
                shallow).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b..........  Landings...............
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.1........  Normal/crosswind.......
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.1.a......  Running................   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.1.b......  From Hover.............        X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.2........  One or more engines       X    X    X
                inoperative.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.3........  Rejected Landing.......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Normal and Abnormal Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a..........  Powerplant.............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b..........  Fuel System............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.c..........  Electrical System......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d..........  Hydraulic System.......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e..........  Environmental System(s)   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.f..........  Fire Detection and        X    X    X
                Extinguisher Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.g..........  Navigation and Aviation   X    X    X
                Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.h..........  Automatic Flight          X    X    X
                Control System,
                Electronic Flight
                Instrument System, and
                Related Subsystems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.i..........  Flight Control Systems.   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.j..........  Anti-ice and Deice        X    X    X
                Systems.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.k..........  Aircraft and Personal     X    X    X
                Emergency Equipment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.l..........  Special Missions tasks    A    A    X
                (e.g., Night Vision
                goggles, Forward
                Looking Infrared
                System, External Loads
                and as listed on the
                SOQ).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Emergency procedures (as applicable)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.a..........  Emergency Descent......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b..........  Inflight Fire and Smoke   X    X    X
                Removal.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c..........  Emergency Evacuation...   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d..........  Ditching...............   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e..........  Autorotative Landing...   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f..........  Retreating blade stall    X    X    X
                recovery.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g..........  Mast bumping...........   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.h..........  Loss of tail rotor        X    X    X
                effectiveness.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.i..........  Vortex recovery........   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Postflight Procedures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.a..........  After-Landing             X    X    X
                Procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 337]]

 
9.b..........  Parking and Securing...
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.b.1........  Rotor brake operation..   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.b.2........  Abnormal/emergency        X    X    X
                procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: An ``A'' in the table indicates that the system, task, or
  procedure may be examined if the appropriate aircraft system or
  control is simulated in the FFS and is working properly


              Table C1C--Table of Tasks vs. Simulator Level
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   QPS requirements                       Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Subjective requirements    Simulator
                The simulator must be       levels
                 able to perform the   ---------------
  Entry No.     tasks associated with                        Notes
                    that level of        B    C    D
                    qualification.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1............  Instructor Operating Station (IOS), as appropriate
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a..........  Power switch(es).......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b..........  Helicopter conditions..   X    X    X   e.g., GW, CG,
                                                        Fuel loading,
                                                        Systems, Ground
                                                        Crew.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c..........  Airports/Heliports/       X    X    X   e.g., Selection,
                Helicopter Landing                      Surface,
                Areas.                                  Presets,
                                                        Lighting
                                                        controls
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d..........  Environmental controls.   X    X    X   e.g., Clouds,
                                                        Visibility, RVR,
                                                        Temp, Wind, Ice,
                                                        Snow, Rain, and
                                                        Windshear.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e..........  Helicopter system         X    X    X
                malfunctions
                (Insertion/deletion).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f..........  Locks, Freezes, and       X    X    X
                Repositioning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2............  Sound Controls.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a..........  On/off/adjustment......   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3............  Motion/Control Loading System
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a..........  On/off/emergency stop..   X    X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4............  Observer Seats/Stations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a..........  Position/Adjustment/      X    X    X
                Positive restraint
                system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Attachment 2 to Appendix C to Part 60--FFS Objective Tests

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                            Table of Contents
------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Paragraph No.                            Title
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.............................  Introduction.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.............................  Test Requirements.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Table C2A, Objective Tests.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.............................  General.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.............................  Control Dynamics.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.............................  [Reserved]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.............................  Motion System.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.............................  Sound System.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.............................  Additional Information About Flight
                                 Simulator Qualification for New or
                                 Derivative Helicopters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 338]]

 
9.............................  Engineering Simulator--Validation Data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10............................  [Reserved]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11............................  Validation Test Tolerances.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
12............................  Validation Data Roadmap.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
13............................  Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative
                                 Engines Data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
14............................  Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative
                                 Avionics (Flight-Related Computers and
                                 Controllers).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
15............................  Transport Delay Testing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
16............................  Continuing Qualification Evaluations--
                                 Validation Test Data Presentation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
17............................  Alternative Data Sources, Procedures,
                                 and Instrumentation: Level A and Level
                                 B Simulators Only.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             1. Introduction

    a. If relevant winds are present in the objective data, the wind 
vector (magnitude and direction) should be clearly noted as part of the 
data presentation, expressed in conventional terminology, and related to 
the runway being used for the test.
    b. The NSPM will not evaluate any simulator unless the required SOC 
indicates that the motion system is designed and manufactured to safely 
operate within the simulator's maximum excursion, acceleration, and 
velocity capabilities (see Motion System in the following table).
    c. Table C2A addresses helicopter simulators at Levels B, C, and D 
because there are no Level A Helicopter simulators.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                          2. Test Requirements

    a. The ground and flight tests required for qualification are listed 
in Table of C2A, FFS Objective Tests. Computer-generated simulator test 
results must be provided for each test except where an alternative test 
is specifically authorized by the NSPM. If a flight condition or 
operating condition is required for the test but does not apply to the 
helicopter being simulated or to the qualification level sought, it may 
be disregarded (e.g., an engine out missed approach for a single-engine 
helicopter, or a hover test for a Level B simulator). Each test result 
is compared against the validation data described in Sec. 60.13 and in 
this appendix. Although use of a driver program designed to 
automatically accomplish the tests is encouraged for all simulators and 
required for Level C and Level D simulators, each test must be able to 
be accomplished manually while recording all appropriate parameters. The 
results must be produced on an appropriate recording device acceptable 
to the NSPM and must include simulator number, date, time, conditions, 
tolerances, and appropriate dependent variables portrayed in comparison 
to the validation data. Time histories are required unless otherwise 
indicated in Table C2A. All results must be labeled using the tolerances 
and units given.
    b. Table C2A sets out the test results required, including the 
parameters, tolerances, and flight conditions for simulator validation. 
Tolerances are provided for the listed tests because mathematical 
modeling and acquisition/development of reference data are often 
inexact. All tolerances listed in the following tables are applied to 
simulator performance. When two tolerance values are given for a 
parameter, the less restrictive value may be used unless otherwise 
indicated. In those cases where a tolerance is expressed only as a 
percentage, the tolerance percentage applies to the maximum value of 
that parameter within its normal operating range as measured from the 
neutral or zero position unless otherwise indicated.
    c. Certain tests included in this attachment must be supported with 
an SOC. In Table C2A, requirements for SOCs are indicated in the ``Test 
Details'' column.
    d. When operational or engineering judgment is used in making 
assessments for flight test data applications for simulator validity, 
such judgment may not be limited to a single parameter. For example, 
data that exhibit rapid variations of the measured parameters may 
require interpolations or a ``best fit'' data selection. All relevant 
parameters related to a given maneuver or flight condition must be 
provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or 
impossible to match simulator to helicopter data throughout a time 
history, differences must be justified by providing a comparison of 
other related variables for the condition being assessed.
    e. The FFS may not be programmed so that the mathematical modeling 
is correct only at the validation test points. Unless noted otherwise, 
simulator tests must represent helicopter performance and handling 
qualities at operating weights and centers of gravity (CG) typical of 
normal operation. If a test is supported by helicopter data at one 
extreme weight or CG, another test supported by helicopter data at mid-
conditions or as close as possible to the other extreme must be 
included. Certain tests that are relevant only at one extreme CG or 
weight condition need not be repeated at the other extreme. Tests of 
handling qualities must include validation of augmentation devices.

[[Page 339]]

    f. When comparing the parameters listed to those of the helicopter, 
sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight 
condition and helicopter configuration changes. For example, to show 
that control force is within [0.5 pound (0.22 daN) in a static stability 
test, data to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, 
helicopter configuration, altitude, and other appropriate datum 
identification parameters must also be given. If comparing short period 
dynamics, normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the 
helicopter, but airspeed, altitude, control input, helicopter 
configuration, and other appropriate data must also be given. All 
airspeed values must be properly annotated (e.g., indicated versus 
calibrated). In addition, the same variables must be used for comparison 
(e.g., compare inches to inches rather than inches to centimeters).
    g. The QTG provided by the sponsor must clearly describe how the 
simulator will be set up and operated for each test. Each simulator 
subsystem may be tested independently, but overall integrated testing of 
the simulator must be accomplished to assure that the total simulator 
system meets the prescribed standards. A manual test procedure with 
explicit and detailed steps for completing each test must also be 
provided.
    h. For previously qualified simulators, the tests and tolerances of 
this attachment may be used in subsequent continuing qualification 
evaluations for any given test if the sponsor has submitted a proposed 
MQTG revision to the NSPM and has received NSPM approval.
    i. Motion System Tests:
    (a) The minimum excursions, accelerations, and velocities for pitch, 
roll, and yaw must be measurable about a single, common reference point 
and must be achieved by driving one degree of freedom at a time.
    (b) The minimum excursions, accelerations, and velocities for heave, 
sway, and surge may be measured about different, identifiable reference 
points and must be achieved by driving one degree of freedom at a time.
    j. Tests of handling qualities must include validation of 
augmentation devices. FFSs for highly augmented helicopters will be 
validated both in the unaugmented configuration (or failure state with 
the maximum permitted degradation in handling qualities) and the 
augmented configuration. Where various levels of handling qualities 
result from failure states, validation of the effect of the failure is 
necessary. For those performance and static handling qualities tests 
where the primary concern is control position in the unaugmented 
configuration, unaugmented data are not required if the design of the 
system precludes any affect on control position. In those instances 
where the unaugmented helicopter response is divergent and non-
repeatable, it may not be feasible to meet the specified tolerances. 
Alternative requirements for testing will be mutually agreed upon by the 
sponsor and the NSPM on a case-by-case basis.
    k. Some tests will not be required for helicopters using helicopter 
hardware in the simulator flight deck (e.g., ``helicopter modular 
controller''). These exceptions are noted in Table C2A of this 
attachment. However, in these cases, the sponsor must provide a 
statement that the helicopter hardware meets the appropriate 
manufacturer's specifications and the sponsor must have supporting 
information to that fact available for NSPM review.
    l. In cases where light-class helicopters are being simulated, prior 
coordination with the NSPM on acceptable weight ranges is required. The 
terms ``light'', ``medium'', and ``near maximum'', as defined in 
Appendix F of this part, may not be appropriate for the simulation of 
light-class helicopters.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    m. In those cases where the objective test results authorize a 
``snapshot test'' or a ``series of snapshot test results'' in lieu of a 
time-history result, the sponsor or other data provider must ensure that 
a steady state condition exists at the instant of time captured by the 
``snapshot''. The steady state condition must exist from 4 seconds prior 
to, through 1 second following, the instant of time captured by the snap 
shot.
    n. For references on basic operating weight, see AC 120-27, Aircraft 
Weight and Balance; and FAA-H-8083-1, Aircraft Weight and Balance 
Handbook.

                             End Information

 

[[Page 340]]

________________________________________________________________________

                             Table C2A--Full Flight Simulator (FFS) Objective Tests
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        QPS requirements                                           Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Test                                                                   Simulator
------------------------------                       Flight                           level
                                 Tolerance(s)      condition       Test details  ---------------      Notes
 Entry No.         Title                                                           B    C    D
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Performance
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a........  Engine Assessment
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1......  Start Operations
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1.a....  Engine start and  Light Off Time-- Ground with the  Record each       X    X    X
              acceleration      [10% or [1       Rotor Brake      engine start
              (transient).      sec., Torque--   Used and Not     from the
                                [5%, Rotor       Used, if         initiation of
                                Speed--[3%,      applicable.      the start
                                Fuel Flow--                       sequence to
                                [10%, Gas                         steady state
                                Generator                         idle and from
                                Speed--[5%,                       steady state
                                Power Turbine                     idle to
                                Speed--[5%,                       operating RPM.
                                Gas Turbine
                                Temp.--[30
                                [deg]C.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1.b....  Steady State      Torque--[3%,     Ground.........  Record both       X    X    X
              Idle and          Rotor Speed--                     steady state
              Operating RPM     [1.5%, Fuel                       idle and
              conditions.       Flow--[5%, Gas                    operating RPM
                                Generator                         conditions.
                                Speed--[2%,                       May be a
                                Power Turbine                     series of
                                Speed--[2%,                       snapshot
                                Turbine Gas                       tests.
                                Temp.--[20
                                [deg]C.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.2......  Power Turbine     [10% of total    Ground.........  Record engine     X    X    X
              Speed Trim.       change of                         response to
                                power turbine                     trim system
                                speed, or                         actuation in
                                [0.5% change                      both
                                of rotor                          directions.
                                speed.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.3......  Engine and Rotor  Torque--[5%,     Climb and        Record results    X    X    X
              Speed Governing.  Rotor Speed--    descent.         using a step
                                1.5%.                             input to the
                                                                  collective.
                                                                  May be
                                                                  conducted
                                                                  concurrently
                                                                  with climb and
                                                                  descent
                                                                  performance
                                                                  tests.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b........  Surface Operations
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.1......  Minimum Radius    [3 ft. (0.9m)    Ground.........  If brakes are     X    X    X
              Turn.             or 20% of                         used, brake
                                helicopter                        pedal position
                                turn radius.                      and brake
                                                                  system
                                                                  pressure must
                                                                  be matched to
                                                                  the helicopter
                                                                  flight test
                                                                  value.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 341]]

 
1.b.2......  Rate of Turn vs.  [10% or [2[deg]/ Ground Takeoff.  If brakes are     X    X    X
              Pedal             sec. Turn                         used, brake
              Deflection,       Rate.                             pedal position
              Brake                                               and brake
              Application, or                                     system
              Nosewheel                                           pressure must
              Angle, as                                           be matched to
              applicable.                                         the helicopter
                                                                  flight test
                                                                  value.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.3......  Taxi............  Pitch Angle--    Ground.........  Record results    X    X    X
                                [1.5[deg],                        for control
                                Torque--[3%,                      position and
                                Longitudinal                      pitch attitude
                                Control                           during ground
                                Position--[5%,                    taxi for a
                                Lateral                           specific
                                Control                           ground speed,
                                Position--[5%,                    wind speed and
                                Directional                       direction, and
                                Control                           density
                                Position--[5%,                    altitude.
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b.4......  Brake             [10% of time     Ground.........                    X    X    X
              Effectiveness.    and distance.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c........  Takeoff
             When the speed range for the following tests is less than 40 knots, the applicable airspeed
              tolerance may be applied to either airspeed or ground speed, as appropriate.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.1......  All Engines.....  Airspeed--[3     Ground/Takeoff   Record results    X    X    X
                                kt, Altitude--   and Initial      of takeoff
                                [20 ft (6.1m),   Segment of       flight path as
                                Torque--[3%,     Climb.           appropriate to
                                Rotor Speed--                     helicopter
                                [1.5%,                            model
                                Vertical                          simulated
                                Velocity--[100                    (running
                                fpm (0.50m/                       takeoff for
                                sec) or 10%,                      Level B,
                                Pitch                             takeoff from a
                                Attitude--[1.5                    hover for
                                [deg], Bank                       Level C and
                                Attitude--[2[d                    D). For Level
                                eg], Heading--                    B, the
                                [2[deg],                          criteria apply
                                Longitudinal                      only to those
                                Control                           segments at
                                Position--[10%                    airspeeds
                                , Lateral                         above
                                Control                           effective
                                Position--[10%                    translational
                                , Directional                     lift. Results
                                Control                           must be
                                Position--[10%                    recorded from
                                , Collective                      the initiation
                                Control                           of the takeoff
                                Position--[10%.                   to at least
                                                                  200 ft (61m)
                                                                  AGL.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.2......  One Engine        Airspeed--[3     Ground/Takeoff;  Record takeoff    X    X    X   Because several
              Inoperative       kt, Altitude--   and Initial      flight path as                  kinds of
              continued         [20 ft (6.1m),   Segment of       appropriate to                  takeoff
              takeoff.          Torque--[3%,     Climb.           helicopter                      procedures can
                                Rotor Speed--                     model                           be performed,
                                [1.5%,                            simulated.                      the specific
                                Vertical                          Results must                    type of
                                Velocity--[100                    be recorded                     takeoff
                                fpm (0.50m/                       from the                        profile should
                                sec) or 10%,                      initiation of                   be recorded to
                                Pitch                             the takeoff to                  ensure the
                                Attitude--[1.5                    at least 200                    proper takeoff
                                [deg], Bank                       ft (61m) AGL.                   profile
                                Attitude--[2[d                                                    comparison
                                eg], Heading--                                                    test is used.
                                [2[deg],
                                Longitudinal
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                Lateral
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[10%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 342]]

 
1.c.3......  One Engine        Airspeed--[3     Ground, Takeoff  Time history           X    X
              inoperative,      kt, Altitude--                    from the take
              rejected take     [20 ft (6.1m),                    off point to
              off.              Torque--[3%,                      touch down.
                                Rotor Speed--                     Test
                                [1.5%, Pitch                      conditions
                                Attitude--[1.5                    near limiting
                                [deg], Roll                       performance.
                                angle--[1.5[de
                                g], Heading--
                                [2[deg],
                                Longitudinal
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Lateral
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Distance--
                                [7.5% or [30m
                                (100ft).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d........  Hover
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Performance.....  Torque--[3%,     In Ground        Record results         X    X
                                Pitch            Effect (IGE);    for light and
                                Attitude--[1.5   and Out of       heavy gross
                                [deg], Bank      Ground Effect    weights. May
                                Attitude--[1.5   (OGE).           be a series of
                                [deg],                            snapshot
                                Longitudinal                      tests.
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Lateral
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.e........  Vertical Climb
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Performance.....  Vertical         From OGE Hover.  Record results         X    X
                                Velocity--[100                    for light and
                                fpm (0.50 m/                      heavy gross
                                sec) or [10%,                     weights. May
                                Directional                       be a series of
                                Control                           snapshot
                                Position--[5%,                    tests.
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.f........  Level Flight
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 343]]

 
             Performance and   Torque--[3%,     Cruise           Record results    X    X    X   This test
              Trimmed Flight    Pitch            (Augmentation    for two gross                   validates
              Control           Attitude--[1.5   On and Off).     weight and CG                   performance at
              Positions.        [deg],                            combinations                    speeds above
                                Sideslip                          with varying                    maximum
                                Angle--[2[deg]                    trim speeds                     endurance
                                , Longitudinal                    throughout the                  airspeed.
                                Control                           airspeed
                                Position--[5%,                    envelope. May
                                Lateral                           be a series of
                                Control                           snapshot
                                Position--[5%,                    tests.
                                Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.g........  Climb
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Performance and   Vertical         All engines      Record results    X    X    X
              Trimmed Flight    Velocity--[100   operating; One   for two gross
              Control           fpm (6.1m/sec)   engine           weight and CG
              Positions.        or [10%, Pitch   inoperative;     combinations.
                                Attitude--[1.5   Augmentation     The data
                                [deg],           System(s) On     presented must
                                Sideslip         and Off.         be for normal
                                Angle--[2[deg]                    climb power
                                , Longitudinal                    conditions.
                                Control                           May be a
                                Position--[5%,                    series of
                                Lateral                           snapshot
                                Control                           tests.
                                Position--[5%,
                                Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.h........  Descent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.h.1......  Descent           Torque--[3%,     At or near       Results must be   X    X    X
              Performance and   Pitch            1,000 fpm (5 m/  recorded for
              Trimmed Flight    Attitude--[1.5   sec) rate of     two gross
              Control           [deg],           descent (RoD)    weight and CG
              Positions.        Sideslip         at normal        combinations.
                                Angle--[2[deg]   approach         May be a
                                , Longitudinal   speed.           series of
                                Control          Augmentation     snapshot
                                Position--[5%,   System(s) On     tests.
                                Lateral          and Off.
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.h.2......  Autorotation      Pitch Attitude-- Steady           Record results    X    X    X
              Performance and   [1.5[deg],       descents.        for two gross
              Trimmed Flight    Sideslip         Augmentation     weight
              Control           Angle--[2[deg]   System(s) On     conditions.
              Positions.        , Longitudinal   and Off.         Data must be
                                Control                           recorded for
                                Position--[5%,                    normal
                                Lateral                           operating RPM.
                                Control                           (Rotor speed
                                Position--[5%,                    tolerance
                                Directional                       applies only
                                Control                           if collective
                                Position--[5%,                    control
                                Collective                        position is
                                Control                           full down.)
                                Position--[5%,                    Data must be
                                Vertical                          recorded for
                                Velocity--[100                    speeds from 50
                                fpm or 10%,                       kts, [5 kts,
                                Rotor Speed--                     through at
                                [1.5%.                            least maximum
                                                                  glide distance
                                                                  airspeed, or
                                                                  maximum
                                                                  allowable
                                                                  autorotation
                                                                  airspeed,
                                                                  whichever is
                                                                  slower. May be
                                                                  a series of
                                                                  snapshot
                                                                  tests.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.i........  Autorotation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 344]]

 
             Entry...........  Rotor Speed--    Cruise or Climb  Record results         X    X
                                [3%, Pitch                        of a rapid
                                Attitude--[2[d                    throttle
                                eg], Roll                         reduction to
                                Attitude--[3[d                    idle. If the
                                eg], Yaw                          cruise
                                Attitude--[5[d                    condition is
                                eg], Airspeed--                   selected,
                                [5 kts.,                          comparison
                                Vertical                          must be made
                                Velocity--[200                    for the
                                fpm (1.00 m/                      maximum range
                                sec) or 10%.                      airspeed. If
                                                                  the climb
                                                                  condition is
                                                                  selected,
                                                                  comparison
                                                                  must be made
                                                                  for the
                                                                  maximum rate
                                                                  of climb
                                                                  airspeed at or
                                                                  near maximum
                                                                  continuous
                                                                  power.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.j........  Landing
             When the speed range for tests 1.j.1., 1.j.2., or 1.j.3. is less than 40 knots, the applicable
              airspeed tolerance may be applied to either airspeed or ground speed, as appropriate.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.j.1......  All Engines.....  Airspeed--[3     Approach.......  Record results    X    X    X
                                kts.,                             of the
                                Altitude--[20                     approach and
                                ft. (6.1m),                       landing
                                Torque--[3%,                      profile as
                                Rotor Speed--                     appropriate to
                                [1.5%, Pitch                      the helicopter
                                Attitude--[1.5                    model
                                [deg], Bank                       simulated
                                Attitude--[1.5                    (running
                                [deg],                            landing for
                                Heading--[2[de                    Level B, or
                                g],                               approach to a
                                Longitudinal                      hover for
                                Control                           Level C and
                                Position--[10%                    D). For Level
                                , Lateral                         B, the
                                Control                           criteria apply
                                Position--[10%                    only to those
                                , Directional                     segments at
                                Control                           airspeeds
                                Position--[10%                    above
                                , Collective                      effective
                                Control                           translational
                                Position--[10%                    lift.
                                .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.j.2......  One Engine        Airspeed--[3     Approach.......  Record results    X    X    X
              Inoperative.      kts.,                             for both
                                Altitude--[20                     Category A and
                                ft. (6.1m),                       Category B
                                Torque--[3%,                      approaches and
                                Rotor Speed--                     landing as
                                [1.5%, Pitch                      appropriate to
                                Attitude--[1.5                    helicopter
                                [deg], Bank                       model
                                Attitude--[1.5                    simulated. For
                                [deg],                            Level B, the
                                Heading--[2[de                    criteria apply
                                g],                               only to those
                                Longitudinal                      segments at
                                Control                           airspeeds
                                Position--[10%                    above
                                , Lateral                         effective
                                Control                           translational
                                Position--[10%                    lift.
                                , Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 345]]

