[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
Federal and State n ian Reservations Ilk and Indian Trust Areas. COASTAL ZONE INFORMATION CENTER "I Ore U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE -1 rES Of AL lit V-c IM n,T, [email protected], pr Ope'ty Of C&C Library Federal and State Indian Reservations and Indian Trust Areas COASTAL ZON E INFORMAMN CENTER V S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE N COASTAL SERVICES CENTER 2234 SOUTH HOBSON AVENUE CHARLESTON SC 29405-24 13 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Frederick B. Dent, Secretary Ll For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $5.90 Stock Number 0311-00076 FOREWORD In a continuing effort to provide a useful and convenient source of basic information about Indian tribes and Alaskan natives, the U. S. Department of Commerce has prepared a new and revised edition of its publication, "Federal and State Indian Reservations." Many sources cooperated in providing information for this latest edition of the handbook. They are Indian tribes, Indian organizations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the U. S. Department of the Interior, the Smithsonian Institution, other Federal Agencies, and State Indian Commissions. Frederick B. Dent Secretary of Commerce ABBREVIATIONS BIA-Bureau of Indian Affairs NA-Not available Similar information has been sought about each reservation, but data are not always available, especially in the smaller communities. When no data are available under a heading, the heding is deleted from the text. CONTENTS Page Page Nome 11 ALASKA Savoonga 11 Shaktoolik 11 Alaskan Native Claims Shismaref 11 Stebbins 12 Settlement Act 1 St. Michael 12 Teller 12 Native Villages 5 Unalakleet 12 Wales 12 Ahtna, Incorporated 7 White Mountain 12 Copper Center 7 Gulkana 7 Bristol Bay Native Corporation 13 Chignik 13 Aleut Corporation 7 Chignik Lagoon 13 Akutan 7 Chignik Lake 13 Atka 7 Clark's Point 13 Belkofsky 8 Dillingham 13 False Pass 8 Egegik 13 King Cove 8 Ekuk 14 Nelson Lagoon 8 Ekwok 14 Nikolski 8 Iglugig 14 Pauloff Harbor 8 Ivanof Bay 14 Sand Point 8 Koliganek 14 Squaw Harbor 8 Lake Aleknagik 14 St. George 9 Levelock 14 St. Paul 9 Manokotak 14 Unalaska 9 Newhalen 15 New Stuyahok 15 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation 9 Nondalton 15 Anaktuvak Pass 9 Pedro Bay 15 Barrow 9 Perryville 15 Kaktovik (Barter Island) 10 Pilot Point 15 Point Hope 10 Port Heiden (Meshik) 15 Wainwright 10 South Naknek 15 Togiak 16 Bering Straits Native Corporation 10 Twin Hills 16 Brevig Mission 10 Diomede (Inalik) 10 Calista Corporation 16 Elim 11 Akiachak 16 Gambell 11 Akiak 16 Golovin 11 Akolmuit 16 Koyuk 11 Alakanuk 16 CONTENTS Page Page Anfak 17 Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated 23 Bethel 17 Eklutna 23 Chefornak 17 Ninilchik 23 Chevak 17 Tyonek 23 Crooked Creek 17 Eek 17 Doyon, Limited 24 Emmenak 17 Alatna 24 Goodnews Bay 17 Allakaket 24 Holy Cross is Anvik 24 Hooper Say 18 Arctic Village 24 Kipnuk 18 Beaver 24 Kongiganak 18 Cantwell 24 Kotlik 115 Chalkyltsik 25 Kwethluk 113 Circle 25 Kwigillingok is Dot Lake 25 Kwinhagek (Quinhagek) 18 Eagle Village (Eagle) 25 Lime Village 19 FortYukon 25 Lower Kalskag 19 Galena 25 Marshall (Fortuna Ledge) 19 Grayling 25 MeYoryuk 19 Hughes 25 Mountain Village 19 Huslia 26 Napakiak 19 Kaltag 26 [email protected] 19 Koyukuk 26 Newtok 19 McGrath (McGrath Native Nightmute (Nightmuit) 20 Village) 26 Oscarville 20 Mentasta Lake (Mentasta) 26 Pilot Station 20 Minto 26 Pilkas Point 20 Nenana Addition (Nenana) 27 platinum 20 Nikolal 27 Russian Mission (Yukon) 20 Northway 27 Scammon Bay 20 Nulato 27 Sheldon's Point 20 Rampart 27 Sleetmute 21 Ruby 27 St. Mary's 21 ShageluK 28 Stony River 21 Stevens Village 28 Tanunak 21 Tanacross 28 Toksook Bay 21 Tanana 28 Tuiuksak 21 Tetlin 28 Tuntulu)iak 21 Venetie 28 Upper Ka?skag (Kalskag) 21 Koniag, Incorporated 29 Akhiok 29 Karluk 29 Chugach Natives, Incorporated 22 Kodiak 29 Enq)ish Bay 22 Larsen Bay 29 Port Graham 22 Old Harbor 29 Seldovia (Indian Possessions) 22 Ouzinkle 29 Tatitlek 22 Port Lions 30 Page Page Nana Regional Corporation 30 CALIFORNIA Ambler 30 Buckland 30 Agua Caliente 77 Deering 30 Alpine Colony (see Nevada) Kiana 30 Alturas Rancheria 79 Kivalina 31 Augustine 80 Kotzebue 31 Barona 81 Noatak 31 Berry Creek Rancheria 82 Noorvik 31 Big Bend Rancheria 83 Selawik 31 Big Lagoon Rancheria 84 Shungnak 31 Big Pine 85 Big Sandy Rancheria 86 Sealaska Corporation 32 Bishop 87 Angoon 32 Cabazon 89 Craig 32 Cahuilla 90 Hoonah 32 Campo 91 Hydaburg 32 Capitan Grande 92 Juneau (Juneau Indian Village) 32 Cedarville Rancheria 93 Kake 32 Chemehuevi 94 Klawock 33 Cold Springs Rancheria 97 Klukwan 33 Colusa Rancheria 98 Saxman 33 Cortina Rancheria 99 Sitka Village 33 Cuyapaipe 100 Yakutat 33 Dry Creek Rancheria 101 Annette Island Reserve 34 Enterprise Rancheria 102 Fort Bidwell 103 Fort Independence 105 Fort Mojave 107 Fort Yuma 108 ARIZONA Grindstone Creek Rancheria 110 Hoopa Extension 1.11 Ak Chin 37 Hoopa Valley 112 Camp Verde 39 Hopland Rancheria 114 Cocopah 41 Inaja-Cosmit 115 Colorado River 43 Jackson Rancheria 116 Fort Apache 46 La Jolla 117 Fort McDowell 49 La Posta 119 Gila River 51 Laytonville 120 Havasupal 54 Likely 121 Hopi 56 Lone Pine 122 Hualapai 59 Lookout Rancheria 123 Kaibab 61 Los Coyotes 124 Navajo 63 Manchester-Point Arena Papago 66 Rancheria 125 Payson 69 Manzanita 126 Salt River 70 Mesa Grande 127 San Carlos 72 Middletown Rancherla 128 Yavapal 74 Montgomery Creek Rancheria 129 CONTENTS Page Page Morongo 130 FLORIDA Pala 131 Big Cypress 177 Pauma and Yuima 133 Brighton 180 Pechanga 134 Florida State 183 Ramona 135 Hollywood 184 Resighini Rancheria 136 Miccosukee 187 Rincon 137 Roaring Creek Rancheria 139 Round Valley 140 IDAHO Rumsey Rancheria 142 Coeur d'Alene 191 San Manuel 143 Fort Hall 193 San Pasqual 144 Kootenai 195 Santa Rosa Rancheria 145 Nez Perce 197 Santa Rosa 146 Santa Ynez 147 IOWA Santa Ysabel 148 Sheep Ranch Rancheria 149 Sac and Fox 201 Sherwood Valley Rancheria 1.50 Soboba 151 KANSAS Stewarts Point Rancheria 152 Sulphur Bank Rancheria 153 Iowa 205 Susanville Rancheria 154 Kickapoo 207 Sycuan 155 Potawatomi 210 Table Mountain Rancheria 156 Sac and Fox 212 Torres Martinez 157 Trinidad Rancheria 159 LOUISIANA Tule River 160 Tuolumne Rancheria 161 Chitimacha 215 Twentynine Palms 162 Upper Lake Rancheria 163 MAINE Viejas 164 Woodsford Colony (see Nevada) Penobscot 219 XL Ranch 165 Pleasant Point and Indian Township 221 COLORADO MA SSACHUSETTS Southern Ute 167 Hassanamisco 225 Ute Mountain 170 MICHIGAN CONNECTICUT Bay Mills 227 Eastern Pequot &Western Hannahville 229 Pequot 173 Huron Potawatomi 231 Golden Hill 174 Isabella 232 Schaghticoke 175 Keweenaw Bay 234 Page Page MINNESOTA Ely Colony 309 Fallon Colony & Reservation 311 Fond du Lac 237 Fort McDermitt 313 Grand Portage 240 Goshute (see Utah) Leech Lake 243 Las Vegas Colony 315 Lower Sioux 245 Lovelock Colony 318 Mille Lacs 247 Moapa River 320 Nett Lake 260 Pyramid Lake 322 Prairie Island 253 Reno-Sparks Colony 324 Prior Lake 255 Ruby Valley 326 Red Lake 257 South Fork & ddgers Ranch 327 Upper Sioux 259 Summit Lake 329 White Earth 261 Walker River 331 Winnemucca Colony 333 Woodsford Colony 335 MISSISSIPPI Yerington Colony & Reservation 336 Choctaw 265 Yomba 338 MONTANA NEW MEXICO Blackfeet 269 Acoma Pueblo 341 Crow 271 Alamo 344 Flathead 274 Canoncito 346 Fort Belknap 277 Cochiti Pueblo 348 Fort Peck 279 Isleta Pueblo 350 Northern Cheyenne 282 Jemez Pueblo 353 Rocky Boy's 285 Jicarilla 356 Laguna Pueblo 359 Mescalero 362 NEBRASKA Nambe Pueblo 365 Navajo (see Arizona) Omaha 289 Picuris Pueblo 367 Santee 291 Pojoaque Pueblo 369 Winnebago 293 Ramah 371 Sandia Pueblo 373 San Felipe Pueblo 375 NEVADA San lidefonso Pueblo 378 San Juan Pueblo 381 Alpine Colony 297 Santa Ana Pueblo 383 Battle Mountain Colony 298 Santa Clara Pueblo 385 Carson Colony 300 Santo Domingo Pueblo 387 Dresslerville Colony 301 Taos Pueblo 390 Duck Valley 303 Tesuque Pueblo 392 Duckwater 305 Zia Pueblo 394 Elko Colony 307 Zuni Pueblo 396 CONTENTS Page Page NEW YORK Osage Tribe 463 Otoe-Missouria Tribe 465 Allegany 399 Pawnee Tribe 467 Cattaraugus 403 Ponca Tribe 469 Oil Springs 406 Quapaw Tribe 470 Onondaga 407 Sac and Fox Tribe 472 Poospatuck 410 Seminole Tribe 474 Shinnecock 412 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe 475 St. Regis 414 Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma 477 Tonawanda 416 Wichita Tribe 478 Tuscarora 419 NORTH CAROLINA OREGON Cherokee 423 Burns Paiute 481 Celilo Village 483 Umatilla 484 NORTH DAKOTA Warm Springs 486 Fort Berthold 427 Fort Totten 430 Sisseton (see South Dakota) SOUTH DAKOTA Standing Rock 433 Turtle Mountain 435 Cheyenne River 489 Crow Creek 492 Flandreau 494 OKLAHOMA Lower Brule 496 Pine Ridge 498 Absentee Shawnee Tribe 439 Rosebud 500 Caddo Tribe 441 Sisseton 502 Cherokee Tribe 443 Standing Rock (see North Dakota) Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes 444 Yankton 505 Chickasaw Tribe 446 Choctaw Tribe 447 Citizen Band of Potawatomi Tribe 449 TEXAS Comanche Tribe 450 Alabama-Coushatta 509 Creek Tribe 452 Tigua 512 Delaware Indian Tribe of Western Oklahoma 453 Eastern Shawnee Tribe 455 Fort Sill Apache Tribe 456 UTAH Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma 457 Kaw Tribe 458 Goshute 515 Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma 459 Skull Valley 517 Kiowa Tribe 460 Southern Paiute 519 Kiowa-Apache Tribe 462 Uintah and Ouray 521 Page VIRGINIA Mattaponi 525 Pamunkey 527 WASHINGTON Chehalis 531 Colville 533 Hoh 535 Kalispel 537 Lower Elwha 539 Lummi 541 Makah 544 Muckleshoot 547 Nisqually 549 Ozette 551 Port Gamble 552 Port Madison 554 Puyallup 556 Quileute 558 Quinault 560 Shoalwater 562 Skokomish 564 Spokane 567 Squaxin Island 569 Swinomish 571 Tulalip 573 Yakima 575 WISCONSIN Bad River 579 Lac Courte Oreilles 582 Lac du Flambeau 584 Mole Lake 587 Oneida 589 Potawatomi 591 Red Cliff 593 St. Croix 595 Stockbridge-Munsee 597 Winnebago 599 WYOMING Wind River 603 Alaska F -nu Al [email protected];777 Tlingit Chief Shakes' house, Wrangell Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives Jai ALASKAN NATIVE CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT The future for the Alaskan native has become considerably brighter with the recent passage of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (Public Law 92-203) which seeks a fair and just settlement of all claims by natives and native groups of Alaska based on aboriginal land claims. This act of December 18, 1971, provides for a systematic process of estab- lishing and sustaining a legal land base for Alaskan natives, REGIONAL CORPORATIONS One of the essential steps in this. process is the creation of regional and village corporations. Section 7a of this act pro- vides the Secretary of the Interior with the authority to divide the State of Alaska into 12 geographic regions, "with each region composed as far as practicable of natives having a common heritage and sharing common interests." In addition, section 7d of this act provides for the incorporation of each geographic region into regional corporations under the laws of Alaska "to conduct business for profit." So long as the regional corporation organizes itself and functions in accord- ance with this act, it will be eligible for the benefits of this act. VILLAGE CORPORATIONS Section 8a of this act states that those native residents of each native village who are entitled to receive land and benefits provided by this act must organize a business for profit or a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State before the native village may receive patent to lands or benefits under the act. Each native village is assisted and advised by its regional corporation in the preparation and approval of articles of incorporation and other necessary documents. ALASKAN NATIVE CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT CULTURAL HISTORY The Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act makes reference -to common heritage in describing how regional corporations are to be formed. It is exceedingly difficult to define the cultural aspects of Alaskan natives in terms of common heri- tage even on a regional basis due both to scarcity of informa- tion and the existence of overlapping cultural boundaries. However, in a more general framework, the cultural histories of the regional corporations tend to fall into four main Alaskan native groups: the Aleuts, the Eskimos, the Tlingit and Haida Indians, and the Athapascan Indians. The following, excerpted from Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) literature, is a brief de- scription of the cultural history of each group, including the regional corporation which tends to be associated with it. Note that some regional corporations tend to fit into more than one group. Aleuts Aleut Corporation Bristol Bay Native Corporation Chugach Natives, Incorporated Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated Koniag, Incorporated The Aleuts, racially and linguistically akin to the Eskimos, inhabited the Aleutian Islands and the western part of the Alaska Peninsula. Village location was determined by the suitability of hunting and fishing grounds, and the social and political organization of the villages was patriarchal and communal. Some of the finest baskets produced by any Alaskan natives were those made by the Aleut women of Attu. Though the group probably numbered between 20,000 and 30,000 persons before the arrival of Russian fur hunters about 1743, the seizure of traditional Aleut hunting grounds and the destruction or transplantation of Aleut villages reduced the population to about 2,500 by the end of the 2 Russian period. In 1867 the Aleuts with the rest of the Alaskan population came under United States iontrol. The Aleuts now number about 5,000, many of whom are of mixed blood. Traditional eulture has declined, and today most Aleuts live in frame houses. Members of the tribe have been employed primarily as commercial fishermen or cannery workers in the Bristol Bay area. Eskimos Arctic Slope Regional Corporation Bering Straits Native Corporation Bristol Bay Native Corporation Calista Corporation Doyon, Ltd. Nana Regional Native Corporation The Eskimos are believed to have occupied the territory from Greenland to western Alaska for at least 2,000 years. Num- bering today about 23,000, they live in more than 100 widely separated villages along the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea; on the lower river deltas of the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and smaller rivers in western Alaska; and on Diomede, King, St. Lawrence, and Nunivak Islands. Eskimos are still primarily hunters and fishermen. Tlingit and Haida Indians Sealaska Corporation The Tlingit, occupying the coastal region of southeastern Alaska, and the Haida, on the southern end of Prince of Wales Island, are closely related to other fishing peoples of the northwest Pacific coasts. They are believed to have reached southeastern Alaska from the south sometime before the Russians arrived in 1741. Russian traders gained control of the area from their post at Sitka, and disease and privation reduced the natives from 10,000 or more to less than half that number. The highly organized Tlingit and Haida cultures, like 3 ALASKAN NATIVE CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT others of the northwest coast, emphasized the acquisition and lavish display of wealth at elaborate feasts called "potlatches." Dwellings and boats were expertly constructed, usually of cedar. Totem poles carved by the Tlingit and Haida once served as decorative clan records; today the poles survive mainly as tourist attractions. The approximately 8,000 Tlingit and 1,000 Haida of today have accomplished much in Alaska's economic and political life. The two tribes are among the best Alaskan fishermen, and the Alaska Native Brotherhood, founded by the Tlingit, is the oldest continuously functioning fraternal organization of American Indians. Athapascan Indians Ahtna, Incorporated Calista Corporation Chugach Natives, Incorporated Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated Doyon, Ltd. The fourth main group of Alaskan natives is composed of the Athapascan Indians of the interior. Related to the Apache and Navajo of the Southwest, these Indians are believed to have been driven out of Canada by warring Cree some 700 or 800 years ago. The Athapascan Indians were nomadic hunters and fishermen whose social organization and tech- nology were rudimentary. During the period 1890-1910, when mining operations of white settlers were at their peak, the traditional pattern of Athapascan subsistence was broken. The approximately 6,000 Athapascan Indians of today, found primarily along the Yukon River and in the upper Kenai Peninsula, combine some traditional pursuits with seasonal wage work. There has been considerable migration of the tribe to population centers such as Anchorage and Fairbanks. 4 NATIVE VILLAGES The following list of native villages is by no means all- inclusive. Except where otherwise noted, population figures were obtained from Alaska Community Inventory, 1971, Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska, which includes U.S. Census Survey (1970) population figures. Acreage and land status information was obtained from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and from the Bureau of Land Manage- ment, U.S. Department of the Interior. CRITERIA FOR NATIVE VILLAGES The basic criteria for inclusion of native villages in this hand- book, in addition to the availability of accurate and reliable information, were those guidelines suggested by the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act, which includes the following: 9 At least 25 Alaskan. natives were residents of a village in 1970, as per Sec. 3(c) of the Settlement Act. * A list of native villages subject to and identified in Sec. 11 (b) (1) of the Settlement Act. * Certain native villages located in proximity to munic- ipalities cited in Sec. 14(h)(3) of the Settlement Act. 9 Those native villages located in townships specifically cited in Sec. 16(a) of the Settlement Act. REVOCATION OF RESERVATIONS In addition to the basic criteria already mentioned, one par- ticular provision of the Settlement Act requires some dis- cussion. Section 19(a) of the Settlement Act revokes various reserves set aside by legislation or by Executive or Secretarial order for native use or for administration of native affairs. Approximately 21/2 million acres are subject to revocation, allowing this land to become potential native villages. One noteworthy exception to revocation under Section 19(a) is 5 NATIVE VILLAGES the Annette Island Reserve established by the act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1101). No person enrolled in the Metlakatla Indian Community of the Annette Island Reserve shall be eligible for benefits under the Settlement Act. LAND STATUS Included in the Alaska section of this handbook are a numb er of land status classifications: Not scheduled for survey indicates that the Bureau of Land Management has not received a formal request for survey. Survey number assigned indicates that the Bureau of Land Management has received a formal request for survey and that a U.S. Survey number (four digits) has been assigned. Scheduled for survey indicates that the Bureau of Land Management will conduct a survey. Surveyed; not patented indicates that the Bureau of Land Management has completed a formal survey, but that fee title has not been given to the native village pending other considerations. Surveyed and patented indicates that the Bureau of Land Management has conducted a formal survey and that fee title has been passed to the native village. 6 AHTNA, INCORPORATED (Two Native Villages) P. 0. Box 823 Copper Center, Alaska 99573 Copper River Native Association Copper Center Gulkana Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 206 Population (1970) 53 Native (45%) 93 Native (98%) 52 Nonnative 113 Nonnative 1 Acres NA Acres 666 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented ALEUT CORPORATION (Thirteen Native Villages) P.O. Box 6265 425 G St., Suite 500 Anchorage, Alaska 99510 Aleut League Akutan Atka Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 101 Population (1970) 88 Native (90%) 90 Native (93%) 86 Nonnative 11 Nonnative 2 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey 7 NATIVE VILLAGES Belkofsky False Pass Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 59 Population (1970) 62 Native (92%) 53 Native (94%) 58 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 4 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey King Cove Nelson Lagoon Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 283 Population (1970) 43 Native (86%) 244 Native (91 %) 39 Nonnative 39 Nonnative 4 Acres 40 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Nikolski Pauloff Harbor Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 57 Population (1970) 39 Native (91 %) 52 Native (97%) 38 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 1 Acres 26 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Sand Point Squaw Harbor Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 360 Population (1970) 65 Native (74%) 265 Native (80%) 52 Nonnative 95 Nonnative 13 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey 8 St. George St. Paul Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 163 Population (1970) 450 Native (98%) 156 Native (95%) 428 Nonnative 7 Nonnative 22 Acres NA Acres 183 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented Unalaska Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 178 Native (62%) 110 Nonnative 68 Acres 38 Land Status: Surveyed and patented ARCTIC SLOPE REGIONAL CORPORATION (Five Native Villages) P. 0. Box 556 Tuluksak Building Barrow, Alaska 99723 Arctic Slope Native Association Anaktuvak Pass Barrow Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 99 Population (1970) 2,104 Native (98%) 97 Native (91 %) 1,904 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 200 Acres 75 Acres 805 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented 9 NATIVE VILLAGES Kaktovik (Barter Island) Point Hope Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 123 Population (1970) 386 Native (87%) 107 Native (97%) 369 Nonnative 16 Nonnative 17 Acres 281 Acres 90 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Wainwright Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 315 Native (97%) 307 Nonnative 8 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not patented BERING STRAITS NATIVE CORPORATION (Sixteen Native Villages) P. 0. Box 1008 Nome, Alaska 99762 Bering Straits Native Association -Brevig Mission Diomede (Inalik) Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: ESKIMO Population (1970) 123 Population (1970) 84 Native (96%) 118 Native (98%) 82 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 2 Acres 993 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey 10 Elim Gambell Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 174 Population (1970) 372 Native (97%) 168 Native (96%) 356 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 16 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Golovin Koyuk Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 117 Population (1970) 122 Native (95%) ill Native (99%) 121 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 1 Acres 142 Acres 336.4 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Nome Savoonga Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 2,488 Population (1970) 364 Native (61 %) 1,[email protected] Native (97%) 354 Nonnative 966 Nonnative 10 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Shaktoollik Shishmaref Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 151 Population (1970) 267 Native (95%) 144 Native (93%) 249 Nonnative 7 Nonnative 18 Acres 25 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey 11 NATIVE VILLAGES Stebbins St. Michael Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo. Population (1970) 231 Population (1970) 207 Native (97%) 223 Native (92%) 192 Nonnative 8 Nonnative 15 Acres 112 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Teller Unalakleet Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 220 Population (1970) 434 Native (87%) 192 Native (92%) 403 Nonnative 28 Nonnative 31 Acres 42.2 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Wales White Mountain Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 131 Population (1970) 87 Native (92%) 121 Native (96%) 84 Nonnative 10 Nonnative 3 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey 12 BRISTOL BAY NATIVE CORPORATION (Twenty-four Native Villages) P. 0. Box 237 Dillingham, Alaska 99576 Bristol Bay Native Association Chignik Chignik Lagoon Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 83 Population (1970) 70 Native (76%) 63 Native (91 %) 65 Nonnative 20 Nonnative 5 Acres 62 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Chignik Lake Clark's Point Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Population (1970) 117 Population (1970) 95 Native (99%) 115 Native (78%) 74 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 21 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Dillingham Egegik Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Population (1970) 914 Population (1970) 148 Native (62%) 569 Native (50%) 74 Nonnative 344 Nonnative 74 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented 13 NATIVE VILLAGES Ekuk Ekwok Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Population (1970) 51 Population (1970) 103 Native (98%) 50 Native (90%) 93 Nonnative 1 Nonnative 10 Acres NA Acres 558 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented lgiugig Ivanof Bay Native Group: Aleut Nativd Group: Aleut Population (1970) 36 Population (1970) 48 Native (95%) 34 Native (96%) 46 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 2 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Koliganek Lake Aleknaglk Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 142 Population (1970) 128 Native (94%) 134 Native (76%) 97 Nonnative 8 Nonnative 31 Acres NA Acres 124.5 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented Levelock Manokotak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 74 Population (1970) 214 Native (81%) 60 Native (96%) 205 Nonnative 14 Nonnative 9 Acres 397.9 Acres 334 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented 14 Newhalen New Stuyahok Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 88 Population (1970) 216 Native (94%) 83 Native (96%) 208 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 8 Acres NA Acres 108 Land Status: Survey number Land Status: Surveyed; not assigned patented Nondalton Pedro Bay Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Population (1970) 184 Population (1970) 65 Native (99%) 182 Native (78%) 51 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 14 Acres 625.9 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Perryville Pilot Point Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Eskimo-Aleut Population (1970) 94 Population (1970) 68 Native (96%) 90 Native (85%) 58 Nonnative 4 Nonnative 10 Acres 78.4 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Port Heiden (Meshik) South Nalknek Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 66 Population (1970) 154 Native (88%) 58 Native (60%) 85 Nonnative 8 Nonnative 69 Acres NA Acres ' 203 Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Surveyed; not survey patented 15 NATIVE VILLAGES Toglak Twin Hills Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 383 Population (1970) 67 Native (98%) 377 Native (98%) 66 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 1 Acres 76 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Scheduled for patented survey CALISTA CORPORATION (Forty-four Native Villages) 330 E St., Rm. 385 Anchorage, Alaska 99501 Yupiktak Bista Association Aklachak Akiak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 312 Population (1970) 171 Native (96%) 300 Native (99%) 169 Nonnative 12 Nonnative 2 Acres 84 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Scheduled for patented survey Akolmuit (Nunapitchuk Alakanuk and Kasigluk) Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 265 Population (1970) 526 Native (93%) 247 Native (97%) 512 Nonnative 18 Nonnative 14 Acres 250 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey 16 Anlak Bethel Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 205 Population (1970) 2,416 Native (83%) 170 Native (77%) 1,870 Nonnative 35 Nonnative 546 Acres 62 Acres 444 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Chefornak Chevak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 146 Population (1970) 387 Native (97%) 141 Native (97%) 376 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 11 Acres 56 Acres 75 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Crooked Creek Eek Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 59 Population (1970) 186 Native (93%) 55 Native (90%) 167 Nonnative 4 Nonnative 19 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Scheduled for for survey survey Emmonak Goodnews Bay Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 439 Population (1970) 218 Native (96%) 421 Native (96%) 210 Nonnative 18 Nonnative 8 Acres 608 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey 17 NATIVE VILLAGES Holy Cross Hooper Bay Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 200 Population (1970) 490 Native (96%) 192 Native (97%) 477 Nonnative 8 Nonnative 13 Acres NA Acres 365 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented Kipnuk Kongiganak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 325 Population (1970) 190 Native (98%) 320 Native (96%) 183 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 7 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Kotlik Kwethluk Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 226 Population (1970) 418 Native (98%) 224 Native (96%) 390 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 18 Acres 514 Acres 202 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Kwigillingok Kwinhagek (Quinhagek) Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 148 Population (1970) 340 Native (98%) 145 Native (98%) 332 Nonnative 3 Nonnative 8 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Not scheduled survey for survey 18 Lime Village Lower Kalskag Native Group: Athapascan- Native Group: Eskimo Eskimo Population (1970) 183 Population (1970) 25 Native (97%) 177 Native (100%) 25 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 0 Acres 316 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Marshall (Fortuna Ledge) Mekoryuk Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 175 Population (1970) 249 Native (97%) 169 Native (94%) 234 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 15 Acres 688.5 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Mountain Village Napakiak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 419 Population (1970) 270 Native (94%) 394 Native (98%) 265 Nonnative 25 Nonnative 5 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Napasklak Newtok Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 269 Population (1970) 114 Native (97%) 255 Native (97%) ill Nonnative 14 Nonnative .3 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey 19 NATIVE VILLAGES Nightmute (Nightmult) Oscarville Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 127 Population (1970) 41 Native (98%) 122 Native (92%) 38 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 3 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Survey number survey assigned Pilot Station Pitkas Point Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 290 Population (1970) 70 Native (99%) 287 Native (96%) 67 Nonnative 3 Nonnative 3 Acres 240 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Platinum Russian Mission (Yukon) Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 55 Population (1970) 146 Native (87%) 48 Native (95%) 138 Nonnative 7 Nonnative 8 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status; Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Scammon Bay Sheldon's Point Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 166 Population (1970) 125 Native (100%) 166 Native (97%) 121 Nonnative 0 Nonnative 4 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Not scheduled survey for survey 20 Sleetmute St. Mary's Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 109 Population (1970) 384 Native (87%) 95 Native (91 %) 350 Nonnative 14 Nonnative 34 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed and for survey patented Stony River Tanunak Native Group: Athapascan- Native Group: Eskimo Eskimo Population (1970) 274 Population (1970) 74 Native (99%) 270 Native (82%) 61 Nonnative 4 Nonnative 13 Acres 83 Acres 109.1 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Toksook Bay Tuluksak Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 257 Population (1970) 195 Native (98%) 251 Native (99%) 193 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 2 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status:. Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Tuntutuliiak Upper Kalskag (Kalskag) Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 158 Population (1970) 122 Native (97%) 154 Native (87%) 106 Nonnative 4 Nonnative 16 Acres NA Acres 512.7 Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Surveyed; not survey patented 21 NATIVE VILLAGES CHUGACH NATIVES, INCORPORATED (Four Native Villages) 819 C Street Anchorage, Alaska 99501 Chugach Native Association English Bay Port Graham Native Group: Aleut- Native Group: Aleut- Athapascan Athapascan Population (1970) 58 Population (1970) 107 Native (91 %) 53 Native (90%) 96 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 11 Acres 179.7 Acres 35.8 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Seldovia (Indian Posses- Tatitlek sions) Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut- Population (1970) ill Athapascan Native (96%) 107 Population (1970) 437* Nonnative 4 Native (32%) 138 Acres NA Nonnative 299 Land Status: Not scheduled Acres .03 for survey Land Status: Surveyed and patented U.S. Census population figures for city of Seldovia. 22 COOK INLET REGION, INCORPORATED (Three Native Villages) 113 West 6th Avenue Anchorage, Alaska 99501 Cook Inlet Native Association I Eklutna Ninilchik Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 25 Population (1970) 134 Native (92%) 23 Native (13%) 18 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 116 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Tyonek Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 232 Native (95%) 221 Nonnative 11 Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled for survey 23 NATIVE VILLAGES DOYON, LIMITED (Thirty-two Native Villages) 102 Lacey Street Fairbanks, Alaska 99701 Tanana Chiefs Conference Allatna Allakaket Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 174* Population (1970) 174* Native (97%) 168 Native (97%) 168 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 6 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Scheduled for survey survey Anvik Arctic Village Native Group: Athapascan- Native Group: Athapascan Eskimo Population (1970) 85 Population (1970) 83 Native (97%) 82 Native (90%) 75 Nonnative 3 Nonnative 8 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey Beaver Cantwell Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 101 Population (1970) 62 Native (86%) 86 Native (69%) 43 Nonnative 15 Nonnative 19 Acres 48 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey U.S. Census population figures for Alatna and Allakaket are combined. 24 Chalkyitsik Circle Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 130 Population (1970) 54 Native (95%) 123 Native (59%) 32 Nonnative 7 Nonnative 22 Acres 52 Acres 42 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Dot Lake Eagle Village (Eagle) Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 42 Population (1970) 36* Native (69%) 29 Native 0 1 %) 4 Nonnative 13 Nonnative 32 Acres NA Acres 24.4 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented FortYukon Galena Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 448 Population (1970) 302 Native (84%) 376 Native'(88%) 265 Nonnative 72 Nonnative 37 Acres 158 Acres 117 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Grayling Hughes Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 139 Population (1970) 85 Native (98%) 136 Native (86%) 73 Nonnative 3 Nonnative 12 Acres 301 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey *U.S. Census population figures for Eagle. 25 NATIVE VILLAGES Huslia Kaltag Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 159 Population (1970) 206 Native (95%) 151 Native (94%) 193 Nonnative 8 Nonnative 13 Acres NA Acres 44 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed; not for survey patented Koyukuk McGrath (McGrath Native Native Group: Eskimo Village) Population (1970) 124 Native Group: Athapascan- Native (98%) 121 Eskimo Nonnative 3 Population (1970) 279* Acres 98.6 Native (39%) 110 Land Status: Surveyed; not Nonnative 169 patented Acres 47 Land Status: Surveyed and patented Mentasta Lake (Mentasta) Minto Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 68 Population (1970) 168 Native (94%) 64 Native (95%) 159 Nonnative 4 Nonnative 9 Acres 47 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Survey number patented assigned U.S. Census population figures for McGrath Native Village and the city Of McGrath are combined. 26 Nenana Addition (Nenana) Nikolal Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 362* Population (1970) 112 Native (39%) 142 Native (90%) 101 Nonnative 220 Nonnative 11 Acres 116.4 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Northway Nulato Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 40 Population (1970) 308 Native (25%) 10 Native (97%) 298 Nonnative 30 Nonnative 10 Acres 47.9 Acres 604 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Rampart Ruby Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 36 Population (1970) 145 Native (58%) 21 Native (92%) 134 Nonnative is Nonnative 11 Acres 91.6 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Scheduled for patented survey U.S. Census population figures for Nenana Addition and the city of Nenana are combined. 27 NATIVE VILLAGES Shageluk Stevens Village Native Group: Athapascan- Native Group: Athapascan Eskimo Population (1970) 74 Population (1970) 167 Native (97%) 72 Native (95%) 158 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 9 Acres 589 Acres 13 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Tanacross Tanana Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 84 Population (1970) 120 Native (92%) 77 Native (7%) 9 Nonnative 7 Nonnative ill Acres 18.5 Acres 55.6 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Tetlin Venetie Native Group: Athapascan Native Group: Athapascan Population (1970) 114 Population (1970) 112 Native (95%) 108 Native (96%) 108 Nonnative 6 Nonnative 4 Acres NA Acres NA Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Not scheduled for survey for survey 28 KONIAG, INCORPORATED (Seven Native Villages) P. 0. Box 1423 Donnelley Building Kodiak, Alaska 99615 Kodiak Area Native Association Akhlok Karluk Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 115 Population (1970) 98 Native (98%) 113 Native (96%) 95 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 3 Acres 94 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Not scheduled patented for survey Kodiak Larsen Bay Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 3,798 Population (1970) 109 Native (17%) 642 Native (82%) 91 Nonnative 3,156 Nonnative 18 Acres 15 Acres 131.4 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not .patented patented Old Harbor Ouzinkle Native Group: Aleut Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 290 Population (1970) 160 Native (93%) 269 Native (89%) 143 Nonnative 21 Nonnative 17 Acres 424 Acres 804 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented U.S. Census population figures for the city of Kodiak. Kodiak Native Village is discussed in Sec. 14(h)(3) of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act. 29 NATIVE VILLAGES Port Lions Native Group: Aleut Population (1970) 227 Native (81 %) 184 Nonnative 43 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and patented NANA REGIONAL CORPORATION (Ten Native Villages) P. 0. Box 49 Kotzebue, Alaska 99752 Northwest Alaska Native Association Ambler Buckland Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 169 Population (1970) 104 Native (94%) 159 Native (99%) 103 Nonnative 10 Nonnative I Acres 554 Acres 183 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Deering Klana Native Grou p: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 85 Population (1970) 278 Native (98%) 83 Native (96%) 268 Nonnative 2 Nonnative 10 Acres NA Acres 180 Land Status: Not scheduled Land Status: Surveyed and for survey patented 30 Kivalina Kotzebue Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 188 Population (1970) 1,696 Native (97%) 183 Native (74%) 1,326 Nonnative 5 Nonnative 370 Acres NA Acres 415 Land. Status: Scheduled for Land Status: Surveyed and survey patented Noatak Noorvik Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 293 Population (1970) 462 Native (98%) 286 Native (97%) 443 Nonnative 7 Nonnative 19 Acres 43 Acres 43 Land Status: Surveyed, not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented Sellawilk Shungnalk Native Group: Eskimo Native Group: Eskimo Population (1970) 429 Population (1970) 220 Native (98%) 418 Native (97%) 213 Nonnative 11 Nonnative 7 Acres NA Acres 466 Land Status: Surveyed; not Land Status: Surveyed; not patented patented 31 NATIVE VILLAGES SEALASKA CORPORATION (Eleven Native Villages) 127 Franklin Street, Room 407 Juneau, Alaska 99801 Tlihgit-Haida Central Council Angoon Craig Native Group: Tlingit Native Group: Tlingit Population (1970) 400 Population (1970) 272 Native (94%) 377 Native (56%) 153 Nonnative 23 Nonnative 119 Acres 42.7 Acres NA Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Hoonah Hydaburg Native Group: Tlingit Native Group: Haida Population (1970) 748 Population (1970) 214 Native (72%), 538 Native (88%) 188 Nonnative 210 Nonnative 26 Acres 41.6 Acres 194 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Juneau (Juneau Indian Kake Village) Native Group: Tlingit Native Group: Tlingit Population (1970) 448 Population (1970) 109* Native (91 %) 405 Native (100%) 109 Nonnative 43 Nonnative 0 Acres 130 Acres 3.5 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Population figures obtained from Bureau of Indian Affairs. 32 Klawock Klukwan Native Group: Tlingit Native Group: Tlingit Population (1970) 213 Population (1970) 103 Native (92%) 195 Native (89%) 92 Nonnative 18 Nonnative 11 Acres 201 Acres 874 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Saxman Sitka Village Native Group: Tlingit Native Group: Tlingit Population (1970) 135 Population (1970) 266* Native (73%) 99 Native (100%) 266 Nonnative 36 Nonnative 0 Acres 386 Acres 12 Land Status: Surveyed and Land Status: Surveyed and patented patented Yakutat Native Group: Tlingit Population (1970) 190 Native (83%) 157 Nonnative 33 Acres 173 Land Status: Surveyed and patented Population figures obtained from Bureau of Indian Affairs. 33 ANNETTE ISLAND RESERVE Southeast Region, ALASKA Tsimshian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Metlakatla, Alaska Federal Reservation Population: 1,050 (1970 census) LAND STATUS Total Area: 86, 471 acres Tribally Owned: 86,471 acres HJSTORY The ancestral home of the Tsimshian is on the Skeena River ,in British Columbia and the coast to the south. In 1887, a Church of England missionary, Rev. William Duncan, persuaded a number of the Indians to move to Annette Island. A grant of land was later obtained from the United States by an act of May 30, 1891, and the Tsimshian have continued to reside there, principally in the village of Metlakatla. Along with the land grant, the Tsimshian received U. S. citizenship and certain fishing rights. CULTURE From the beginning, the Metlakatla Indian Community emphasized religious freedom and self-expression, and this attitude is prevalent today. Metlakatla is a modern and progressive community with youthful, vigorous, and hard- working residents who participate in the social, economic, and political life of the State. GOVERNMENT The Metlakatla Indian Community is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act and is incorporated under a Federally approved charter. The governing body is the popu- larly elected Annette Island Reserve Council consisting of 12 members. TRIBAL ECONOMY The average annual income of the tribe is $250,000. The econ- omy is based upon fish processing and logging. Substantial employment is also generated by the International Airport, 8 miles from the village of Metlakatla. The salmon industry pro- vides full employment and steady incomes through the fishing season, and constitutes one of the major sources of income in the community throughout the year. The newly established timber industry is expanding rapidly and has become the major source of year-round employment and income. There is an 34 extensive road construction program which will provide asphalt-su rf aced, fully engineered roads that will link all major areas of the island. Road construction is also an important source of income and employment. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 120 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 580 and a low of 220. TRANSPORTATION There is only an internal road system on the island. Two commercial airlines provide air service. Annette is less than 700 miles north of Seattle, Washington, via direct flight. The nearest bus- and trucklines are located in Ketchikan, a distance of 15 miles. COMMUNITY FACILITIES All utilities are tribally owned including the Metlakatla water system and the Metlakatla Power and Light Company. In addition, a new municipal building has been completed. RECREATION The tribally owned community center includes a basketball court, theater, auditorium, and numerous meeting rooms. Vital Statistics Annette Island offers excellent camping, hunting, and fishing opportunities. In addition, a number of unique community Population: events are held throughout the year, such as the Annual King Indians residing Salmon Derby. on or adjacent to reservation: 1,050 Labor Force: Total: 406 Unemployed: 232 Unemployment rate: 57% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 35 Arizona 77 :N" 7 9 *1 7 IV, 7;- IM IM jw- Ab. Window Rock, Navajo Indian Reservation ; i-44 AK CHIN RESERVATION Pinal. County, ARIZONA Papago Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Ak Chin Community, Arizona 85239 Federal Reservation Population: 258 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 21,840 acres Tribally Owned: 21,840 acres Tribal members refused to accept assignments of allotments to individuals as outlined by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. HISTORY The Papago, or Bean People, reside in the southern part of Arizona, including the Ak Chin Reservation. Until the coming of the Spaniards, from whom they learned stockraising, the Papago Indians were farmers using fields irrigated only by flash floods. CULTURE The Papago speak a language unrelated to other Indian languages in the area except for the Pima. They were agricultural and moved frequently to find new water sources. The tribal government was based on autonomous related villages which were governed by headmen and councils. The Papago extend from Ak Chin to Sonora, Mexico. GOVERNMENT The governing body is the Ak Chin Indian Community Council, as provided under the Articles of Association, approved December 1961. The active committees include the farm board; education, health, and welfare; and housing. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income of $180,000 per year is derived completely from tribal farm profits. The tribe currently operates a 10,000- acre farm and a tribal store and service station. CLIMATE In this arid section of the country, rainfall averages 8 inches annually, and temperatures range from a high of 110' to a low of 300. 37 AK CHIN RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION A county road connects the reservation with Interstate 10 to the north and Interstate 8 to the south. Commercial trains, trucks, and buslines serve Maricopa, 5 miles from the reservation. The nearest commercial air service is at the Phoenix Airport, 40 miles from Ak Chin. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe provides its own water and sewage service and its own electricity. The U.S. Public Health Service hospital in Sacaton and the Phoenix Indian Medical Center in Phoenix provide medical care for Ak Chin residents. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 258 Labor Force: Total: 62 Unemployed: 3 Unemployment rate: 5% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 38 CAMP VERDE RESERVATION Yavapai County, ARIZONA Yav,@pai-Apache Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Middle Verde, Arizona 86322 Federal Reservation Population: 693 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 640 acres Tribally Owned: 560 acres Allotted: 80 acres HISTORY Between 1000 A.D. and 1500 A.D., nomadic bands of Athapascan Indians, ancestors of the Apache, came from the North to the area which is now Arizona and New Mexico. By 1873, most Apache bands had been captured and were detained on reservations. A small group subsequently left the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona and moved northwest to found the Camp Verde Reservation. CULTURE The Apache practiced a shamanistic religion. They strongly believed in mountain spirits which had good and evil powers over the people. They believed that the living were influenced by witches and the dead. The Apache lived in thatched wickiups which were easily collapsed and moved and which they covered with hides in the winter. Hides were also used to make clothing. Baskets, which were waterproofed when sealed with pitch, were used for cooking. GOVERNMENT The eight-member community council is the governing body of the tribe which was organized under a constitution and bylaws based on the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income of $1,700 is derived from farming leases of reservation land to non-Indians. The tribe is a mem- ber of the Indian Development District of Arizona and, through this organization, hopes to achieve for Indians a greater share of the State's growth. CLIMATE The reservation is located in central Arizona, where the climate is semiarid, averaging 12 inches of rain annually. The temperature ranges from a high of 95' to a low of 15'. 39 CAMP VERDE RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION The Camp Verde Reservation is located on State Highway 279 which connects with Interstate 17, the major north-south highway for the area. Phoenix is 75 miles to the south by this highway. Commercial air and train companies serve Flagstaff, Arizona, which lies 50 miles from the reservation. Bus- and trucklines serve Camp Verde, only 5 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The reservation has its own water system which was installed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Individuals provide their own septic tanks. Electricity is supplied by the Arizona Public Service. There are a private hospital in Cottonwood and a USPHS hospital in Camp Verde. Prescott and Phoenix both have larger hospitals. RECREATION Of interest to visitors is the historic fort at Camp Verde. Another major tourist attraction is the Montezuma Castle National Monument, located 10 miles from the reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 693 Labor Force: Total: 307 Unemployed: 231 Unemployment rate: 75% 40 COCOPAH RESERVATION Yuma County, ARIZONA Yuma Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Somerton, Arizona 85350 Federal Reservation Population: 441 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 528 acres Tribally Owned: 528 acres The Cocopah Reservation was established by Executive order in 1917. The reservation consisted of two sections. The larger section was located northwest of the community of Somerton. The smaller section was located to the southeast. By agree- ment on March 21, 1956, between the Bureau of Reclamation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, two areas totaling 62 acres were set aside from public domain for the use of the Cocopah Indians on a temporary basis. HISTORY The Cocopah Indians, one of the Yuman tribes, migrated from Baja California and Mexico and settled along the Colorado River. About 1760, the Yuma, Cocopah, and Maricopa Indians comprised one tribe known as the Coco-Maricopa Tribe and lived around the Gulf of California and the Colorado River. The Cocopah sector peacefully severed ties with. the main group after a dispute. Shortly thereafter, the Maricopa Indians also seceded. This secession incurred the severe displeasure and hostility of the remainder, who now form the Yuma Tribe. CULTURE The Yuma Tribe expertly farmed the fertile flatlands along the Colorado River. The tribe was divided into clans and families. These subunits of the tribe owned sections of land. Although the people were sedentary, they moved seasonally to summer- houses that were opensided to let the breeze through during the very hot weather. GOVERNMENT The Cocopah Indians are governed by a popularly elected tribal council consisting of five members. Its authority is derived from the constitution approved under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. 41 COCOPAH RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income of $2,400 comes entirely from farming. The tribe is a member of the Indian Development District of Arizona. CLIMATE The climate in the reservation area is very hot and arid. Rainfall averages only 3 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 1150 and a low of 330. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 95 crosses the reservation north-south. The nearest commercial transportation by air, bus, train, and truck serves Yuma, Arizona, 17 miles from Cocopah. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Cocopah has a community water system, installed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), and individual septic tanks. Residents use bottled gas or electricity available from Arizona Public Service. For medical care, tribal members can go to a private hospital in Yuma, or a USPHS hospital in Winter- haven, California, on the Fort Yuma Reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 441 Labor Force: Total: 163 Unemployed: 123 Unemployment rate: 75% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 42 COLORADO RIVER RESERVATION Yuma County, ARIZONA San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CALIFORNIA Mojave and Chemehuevi Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Parker, Arizona 85344 Federal Reservation Population: 2,072 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 264,092 acres Tribally Owned: 258,134 acres Allotted: 5,958 acres Of the total acreage, 225,996 acres lie in Arizona and 38,096 in California. HISTORY The Mojave and Chemehuevi Indians have lived on the Lower Colorado River since recorded history. The Mojave controlled both sides of the river from Needles, California, to Black Canyon. The Chemehuevi controlled lands lying between the Mojave and the Quechan, who lived farther to the south. The Mojave at first welcomed the Spanish, but soon changed their position when the Europeans tried to impose a new way of life upon them. The Mojave then became widely feared for their bellicosity. Upon acquiring this territory under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the United States agreed to preserve recognition of the Indian people's.right to their land. The Colorado River Reservation was created as an inducement to the Mojave and Chemehuevi to abandon the tactics of war and adopt agriculture. The Colorado River tribes include not only the Mojave and Chemehuevi, but also some Hopi and Navajo who were located here following World War 11. CULTURE The Mojave were a Yuman subgroup; the Chemehuevi were of Shoshonean heritage. The tribes lived along the Colorado River and farmed the rich bottomlands there. Their major crops were corn, melons, pumpkins, native beans, roots, and mesquite beans. The tribes lived in scattered groups in homes made of brush placed between upright mesquite logs, or in "sandwich houses" made of mud and wood. For traveling along the river, these Indians constructed rafts from bundles of reeds instead of making boats or canoes. The Mojave were the most populous of the Yuman tribes. 43 COLORADO RIVER RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The Colorado River tribes adopted a constitution in 1937 under the Indian Reorganization Act. The tribal council, the governing body for the Colorado River tribes, meets monthly, with additional meetings called. Council members are elected every 2 years on a staggered basis. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual average tribal income of $600,000 is earned almost wholly from farming. Companies now located on the reserva- tion include a plastics manufacturer; three concrete, sand, and gravel contractors; a marina sales and service company; a tire center; and a farm machinery sales and service dealer. The Blue Water Marina was constructed by the tribe. The tribe is a member of the Indian Development District of Arizona through which it hopes to augment its development trends. Sand and gravel deposits are currently being exploited. Clay deposits, gypsum, and small amounts of gold are also found on this reservation. CLIMATE The weather in this area is usually warm and sunny. The average July high is 930. Agriculture in this area is encouraged by the 259-day growing season; however, the low rainfall of 5.5 inches per year makes irrigation necessary. TRANSPORTATION The reservation is located along a major east-west transpor- tation corridor, Interstates 40 and 10. Train, bus, and truck services are available in Parker on the reservation; however, for commercial air service, residents must travel 60 miles to Blythe, California. 44 COMMUNITY FACILITIES The infrastructure on the reservation is obsolete and a deterrent to growth. The reservation's industrial park, however, has utilities adequate for any industry. The Arizona Public Service Company supplies electricity and natural gas to Parker and other parts of the reservation. A 20-bed hospital in Parker is operated by the Indian Health Service. Additional hospitals are located in Yuma, Arizona, 125 miles south of Parker. Tribal activities are centered in the modern tribal community buildings. RECREATION The tremendous appeal of the Colorado River to hunters, fishermen, and tourists is only now being recognized and exploited. To take advantage of this natural resource, the Colorado River tribes have constructed the Blue Water Marina and continue to develop facilities for vacationers. The area is excellent for water sports and other outdoor activities year- round. Facilities for overnight visitors are available in Parker. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 2,072 Labor Force: Total: 851 Unemployed: 402 Unemployment rate: 47% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 45 FORT APACHE RESERVATION Apache, Gila, and Navajo Counties, ARIZONA White Mountain Apache Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Whiteriver, Arizona 85941 Federal Reservation Population: 6,500 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,664,872 acres Tribally Owned: 1,664,872 acres This reservation was originally established in 1871 as a part of the White Mountain Indian Reservation, which was divided into the San Carlos Reservation and the Fort Apache Reservation in 1897. HISTORY The Apache were a nomadic people who were attracted to the Southwest by the abundance they saw there. They usually lived in mountainous areas and raided the pueblo villages for food, crops, and material goods. There were, however, peace- ful periods when the two groups traded without hostility. The Spanish also became a target of Apache raids and adopted the Zuni word "Apache" meaning enemy. Harsh treatment by whites increased animosity. Because they had not settled in any given area, the Apache were difficult to subdue and were the last tribe to be defeated by the United States Government. The Apache wars ended finally in the late 19th century. CULTURE The Apache were large, well-built people trained from child- hood to be hunters and fighters. They were not horsemen and never fully adapted to the use of the horse. Religious beliefs were centered upon the shaman, who was the religious leader. Mountain spirits, believed to possess great powers of both good and evil over people, are impersonated in the mountain spirit dances. The thatched wickiups in which the Apache lived were covered with hide in the winter. Clothing was made out of skins. The people were also skilled in basketry, sealing some with pitch to be watertight. GOVERNMENT The tribe adopted a constitution in August 1938, according to the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, and amended the constitution in June 1958. The reservation is governed by an elected tribal council which holds office for a term of 2 years. 46 TRIBAL ECONOMY Eighty percent of the annual tribal income of $1 million represents forest industry profits. The remainder of the tribe's income is derived from farming and business profits. The tribe employs a total of 200 persons in various enterprises. The White Mountain Apache Enterprise and the White Mountain Recreation Enterprise are organizations to develop the recreational potential of the reservation. The Fort Apache Timber Company works the reservation's impressive forest resources. Other tribal associations are the Whiteriver Con- struction Enterprise and the Livestock Association, which manages a 2,000-head herd. Three private lumber companies are also located on the reservation: Southwest Forest Industries, Western Wood Products, and Western Pine Sales. The tribe, through its membership in the Indian Development District of Arizona, has access to professional planning, technical skills, and funding assistance. Timber is the primary resource on the reservation. There are also deposits of asbestos. CLIMATE Rainfall averages from 12 to 30 inches yearly, varying with the elevation. The climate is mild, much cooler in the summer than the nearby desert area. Temperatures range from 900 to 150. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 60 is the major north-south route through the reservation. U.S. Route 70 comes into the reservation from the southeast and junctions with 60 to continue west to Phoenix. Other, smaller roads connect the towns of the reservation. Trains, buses, and trucks serve the industries and residents of the reservation. A commercial air shuttle to Phoenix is located in Show Low, 10 miles from the reservation. 47 FORT APACHE RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES Where there are no municipal or local water systems, water is drawn from wells. Residents buy bottled gas. The Arizona Public Service Company and the Navopache Electric Co- operative provide electricity to the reservation. The U.S. Public Health Service operates a hospital in Whiteriver. RECREATION The cool mountain climate contrasts sharply with the hot, dry regions surrounding the reservation. There are numerous campsites where activities include water recreation, hunting, and sightseeing. The tribe runs a narrow-gauge sightseeing train. Of interest to visitors are Fort Apache, a military outpost for the territory, and the Kinishba Ruins, an ancient Indian village. The tribal fair and rodeo are held annually. Numerous tourist facilities on the reservation, including the Hon-Dah Motel and Restaurant operated by the tribe, provide accom- modations for noncampers. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 6,500 Labor Force: Total: 1,970 Unemployed: 1,170 Unemployment rate: 59% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 48 FORT MCDOWELL RESERVATION Maricopa County, ARIZONA Mojave, Apache, and Yavapai Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 Federal Reservation Population: 345 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 24,680 acres Tribally Owned: 24,680 acres Approximately two-thirds of the land will be inundated by the Orme Dam, a diversion dam for the Central Arizona Project. Negotiations are being conducted to transfer an equivalent amount of acreage from adjoining Federal lands. HISTORY The residents of the Fort McDowell Reservation are descended from bands of Apache, Mojave, and Yavapai who were assigned to the Fort McDowell Military Reservation at the end of the Indian Wars. These tribes were known as strong, brave fighters. GOVERNMENT Under the constitution and bylaws of the Fort McDowell community, and under the corporate charter of the community, the tribal council is the popularly elected organization which carries out the program of the tribe. It is assisted by a plan- ning commission, citizens advisory committee, housing authority, and various other units. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income of $16,000 is derived largely from recreation fees and rental payments from the city of Phoenix for a water facility. The remaining 10 percent comes from farming. The only commercial establishment on the reservation is a service station, which is tribally owned. CLIMATE In this location near Phoenix the climate is dry and sunny. Rainfall averages 7 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 1100 to a low of 300. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 87 runs through the reservation east-west. Commercial transportation by air, train, truck, and bus is readily available-in Phoenix which is 28 miles from the reservation. 49 FORT MCDOWELL RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water system was provided by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Ample electricity comes from the Salt River Project. Indians are given health care at the USPHS hospital in Phoenix. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 345 Labor Force: Total: 82 Unemployed: 2 Unemployment rate: 2% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 50 GILA RIVER INDIAN COMMUNITY Maricopa and Pinal Counties, ARIZONA Pima and Maricopa Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Sacaton, Arizona 85247 Federal Reservation Population: 8,321 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 371,929 acres Tribally Owned: 274,462 acres Allotted: 97,467 acres HISTORY The Pima, or River People, have occupied the same locality for centuries, continuing the Hohokam tradition of irrigated farming, industriousness, peacefulness, and artistic excellence. The original reservation of 64,000 acres was designated by an act of Congress in 1859. Subsequent Executive orders have increased it to its present size. As a result of their extensive use of irrigation as a community project, and the necessity of uniting for their mutual protection against the Apache, their government structure was well organized. CULTURE The Spaniards, first encountering the Pima in the late 16th century, found them to be advanced in agriculture. The Spaniards introduced new farm crops, such as wheat, and religion new to the Indians, Christianity. The Pima were always peace-loving. They developed a highly organized culture. GOVERNMENT The 17-member, popularly elected tribal council represents the seven districts of the reservation. The sources of power for the governing body are granted in the constitution adopted and approved in accordance with the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. TRIBAL ECONOMY Average annual tribal income totals $519,800, derived princi- pally from agricultural leases, business leases, and tribal farming operations. The tribe has formulated a progressive long-range development program designed principally to lead to self-sustaining economic growth. The three industrial parks on the reservation provide locations for nine commercial and industrial enterprises, several of which are owned and operated 51 GILA RIVER INDIAN COMMUNITY by the tribe. The tribe has joined its non-Indian neighboring communities in establishing three local development corpora- tions. An extremely successful agricultural enterprise has been the Gila River Indian Community Farm. The tribe administers the only Housing and Urban Development "model cities" program on any reservation in the country. CLIMATE The Phoenix area is noted for its year-round dry and sunny climate. Rainfall averages 7 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1100 to a low of 300. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 87 (no rthwest-so uth east) crosses the reserva- tion. State Highway 93 is a north-south route. Interstate 10 is a major north-south route for the area. Commercial airlines at Phoenix serve the area. Trains stop in Phoenix, 25 miles from the reservation. Commercial bus- and trucklines stop in Sacaton, the tribal headquarters. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Within the Gila River Indian Reservation there are 11 basic community developments. These include Bapchule, Black- water, Casa Blanca, Gila Crossing, Goodyear, Lower SanTan, Sacaton Flats, Sacate, Sacaton, Stotonic, and Upper SanTan. Sacaton is the administrative agency headquarters and tribal headquarters for the reservation and is the location of the largest concentration of community facilities including schools, post office, general store, tribal headquarters build- ings, administrative buildings, and residential quarters for employees. 52 RECREATION Adjacent to the reservation is the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. The Snaketown Ruins on the reservation are the most famous of Hohokam ruins and are being considered as a national monument. The reservation features some of the best dove hunting in the State. All types of recreational and cultural activities are also available in nearby Phoenix. A unique feature on the reservation is its nearly completed marina and boating facility. This tribally owned and operated enterprise will provide an area for sailing as well as powerboat racing. Food and service facilities will also be available. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 8,321 Labor Force: Total: 2,311 Unemployed: 423 Unemployment rate: 18% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th Number graduated from college in 1972: 1 53 HAVASUPAI RESERVATION Coconino County, ARIZONA Havasupai Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Supai, Arizona 86435 Federal Reservation Population: 370 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,058 acres Tribally Owned: 3,058 acres The reservation, which lies at the bottom of the Grand Canyon 3,000 feet deep, is surrounded by U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service lands. The reservation was initially established by an Executive order of June 8,1880. By 1882, through a series of Executive orders, the reservation was reduced to 519 acres. An act of March 4, 1944, set aside certain public domain lands and provided for an exchange of State- owned lands, to be added to the reservation, bringing it to its present size. In addition, the tribe has been granted grazing rights on approximately 246,000 acres of Federal land. HISTORY The Havasupai have for centuries made their home in the bottom of this extremely rugged section of the Grand Canyon. Their reservation lies 3,000 feet below the canyon rimand averages one-quarter mile in width. CULTURE The "People of the Blue-Green Water" were a sedentary tribe living along the Colorado River. They practiced agriculture with a planting stick similar to the pueblo method, irrigated their fields, and made baskets and pottery. They are probably related to the Great Basin culture rather than to the rancheria or pueblo, but they have adopted some farming methods and ceremonies from the Hopi. Havasupai social organization was simple, the family being the sole unit. Chiefs were hereditary and patrilineal. Havasupai religion was shamanistic, and there was an absence of organized religious rites. The people are closely related to the Hualapai. GOVERNMENT The Havasupai Council is composed of seven members, four selected and three hereditary chiefs. The chairman and vice- chairman appoint a secretary from within the council. The constitution and bylaws were adopted in 1939, and the tribe was incorporated under a corporate charter in 1946. The council 54 is assisted by a general manager, tourist enterprise manager, trading company manager, and stock-tender manager. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income averages $40,000 per year and is earned wholly through tourism. The tourism industry is promoted by the Havasupai Tourist Enterprise, a tribal association. The tribe also operates the Havasupai Trading Company. CLIMATE The bottom of the Grand Canyon is hot and arid. Temperatures range f rom 112' to - 200, but average a moderate 62'. Rai nfall averages 8 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION A dirt road connects the canyon rim with U.S. Highway 66, 60 miles away. The remainder of the trip down the canyon wall to Havasupai canbe made only by foot or by mule. Trains, buses, and trucks stop in Peach Springs, 70 miles from Havasupai. Air service is located,in Kingman, 120 miles from Havasupai. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The school on the reservation has classes through second grade only. For further education, students are sent to boarding school at Fort Apache. The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) maintains a clinic in Peach Springs; however, for more inten- sive medical care, the Havasupai must go to the USPHS Vital Statistics hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. A community building was recently completed. Population: RECREATION , Indians residing Tourism is the tribal industry. The area is very attractive and on or adjacent to provides excellent hunting and fishing. The number of tourists reservation: 370 visiting the canyon is limited only to the extent of facilities. Labor Force: The tribe provides both facilities and guides. Total: -170 Unemployed: 105 Unemployment rate: 62% 55 HOPI RESERVATION Coconino and Navajo Counties, ARIZONA Hopi Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Oraibi, Arizona 86039 Federal Reservation Population: 6,423 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 2,472,254.26 acres Tribally Owned: 2,472,254.26 acres An Executive order of 1882 granted the Hopi Tribe 2,600,000 acres in northeastern Arizona, entirely surrounded by the Navajo Reservation. The Hopi are presently living on only 650,000 acres, the remainder being occupied by the Navajo. Conflicting tribal claims to land have led to a series of owner- ship and boundary disputes. A 1963 court decision provided for an area of joint-use land and negotiation of disputes. However, it seems likely the case will be brought back to the courts. HISTORY The precise origin of the Hopi is unknown. Their own legends relate that their ancestors climbed upward through four underground chambers or kivas, living in many places before settling in their present location on the Black Mesa of the Colorado Plateau, where the Hopi have lived for nearly 1,000 years. Old Oraibi, built at least by 1150, is probably the oldest continuously occupied city in the United States today. The Spanish visited the Hopi area several times from 1540 until the Pueblo Revolt in 1680, During the revolt, the Hopi moved many of their villages to mesa tops for defense purposes, and sheltered refugees from other pueblos such as Isleta. The Hopi destroyed Spanish missions and killed many of the priests. The Spanish made no effort to reestablish control of the Hopi. In the early 20th century, several new towns were founded. Many Hopi are moving from mesa tops to the new towns at the foot of the mesas. CULTURE The Hopi, westernmost of the pueblos, speak a Uto-Aztecan language rather than the Tanoan or Keresan spoken by most other pueblos. The old towns are constructed in typical adobe architecture. Each village is autonomous, an individual being a lifetime resident of his village even if he marries someone from another village. Both property inheritance and residence 56 are matriarchal. Hopi as a whole is a closed community. The tribal members have a distinct pride in their nation or tribe which may be an important factor in maintaining the vibrancy and vitality of the culture. Considered by many to be out- standing intellectuals of Indian tribes, the Hopi are patient, peaceful, industrious people. They have developed a complex system of gods or kachinas which are impersonated in many of the dances. These intricate dances, representative of their belief, are usually closed to the public. Kachina dolls, carved and decorated to resemble the gods, are used to teach the children. Hopi also produce excellent silverwork and silver overlay, polychrome pottery, baskets, and other art forms. GOVERNMENT Each of the villages is organized independently, having either an elected governor or a hereditary village chief. The first tribal constitution was adopted in 1935; however, a tribal council was not elected until 1955. There is much resistance to change which might undermine tradition and religion. Some of the more conservative villages still do not accept the authority of the tribal council. The Hopi Tribe is a member of the Indian Development District of Arizona, through which it obtains planning and development funding assistance. TRIBAL ECONOMY The Hopi economy is extremely limited, being removed from economic centers and surrounded by the Navajo Reservation. Some Hopi own and operate small businesses. Many families farm at subsistence level to supplement their living. Govern- ment agencies and the tribal members employ some Indians on the reservation; however, because of the scarcity of jobs on the reservation, many Hopi men commute daily or weekly to nearby areas for skilled or semiskilled jobs. The tribe has established an industrial park near Winslow. A garment factory has located there and employs many Hopi women. The tribe is working to develop an economy on the reservation capable of employing all tribal members seeking work. Hopi usually prefer 57 HOPI RESERVATION to live on the reservation in spite of limited job opportunities there. The unemployed labor force thus has an unusually high skill level. The Black Mesa on which the reservation lies is a rich coal deposit. There is also oil under reservation land. CLIMATE The climate is generally mild with few seasonal extremes. Nights are much cooler than the days, as is typical of desert or semidesert areas. Rainfall averages 10 inches annually. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 264 crosses the reservation east-west. State Highway 77 runs south from 264. Holbrook, which is located 75 miles from the reservation, is served by commercial trains and buses. At Winslow, 108 miles from Hopi, is the nearest available commercial air service. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There is no gas piped to the reservation, the nearest pipeline being 20 miles southeast of the reservation. Electricity is provided by the Arizona Public Service Company. The U.S. Public Health Service operates a hospital on the reservation. Other hospitals are located in Holbrook, Winslow, Flagstaff, and Ganado. Vital Statistics There are five Bureau of Indian Affairs elementary schools on Population: the reservation. Non-Indians attend school in Keams Canyon. Indians residing All high school students are bussed from Kearns Canyon to on or adjacent to schools in Ganado or Tuba City. reservation: 6,423 RECREATION Labor Force: There is much of interest to visitors on the reservation. Old Total: 1,944 Oraibi at the top of Third Mesa is the oldest continuously Unemployed: 988 occupied town in the United States. There are also many other Unemployment villages on the reservation built in the traditional style from rate: 51% stones and adobe. Highway 264 winds along the base of the Education: three mesas, passing through and by many of the other villages. (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 2th 58 HUALAPAI RESERVATION Mohave, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties, ARIZONA Hualapai Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Peach Springs, Arizona 86434 Federal Reservation Population: 969 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 992,463 acres Tribally Owned: 991,680 acres Government Owned: 783 acres A January 1883 Executive order established a reservation of 500,000 acres. In June 1911, 60 acres in the Big Sandy area were added by Executive order. In May 1943, the Secretary of the Interior ordered odd sections, which were released by the Santa Fe Railroad, to be added to the reservation. The Santa Fe Railroad deeded 6,440.68 acres in Clay Springs to the reservation in 1947. HISTORY The Hualapai formerly lived in northeastern Arizona, occupying an area much larger than they do today. The mid-19th century was a period of unrest. Peace ended abruptly when the Indians felt treaty rights had been violated. A stable peace was finally achieved in 1870. The Hualapai fulfilled their promise to preserve the peace. The Hualapai objected to their removal by the Bureau of Indian Affairs which placed them in the hot, arid Colorado River Basin. Illness for many members resulted from living in the climate unlike that of their former cool mountain home. The principal chief, Schrum, was instru- mental in achieving the final settlements. CULTURE The Hualapai are of Yuman stock and closely related to the Havasupai. Ancient inhabitants of the Southwest, they lived mainly by hunting and gathering. They lived in mountainous areas and were described by whites as brave and enterprising. They are part of the Colorado River cultural group, less advanced in agriculture and architecture than the Pueblos. They also exhibit traits of the Great Basin area in their sim- plicity of social organization, ritual, and material culture. Religion is shamanistic. Clothing was made of bark or buck- skin. They harvested seeds, grasses, and pinon nuts and hunted game. 59 HUALAPAI RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The tribal council, with the chairman as its administrative head, is the final decisionmaking body on the reservation. The chair- man and vice chairman are both elected by the qualified voters of the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income of $83,000 is made up largely of business profits, with forestry, farming, mineral use, and gov- ernment income also contributing. Tribal associations include the Hualapai Tribal Herd and the Peach Springs Livestock Association. The tribe also operates the Hualapai Trading Company. CLIMATE The rainfall averages only 8 inches annually in this dry area neighboring the Grand Canyon. The temperature ranges from a high of 1000 to a low of 100, although the winter average low is 31 '. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 66 crosses the reservation east-west. Trains, buses, and trucks stop in Peach Springs. Reservation residents must drive 50 miles to Kingman, Arizona, for commercial air service. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The U.S. Public Health Service operates a clinic in Peach Vital Statistics Springs. For further medical care, residents must drive to Kingman or Williams. Population: RECREATION Indians residing There are a motel and restaurant in Peach Springs. Peach on or adjacent to Springs is also the access to the Havasupai Reservation and reservation: 969 the Grand Canyon. Hunting on the reservation is excellent Labor Force: and varied. Total: 408 Unemployed: 197 Unemployment rate: 48% 60 KAIBAB RESERVATION Mohave County, ARIZONA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Tribal Affairs Building, Fredonia, Arizona 86022 Federal Reservation Population: 150 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 120,413 acres Tribally Owned: 120,413 acres HISTORY When European explorers first traversed the canyonlands and plateaus of southern Utah and northern Arizona and the Great Basin of southeastern Nevada, they made occasional contacts with small groups of Indians who are spoken of as Southern Paiute. This tribe was found living in impermanent camps, hunting and gathering wild plants for food, and occasionally farming near permanent watercourses throughout the territory. There is linguistic and archeological evidence that this basic Indian group spread across the Great Basin into the northern portion of the Southwest some time shortly after 1000 A.D. In the extreme southern end of Nevada and southwestern Utah, archeologists have excavated the distinctive ceramic remains of the Southern Paiute in direct association with those of the Pueblo made around 1150 A.D. CULTURE The Southern Paiute speak a language closely related to the Cahuilla, Luiseho, Tarahumara, Nahuatl, Hopi, Chemehuevi, Comanche, and Ute. This is the Numic language, so named after the Paiute name for themselves, Nuwu. The Numic tongue is further grouped by linguists into a Uto-Aztecan stock. The Kaibab-Paiute are considered by anthropologists and linguists to be tribally distinct. The tribal religion is primarily ethical rather than ritual. GOVERNMENT The popularly elected tribal council consists of six persons with an appointed secretary-treasurer. This body is responsible for the policy decisions of the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income is slightly over $3,000. This income is derived almost entirely from leasing and grazing fees. Sand and gravel account for about 5 percent of the tribal income. 61 KAIBAB RESERVATION CLIMATE Rainfall averages 14 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 900 to a low of 200. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 389 passes east-west through the reservation; U.S. Highway 89, a major north-south route, lies just east of the reservation. Commercial bus- and trucklines serve Fredonia, 1 mile east of the reservation; however, air and train services are 80 miles away at Cedar City and St. George, Utah. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water and sewer facilities were installed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Gas is supplied by the Northern Ari- zona Gas Company in Fredonia and Petrolane Gas in Kanab, Utah. The Garkane Power Company of Utah provides electricity for the area. Tribal members contract for health care through the USPHS at Kanab, Utah. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 150 Labor Force: Total: 50 Unemployed: 21 Unemployment rate: 42% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th Number graduated from college in 1972: 1 62 NAVAJO RESERVATION Apache, Navajo, and Coconino Counties, ARIZONA San Juan and McKinley Counties, NEW MEXICO San Juan County, UTAH Navajo Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Window Rock, Arizona 86515 Federal Reservation Population: 131,379 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 13,989,222 acres Tribally Owned: 12,940,191 acres Allotted: 722,854 acres Government Owned: 326,177 acres HISTORY In the early 1600's the Navajo were an aggressive and powerful tribe. During this time, they acquired horses and sheep from the Spaniards as well as knowledge of working with metal and wool. The United States Government, after misunderstandings, raids, and retaliations, decided to round up all Navajo and send them to Fort Sumner, New Mexico, where they would be taught a sedentary agricultural life patterned after that of the Pueblo Indians. In 1868, recognizing that the Fort Sumner, experiment was a failure and acceding to Navajo appeals, the Government concluded a treaty and established the Navajo Reservation. The discovery of oil on the reservation in 1921 provided the stimulus for development. CULTURE The extended kin group, made up of two or more families, is an important unit of Navajo social organization. It is a co- operative unit of responsible leadership bound together by ties of marriage and close relationship. Women hold an important position in the tribe. Religion is still the core of Navajo culture, and the traditional sand paintings are used in healing cere- monies. Navajo are widely known for their silverwork and rug weaving. The tribe's industry, stamina, urge to succeed, and exceptional adaptability are central to the progress Navajo made within the century. 