 
1.j.3......  Balked Landing..  Airspeed--[3     Approach.......  Record the        X    X    X
                                kts, Altitude--                   results for
                                [20 ft.                           the maneuver
                                (6.1m),                           initiated from
                                Torque--[3%,                      a stabilized
                                Rotor Speed--                     approach at
                                [1.5%, Pitch                      the landing
                                Attitude--[1.5                    decision point
                                [deg], Bank                       (LDP).
                                Attitude--[1.5
                                [deg],
                                Heading--[2[de
                                g],
                                Longitudinal
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Lateral
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                , Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.j.4......  Autorotational    Torque--[3%,     Landing........  Record the             X    X   Alternative
              Landing.          Rotor Speed--                     results of an                   approaches for
                                [3%, Vertical                     autorotational                  acquiring this
                                Velocity--[100                    deceleration                    data may be
                                fpm (0.50m/                       and landing                     acceptable,
                                sec) or 10%,                      from a                          depending on
                                Pitch                             stabilized                      the aircraft
                                Attitude--[2[d                    autorotational                  as well as the
                                eg], Bank                         descent, to                     personnel and
                                Attitude--[2[d                    touch down. If                  the data
                                eg], Heading--                    flight test                     recording,
                                [5[deg],                          data                            reduction, and
                                Longitudinal                      containing all                  interpretation
                                Control                           required                        facilities to
                                Position--[10%                    parameters for                  be used, are:
                                , Lateral                         a complete                      (1) a
                                Control                           power-off                       simulated
                                Position--[10%                    landing is not                  autorotational
                                , Directional                     available from                  flare and
                                Control                           the aircraft                    reduction of
                                Position--[10%                    manufacturer                    rate of
                                , Collective                      for this test                   descent (ROD)
                                Control                           and other                       at altitude;
                                Position--[10%                    qualified                       or (2) a power-
                                .                                 flight test                     on termination
                                                                  personnel are                   following an
                                                                  not available                   autorotational
                                                                  to acquire                      approach and
                                                                  this data, the                  flare.
                                                                  sponsor may
                                                                  coordinate
                                                                  with the NSPM
                                                                  to determine
                                                                  if it is
                                                                  appropriate to
                                                                  accept
                                                                  alternative
                                                                  testing means.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Handling Qualities...........................................................................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a........  Control System Mechanical Characteristics
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             For simulators requiring Static or Dynamic tests at the controls                    Contact the
              (i.e., cyclic, collective, and pedal), special test fixtures will                   NSPM for
              not be required during initial or upgrade evaluations if the                        clarification
              sponsor's QTG/MQTG shows both test fixture results and the results                  of any issue
              of an alternative approach, such as computer plots produced                         regarding
              concurrently showing satisfactory agreement. Repeat of the                          helicopters
              alternative method during the initial or upgrade evaluation                         with
              satisfies this test requirement. For initial and upgrade                            reversible
              evaluations, the control dynamic characteristics must be measured                   controls or
              at and recorded directly from the flight deck controls, and must                    where the
              be accomplished in hover, climb, cruise, and autorotation.                          required
                                                                                                  validation
                                                                                                  data is not
                                                                                                  attainable.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 346]]

 
2.a.1......  Cyclic..........  Breakout--[0.25  Ground; Static   Record results    X    X    X   Flight Test
                                lbs. (0.112      conditions       for an                          Data for this
                                daN) or 25%;     with the         uninterrupted                   test does not
                                Force--[1.0      hydraulic        control sweep                   require the
                                lb. (0.224       system (if       to the stops.                   rotor to be
                                daN) or 10%.     applicable)      (This test                      engaged/
                                                 pressurized;     does not apply                  turning. The
                                                 supplemental     if aircraft                     phrase ``if
                                                 hydraulic        hardware                        applicable''
                                                 pressurization   modular                         regarding
                                                 system may be    controllers                     stability
                                                 used. Trim On    are used.)                      augmentation
                                                 and Off.                                         systems means
                                                 Friction Off                                     if an
                                                 Augmentation                                     augmentation
                                                 (if                                              system is
                                                 applicable) On                                   available and
                                                 and Off.                                         if this system
                                                                                                  may be
                                                                                                  operational on
                                                                                                  the ground
                                                                                                  under static
                                                                                                  conditions as
                                                                                                  described
                                                                                                  here.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2......  Collective/       Breakout--[0.5   Ground; Static   Record results    X    X    X   Flight Test
              Pedals.           lb. (0.224       conditions       for an                          Data for this
                                daN) or 25%;     with the         uninterrupted                   test does not
                                Force--[1.0      hydraulic        control sweep                   require the
                                lb. (0.224       system (if       to the stops.                   rotor to be
                                daN) or 10%.     applicable)                                      engaged/
                                                 pressurized;                                     turning. The
                                                 supplemental                                     phrase ``if
                                                 hydraulic                                        applicable''
                                                 pressurization                                   regarding
                                                 system may be                                    stability
                                                 used. Trim On                                    augmentation
                                                 and Off.                                         system means
                                                 Friction Off.                                    if a stability
                                                 Augmentation                                     augmentation
                                                 (if                                              system is
                                                 applicable) On                                   available and
                                                 and Off.                                         if this system
                                                                                                  may be
                                                                                                  operational on
                                                                                                  the ground
                                                                                                  under static
                                                                                                  conditions as
                                                                                                  described
                                                                                                  here.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3......  Brake Pedal       [5 lbs. (2.224   Ground; Static                     X    X    X
              Force vs.         daN) or 10%.     conditions.
              Position.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.4......  Trim System Rate  Rate--[10%.      Ground; Static   The tolerance     X    X    X
              (all applicable                    conditions.      applies to the
              systems).                          Trim On,         recorded value
                                                 Friction Off.    of the trim
                                                                  rate.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 347]]

 
2.a.5......  Control Dynamics  [10% of time     Hover/Cruise,    Results must be        X    X   Typically,
              (all axes).       for first zero   Trim On,         recorded for a                  control
                                crossing and     Friction Off.    normal control                  displacement
                                [10 (N + 1)%                      displacement                    of 25% to 50%
                                of period                         in both                         is necessary
                                thereafter,                       directions in                   for proper
                                [10% of                           each axis.                      excitation.
                                amplitude of                                                      Control
                                first                                                             Dynamics for
                                overshoot, 20%                                                    irreversible
                                of amplitude                                                      control
                                of 2nd and                                                        systems may be
                                subsequent                                                        evaluated in a
                                overshoots                                                        ground/static
                                greater than                                                      condition.
                                5% of initial                                                     Additional
                                displacement,                                                     information on
                                [1 overshoot.                                                     control
                                                                                                  dynamics is
                                                                                                  found later in
                                                                                                  this
                                                                                                  attachment.
                                                                                                  ``N'' is the
                                                                                                  sequential
                                                                                                  period of a
                                                                                                  full cycle of
                                                                                                  oscillation.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.6......  Control System    [0.10 inches     Ground; Static   Record and        X    X    X   Flight Test
              Freeplay.         ([2.5 mm).       conditions;      compare                         Data for this
                                                 with the         results for                     test does not
                                                 hydraulic        all controls.                   require the
                                                 system (if                                       rotor to be
                                                 applicable)                                      engaged/
                                                 pressurized;                                     turning.
                                                 supplemental
                                                 hydraulic
                                                 pressurization
                                                 system may be
                                                 used.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b........  Low Airspeed Handling Qualities
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.1......  Trimmed Flight    Torque--[3%,     Translational    Record results         X    X
              Control           Pitch            Flight IGE--     for several
              Positions.        Attitude--[1.5   Sideward,        airspeed
                                [deg], Bank      rearward, and    increments to
                                Attitude--[2[d   forward          the
                                eg],             flight.          translational
                                Longitudinal     Augmentation     airspeed
                                Control          On and Off.      limits and for
                                Position--[5%.                    45 kts.
                                Lateral                           forward
                                Control                           airspeed. May
                                Position--[5%,                    be a series of
                                Directional                       snapshot
                                Control                           tests.
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.2......  Critical Azimuth  Torque--[3%,     Stationary       Record results         X    X
                                Pitch            Hover.           for three
                                Attitude--[1.5   Augmentation     relative wind
                                [deg], Bank      On and Off.      directions
                                Attitude--[2[d                    (including the
                                eg],                              most critical
                                Longitudinal                      case) in the
                                Control                           critical
                                Position--[5%,                    quadrant. May
                                Lateral                           be a series of
                                Control                           snapshot
                                Position--[5%,                    tests.
                                Directional
                                Control
                                Position--[5%,
                                Collective
                                Control
                                Position--[5%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.3......  Control Response
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.3.a....  Longitudinal....  Pitch Rate--     Hover            Record results         X    X   This is a
                                [10% or          Augmentation     for a step                      ``short time''
                                [2[deg]/sec.,    On and Off.      control input.                  test conducted
                                Pitch Attitude                    The Off-axis                    in a hover, in
                                Change--[10%                      response must                   ground effect,
                                or 1.5[deg].                      show correct                    without
                                                                  trend for                       entering
                                                                  unaugmented                     translational
                                                                  cases.                          flight, to
                                                                                                  provide better
                                                                                                  visual
                                                                                                  reference.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 348]]

 
2.b.3.b....  Lateral.........  Roll Rate--[10%  Hover            Record results         X    X   This is a
                                or [3[deg]/      Augmentation     for a step                      ``short time''
                                sec., Roll       On and Off.      control input.                  test conducted
                                Attitude                          The Off-axis                    in a hover, in
                                Change--[10%                      response must                   ground effect,
                                or [3[deg].                       show correct                    without
                                                                  trend for                       entering
                                                                  unaugmented                     translational
                                                                  cases.                          flight, to
                                                                                                  provide better
                                                                                                  visual
                                                                                                  reference.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.3.c....  Directional.....  Yaw Rate--[10%   Hover            Record results         X    X   This is a
                                or [2[deg]/      Augmentation     for a step                      ``short time''
                                sec., Heading    On and Off.      control input.                  test conducted
                                Change--[10%                      The Off-axis                    in a hover, in
                                or [2[deg].                       response must                   ground effect,
                                                                  show correct                    without
                                                                  trend for                       entering
                                                                  unaugmented                     translational
                                                                  cases.                          flight, to
                                                                                                  provide better
                                                                                                  visual
                                                                                                  reference.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.3.d....  Vertical........  Normal           Hover            Record results         X    X
                                Acceleration--   Augmentation     for a step
                                [0.1 g.          On and Off.      control input.
                                                                  The Off-axis
                                                                  response must
                                                                  show correct
                                                                  trend for
                                                                  unaugmented
                                                                  cases.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c........  Longitudinal Handling Qualities
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.1......  Control Response  Pitch Rate--     Cruise           Results must be   X    X    X
                                [10% or          Augmentation     recorded for
                                [2[deg]/sec.,    On and Off.      two cruise
                                Pitch Attitude                    airspeeds to
                                Change--[10%                      include
                                or [1.5[deg].                     minimum power
                                                                  required
                                                                  speed. Record
                                                                  data for a
                                                                  step control
                                                                  input. The Off-
                                                                  axis response
                                                                  must show
                                                                  correct trend
                                                                  for
                                                                  unaugmented
                                                                  cases.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.2......  Static Stability  Longitudinal     Cruise or        Record results    X    X    X
                                Control          Climb.           for a minimum
                                Position: [10%   Autorotation.    of two speeds
                                of change from   Augmentation     on each side
                                trim or [0.25    On and Off.      of the trim
                                in. (6.3 mm)                      speed. May be
                                or                                a series of
                                Longitudinal                      snapshot
                                Control Force                     tests.
                                : [0.5 lb.
                                (0.223 daN) or
                                [10%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.3......  Dynamic Stability
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 349]]

 
2.c.3.a....  Long-Term         [10% of          Cruise           For periodic      X    X    X   The response
              Response.         calculated       Augmentation     responses,                      may be
                                period, [10%     On and Off.      record results                  unrepeatable
                                of time to \1/                    for three full                  throughout the
                                2\ or double                      cycles (6                       stated time
                                amplitude, or                     overshoots                      for certain
                                [0.02 of                          after input                     helicopters.
                                damping                           completed) or                   In these
                                ratio.For non-                    that                            cases, the
                                periodic                          sufficient to                   test should
                                responses, the                    determine time                  show at least
                                time history                      to \1/2\ or                     that a
                                must be                           double                          divergence is
                                matched within                    amplitude,                      identifiable.
                                [3[deg] pitch;                    whichever is                    For example:
                                and [5 kts                        less.                           Displacing the
                                airspeed over                    The test may be                  cyclic for a
                                a 20 sec                          terminated                      given time
                                period                            prior to 20                     normally
                                following                         sec. if the                     excites this
                                release of the                    test pilot                      test or until
                                controls.                         determines                      a given pitch
                                                                  that the                        attitude is
                                                                  results are                     achieved and
                                                                  becoming                        then return
                                                                  uncontrollably                  the cyclic to
                                                                  divergent..                     the original
                                                                                                  position. For
                                                                                                  non-periodic
                                                                                                  responses,
                                                                                                  results should
                                                                                                  show the same
                                                                                                  convergent or
                                                                                                  divergent
                                                                                                  character as
                                                                                                  the flight
                                                                                                  test data.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.3.b....  Short-Term        [1.5[deg] Pitch  Cruise or        Record results    X    X    X   A control
              Response.         or [2[deg]/      Climb.           for at least                    doublet
                                sec. Pitch       Augmentation     two airspeeds.                  inserted at
                                Rate. [0.1 g     On and Off.                                      the natural
                                Normal                                                            frequency of
                                Acceleration.                                                     the aircraft
                                                                                                  normally
                                                                                                  excites this
                                                                                                  test. However,
                                                                                                  while input
                                                                                                  doublets are
                                                                                                  preferred over
                                                                                                  pulse inputs
                                                                                                  for
                                                                                                  Augmentation-
                                                                                                  Off tests, for
                                                                                                  Augmentation-
                                                                                                  On tests, when
                                                                                                  the short-term
                                                                                                  response
                                                                                                  exhibits 1st-
                                                                                                  order or
                                                                                                  deadbeat
                                                                                                  characteristic
                                                                                                  s,
                                                                                                  longitudinal
                                                                                                  pulse inputs
                                                                                                  may produce a
                                                                                                  more coherent
                                                                                                  response.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.4......  Maneuvering       Longitudinal     Cruise or        Record results    X    X    X
              Stability.        Control          Climb.           for at least
                                Position--[10%   Augmentation     two airspeeds
                                of change from   On and Off.      at 30[deg]-
                                trim or [0.25                     45[deg] roll
                                in. (6.3 mm)                      angle. The
                                or                                force may be
                                Longitudinal                      shown as a
                                Control                           cross plot for
                                Forces--[0.5                      irreversible
                                lb. (0.223                        systems. May
                                daN) or [10%.                     be a series of
                                                                  snapshot
                                                                  tests.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d........  Lateral and Directional Handling Qualities
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.1......  Control Response
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 350]]

 
2.d.1.a....  Lateral.........  Roll Rate--[10%  Cruise           Record results    X    X    X
                                or [3[deg]/      Augmentation     for at least
                                sec., Roll       On and Off.      two airspeeds,
                                Attitude                          including the
                                Change--[10%                      speed at or
                                or [3[deg].                       near the
                                                                  minimum power
                                                                  required
                                                                  airspeed.
                                                                 Record results
                                                                  for a step
                                                                  control input.
                                                                  The Off-axis
                                                                  response must
                                                                  show correct
                                                                  trend for
                                                                  unaugmented
                                                                  cases.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.1.b....  Directional.....  Yaw Rate--[10%   Cruise           Record data for   X    X    X
                                or [2[deg]/      Augmentation     at least two
                                sec., Yaw        On and Off.      airspeeds,
                                Attitude                          including the
                                Change--[10%                      speed at or
                                or [2[deg].                       near the
                                                                  minimum power
                                                                  required
                                                                  airspeed.
                                                                 Record results
                                                                  for a step
                                                                  control input.
                                                                  The Off-axis
                                                                  response must
                                                                  show correct
                                                                  trend for
                                                                  unaugmented
                                                                  cases..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.2......  Directional       Lateral Control  Cruise; or       Record results    X    X    X   This is a
              Static            Position--[10%   Climb (may use   for at least                    steady heading
              Stability.        of change from   Descent          two sideslip                    sideslip test
                                trim or [0.25    instead of       angles on                       at a fixed
                                in. (6.3 mm)     Climb if         either side of                  collective
                                or Lateral       desired),        the trim                        position.
                                Control Force--  Augmentation     point. The
                                [0.5 lb.         On and Off.      force may be
                                (0.223 daN) or                    shown as a
                                10%, Roll                         cross plot for
                                Attitude--[1.5                    irreversible
                                , Directional                     systems. May
                                Control                           be a series of
                                Position--[10%                    snapshot
                                of change from                    tests.
                                trim or [0.25
                                in. (6.3 mm)
                                or Directional
                                Control Force--
                                [1 lb. (0.448
                                daN) or 10%,
                                Longitudinal
                                Control
                                Position--[10%
                                of change from
                                trim or [0.25
                                in. (6.3 mm),
                                Vertical
                                Velocity--[100
                                fpm (0.50m/
                                sec) or 10%.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 351]]

 
2.d.3......  Dynamic Lateral and Directional Stability
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.3.a....  Lateral-          [0.5 sec. or     Cruise or        Record results    X    X    X
              Directional       [10% of          Climb.           for at least
              Oscillations.     period, [10%     Augmentation     two airspeeds.
                                of time to \1/   On and Off.      The test must
                                2\ or double                      be initiated
                                amplitude or                      with a cyclic
                                [0.02 of                          or a pedal
                                damping ratio,                    doublet input.
                                [20% or [1 sec                    Record results
                                of time                           for six full
                                difference                        cycles (12
                                between peaks                     overshoots
                                of bank and                       after input
                                sideslip. For                     completed) or
                                non-periodic                      that
                                responses, the                    sufficient to
                                time history                      determine time
                                must be                           to \1/2\ or
                                matched within                    double
                                [10 knots                         amplitude,
                                Airspeed;                         whichever is
                                [5[deg]/s Roll                    less. The test
                                Rate or                           may be
                                [5[deg] Roll                      terminated
                                Attitude;                         prior to 20
                                [4[deg]/s Yaw                     sec if the
                                Rate or                           test pilot
                                [4[deg] Yaw                       determines
                                Angle over a                      that the
                                20 sec period                     results are
                                roll angle                        becoming
                                following                         uncontrollably
                                release of the                    divergent.
                                controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.3.b....  Spiral            [2[deg] or [10%  Cruise or        Record the        X    X    X
              Stability.        roll angle.      Climb.           results of a
                                                 Augmentation     release from
                                                 On and Off.      pedal only or
                                                                  cyclic only
                                                                  turns for 20
                                                                  sec. Results
                                                                  must be
                                                                  recorded from
                                                                  turns in both
                                                                  directions.
                                                                  Terminate
                                                                  check at zero
                                                                  roll angle or
                                                                  when the test
                                                                  pilot
                                                                  determines
                                                                  that the
                                                                  attitude is
                                                                  becoming
                                                                  uncontrollably
                                                                  divergent.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.3.c....  Adverse/Proverse  Correct Trend,   Cruise or        Record the time   X    X    X
              Yaw.              [2[deg]          Climb.           history of
                                transient        Augmentation     initial entry
                                sideslip         On and Off.      into cyclic
                                angle.                            only turns,
                                                                  using only a
                                                                  moderate rate
                                                                  for cyclic
                                                                  input. Results
                                                                  must be
                                                                  recorded for
                                                                  turns in both
                                                                  directions.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Motion System................................................................................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a........  Frequency response
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Based on         N/A............  Required as       X    X    X
                                Simulator                         part of the
                                Capability.                       MQTG. The test
                                                                  must
                                                                  demonstrate
                                                                  frequency
                                                                  response of
                                                                  the motion
                                                                  system as
                                                                  specified by
                                                                  the applicant
                                                                  for flight
                                                                  simulator
                                                                  qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 352]]

 
3.b........  Leg Balance
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Leg Balance.....  Based on         N/A............  Required as       X    X    X
                                Simulator                         part of the
                                Capability.                       MQTG. The test
                                                                  must
                                                                  demonstrate
                                                                  motion system
                                                                  leg balance as
                                                                  specified by
                                                                  the applicant
                                                                  for flight
                                                                  simulator
                                                                  qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c........  Turn Around
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Turn Around.....  Based on         N/A............  Required as       X    X    X
                                Simulator                         part of the
                                Capability.                       MQTG. The test
                                                                  must
                                                                  demonstrate a
                                                                  smooth turn-
                                                                  around (shift
                                                                  to opposite
                                                                  direction of
                                                                  movement) of
                                                                  the motion
                                                                  system as
                                                                  specified by
                                                                  the applicant
                                                                  for flight
                                                                  simulator
                                                                  qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d........  Motion system repeatability
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               With the same    Accomplished in  Required as       X    X    X   See Paragraph
                                input signal,    both the         part of the                     6.c. in this
                                the test         ``ground''       MQTG. The test                  attachment for
                                results must     mode and in      is                              additional
                                be repeatable    the ``flight''   accomplished                    information.
                                to within        mode of the      by injecting a                  Note: if there
                                [0.05g actual    motion system    motion signal                   is no
                                platform         operation.       to generate                     difference in
                                linear                            movement of                     the model for
                                acceleration                      the platform.                   ``ground'' and
                                in each axis.                     The input must                  ``flight''
                                                                  be such that                    operation of
                                                                  the rotational                  the motion
                                                                  accelerations,                  system, this
                                                                  rotational                      should be
                                                                  rates, and                      described in
                                                                  linear                          an SOC and
                                                                  accelerations                   will not
                                                                  are inserted                    require tests
                                                                  before the                      in both modes.
                                                                  transfer from
                                                                  helicopter
                                                                  center of
                                                                  gravity to the
                                                                  pilot
                                                                  reference
                                                                  point with a
                                                                  minimum
                                                                  amplitude of
                                                                  5[deg]/sec/
                                                                  sec, 10[deg]/
                                                                  sec and 0.3g,
                                                                  respectively.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e........  Motion cueing performance signature
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 353]]

 
                                                                 Required as                     See paragraph
                                                                  part of MQTG.                   6.d., of this
                                                                  These tests                     attachment,
                                                                  must be run                     Motion cueing
                                                                  with the                        performance
                                                                  motion buffet                   signature.
                                                                  mode disabled.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.1......  Takeoff (all      As specified by  Ground.........  Pitch attitude    X    X    X   Associated to
              engines).         the sponsor                       due to initial                  test number
                                for flight                        climb must                      1.c.1.
                                simulator                         dominate over
                                qualification.                    cab tilt due
                                                                  to
                                                                  longitudinal
                                                                  acceleration.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.2......  Hover             As specified by  Ground.........                         X    X   Associated to
              performance       the sponsor                                                       test number
              (IGE and OGE).    for flight                                                        1.d.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.3......  Autorotation      As specified by  Flight.........                         X    X   Associated to
              (entry).          the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        1.i.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.4......  Landing (all      As specified by  Flight.........                    X    X    X   Associated to
              engines).         the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        1.j.1.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.5......  Autorotation      As specified by  Flight.........                         X    X   Associated to
              (landing).        the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        1.j.4.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.6......  Control Response
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.6.a....  Longitudinal....  As specified by  Flight.........                    X    X    X   Associated to
                                the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        2.c.1.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.6.b....  Lateral.........  As specified by  Ground.........                    X    X    X   Associated to
                                the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        2.d.1.a.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.6.c....  Directional.....  As specified by                                     X    X    X   Associated to
                                the sponsor                                                       test number
                                for flight                                                        2.d.1.c.
                                simulator
                                qualification.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.f........  Characteristic Motion (Vibration) Cues--For all of the following     ...  ...  ...  Characteristic
              tests, the simulator test results must exhibit the overall                          motion cues
              appearance and trends of the helicopter data, with at least three                   may be
              (3) of the predominant frequency ``spikes'' being present within                    separate from
              [2 Hz.                                                                              the ``main''
                                                                                                  motion system.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 354]]

 
3.f.1......  Vibrations--to     + 3db to -6db   (a) On ground    Characteristic              X   Correct trend
              include 1/Rev     or [10% of       (idle);          vibrations                      refers to a
              and n/Rev         nominal         (b) In flight..   include those                   comparison of
              vibrations        vibration                         that result                     vibration
              (where ``n'' is   level in                          from operation                  amplitudes
              the number of     flight cruise                     of the                          between
              main rotor        and correct                       helicopter                      different
              blades).          trend (see                        (for example,                   maneuvers;
                                comment).                         high airspeed,                  e.g., if the 1/
                                                                  retreating                      rev vibration
                                                                  blade stall,                    amplitude in
                                                                  extended                        the helicopter
                                                                  landing gear,                   is higher
                                                                  vortex ring or                  during steady
                                                                  settling with                   state turns
                                                                  power) in so                    than in level
                                                                  far as                          flight this
                                                                  vibration                       increasing
                                                                  marks an event                  trend should
                                                                  or helicopter                   be
                                                                  state, which                    demonstrated
                                                                  can be sensed                   in the
                                                                  in the flight                   simulator.
                                                                  deck.                           Additional
                                                                 [See Table C1A,                  examples of
                                                                  table entries                   vibrations may
                                                                  5.e. and 5.f.].                 include:
                                                                                                 (a) Low & High
                                                                                                  speed
                                                                                                  transition to
                                                                                                  and from
                                                                                                  hover;
                                                                                                 (b) Level
                                                                                                  flight;
                                                                                                 (c) Climb and
                                                                                                  descent
                                                                                                  (including
                                                                                                  vertical
                                                                                                  climb;
                                                                                                 (d) Auto-
                                                                                                  rotation;
                                                                                                 (e) Steady
                                                                                                  Turns.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.f.2......  Buffet--Test       + 3db to -6db   On ground and    Characteristic              X   The recorded
              against           or [10% of       in flight.       buffets                         test results
              recorded          nominal                           include those                   for
              results for       vibration                         that result                     characteristic
              characteristic    level in                          from operation                  buffets should
              buffet motion     flight cruise                     of the                          allow the
              that can be       and correct                       helicopter                      checking of
              sensed in the     trend (see                        (for example,                   relative
              flight deck.      comment).                         high airspeed,                  amplitude for
                                                                  retreating                      different
                                                                  blade stall,                    frequencies.
                                                                  extended                       For atmospheric
                                                                  landing gear,                   disturbance,
                                                                  vortex ring or                  general
                                                                  settling with                   purpose models
                                                                  power) in so                    are acceptable
                                                                  far as a                        which
                                                                  buffet marks                    approximate
                                                                  an event or                     demonstrable
                                                                  helicopter                      flight test
                                                                  state, which                    data.
                                                                  can be sensed
                                                                  in the flight
                                                                  deck.
                                                                 [See Table C1A,
                                                                  table entries
                                                                  5.e. and 5.f.].
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Visual System................................................................................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a........  Visual System Response Time: (Choose either test 4.a.1. or 4.a.2. to satisfy test 4.a., Visual
              System Response Time Test. This test is also sufficient for motion system response timing and
              flight deck instrument response timing.)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a.1......  Latency
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 355]]

 
                               150 ms (or       Takeoff, climb,  One test is       X
                                less) after      and descent.     required in
                                helicopter                        each axis
                                response.                         (pitch, roll
                                                                  and yaw) for
                                                                  each of the
                                                                  three
                                                                  conditions
                                                                  (take-off,
                                                                  cruise, and
                                                                  approach or
                                                                  landing).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               100 ms (or       Climb, cruise,   One test is            X    X
                                less) after      descent, and     required in
                                helicopter       hover.           each axis
                                response.                         (pitch, roll
                                                                  and yaw) for
                                                                  each of the
                                                                  three
                                                                  conditions
                                                                  (take-off,
                                                                  cruise, and
                                                                  approach or
                                                                  landing).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a.2......  Transport Delay
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                 If Transport
                                                                                                  Delay is the
                                                                                                  chosen method
                                                                                                  to demonstrate
                                                                                                  relative
                                                                                                  responses, the
                                                                                                  sponsor and
                                                                                                  the NSPM will
                                                                                                  use the
                                                                                                  latency values
                                                                                                  to ensure
                                                                                                  proper
                                                                                                  simulator
                                                                                                  response when
                                                                                                  reviewing
                                                                                                  those existing
                                                                                                  tests where
                                                                                                  latency can be
                                                                                                  identified
                                                                                                  (e.g., short
                                                                                                  period, roll
                                                                                                  response,
                                                                                                  rudder
                                                                                                  response).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               150 ms (or       N/A............  A separate test   X
                                less) after                       is required in
                                controller                        each axis
                                movement.                         (pitch, roll,
                                                                  and yaw).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               100 ms (or       N/A............  A separate test        X    X
                                less) after                       is required in
                                controller                        each axis
                                movement.                         (pitch, roll,
                                                                  and yaw)..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b........  Field-of-view
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 356]]

 
4.b.1......  Continuous field- The simulator    N/A............  An SOC is         X             Horizontal
              of-view.          must provide a                    required and                    field-of-view
                                continuous                        must explain                    is centered on
                                field-of-view                     the geometry                    the zero
                                of at least                       of the                          degree azimuth
                                75[deg]                           installation.                   line relative
                                horizontally                     Additional                       to the
                                and 30[deg]                       horizontal                      aircraft
                                vertically per                    field-of-view                   fuselage.
                                pilot seat or                     capability may                  Field-of-view
                                the number of                     be added at                     may be
                                degrees                           the sponsor's                   measured using
                                necessary to                      discretion                      a visual test
                                meet the                          provided the                    pattern
                                visual ground                     minimum field-                  filling the
                                segment                           of-view is                      entire visual
                                requirement,                      retained..                      scene (all
                                whichever is                                                      channels) with
                                greater. Both                                                     a matrix of
                                pilot seat                                                        black and
                                visual systems                                                    white 5[deg]
                                must be                                                           squares.
                                operable
                                simultaneously
                                . Wide-angle
                                systems
                                providing
                                cross-flight
                                deck viewing
                                (for both
                                pilots
                                simultaneously
                                ) must provide
                                a minimum
                                field-of-view
                                of at least
                                146[deg]
                                horizontally
                                and 36[deg]
                                vertically.
                                Any geometric
                                error between
                                the Image
                                Generator eye
                                point and the
                                pilot eye
                                point must be
                                8[deg] or
                                less.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 357]]

 
4.b.2......  Continuous field- The simulator    N/A............  An SOC is              X        Horizontal
              of-view.          must provide a                    required and                    field-of-view
                                continuous                        must explain                    is centered on
                                field-of-view                     the geometry                    the zero
                                of at least                       of the                          degree azimuth
                                146[deg]                          installation.                   line relative
                                horizontally                     Horizontal                       to the
                                and 36[deg]                       field-of-view                   aircraft
                                vertically or                     of at least                     fuselage.
                                the number of                     146[deg]                        Field-of-view
                                degrees                           (including not                  may be
                                necessary to                      less than                       measured using
                                meet the                          73[deg]                         a visual test
                                visual ground                     measured                        pattern
                                segment                           either side of                  filling the
                                requirement,                      the center of                   entire visual
                                whichever is                      the design eye                  scene (all
                                greater. The                      point).                         channels) with
                                minimum                           Additional                      a matrix of
                                horizontal                        horizontal                      black and
                                field-of-view                     field-of-view                   white 5[deg]
                                coverage must                     capability may                  squares.
                                be plus and                       be added at
                                minus one-half                    the sponsor's
                                (\1/2\) of the                    discretion
                                minimum                           provided the
                                continuous                        minimum field-
                                field-of-view                     of-view is
                                requirement,                      retained..
                                centered on                      Vertical field-
                                the zero                          of-view of at
                                degree azimuth                    least 36[deg]
                                line relative                     measured from
                                to the                            the pilot's
                                aircraft                          and co-pilot's
                                fuselage. Any                     eye point..
                                geometric
                                error between
                                the Image
                                Generator eye
                                point and the
                                pilot eye
                                point must be
                                8[deg] or
                                less.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.3......  Continuous field- Continuous       N/A............  An SOC is                   X   The horizontal
              of-view.          field-of-view                     required and                    field-of-view
                                of at least                       must explain                    is
                                176[deg]                          the geometry                    traditionally
                                horizontal and                    of the                          described as a
                                56[deg]                           installation.                   180[deg] field-
                                vertical field-                  Horizontal                       of-view.
                                of-view for                       field-of-view                   However, the
                                each pilot                        is centered on                  field-of-view
                                simultaneously                    the zero                        is technically
                                . Any                             degree azimuth                  no less than
                                geometric                         line relative                   176[deg].
                                error between                     to the                          Field-of-view
                                the Image                         aircraft                        may be
                                Generator eye                     fuselage.                       measured using
                                point and the                     Horizontal                      a visual test
                                pilot eye                         field-of-view                   pattern
                                point must be                     must be at                      filling the
                                8[deg] or                         least 176[deg]                  entire visual
                                less.                             (including not                  scene (all
                                                                  less than                       channels) with
                                                                  88[deg] either                  a matrix of
                                                                  side of the                     black and
                                                                  center of the                   white 5[deg]
                                                                  design eye                      squares.
                                                                  point).
                                                                  Additional
                                                                  horizontal
                                                                  field-of-view
                                                                  capability may
                                                                  be added at
                                                                  the sponsor's
                                                                  discretion
                                                                  provided the
                                                                  minimum field-
                                                                  of-view is
                                                                  retained..
                                                                 Vertical field-
                                                                  of-view must
                                                                  not be less
                                                                  than a total
                                                                  of 56[deg]
                                                                  measured from
                                                                  the pilot's
                                                                  and co-pilot's
                                                                  eye point.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 358]]

 
4.c........  Surface contrast  Not less than    N/A............  The ratio is                X   Measurements
              ratio.            5:1.                              calculated by                   may be made
                                                                  dividing the                    using a 1[deg]
                                                                  brightness                      spot
                                                                  level of the                    photometer and
                                                                  center, bright                  a raster drawn
                                                                  square                          test pattern
                                                                  (providing at                   filling the
                                                                  least 2 foot-                   entire visual
                                                                  lamberts or 7                   scene (all
                                                                  cd/m\2\) by                     channels) with
                                                                  the brightness                  a test pattern
                                                                  level of any                    of black and
                                                                  adjacent dark                   white squares,
                                                                  square.                         5 per square,
                                                                                                  with a white
                                                                                                  square in the
                                                                                                  center of each
                                                                                                  channel.
                                                                                                  During
                                                                                                  contrast ratio
                                                                                                  testing,
                                                                                                  simulator aft-
                                                                                                  cab and flight
                                                                                                  deck ambient
                                                                                                  light levels
                                                                                                  should be
                                                                                                  zero.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d........  Highlight         Not less than    N/A............  Measure the                 X   Measurements
              brightness.       six (6) foot-                     brightness of                   may be made
                                lamberts (20                      the center,                     using a 1[deg]
                                cd/m\2\).                         white square                    spot
                                                                  while                           photometer and
                                                                  superimposing                   a raster drawn
                                                                  a highlight on                  test pattern
                                                                  that white                      filling the
                                                                  square. The                     entire visual
                                                                  use of                          scene (all
                                                                  calligraphic                    channels) with
                                                                  capabilities                    a test pattern
                                                                  to enhance the                  of black and
                                                                  raster                          white squares,
                                                                  brightness is                   5 per square,
                                                                  acceptable;                     with a white
                                                                  however,                        square in the
                                                                  measuring                       center of each
                                                                  light points                    channel.
                                                                  is not
                                                                  acceptable.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 359]]

 
4.e........  Surface           Not greater      N/A............  An SOC is              X    X   When the eye is
              resolution.       than two (2)                      required and                    positioned on
                                arc minutes.                      must include                    a 3[deg] glide
                                                                  the                             slope at the
                                                                  appropriate                     slant range
                                                                  calculations                    distances
                                                                  and an                          indicated with
                                                                  explanation of                  white runway
                                                                  those                           markings on a
                                                                  calculations.                   black runway
                                                                  Level B                         surface, the
                                                                  requires                        eye will
                                                                  surface                         subtend two
                                                                  resolution not                  (2) arc
                                                                  greater than                    minutes: (1) A
                                                                  three (3) arc                   slant range of
                                                                  minutes.                        6,876 ft with
                                                                                                  stripes 150 ft
                                                                                                  long and 16 ft
                                                                                                  wide, spaced 4
                                                                                                  ft apart. (2)
                                                                                                  For
                                                                                                  Configuration
                                                                                                  A, a slant
                                                                                                  range of 5,157
                                                                                                  feet with
                                                                                                  stripes 150 ft
                                                                                                  long and 12 ft
                                                                                                  wide, spaced 3
                                                                                                  ft apart. (3)
                                                                                                  For
                                                                                                  Configuration
                                                                                                  B, a slant
                                                                                                  range of 9,884
                                                                                                  feet, with
                                                                                                  stripes 150 ft
                                                                                                  long and 5.75
                                                                                                  ft wide,
                                                                                                  spaced 5.75 ft
                                                                                                  apart.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f........  Light point size  Not greater      N/A............  An SOC is              X    X   Light point
                                than five (5)                     required and                    size may be
                                arc minutes.                      must include                    measured using
                                                                  the relevant                    a test pattern
                                                                  calculations                    consisting of
                                                                  and an                          a centrally
                                                                  explanation of                  located single
                                                                  those                           row of light
                                                                  calculations.                   points reduced
                                                                                                  in length
                                                                                                  until
                                                                                                  modulation is
                                                                                                  just
                                                                                                  discernible in
                                                                                                  each visual
                                                                                                  channel. A row
                                                                                                  of 48 lights
                                                                                                  will form a
                                                                                                  4[deg] angle
                                                                                                  or less.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g........  Light point                                                                         A 1[deg] spot
              contrast ratio.                                                                     photometer may
                                                                                                  be used to
                                                                                                  measure a
                                                                                                  square of at
                                                                                                  least 1[deg]
                                                                                                  filled with
                                                                                                  light points
                                                                                                  (where light
                                                                                                  point
                                                                                                  modulation is
                                                                                                  just
                                                                                                  discernible)
                                                                                                  and compare
                                                                                                  the results to
                                                                                                  the measured
                                                                                                  adjacent
                                                                                                  background.
                                                                                                  During
                                                                                                  contrast ratio
                                                                                                  testing,
                                                                                                  simulator aft-
                                                                                                  cab and flight
                                                                                                  deck ambient
                                                                                                  light levels
                                                                                                  should be
                                                                                                  zero.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.1......                    Not less than    N/A............  An SOC is         X
                                10:1.                             required and
                                                                  must include
                                                                  the relevant
                                                                  calculations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 360]]

 
4.g.2......                    Not less than    N/A............  An SOC is              X    X
                                25:1.                             required and
                                                                  must include
                                                                  the relevant
                                                                  calculations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.h........  Visual ground segment
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               The visible      Landing          The QTG must      X    X    X   Pre-positioning
                                segment in the   configuration,   contain                         for this test
                                simulator must   with the         appropriate                     is encouraged,
                                be [20% of the   aircraft         calculations                    and may be
                                segment          trimmed for      and a drawing                   achieved via
                                computed to be   the              showing the                     manual or
                                visible from     appropriate      data used to                    autopilot
                                the helicopter   airspeed,        establish the                   control to the
                                flight deck.     where the MLG    helicopter                      desired
                                This tolerance   are at 100 ft    location and                    position.
                                may be applied   (30 m) above     the segment of
                                at the far end   the plane of     the ground
                                of the           the touchdown    that is
                                displayed        zone, on the     visible
                                segment.         electronic       considering
                                However,         glide slope      design eye
                                lights and       with an RVR      point, the
                                ground objects   value set at     helicopter
                                computed to be   1,200 ft (350    attitude,
                                visible from     m).              flight deck
                                the helicopter                    cut-off angle,
                                flight deck at                    and a
                                the near end                      visibility of
                                of the visible                    1200 ft (350
                                segment must                      m) RVR.
                                be visible in                     Simulator
                                the simulator.                    performance
                                                                  must be
                                                                  measured
                                                                  against the
                                                                  QTG
                                                                  calculations.
                                                                  The data
                                                                  submitted must
                                                                  include at
                                                                  least the
                                                                  following:

[[Page 361]]

 
                                                                 (1) Static
                                                                  helicopter
                                                                  dimensions as
                                                                  follows:
                                                                 (i) Horizontal
                                                                  and vertical
                                                                  distance from
                                                                  main landing
                                                                  gear (MLG) to
                                                                  glideslope
                                                                  reception
                                                                  antenna..
                                                                 (ii) Horizontal
                                                                  and vertical
                                                                  distance from
                                                                  MLG to pilot's
                                                                  eyepoint..
                                                                 (iii) Static
                                                                  flight deck
                                                                  cutoff angle..
                                                                 (2) Approach
                                                                  data as
                                                                  follows:.
                                                                 (i)
                                                                  Identification
                                                                  of runway..
                                                                 (ii) Horizontal
                                                                  distance from
                                                                  runway
                                                                  threshold to
                                                                  glideslope
                                                                  intercept with
                                                                  runway..
                                                                 (iii)
                                                                  Glideslope
                                                                  angle..
                                                                 (iv) Helicopter
                                                                  pitch angle on
                                                                  approach..
                                                                 (3) Helicopter
                                                                  data for
                                                                  manual
                                                                  testing:.
                                                                 (i) Gross
                                                                  weight..
                                                                 (ii) Helicopter
                                                                  configuration..
                                                                 (iii) Approach
                                                                  airspeed..
                                                                 If non-
                                                                  homogenous fog
                                                                  is used to
                                                                  obscure
                                                                  visibility,
                                                                  the vertical
                                                                  variation in
                                                                  horizontal
                                                                  visibility
                                                                  must be
                                                                  described and
                                                                  be included in
                                                                  the slant
                                                                  range
                                                                  visibility
                                                                  calculation
                                                                  used in the
                                                                  computations..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5..........  Sound system
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               The sponsor will not be required to repeat the helicopter tests
               (i.e., tests 5.a.1. through 5.a.8. (or 5.b.1. through 5.b.9.) and
               5.c., as appropriate) during continuing qualification evaluations
              if frequency response and background noise test results are within
                tolerance when compared to the initial qualification evaluation
                 results, and the sponsor shows that no software changes have
                 occurred that will affect the helicopter test results. If the
                frequency response test method is chosen and fails, the sponsor
                may elect to fix the frequency response problem and repeat the
               test or the sponsor may elect to repeat the helicopter tests. If
               the helicopter tests are repeated during continuing qualification
                   evaluations, the results may be compared against initial
                qualification evaluation results or helicopter master data. All
              tests in this section must be presented using an unweighted \1/3\-
              octave band format from band 17 to 42 (50 Hz to 16 kHz). A minimum
               20 second average must be taken at the location corresponding to
                 the helicopter data set. The helicopter and flight simulator
                    results must be produced using comparable data analysis
                                          techniques.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a........  Basic requirements
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 362]]

 
5.a.1......  Ready for engine  [5 dB per \1/3\  Ground.........  Normal                      X
              start.            octave band.                      condition
                                                                  prior to
                                                                  engine start.
                                                                  The APU must
                                                                  be on if
                                                                  appropriate.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.2......  All engines at    [5 dB per \1/3\  Ground.........  Normal                      X
              idle; rotor not   octave band.                      condition
              turning (if                                         prior to lift-
              applicable) and                                     off.
              rotor turning.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.3......  Hover...........  [5 dB per \1/3\  Hover..........                              X
                                octave band.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.4......  Climb...........  [5 dB per \1/3\  En-route climb.  Medium altitude             X
                                octave band.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.5......  Cruise..........  [5 dB per \1/3\  Cruise.........  Normal cruise               X
                                octave band.                      configuration.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.6......  Final approach..  [5 dB per \1/3\  Landing........  Constant                    X
                                octave band.                      airspeed, gear
                                                                  down.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b........  Special cases
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               [5 dB per \1/3\  As appropriate.                              X   These special
                                octave band.                                                      cases are
                                                                                                  identified as
                                                                                                  particularly
                                                                                                  significant
                                                                                                  during
                                                                                                  critical
                                                                                                  phases of
                                                                                                  flight and
                                                                                                  ground
                                                                                                  operations for
                                                                                                  a specific
                                                                                                  helicopter
                                                                                                  type or model.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c........  Background noise
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               [3 dB per \1/3\  As appropriate.  Results of the              X   The simulated
                                octave band.                      background                      sound will be
                                                                  noise at                        evaluated to
                                                                  initial                         ensure that
                                                                  qualification                   the background
                                                                  must be                         noise does not
                                                                  included in                     interfere with
                                                                  the MQTG.                       training,
                                                                  Measurements                    testing, or
                                                                  must be made                    checking.
                                                                  with the
                                                                  simulation
                                                                  running, the
                                                                  sound muted,
                                                                  and a ``dead''
                                                                  flight deck.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d........  Frequency response
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 363]]

 
                               [5 dB on three                    Applicable only             X   Measurements
                                (3)                               to Continuing                   are compared
                                consecutive                       Qualification                   to those taken
                                bands when                        Evaluations.                    during initial
                                compared to                       If frequency                    qualification
                                initial                           response plots                  evaluation.
                                evaluation;                       are provided
                                and [2 dB when                    for each
                                comparing the                     channel at the
                                average of the                    initial
                                absolute                          evaluation,
                                differences                       these plots
                                between                           may be
                                initial and                       repeated at
                                continuing                        the continuing
                                qualification                     qualification
                                evaluation.                       evaluation
                                                                  with the
                                                                  following
                                                                  tolerances
                                                                  applied:
                                                                 (a) The
                                                                  continuing
                                                                  qualification
                                                                  \1/3\ octave
                                                                  band
                                                                  amplitudes
                                                                  must not
                                                                  exceed [5 dB
                                                                  for three
                                                                  consecutive
                                                                  bands when
                                                                  compared to
                                                                  initial
                                                                  results..
                                                                 (b) The average
                                                                  of the sum of
                                                                  the absolute
                                                                  differences
                                                                  between
                                                                  initial and
                                                                  continuing
                                                                  qualification
                                                                  results must
                                                                  not exceed 2
                                                                  dB (refer to
                                                                  table C2C in
                                                                  Appendix C)..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 364]]

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                               3. General

    a. If relevant winds are present in the objective data, the wind 
vector should be clearly noted as part of the data presentation, 
expressed in conventional terminology, and related to the runway being 
used for test near the ground.
    b. The reader is encouraged to review the Airplane Flight Simulator 
Evaluation Handbook, Volumes I and II, published by the Royal 
Aeronautical Society, London, UK, and FAA AC 25-7, as amended, Flight 
Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes, and AC 23-
8, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes, 
for references and examples regarding flight testing requirements and 
techniques.

                           4. Control Dynamics

    a. General. The characteristics of a helicopter flight control 
system have a major effect on the handling qualities. A significant 
consideration in pilot acceptability of a helicopter is the ``feel'' 
provided through the flight controls. Considerable effort is expended on 
helicopter feel system design so that pilots will be comfortable and 
will consider the helicopter desirable to fly. In order for an FFS to be 
representative, it should ``feel'' like the helicopter being simulated. 
Compliance with this requirement is determined by comparing a recording 
of the control feel dynamics of the FFS to actual helicopter 
measurements in the hover and cruise configurations.
    (1) Recordings such as free response to an impulse or step function 
are classically used to estimate the dynamic properties of 
electromechanical systems. In any case, it is only possible to estimate 
the dynamic properties as a result of only being able to estimate true 
inputs and responses. Therefore, it is imperative that the best possible 
data be collected since close matching of the FFS control loading system 
to the helicopter system is essential. The required dynamic control 
tests are described in Table C2A of this attachment.
    (2) For initial and upgrade evaluations, the QPS requires that 
control dynamics characteristics be measured and recorded directly from 
the flight controls (Handling Qualities--Table C2A). This procedure is 
usually accomplished by measuring the free response of the controls 
using a step or impulse input to excite the system. The procedure should 
be accomplished in the hover and cruise flight conditions and 
configurations.
    (3) For helicopters with irreversible control systems, measurements 
may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot-static inputs are provided 
to represent airspeeds typical of those encountered in flight. Likewise, 
it may be shown that for some helicopters, hover, climb, cruise, and 
autorotation have like effects. Thus, one may suffice for another. If 
either or both considerations apply, engineering validation or 
helicopter manufacturer rationale should be submitted as justification 
for ground tests or for eliminating a configuration. For FFSs requiring 
static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not 
be required during initial and upgrade evaluations if the QTG shows both 
test fixture results and the results of an alternate approach (e.g., 
computer plots that were produced concurrently and show satisfactory 
agreement). Repeat of the alternate method during the initial evaluation 
satisfies this test requirement.
    b. Control Dynamics Evaluations. The dynamic properties of control 
systems are often stated in terms of frequency, damping, and a number of 
other classical measurements. In order to establish a consistent means 
of validating test results for FFS control loading, criteria are needed 
that will clearly define the measurement interpretation and the applied 
tolerances. Criteria are needed for underdamped, critically damped and 
overdamped systems. In the case of an underdamped system with very light 
damping, the system may be quantified in terms of frequency and damping. 
In critically damped or overdamped systems, the frequency and damping 
are not readily measured from a response time history. Therefore, the 
following suggested measurements may be used:
    (1) For Levels C and D simulators. Tests to verify that control feel 
dynamics represent the helicopter should show that the dynamic damping 
cycles (free response of the controls) match those of the helicopter 
within specified tolerances. The NSPM recognizes that several different 
testing methods may be used to verify the control feel dynamic response. 
The NSPM will consider the merits of testing methods based on 
reliability and consistency. One acceptable method of evaluating the 
response and the tolerance to be applied is described below for the 
underdamped and critically damped cases. A sponsor using this method to 
comply with the QPS requirements should perform the tests as follows:
    (a) Underdamped Response. Two measurements are required for the 
period, the time to first zero crossing (in case a rate limit is 
present) and the subsequent frequency of oscillation. It is necessary to 
measure cycles on an individual basis in case there are non-uniform 
periods in the response. Each period will be independently compared to 
the respective period of the helicopter control system and, 
consequently, will enjoy the full tolerance specified for that period. 
The damping tolerance will be applied to overshoots on an individual 
basis. Care should be

[[Page 365]]

taken when applying the tolerance to small overshoots since the 
significance of such overshoots becomes questionable. Only those 
overshoots larger than 5 percent of the total initial displacement 
should be considered significant. The residual band, labeled 
T(Ad) on Figure C2A is [5 percent of the initial displacement 
amplitude Ad from the steady state value of the oscillation. 
Only oscillations outside the residual band are considered significant. 
When comparing FFS data to helicopter data, the process should begin by 
overlaying or aligning the FFS and helicopter steady state values and 
then comparing amplitudes of oscillation peaks, the time of the first 
zero crossing, and individual periods of oscillation. The FFS should 
show the same number of significant overshoots to within one when 
compared against the helicopter data. The procedure for evaluating the 
response is illustrated in Figure C2A.
    (b) Critically damped and Overdamped Response. Due to the nature of 
critically damped and overdamped responses (no overshoots), the time to 
reach 90 percent of the steady state (neutral point) value should be the 
same as the helicopter within [10 percent. The simulator response must 
be critically damped also. Figure C2B illustrates the procedure.
    (c) Special considerations. Control systems that exhibit 
characteristics other than classical overdamped or underdamped responses 
should meet specified tolerances. In addition, special consideration 
should be given to ensure that significant trends are maintained.
    (2) Tolerances.
    (a) The following summarizes the tolerances, ``T'' for underdamped 
systems, and ``n'' is the sequential period of a full cycle of 
oscillation. See Figure C2A of this attachment for an illustration of 
the referenced measurements.

T(P0).....................................  [10% of P0
T(P1).....................................  [20% of P1
T(P2).....................................  [30% of P2
T(Pn).....................................  [10(n + 1)% of Pn
T(An).....................................  [10% of A1, [20% of
                                             Subsequent Peaks
T(Ad).....................................  [5% of Ad = residual band
 

    Significant overshoots. First overshoot and [1 subsequent overshoots
    (b) The following tolerance applies to critically damped and 
overdamped systems only. See Figure C2B for an illustration of the 
reference measurements:

T(P0).....................................  [10% of P0
 

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

    c. Alternative method for control dynamics evaluation.
    (1) An alternative means for validating control dynamics for 
aircraft with hydraulically powered flight controls and artificial feel 
systems is by the measurement of control force and rate of movement. For 
each axis of pitch, roll, and yaw, the control must be forced to its 
maximum extreme position for the following distinct rates. These tests 
are conducted under normal flight and ground conditions.
    (a) Static test--Slowly move the control so that a full sweep is 
achieved within 95-105 seconds. A full sweep is defined as movement of 
the controller from neutral to the stop, usually aft or right stop, then 
to the opposite stop, then to the neutral position.
    (b) Slow dynamic test--Achieve a full sweep within 8-12 seconds.
    (c) Fast dynamic test--Achieve a full sweep in within 3-5 seconds.

    Note: Dynamic sweeps may be limited to forces not exceeding 100 lbs. 
(44.5 daN).

    (d) Tolerances
    (i) Static test--see Table C2A, FFS Objective Tests, Entries 2.a.1., 
2.a.2., and 2.a.3.
    (ii) Dynamic test--[2 lbs (0.9 daN) or [10% on dynamic increment 
above static test.

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    d. The FAA is open to alternative means that are justified and 
appropriate to the application. For example, the method described here 
may not apply to all manufacturers systems and certainly not to aircraft 
with reversible control systems. Each case is considered on its own 
merit on an ad hoc basis. If the FAA finds that alternative methods do 
not result in satisfactory performance, more conventionally accepted 
methods will have to be used.

[[Page 366]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.034

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                              5. [Reserved]

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                            6. Motion System.

    a. General.
    (1) Pilots use continuous information signals to regulate the state 
of the helicopter. In concert with the instruments and outside-world 
visual information, whole-body motion feedback is essential in assisting 
the pilot to

[[Page 367]]

control the helicopter dynamics, particularly in the presence of 
external disturbances. The motion system should meet basic objective 
performance criteria, and be subjectively tuned at the pilot's seat 
position to represent the linear and angular accelerations of the 
helicopter during a prescribed minimum set of maneuvers and conditions. 
The response of the motion cueing system should be repeatable.
    (2) The Motion System tests in Section 3 of Table C2A are intended 
to qualify the FFS motion cueing system from a mechanical performance 
standpoint. Additionally, the list of motion effects provides a 
representative sample of dynamic conditions that should be present in 
the flight simulator. An additional list of representative, training-
critical maneuvers, selected from Section 1, (Performance tests) and 
Section 2, (Handling Qualities tests) in Table C2A, that should be 
recorded during initial qualification (but without tolerance) to 
indicate the flight simulator motion cueing performance signature have 
been identified (reference Section 3.e). These tests are intended to 
help improve the overall standard of FFS motion cueing.
    b. Motion System Checks. The intent of test 3a, Frequency Response, 
test 3b, Leg Balance, and test 3c, Turn-Around Check, as described in 
the Table of Objective Tests, is to demonstrate the performance of the 
motion system hardware, and to check the integrity of the motion set-up 
with regard to calibration and wear. These tests are independent of the 
motion cueing software and should be considered robotic tests.
    c. Motion System Repeatability. The intent of this test is to ensure 
that the motion system software and motion system hardware have not 
degraded or changed over time. This diagnostic test should be completed 
during continuing qualification checks in lieu of the robotic tests. 
This will allow an improved ability to determine changes in the software 
or determine degradation in the hardware. The following information 
delineates the methodology that should be used for this test.
    (1) Input: The inputs should be such that rotational accelerations, 
rotational rates, and linear accelerations are inserted before the 
transfer from helicopter center of gravity to pilot reference point with 
a minimum amplitude of 5 deg/sec/sec, 10 deg/sec and 0.3 g, 
respectively, to provide adequate analysis of the output.
    (2) Recommended output:
    (a) Actual platform linear accelerations; the output will comprise 
accelerations due to both the linear and rotational motion acceleration;
    (b) Motion actuators position.
    d. Motion Cueing Performance Signature.
    (1) Background. The intent of this test is to provide quantitative 
time history records of motion system response to a selected set of 
automated QTG maneuvers during initial qualification. It is not intended 
to be a comparison of the motion platform accelerations against the 
flight test recorded accelerations (i.e., not to be compared against 
helicopter cueing). If there is a modification to the initially 
qualified motion software or motion hardware (e.g., motion washout 
filter, simulator payload change greater than 10%) then a new baseline 
may need to be established.
    (2) Test Selection. The conditions identified in Section 3.e. in 
Table C2A are those maneuvers where motion cueing is the most 
discernible. They are general tests applicable to all types of 
helicopters and should be completed for motion cueing performance 
signature at any time acceptable to the NSPM prior to or during the 
initial qualification evaluation, and the results included in the MQTG.
    (3) Priority. Motion system should be designed with the intent of 
placing greater importance on those maneuvers that directly influence 
pilot perception and control of the helicopter motions. For the 
maneuvers identified in section 3.e. in Table C2A, the flight simulator 
motion cueing system should have a high tilt co-ordination gain, high 
rotational gain, and high correlation with respect to the helicopter 
simulation model.
    (4) Data Recording. The minimum list of parameters provided should 
allow for the determination of the flight simulator's motion cueing 
performance signature for the initial qualification evaluation. The 
following parameters are recommended as being acceptable to perform such 
a function:
    (a) Flight model acceleration and rotational rate commands at the 
pilot reference point;
    (b) Motion actuators position;
    (c) Actual platform position;
    (d) Actual platform acceleration at pilot reference point.
    e. Motion Vibrations.
    (1) Presentation of results. The characteristic motion vibrations 
may be used to verify that the flight simulator can reproduce the 
frequency content of the helicopter when flown in specific conditions. 
The test results should be presented as a Power Spectral Density (PSD) 
plot with frequencies on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the 
vertical axis. The helicopter data and flight simulator data should be 
presented in the same format with the same scaling. The algorithms used 
for generating the flight simulator data should be the same as those 
used for the helicopter data. If they are not the same then the 
algorithms used for the flight simulator data should be proven to be 
sufficiently comparable. As a minimum the results along the dominant 
axes should be presented and a rationale for not presenting the other 
axes should be provided.
    (2) Interpretation of results. The overall trend of the PSD plot 
should be considered

[[Page 368]]

while focusing on the dominant frequencies. Less emphasis should be 
placed on the differences at the high frequency and low amplitude 
portions of the PSD plot. During the analysis, certain structural 
components of the flight simulator have resonant frequencies that are 
filtered and may not appear in the PSD plot. If filtering is required, 
the notch filter bandwidth should be limited to 1 Hz to ensure that the 
buffet feel is not adversely affected. In addition, a rationale should 
be provided to explain that the characteristic motion vibration is not 
being adversely affected by the filtering. The amplitude should match 
helicopter data as described below. However, if the PSD plot was altered 
for subjective reasons, a rationale should be provided to justify the 
change. If the plot is on a logarithmic scale it may be difficult to 
interpret the amplitude of the buffet in terms of acceleration. For 
example, a 1  x  10-3 g-rms\2\/Hz would describe a heavy 
buffet and may be seen in the deep stall regime. Alternatively, a 1  x  
10-6 g-rms\2\/Hz buffet is almost imperceptable, but may 
represent a flap buffet at low speed. The previous two examples differ 
in magnitude by 1000. On a PSD plot this represents three decades (one 
decade is a change in order of magnitude of 10, and two decades is a 
change in order of magnitude of 100).

    Note: In the example, ``g-rms\2\'' is the mathematical expression 
for ``g's root mean squared.''

    f. Table C2B, Motion System Recommendations for Level C and Level D 
Helicopter Simulators, contains a description of the parameters that 
should be present in simulator motion systems to provide adequate onset 
motion cues to helicopter pilots. The information provided covers the 
six axes of motion (pitch, roll, yaw, vertical, lateral, and 
longitudinal) and addresses displacement, velocity, and acceleration. 
Also included is information about the parameters for initial rotational 
and linear acceleration. The parameters listed in this table apply only 
to Level C and Level D simulators, and are presented here as recommended 
targets for motion system capability. They are not requirements.

    Table C2B--Motion System Recommendations for Level C and Level D
                          Helicopter Simulators
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a..........                     Motion System Envelope
a.1........  Pitch
a.1.a......  Displacement....  [25[deg]
a.1.b......  Velocity........  [20[deg]/sec
a.1.c......  Acceleration....  [100[deg]/sec\2\
a.2........  Roll
a.2.a......  Displacement....  [25[deg]
a.2.b......  Velocity........  [20[deg]/sec
a.2.c......  Acceleration....  [100[deg]/sec\2\
a.3........  Yaw
a.3.a......  Displacement....  [25[deg]
a.3.b......  Velocity--......  [20[deg]/sec
a.3.c......  Acceleration....  [100[deg]/sec\2\
a.4........  Vertical
a.4.a......  Displacement....  [34 in.
a.4.b......  Velocity........  [24 in.
a.4.c......  Acceleration....  [0.8 g.
a.5........  Lateral
a.5.a......  Displacement....  [45 in.
a.5.b......  Velocity........  [28 in/sec.
a.5.c......  Acceleration....  [0.6 g.
a.6........  Longitudinal
a.6.a......  Displacement....  [34 in.
a.6.b......  Velocity........  [28 in/sec.
a.6.c......  Acceleration....  [0.6 g.
a.7........  Initial Rotational Acceleration Ratio.
                               All axes 300[deg]/ sec\2\/sec
a.8........  Initial Linear Acceleration Ratio.
a.8.a......  Vertical........  [6g/sec
a.8.b......  Lateral.........  [3g/sec
a.8.c......  Longitudinal....  [3g/sec
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 369]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.035

                             7. Sound System

    a. General. The total sound environment in the helicopter is very 
complex, and changes with atmospheric conditions, helicopter 
configuration, airspeed, altitude, and power settings. Flight deck 
sounds are an important component of the flight deck operational 
environment and provide valuable information

[[Page 370]]

to the flight crew. These aural cues can either assist the crew (as an 
indication of an abnormal situation), or hinder the crew (as a 
distraction or nuisance). For effective training, the flight simulator 
should provide flight deck sounds that are perceptible to the pilot 
during normal and abnormal operations, and that are comparable to those 
of the helicopter. The flight simulator operator should carefully 
evaluate background noises in the location where the device will be 
installed. To demonstrate compliance with the sound requirements, the 
objective or validation tests in this attachment were selected to 
provide a representative sample of normal static conditions typically 
experienced by a pilot.
    b. Alternate propulsion. For FFS with multiple propulsion 
configurations, any condition listed in Table C2A in this attachment 
should be presented for evaluation as part of the QTG if identified by 
the helicopter manufacturer or other data supplier as significantly 
different due to a change in propulsion system (engine or propeller).
    c. Data and Data Collection System.
    (1) Information provided to the flight simulator manufacturer should 
comply be presented in the format suggested by the ``International Air 
Transport Association (IATA) Flight Simulator Design and Performance 
Data Requirements,'' as amended. This information should contain 
calibration and frequency response data.
    (2) The system used to perform the tests listed in Table C2A should 
comply with the following standards:
    (a) The specifications for octave, half octave, and third octave 
band filter sets may be found in American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) S1.11-1986.
    (b) Measurement microphones should be type WS2 or better, as 
described in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 1094-4-
1995.
    (3) Headsets. If headsets are used during normal operation of the 
helicopter they should also be used during the flight simulator 
evaluation.
    (4) Playback equipment. Playback equipment and recordings of the QTG 
conditions should be provided during initial evaluations.
    (5) Background noise.
    (a) Background noise is the noise in the flight simulator that is 
not associated with the helicopter, but is caused by the flight 
simulator's cooling and hydraulic systems and extraneous noise from 
other locations in the building. Background noise can seriously impact 
the correct simulation of helicopter sounds, and should be kept below 
the helicopter sounds. In some cases, the sound level of the simulation 
can be increased to compensate for the background noise. However, this 
approach is limited by the specified tolerances and by the subjective 
acceptability of the sound environment to the evaluation pilot.
    (b) The acceptability of the background noise levels is dependent 
upon the normal sound levels in the helicopter being represented. 
Background noise levels that fall below the lines defined by the 
following points, may be acceptable:
    (i) 70 dB @ 50 Hz;
    (ii) 55 dB @ 1000 Hz;
    (iii) 30 dB @ 16 kHz.
    (Note: These limits are for unweighted \1/3\ octave band sound 
levels. Meeting these limits for background noise does not ensure an 
acceptable flight simulator. Helicopter sounds that fall below this 
limit require careful review and may require lower limits on background 
noise.)
    (6) Validation testing. Deficiencies in helicopter recordings should 
be considered when applying the specified tolerances to ensure that the 
simulation is representative of the helicopter. Examples of typical 
deficiencies are:
    (a) Variation of data between tail numbers.
    (b) Frequency response of microphones.
    (c) Repeatability of the measurements.

 Table C2C--Example of Continuing Qualification Frequency Response Test
                                Tolerance
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Continuing
                                   Initial    qualification    Absolute
     Band center  frequency        results       results      difference
                                   (dBSPL)       (dBSPL)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
50.............................         75.0           73.8          1.2
63.............................         75.9           75.6          0.3
80.............................         77.1           76.5          0.6
100............................         78.0           78.3          0.3
125............................         81.9           81.3          0.6
160............................         79.8           80.1          0.3
200............................         83.1           84.9          1.8
250............................         78.6           78.9          0.3
315............................         79.5           78.3          1.2
400............................         80.1           79.5          0.9
500............................         80.7           79.8          0.9
630............................         81.9           80.4          1.5
800............................         73.2           74.1          0.9
1000...........................         79.2           80.1          0.9
1250...........................         80.7           82.8          2.1
1600...........................         81.6           78.6          3.0
2000...........................         76.2           74.4          1.8
2500...........................         79.5           80.7          1.2
3150...........................         80.1           77.1          3.0
4000...........................         78.9           78.6          0.3
5000...........................         80.1           77.1          3.0
6300...........................         80.7           80.4          0.3
8000...........................         84.3           85.5          1.2
10000..........................         81.3           79.8          1.5
12500..........................         80.7           80.1          0.6
16000..........................         71.1           71.1          0.0
                                ----------------------------------------
                                           Average                   1.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 371]]

 8. Additional Information About Flight Simulator Qualification for New 
                        or Derivative Helicopters

    a. Typically, a helicopter manufacturer's approved final data for 
performance, handling qualities, systems or avionics is not available 
until well after a new or derivative helicopter has entered service. 
However, flight crew training and certification often begins several 
months prior to the entry of the first helicopter into service. 
Consequently, it may be necessary to use preliminary data provided by 
the helicopter manufacturer for interim qualification of flight 
simulators.
    b. In these cases, the NSPM may accept certain partially validated 
preliminary helicopter and systems data, and early release (``red 
label'') avionics data in order to permit the necessary program schedule 
for training, certification, and service introduction.
    c. Simulator sponsors seeking qualification based on preliminary 
data should consult the NSPM to make special arrangements for using 
preliminary data for flight simulator qualification. The sponsor should 
also consult the helicopter and flight simulator manufacturers to 
develop a data plan and flight simulator qualification plan.
    d. The procedure to be followed to gain NSPM acceptance of 
preliminary data will vary from case to case and between helicopter 
manufacturers. Each helicopter manufacturer's new helicopter development 
and test program is designed to suit the needs of the particular project 
and may not contain the same events or sequence of events as another 
manufacturer's program or even the same manufacturer's program for a 
different helicopter. Therefore, there cannot be a prescribed invariable 
procedure for acceptance of preliminary data; instead there should be a 
statement describing the final sequence of events, data sources, and 
validation procedures agreed by the simulator sponsor, the helicopter 
manufacturer, the flight simulator manufacturer, and the NSPM.

    Note: A description of helicopter manufacturer-provided data needed 
for flight simulator modeling and validation is to be found in the 
``Royal Aeronautical Society Data Package Requirements for Design and 
Performance Evaluation of Rotary Wing Synthetic Training Devices.''

    e. The preliminary data should be the manufacturer's best 
representation of the helicopter, with assurance that the final data 
will not deviate significantly from the preliminary estimates. Data 
derived from these predictive or preliminary techniques should be 
validated by available sources including, at least, the following:
    (1) Manufacturer's engineering report. The report should explain the 
predictive method used and illustrate past success of the method on 
similar projects. For example, the manufacturer could show the 
application of the method to an earlier helicopter model or predict the 
characteristics of an earlier model and compare the results to final 
data for that model.
    (2) Early flight test results. This data is often derived from 
helicopter certification tests and should be used to maximum advantage 
for early flight simulator validation. Certain critical tests that would 
normally be done early in the helicopter certification program should be 
included to validate essential pilot training and certification 
maneuvers. These tests include cases where a pilot is expected to cope 
with a helicopter failure mode or an engine failure. The early data 
available will depend on the helicopter manufacturer's flight test 
program design and may not be the same in each case. The flight test 
program of the helicopter manufacturer should include provisions for 
generation of very early flight tests results for flight simulator 
validation.
    f. The use of preliminary data is not indefinite. The helicopter 
manufacturer's final data should be available within 12 months after the 
helicopter first entry into service or as agreed by the NSPM, the 
simulator sponsor, and the helicopter manufacturer. When applying for 
interim qualification using preliminary data, the simulator sponsor and 
the NSPM should agree on the update program. This includes specifying 
that the final data update will be installed in the flight simulator 
within a period of 12 months following the final data release, unless 
special conditions exist and a different schedule is acceptable. The 
flight simulator performance and handling validation would then be based 
on data derived from flight tests. Initial helicopter systems data 
should be updated after engineering tests. Final helicopter systems data 
should also be used for flight simulator programming and validation.
    g. Flight simulator avionics should stay essentially in step with 
helicopter avionics (hardware and software) updates. The permitted time 
lapse between helicopter and flight simulator updates should be minimal. 
It may depend on the magnitude of the update and whether the QTG and 
pilot training and certification are affected. Differences in helicopter 
and flight simulator avionics versions and the resulting effects on 
flight simulator qualification should be agreed between the simulator 
sponsor and the NSPM. Consultation with the flight simulator 
manufacturer is desirable throughout the qualification process.
    h. The following describes an example of the design data and sources 
that might be used in the development of an interim qualification plan.
    (1) The plan should consist of the development of a QTG based upon a 
mix of flight test and engineering simulation data. For

[[Page 372]]

data collected from specific helicopter flight tests or other flights 
the required design model or data changes necessary to support an 
acceptable Proof of Match (POM) should be generated by the helicopter 
manufacturer.
    (2) For proper validation of the two sets of data, the helicopter 
manufacturer should compare their simulation model responses against the 
flight test data, when driven by the same control inputs and subjected 
to the same atmospheric conditions as recorded in the flight test. The 
model responses should result from a simulation where the following 
systems are run in an integrated fashion and are consistent with the 
design data released to the flight simulator manufacturer:
    (a) Propulsion.
    (b) Aerodynamics.
    (c) Mass properties.
    (d) Flight controls.
    (e) Stability augmentation.
    (f) Brakes/landing gear.
    i. A qualified test pilot should be used to assess handling 
qualities and performance evaluations for the qualification of flight 
simulators of new helicopter types.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                          Begin QPS Requirement

                9. Engineering Simulator--Validation Data

    a. When a fully validated simulation (i.e., validated with flight 
test results) is modified due to changes to the simulated helicopter 
configuration, the helicopter manufacturer or other acceptable data 
supplier must coordinate with the NSPM to supply validation data from an 
``audited'' engineering simulator/simulation to selectively supplement 
flight test data. The NSPM must be provided an opportunity to audit the 
use of the engineering simulation or the engineering simulator during 
the acquisition of the data that will be used as validation data. 
Audited data may be used for changes that are incremental in nature. 
Manufacturers or other data suppliers must be able to demonstrate that 
the predicted changes in helicopter performance are based on acceptable 
aeronautical principles with proven success history and valid outcomes. 
This must include comparisons of predicted and flight test validated 
data.
    b. Helicopter manufacturers or other acceptable data suppliers 
seeking to use an engineering simulator for simulation validation data 
as an alternative to flight-test derived validation data, must contact 
the NSPM and provide the following:
    (1) A description of the proposed aircraft changes, a description of 
the proposed simulation model changes, and the use of an integral 
configuration management process, including an audit of the actual 
simulation model modifications that includes a step-by-step description 
leading from the original model(s) to the current model(s).
    (2) A schedule for review by the NSPM of the proposed plan and the 
subsequent validation data to establish acceptability of the proposal.
    (3) Validation data from an audited engineering simulator/simulation 
to supplement specific segments of the flight test data.
    c. To be qualified to supply engineering simulator validation data, 
for aerodynamic, engine, flight control, or ground handling models, a 
helicopter manufacturer or other acceptable data supplier must:
    (1) Be able to verify their ability to:
    (a) Develop and implement high fidelity simulation models; and
    (b) Predict the handling and performance characteristics of a 
helicopter with sufficient accuracy to avoid additional flight test 
activities for those handling and performance characteristics.
    (2) Have an engineering simulator that:
    (a) Is a physical entity, complete with a flight deck representative 
of the simulated class of helicopter;
    (b) Has controls sufficient for manual flight;
    (c) Has models that run in an integrated manner;
    (d) Had fully flight-test validated simulation models as the 
original or baseline simulation models;
    (e) Has an out-of-the-flight deck visual system;
    (f) Has actual avionics boxes interchangeable with the equivalent 
software simulations to support validation of released software;
    (g) Uses the same models as released to the training community 
(which are also used to produce stand-alone proof-of-match and checkout 
documents);
    (h) Is used to support helicopter development and certification; and
    (i) Has been found to be a high fidelity representation of the 
helicopter by the manufacturer's pilots (or other acceptable data 
supplier), certificate holders, and the NSPM.
    (3) Use the engineering simulator to produce a representative set of 
integrated proof-of-match cases.
    (4) Use a configuration control system covering hardware and 
software for the operating components of the engineering simulator.
    (5) Demonstrate that the predicted effects of the change(s) are 
within the provisions of sub-paragraph ``a'' of this section, and 
confirm that additional flight test data are not required.
    d. Additional Requirements for Validation Data
    (1) When used to provide validation data, an engineering simulator 
must meet the simulator standards currently applicable to

[[Page 373]]

training simulators except for the data package.
    (2) The data package used must be:
    (a) Comprised of the engineering predictions derived from the 
helicopter design, development, or certification process;
    (b) Based on acceptable aeronautical principles with proven success 
history and valid outcomes for aerodynamics, engine operations, avionics 
operations, flight control applications, or ground handling;
    (c) Verified with existing flight-test data; and
    (d) Applicable to the configuration of a production helicopter, as 
opposed to a flight-test helicopter.
    (3) Where engineering simulator data are used as part of a QTG, an 
essential match must exist between the training simulator and the 
validation data.
    (4) Training flight simulator(s) using these baseline and modified 
simulation models must be qualified to at least internationally 
recognized standards, such as contained in the ICAO Document 9625, the 
``Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators.''

                           End QPS Requirement

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             10. [Reserved]

                     11. Validation Test Tolerances

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    a. Non-Flight-Test Tolerances. If engineering simulator data or 
other non-flight-test data are used as an allowable form of reference 
validation data for the objective tests listed in Table C2A of this 
attachment, the data provider must supply a well-documented mathematical 
model and testing procedure that enables a replication of the 
engineering simulation results within 20% of the corresponding flight 
test tolerances.
    b. Background
    (1) The tolerances listed in Table C2A of this attachment are 
designed to measure the quality of the match using flight-test data as a 
reference.
    (2) Good engineering judgment should be applied to all tolerances in 
any test. A test is failed when the results fall outside of the 
prescribed tolerance(s).
    (3) Engineering simulator data are acceptable because the same 
simulation models used to produce the reference data are also used to 
test the flight training simulator (i.e., the two sets of results should 
be ``essentially'' similar).
    (4) The results from the two sources may differ for the following 
reasons:
    (a) Hardware (avionics units and flight controls);
    (b) Iteration rates;
    (c) Execution order;
    (d) Integration methods;
    (e) Processor architecture;
    (f) Digital drift, including:
    (i) Interpolation methods;
    (ii) Data handling differences;
    (iii) Auto-test trim tolerances.
    (5) The tolerance limit between the reference data and the flight 
simulator results is generally 20% of the corresponding ``flight-test'' 
tolerances. However, there may be cases where the simulator models used 
are of higher fidelity, or the manner in which they are cascaded in the 
integrated testing loop have the effect of a higher fidelity, than those 
supplied by the data provider. Under these circumstances, it is possible 
that an error greater than 20% may be generated. An error greater than 
20% may be acceptable if the simulator sponsor can provide an adequate 
explanation.
    (6) Guidelines are needed for the application of tolerances to 
engineering-simulator-generated validation data because:
    (a) Flight-test data are often not available due to sound technical 
reasons;
    (b) Alternative technical solutions are being advanced; and
    (c) The costs are high.

                       12. Validation Data Roadmap

    a. Helicopter manufacturers or other data suppliers should supply a 
validation data roadmap (VDR) document as part of the data package. A 
VDR document contains guidance material from the helicopter validation 
data supplier recommending the best possible sources of data to be used 
as validation data in the QTG. A VDR is of special value when requesting 
interim qualification, qualification of simulators for helicopters 
certificated prior to 1992, and qualification of alternate engine or 
avionics fits. A sponsor seeking to have a device qualified in 
accordance with the standards contained in this QPS appendix should 
submit a VDR to the NSPM as early as possible in the planning stages. 
The NSPM is the final authority to approve the data to be used as 
validation material for the QTG. The NSPM and the Joint Aviation 
Authorities' Synthetic Training Devices Advisory Board have committed to 
maintain a list of agreed VDRs.
    b. The VDR should identify (in matrix format) sources of data for 
all required tests. It should also provide guidance regarding the 
validity of these data for a specific engine type, thrust rating 
configuration, and the revision levels of all avionics affecting 
helicopter handling qualities and performance. The VDR should include 
rationale or explanation in cases where data or parameters are missing, 
engineering simulation data are to be used, flight test methods require 
explanation, or where there is any deviation from

[[Page 374]]

data requirements. Additionally, the document should refer to other 
appropriate sources of validation data (e.g., sound and vibration data 
documents).
    c. The Sample Validation Data Roadmap (VDR) for helicopters, shown 
in Table C2D, depicts a generic roadmap matrix identifying sources of 
validation data for an abbreviated list of tests. This sample document 
uses fixed wing parameters instead of helicopter values. It is merely a 
sample and does not provide actual data. A complete matrix should 
address all test conditions for helicopter application and provide 
actual data and data sources.
    d. Two examples of rationale pages are presented in Appendix F of 
IATA Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements document. 
These illustrate the type of helicopter and avionics configuration 
information and descriptive engineering rationale used to describe data 
anomalies or provide an acceptable basis for using alternative data for 
QTG validation requirements.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

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[[Page 376]]



                            Begin Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                             13. [Reserved]

   14. Acceptance Guidelines for Alternative Avionics (Flight-Related 
                       Computers and Controllers)

                              a. Background

    (1) For a new helicopter type, the majority of flight validation 
data are collected on the first helicopter configuration with a 
``baseline'' flight-related avionics ship-set; (see subparagraph b.(2) 
of this section). These data are then used to validate all flight 
simulators representing that helicopter type.
    (2) Additional validation data may be needed for flight simulators 
representing a helicopter with avionics of a different hardware design 
than the baseline, or a different software revision than that of 
previously validated configurations.
    (3) When a flight simulator with additional or alternate avionics 
configurations is to be qualified, the QTG should contain tests against 
validation data for selected cases where avionics differences are 
expected to be significant.

        b. Approval Guidelines For Validating Alternate Avionics

    (1) The following guidelines apply to flight simulators representing 
helicopters with a revised avionics configuration, or more than one 
avionics configuration.
    (2) The baseline validation data should be based on flight test 
data, except where other data are specifically allowed (e.g., 
engineering flight simulator data).
    (3) The helicopter avionics can be segmented into two groups, 
systems or components whose functional behavior contributes to the 
aircraft response presented in the QTG results, and systems that do not. 
The following avionics are examples of contributory systems for which 
hardware design changes or software revisions may lead to significant 
differences in the aircraft response relative to the baseline avionics 
configuration: Flight control computers and controllers for engines, 
autopilot, braking system, and nosewheel steering system, if applicable. 
Related avionics such as augmentation systems should also be considered.
    (4) The acceptability of validation data used in the QTG for an 
alternative avionics fit should be determined as follows:
    (a) For changes to an avionics system or component that do not 
affect QTG validation test response, the QTG test can be based on 
validation data from the previously validated avionics configuration.
    (b) For an avionics change to a contributory system, where a 
specific test is not affected by the change (e.g., the avionics change 
is a Built In Test Equipment (BITE) update or a modification in a 
different flight phase), the QTG test can be based on validation data 
from the previously-validated avionics configuration. The QTG should 
include authoritative justification (e.g., from the helicopter 
manufacturer or system supplier) that this avionics change does not 
affect the test.
    (c) For an avionics change to a contributory system, the QTG may be 
based on validation data from the previously-validated avionics 
configuration if no new functionality is added and the impact of the 
avionics change on the helicopter response is based on acceptable 
aeronautical principles with proven success history and valid outcomes. 
This should be supplemented with avionics-specific validation data from 
the helicopter manufacturer's engineering simulation, generated with the 
revised avionics configuration. The QTG should include an explanation of 
the nature of the change and its effect on the helicopter response.
    (d) For an avionics change to a contributory system that 
significantly affects some tests in the QTG, or where new functionality 
is added, the QTG should be based on validation data from the previously 
validated avionics configuration and supplemental avionics-specific 
flight test data sufficient to validate the alternate avionics revision. 
Additional flight test validation data may not be needed if the avionics 
changes were certified without the need for testing with a comprehensive 
flight instrumentation package. The helicopter manufacturer should 
coordinate flight simulator data requirements in advance with the NSPM.
    (5) A matrix or ``roadmap'' should be provided with the QTG 
indicating the appropriate validation data source for each test. The 
roadmap should include identification of the revision state of those 
contributory avionics systems that could affect specific test responses.

                       15. Transport Delay Testing

    a. This paragraph describes how to determine the introduced 
transport delay through the flight simulator system so that it does not 
exceed a specific time delay. The transport delay should be measured 
from control inputs through the interface, through each of the host 
computer modules and back through the interface to motion, flight 
instrument, and visual systems. The transport delay should not exceed 
the maximum allowable interval.
    b. Four specific examples of transport delay are:
    (1) Simulation of classic non-computer controlled aircraft;
    (2) Simulation of Computer Controlled Aircraft using real helicopter 
black boxes;

[[Page 377]]

    (3) Simulation of Computer Controlled Aircraft using software 
emulation of helicopter boxes;
    (4) Simulation using software avionics or rehosted instruments.
    c. Figure C2C illustrates the total transport delay for a non-
computer-controlled helicopter or the classic transport delay test. 
Since there are no helicopter-induced delays for this case, the total 
transport delay is equivalent to the introduced delay.
    d. Figure C2D illustrates the transport delay testing method using 
the real helicopter controller system.
    e. To obtain the induced transport delay for the motion, instrument 
and visual signal, the delay induced by the helicopter controller should 
be subtracted from the total transport delay. This difference represents 
the introduced delay and should not exceed the standards prescribed in 
Table C1A.
    f. Introduced transport delay is measured from the flight deck 
control input to the reaction of the instruments and motion and visual 
systems (See Figure C2C).
    g. The control input may also be introduced after the helicopter 
controller system input and the introduced transport delay may be 
measured directly from the control input to the reaction of the 
instruments, and simulator motion and visual systems (See Figure C2D).
    h. Figure C2E illustrates the transport delay testing method used on 
a flight simulator that uses a software emulated helicopter controller 
system.
    i. It is not possible to measure the introduced transport delay 
using the simulated helicopter controller system architecture for the 
pitch, roll and yaw axes. Therefore, the signal should be measured 
directly from the pilot controller. The flight simulator manufacturer 
should measure the total transport delay and subtract the inherent delay 
of the actual helicopter components because the real helicopter 
controller system has an inherent delay provided by the helicopter 
manufacturer. The flight simulator manufacturer should ensure that the 
introduced delay does not exceed the standards prescribed in Table C1A.
    j. Special measurements for instrument signals for flight simulators 
using a real helicopter instrument display system instead of a simulated 
or re-hosted display. For flight instrument systems, the total transport 
delay should be measured and the inherent delay of the actual helicopter 
components subtracted to ensure that the introduced delay does not 
exceed the standards prescribed in Table C1A.
    (1) Figure C2FA illustrates the transport delay procedure without 
helicopter display simulation. The introduced delay consists of the 
delay between the control movement and the instrument change on the data 
bus.
    (2) Figure C2FB illustrates the modified testing method required to 
measure introduced delay due to software avionics or re-hosted 
instruments. The total simulated instrument transport delay is measured 
and the helicopter delay should be subtracted from this total. This 
difference represents the introduced delay and should not exceed the 
standards prescribed in Table C1A. The inherent delay of the helicopter 
between the data bus and the displays is indicated in figure C2FA. The 
display manufacturer should provide this delay time.
    k. Recorded signals. The signals recorded to conduct the transport 
delay calculations should be explained on a schematic block diagram. The 
flight simulator manufacturer should also provide an explanation of why 
each signal was selected and how they relate to the above descriptions.
    l. Interpretation of results. Flight simulator results vary over 
time from test to test due to ``sampling uncertainty.'' All flight 
simulators run at a specific rate where all modules are executed 
sequentially in the host computer. The flight controls input can occur 
at any time in the iteration, but these data will not be processed 
before the start of the new iteration. For example, a flight simulator 
running at 60 Hz may have a difference of as much as 16.67 msec between 
results. This does not mean that the test has failed. Instead, the 
difference is attributed to variation in input processing. In some 
conditions, the host simulator and the visual system do not run at the 
same iteration rate, so the output of the host computer to the visual 
system will not always be synchronized.
    m. The transport delay test should account for both daylight and 
night modes of operation of the visual system. In both cases, the 
tolerances prescribed in Table C1A should be met and the motion response 
should occur before the end of the first video scan containing new 
information.

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[[Page 379]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.038

     16. Continuing Qualification Evaluations--Validation Test Data 
                              Presentation

                              a. Background

    (1) The MQTG is created during the initial evaluation of a flight 
simulator. This is the master document, as amended, to which flight 
simulator continuing qualification evaluation test results are compared.
    (2) The currently accepted method of presenting continuing 
qualification evaluation test results is to provide flight simulator 
results over-plotted with reference data. Test results are carefully 
reviewed to determine if the test is within the specified tolerances. 
This can be a time consuming process, particularly when reference data 
exhibits rapid variations or an apparent anomaly requiring engineering 
judgment in the application of

[[Page 380]]

the tolerances. In these cases, the solution is to compare the results 
to the MQTG. The continuing qualification results are compared to the 
results in the MQTG for acceptance. The flight simulator operator and 
the NSPM should look for any change in the flight simulator performance 
since initial qualification.

    b. Continuing Qualification Evaluation Test Results Presentation

    (1) Flight simulator operators are encouraged to over-plot 
continuing qualification validation test results with MQTG flight 
simulator results recorded during the initial evaluation and as amended. 
Any change in a validation test will be readily apparent. In addition to 
plotting continuing qualification validation test and MQTG results, 
operators may elect to plot reference data.
    (2) There are no suggested tolerances between flight simulator 
continuing qualification and MQTG validation test results. Investigation 
of any discrepancy between the MQTG and continuing qualification flight 
simulator performance is left to the discretion of the flight simulator 
operator and the NSPM.
    (3) Differences between the two sets of results, other than 
variations attributable to repeatability issues that cannot be explained 
should be investigated.
    (4) The flight simulator should retain the ability to over-plot both 
automatic and manual validation test results with reference data.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

 17. Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation: Level B 
                             Simulators Only

    a. Sponsors are not required to use the alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation. However, any sponsor choosing to use 
alternative sources must comply with the requirements in Table C2E.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    b. It has become standard practice for experienced simulator 
manufacturers to use such techniques as a means of establishing data 
bases for new simulator configurations while awaiting the availability 
of actual flight test data. The data generated from the aerodynamic 
modeling techniques is then compared to the flight test data when it 
becomes available. The results of such comparisons have become 
increasingly consistent, indicating that these techniques, applied with 
appropriate experience, are dependable and accurate for the development 
of aerodynamic models for use in Level B simulators.
    c. Based on this history of successful comparisons, the NSPM has 
concluded that those who are experienced in the development of 
aerodynamic models for simulator application can successfully use these 
modeling techniques to alter the method for acquiring flight test data 
for Level B simulators.
    d. The information in Table C2E (Alternative Data Sources, 
Procedures, and Information) is presented to describe an acceptable 
alternative to data sources for simulator modeling and validation and an 
acceptable alternative to the procedures and instrumentation 
traditionally used to gather such modeling and validation data.
    (1) Alternative data sources that may be used for part or all of a 
data requirement are the Helicopter Maintenance Manual, the Rotorcraft 
Flight Manual (RFM), Helicopter Design Data, the Type Inspection Report 
(TIR), Certification Data or acceptable supplemental flight test data.
    (2) The sponsor should coordinate with the NSPM prior to using 
alternative data sources in a flight test or data gathering effort.
    e. The NSPM position on the use of these alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation is based on the use of a rigorously 
defined and fully mature simulation controls system model that includes 
accurate gearing and cable stretch characteristics (where applicable), 
determined from actual aircraft measurements. The model does not require 
control surface position measurements in the flight test objective data 
in these limited applications.
    f. Data may be acquired by using an inertial measurement system and 
a synchronized video of the calibrated helicopter instruments, including 
the inclinometer; the force/position measurements of flight deck 
controls; and a clear visual directional reference for a known magnetic 
bearing (e.g., a runway centerline). Ground track and wind corrected 
heading may be used for sideslip angle.
    g. The sponsor is urged to contact the NSPM for clarification of any 
issue regarding helicopters with reversible control systems. This table 
is not applicable to Computer Controlled Aircraft flight simulators.
    h. Use of these alternate data sources, procedures, and 
instrumentation does not relieve the sponsor from compliance with the 
balance of the information contained in this document relative to Level 
B FFSs.
    i. The term ``inertial measurement system'' is used in table C2E 
includes the use of a functional global positioning system (GPS).
    j. Synchronized video for the use of alternative data sources, 
procedures, and instrumentation should have:

[[Page 381]]

    (1) sufficient resolution to allow magnification of the display to 
make appropriate measurement and comparisons; and
    (2) sufficient size and incremental marking to allow similar 
measurement and comparison. The detail provided by the video should 
provide sufficient clarity and accuracy to measure the necessary 
parameter(s) to at least \1/2\ of the tolerance authorized for the 
specific test being conducted and allow an integration of the 
parameter(s) in question to obtain a rate of change.

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                      Table C2E--Alternative Data Sources, Procedures, and Instrumentation
 [The standards in this table are required if the data gathering methods described in paragraph 9 of Appendix C
                                                  are not used]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   QPS requirements                                           Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Table of objective tests          Level
---------------------------------------   By    Alternative data sources, procedures,            Notes
      Test entry number and title        only            and instrumentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1.a. Performance. Engine Start and      X   Data may be acquired using a
 Accelerations.                                  synchronized video recording of all
                                                 engine instruments, start buttons,
                                                 means for fuel introduction and
                                                 means for moving from ``idle'' to
                                                 ``flight.'' A stopwatch is necessary.
1.a.1.b. Performance. Steady State          X   Data may be acquired using a
 Idle and Operating RPM Conditions.              synchronized video recording of all
                                                 engine instruments, and include the
                                                 status of the means for moving from
                                                 ``idle'' to ``flight.''.
1.a.2. Performance. Power Turbine           X   Data may be acquired using a
 Speed Trim.                                     synchronized video recording of all
                                                 engine instruments. Speed trim
                                                 actuator position may be hand
                                                 recorded.
1.a.3. Performance. Engine and Rotor        X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Speed Governing.                                synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.b.1. Performance. On Surface Taxi.        X   TIR, AFM, or Design data may be used.
 Minimum Radius Turn.
1.b.2. Performance. On Surface Taxi         X   Data may be acquired by using a        A single procedure may
 Rate of Turn vs. Nosewheel Steering             constant tiller position (measured     not be adequate for all
 Angle.                                          with a protractor), or full pedal      rotorcraft steering
                                                 application for steady state turn,     systems. Appropriate
                                                 and synchronized video of heading      measurement procedures
                                                 indicator. If less than full pedal     must be devised and
                                                 is used, pedal position must be        proposed for NSPM
                                                 recorded.                              concurrence.
1.b.3. Performance. Taxi..............      X   Data may be acquired by using a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.b.4. Performance. Brake.............      X   Data may be acquired using a
                                                 stopwatch and a means for measuring
                                                 distance such as runway distance
                                                 markers conforming with runway
                                                 distance marker standards.
1.c.1. Performance. Running Takeoff...      X   Preliminary certification data may be
                                                 used. Data may be acquired by using
                                                 a synchronized video of the
                                                 calibrated helicopter instruments
                                                 and the force/position measurements
                                                 of flight deck controls. Collective,
                                                 cyclic, and pedal position time
                                                 history must be recorded from the
                                                 start of collective movement through
                                                 to normal climb. Indicated torque
                                                 settings may be hand recorded at the
                                                 moment of lift-off and in a steady
                                                 normal climb.
1.c.2. Performance. One Engine              X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Inoperative (OEI), continued takeoff.           synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls. Collective, cyclic, and
                                                 pedal position time history must be
                                                 recorded from the start of
                                                 collective movement through to
                                                 normal OEI climb. Indicated torque
                                                 settings may be hand recorded at the
                                                 moment of lift-off and in a steady
                                                 normal OEI climb.
1.f. Performance. Level Flight.             X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Trimmed Flight Control Positions.               synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.g. Performance. Normal Climb.             X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Trimmed Flight Control Positions.               synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.h.1. Descent Performance and Trimmed      X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Flight Control Positions.                       synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.

[[Page 382]]

 
1.h.2. Autorotation Performance and         X   Data may be acquired by using a
 Trimmed Flight Control Positions.               synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.j.1. Performance. Running Landing         X   Data may be acquired by using a
 All Engines.                                    synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.j.2. Performance. Running Landing         X   Data may be acquired by using a
 One Engine Inoperative.                         synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
1.j.3. Performance. Balked Landing....      X   Data may be acquired by using a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls. The synchronized video
                                                 must record the time of the ``balk
                                                 landing'' decision.
2.a.1. Handling Qualities. Static           X   Control positions can be obtained
 Control Checks. Cyclic Controller               using continuous control position
 Position vs. Force.                             recordings. Force data may be
                                                 acquired by using a hand held force
                                                 gauge so that the forces can be
                                                 cross-plotted against control
                                                 position in each of the control axes.
2.a.2. Handling Qualities. Static           X   Control positions can be obtained
 Control Checks. Collective/Pedals vs.           using continuous control position
 Force.                                          recordings. Force data may be
                                                 acquired by using a hand held force
                                                 gauge so that the forces can be
                                                 cross-plotted against control
                                                 position in each of the control axes.
2.a.3. Handling Qualities. Brake Pedal      X   Brake pedal positions can be obtained
 Force vs. Position.                             using continuous position
                                                 recordings. Force data may be
                                                 acquired by using a hand held force
                                                 gauge so that the forces can be
                                                 cross-plotted against brake pedal
                                                 position.
2.a.4. Handling Qualities. Trim System      X   Control positions can be obtained
 Rate (all applicable systems).                  using continuous control position
                                                 recordings plotted against time to
                                                 provide rate in each applicable
                                                 system.
2.a.6. Handling Qualities. Control          X   Data may be acquired by direct
 System Freeplay.                                measurement.
2.c.1. Longitudinal Handling                X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Control Response.                    inertial measurement system, a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.c.2. Longitudinal Handling                X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Static Stability.                    inertial measurement system, a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.c.3.a. Longitudinal Handling              X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Dynamic Stability, Long              inertial measurement system, a
 Term Response.                                  synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.c.3.b. Longitudinal Handling              X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Dynamic Stability, Short             inertial measurement system, a
 Term Response.                                  synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.c.4. Longitudinal Handling                X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Maneuvering stability.               inertial measurement system, a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.d.1.a. Lateral Handling Qualities.        X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Control Response.                               inertial measurement system, a
                                                 synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
2.d.1.b Directional Handling                X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Qualities. Control Response..                   inertial measurement system and a
                                                 synchronized video of calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 directional controls.
2.d.2. Handling Qualities. Directional      X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Static Stability.                               inertial measurement system and a
                                                 synchronized video of calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments and force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 directional controls.
2.d.3.a. Handling Qualities. Dynamic        X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Lateral and Directional Stability               inertial measurement system and a
 Lateral-Directional Oscillations.               synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments, the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls, and a stop watch.
2.d.3.b. Handling Qualities. Dynamic        X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Lateral and Directional Stability               inertial measurement system and a
 Spiral Stability.                               synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments, the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls, and a stop watch.

[[Page 383]]

 
2.d.3.c. Handling Qualities. Dynamic        X   Data may be acquired by using an
 Lateral and Directional Stability.              inertial measurement system and a
 Adverse/Proverse Yaw.                           synchronized video of the calibrated
                                                 helicopter instruments, the force/
                                                 position measurements of flight deck
                                                 controls.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                       18. Visual Display Systems.

    a. Basic principles of a FFS collimated display:
    (1) The essential feature of a collimated display is that light rays 
coming from a given point in a picture are parallel. There are two main 
implications of the parallel rays:
    (a) The viewer's eyes focus at infinity and have zero convergence, 
providing a cue that the object is distant; and
    (b) The angle to any given point in the picture does not change when 
viewed from a different position so the object behaves geometrically as 
though it were located at a significant distance from the viewer. These 
cues are self-consistent, and are appropriate for any object that has 
been modeled as being at a significant distance from the viewer.
    (2) In an ideal situation the rays are perfectly parallel, but most 
implementations provide only an approximation to the ideal. Typically, 
an FFS display provides an image located not closer than about 20-33 ft 
(6-10 m) from the viewer, with the distance varying over the field-of-
view. A schematic representation of a collimated display is provided in 
Figure C2A.
    (3) Collimated displays are well suited to many simulation 
applications as the area of interest is relatively distant from the 
observer so the angles to objects should remain independent of viewing 
position. Consider the view of the runway seen by the flight crew lined 
up on an approach. In the real world, the runway is distant and the 
light rays from the runway to the eyes are parallel. The runway appears 
to be straight ahead to both crew members. This situation is well 
simulated by a collimated display and is presented in Figure C2B. Note 
that the distance to the runway has been shortened for clarity. If drawn 
to scale, the runway would be farther away and the rays from the two 
seats would be closer to being parallel.
    (4) While the horizontal field-of-view of a collimated display can 
be extended to approximately 210[deg]-220[deg], the vertical field-of-
view has been limited to about 40[deg]-45[deg]. These limitations result 
from tradeoffs in optical quality and interference between the display 
components and flight deck structures, but were sufficient to meet FFS 
regulatory approval for Helicopter FFSs. However, recent designs have 
been introduced with vertical fields of view of up to 60[deg] for 
helicopter applications.
    b. Basic principles of a FFS dome (or non-collimated) display:
    (1) The situation in a dome display is shown in Figure C2C. As the 
angles can be correct for only one eye point at a time, the visual 
system in the figure has been aligned for the right seat eye point 
position. The runway appears to be straight ahead of the aircraft for 
this viewer. For the left seat viewer, however, the runway appears to be 
somewhat to the right of the aircraft. As the aircraft is still moving 
towards the runway, the perceived velocity vector will be directed 
towards the runway and this will be interpreted as the aircraft having 
some yaw offset.
    (2) The situation is substantially different for near field objects 
encountered in helicopter operations close to the ground. In those 
cases, objects that should be interpreted as being close to the viewer 
will be misinterpreted as being distant in a collimated display. The 
errors can actually be reduced in a dome display.
    (3) The field-of-view possible with a dome display can be larger 
than that of a collimated display. Depending on the configuration, a 
field-of-view of 240[deg] by 90[deg] is possible and can be exceeded.

                  c. Additional display considerations

    (1) While the situations described above are for discrete viewing 
positions, the same arguments can be extended to moving eye points 
produced by the viewer's head movement. In the real world, the parallax 
effects resulting from head movement provide distance cues. The effect 
is particularly strong for relative movement of flight deck structure in 
the near field and modeled objects in the distance. Collimated displays 
will provide accurate parallax cues for distant objects, but 
increasingly inaccurate cues for

[[Page 384]]

near field objects. The situation is reversed for dome displays.
    (2) Stereopsis cues resulting from the different images presented to 
each eye for objects relatively close to the viewer also provide depth 
cues. Again, the collimated and dome displays provide more or less 
accurate cues depending on the modeled distance of the objects being 
viewed.

                        d. Training implications

    (1) In view of the basic principles described above, it is clear 
that neither display approach provides a completely accurate image for 
all possible object distances. The sponsor should consider the training 
role of the FFS when configuring the display system to make the optimum 
choice. Factors that should be considered include relative importance of 
training tasks at low altitudes, the role of the two crew members in the 
flying tasks, and the field-of-view required for specific training 
tasks.

[[Page 385]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR09MY08.039

 Attachment 3 to Appendix C to Part 60--Simulator Subjective Evaluation

 _______________________________________________________________________

                         Begin QPS Requirements

                             1. Requirements

    a. Except for special use airport models, all airport models 
required by this part must be representations of real-world, operational 
airports or representations of fictional airports and must meet the 
requirements set out in Tables C3B or C3C of this attachment, as 
appropriate.
    b. If fictional airports are used, the sponsor must ensure that 
navigational aids and all appropriate maps, charts, and other 
navigational reference material for the fictional

[[Page 386]]

airports (and surrounding areas as necessary) are compatible, complete, 
and accurate with respect to the visual presentation and airport model 
of this fictional airport. An SOC must be submitted that addresses 
navigation aid installation and performance and other criteria 
(including obstruction clearance protection) for all instrument 
approaches to the fictional airports that are available in the 
simulator. The SOC must reference and account for information in the 
terminal instrument procedures manual and the construction and 
availability of the required maps, charts, and other navigational 
material. This material must be clearly marked ``for training purposes 
only.''
    c. When the simulator is being used by an instructor or evaluator 
for purposes of training, checking, or testing under this chapter, only 
airport models classified as Class I, Class II, or Class III may be used 
by the instructor or evaluator. Detailed descriptions/definitions of 
these classifications are found in Appendix F of this part.
    d. When a person sponsors an FFS maintained by a person other than a 
U.S. certificate holder, the sponsor is accountable for that FFS 
originally meeting, and continuing to meet, the criteria under which it 
was originally qualified and the appropriate Part 60 criteria, including 
the visual scenes and airport models that may be used by instructors or 
evaluators for purposes of training, checking, or testing under this 
chapter.
    e. Neither Class II nor Class III airport visual models are required 
to appear on the SOQ, and the method used for keeping instructors and 
evaluators apprised of the airport models that meet Class II or Class 
III requirements on any given simulator is at the option of the sponsor, 
but the method used must be available for review by the TPAA.
    f. When an airport model represents a real world airport and a 
permanent change is made to that real world airport (e.g., a new runway, 
an extended taxiway, a new lighting system, a runway closure) without a 
written extension grant from the NSPM (described in paragraph 1.g., of 
this section), an update to that airport model must be made in 
accordance with the following time limits:
    (1) For a new airport runway, a runway extension, a new airport 
taxiway, a taxiway extension, or a runway/taxiway closure--within 90 
days of the opening for use of the new airport runway, runway extension, 
new airport taxiway, or taxiway extension; or within 90 days of the 
closure of the runway or taxiway.
    (2) For a new or modified approach light system--within 45 days of 
the activation of the new or modified approach light system.
    (3) For other facility or structural changes on the airport (e.g., 
new terminal, relocation of Air Traffic Control Tower)--within 180 days 
of the opening of the new or changed facility or structure.
    g. If a sponsor desires an extension to the time limit for an update 
to a visual scene or airport model or has an objection to what must be 
updated in the specific airport model requirement, the sponsor must 
provide a written extension request to the NSPM stating the reason for 
the update delay and a proposed completion date or provide an 
explanation for the objection, explaining why the identified airport 
change will not have an impact on flight training, testing, or checking. 
A copy of this request or objection must also be sent to the POI/TCPM. 
The NSPM will send the official response to the sponsor and a copy to 
the POI/TCPM; however, if there is an objection, after consultation with 
the appropriate POI/TCPM regarding the training, testing, or checking 
impact, the NSPM will send the official response to the sponsor and a 
copy to the POI/TCPM.

                          End QPS Requirements

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

                              2. Discussion

    a. The subjective tests provide a basis for evaluating the 
capability of the simulator to perform over a typical utilization 
period; determining that the simulator competently simulates each 
required maneuver, procedure, or task; and verifying correct operation 
of the simulator controls, instruments, and systems. The items listed in 
the following Tables are for simulator evaluation purposes only. They 
may not be used to limit or exceed the authorizations for use of a given 
level of simulator as described on the SOQ or as approved by the TPAA. 
All items in the following paragraphs are subject to an examination.
    b. The tests in Table C3A, Operations Tasks, in this attachment 
address pilot functions, including maneuvers and procedures (called 
flight tasks), and are divided by flight phases. The performance of 
these tasks by the NSPM includes an operational examination of the 
visual system and special effects. There are flight tasks included to 
address some features of advanced technology helicopters and innovative 
training programs.
    c. The tests in Table C3A, Operations Tasks, and Table C3G, 
Instructor Operating Station, in this attachment address the overall 
function and control of the simulator including the various simulated 
environmental conditions; simulated helicopter system operation (normal, 
abnormal, and emergency); visual system displays; and special effects 
necessary to meet flight crew training, evaluation, or flight experience 
requirements.

[[Page 387]]

    d. All simulated helicopter systems functions will be assessed for 
normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal, 
and emergency operations associated with a flight phase will be assessed 
during the evaluation of flight tasks or events within that flight 
phase. Simulated helicopter systems are listed separately under ``Any 
Flight Phase'' to ensure appropriate attention to systems checks. 
Operational navigation systems (including inertial navigation systems, 
global positioning systems, or other long-range systems) and the 
associated electronic display systems will be evaluated if installed. 
The NSP pilot will include in his report to the TPAA, the effect of the 
system operation and any system limitation.
    e. Simulators demonstrating a satisfactory circling approach will be 
qualified for the circling approach maneuver and may be approved for 
such use by the TPAA in the sponsor's FAA-approved flight training 
program. To be considered satisfactory, the circling approach will be 
flown at maximum gross weight for landing, with minimum visibility for 
the helicopter approach category, and must allow proper alignment with a 
landing runway at least 90[deg] different from the instrument approach 
course while allowing the pilot to keep an identifiable portion of the 
airport in sight throughout the maneuver (reference--14 CFR 91.175(e)).
    f. At the request of the TPAA, the NSP Pilot may assess the 
simulator for a special aspect of a sponsor's training program during 
the functions and subjective portion of an evaluation. Such an 
assessment may include a portion of a Line Oriented Flight Training 
(LOFT) scenario or special emphasis items in the sponsor's training 
program. Unless directly related to a requirement for the qualification 
level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the 
qualification of the simulator.
    g. This appendix addresses helicopter simulators at Levels B, C, and 
D because there are no Level A Helicopter simulators.
    h. The FAA intends to allow the use of Class III airport models on a 
limited basis when the sponsor provides the TPAA (or other regulatory 
authority) an appropriate analysis of the skills, knowledge, and 
abilities (SKAs) necessary for competent performance of the tasks in 
which this particular media element is used. The analysis should 
describe the ability of the FFS/visual media to provide an adequate 
environment in which the required SKAs are satisfactorily performed and 
learned. The analysis should also include the specific media element, 
such as the visual scene or airport model. Additional sources of 
information on the conduct of task and capability analysis may be found 
on the FAA's Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) Web site at: http://
www.faa.gov/education_research/training/aqp/.
    h. The TPAA may accept Class III airport models without individual 
observation provided the sponsor provides the TPAA with an acceptable 
description of the process for determining the acceptability of a 
specific airport model, outlines the conditions under which such an 
airport model may be used, and adequately describes what restrictions 
will be applied to each resulting airport or landing area model. 
Examples of situations that may warrant Class III model designation by 
the TPAA include the following:
    (a) Training, testing, or checking on very low visibility 
operations, including SMGCS operations.
    (b) Instrument operations training (including instrument takeoff, 
departure, arrival, approach, and missed approach training, testing, or 
checking) using--
    (i) A specific model that has been geographically ``moved'' to a 
different location and aligned with an instrument procedure for another 
airport.
    (ii) A model that does not match changes made at the real-world 
airport (or landing area for helicopters) being modeled.
    (iii) A model generated with an ``off-board'' or an ``on-board'' 
model development tool (by providing proper latitude/longitude 
reference; correct runway or landing area orientation, length, width, 
marking, and lighting information; and appropriate adjacent taxiway 
location) to generate a facsimile of a real world airport or landing 
area.
    i. Previously qualified simulators with certain early generation 
Computer Generated Image (CGI) visual systems, are limited by the 
capability of the Image Generator or the display system used. These 
systems are:
    (1) Early CGI visual systems that are exempt from the necessity of 
including runway numbers as a part of the specific runway marking 
requirements are:
    (a) Link NVS and DNVS.
    (b) Novoview 2500 and 6000.
    (c) FlightSafety VITAL series up to, and including, VITAL III, but 
not beyond.
    (d) Redifusion SP1, SP1T, and SP2.
    (2) Early CGI visual systems are excepted from the necessity of 
including runway numbers unless the runway is used for LOFT training 
sessions. These LOFT airport models require runway numbers, but only for 
the specific runway end (one direction) used in the LOFT session. The 
systems required to display runway numbers only for LOFT scenes are:
    (a) FlightSafety VITAL IV.
    (b) Redifusion SP3 and SP3T.
    (c) Link-Miles Image II.
    (3) The following list of previously qualified CGI and display 
systems are incapable of generating blue lights. These systems are not 
required to have accurate taxi-way edge lighting are:
    (a) Redifusion SP1 and SP1T.
    (b) FlightSafety Vital IV.

[[Page 388]]

    (c) Link-Miles Image II and Image IIT
    (d) XKD displays (even though the XKD image generator is capable of 
generating blue colored lights, the display cannot accommodate that 
color).

                             End Information

 _______________________________________________________________________

                                    Table C3A--Functions and Subjective Tests
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                QPS requirements
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                     Simulator
                                                                                                       level
               Entry No.                                     Operations tasks                     --------------
                                                                                                    B    C    D
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tasks in this table are subject to evaluation if appropriate for the helicopter simulated as indicated in the
 SOQ Configuration List or the level of simulator qualification involved. Items not installed or not functional
 on the simulator and, therefore, not appearing on the SOQ Configuration List, are not required to be listed as
 exceptions on the SOQ.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Preparation for Flight
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a...................................  Flight deck check: Switches, indicators, systems, and       X    X    X
                                         equipment.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. APU/Engine start and run-up
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a...................................  Normal start procedures..................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b...................................  Alternate start procedures...............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c...................................  Abnormal starts and shutdowns (e.g., hot start, hung        X    X    X
                                         start).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d...................................  Rotor engagement.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e...................................  System checks............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Taxiing--Ground
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a...................................  Power required to taxi...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b...................................  Brake effectiveness......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c...................................  Ground handling..........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d...................................  Water handling (if applicable)...........................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e...................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.1.................................  Brake system failure.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.2.................................  Ground resonance.........................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.3.................................  Dynamic rollover.........................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.4.................................  Deployment of emergency floats/water landing.............        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.5.................................  Others listed on the SOQ.................................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Taxiing--Hover
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a...................................  Takeoff to a hover.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b...................................  Instrument response:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.1.................................  Engine instruments.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.2.................................  Flight instruments.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.3.................................  Hovering turns...........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c...................................  Hover power checks:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.1.................................  In ground effect (IGE)...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.2.................................  Out of ground effect (OGE)...............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d...................................  Crosswind/tailwind hover.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 389]]

 
4.e...................................  Translating tendency.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f...................................  External load operations:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f.1.................................  Hookup...................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f.2.................................  Release..................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f.3.................................  Winch operations.........................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g...................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.1.................................  Engine failure...........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.2.................................  Fuel governing system failure............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.3.................................  Settling with power (OGE)................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.4.................................  Hovering autorotation....................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.5.................................  Stability augmentation system failure....................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.6.................................  Directional control malfunction..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.7.................................  Loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE)...................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g.8.................................  Others listed on the SOQ.................................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.h...................................  Pre-takeoff checks.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Takeoff/Translational Flight
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a...................................  Forward (up to effective translational lift).............        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b...................................  Sideward (up to limiting airspeed).......................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c...................................  Rearward (up to limiting airspeed).......................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Takeoff and Departure Phase
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a...................................  Normal...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.1.................................  From ground..............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.2.................................  From hover...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.2.a...............................  Cat A....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.2.b...............................  Cat B....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.3.................................  Running..................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.4.................................  Crosswind/tailwind.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.5.................................  Maximum performance......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.6.................................  Instrument...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.7.................................  Takeoff from a confined area.............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.8.................................  Takeoff from a pinnacle/platform.........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.9.................................  Takeoff from a slope.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.10................................  External load operations.................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b...................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures:...........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.1.................................  Takeoff with engine failure after critical decision point   X    X    X
                                         (CDP).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 390]]

 
6.b.1.a...............................  Cat A....................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.1.b...............................  Cat B....................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c...................................  Rejected takeoff.........................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.1.................................  Land.....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.2.................................  Water (if appropriate)...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.d...................................  Instrument departure.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.e...................................  Others as listed on the SOQ..............................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Climb
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a...................................  Normal...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b...................................  Obstacle clearance.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.c...................................  Vertical.................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d...................................  One engine inoperative...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e...................................  Others as listed on the SOQ..............................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Cruise
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.a...................................  Performance..............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b...................................  Flying qualities.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c...................................  Turns....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.1.................................  Timed....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.2.................................  Normal...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c.3.................................  Steep....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d...................................  Accelerations and decelerations..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e...................................  High speed vibrations....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f...................................  External Load Operations (see entry 4.f. of this table)..        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g...................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.1.................................  Engine fire..............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.2.................................  Engine failure...........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.3.................................  Inflight engine shutdown and restart.....................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.4.................................  Fuel governing system failures...........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.5.................................  Directional control malfunction..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.6.................................  Hydraulic failure........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.7.................................  Stability system failure.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.8.................................  Rotor vibrations.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g.9.................................  Recovery from unusual attitudes..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Descent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.a...................................  Normal...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 391]]

 
9.b...................................  Maximum rate.............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.c...................................  Autorotative.............................................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.c.1.................................  Straight-in..............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.c.2.................................  With turn................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.d...................................  External Load............................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. Approach
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a..................................  Non-precision............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.1................................  All engines operating....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.2................................  One or more engines inoperative..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3................................  Approach procedures:                                        X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3.a..............................  NDB......................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3.b..............................  VOR, RNAV, TACAN.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3.c..............................  ASR......................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3.d..............................  Circling.................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.3.e..............................  Helicopter only..........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.4................................  Missed approach..........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.4.a..............................  All engines operating....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.a.4.b..............................  One or more engines inoperative..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b..................................  Precision................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.1................................  All engines operating....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.2................................  Manually controlled--one or more engines inoperative.....   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3................................  Approach procedures:                                        X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.a..............................  PAR......................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.b..............................  MLS......................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  ILS......................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  (1) Manual (raw data)....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  (2) Flight director only.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  (3) Autopilot * only.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  (4) Cat I................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.3.c..............................  (5) Cat II...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.4................................  Missed approach:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.4.a..............................  All engines operating....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.4.b..............................  One or more engines inoperative..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.b.4.c..............................  Stability system failure.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.c..................................  Others as listed on the SOQ..............................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 392]]

 
11. Landings and Approaches to Landings
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a..................................  Visual Approaches:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.1................................  Normal...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.2................................  Steep....................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.3................................  Shallow..................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.4................................  Crosswind................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.5................................  Category A profile.......................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.6................................  Category B profile.......................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.a.7................................  External Load............................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b..................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.1................................  Directional control failure..............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.2................................  Hydraulics failure.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.3................................  Fuel governing failure...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.4................................  Autorotation.............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.5................................  Stability system failure.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.b.6................................  Others listed on the SOQ.................................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11c...................................  Landings:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.1................................  Normal:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.1.a..............................  Running..................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.1.b..............................  From Hover...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.2................................  Pinnacle/platform........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.3................................  Confined area............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.4................................  Slope....................................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.5................................  Crosswind................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.6................................  Tailwind.................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.7................................  Rejected Landing.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8.a..............................  From autorotation........................................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8.b..............................  One or more engines inoperative..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8.c..............................  Directional control failure..............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8.d..............................  Hydraulics failure.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.8.e..............................  Stability augmentation system failure....................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.c.9................................  Other (listed on the SOQ)................................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12. Any Flight Phase
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.1................................  Air conditioning.........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 393]]

 
12.a.2................................  Anti-icing/deicing.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.3................................  Auxiliary power-plant....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.4................................  Communications...........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.5................................  Electrical...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.6................................  Fire detection and suppression...........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.7................................  Stabilizer...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.8................................  Flight controls..........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.9................................  Fuel and oil.............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.10...............................  Hydraulic................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.11...............................  Landing gear.............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.12...............................  Oxygen...................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.13...............................  Pneumatic................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.14...............................  Powerplant...............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.15...............................  Flight control computers.................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.a.16...............................  Stability and control augmentation.......................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b..................................  Flight management and guidance system:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.1................................  Airborne radar...........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.2................................  Automatic landing aids...................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.3................................  Autopilot................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.4................................  Collision avoidance system...............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.5................................  Flight data displays.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.6................................  Flight management computers..............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.7................................  Heads-up displays........................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.b.8................................  Navigation systems.......................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c..................................  Airborne procedures:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.1................................  Holding..................................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.2................................  Air hazard avoidance.....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.3................................  Retreating blade stall recovery..........................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.4................................  Mast bumping.............................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.5................................  Loss of directional control..............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.6................................  Loss of tail rotor effectiveness.........................        X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.c.7................................  Other (listed on the SOQ)................................   A    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13. Engine Shutdown and Parking
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.a..................................  Engine and systems operation.............................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.b..................................  Parking brake operation..................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 394]]

 
13.c..................................  Rotor brake operation....................................   X    X    X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.d..................................  Abnormal/emergency procedures............................   X    X   X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* ``Autopilot'' means attitude retention mode of operation.
Note: An ``A'' in the table indicates that the system, task, or procedure may be examined if the appropriate
  aircraft system or control is simulated in the FFS and is working properly.


                Table C3B--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Simulator
                    Visual requirements for qualification      level
     Entry No.       at the stated level class I airport  --------------
                            or landing area models          B    C    D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
This table specifies the minimum airport visual model content and
 functionality to qualify a simulator at the indicated level. This table
 applies only to the airport scenes required for simulator
 qualification; i.e., two helicopter landing area models for Level B
 simulators; four helicopter landing area models for Level C and Level D
 simulators.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.................  Functional test content requirements
                    The following is the minimum airport/landing area
                     model content requirement to satisfy visual
                     capability tests, and provides suitable visual cues
                     to allow completion of all functions and subjective
                     tests described in this attachment for simulators
                     at Level B.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a...............  A minimum of one (1) representative     X
                     airport and one (1) representative
                     helicopter landing area model. The
                     airport and the helicopter landing
                     area may be contained within the
                     same model. If but if this option is
                     selected, the approach path to the
                     airport runway(s) and the approach
                     path to the helicopter landing area
                     must be different. The model(s) used
                     to meet the following requirements
                     may be demonstrated at either a
                     fictional or a real-world airport or
                     helicopter landing area, but each
                     must be acceptable to the sponsor's
                     TPAA, selectable from the IOS, and
                     listed on the SOQ.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.b...............  The fidelity of the visual scene must   X
                     be sufficient for the aircrew to
                     visually identify the airport and/or
                     helicopter landing area; determine
                     the position of the simulated
                     helicopter within the visual scene;
                     successfully accomplish take-offs,
                     approaches, and landings; and
                     maneuver around the airport on the
                     ground, or hover taxi, as necessary.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c...............  Runways:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.1.............  Visible runway number................   X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.2.............  Runway threshold elevations and         X
                     locations must be modeled to provide
                     sufficient correlation with
                     helicopter systems (e.g., altimeter).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.3.............  Runway surface and markings..........   X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.4.............  Lighting for the runway in use          X
                     including runway edge and centerline.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.5.............  Lighting, visual approach aid (VASI     X
                     or PAPI) and approach lighting of
                     appropriate colors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.c.6.............  Representative taxiway lights........   X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d...............  Other helicopter landing area:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.1.............  Standard heliport designation (``H'')   X
                     marking, properly sized and oriented.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.2.............  Perimeter markings for the Touchdown    X
                     and Lift-Off Area (TLOF) or the
                     Final Approach and Takeoff Area
                     (FATO), as appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.3.............  Perimeter lighting for the TLOF or      X
                     the FATO areas, as appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.d.4.............  Appropriate markings and lighting to    X
                     allow movement from the runway or
                     helicopter landing area to another
                     part of the landing facility.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.................  Functional test content requirements for Level C and
                     Level D simulators

[[Page 395]]

 
                    The following is the minimum airport/landing area
                     model content requirement to satisfy visual
                     capability tests, and provide suitable visual cues
                     to allow completion of all functions and subjective
                     tests described in this attachment for simulators
                     at Level C and Level D. Not all of the elements
                     described in this section must be found in a single
                     airport/landing area scene. However, all of the
                     elements described in this section must be found
                     throughout a combination of the four (4) airport/
                     landing area models described in entry 2.a. The
                     representations of the hazards (as described in
                     2.d.) must be ``hard objects'' that interact as
                     such if contacted by the simulated helicopter.
                     Additionally, surfaces on which the helicopter
                     lands must be ``hard surfaces.'' The model(s) used
                     to meet the following requirements must be
                     demonstrated at either a fictional or a real-world
                     airport or helicopter landing area, and each must
                     be acceptable to the sponsor's TPAA, selectable
                     from the IOS, and listed on the SOQ.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a...............  There must be at least the following airport/
                     helicopter landing areas.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.1.............  At least one (1) representative              X    X
                     airport.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.............  At least three representative non-airport landing
                     areas, as follows:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.a...........  At least one (1) representative              X    X
                     helicopter landing area situated on
                     a substantially elevated surface
                     with respect to the surrounding
                     structures or terrain (e.g.,
                     building top, offshore oil rig).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.b...........  At least one (1) helicopter landing          X    X
                     area that meets the definition of a
                     ``confined landing area''.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.c...........  At least one (1) helicopter landing          X    X
                     area on a sloped surface where the
                     slope is at least 2\1/2\[deg].
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b...............  For each of the airport/helicopter           X    X
                     landing areas described in 2.a., the
                     simulator must be able to provide at
                     least the following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.1.............  A night and twilight (dusk)                  X    X
                     environment..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.2.............  A daylight environment...............             X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c...............  Non-airport helicopter landing areas must have the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.1.............  Representative buildings, structures,        X    X
                     and lighting within appropriate
                     distances.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.2.............  Representative moving and static             X    X
                     clutter (e.g., other aircraft, power
                     carts, tugs, fuel trucks).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.3.............  Representative depiction of terrain          X    X
                     and obstacles as well as significant
                     and identifiable natural and
                     cultural features, within 25 NM of
                     the reference landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.4.............  Standard heliport designation (``H'')        X    X
                     marking, properly sized and oriented.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.5.............  Perimeter markings for the Touchdown         X    X
                     and Lift-Off Area (TLOF) or the
                     Final Approach and Takeoff Area
                     (FATO), as appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.6.............  Perimeter lighting for the TLOF or           X    X
                     the FATO areas, as appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.7.............  Appropriate markings and lighting to         X    X
                     allow movement from the area to
                     another part of the landing
                     facility, if appropriate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.8.............  Representative markings, lighting,           X    X
                     and signage, including a windsock
                     that gives appropriate wind cues.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.9.............  Appropriate markings, lighting, and          X    X
                     signage necessary for position
                     identification, and to allow
                     movement from the landing area to
                     another part of the landing facility.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.10............  Representative moving and static             X    X
                     ground traffic (e.g., vehicular and
                     aircraft), including the ability to
                     present surface hazards (e.g.,
                     conflicting traffic, vehicular or
                     aircraft, on or approaching the
                     landing area).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.11............  Portrayal of landing surface                 X    X
                     contaminants, including lighting
                     reflections when wet and partially
                     obscured lights when snow is
                     present, or suitable alternative
                     effects.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d...............  All of the following three (3) hazards must be
                     presented in a combination of the three (3) non-
                     airport landing areas (described in entry 2.a.2. of
                     this table) and each of these non-airport landing
                     areas must have at least one of the following
                     hazards:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.1.............  Other airborne traffic...............        X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 396]]

 
2.d.2.............  Buildings, trees, or other vertical          X    X
                     obstructions in the immediate
                     landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.d.3.............  Suspended wires in the immediate             X    X
                     landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e...............  Airport applications. Each airport must have the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.1.............  At least one runway designated as            X    X
                     ``in-use'', appropriately marked and
                     capable of being lighted fully.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.2.............  Runway threshold elevations and         X    X    X
                     locations must be modeled to provide
                     sufficient correlation with
                     helicopter systems (e.g., HGS, GPS,
                     altimeter). Slopes in runways,
                     taxiways, and ramp areas, if
                     depicted in the visual scene, may
                     not cause distracting or unrealistic
                     effects, including pilot eye-point
                     height variation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.3.............  Appropriate approach lighting systems        X    X
                     and airfield lighting for a VFR
                     circuit and landing, non-precision
                     approaches and landings, and
                     precision approaches and landings,
                     as appropriate..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.e.4.............  Representative taxiway lights........             X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.................  Airport or landing area model management
                    The following is the minimum visual scene management
                     requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a...............  Runway and helicopter landing area      X    X    X
                     approach lighting must fade into
                     view in accordance with the
                     environmental conditions set in the
                     simulator.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b...............  The direction of strobe lights,         X    X    X
                     approach lights, runway edge lights,
                     visual landing aids, runway
                     centerline lights, threshold lights,
                     touchdown zone lights, and TLOF or
                     FATO lights must be replicated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.................  Visual feature recognition.
                    The following are the minimum distances at which
                     runway features must be visible. Distances are
                     measured from runway threshold or a helicopter
                     landing area to a helicopter aligned with the
                     runway or helicopter landing area on an extended
                     3[deg] glide-slope in simulated meteorological
                     conditions. For circling approaches, all tests
                     apply to the runway used for the initial approach
                     and to the runway of intended landing
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a...............  For runways: Runway definition,         X    X    X
                     strobe lights, approach lights, and
                     runway edge lights from 5 sm (8 km)
                     of the runway threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b...............  For runways: Centerline lights and      X    X    X
                     taxiway definition from 3 sm (5 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c...............  For runways: Visual Approach Aid        X
                     lights (VASI or PAPI) from 3 sm (5
                     km) of the threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d...............  For runways: Visual Approach Aid             X    X
                     lights (VASI or PAPI) from 5 sm (8
                     km) of the threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.e...............  For runways: Runway threshold lights    X    X    X
                     and touchdown zone lights from 2 sm
                     (3 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f...............  For runways and helicopter landing      X    X    X
                     areas: Markings within range of
                     landing lights for night/twilight
                     scenes and the surface resolution
                     test on daylight scenes, as required.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g...............  For circling approaches, the runway     X    X    X
                     of intended landing and associated
                     lighting must fade into view in a
                     non-distracting manner.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.h...............  For helicopter landing areas: Landing   X    X    X
                     direction lights and raised FATO
                     lights from 1 sm (1.5 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.i...............  For helicopter landing areas: Flush               X
                     mounted FATO lights, TOFL lights,
                     and the lighted windsock from 0.5 sm
                     (750 m).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.j...............  Hover taxiway lighting (yellow/blue/              X
                     yellow cylinders) from TOFL area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.................  Airport or helicopter landing area model content

[[Page 397]]

 
                    The following prescribes the minimum requirements
                     for an airport/helicopter landing area model and
                     identifies other aspects of the environment that
                     must correspond with that model for simulators at
                     Level B, Level C, and Level D. For circling
                     approaches, all tests apply to the runway used for
                     the initial approach and to the runway of intended
                     landing. If all runways or landing areas in a
                     visual model used to meet the requirements of this
                     attachment are not designated as ``in use,'' then
                     the ``in use'' runways/landing areas must be listed
                     on the SOQ (e.g., KORD, Rwys 9R, 14L, 22R). Models
                     of airports or helicopter landing areas with more
                     than one runway or landing area must have all
                     significant runways or landing areas not ``in-use''
                     visually depicted for airport runway/landing area
                     recognition purposes. The use of white or off-white
                     light strings that identify the runway or landing
                     area for twilight and night scenes are acceptable
                     for this requirement; and rectangular surface
                     depictions are acceptable for daylight scenes. A
                     visual system's capabilities must be balanced
                     between providing visual models with an accurate
                     representation of the airport and a realistic
                     representation of the surrounding environment. Each
                     runway or helicopter landing area designated as an
                     ``in-use'' runway or area must include the
                     following detail that is developed using airport
                     pictures, construction drawings and maps, or other
                     similar data, or developed in accordance with
                     published regulatory material; however, this does
                     not require that such models contain details that
                     are beyond the design capability of the currently
                     qualified visual system. Only one ``primary'' taxi
                     route from parking to the runway end or helicopter
                     takeoff/landing area will be required for each ``in-
                     use'' runway or helicopter takeoff/landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a...............  The surface and markings for each ``in-use'' runway
                     or helicopter landing area must include the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.1.............  For airports: Runway threshold          X    X    X
                     markings, runway numbers, touchdown
                     zone markings, fixed distance
                     markings, runway edge markings, and
                     runway centerline stripes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     Markings for standard heliport
                     identification (``H'') and TOFL,
                     FATO, and safety areas.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b...............  The lighting for each ``in-use'' runway or
                     helicopter landing area must include the following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.1.............  For airports: Runway approach,          X    X    X
                     threshold, edge, end, centerline (if
                     applicable), touchdown zone (if
                     applicable), leadoff, and visual
                     landing aid lights or light systems
                     for that runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b.2.............  For helicopter landing areas: landing   X    X    X
                     direction, raised and flush FATO,
                     TOFL, windsock lighting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c...............  The taxiway surface and markings associated with
                     each ``in-use'' runway or helicopter landing area
                     must include the following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c.1.............  For airports: Taxiway edge,             X    X    X
                     centerline (if appropriate), runway
                     hold lines, and ILS critical area(s).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     taxiways, taxi routes, and aprons.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d...............  The taxiway lighting associated with each ``in-use''
                     runway or helicopter landing area must include the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d.1.............  For airports: Runway edge, centerline   X    X    X
                     (if appropriate), runway hold lines,
                     ILS critical areas.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     taxiways, taxi routes, and aprons.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d.3.............  For airports: taxiway lighting of                 X
                     correct color.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e...............  Airport signage associated with each ``in-use''
                     runway or helicopter landing area must include the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.1.............  For airports: Signs for runway          X    X    X
                     distance remaining, intersecting
                     runway with taxiway, and
                     intersecting taxiway with taxiway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.e.2.............  For helicopter landing areas: as        X    X    X
                     appropriate for the model used.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.f...............  Required visual model correlation with other aspects
                     of the airport or helicopter landing environment
                     simulation:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.f.1.............  The airport or helicopter landing       X    X    X
                     area model must be properly aligned
                     with the navigational aids that are
                     associated with operations at the
                     ``in-use'' runway or helicopter
                     landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.f.2.............  The simulation of runway or                  X    X
                     helicopter landing area contaminants
                     must be correlated with the
                     displayed runway surface and
                     lighting where applicable.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.................  Correlation with helicopter and associated equipment
                    The following are the minimum correlation
                     comparisons that must be made for simulators at
                     Level B, Level C, and Level D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a...............  Visual system compatibility with        X    X    X
                     aerodynamic programming.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 398]]

 
6.b...............  Visual cues to assess sink rate and     X    X    X
                     depth perception during landings.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c...............  Accurate portrayal of environment       X    X    X
                     relating to flight simulator
                     attitudes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.d...............  The visual scene must correlate with         X    X
                     integrated helicopter systems (e.g.,
                     terrain, traffic and weather
                     avoidance systems and Head-up
                     Guidance System (HGS)).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.e...............  Representative visual effects for       X    X    X
                     each visible, own-ship, helicopter
                     external light(s)--taxi and landing
                     light lobes (including independent
                     operation, if appropriate).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.f...............  The effect of rain removal devices...        X    X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.................  Scene quality
                    The following are the minimum scene quality tests
                     that must be conducted for simulators at Level B,
                     Level C, and Level D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a...............  Surfaces and textural cues must be           X    X
                     free from apparent and distracting
                     quantization (aliasing).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b...............  System capable of portraying full            X    X
                     color realistic textural cues.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.c...............  The system light points must be free    X    X    X
                     from distracting jitter, smearing or
                     streaking.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.d...............  Demonstration of occulting through      X    X    X
                     each channel of the system in an
                     operational scene.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.e...............  Demonstration of a minimum of ten            X    X
                     levels of occulting through each
                     channel of the system in an
                     operational scene.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.f...............  System capable of providing focus            X    X
                     effects that simulate rain..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.g...............  System capable of providing focus            X    X
                     effects that simulate light point
                     perspective growth.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.h...............  Runway light controls capable of six    X    X    X
                     discrete light steps (0-5).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.................  Environmental effects.
                    The following are the minimum environmental effects
                     that must be available in simulators at Level B,
                     Level C, and Level D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.a...............  The displayed scene corresponding to              X
                     the appropriate surface contaminants
                     and include appropriate lighting
                     reflections for wet, partially
                     obscured lights for snow, or
                     alternative effects.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b...............  Special weather representations which include:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.1.............  The sound, motion and visual effects              X
                     of light, medium and heavy
                     precipitation near a thunderstorm on
                     take-off, approach, and landings at
                     and below an altitude of 2,000 ft
                     (600 m) above the surface and within
                     a radius of 10 sm (16 km) from the
                     airport or helicopter landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.b.2.............  One airport or helicopter landing                 X
                     area with a snow scene to include
                     terrain snow and snow-covered
                     surfaces.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.c...............  In-cloud effects such as variable            X    X
                     cloud density, speed cues and
                     ambient changes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.d...............  The effect of multiple cloud layers          X    X
                     representing few, scattered, broken
                     and overcast conditions giving
                     partial or complete obstruction of
                     the ground scene.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.e...............  Visibility and RVR measured in terms    X    X    X
                     of distance. Visibility/RVR checked
                     at 2,000 ft (600 m) above the
                     airport or helicopter landing area
                     and at two heights below 2,000 ft
                     with at least 500 ft of separation
                     between the measurements. The
                     measurements must be taken within a
                     radius of 10 sm (16 km) from the
                     airport or helicopter landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.f...............  Patchy fog giving the effect of                   X
                     variable RVR.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.g...............  Effects of fog on airport lighting           X    X
                     such as halos and defocus.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.h...............  Effect of own-ship lighting in               X    X
                     reduced visibility, such as
                     reflected glare, including landing
                     lights, strobes, and beacons.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.i...............  Wind cues to provide the effect of                X
                     blowing snow or sand across a dry
                     runway or taxiway selectable from
                     the instructor station.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 399]]

 
8.j...............  ``White-out'' or ``Brown-out''                    X
                     effects due to rotor downwash
                     beginning at a distance above the
                     ground equal to the rotor diameter.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.................  Instructor control of the following:
                    The following are the minimum instructor controls
                     that must be available in Level B, Level C, and
                     Level D simulators, as indicated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.a...............  Environmental effects, e.g. cloud       X    X    X
                     base, cloud effects, cloud density,
                     visibility in statute miles/
                     kilometers and RVR in feet/meters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.b...............  Airport or helicopter landing area      X    X    X
                     selection.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.c...............  Airport or helicopter landing area      X    X    X
                     lighting, including variable
                     intensity.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.d...............  Dynamic effects including ground and         X    X
                     flight traffic.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           End QPS Requirement
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Begin Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10................  An example of being able to ``combine two airport
                     models to achieve two ``in-use'' runways: One
                     runway designated as the ``in-use'' runway in the
                     first model of the airport, and the second runway
                     designated as the ``in-use'' runway in the second
                     model of the same airport. For example, the
                     clearance is for the ILS approach to Runway 27,
                     Circle to Land on Runway 18 right. Two airport
                     visual models might be used: the first with Runway
                     27 designated as the ``in use'' runway for the
                     approach to runway 27, and the second with Runway
                     18 Right designated as the ``in use'' runway. When
                     the pilot breaks off the ILS approach to runway 27,
                     the instructor may change to the second airport
                     visual model in which runway 18 Right is designated
                     as the ``in use'' runway, and the pilot would make
                     a visual approach and landing. This process is
                     acceptable to the FAA as long as the temporary
                     interruption due to the visual model change is not
                     distracting to the pilot.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11................  Sponsors are not required to provide every detail of
                     a runway, but the detail that is provided should be
                     correct within reasonable limits.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             End Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Table C3C--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Visual scene content additional       Simulator
                    airport or landing area models beyond      level
     Entry No.        minimum required for qualification  --------------
                       Class II airport or landing area
                                    models                  B    C    D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
This table specifies the minimum airport or helicopter landing area
 visual model content and functionality necessary to add visual models
 to a simulator's visual model library (i.e., beyond those necessary for
 qualification at the stated level) without the necessity of further
 involvement of the NSPM or TPAA.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.................  Airport or landing area model management
                    The following is the minimum visual scene management
                     requirements for simulators at Levels B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a...............  The installation and direction of the following
                     lights must be replicated for the ``in-use''
                     surface:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.1.............  For ``in-use'' runways: Strobe          X    X    X
                     lights, approach lights, runway edge
                     lights, visual landing aids, runway
                     centerline lights, threshold lights,
                     and touchdown zone lights.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a.2.............  For ``in-use'' helicopter landing       X    X    X
                     areas: ground level TLOF perimeter
                     lights, elevated TLOF perimeter
                     lights (if applicable), Optional
                     TLOF lights (if applicable), ground
                     FATO perimeter lights, elevated TLOF
                     lights (if applicable), landing
                     direction lights.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.................  Visual feature recognition
                    The following are the minimum distances at which
                     runway or landing area features must be visible for
                     simulators at Levels B, C, and D. Distances are
                     measured from runway threshold or a helicopter
                     landing area to an aircraft aligned with the runway
                     or helicopter landing area on a 3[deg] glide-slope
                     from the aircraft to the touchdown point, in
                     simulated meteorological conditions. For circling
                     approaches, all tests apply to the runway used for
                     the initial approach and to the runway of intended
                     landing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 400]]

 
2.a...............  For Runways:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.1.............  Strobe lights, approach lights, and     X    X    X
                     edge lights from 5 sm (8 km) of the
                     threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.2.............  Centerline lights and taxiway           X    X    X
                     definition from 3 sm (5 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.3.............  Visual Approach Aid lights (VASI or     X
                     PAPI) from 3 sm (5 km) of the
                     threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.4.............  Visual Approach Aid lights (VASI or          X    X
                     PAPI) from 5 sm (8 km) of the
                     threshold.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.5.............  Threshold lights and touchdown zone     X    X    X
                     lights from 2 sm (3 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.6.............  Markings within range of landing        X    X    X
                     lights for night/twilight (dusk)
                     scenes and as required by the
                     surface resolution test on daylight
                     scenes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.7.............  For circling approaches, the runway     X    X    X
                     of intended landing and associated
                     lighting must fade into view in a
                     non-distracting manner.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b...............  For Helicopter landing areas:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.1.............  Landing direction lights and raised     X    X    X
                     FATO lights from 1 sm (1.5 km).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.2.............  Flush mounted FATO lights, TOFL              X    X
                     lights, and the lighted windsock
                     from 0.5 sm (750 m).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.3.............  Hover taxiway lighting (yellow/blue/         X    X
                     yellow cylinders) from TOFL area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.4.............  Markings within range of landing        X    X    X
                     lights for night/twilight (dusk)
                     scenes and as required by the
                     surface resolution test on daylight
                     scenes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.................  Airport or Helicopter landing area model content
                    The following prescribes the minimum requirements
                     for what must be provided in an airport visual
                     model and identifies other aspects of the airport
                     environment that must correspond with that model
                     for simulators at Level B, C, and D. The detail
                     must be developed using airport pictures,
                     construction drawings and maps, or other similar
                     data, or developed in accordance with published
                     regulatory material; however, this does not require
                     that airport or helicopter landing area models
                     contain details that are beyond the designed
                     capability of the currently qualified visual
                     system. For circling approaches, all requirements
                     of this section apply to the runway used for the
                     initial approach and to the runway of intended
                     landing. Only one ``primary'' taxi route from
                     parking to the runway end or helicopter takeoff/
                     landing area will be required for each ``in-use''
                     runway or helicopter takeoff/landing area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a...............  The surface and markings for each ``in-use'' runway
                     or helicopter landing area must include the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.1.............  For airports: Runway threshold          X    X    X
                     markings, runway numbers, touchdown
                     zone markings, fixed distance
                     markings, runway edge markings, and
                     runway centerline stripes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     Standard heliport marking (``H''),
                     TOFL, FATO, and safety areas.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b...............  The lighting for each ``in-use'' runway or
                     helicopter landing area must include the following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.1.............  For airports: Runway approach,          X    X    X
                     threshold, edge, end, centerline (if
                     applicable), touchdown zone (if
                     applicable), leadoff, and visual
                     landing aid lights or light systems
                     for that runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.2.............  For helicopter landing areas: Landing   X    X    X
                     direction, raised and flush FATO,
                     TOFL, windsock lighting.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c...............  The taxiway surface and markings associated with
                     each ``in-use'' runway or helicopter landing area
                     must include the following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c.1.............  For airports: Taxiway edge,             X    X    X
                     centerline (if appropriate), runway
                     hold lines, and ILS critical area(s).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     Taxiways, taxi routes, and aprons.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d...............  The taxiway lighting associated with each ``in-use''
                     runway or helicopter landing area must include the
                     following:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d.1.............  For airports: Runway edge, centerline   X    X    X
                     (if appropriate), runway hold lines,
                     ILS critical areas.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d.2.............  For helicopter landing areas:           X    X    X
                     Taxiways, taxi routes, and aprons.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d.3.............  For airports: Taxiway lighting of                 X
                     correct color.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.................  Required visual model correlation with other aspects
                     of the airport environment simulation

[[Page 401]]

 
                    The following are the minimum visual model
                     correlation tests that must be conducted for Level
                     B, Level C, and Level D simulators, as indicated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a...............  The airport model must be properly      X    X    X
                     aligned with the navigational aids
                     that are associated with operations
                     at the ``in-use'' runway.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b...............  Slopes in runways, taxiways, and ramp   X    X    X
                     areas, if depicted in the visual
                     scene, must not cause distracting or
                     unrealistic effects.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.................  Correlation with helicopter and associated equipment
                    The following are the minimum correlation
                     comparisons that must be made for simulators at
                     Level B, C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a...............  Visual system compatibility with        X    X    X
                     aerodynamic programming.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b...............  Accurate portrayal of environment       X    X    X
                     relating to flight simulator
                     attitudes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c...............  Visual cues to assess sink rate and     X    X    X
                     depth perception during landings.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.................  Scene quality
                    The following are the minimum scene quality tests
                     that must be conducted for simulators at Level B,
                     C, and D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a...............  Light points free from distracting      X    X    X
                     jitter, smearing or streaking.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b...............  Surfaces and textural cues free from         X    X
                     apparent and distracting
                     quantization (aliasing).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c...............  Correct color and realistic textural              X
                     cues.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.................  Instructor controls of the following:
                    The following are the minimum instructor controls
                     that must be available in Level B, Level C, and
                     Level D simulators, as indicated.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.a...............  Environmental effects, e.g., cloud      X    X    X
                     base (if used), cloud effects, cloud
                     density, visibility in statute miles/
                     kilometers and RVR in feet/meters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.b...............  Airport/Heliport selection...........   X    X    X
7.c...............  Airport lighting including variable     X    X    X
                     intensity.
7.d...............  Dynamic effects including ground and         X    X
                     flight traffic.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          End QPS Requirements
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Begin Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.................  Sponsors are not required to provide    X    X    X
                     every detail of a runway or
                     helicopter landing area, but the
                     detail that is provided must be
                     correct within the capabilities of
                     the system.
lllllllllllllllllll
                             End Information
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                    Table C3D--Functions and Subjective Tests
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  QPS requirements                                           Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Simulator level
       Entry No.               Motion system (and special      ---------------------            Notes
                               aerodynamic model) effects         B      C      D
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This table specifies motion effects that are required to indicate the threshold at which a flight crewmember
 must be able to recognize an event or situation. Where applicable, flight simulator pitch, side loading and
 directional control characteristics must be representative of the helicopter.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 402]]

 
1......................  Runway rumble, oleo deflection,           X      X      X   If time permits, different
                          ground speed, uneven runway, runway                         gross weights can also be
                          and taxiway centerline light                                selected as this may also
                          characteristics:                                            affect the associated
                         Procedure: After the helicopter has                          vibrations depending on
                          been pre-set to the takeoff position                        helicopter type. The
                          and then released, taxi at various                          associated motion effects
                          speeds with a smooth runway and note                        for the above tests should
                          the general characteristics of the                          also include an assessment
                          simulated runway rumble effects of                          of the effects of rolling
                          oleo deflections. Repeat the                                over centerline lights,
                          maneuver with a runway roughness of                         surface discontinuities of
                          50%, then with maximum roughness.                           uneven runways, and
                          Note the associated motion                                  various taxiway
                          vibrations affected by ground speed                         characteristics.
                          and runway roughness
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2......................  Friction Drag from Skid-type Landing             X      X
                          Gear:
                         Procedure: Perform a running takeoff
                          or a running landing and note an
                          increase in a fuselage vibration (as
                          opposed to rotor vibration) due to
                          the friction of dragging the skid
                          along the surface. This vibration
                          will lessen as the ground speed
                          decreases
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3......................  Rotor Out-of-Track and/or Out-of-         X      X      X   Does not require becoming
                          Balance condition:                                          airborne. The abnormal
                         Procedure: Select the malfunction or                         vibration for Out-of-Track
                          condition from the IOS. Start the                           and Out-of-Balance
                          engine(s) normally and check for an                         conditions should be
                          abnormal vibration for an Out-of-                           recognized in the
                          Track condition and check for an                            frequency range of the
                          abnormal vibration for an Out-of-                           inverse of the period for
                          Balance condition                                           each; i.e., 1/P for
                                                                                      vertical vibration, and 1/
                                                                                      P for lateral vibration.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4......................  Bumps associated with the landing         X      X      X   When the landing gear is
                          gear:                                                       extended or retracted,
                         Procedure: Perform a normal take-off                         motion bumps can be felt
                          paying special attention to the                             when the gear locks into
                          bumps that could be perceptible due                         position.
                          to maximum oleo extension after lift-
                          off
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5......................  Buffet during extension and               X      X      X
                          retraction of landing gear:
                         Procedure: Operate the landing gear.
                          Check that the motion cues of the
                          buffet experienced represent the
                          actual helicopter
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6......................  Failure of Dynamic Vibration Absorber     X      X      X
                          or similar system as appropriate for
                          the helicopter (e.g., droop stop or
                          static stop):
                         Procedure: May be accomplished any
                          time the rotor is engaged. Select
                          the appropriate failure at the IOS,
                          note an appropriate increase in
                          vibration and check that the
                          vibration intensity and frequency
                          increases with an increase in RPM
                          and an increase in collective
                          application
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7......................  Tail Rotor Drive Failure:                 X      X      X   The tail rotor operates in
                         Procedure: With the engine(s) running                        the medium frequency
                          and the rotor engaged--select the                           range, normally estimated
                          malfunction and note the immediate                          by multiplying the tail
                          increase of medium frequency                                rotor gear box ratio by
                          vibration                                                   the main rotor RPM. The
                                                                                      failure can be recognized
                                                                                      by an increase in the
                                                                                      vibrations in this
                                                                                      frequency range.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8......................  Touchdown cues for main and nose          X      X      X
                          gear:
                         Procedure: Conduct several normal
                          approaches with various rates of
                          descent. Check that the motion cues
                          for the touchdown bumps for each
                          descent rate are representative of
                          the actual helicopter
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 403]]

 
9......................  Tire failure dynamics:                           X      X   The pilot may notice some
                         Procedure: Simulate a single tire                            yawing with a multiple
                          failure and a multiple tire failure                         tire failure selected on
                                                                                      the same side. This should
                                                                                      require the use of the
                                                                                      pedal to maintain control
                                                                                      of the helicopter.
                                                                                      Dependent on helicopter
                                                                                      type, a single tire
                                                                                      failure may not be noticed
                                                                                      by the pilot and may not
                                                                                      cause any special motion
                                                                                      effect. Sound or vibration
                                                                                      may be associated with the
                                                                                      actual tire losing
                                                                                      pressure.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.....................  Engine malfunction and engine damage:     X      X      X
                         Procedure: The characteristics of an
                          engine malfunction as prescribed in
                          the malfunction definition document
                          for the particular flight simulator
                          must describe the special motion
                          effects felt by the pilot. Note the
                          associated engine instruments
                          varying according to the nature of
                          the malfunction and note the
                          replication of the effects of the
                          airframe vibration
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.....................  Tail boom strikes:                        X      X      X   The motion effect should be
                         Procedure: Tail-strikes can be                               felt as a noticeable nose
                          checked by over-rotation of the                             down pitching moment.
                          helicopter at a quick stop or
                          autorotation to the ground
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.....................  Vortex Ring State (Settling with                 X      X   When the aircraft begins to
                          Power):                                                     shudder, the application
                         Procedure: Specific procedures may                           of additional up
                          differ between helicopters and may                          collective increases the
                          be prescribed by the Helicopter                             vibration and sink rate.
                          Manufacturer or other subject matter                        One recovery method is to
                          expert. However, the following                              decrease collective to
                          information is provided for                                 enter vertical
                          illustrative purposes * * * To enter                        autorotation and/or use
                          the maneuver, reduce power below                            cyclic inputs to gain
                          hover power. Hold altitude with aft                         horizontal airspeed and
                          cyclic until the airspeed approaches                        exit from vortex ring
                          20 knots. Then allow the sink rate                          state.
                          to increase to 300 feet per minute
                          or more as the attitude is adjusted
                          to obtain an airspeed of less than
                          10 knots
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.....................  Retreating Blade Stall:                          X      X   Correct recovery from
                         Procedure: Specific procedures may                           retreating blade stall
                          differ between helicopters and may                          requires the collective to
                          be prescribed by the Helicopter                             be lowered first, which
                          Manufacturer or other subject matter                        reduces blade angles and
                          expert. However, the following                              the angle of attack. Aft
                          information is provided for                                 cyclic can then be used to
                          illustrative purposes: To enter the                         slow the helicopter.
                          maneuver, increase forward airspeed;
                          the effect will be recognized
                          through the development of a low
                          frequency vibration, pitching up of
                          the nose, and a roll in the
                          direction of the retreating blade.
                          High weight, low rotor RPM, high
                          density altitude, turbulence or
                          steep, abrupt turns are all
                          conducive to retreating blade stall
                          at high forward airspeeds
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 404]]

 
14.....................  Translational Lift Effects:               X      X      X   ...........................
                         Procedure: From a stabilized in-
                          ground-effect (IGE) Hover begin a
                          forward acceleration. When passing
                          through the effective translational
                          lift range, the noticeable effect
                          will be a possible nose pitch-up in
                          some helicopters, an increase in the
                          rate of climb, and a temporary
                          increase in vibration level (in some
                          cases this vibration may be
                          pronounced). This effect is
                          experienced again upon deceleration
                          through the appropriate speed range.
                          During deceleration, the pitch and
                          rate of climb will have the reverse
                          effect, but there will be a similar,
                          temporary increase in vibration
                          level
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Table C3E--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS Requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Simulator level
    Entry number               Sound system         --------------------
                                                       B      C      D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following checks are performed during a normal flight profile,
 motion system ON.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1...................  Precipitation................            X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2...................  Rain removal equipment.......            X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3...................  Helicopter noises used by the            X      X
                       pilot for normal helicopter
                       operation..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4...................  Abnormal operations for which            X      X
                       there are associated sound
                       cues, including engine
                       malfunctions, landing gear
                       or tire malfunctions, tail
                       boom.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5...................  Sound of a crash when the                X      X
                       flight simulator is landed
                       in excess of limitations.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Table C3F--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS Requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Simulator level
    Entry number             Special effects        --------------------
                                                       B      C      D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
This table specifies the minimum special effects necessary for the
 specified simulator level.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1...................  Braking Dynamics:............            X      X
                      Representations of the
                       dynamics of brake failure
                       (flight simulator pitch,
                       side-loading, and
                       directional control
                       characteristics
                       representative of the
                       helicopter), including
                       antiskid and decreased brake
                       efficiency due to high brake
                       temperatures (based on
                       helicopter related data),
                       sufficient to enable pilot
                       identification of the
                       problem and implementation
                       of appropriate procedures.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2...................  Effects of Airframe and                  X      X
                       Engine Icing: Required only
                       for those helicopters
                       authorized for operations in
                       known icing conditions.
                      Procedure: With the simulator
                       airborne, in a clean
                       configuration, nominal
                       altitude and cruise
                       airspeed, autopilot on and
                       auto-throttles off, engine
                       and airfoil anti-ice/de-ice
                       systems deactivated;
                       activate icing conditions at
                       a rate that allows
                       monitoring of simulator and
                       systems response.
                      Icing recognition will
                       include an increase in gross
                       weight, airspeed decay,
                       change in simulator pitch
                       attitude, change in engine
                       performance indications
                       (other than due to airspeed
                       changes), and change in data
                       from pitot/static system, or
                       rotor out-of-track/balance.
                       Activate heating, anti-ice,
                       or de-ice systems
                       independently. Recognition
                       will include proper effects
                       of these systems, eventually
                       returning the simulated
                       helicopter to normal flight.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 405]]


                Table C3G--Functions and Subjective Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            QPS Requirements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Simulator level
    Entry number       Instructor Operating Station --------------------
                                  (IOS)                B      C      D
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Functions in this table are subject to evaluation only if appropriate
 for the helicopter or the system is installed on the specific
 simulator.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1...................  Simulator Power Switch(es)...     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2...................  Helicopter conditions.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.a.................  Gross weight, center of           X      X      X
                       gravity, fuel loading and
                       allocation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.b.................  Helicopter systems status....     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.c.................  Ground crew functions........     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3...................  Airports/Heliports.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.a.................  Number and selection.........     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b.................  Runway or landing area            X      X      X
                       selection.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c.................  Landing surface conditions        X      X      X
                       (rough, smooth, icy, wet,
                       dry, snow).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d.................  Preset positions.............     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e.................  Lighting controls............     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4...................  Environmental controls.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a.................  Visibility (statute miles/        X      X      X
                       kilometers).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b.................  Runway visual range (in feet/     X      X      X
                       meters).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c.................  Temperature..................     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d.................  Climate conditions...........     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.e.................  Wind speed and direction.....     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5...................  Helicopter system                 X      X      X
                       malfunctions (Insertion/
                       deletion)..
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6...................  Locks, Freezes, and Repositioning.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.a.................  Problem (all) freeze/release.     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.b.................  Position (geographic) freeze/     X      X      X
                       release.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.c.................  Repositioning (locations,         X      X      X
                       freezes, and releases).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.d.................  Ground speed control.........     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7...................  Remote IOS...................     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8...................  Sound Controls. On/off/           X      X      X
                       adjustment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9...................  Motion/Control Loading System.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.a.................  On/off/emergency stop........     X      X      X
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10..................  Observer Seats/Stations.          X      X      X
                       Position/Adjustment/Positive
                       restraint system.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 406]]

         Attachment 4 to Appendix C to Part 60--SAMPLE DOCUMENTS

                            Table of Contents

                             Title of Sample

Figure C4A  Sample Letter, Request for Initial, Upgrade, or 
Reinstatement Evaluation.
Figure C4B  Attachment: FFS Information Form
Figure A4C  Sample Letter of Compliance
Figure C4D  Sample Qualification Test Guide Cover Page
Figure C4E  Sample Statement of Qualification--Certificate
Figure C4F  Sample Statement of Qualification--Configuration List
Figure C4G  Sample Statement of Qualification--List of Qualified Tasks
Figure C4H  Sample Continuing Qualification Evaluation Requirements Page
Figure C4I  Sample MQTG Index of Effective FFS Directives

[[Page 407]]

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[[Page 419]]


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  Attachment 5 to Appendix C to Part 60--FSTD DIRECTIVES APPLICABLE TO 
                             HELICOPTER FFSs

           Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Directive

    FSTD Directive 1. Applicable to all FFSs, regardless of the original 
qualification basis and qualification date (original or upgrade), having 
Class II or Class III airport models available.
    Agency: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT
    Action: This is a retroactive requirement to have all Class II or 
Class III airport models meet current requirements.
 _______________________________________________________________________
    Summary: Notwithstanding the authorization listed in paragraph 13b 
in Appendices A and C of this part, this FSTD Directive requires each 
certificate holder to ensure that by May 30, 2009, except for the 
airport model(s) used to qualify the simulator at the designated level, 
each airport model used by the certificate holder's instructors or 
evaluators for training, checking, or testing under this chapter in an 
FFS, meets the definition of a Class II or Class III airport model as 
defined in 14CFR part 60. The completion of this requirement will not 
require a report, and the method used for keeping instructors and 
evaluators apprised of the airport models that meet Class II or Class 
III requirements on any given simulator is at the option of the 
certificate holder whose employees are using the FFS, but the method 
used must be available for review by the TPAA for that certificate 
holder.
    Dates: FSTD Directive 1 becomes effective on May 30, 2008.
    For Further Information Contact: Ed Cook, Senior Advisor to the 
Division Manager, Air Transportation Division, AFS-200, 800 Independence 
Ave, SW, Washington, DC, 20591: telephone: (404) 832-4701; fax: (404) 
761-8906.

                         Specific Requirements:

    1. Part 60 requires that each FSTD be:
    a. Sponsored by a person holding or applying for an FAA operating 
certificate under Part 119, Part 141, or Part 142, or holding or 
applying for an FAA-approved training program under Part 63, Appendix C, 
for flight engineers, and
    b. Evaluated and issued an SOQ for a specific FSTD level.
    2. FFSs also require the installation of a visual system that is 
capable of providing an out-of-the-flight-deck view of airport models. 
However, historically these airport models were not routinely evaluated 
or required to meet any standardized criteria. This has led to qualified 
simulators containing airport models being used to meet FAA-approved 
training, testing, or checking requirements with potentially incorrect 
or inappropriate visual references.

[[Page 420]]

    3. To prevent this from occurring in the future, by May 30, 2009, 
except for the airport model(s) used to qualify the simulator at the 
designated level, each certificate holder must assure that each airport 
model used for training, testing, or checking under this chapter in a 
qualified FFS meets the definition of a Class II or Class III airport 
model as defined in Appendix F of this part.
    4. These references describe the requirements for visual scene 
management and the minimum distances from which runway or landing area 
features must be visible for all levels of simulator. The visual scene 
or airport model must provide, for each ``in-use runway'' or ``in-use 
landing area,'' runway or landing area surface and markings, runway or 
landing area lighting, taxiway surface and markings, and taxiway 
lighting. Additional requirements include correlation of the visual 
scenes or airport models with other aspects of the airport environment, 
correlation of the aircraft and associated equipment, scene quality 
assessment features, and the extent to which the instructor is able to 
exercise control of these scenes or models.
    5. For circling approaches, all requirements of this section apply 
to the runway used for the initial approach and to the runway of 
intended landing.
    6. The details in these scenes or models must be developed using 
airport pictures, construction drawings and maps, or other similar data, 
or be developed in accordance with published regulatory material. 
However, FSTD Directive 1 does not require that airport models contain 
details that are beyond the initially designed capability of the visual 
system, as currently qualified. The recognized limitations to visual 
systems are as follows:
    a. Visual systems not required to have runway numbers as a part of 
the specific runway marking requirements are:
    (1) Link NVS and DNVS.
    (2) Novoview 2500 and 6000.
    (3) FlightSafety VITAL series up to, and including, VITAL III, but 
not beyond.
    (4) Redifusion SP1, SP1T, and SP2.
    b. Visual systems required to display runway numbers only for LOFT 
scenes are:
    (1) FlightSafety VITAL IV.
    (2) Redifusion SP3 and SP3T.
    (3) Link-Miles Image II.
    c. Visual systems not required to have accurate taxiway edge 
lighting are:
    (1) Redifusion SP1.
    (2) FlightSafety Vital IV.
    (3) Link-Miles Image II and Image IIT
    (4) XKD displays (even though the XKD image generator is capable of 
generating blue colored lights, the display cannot accommodate that 
color).
    7. A copy of this Directive must be filed in the MQTG in the 
designated FSTD Directive Section, and its inclusion must be annotated 
on the Index of Effective FSTD Directives chart. See Attachment 4, 
Appendices A through D of this part for a sample MQTG Index of Effective 
FSTD Directives chart.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-12461, 73 FR 26490, May 9, 2008]



  Sec. Appendix D to Part 60--Qualification Performance Standards for 
                   Helicopter Flight Training Devices

 _______________________________________________________________________

                            Begin Information

    This appendix establishes the standards for Helicopter Flight 
Training Device (FTD) evaluation and qualification at Level 4, Level 5, 
Level 6, or Level 7. The NSPM is responsible for the development, 
application, and implementation of the standards contained within this 
appendix. The procedures and criteria specified in this appendix will be 
used by the NSPM, or a person or persons assigned by the NSPM when 
conducting helicopter FTD evaluations.

                            Table of Contents

    1. Introduction.
    2