63 NAVAJO RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The Navajo Tribe is governed by a council consisting of 74 members representing the 96 chapters which make up the reservation. Representation is also included from the Alamo, Canoncito, and Ramah Reservations in New Mexico, as well as the Eastern Administrative Area. All programs and projects are processed through the advisory committee before submission to the council. The popularly elected tribal chairman is admin- istrative head of the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income aggregates approximately $16 million annually and is derived principally from oil, gas, and minerals; forestry; commercial and industrial enterprises; and investments. There are approximately 1,000 full-time employees of the tribal government and 400 part-time employees. There are substan- tial oil and natural gas reserves on the Navajo Reservation. In addition, a large coal-mining operation has been started, with others being planned. Other minerals are found in lesser quantity. Timber resources managed on a sustained yield basis provide 40 million board feet of lumber annually. CLIMATE Average annual precipitation is low and temperatures tend to be moderate. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 89 crosses the western part of the reservation running north-south, while U.S. Highway 164 runs from U.S. Highway 89 at a point near Tuba City to the northeast part of the reservation near Shiprock, New Mexico. U.S. Highway 666 runs north-south crossing the east end of the reservation, and State Highway 265 (Navajo Route 3) crosses the reservation east-west in the southern half of the reservation. Motor freight carriers serve all major reservation communities. The nearest commercial airline and train services are at Gallup, New Mexico; and Flagstaff, Winslow, Grand Canyon, and Page, Arizona. 64 COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority is the major supplier of electricity, natural gas, water, and sewer services on the reservation. In a few areas, Arizona Public Service supplies electricity; bottled gas is marketed by private companies. Hospitals and clinics on the reservation are operated by the U.S. Public Health Service and provide necessary medical services to the residents. RECREATION Parks pointing out the history of the area and camping sites in scenic places are provided by the tribe. These parks include the Grand Canyon Navajo Tribal Park, Bowl Canyon Creek Dam Recreational Area, Tsegi Canyon Tribal Park, Kinlichee Tribal Park, Window Rock-Tse Bonito Tribal Park, Little Colorado River Tribal Park, Lake Powell Tribal Park, and Monument Valley Tribal Park. In addition, the United States Government operates the following National Monuments within the reser- vation: Canyon de Chelly, Chaco Canyon, Rainbow Bridge, and Navajo. Other tribal tourism activities include the Navajo Tribal Museum, visitor centers, a research library, and a zoo at Window Rock, and Navajo tribal fairs held annually at Vital Statistics Window Rock and Tuba City, Arizona, and Shiprock, New Mexico. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 131,379 Labor Force: Total: 43,059 Unemployed: 18,569 Unemployment rate: 43% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 65 PAPAGO RESERVATION Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal Counties, ARIZONA Papago Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Sells, Arizona 85634 Federal Reservation Population: 8,044 (BIA 3/72) Gila Bend: 264 Papago (main): 7,073 San Xavier: 707 LAND STATUS Total Area: 2,855,874 acres Tribally Owned: 2,814,871 acres Allotted: 41,003 acres The Papago Reservation is composed of three segments: The main reservation, at Sells, is 2,774,370 acres. The Gila Bend Reservation, located northwest of Sells, is 10,409 acres. The San Xavier Reservation is located northeast of Sells near Tucson and has an area of 71,095 acres. HISTORY The Papago may be descendants of the Hohokam Indians who reached a high cultural level and flourished around 1,400 A.D. Another theory is that the Papago returned to their lands when the Hohokam disappeared. The Papago were an agricultural and seminomadic people who moved in search of water. Because their few sources of water were used by others, they became one of the poorest Indian nations in the Southwest. The Papago, together with the Pima and Maribopa, helped the United States force the Apache to peace in the 1860's. Because of their location in the extreme southwest desert, the Papago have been removed from the activity elsewhere in the country and are now making efforts to participate in the area's growth. CULTURE Papago means Bean People. The Papago are closely related to the Pima in Arizona in that they lived in houses which were usually flat-topped with a shade attached. Making their homes in the desert, and being an agricultural people, they irrigated their fields by flooding. They raised maize, cotton, grains, and stock. To supplement the food they raised, the women gathered foods from the desert. The Papago are tall, dark-complexioned people whose language is related to Pima. The women make fine baskets of yucca and other natural fibers. Tribal organiza- tion was based on autonomous, related villages which were governed by headmen and councils. There are also Papago living in Sonora, Mexico. 66 GOVERNMENT The Sells, San Xavier, and Gila Bend Papago Reservations recently joined together for a tribal form of government. The tribal council, which governs the three reservations, is com- posed of 22 members representing separate districts. A chairman and council are selected each year, the council selecting the chairman by majority vote. The tribal constitution of 1937 organized the tribe into a federal form of government. TRIBAL ECONOMY Minerals, including copper, gravel, building stone, and clay, are found on the reservation, and leases on these granted by the tribe provide the main source of tribal income. Commercial and industrial development on the reservation is minimal. There are five automobile service stations and two cafes on the reserva- tion. The copper mine and mill near Ajo employ the Papago. An industrial park has been completed on the San Xavier Res- ervation; it is located along State Highway 93, near Interstate Highway 19 on the outskirts of Tucson. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the desert, which typically enjoys hot days and cool nights. Rainfall varies from less than 7 inches in the lowlands to 20 inches in the mountains. The growing season is 300 days, with temperatures varying from an average high of 90' to an average low of 500. TRANSPORTATION Arizona Highway 86 runs through the reservation between Tucson and Ajo. Arizona Highway 93 joins Highway 86 north- west of Sells and runs north to Casa Grande. Interstate 19, a major route into Mexico, passes through the San Xavier Reser- vation. Interstate 8 connects the Gila Bend Reservation with Interstates 19 and 10, and Yuma, Arizona. Gravel surfaced roads connect towns on the reservation. Tucson serves as a major transportation center for the region south of Phoenix, and air-, bus-, train-, and trucklines provide ample service. A truckline also serves Sells. 67 PAPAGO RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for the reservation's residents is obtained only by digging deep wells, and from springs in the mountains. Natural gas is available only on San Xavier. Electricity is provided by the Trico Vital Statistics Electric Cooperative, with Rural Electrification Administration lines running along the highways. The U.S. Public Health Gila Bend Service (USPHS) operates a 50-bed hospital in Sells for the Population: Papago. There is a health center clinic in Santa Rosa. Papago Indians residing living on Gila Bend go to the LISPHS hospital in Phoenix, and on or adjacent to those on San Xavier go to the USPHS hospital in Tucson. reservation: 264 Labor Force: RECREATION Total: 105 The reservation is presently underdeveloped for recreation. Unemployed: 22 Hunting for small game only is allowed. The old Spanish San Unemployment Xavier del Bac Mission, located on the San Xavier Reservation, rate: 21% attracts many visitors. The Saguaro National Monument and the Papago (main) Kitt Peak . Observatory are located near the reservation. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 7,073 Labor Force: Total: 3,122 Unemployed: 798 Unemployment rate: 26% San Xavier Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 707 Labor Force: Total: 326 Unemployed: 70 Unemployment rate: 21% 68 PAYSON COMMUNITY OF YAVAPAI-APACHE INDIANS Gila County, ARIZONA Yavapai-Apache Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Payson, Arizona 85541 Federal Reservation Population: 100 (BIA est. 1/73) LAND STATUS Total Area: 85 acres Tribally Owned: 85 acres Under the provisions of Public Law 92-470, October 6, 1972, this Indian group was authorized to select not to exceed 85 acres from U.S. Forest Service lands as a site for their reservation, subject to approval by the Secretaries of the Interior and Agri- culture. The site so selected is declared by the act to be held by the United States in trust as an Indian reservation for the use and benefit of the Payson Community of Yavapai-Apache Indians. The act also provides for this group to be formally recognized as a tribe of Indians under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, as amended, thus qualifying them for Federal services and benefits as accorded other Federally recognized tribes and reservations. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 69 SALT RIVER RESERVATION Maricopa County, ARIZONA Pima and Maricopa Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Scottsdale, Arizona 85257 Federal Reservation Population: 2,470 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 49,294 acres Tribally Owned: 24,859 acres Allotted: 24,435 acres HISTORY The Pima, or River People, have lived in the same area for cen- turies, continuing the Hohokam tradition of irrigated farming. They have always been a peaceful and industrious people. In 1879 the Salt River Reservation was established by Executive order. CULTURE The earliest history of the Pima was recorded by the Spaniards Marcos de Niza in 1589 and Father Kino in 1694. These his- torical accounts indicate that the Pima were highly advanced in agriculture. Father Kino introduced livestock and wheat, as well as Christianity, to their culture. GOVERNMENT The official governing body of the tribe is the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community Tribal Council. The council con- sists of seven popularly elected members, a president, and a vice president, and is authorized by the constitution approved under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe's average annual income is $131,000. Privately owned commercial and industrial establishments located on the reservation are Defiance of'Arizona, Inc., and Van's Evergreen Golf Course. Sand and gravel are mined on the reservation. CLIMATE In this arid section of the country, the rainfall averages only 7 inches each year. The temperature ranges from a high of 110' to a low of 300. 70 TRANSPORTATION State Highway 87 crosses the reservation east-west. Buses and trucks stop on the reservation. Commercial air and train services are provided in Phoenix, which is 10 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for the reservation is provided both by wells and the city of Phoenix. Septic tanks are used for sewage disposal. Arizona Public Service provides gas to the reservation, and electricity is provided through the Salt River Project. The U.S. Public Health Service hospital in Phoenix provides hospital care to tribal members. RECREATION The Salt River Reservation is adjacent to the tourism center of Scottsdale, Arizona, which is part of the metropolitan Phoenix area. The tribe has constructed a gymnasium, swimming pool, and a community building which includes a tourist center and library. Upon completion of the Central Arizona Project, it is expected that the Orme Dam will be constructed on the Salt River Reservation and a major water-oriented tourism potential will result. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 2,470 Labor Force: Total: 635 Unemployed: 50 Unemployment rate: 8% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 71 SAN CARLOS RESERVATION Gila and Graham Counties, ARIZONA Apache Tribe Tribal Headquarters: San Carlos, Arizona 85550 Federal Reservation Population: 4,772 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,877,216 acres Tribally Owned: 1,853,841 acres Government Owned: 22,415 acres Allotted: 960 acres HISTORY A southern branch of the Athapascan linguistic family, the Apache drifted from the North during the 10th century. By the 17th century they were widely known and feared as warriors. The mid-19th century saw many years of warfare between the Apache and American soldiers and settlers. In 1873, the Apache were rounded up and sent to the San Carlos Reservation. The word "Apache" is a Zuni word meaning "enemy." The tradi- tional traits of aggressiveness and individualism have been carried over by the Apache and are being utilized today in establishing tribal enterprise and promoting the welfare of their people. CULTURE The Apache were nomadic raiders who never fully adopted the use of the horse except as meat. Each band's culture was affected by the area in which it lived. The Apache lived in thatched wickiups which were covered with hide in the winter for greater protection. Clothing was made out of skins. The tribe was skilled in basketry, sealing some baskets with pitch to be watertight. Religion was shamanistic, and the tribe devel- oped a rich mythology. Mountain spirits were believed to possess great power of both good and evil over people. The spirits are impersonated in the mountain spirit dances. GOVERNMENT The 12-member tribal council supervises all programs and activities on the reservation. Its authority is derived from the constitution of the tribe, approved under the Indian Reorgani- zation Act of 1934. 72 TRIBAL ECONOMY Asbestos is.the only mineral currently being mined on the reservation. The average annual tribal income is $459,000. Tribal associations and cooperatives include Agriculture and Livestock Enterprises, Point of Pines Livestock Association, and the Tribal Farm Enterprise. The commercial and industrial establishments on the reservation include Bylas Trading Enter- prise and the San Carlos Trading Enterprise, both tribally owned. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 16 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 950 to a low of 300. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 60 crosses the reservation north-south. U.S. Highway 70 crosses the reservation east-west. Commercial air service is available in Phoenix, 100 miles from San Carlos. Trains, buses, and trucks serve Globe, 10 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water and sewer systems are provided by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). The Arizona Public Service Company Vital Statistics. provides both gas and electricity. The USPHS operates a Population: hospital in San Carlos. Indians residing RECREATION on or adjacent to The San Carlos Reservation has much potential for recreation reservation: 4,772 and tourism development. The San Carlos Lake behind the Labor Force: Coolidge Dam is being developed into a major tourist center. Total: 1,073 Additional facilities are being planned. Boating, fishing, and Unemployed: 209 hunting on the reservation are excellent. Unemployment rate: 19% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 73 YAVAPAI, RESERVATION Yavapai County, ARIZONA Yavapai Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Prescott, Arizona 86301 Federal Reservation Population: 105 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,559 acres Tribally Owned: 1,399 acres Allotted: 160 acres By congressional act of. 1935, 75 acres of the north edge of Prescott were transferred from the Veterans Administration to the Interior Department to be an Indian reservation for the Yavapai living in the area. A later act of Congress in May of 1965 added additional acreage to the reservation. HISTORY The Yavapai inhabited a vast area in Arizona embracing some 20,000 square miles. This territory had formerly been occupied by an agricultural people, but the Yavapai were hunters and gatherers. The three primary groups of Yavapai maintained good relations with one another. They cooperated in war and hunted in one another's territory. There was some hostility toward tribes to the south, namely the Pima, Maricopa, and other Yuman tribes. The Yavapai conducted some trade with the Navajo and tribes of the Lower Colorado River. CULTURE Linguistically and culturally, the Yavapai have much in common with their neighbors, the Hualapai and Havasupai. The Yavapai groups were nomadic, moving from place to place as wild crops ripened. Mescal, saguaro fruit, sunflower seed, and deer were important staples. Some members sporadically cultivated maize and tobacco. The Yavapai lived in caves or huts which could be assembled quickly. Their religion was shamanistic. The Yavapai also engaged in pottery making and basketry. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by the Yavapai-Prescott Community Council which is the board of directors of the Yavapai-Prescott Community Association. The tribe does not have a constitution, but operates under Articles of Association bylaws approved in 1962. The governing board includes five persons elected to 2-year terms. 74 TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income averages $5,000 per year. The tribe is a member of the Indian Development District of Arizona, an organization whose purpose is to promote the economic and social development of the reservations in this State. CLIMATE The rainfall in this area averages 14 inches per year. The temperature ranges from an average summer high of 950 to a winter low of 100. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 69 runs east-west through the reservation, and U.S. Highway 89 runs north-south. Prescott is a major transpor- tation hub for this region northwest of Phoenix, and rail, bus, and truck transport lines are readily available 1 mile from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for residents is drawn from wells installed by the U.S. Public Health Service. Septic tanks provide for waste disposal. The Arizona Public Service supplies electricity to the area. Gas can be obtained from the Southern Union Gas Company. A private hospital is located in Prescott. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 105 Labor Force: Total: 55 Unemployed: 23 Unemployment rate: 42% 75 California VI Ali- -IC 40 te z, W t- @ [email protected]' [email protected]" Prehistoric rock carvings at Petroglyph Point near Lava Beds National Monument AGUA CALIENTE RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Palm Springs, California 92262 Federal Reservalion Population: 74 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 25,898.84 acres Tribally Owned: 1,137.84 acres Allotted: 24,761 acres The Agua Caliente Reservation is located in the center of the Palm Springs desert resort. The reservation was established on May 14, 1896, under the authority of the act of January 12, 1891. CULTURE The Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians was part of the California cultural group. Much of the native culture was destroyed whentribes lived in rancherias at Spanish Catholic missions. The Agua Caliente Band retains to the present day its language, songs, traditional foods and cooking, and the kinship pattern. GOVERNMENT The Agua Caliente Band's constitution and bylaws were approved in 1915 and amended in 1966. The tribe is governed by a five-member council which meets twice monthly. The chairman, vice chairman, and secretary and two members form the council. The treasurer is not a council member. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 3.6 inches per year. Temperatures reach highs of 1220 and lows of 260. TRANSPORTATION The principal portion of the reservation lies 3 miles from Palm Springs. This resort city is served by bus, train, truck, and airlines. The train station is in North Palm Springs, 11 miles from Agua Caliente Reservation. State Highway 111 runs through the reservation to connect with Interstate 10 and Los Angeles. 77 AGUA CALIENTE RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The reservation is connected to the city water and sewer system. Southern California Edison is the regional supplier for electricity and gas. Health care is available in Palm Springs 'from either private hospitals and doctors or from the U.S. Public Health Service. RECREATION The Spanish name for this area, Agua Caliente or Warm Water, describes the springs which have made Palm Springs a major resort area. The reservation itself has much potential for recreational development. There are ample facilities for recreation and amusement. The tribe has a community hall, and there are six theaters in the area. A fiesta and Easter events are annual festivities. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 74 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 12th 78 ALTURAS RANCHERIA Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Alturas, California 96101 Federal Reservation Population: 9 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 20 acres The rancheria was established by the act of June 21, 1906, which appropriated funds for purchase of lands for California Indians. The rancheria was purchased on September 8,1924. CULTURE The population is made up predominantly of old people. Housing is substandard, and land rights have been jeopardized by non-Indian ranchers. The older people speak the Pit River language and practice traditional arts and crafts, which are made for gifts and personal use. GOVERNMENT A general council meets on dates set by the business committee with proper notice. A businesscommittee is elected every 2 years. The tribe has a spokesman and delegate to the Inter-Tribal Council of California. CLIMATE Alturas lies in northeastern California where the land is quite flat and the climate is damp and rainy, averaging 12.8 inches of rainfall per year. Temperatures reach highs of 950 and lows of -29'. Vital Statistics TRANSPORTATION Population: Alturas, 1 mile from the Indian land, has bus and truck service. Indians residing Redding, 145 miles from the reservation, is served by on or adjacent commercial air- and trainlines. U.S. Highway 395 runs north- to reservation: 9 south. State Highway 299 runs southwest to Redding and Labor Force: junctions with Interstate 5. Total: 4 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Unemployed: 3 The Modoc Health Center in Alturas provides medical care Unemployment to the Indians. There is also a welfare clinic there. The reser- rate: 75% vation is served by the Alturas Water Department. Gas is pur- Education: chased from a local distributor. Pacific Power and Light (tribal estimates) supplies electricity. The tribe is a member of the Modoc Indian Average grade Health Project. The tribal building is used for arts,and crafts. level achieved: 7th The tribe meets weekly for Indian dancing. 79 I AUGUSTINE RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Augustine Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Thermal, California 92274 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 502 acres Tribally Owned: 502 acres The reservation was established in February 1893 under authority of the act of January 12, 1891. CLIMATE The reservation is situated on flat, desert land, where the r'ainfall averages just under 4 inches per year. Temperatures in this warm and arid climate reach highs of 120' and lows of 220. TRANSPORTATION The nearest city to the reservation is Indio, 15 miles from Augustine. State Highway 111 runs north-southwest through Thermal. Trucklines stop in Coachella, 5 miles from Augustine. Other transportation by air, bus, and train is available in Indio. There is a private airstrip in Thermal, 5 miles from the Indian land. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe maintains the water system. There is no sewer system. Southern California Edison supplies electricity. Medical care and hospital facilities are available at Indio, 15 miles from the reservation. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 80 BARONA RESERVAT16N San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Lakeside, California 92040 Federal Reservation Population: 104 (BIA 10/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 5,005 acres Tribally Owned: 5,005 acres The Capitan Grande Reservation was established by Executive order of December 27, 1875; an Executive order of May 3, 1877, restored portions to public domain. Executive order of June 19, 1883, set apart certain lands for the reservation, and a tract was purchased for the Barona group. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation is centrally located in San Diego County on land that is rocky and hilly and not conducive to farming or grazing. Land is used for homesites, cattle grazing, and dry farming. The reservation is excellent for tourist, recreational, and housing development. CLIMATE The climate is moderate, with a rainfall of about 6 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 1030 to a low of 200. TRANSPORTATION Commercial airline and train services are available at San Diego, 31 miles west of the reservation. Bus service can be obtained in El Cajon, 17 miles south, and trucklines are available in Ramona, 12 miles south of the reservation. State Highway 68 runs north-south, 8 miles west of the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is drawn from wells. Electricity is provided by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company. The sewer system consists Vital Statistics of indoor plumbing with septic tanks. The county hospital, ,county welfare clinics, and private dental facilities are available Population: in El Cajon. Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 104 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 2th 81 BERRY CREEK RANCHERIA Butte County, CALIFORNIA Maidu Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Berry Creek, California 95916 Federal Reservation Population: 2 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 33 acres Tribally Owned: 33 acres The tract of land was purchased in March 1916 by the Govern- ment from the Central Pacific Railway Company for the Dick Harry Band of Indians. Title to the land was vested in the United States, with Indians having only a right to occupancy and use of the lands unless otherwise authorized by Congress. CULTURE Individual members host grass games on various occasions throughout the year. Indian foods such as acorn soup and mush are still eaten. GOVERNMENT There is no organized tribal government. CLIMATE The reservation lies in northern California in a moderate climate. Rainfall measures 30 inches per year. Temperatures vary from highs of 900 to lows of 20". TRANSPORTATION Access to the reservation by four-wheel vehicles in the winter and rainy season is very difficult. A 21/2 -mile dirt road is the only access. Highway 70 runs 15 miles from the reservation. Oroville, 18 miles from the rancheria, has commercial air, train, truck, and bus services. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There is only spring water on the reservation. There are no Vital Statistics provisions for sewage other than outhouses. There also is no Population: electricity. Medical care is offered at the county hospital in Indians residing Oroville. Both houses on the reservation are in poor condition. on or adjacent to reservation: 2 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 82 BIG BEND RANCHERIA Shasta County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Big Bend, California 96011 Federal Reservation Population: 10 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 40 acres The reservation was established by the Secretary of the Interior on July 28,1916. CULTURE The older people in the tribe still speak their native language and eat some traditional foods such as acorn mush. GOVERNMENT The tribal government has three officers: a president, vice president, and secretary-treasurer, who were elected in 1965. CLIMATE The reservation lies in north-central California where the climate is moderate. Rainfall averages 13 inches annually, and temperatures reach highs of 95"' and lows of 290. TRANSPORTATION Highway 299 runs 10 miles from the reservation. Redding, 58 miles from the rancheria, is served by commercial air-, bus-, train-, and trucklines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Residents use well water. Septic tanks were installed by the United States Public Health Service. Pacific Gas and Electric serves the area with electricity. There are no gaslines to the rancheria. The houses are in poor condition, and the water is unsuitable for drinking. The county hospital in Redding provides medical care and hospitalization for the tribe. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 10 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 83 BIG LAGOON RANCHERIA Humboldt County, CALIFORNIA Yurok Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Orick, California 95555 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (131A 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 5.50 acres Lands were purchased by the Secretary of the Interior, July 10, 1918, under authority of the act of August 1, 1914, and related legislation appropriating funds for homeless California Indians. The rancheria is in the process of termination by authority of the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are no Indians now residing on or adjacent to the rancheria. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 84 BIG PINE RESERVATION Inyo County, CALIFORNIA Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Big Pine, California 93513 Federal Reservation Population: 50 (BIA 1/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 279 acres Tribally Owned: 279 acres The U.S. Government and the city of Los Angeles exchanged 3,000 acres of property for 1,500 acres of level valley land in 1939. The land and the houses constructed thereon are tribally owned, the board of trustees being responsible for assignments and maintenance. CULTURE The tribal members still practice traditional rituals such as the Cry Dance for the deceased and the Sweat House ceremonial. GOVERNMENT The Big Pine Reservation operates under the Trust Agreement of April 1, 1939, and the Assignment Ordinance of April 1962. The Owens Valley Board of Trustees, governing three reserva- tions, has a membership of seven: five from Bishop, one from Big Pine, and one from Lone Pine. CLIMATE The Big Pine Reservation lies at the easterly base of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range at elevations varying from 3,700 to 4,200 feet, and with rainfall averaging only 5 inches per year. Temperatures reach highs of 101 0 and lows of 00. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 395 runs through the reservation north-south. The city of Big Pine, which lies 1 mile outside the reservation, has bus and truck services. There is an airport at Bishop, 18 Vital Statistics miles from the reservation. The nearest train station is in Lone Population: Pine, 42 miles from Big Pine. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to The city of Los Angeles provides the reservation with water and reservation: 50 electricity. Individuals utilize septic tanks. Propane gas is pur- Education: chased from Bishop dealers. Thecounty maintains a sanitorium (tribal estimates) in Big Pine and a U.S. Public Health Service facility at Inde- Average grade pendence, 28 miles from Big Pine. Private medical care is avail- level achieved: 12th able in Bishop, 18 miles away. 85 BIG SANDY RANCHERIA Fresno County, CALIFORNIA Mono Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Auberry, California 93602 Federal Reservation Population: 38 (BIA 8/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 245.89 acres Deeds have been issued to individuals as the rancheria is in the process of termination under authority of the Ranch6ria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are 7.72 acres remaining in trust pending esta'blishment of guardianships for heirs of distributees. There are,38 Indians residing on or adjacent to the rancheria. GOVERNMENT The governing body is made up of all distributees who meet annually the first Wednesday in February. At the meeting, a president and secretary-treasurer are selected to serve 1 year. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 86 BISHOP RESERVATION Inyo County, CALIFORNIA Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Bishop, California 93514 Federal Reservation Population: 500 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 875 acres Only 90 acres are tribally owned. Most of the land is irrigated for agricultural production; the remainder is used for home- sites or grazing, or is idle. An Executive order of March 11, 1912, set apart lands for the Bishop Colony and Big Pine Colony Reservations. An act of April 20, 1937, authorized the Secretary of the Interiorto exchange Indian lands and water rights for land owned by the city of Los Angeles in Inyo and Mono Counties. This exchange was consummated in 1939. Three thousand acres of trust property were exchanged for 1,500 acres of level valley. The Owens Valley Board of Trustees is responsible for the assignment. Title to the land is held in trust, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs exercises authority. GOVERNMENT The Bishop Indian Reservation operates under the Trust Agree- ment of April 1939 and the Assignment Ordinance of April, 1962. The Owens Valley Board of Trustees is composed of seven trustees: five from Bishop, one from Lone Pine, and one from Big Pine. The reservation is governed by a chairman and a four-member committee. The secretary is hired by the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation lies in Owens Valley at the easterly base of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. The elevation varies from region to region, and generous amounts of irrigation are required to sustain agricultural production. The tribal income of $9,500 per year is earned largely through rentals and water rights. The remainder is interest from trust funds. There are a number of commercial establishments on the reservation, several of which are owned by Indian businessmen. CLIMATE The temperature ranges from highs of 101 0 to lows of - 50. Rainfall averages only 5.4 inches annually. 87 BISHOP RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 395 runs north-south, and U.S. Highway 6 runs east-west. Bishop, 6 miles from the reservation, is served by air-, bus-, and trucklines. The nearest train station is in Lone Pine, 60 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Residents use well water and individual septic tanks. The reservation is also connected to the city of Los Angeles water system; however, the water distribution system is in poor con- dition. The Southern California Edison provides electricity. Hospitaliz ation and medical care are available in Bishop through the U.S. Public Health Service. Community events are held in the Owens Valley Indian Education Center, the Four Square Mission, a community hall, and a V.F.W. hall. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 500 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 2th 88 CABAZON RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Indio, California 92201 Federal Reservation Population: 6 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,706 acres This reservation is located in an agricultural community and has good potential for agricultural development. An Executive order of May 15, 1876, established this reservation, and an Executive order of May 3, 1877, restored one section to public domain. In 1895, the area was increased under authority of the act of 1891. GOVERNMENT All adult members meet four times a year. Elections are held every 4 years to elect a business committee. CLIMATE The climate is warm and arid, and the land is flat and dry. The average rainfall is about 3.4 inches per year. Temperatures range from highs of 112' to lows of 21 TRANSPORTATION All commercial transportation facilities can be obtained at Indio, 7 miles from the reservation. U.S. Highway 60 is 3 miles south of the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided for the reservation by the tribe. Bottled butane gas is purchased. Electricity is provided by Southern California Edison. The reservation is without a sewer system. Hospital, clinics, and dental facilities at Indio serve the reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 6 Labor Force: Total: 2 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 12th 89 CAMILLA RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Hemet, California 92343 Federal Reservation Population: 23 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 18,272 acres An Executive order of December 27, 1875, established the reservation. The area was decreased by a subsequent Execu- tive order in 1877, and lands were added in other such orders. The land has no allotments or assignments. The Indians, them- selves, claim assignments ranging from 40 to 640 acres with- out the interference of other members. CULTURE Religious trends play an important role in the lives of the resi- dents. Kinship ties remain strong, and the native language is sometimes spoken. GOVERNMENT The tribe has a constitution and bylaws which were approved in 1960 and amended the following year. The Cahuilla Band Council is composed of five members: a spokesman, secretary- treasurer, and three committee members. CLIMATE The reservation lies in the south-central part of California in Riverside County, where the land is flat and low and the climate is.warm and sunny. Rainfall averages 4.5 inches annually, and Vital Statistics temperatures reach highs of 112' and lows of 23'. TRANSPORTATION Population: State Highway 74 runs east-west through the reservation. Indians residing Hemet is 38 miles from the reservation along Highway 74. on or adjacent to Commercial air, train, bus, and truck companies serve Hemet. reservation: 23 Labor Force: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Total: 13 The tribe maintains the water system. Bottled gas is available, Unemployed: 8 and electricity is supplied by Southern California Edison. Unemployment Medical care is available at the county hospital in Hemet. rate: 62% RECREATION Education: The tribe holds a regular fiesta. (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 90 CAMPO RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Campo Community Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Campo, California 92006 Federal Reservation Population: 30 (131A 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 15,010 acres The reservation was established on February 10, 1893, under authority of the act of 1891. The reservation was enlarged by 80 acres on February 2, 1907, and by 13,610 acres on December 14, 1911. The reservation is located in southern San Diego County in the far eastern portion of the county. All of the land is under trust status. CULTURE The culture of these people, such as Indian burials, songs, language, games, foods, arts and crafts, and medicine, forms the backbone of their society. TRIBAL ECONOMY Much of the tribal land is good for grazing. Tourism and recrea- tion development potential is good, but the people have not united for action. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the eastern part of San Diego County and enjoys hot summers and mild winters. The average rainfall is about 6 inches per year; temperatures range from 281 to 95'. Vital Statistics TRANSPORTATION The nearest air, train, and bus facilities are located 54 miles Population: from the reservation in San Diego. Trucklines are available Indians residing in El Cajon, 37 miles away. State Highway 94 runs east-west on or adjacent to through the reservation. reservation: 30 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Labor Force: A well provides the people with water. The reservation does not Total: 15 have gas, electricity, or a sewer system. Hospital, clinic, Unemployed: 8 dental, and U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available Unemployment in El Cajon, 37 miles away. Housing conditions are very poor. rate: 53% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 91 CAPITAN GRANDE RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Alpine, California 92001 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 15,753 acres An Executive order of December 27, 1875, established the res- ervation, and an Executive order of May 3, 1877, restored por- tions to public domain. An Executive order of June 19,1883, separated certain lands from the reservation. On March 10, 1894, a patent was issued to the Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians for lands selected by the Indian Mission Commission. All the land is tribally owned. There are three groups: Viejas, Barona, and nonreservation. They are considered shareholders on the Capitan Grande Reservation. The people on Viejas and Barona have reservation land of their own, but they also have a share of the 15,753 acres. No one lives on the Capitan Grande Reservation, but the three groups share thirds. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern California in a mountain- ous area which is generally mild and warm. Rainfall averages 15 inches per year. High temperatures reach 100'; lows, 29'. TRANSPORTATION Alpine, 15 miles from the reservation, is the nearest city. Bus- and trucklines stop here. The nearest train and airline services are 38 miles away in San Diego. Three miles of dirt road lead from the State highway to tribal land. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 92 CEDARVILLE RANCHERIA Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Cedarville, California 96104 Federal Reservation Population: 8 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 17 acres All land is tribally owned. The land was purchased for the Cali- fornia Indians in 1914 under authority of the June 1906 act. CULTURE Most of the residents are old people who still speak the lan- guage and practice some of the arts and crafts. Indian religion is dominant. GOVERNMENT There is no tribal government. All residents are on welfare. CLIMATE The reservation is located in northeastern California on flat land where the rainfall averages 12 inches annually and tempera- tures reach highs of 850 and lows of 300. TRANSPORTATION Highway 299 runs 25 miles from the reservation and junctions with U.S. Highway 99 at Redding, 164 miles from the reserva- tion. The nearest commercial air and train facilities are located in Redding. Trucks stop in Cedarville, 2 miles from the reser- vation. Alturas, 29 miles away, is the nearest bus stop. There is an unpaved airstrip next to the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The U.S. Public Health Service dug wells and installed septic tanks.'Bottled gas may be purchased. Electricity is supplied by the Pacific Power Company. The Modoc Medical Center is located in Cedarville. There is additional health care available Vital Statistics in Alturas. There are seven homes on the reservation. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 8 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 93 CHEMEHUEVI RESERVATION San Bernardino County, CALIFORNIA Chernehuevi Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Havasu Lake, California 92363 Federal Reservation Population: 32 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 28,233 acres Tribally Owned: 28, 233 acres I The tribe is currently pursuing the return of the reservation's shoreline along the Colorado River, which, prior to the reorga- nization of the Chemehuevi Tribe, was placed under the man- agement-of the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. HISTORY Until the white man came, the Chemehuevi roamed from the Tehachapi Mountains in California through southern Nevada and a small part of Arizona. On March 3,1853, the Chemehuevi lost their California territories when the land was declared public domain. They refused to locate on the newly established Colorado River Indian Reservation because they considered the lower Colorado River region alien territory and the culture and languages of the tribes there too different. Thus, on February 2, 1907, 36,000 acres were set aside for a Chemehuevi Reserva- tion. The land was arid and could not support the tribe, so many continued their nomadic life. In 1912, 7,776 acres of the reser- vation were inundated by the formation of Havasu Lake, and the remaining Chemehuevi were forced to disperse to the Colorado River Indian Reservation and elsewhere. On August 11, 1951, the Chemehuevi Tribe, under authority of the Indian Claims Commission, brought suit against the U.S. Government to re- cover damages for the land taken in California, Nevada, and Arizona. The Commission determined that 3,600,000 acres of Chemehuevi-control led land had been taken, and a judgment award was placed in trust for the tribe. In the late 1960's the tribe was reorganized under the Indian Reorganization Act as a Federally recognized tribe. On June 5, 1970, the Secretary of the Interior formally approved the Chemehuevi Indian Tribe's constitution. 94 CULTURE The Chemehuevi were a nomadic people, primarily a hunting, seed-gathering culture, although they have also planted wheat beside the Colorado River. They are Uto-Aztecan, part of the Shoshonean linguistic family. There were three sections of the Chemehuevi Nation-the Northern People, the Southern People, and the Desert People. Many bands, each with its moral teachers, are concerned with the ethics and morals of the tribe. Chemehuevi basketwork is among the finest in the world. GOVERNMENT The Chemehuevi Tribe adopted its constitution in 1970 under the Indian Reorganization Act. The nine-member tribal council, the governing body of the tribe, meets monthly, with additional meetings called as necessary to transact tribal business. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income is minimal from several small leases. The tribe, being newly organized, will not be included for assistance in the Bureau of Indian Affairs' budget until 1974. Through a De- partment of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) planning grant, the tribe is pursuing the development of a campground, mobile home park, bait farm, and other small tribal enterprises. CLIMATE The climate is mild and dry, warm and sunny. Temperatures range from highs exceeding 1000 to lows in the 30's. Average rainfall measures between 5 and 10 inches annually. TRANSPORTATION Access to the reservation is by paved county road off California State Highway 95. Train, bus, air, and truck services are avail- able in Needles, California, some 20 miles away. Bus, commer- cial air, and truck services are also available in Lake Havasu City, Arizona, directly across the Colorado River from the reservation. 95 CHEMEHUEVI RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe is in the planning stage of what is hoped to be a model reservation. The tribal housing authority has arranged to begin housing construction through HUD. Lake Havasu City offers employment opportunities and community facilities. The Vital Statistics* tribe is pursuing the purchase of a ferry to take advantage of these facilities. The tribe has membership in the All-Mission Population: Indian Housing Authority, the California Rural Indian Health Indians residing Board, and the Inter-Tribal Council of California to help facili- on or adjacent to tate the development of reservation community facilities. Elec- reservation: 32 Labor Force: tricity is supplied by Southern California Edison and telephone Total: 18 service by Continental Telephone. The tribe is currently devel- Unemployed: 2 oping a tribal water company to replace existing wells. Unemployment RECREATION rate: 11% The Colorado River area offers to sportsmen and tourists year- round activities which the tribe intends to capitalize on while *As members of a newly maintaining a respect for and closeness to nature. The reorganized tribe, few tremendous growth of Lake Havasu City, new home of "London Chemehuevi reside on the Bridge," is evidence of the area's appeal and economic reservation as yet. Twelve potential. families currently reside on the reservation. Through Housing and Urban Devel- opment Department (HUD) assistance for home con- struction, 24 families will be returning over the next year, 48 families over the next. 2 years. The total tribal enroll- ment is currently 360 mem- bers; average member age is 21 years; total member- ship unemployment is 20 to 30 percent; and there have been six tribal members graduated from college. 96 COLD SPRINGS RANCHERIA Fresno County, CALIFORNIA Mono Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Tollhouse, California 93667 Federal Reservation Population: 27 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 98 acres Tribally Owned: 53 acres Allotted: 45 acres CULTURE The Mono were good hunters and trappers. After obtaining horses from the Spanish, they became excellent horse breeders. They crafted baskets, made ropes out of milkweed and baby cradles from roots, and wove beads. They ate acorn soup after processing the acorns to remove the toxic juices. GOVERNMENT The Articles of Association were approved in October 1961. The president and secretary-treasurer are elected at the annual meeting in February. CLIMATE The reservation is in a mountainous area of central California where the climate is mild and sunny. Rainfall averages 13 inches per year. Temperatures reach highs of 100' and lows of 25'. TRANSPORTATION Fresno, 42 miles from the rancheria, is the nearest city. Fresno is served by commercial bus-, train-, truck-, and airlines. There is also a private airstrip at Fresno. State Highway 168 is a poorly paved, steep and curvy road leading into the rancheria. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The rancheria water and sewer systems were installed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Van Gas Butane Company suppiies Vital Statistics the area with gas. Electricity is available from Southern Cali- fornia Edison. The Fresno County Hospital in Fresno provides Population: health care to tribal members. The nine houses on the rancheria Indians residing are in poor condition. on or adjacent to reservation: 27 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 97 COLUSA RANCHERIA Colusa County, CALIFORNIA Cachil Dehe Band of Wintun Indians Tribal Headquarters: Colusa, California 95932 Federal Reservation Population: 12 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 269 acres Land purchased by the,Secretary of the Interior on June 21, 1907, established the Colusa Rancheria, and additional lands were acquired under the authority of the Howard-Wheeler Act in 1938. The Sacramento River runs through the rancheria, often flooding the land and causing a great deal of inconvenience. Much of the land is leased to non-Indians. CLIMATE The Colusa Rancheria is located in central California where the topography is mountainous and the climate is generally mild. Summers are hot and dry. The temperatures vary from a high of 1000 to a low of 320. The average rainfall is about 15.7 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION Sacramento, 60 miles away, has the nearest commercial air- lines. Train service is available at Williams, 10 miles away. Commercial and local bus services are available in Colusa, 4 miles from the rancheria. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Wells provide the rancheria with water. Gas and electricity are Vital Statistics provided by the Pacific Gas and Electric Go. The sewer system consists of outdoor facilities. Hospital, clinics, and dental facil- Population: ities are available in Colusa. Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 12 Labor Force: Total: 6 Unemployed: 4 Unemployment rate: 67% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 98 CORTINA RANCHERIA Colusa County, CALIFORNIA Me-Wuk Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Williams, California Federal Reservation Population: 1 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 640 acres The lands were purchased by the Secretary of the Interior on June 25, 1907, adding 480 acres of purchased land to with- drawn Government land. All the land is tribally owned and in the process of being terminated. Only one person is living on the land. The remaining 48 members are living off the reservation. CULTURE The off-reservation residents bury their dead on the rancheria, carrying the casket over hills and valleys to the graveyard. CLIMATE The reservation lies in north-central California where the land is alternately mountainous and flat and the climate is usually mild and sunny. The rainfall averages 14 inches annually. The high temperature reaches 100'; the low, 20'. TRANSPORTATION The reservation can be reached only by 11 miles of paved road and 4 miles of trail. No roads are maintained, so people are discouraged from going to the rancheria because of the diffi- culty of getting there. Williams, which lies 20 miles from the rancheria, is served by train-, bus-, and trucklines. Although there is an airstrip at Williams., the nearest commercial air service is in Yuba City, 50 miles away. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There are no public or private utilities serving the rancheria. The nearest health care is 38 miles away in Colusa. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 99 CUYAPAIPE RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Mount Laguna, California 92048 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 4,100 acres This reservation was established on February 10, 1893, under authority of the act of 1891. Much of the area surrounding the reservation is under U.S. Park Service jurisdiction. There are no Indians residing on or adjacent to the reservation. CLIMATE The climate is generally mild and cool, with temperatures rang- ing from a high of 890 to a low of 100. The average rainfall is about 18 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION Airline and train facilities are available in San Diego, 75 miles away. Bus service is available in Alpine, 13 miles away. El - Cajon, 50 miles from the reservation, has trucking and private airport facilities. A county road serves the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES A spring provides water for the reservation. There is no gas, electricity, or sewer system available on the reservation. Hos- pital and dental facilities are available in Alpine, 13 miles away. Clinics are provided by the county of San Diego, 75 miles from the reservation. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 100 DRY CREEK RANCHERIA Sonoma County, CALIFORNIA Porno Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Geyserville, California 95441 Federal Reservation Population: 14 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 75 acres This land was purchased under acts of June 21, 1906, and April 30, 1908. The rancheria was established by the Secretary of the Interior, June 1, 1915. There are 14 Indians residing on or adjacent to the rancheria. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 101 ENTERPRISE RANCHERIA Butte County, CALIFORNIA Maidu Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Oroville, California 95965 Federal Reservation Population: 4 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 33 acres A portion of the previous rancheria is now under the water of Oroville Lake. The land was purchased under the acts of 1906 and 1908 in 1915 by the Secretary of the Interior. CULTURE The Indian language is spoken regularly. Songs and hand games are played frequently. Traditional foods are eaten, and most traditional ways are followed. A hand-game festival is the only organized tribal recreation. GOVERNMENT There is no organized government. CLIMATE The rancheria lies in northern California in forested and moun- tainous terrain. The winters are cold but moderate. Rainfall averages 30 inches per year. The temperature reaches a sum- mer high of 900 and a winter low of 20'. The land is used for homesites only. TRANSPORTATION Highway 70 is 20 miles from the rancheria and is reached by a county or dirt road. Oroville, 20 miles away, is served by com- mercial train, bus, and truck companies. There is a private air- strip in Oroville; however, the nearest regularly scheduled air service is in Sacramento, 87 miles from Enterprise. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is piped in from a spring. Septic tanks are used for Vital Statistics sanitary facilities. There is no gas supplied to the reservation. Population: Electricity is provided by the Pacific Gas and Electric Com- Indians residing pany. Hospital and medical care is available through the on or adjacent to county at Oroville. reservation: 4 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th FORT BIDWELL RESERVATION Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Fort Bidwell, California 96112 Federal Reservation Population: 34 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,335 acres All land is tribally owned. Thirty-five acres have been assigned to residential use. A joint resolution of January 30, 1897, author- ized the Secretary of the Interior to use former lands of the Fort Bidwell Military Reserve for an Indian training school. The reservation was enlarged in 1913 and in 1917. CULTURE The population varies with seasonal employment. The Indian language is spoken by the elderly. Indian religion is still prac- ticed. Arts and crafts are produced in the individual homes. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed under an Indian Reorganization Act con- stitution and bylaws approved in 1936 and amended in 1940 and 1942. The members of the governing body are elected each November to staggered 2-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation, located in northeastern California, is rocky, hilly land covered with sage. The elevation varies from 4,550 to 7,000 feet. The tribe has an income of $3,400 per year, half from forestry and the other half from leases and far'ming. The tribal members have formed the Fort Bidwell Indian Cattle- man's Association, which is the only commercial enterprise on the reservation. CLIMATE The winter snowfall is heavy, and summers are warm. Rainfall averages 14 inches per year. Temperatures vary from a high of 80" to a low of 200. TRANSPORTATION County road 18 runs south to Alturas, 59 miles, to junction with Route 299. Alturas is served by buslines. The nearest truckline stop is in Cedarville, 40 miles from Fort Bidwell. Redding, 194 miles from the reservation, has the nearest available air and train services. There is also a private airstrip in Cedarville. 103 FORT BIDWELL RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water is drawn from wells which are maintained by the U.S. Public Health Service as are the septic tanks. Gas is pur- chased from Alturas Bottle, electricity from Pacific Power and Electric. The Modoc Indian Health Project is located in Alturas. Hospitalization and other medical care are also available in Alturas. The 23 houses on the reservation are in poor condition. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 34 Labor Force: Total: Unemployed: 7 Unemployment rate: 64% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 104 FORT INDEPENDENCE RESERVATION Inyo County, CALIFORNIA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Independence, California 93526 Federal Reservation Population: 62 (BIA 8/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 356 acres Tribally Owned: 234 acres Allotted: 122 acres Currently a problem are the allotments fractionated by heirship. Most of the land is used for homesites; the remainder is leased. Camp Independence was established during the Indian Wars on July 4,1862, and later abandoned. The Fort Independence Res- ervation was established by Executive orders in 1915 and 1916. Sixty-two Indians reside on or adjacent to the reservation. CULTURE The only remaining aspect of Indian culture is the Paiute lan- guage, which is still spoken. GOVERNMENT The Articles of Association were approved in May 1965. The tribe operates under a constitution and bylaws. Officers include the chairman and a secretary-treasurer. TRIBAL ECONOMY The Sherwood Forest Animal Farm is leased from the tribe, providing the tribal income of $1,200 per year. CLIMATE Because of its location in Owens Valley at the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada Range, the climate of the reservation is arid, and irrigation is necessary to sustain agriculture. Rainfall meas- ures only 5 inches per year. The temperatures range from 1000 to 50. TRANSPORTATION Independence, the nearest city, lies 3 miles from the reserva- tion. Highway 395 runs north-south through Independence, bisecting the reservation. Bus service is available in Indepen- dence. The nearest trainstop is 18 miles away in Lone Pine. Bishop, 43 miles from the reservation, has the nearest com- mercial air service. 105 FORT INDEPENDENCE RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The reservation has a central water system and septic tanks. Gas is supplied by both the Lone Pine Gas Company and Sub- urban Gas. The Los Angeles Department of Water and Sewer provides electricity to the reservation. There are 10 homes and seven mobile homes on the reservation; nine are in poor condi- tion. U.S. Public Health Service clinics are held in Indepen- dence. The nearest hospital is the South Inyo Hospital in Lone Pine. RECREATION The community holds a yearly parade. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 106 FORT MOJAVE RESERVATION Clark County, NEVADA San Bernardino County, CALIFORNIA Mohave County, ARIZONA Mojave Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Needles, California 92363 Federal Reservation Population: 359 (131A 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 38,384 acres HISTORY In the early 16th century, the Mojave Indians were not part of the, mission way of life instituted by the Spaniards. The mem- bers were known as "wild" Indians. Originally they welcomed the padres and soldiers, but forced Indian labor and Spanish raids soon changed their attitudes. The 1848 Treaty of Guada- lupe Hidalgo, which ended the war with Mexico, ceded Califor- nia and other territories to the United States. Under that treaty, the U.S. Government agreed to preserve recognition of the Indian people's right to the land they inhabited. CULTURE The Mojave have since prehistoric times engaged in small- scale farming, gathering wild foods, hunting, and fishing. CLIMATE The temperatures range from a low of 350 to a high of 1100, with an average rainfall of 8 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION The nearest commercial airline facilities are available in King- man, 25 miles away. Needles has train, bus and trucking facil- ities. U.S. Highway 95 and Interstate 40 serve the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The U.S. Public Health Service provides a water and sewer system. Gas and electricity are provided by the California Vital Statistics Pacific Utility Company. Medical care is available in Needles at a private hospital. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 359 Labor Force: Total: 133 Unemployed: 74 Unemployment rate: .56% 107 FORT YUMA RESERVATION Imperial County, CALIFORNIA Mohave County, ARIZONA Quechan Tribe Tribal Headquarters. Fort Yuma, California 92283 Federal Reservation Population: 1,290 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 9,271.88 acres Tribally Owned: 617.17 acres Allotted: 8,629 acres Government Owned: 25.71 acres The reservation lies along both sides of the Colorado River. The land in Arizona, 480 acres, is entirely allotted. HISTORY The Yuman tribes had lived along the Colorado River for centuries before the arrival of the Spanish. The Fort Yuma Reservation was established in 1884 and included acreage in Arizona and California. Since that time the tribe has lost most of the lands in Arizona and retains only a portion of its California lands. CULTURE The Quechan, a subgroup of the Yuman Indians, lived in small farming communities along the Colorado River bottomlands. Principal crops included corn, beans, pumpkins, tobacco, and gourds. Both men and women tended fields. Their crops were supplemented through hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. Strong tribal unity with little formal government was characteristic of the Yuman tribes. Because of the hot climate, summer houses were principally roofs with open sides. Winter homes were more substantial earth-covered, rectangular buildings. These tribes were widely known as fierce, excellent warriors; they divided into two groups, archers and club men. Fighting well and bravely brought prestige. Dreams were con- sidered important in the foretelling of events and the indicating of abilities. GOVERNMENT In 1964, the tribe elected a paid president to devote full time to the socioeconomic development of the reservation. The Quechan Tribe is organized according to the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. The Quechan Tribal Council, as estab- lished by the tribe's constitution, administers all tribal affairs. 108 TRIBAL ECONOMY Almost half of the tribal income, $11,300 annually, is earned in farming, the remainder coming from business and other sources. CLIMATE The climate is mild and dry, but extremely hot in summer. The land is rich when irrigated. Rainfall averages 3 inches per year. The high temperature is 1150; the low is 330. TRANSPORTATION The Fort Yuma Reservation has excellent highway connections. U.S. Highway 8G and Interstate 8 are major east-west roads, and U.S. Highway 95 is a north-south artery. Yuma is served by train-, bus-, and trucklines as well as several major and regional airlines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Fort Yuma Reservation obtains water from the community water system and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Gas is supplied by the Arizona Public Service Company. Electricity is provided by the Imperial Irrigation District. There are three hospitals in Yuma: the Parkview Baptist Hospital, the USPHS Fort Yuma Indian Hospital, and the Yuma County Hospital. Vital Statistics RECREATION Population: Located on the reservation is Fort Yuma, a military establish- Indians residing ment dating to 1875. It has been renovated, and a museum and on or adjacent to tourist facilities are available. There are hunting and fishing on reservation: 1,290 some parts of the reservation and water recreation on the Labor Force: Colorado River. Hotel and motel accommodations as well as Total: 444 theaters and restaurants are available in Yuma. Unemployed: 137 Unemployment rate: 31% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 6th 109 GRINDSTONE CREEK RANCHERIA Glenn County, CALIFORNIA Wintun Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Elk Creek, California 95939 Federal Reservation Population: 13 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 80 acres The rancheria was purchased under acts of 1906 and 1908 by the Secretary of the Interior on January 7, 1909. The ran- cheria is located 7 miles from Elk Creek City. CULTURE The culture still extant on the rencheria includes Indian burials, songs, language, games, foods, arts and crafts, and medicine. GOVERNMENT The general council is the governing body of the rancheria, consisting of a chairman, vice chairman, and a secretary- treasurer. Tribal officials are elected to serve I year. CLIMATE The weather is generally mild and sunny with warm summers. The average rainfall is 16 inches per year. Temperatures are as high as 105" and as low as 240. TRANSPORTATION Red Bluff, 50 miles away, has commercial air service. Willows, 29 miles away, has a private airport. The nearest train-, bus-, and trucklines are at Willows. The nearest major highway is Interstate 5, 28 miles away. A dirt and gravel road leads into the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Health facilities are available at Willows, 29 miles away. The water system is inadequate-one small pump to furnish the Vital Statistics needs of all. Electricity is provided by Pacific Gas and Electric. Population: The sewer system consists of septic tanks and outhouses. Indians residing Housing conditions are poor. on or adjacent to reservation: 13 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 110 HOOPA EXTENSION RESERVATION Humboldt County, CALIFORNIA Yurok Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hoopa, California 95546 Federal Reservation Population: 150 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 7,015.69 acres The reservation was established by an Executive order of October 16, 1891, adding the Klamath strip, a tract 1 mile in width on each side of the Klamath River, from the Hoopa Valley Reservation to the Pacific Ocean. The tribal land is checker- boarded with a considerable amount of non-Indian land. The Hoopa Extension has a claim filed in the U.S. Court of Claims to be included as a part of the Greater Hoopa Valley Reservation. CULTURE The Yurok still practice traditional hunting and fishing, and many of the people speak their native language. CLIMATE There is very little seasonal change in this geographical loca- tion, which has mild winters and summers. The average rainfall is 45 inches per year. Temperatures range from a low of 30' to a high of 95". TRANSPORTATION The city of Eureka, 75 miles from the reservation, has the near- est commercial air and land transportation. Hoopa has the nearest private airport. Two State secondary roads, numbers 18 and 96, serve the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by the U.S. Public Health Service. Gas and electricity are provided by the Pacific Gas and Electric. Indi- viduals provide their own sewer system. Hospitals and clinics Vital Statistics are available in Hoopa, about 15 miles away. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 150 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 6th HOOPA VALLEY RESERVATION Humboldt County, CALIFORNIA Hoopa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hoopa, California 95546 Federal Reservation Population: 1,074 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 86,974 acres Tribally Owned: 84,703 acres Allotted: 1,353 acres Non-Indian: 918 acres Much of the reservation land is owned in a complicated heir- ship pattern. Several non-Indians have inherited undivided interests in the property. Due to the land status, the members of the tribe are unable to establish homesites. HISTORY The Hoopa Valley Reservation was established along the Trinity River in Humboldt County in June 1876. The Hoopa (or Hoopa-Wailaki), the principal Indians on the reservation, are of the Athapascan language stock. Other Indians located on the reservation included members of the following tribes: Chilula, Tlelding, Whilkut, Karok or Orleans, Miami, Yurok or Weitspec or Klamath River, Redwood or Whilkut or Huchnom, Saiaz or Saia, Hunsatung, Miskut, Sermalton, and Tishtanatan. CULTURE The Hoopa Indians have maintained their culture to the extent of performing their cultural dances such as the White Deerskin Dance and the Jump Dance which are held every 2 years. The Brush Dance is held annually. The Hoopa still practice and encourage basket weaving and beadwork. Tribal members hunt and fish and prepare native foods such as acorns. GOVERNMENT The constitution and bylaws were adopted by the tribe on May 5,1950, and approved by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on September 4,1954. The seven-member Hoopa council is elected from tribal membership by referendum vote of the mem- bers over 21 years of age. The council members select their chairman. The council votes on all resolutions presented to it; however, any resolution passed by it must have final approval by-the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Five members constitute a quorum. 112 TRIBAL ECONOMY Ninety percent of the land is heavily forested, and the remainder is used for homesites, gardens, and grazing. The tribal in- come of $1,525,000 per year is earned largely through forestry. A small amount, 2 percent, comes from farming, and the remain- ing 20 percent is income from leases and minerals. The three lumber mills on the reservation are owned by non-Indians. Of the nine retail businesses, one, an arts and crafts shop, is owned by an Indian. CLIMATE The reservation is located in northwestern California where summers are hot and winters are mild. Rainfall measures 45 inches per year. Temperatures reach a high of 1080 and a low of 200. TRANSPORTATION The reservation lies 60 miles from Eureka where ample public transportation facilities by air, train, bus, and truck are avail- able. There is a tribal airport on the reservation. Twelve miles to the southeast at Willow Creek, State Highway 96 connects with State Route 299. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Vital Statistics The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) installed the water sys- Population: tem. Residents have individual sewer systems. Gas is available Indians residing from a private distributor. Electricity is supplied by Pacific Gas on or adjacent to and Electric. The well and water filter systems are inadequate. Private hospitals and medical care are located in Hoopa. The reservation: 1,074 tribe has four community buildings. Labor Force: Total: 194 RECREATION Unemployed: 107 The tribe holds spring and fall dances and various celebrations Unemployment throughout the year. rate: 55% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 6th 113 HOPLAND RANCHERIA Mendocino County, CALIFORNIA Pomo Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hopland, California 95449 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 2,070 acres The rancheria was established by the Secretary of the Interior on June 18, 1907. It is now in the process of termination under authority of the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are no Indians residing on or adjacent to the rancheria. GOVERNMENT An annual meeting of all distributees is held, at which tribal officials are elected to a I -year term. Articles of Association were approved June 21, 1965. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 114 INAJA-COSMIT RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Inaja-Cosmit Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Julian, California 92036 Federal Reservation Population: 10 (131A 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 880 acres An Executive order of December 27, 1875, established the res- ervation. On February 10, 1893, the Inaja Reservation was enlarged under authority of the act of 1891. This reservation is situated in the heart of an area with high potential for recrea- tional development. CULTURE The Inaja-Cosmit culture, including Indian burials, songs, lan- guage, games, foods, arts and crafts, and medicine, is still practiced. CLIMATE The climate is mild and moderate, with annual rainfall averag- ing 4 inches and temperatures ranging from 150 to 850. TRANSPORTATION Commercial airlines and train facilities are available at San Diego, 75 miles away. Lakeside, 50 miles away, has the nearest bus- and trucklines. Ramona, 40 miles away, maintains the nearest private airport. State Highway 78 runs east-west, north of the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by a spring. Wood stoves are used for heat- ing. There is no electricity and no sewer system; outhouses are used. Hospitals, clinics, and dental facilities are available in Escondido. A U.S. Public Health Service facility is also located in Escondido. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 10 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 4th 115 JACKSON RANCHERIA Amador County, CALIFORNIA Me-Wuk Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Jackson, California 95642 Federal Reservation Population: 7 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 331 acres An act of March 3, 1893, appropriated $10,000 for the Digger Indians of central California at Jackson. The rancheria was established on January 7, 1895. The rancheria is in process of termination by authority of the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85- 671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. The Jackson Rancheria is located in central California in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. There are seven Indians residing on or adjacent to the rancheria. CLIMATE The humidity here is about 58 percent, year round. The area has an average rainfall of about 30 inches per year. Tempera- tures range from a high of 760 to a low of 460. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 116 LA JOLLA RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA La Jolla Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Escondido, California 92025 Federal Reservation Population: 23 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 8,233 acres Of the total area, 7,279 acres are tribally owned. Nearly all of the agricultural land is allotted. HISTORY Executive orders of December 27, 1875, and May 15,1876, established the Potrero or La Jolla Reservation, and an Execu- tive order of May 3, 1877, restored a portion to the public domain. The reservation was established in 1892. CULTURE Cultural traditions involving language, foods, kinship, religion, and other aspects of life are practiced not only by those mem- bers living on the reservation, but by the entire tribal member- ship. GOVERNMENT The tribe's Articles of Association were approved in 1962. The governing body, the general council, is composed of all adults over 21 years of age. A committee of five is elected, including the four tribal officers. TRIBAL ECONOMY Eighty percent of the tribe's annual income of $2,500 is earned in farming. The tribe has formed the La Jolla Reservation Rec- reation Enterprise. CLIMATE The reservation lies in southern California just south of the Cleveland National Forest where rainfall measures 15 inches per year. The climate is warm and sunny, with temperatures ranging from 1100 to 280. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 76 runs east-west and is the nearest highway to the reservation. Bus, train, and truck facilities are available in Escondido, 25 miles west of the reservation. The nearest commercial air service is in San Diego, 55 miles from the reservation. 117 LA JOLLA RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water is drawn from wells and springs. Septic tanks are the only provisions for sewage. The San Diego Gas and Electric Company supplies electricity to the area. The Palomar Memo- rial Hospital in Escondido and the County Welfare Service extend medical care to reservation residents. RECREATION This reservation is perhaps the best in recreation development in this area. The river is being developed for recreation, and a campsite, which will compare with national park sites, is being prepared. There is also ample timberland ideal for recreation. Highway frontage is an encouraging factor in this development. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 23 Labor Force: Total: 18 Unemployed: 10 Unemployment rate: 56% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 118 LA POSTA RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA La Posta Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: c/o Southern California Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 6848 Magnolia Avenue, Riverside, California 92506 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,672.29 acres The La Posta Reservation is situated between two canyons. There are more mountains than level land, and the area is excellent for pasture. This reservation was inhabited about 20 years ago, but due to an enrollment problem, residents were removed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They also left to find better living conditions. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 119 LAYTONVILLE RESERVATION Mendocino County, CALIFORNIA Cahto Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Laytonville, California 95454 Federal Reservation Population: 65 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 200 acres The area was bought by missionaries for landless Indians, but when trouble developed regarding titles to the land, the Bureau of Indian Affairs purchased the 200 acres. Acts of June 21, 1906, call for the title to the land to be held in trust by the Federal Government. All of the land is tribally owned. GOVERNMENT The tribe's Articles of Association were approved in 1967. These provide for a governing body of three members who are elected annually. The tribe meets three times annually. A chair- man, vice chairman, and secretary-treasurer are the officers. CLIMATE The reservation lies in northwest California in rolling hills where the rainfall averages 43 inches per year. The tempera- ture reaches a high of 1000 and a low of 290. TRANSPORTATION Bus- and trucklines stop in Laytonville, 2 miles from the reser- vation. There is train service in Willits, 24 miles from the res- ' ervation. Willits has an airstrip. However, the nearest commer- cial air service is in Ukiah, 59 miles away. U.S. Highway 101 passes 5 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There is water on the reservation, and septic tanks are utilized for sewage disposal. Pacific Gas and Electric provides the elec- tricity. Residents also purchase bottled gas. The 14 houses are Vital Statistics in good condition. Medical care is available at the hospital in Willits. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 65 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 120 LIKELY RESERVATION Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Likely, California 96116 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1.32 acres This reservation was purchased on June 28, 1922, by authority of acts of 1906 and 1908, but it is presently unoccupied. CLIMATE The climate is mild and moderate, with temperatures ranging, from a high of 900 to a low of 28'. The average rainfall is 12 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION Reno, Nevada, 169 miles from the reservation, has the nearest commercial airline and train facilities. Bus and truck services are available in Likely, 6 miles away. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 121 LONE PINE RESERVATION Inyo County, CALIFORNIA Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Lone Pine, California 93545 Federal Reservation Population: 115 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 237 acres The Lone Pine Reservation was acquired through a land ex- change consummated in 1939 between the city of Los Angeles and the Federal Government. Three thousand acres of trust property were exchanged for 1,500 acres of level valley land. CULTURE The culture of the Paiute-Shoshone still exists, including cere- monial dances. Some still speak the Indian language, and traditional foods are eaten. CLIMATE The reservation is located in Owens Valley on the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains at an elevation of 3,700 to 4,200 feet. It receives about 5 inches of rainfall per year. The temper- ature ranges from 100' to 5'. TRANSPORTATION The city of Bishop has the nearest commercial airline facilities; train, bus, trucking, and private aircraft facilities are available at Lone Pine. U.S. Highway 395 runs north-south through the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by the city of Los Angeles. Propane gas is purchased from local dealers. Electricity is provided by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The sewer system consists of septic tanks which are in poor condition. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 115 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 12th 122 LOOKOUT RANCHERIA Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lookout, California 96054 Federal Reservation Population: 2 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 40 acres Allotted: 30 acres Non-Indian: 10 acres Lookout Rancheria was purchased on October 11, 1913, by authority of acts of 1906 and 1908 appropriating funds for pur- chase of lands for California Indians. HISTORY Approximately 30 years ago there were a large number of Indians living on this rancheria, but, due to lack of work for the young and death among the aged, the rancheria has been virtually abandoned. CULTURE The Indian language is still used. Arts and crafts are nonexist- ent today. There is some indication that Indian religion is still present. CLIMATE Temperatures reach a high of 850 and a low of 29'. Rainfall averages 10 inches annually. TRANSPORTATION The nearest city is Adin, 6 miles from Lookout. Buslines stop in Adin, and trucklines serve Bieber, 12 miles distant. The nearest train and air services are in Redding, 108 miles from the ran- cheria. There is a private airstrip in Bieber. State Highway 299 is 6 miles from the rancheria. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Vital Statistics The water system was installed by the U.S. Public Health Ser- Population: vice (USPHS). There are no inside bathroom facilities, and the Indians residing wells installed by USPHS are often dry. Bottled gas is pur- on or adjacent to chased. The Meyers Hospital in Fall River Mills, 32 miles from reservation: 2 the reservation, offers medical services. The USPHS Modoc Education: Indian Health Center is in Alturas, where private medical care (tribal estimates) is also available. Average grade level achieved: 7th 123 LOS COYOTES RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Warner Springs, California 92086 Federal Reservation Population: 42 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 25,049.63 acres An Executive order of May 6, 1889, set apart lands for this reservation. On June 19, 1900, the present reservation was established under authority of the act of 1891. An Executive order of April 13, 1914, transferred lands from Cleveland National Forest to the Los Coyotes Reservation. CULTURE Indian burials, songs 'language, games, foods, arts and crafts, and medicine are still a majorpart of everyday life. CLIMATE The weather is usually mild and moderate, with temperatures ranging from a low of 150 to a high of 950. TRANSPORTATION Commercial airlines are available in San Diego, train facilities are available in Escondido, bus service is available in Warner Springs, and a truckline serves Ramona. State Highway 78, run- ning north-south, serves the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for the reservation is provided by a spring. Bottled gas may be purchased, and electricity is purchased from the San Vital Statistics Diego Gas and Electric Company. The sewer system consists of septic tanks and outhouses. Hospital, clinics, dental care, Population: and U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available in Escon- Indians residing dido, 40 miles from the reservation. on or adjacent to reservation: 42 Labor Force: Total: 13 Unemployed: 6 Unemployment rate: 46% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 124 MANCHESTER-POINT ARENA RANCHERIA Mendocino County, CALIFORNIA Pomo Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Manchester, California 95459 Federal Reservation Population: 65 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 363 acres The reservation was established by the Secretary of the Interior on June 23,1909, and September 20,1937. An act of May 9, 1942, set aside certain public lands in California as an addition to the Manchester Rancheria. There are 65 Indians residing on or adjacent to the reservation. GOVERNMENT The constitution and bylaws were ratified February 27, 1937. All qualified voters in the community meet twice a year. A business committee is elected every November. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 125 MANZANITA RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Manzanita Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Boulevard, California 92005 Federal Reservation Population: 7 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,379 acres This reservation was established on February 10, 1893, under the authority of the act of 1891. Lack of industry and employ- ment opportunity has forced most people to leave the reservation. CULTURE The Manzanita Band still have their Indian culture, such as Indian burials, songs, language, games, foods, arts and crafts, and medicine. CLIMATE In this moderate and mild climate, the average rainfall is about 4 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 106' to a low of 121. TRANSPORTATION San Diego, 57 miles from the reservation, has the nearest air, train, and private airport facilities. Bus and trucking facilities are available in Boulevard and El Cajon. U.S. Highway 80 serves the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There are no water, gas, electricity, or sewer systems available on the reservation. Hospitals, clinics, and dental health care are provided by county and private facilities. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 7 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 126 MESA GRANDE RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Pala, California 92059 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 120 acres This reservation was established under Executive orders of December 27,1875, and June 19, 1883, which set apart lands for this reservation. Executive order 4297 of August 25, 1925, set apart additional lands. An act of May 10, 1926, provided that lands set apart were to become a part of the reservation. No Indians reside on or adjacent to the reservation. CLIMATE Mesa Grande Reservation is located in the southwest portion of California, containing flatlands with a moderate climate. Rainfall is about 3 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 1101 to a low of 280. TRANSPORTATION The nearest commercial airlines are located in San Diego, 70 miles away. Train, bus, and trucking services are available at Escondido, 40 miles away. Ramona, 10 miles away, has a pri- vate airport. State Highway 76 runs northwest-southeast about 8 miles northeast of the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Springs and wells provide water for the reservation. Bottled and tank gas are used for heating. Presently there is no elec- tricity on the reservation. There is no sewer system on the . reservation; outhouses are still used. Housing conditions are poor. Hospital and dental facilities can be obtained in Escon- dido. The reservation has a tribal clinic, but it needs repairs. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 127 MIDDLETOWN RANCHERIA Lake County, CALIFORNIA Porno Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Middletown, California 95461 Federal Reservation Population: 21 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 109 acres The rancheria was established by the Secretary of the Interior on July 30,1910. CULTURE Tribal members still speak their native language and perform traditional burial rites for their dead. GOVERNMENT A general council of all members 21 years and older meets each month. Elections are held each odd-numbered year. CLIMATE The seasons in this geographical location are moderate, with temperatures ranging from a high of 900 to a low of 300. The average rainfall is 17 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION The city of Ukiah, 90 miles from the rancheria, provides air-, train-, bus-, and trucklines. State Highways 53 and 29 serve the rancheria. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for the rancheria is provided by the community. Gas and electricity are provided by Pacific Gas and Electric. The tribe has its own sewer system. Hospital, clinic, and U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available in Lakeport, 40 miles away. Dental care facilities are available in Middletown, 1 mile from the rancheria. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 21 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 128 MONTGOMERY CREEK RANCHERIA Shasta County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Montgomery Creek, California 96065 Federal Reservation Population: 4 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 72 acres The reservation was established by the Secretary of the Inte- rior on October 13, 1915, under the authority of the act of June 30,1913. The rancheria was set aside for homeless Cali- fornia Indians who had no prior land. The Montgomery Creek Rancheria was named by the original Rancheria Act, but was not terminated. Four Indians reside on or adjacent to the rancheria. CLIMATE The rancheria lies in northern California where the land is irrigable and the climate is generally mild and sunny. Rainfall averages 10 inches annually. Temperatures reach highs of 980 and lows of 220. TRANSPORTATION The rancheria is 34 miles from Redding, the nearest city. State Highway 299 runs within 1 mile of the rancheria. The road to the rancheria is 3 miles and impassable, except by four-wheel- drive vehicles, during the winter. Redding has commercial transportation service by air, train, truck, and bus. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Residents draw water from springs. There are no other utilities available. The county hospital in Redding is the nearest loca- tion for medical care. The only house is in poor condition. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 129 MORONGO RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Morongo Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Banning, California 92220 Federal Reservation Population: 242 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 32,252.17 acres The present reservation was patented to the Morongo Band on December 14, 1908, by the Secretary of the Interior under authority of the act of March 1, 1907. CULTURE Traditional religion and kinship trends prevail. Some of the Indian language is spoken. CLIMATE The temperatures of this geographic location range from a high of 1100 to a low of 180. TRANSPORTATION The city of Ontario, 55 miles from the reservation, has the near- est commercial airline facilities. A train depot is available at Colton, 35 miles away. Bus, trucking, and private airport facil- ities are available in Banning, 5 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for the reservation is provided by wells. Gas and elec- tricity are provided by Southern California Edison. The sewer system consists of septic tanks. Hospital and dental facilities are available in Banning. Clinic and U.S. Public Health Service Vital Statistics facilities are provided by the county in Riverside, 25 miles away. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 242 Labor Force: Total: 77 Unemployed: 5 Unemployment rate: 6% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 130 PALA RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Pala Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Pala, California 92059 Federal Reservation Population: 255 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 7,722 acres Tribally Owned: 6,322 acres Allotted: 1,400 acres An Executive order of December 27, 1875, set apart lands for this reservation, and two orders in 1877 and 1882 restored por- tions to public domain. An act of May 27,1962, appropriated $100,000 for purchase of land in southern California for Mission Indians, part of which was used for removing Indians to the purchased land. CULTURE. The Pala Reservation is a community built around the famous Pala Mission. The Indians have retained their kinship tradition, some language, and other tribal traditions. GOVERNMENT The tribe's Articles of Association were approved in 1960 and amended the following year. The governing body is the general council, composed of all adult members 21 years or older. A five-member executive committee is elected in December for a 1-year term. The committee meets monthly. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income of $45,000 is almost completely income from San Diego Consolidated Sand and Gravel. This is the only resource on the reservation. The reservation is located in southern California. Part of the land is hilly, and the remain- der is suitable for grazing or irrigated agriculture. CLIMATE Rainfall measures only 3 inches annually. The high temperature is 1101; the low is 281. 131 PALA RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION Fallbrook is the nearest city to the reservation. It lies within 20 miles of Pala. The reservation has a paved access road to State Highway 16 to the north, and east-west State Highway 76. Bus- and trucklines stop in Fallbrook. Oceanside, 25 miles from the reservation, has train service. Residents must travel 55 miles to San Diego for the nearest commercial airport. There is a private airstrip 6 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe has its own well and sewer system; however, these are inadequate for future growth. Only bottled gas is available. San Diego Gas and Electric provides the reservation with elec- tricity. There is a private hospital in Fallbrook, and additional medical care through county clinics in Escondido, 25 miles from the reservation. Of the 80 houses on the reservation, over half are in bad condition. The Mission Hall serves as a com- munity building. RECREATION The Corpus Christi Fiesta and the children's festival are annual events celebrated by tribal members. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 255 Labor Force: Total: 110 Unemployed: 50 Unemployment rate: 45% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 132 PAUMAANDYUIM A RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Paurna Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Pauma Valley, California 92061 Federal Reservation Population: 59 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 250 acres This reservation was established on August 18, 1892, under authority of the act of 1891. CULTURE Very little of the Pauma-Yuima culture is being practiced. GOVERNMENT The Articles of Association were approved June 28,1968. A general council meets four times each year, elects a business committee every 2 years. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the southern portion of San Diego County. The climate is moderate and mild, with an average rain fall of about 3 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 1100 to a low of 280. TRANSPORTATION San Diego, 60 miles away, has the nearest commercial airlines. Oceanside, 25 miles from the reservation, provides train facil- ities. Escondido, 25 miles away, has bus- and truckline facilities. State Highway 395 serves the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Vital Statistics A domestic well provides water for the reservation. Gas is pro- Population: vided by a petroleum line from Escondido. Electricity is provided Indians residing by San Diego Gas and Electric. Septic tanks make up the sewer on or adjacent to system. All health facilities, hospital, clinic, and dental, are reservation: 59 available in Escondido. Labor Force: Total: 29 Unemployed: 21 Unemployment rate: 72% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: I Oth 133 PECHANGA RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Pechanga Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Temecula, California 92390 Federal Reservation Population: 21 (131A 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 4,097 acres This reservation was established by Executive order of June 27, 1882, which set apart certain lands in Riverside County, California, for Indian purposes. The present reservation was selected under authority of the act of January 12,1891, and established on August 29,1893. CULTURE Some native language is spoken; traditional language influences remain prevalent. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern California, about 40 miles from the coast in Riverside County, with flat lowlands and a climate that is moderate and sunny. The average rainfall is about 3.9 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 1200 to a low of 220. TRANSPORTATION The nearest commercial airline facilities are located in San Diego, 60 miles away. Train, bus, and trucking facilities are available in Fallbrook, 15 miles from the reservation. Elsinore, 15 miles away, has the nearest private airport facilities. State Vital Statistics Highway 76 runs east-west 8 miles south of the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Population: Water for the reservation is provided by wells and springs. Gas Indians residing and electricity are provided by Pacific Gas and Electric. The on or adjacent to sewer system consists of outhouses and septic tanks.. Hospi- reservation: 21 Labor Force: tals, clinics, and dental facilities are available in Fallbrook. Total: 6 Unemployed: 2 Unemployment rate: 33% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 134 RAMONA RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: c/o Southern California Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 6848 Magnolia Avenue, Riverside, California 92506 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 560 acres This reservation was,established on February 10, 1893, under authority of the act of 1891. The reservation is mountainous and good only for grazing. There are no allotments or assign- ments or records of any members at Ramona. The reservation has been unoccupied for many years. CLIMATE The reservation is in a mountainous area where the average rainfall is about 7.8 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1070 to a low of 170. TRANSPORTATION All commercial transportation facilities can be obtained at Hemet, 21 miles away. The reservation is located 5 miles off State Highway 71. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Hospital and clinic facilities are available at Hemet. There is no record of a dental facility available in the surrounding area. U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available at Riverside, 70 miles away. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 135 RESIGHINI RANCHERIA Del Norte County, CALIFORNIA Coast Indian Community Tribal Headquarters: Klamath, California 95548 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 228 acres This land was purchased by the Secretary of the Interior on January 7,1938, under authority of the Howard-Wheeler Act, June 18, 1934. The rancheria is in the process of termination under the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. No Indians reside on or adjacent to the rancheria. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 136 RINCON RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA San Luiseno Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Valley Center, California 92082 Federal Reservation Population: 91 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,975 acres HISTORY An Executive order of December 27, 1875, established the Rincon Reservation, and an Executive order of March 2, 1881, increased the size. The present reservation was established on September 13, 1892, under the authority of the act of 1891. As for many other reservations, land inheritance is a problem. Most of the land is taken up by hills and mountains; one-third of the land is level. CULTURE Mainly through the efforts of the leaders of the Rincon commu- nity, one-fourth of the Rincon Band still speak their native language. GOVERNMENT Articles of Association were approved March 15,1960. The five-member Rincon Tribal Business Committee meets each month. Elections are staggered for 2-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY The Rincon, Pauma, and La Jolla Tribes have a joint venture with the Material Systems Corporation to bring industry to the reservation, to improve housing, and to increase employment and revenues. The tribes' share of the venture is 5 percent. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern California where the land is hilly and brushy and the climate moderate with little temperature change. The average rainfall is 3 inches per year. There are high temperatures of 1080 and lows of 22'. TRANSPORTATION The nearest train and airline facilities are in San Diego, 45 miles away. Bus service facilities are available at Escondido, 17 miles away. The nearest private airport is also at Escondido. State Highway 76 is nearby. 137 RINCON RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES A water system is provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. A hospital is located in San Diego, 45 miles away. Dental clinics are provided by the Rincon Dental Project. Public health facilities and housing are poor. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 91 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 138 ROARING CREEK RANCHERIA Shasta County, CALIFORNIA Pit River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Montgomery Creek, California 96065 Federal Reservation Population: 5 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 80 acres The land was purchased for the landless California Indians who had no prior allotments under the authority of the Howard- Wheeler Act of August 31, 1915. There was no designation of occupying tribe. The rancheria is occupied by one family of five persons. CULTURE Very little Indian language is spoken, but some traditional foods are still eaten. GOVERNMENT There is no formal government. The tribal council is not recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. CLIMATE The 80 acres of irrigable land are located in northern California in a mild and sunny climate. The rainfall averages 10 inches yearly. High temperatures reach 98', and low, 220. TRANSPORTATION An unpaved dirt road runs the 2 miles from the rancheria to Big Bend Road. State Highway 299 is the nearest major high- way. Redding, 43 miles from Roaring Creek, is served by com- mercial air-, train-, truck-, and buslines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES As there are no pipelines on the rancheria land, the family must carry water from the spring. The sole house is in poor condition. The only power supply is the electricity purchased from Pacific Gas and Electric. The county hospital in Redding is the closest medical facility. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 139 ROUND VALLEY RESERVATION Mendocino County, CALIFORNIA Yuki, Pit River, Little Lake, Konkau, Wailaki, Pomo, Nom-laka, and Wintun Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Covelo, California 95428 Federal Reservation Population: 340 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 20,706 acres Tribally Owned: 12,706 acres Allotted: 8,000 acres An act of April 8, 1864, authorized the establishment of four Indian reservations in California. An Executive order of March 30,1870, enlarged the Round Valley Reservation, and the borders were defined by the Executive order of May 18, 1875. The Camp Wright Military Reserve was added to the reservation in 1876. CULTURE Tribal members hunt and fish on the reservation and weave traditional baskets. GOVERNMENT The tribes' constitution and bylaws, prepared according to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, were approved in 1936. The tribal charter was ratified the following year. The governing body is the Covelo Indian Community Council which has seven members. Council members are elected in March to staggered 4-year terms. The officers are elected annually in March. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe earns $2,000 yearly in forestry and an additional $1,500 from other sources. The tribe can cut up to 43 million feet of timber per year. CLIMATE The reservation, located on hilly land in northwestern Cali- fornia, has mild winters. Rainfall measures about 35 inches per year. Temperatures range from a high of 105" to a low of 29'. TRANSPORTATION Willits, the nearest crity, ties some 45 miles from Round Valley and is served by Commercial train- and buslines. Truck service is available in Covelo, 1 mile from the reservation. There is a commercial airport in Ukiah, 70 miles from Round Valley, and a private airstrip in Covelo. Paved county roads connect the reservation with U.S. Highway 101, a major north-south route. 140 COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water and sewer systems were installed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Reservation residents purchase gas from Standard Oil and electricity from Pacific Gas and Electric. The USPHS extends medical care to tribal members in Covelo. Private medical and hospital care is available in Willits, 45 miles from Round Valley. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 340 Labor Force: Total: 88 Unemployed: 30 Unemployment rate: 34% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 141 RUMSEY RANCHERIA Yolo County, CALIFORNIA Wintun Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Brooks, California 95606 Federal Reservation Population: 3 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 66 acres The original purchase of land for the Rumsey Rancheria was in 1907 and 1908. Additional lands were purchased by the Secretary of the Interior and also under the Howard-Wheeler Act. The Rumsey Rancheria is in the process of termination under the authority of the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are three Indians residing at the rancheria. CLIMATE The climate in this geographic location is mild and sunny. The average rainfall is about 15 inches per year. Temperatures range from a low of 38' to a high of 109'. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 142 SAN MANUEL RESERVATION San Bernardino County, CALIFORNIA San Manuel Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: San Bernardino, California 92403 Federal Reservation Population: 19 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 653.15 acres This reservation was established on August 31, 1893,and is located northeast of San Bernardino near Patton State Hospi- tal. The reservation includes mostly mountain terrain, having no value for grazing or agriculture. Although residents are few in number, Indian language, foods, kinship practices, and other traditions are still followed. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a general council composed of all adult members 21 years of age or over. Elections are held every 2 years, as called by the business committee. CLIMATE The climate is mild and moderate, with an average rainfall of 4.6 inches per year. Temperatures average a low of 150 and a high of 1100. TRANSPORTATION The city of Ontario, 25 miles from the reservation, has the nearest commercial airline facilities. Train-, bus-, and trucklines and a private airport are available at San Bernardino. State Highway 15 runs north-south by the reservation. Vital Statistics COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by a well which is tribally owned. Gas is not Population: purchased. Electricity is provided by Southern California Indians residing Edison Company. The sewer system consists of cesspools. on or adjacent to Hospitals, clinics, and dental facilities are available in San reservation: 19 Bernardino. Labor Force: Total: 10 Unemployed: 2 Unemployment rate: 20% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 143 SAN PASQUAL RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Valley Center, California 92082 Federal Reservation Population: 19 (131A 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,379.58 acres The present reservation was established in July 1910 under authority of the act of 1891 as amended and supplemented. An Executive order of April 15, 1911, set aside land for a reserva- tion site. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws were approved January 14, 1971. The tribe is governed by a general council, composed of all members 19 years of age or older, and a five-member business committee. CLIMATE San Pasqual Reservation is surrounded by hills which make the climate moderate. Rainfall averages 3 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 110" and a low of 28'. TRANSPORTATION Commercial airlines are available at San Diego, 40 miles away. Train and bus facilities are available at Escondido, 10 miles away. A truckline and a private airport are also available at Escondido. A paved county road connects San Pasqual Vital Statistics Reservation with State Highway 76. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Population: A well provides only an inadequate supply of water to the San Indians residing Pasqual Reservation. The homes are heated with bottled gas. on or adjacent to Electricity is provided by Pacific Gas and Electric. At present reservation: 19 the reservation does not have a sewer system. Hospital, clinic, Labor Force: and dental care can be obtained at Escondido. Housing facili- Total: 11 ties are poor. Only 50 percent of the homes have septic tanks; Unemployed: 7 others have outhouses. Unemployment rate: 64% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 144 SANTA ROSA RANCHERIA, Kings County, CALIFORNIA Tachi Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lemoore, California 93245 Federal Reservation Population: 199 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 170 acres A court decree of the U.S. District Court, Southern California, Northern Division, established the rancheria in February 1921. An additional purchase provided more land in July 1939 under the Howard-Wheeler Act. CULTURE The Tachi have little remaining culture except language, which is spoken mainly by older members of the tribe. Some tradi- tional foods are still eaten. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act Articles of Organization, approved May 8, 1963. The governing bodies are a general council, composed of all members 21 years of age or older, and a five-member business committee elected in April of each odd-numbered year for 2-year terms. CLIMATE Temperatures average a high of 1100 and a low of 200. Rainfall averages 8 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION The city of Visalia, 30 miles from the reservation, has commer- Vital Statistics cial airline facilities. Train facilities are available at Hanford, 14 miles from the reservation. The town of Lemoore provides Population: truck and bus services and also maintains a private airport. The Indians residing available access, routes are Alkali Drive, which is paved, and on or adjacent to State Highway 198, 5 miles away. reservation: 199 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Labor Force: Water is provided by wells. Gas and electricity are provided by total: 36 the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The sewer system Unemployed: 28 consists of septic tanks and outhouses. Hospital, clinic, and Unemployment rate: 78% dental facilities are available at Hanford, 14 miles away. Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 145 SANTA ROSA RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Santa Rosa Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Hemet, California 92343 Federal Reservation Population: 7 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 11,092.60 acres This reservation was established on February 2, 1907, under authority of the act of 1891, as amended. An act of April 17 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to purchase 640 acres in the name of the U.S. Government in trust for the Santa Rosa Band. CULTURE The culture of the Santa Rosa Reservation, with just a few residents, is one of the few remaining cohesive forces prevent- ing total dispersion of the tribe. Religion, language, some foods, kinship, and other tribal traditions still draw the tribe together. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern California with flat desert land and an arid climate. Average rainfall amounts to about 7 inches per year, and temperatures range from a high of 1091 to a low of 160. TRANSPORTATION The nearest airline facilities available are at Palm Springs, 50 miles away. Train-, bus-, and truckline facilities are avail- Vital Statistics able 38 miles northwest of the reservation in Hemet. Hemet also maintains a private. airport. State Highway 74 is nearby. Population: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Indians residing Water is owned by the tribe. There are no gas, electric, or on or adjacent to sewer facilities on the reservation. A private hospital in Hemet reservation: 7 serves the reservation. Clinics and dental facilities are provided Labor Force: by the county at Riverside, 60 miles away. There are no U.S.\ Total: 5 Public Health Service 'facilities available to the reservation. Unemployed: 2 Unemployment rate: 40% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 146 SANTA YNEZ RESERVATION Santa Barbara county, CALIFORNIA Santa Ynez Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Santa Ynez, California 93460 Federal Reservation Population: 42 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 99.28 acres The Santa Ynez Reservation is situated in Santa Barbara County, approximately 32 miles north of Santa Barbara, Cali- fornia. The reservation was established on December 27,1901, under authority of the act of 1891. CULTURE Religion, language, foods, kinship, and other tribal traditions still exist among the Santa Ynez Band. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act Articles of Organization, approved February 7, 1964. The gov- erning bodies are a general council, composed of all members 21 years of age or older, and a five-member business council elected for a term of 2 years. CLIMATE The topography of the reservation includes rolling hills, trees, and a running stream, all of which help to moderate the climate. Temperatures average a high of 97" and a low of 47'. The yearly rainfall is about 8 inches. TRANSPORTATION Vital Statistics Commercial transportation facilities are available in Santa Population: Barbara. The nearest private airport is located in Santa Ynez, Indians residing 6 miles from the reservation. U.S. Highway 101 is 6 miles from on or adjacent to the reservation. reservation: 42 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Labor Force: Water comes from a well which is provided by the city. Bottled Total: 22 gas is purchased. Electricity is provided by the Santa Barbara Unemployed: 8 Gas and Electric Company. The sewer system consists of three Unemployment septic tanks and eleven outhouses. Hospital, clinic, dental, and rate: 36% U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available at Santa Education: Barbara. (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 147 SANTA YSABEL RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Santa Ysabel Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Santa Ysabel, California 92070 Federal Reservation Population: 106 (BIA 8/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 10,000 acres The present reservation was established on February 10, 1893, under authority of the act of 1891. An act of June 3, 1926, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to purchase 573 acres for the reservation. CULTURE The isolated location of the reservation causes many of the people to move off the reservation to be closer to their jobs. There is no economic development on the reservation. Tribal traditions still exist on the Santa Ysabel Reservation. CLIMATE The Santa Ysabel Reservation is located in the southwestern portion of California, with lands that are flat and arid and a warm dry climate. Rainfall averages about 15 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 100' and a low of 290. TRANSPORTATION Commercial airlines are available at San Diego, 60 miles away. Train service is available in Escondido, 30 miles away. Bus- and trucklines are available in Ramona, 16 miles from the reservation, and a private airport is also available in Ramona. State Highway 78, north-south, is nearby. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The reservation's water system consists of a spring. Bottled gas is used for heating. No electricity is available. There are no sewer or septic facilities on the reservation. Health facilities Vital Statistics are located at Escondido, 30 miles away. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 106 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 148 SHEEP RANCH RANCHERIA Calaveras County, CALIFORNIA Me-Wuk Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Sheepranch, California 95250 Federal Reservation Population: 1 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: .92 acre This reservation was purchased for homeless California Indians in 1916 without designation of the tribe. One Indian now resides there. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains where rainfall averages 17 inches annually. Temperatures average a high of 900 and a low of 350. TRANSPORTATION The reservation lies near State Highway 4, 23 miles from San Andreas. Angels Camp, 12 miles from Sheep Ranch, is served by bus- and trucklines. The nearest train station is in Sonora, 30 miles from the reservation. Air service is available at Stockton, 65 miles away. There is also a private airstrip in Angels Camp. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 149 SHERWOOD VALLEY RANCHERIA Mendocino County, CALIFORNIA Tribal Headquarters: Willits, California 95490 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 292.22 acres This land was purchased for homeless California Indians without designation of tribe. An additional purchase was made on June 10, 1916. The rancheria is in the process of being terminated by the authority of the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. No Indians reside on or adjacent to the rancheria. (BIA Sacramento Area Office-January 1970.) Vital Statistics No other data applicable 150 SOBOBA RESERVATION Riverside County, CALIFORNIA Soboba Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: San Jacinto, California 92383 Federal Reservation Population: 178 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 5,035.68 acres An Executive order of June 19, 1883, set aside lands for the Soboba Reservation. The present reservation was established on June 10, 1913, under authority of the act of 1891, as amended. CULTURE The culture of the Soboba Indians is very much traditional. Kinship, food, language, and religion have been the basic elements that distinguish this tribe of Indians. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a general council and a five-member business committee elected annually for staggered 2-year terms. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern California which is flat land with a climate that is mild and moderate. Rainfall averages 4.7 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 110' and a low of 260. TRANSPORTATION Hemet, 7 miles away, has airlines, train service, and a private airport. Bus and truck facilities are available in San Jacinto, Vital Statistics 1 mile from the reservation. State Highway 74 runs east-west Population: through San Jacinto. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to Water is furnished by the tribe. Residents purchase bottled gas. reservation: 178 Electricity is provided by Southern California Edison. There is Labor Force: no sewer system on the reservation. A private hospital in Hemet Total: 66 serves the reservation. Clinics and dental facilities can be Unemployed: 43 found in Riverside, 47 miles from the reservation. Unemployment rate: 65% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 151 STEWARTS POINT RANCHERIA Sonoma County, CALIFORNIA Kashia Band of Pomo Indians Tribal Headquarters: Stewarts Point, California 95480 Federal Reservation Population: 35 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 40 acres GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws were approved on March 11, 1936, as amended on July 12,1940, and November 9,1967. The tribe is governed by a community council composed of all qualified voters and a four-member business committee elected annually in November. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 35 Labor Force: Total: 18 Unemployed: 8 Unemployment rate: 44% 152 SULPHUR BANK RANCHERIA (EI-Em Indian Colony) Lake County, CALIFORNIA Porno Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Clearlake Oaks, California 95423 Federal Reservation Population: 85 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 50 acres The Sulphur Bank Rancheria was established by court decree on January 10, 1949. Title is held by the United States in trust for the Porno Tribe. CULTURE The culture of these people, such as burials and foods, is still practiced. Some of the Indian language is spoken. CLIMATE The Sulphur Bank Rancheria is located in northern California. The topography consists of lakesides and hills. The average rainfall is about 17 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 9011 and a low of 30". TRANSPORTATION The town of Ukiah, 45 miles from the reservation, has the nearest commercial airline; also train and bus facilities are available here. Trucklines and a private airport are available in Lakeport, 28 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES There is no water on the reservation. Gas is purchased in butane bottles. Electricity is provided by Pacific Gas and Vital Statistics Electric. There is no sewer system available; outhouses are used. Hospital, clinic, dental, and U.S. Public Health Service Population: facilities are available in Lakeport, 28 miles from the reservation. Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 85 Labor Force: Total: 22 Unemployed: 8 Unemployment rate: 36% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 2th 153 SUSANVILLE RANCHERIA Lassen County, CALIFORNIA Paiute Maidu, Pit River, and Washoe Tribes Tribal @eadquarters: Susanville, California 96130 Federal Reservation Population: 109 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 30 acres The reservation land was purchased August 15, 1923, for homeless California Indians, without designation of tribe. All the land is tribally owned but for one-third of an acre assigned to an individual. CULTURE The Indian language is no longer spoken. Both young and old, however, practice arts and crafts. Indian religion has virtually disappeared. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a business committee elected by the tribal council to serve for 2 years. The constitution and bylaws were approved by the Secretary of the Interior in February 1969, as amended from the 1935 constitution. CLIMATE The reservation is about 70 miles from the Nevada border in mountainous foothills where the weather is cold with some winter snows. Rainfall averages 10 inches yearly. Temperatures average a high of 950 and a low of 220. Vital Statistics TRANSPORTATION State Highways 44 and 36 are near the reservation. Reno is Population: approximately 86 miles from the rancheria. Reno is the nearest Indians residing location for air and train services. Bus- and trucklines stop in on or adjacent to Susanville, 1 mile from the reservation. An unpaved private reservation: 109 airstrip is 5 miles distant. Labor Force: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Total: 49 The rancheria is connected to city facilities. The California Unemployed: 25 Pacific Utility Company provides water and electricity. Gas is Unemployment sold by a private distributor. Health care is available at the rate: 51% Lassen County Memorial Hospital and the Lassen County Education: Health Clinic. (tribal estimates) Average grade RECREATION level achieved: 1 Oth The annual Bear Dance is held in Janesville, California. 154 SYCUAN RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Sycuan Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: El Cajon, California 92020 Federal Reservation Population: 31 (BIA3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 640 acres An Executive order of December 21, 1875, set lands apart for this reservation. CULTURE Very little of the Sycuan culture remains, The reservation has been neglected, and there is little ongoing activity. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern San Diego County. Rainfall averages 6.5 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 900 and a low of 320. TRANSPORTATION The nearest air-, train-, truck-, and busline facilities are located in San Diego. El Cajon, 6 miles away, has a truckline. U.S. Highway 80 is 4 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Hospitals and clinics are available in El Cajon and San Diego. Private dental and U.S. Public Health Service facilities are available in El Cajon. Wells provide water for families. Gas and electricity are provided by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Housing conditions are very poor. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 31 Labor Force: Total: 7 Unemployed: 3 Unemployment rate: 43% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 6th 155 TABLE MOUNTAIN RANCHERIA Fresno County, CALIFORNIA Tribal Headquarters: Friant, California 93626 Federal Reservation Population: 51 (131A 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 160 acres The original 160 acres for Table Mountain Rancheria were purchased under the authority of the act of May 18, 1916. At present the rancheria is in the process of being terminated; All actions are completed except on a boundary dispute which is pending. A proclamation has not yet been published in the Federal Register. There are 51 Indians residing on or adjacent to the reservation. (131A Sacramento Area Office-January 1970.) Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 156 TORRES MARTINEZ RESERVATION Imperial and Riverside Counties, CALIFORNIA Torres Martinez Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Thermal, California 92274 Federal Reservation Population: 42 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 30,329.29 acres Tribally Owned: 11,856.29 acres Allotted: 13,473 acres Non-Indian: 5,000 acres About 338 allotments, 40 acres each, have been given to Indians. Only a small portion of land is irrigable. About 9,000 acres are submerged under the rising Salton Sea. An Executive order of May 15, 1876, set apart lands for this reservation. An act of February 11, 1903, added 640 acres to the reservation in exchange for lands to be set apart for the Torres Band under the act of 1891. CULTURE A variety of reasons caused the majority of members to move off the reservation; however, the tribal traditions, language, foods, kinship, and religion maintain ties between the resident and the nonresident. GOVERNMENT The governing body is a five-member council elected to a 2-year term. There are four officers-chairman, vice chairman, secretary-treasurer, and a spokesman-and four committee members. CLIMATE The reservation lies in south-central California, having frontage on the Salton Sea. Temperatures average a high of 1200 and a low of 280. Rainfall averages 3.4 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION The reservation is located 9 miles from Indio which is served by commercial air, train, truck, and bus companies. A private airport is located in Thermal, 3 miles distant. U.S. Highway 111 runs north-south through Thermal. 157 TORRES MARTINEZ RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe has a water system; however, there are no sewer facilities. Residents purchase bottled gas, and electricity is supplied by Southern California Edison. The county hospital and clinic in Indio serve the Indian community. Medical and dental care is also available from private doctors. A community building is under construction. RECREATION A marina is being developed on the water frontage. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 42 Labor Force: Total: 18 Unemployed: 12 Unemployment rate: 67% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 158 TRINIDAD RANCHERIA Humboldt County, CALIFORNIA Yurok Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Trinidad, California 95570 Federal Reservation Population: 26 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: 54.60 acres Trinidad Rancheria was established by the Secretary of the Interior in 1917. Acts of June 6, 1906, and others appropriated funds for purchase of lands for California Indians. Presently, the rancheria is in the process of being terminated under the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are 26 Indians residing on or adjacent to the reservation. (BIA Sacramento Area Off ice-January 1970.) GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a five-member business committee elected for 2-year staggered terms. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 159 TULE RIVER RESERVATION Tulare County, CALIFORNIA Tule River Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Porterville, California 93257 Federal Reservation Population: 316 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 54,116 acres An act of April 18, 1864, authorized the establishment of Indian reservations in California. An Executive order of January 9, 1873, established the Tule River Reservation. CULTURE The culture of the Tule River Tribe still remains evident in daily life. , GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws were approved January 15, 1936, as amended July 12, 1940. The tribe is governed by a tribal council, composed of nine members elected annually for 2-year terms. CLIMATE In this geographical location the summers are warm, but the average climate is generally mild. The topography is moun- tainous, with timber, a river, and a small valley. The average rainfall per year is about 10 inches. Temperatures average a low of 260 and a high of 900. TRANSPORTATION Vital Statistics Porterville has the nearest commercial airline, bus, and truck services. Tulare, 45 miles away, has train facilities. A county Population: road serves the reservation. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to A tribal water system provides the reservation with water. Gas reservation: 316 is not used on the reservation. Electricity is provided by Labor Force: Southern California Edison. Indoor plumbing, septic tanks, Total: 106 Unemployed: 72 and outhouses make up the sewer system. Hospital, clinic, and Unemployment dental facilities are available in Porterville, 21 miles from the rate: 68% reservation. Education:. (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 160 TUOLUMNE RANCHERIA Tuolumne County, CALIFORNIA Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians Tribal Headquarters: Tuolumne, California 95379 Federal Reservation Population: 64 (131A 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 323.10 acres All the land is allotted. The- land was purchased in October 1910, and additional land was set aside in April 1912. The deed is in the name of the United States. CULTURE The roundhouse is the cultural center where Indian games and dances are held. Although the language is not spoken by many, the dances are still taught to the young people. Traditional native foods such as acorns and pine nuts are still eaten. GOVERNMENT The tribe has an Indian Reorganization Act constitution and bylaws which were approved in 1936 and amended in 1940. The governing body, a community council, is composed of all qualified voters. A four-member business committee is elected at the November election for a 1-year term. CLIMATE The seasons are generally mild. Rainfall averages 32 inches per year. Temperatures vary from highs of 930 to lows of 33". TRANSPORTATION The rancheria is 4 miles from Tuolumne. The Twin Hard Road, Vital Statistics in need of repair, provides access to the rancheria. State Highway 108 is 11 miles away. A busline stops in Tuolumne. Population: Sonora, 10 miles from the rancheria, has train and truck services. Indians residing The nearest airport having commercial service is in Stockton, on or adjacent to 60 miles away. There is a private airport at Columbia. reservation: 64 Labor Force: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Total: 44 Pacific Gas and Electric provides the rancheria with water and Unemployed: 15 electricity. Only bottled gas is available. Hospital and other Unemployment medical services are available in Sonora. The Indian Health rate: 34% Service has a branch at the reservation. There are round- Education: houses and a community building on the rancheria. (tribal estimates) RECREATION Average grade The tribe holds an annual Acorn Festival in September. level achieved: 1 Oth 161 TWENTYNINE PALMS RESERVATION San Bernardino county, CALIFORNIA Twentynine Palms Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: North Palm Springs, California 92258 Federal Reservation Population: 0 (BIA 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 162.13 acres This reservation was established on November 11, 1895, under authority of the act of 1891. At the present time the reservation is uninhabited. The reservation is all desert. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under Articles of Association approved May 24,1972. It is governed by a general council composed of all members over 18 years old, and a four-member business committee elected for 2-year terms. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 162 UPPER LAKE RANCHERIA Lake County, CALIFORNIA Pomo Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Upper Lake, California 95485 Federal Reservation Population: 64 (BIA 8/69) LAND STATUS Total Area: NA The original 483.64 acres for the Upper Lake Rancheria were purchased by the Secretary of the Interior on February 15, 1907, and additional lands were purchased under the Howard- Wheeler Act in 1937. Presently, the rancheria is in the process of being terminated under the Rancheria Act, Public Law 85-671, as amended by Public Law 88-419. There are 64 Indians residing on or adjacent to the reservation. (BIA Sacramento Area Office-January 1970.) Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable VIEJAS RESERVATION San Diego County, CALIFORNIA Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians Tribal Headquarters: Alpine, California 92001 Federal Reservation Population: 98 (BIA 2/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,609 acres This reservation of the Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians is owned by Indians of the Barona Reservation, Viejas (Baron Long) Reservation, and an off-reservation group. An Executive order of December 27, 1875, established the reservation, and an Executive order of May 3,1877, restored a portion to public domain. CULTURE Very little of the Indian language is spoken, but the traditional practices are still favored. CLIMATE The reservation is located in southern San Diego County where the land is flat, with an average rainfall of about 6.3 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 1051 and a low of 26'. TRANSPORTATION Airline and train facilities are available 33 miles west of the reservation. Bus- and truckiines are available at Alpine and El Cajon. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Wells provide water for the people, and gas and electricity are provided by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company. There are no sewer systems for the reservation. Hospital, clinic, dental and U.S. Public Health Service medical services are available at El Cajon and San Diego. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 98 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 164 X L RANCH RESERVATION Modoc County, CALIFORNIA Pit River and Paiute Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Alturas, California 96101 Federal Reservation Population: 29 (131A 6/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 9,254.86 acres Tribally Owned: 9,254.86 acres The reservation was established on October 13,1938, for such bands of the Pit River Indians of the State of California as were designated by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the act of 1934. The deed is held in trust by the United States Government. CULTURE The elders of both tribes speak their native language. An arts and crafts project has begun in Alturas. The people practice their traditional religion. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under Articles of Association approved in 1960, as the Pit River Home and Agriculture Cooperative Association. The board of directors has five members. Elections are held each December for 1-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal members have formed the Indian Cattlemen Association and operate the tribal cattle herd. There is no other economic activity on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 12 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 850 and a low of -29?. TRANSPORTATION Alturas, 6 miles from the reservation, is served by bus- and Vital Statistics trucklines. There is also a private airport; however, the nearest Population: commercial service is in Redding, 146 miles distant. The Indians residing nearest train service is in Redding. on or adjacent to COMMUNITY FACILITIES reservation: 29 Water and septic tanks were installed by the U.S. Public Health Education: Service. Only bottled gas is available. Electricity is provided (tribal estimates) by Pacific Gas and Electric. Hospital and other medical care is Average grade available in Alturas at the Modoc Medical Center. There is a level achieved: 1 Oth Modoc Arts and Crafts Center. 165 Colorado 4- r Buckskin Charlie, chief of the Southern Ute Tribe, Colorado SOUTHERN UTE RESERVATION La Plata, Archuleta, and Montezuma Counties, COLORADO Mouache and Capote Ute Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Ignacio, Colorado 81137 Federal Reservation Population: 770 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 307,110 acres Tribally Owned: 301,867 acres Allotted: 4,966 acres Government Owned: 277 acres The reservation was opened years ago to homesteading by non-Indians; thus it is now checker-boarded with Indian and non-Indian landholdings. Indian lands within the reservation total less than half of the 818,000 acres enclosed by the original reservation boundaries. Today more non-Indians than Indians live within the boundaries of the reservation. HISTORY Originally the Southern Ute, composed of the Mouache, Capote, and Wiminuche Bands, were settled on a reservation in south- western Colorado under a treaty negotiated in 1873. The reservation as first established was 15 miles wide and about 125 miles long. In the years after the reservation was estab- lished, one group of Ute, the Wiminuche Band, separated from the original tribe and moved to the western end of the reser- vation. The reservation was divided, and the Wiminuche became today's Ute Mountain Tribe. CULTURE The Ute tribes displayed characteristics of the Plains Indians and often appeared on the plains to hunt buffalo. In their early history, they traveled by foot insmall bands of 25 to 30 people. Leadership of these bands was very informal. The scant re- sources required that people exploit all edible resources, be highly mobile, and have efficient food-gathering techniques. The Ute usually wintered with several other Ute bands, but there was no real tribal unity. By 1740, the Ute had acquired and adapted to horses. With this animal they had a greatly increased mobility, food supply, and leisure. The present reservation has a tricultural base from the Spanish-Americans and Anglos living there. 167 SOUTHERN UTE RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The tribal constitution authorizes a tribal council of six mem- bers elected by popular vote of the general tribe to be the governing body of the tribe. The tribal council, subject to any restrictions contained in the tribal constitution and United States law, has the rights and powers to: manage tribal real and personal property; make and perform contracts and agree- ments; engage in business; enact and enforce ordinances to promote public peace, safety, and welfare; and negotiate and assign tribal security for loans. The tribe is organized as a Federal corporation for business purposes. TRIBAL ECONOMY The Southern Ute Reservation lies in the southwestern portion of Colorado and borders on the Ute Mountain Reservation. The tribe is currently exploiting the mineral deposits on the reser- vation which include oil and gas, coal, and sand and gravel. The tribe has an annual income of $448,800 and employs 22 persons. There are many commercial establishments in Durango and Cortez; however, most of them are owned by non-Indians. The tribe owns and operates Southern Ute Motel- Pino Nuche Purasa. It opened in January 1972 and employs 40 to 44 tribal members. CLIMATE The rainfall averages 15 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1000 to a low of -380. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 550 runs north-south through the reservation; U.S. Highway 160 runs' east-west through Durango and Cortez. Durango is 25 milles northeast of the reservation and is served by commercial air and train companies; Ignacio, on the reser- vation, has bus and truck services. 168 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Ignacio has a municipal water and sewer system. The Southern Union Gas Company supplies gas to the reservation area. Western Colorado Power Company and La Plata Electric Association provide the electricity. The U.S. Public Health Service maintains a clinic for tribal members in the Ignacio area. There are two hospitals in Durango. Tribal offices are located in Ignacio. RECREATION Theaters are located in Durango. The annual Southern Ute Bear Dance and the Southern Ute Sun Dance attract many visitors. The Southern Ute also hold an annual tribal fair. The Southern Ute Community Center, opened in January 1972, provides meeting and convention facilities as well as facilities for training programs. There are a community swimming pool and a large multipurpose room, gymnasium-size, for all types of recreational activities. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 770 Labor Force: Total: 242 Unemployed: 86 Unemployment rate: 36% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 169 UTE MOUNTAIN RESERVATION Montezuma and La Plata Counties, COLORADO San Juan County, NEW MEXICO San Juan County, UTAH Wiminuche Ute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Towaoc, Colorado 81334 Federal Reservation Population: 1,374 (BIA 3/72) LAND,STATUS Total Area: 595,787 acres Tribally Owned: 557,878 acres Allotted: 9,459 acres Government Owned: 40 acres Tribal Fee Patent: 28,410 acres HISTORY The Ute belong to the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. They once occupied territory ranging from southern Wyoming to Taos Pueblo, New Mexico. At the peak of their power, seven main bands were united in a powerful con- federacy under the chief, Talwi. The Ute's best known chief, Ouray, came into prominence in the early years of westward settlement. Ouray was an able diplomat who spoke Spanish and English in addition to several Indian languages. The first treaty between the Confederated Tribes of Ute and the United States was negotiated with Ouray. Today the descendants of the Ute Confederacy live on three major reservations: Uintah and Ouray, Southern Ute, and Ute Mountain. CULTURE The Ute tribes displayed many characteristics of the Plains Indians, often appearing on the plains to hunt buffalo. In their early history, they traveled by foot in small, loosely governed bands of 25 to 30 people. The scant resources required that people exploit all edible resources, be highly mobile, and have efficient food-gathering techniques. They usually wintered together, but there was no real tribal unity. Upon obtaining and adapting to horses by 1740, they became more mobile, had access to a greater food supply, and had more leisure. GOVERNMENT The Ute Mountain Reservation operates under a constitution which provides for a tribal council. The council is composed of seven members, which chooses,from its membership a chair- man, secretary-custodian, treasurer, and other officers. 170 TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation lies in the southwestern corner of Colorado bordering on the Navajo Reservation. Gas, oil, and sand and gravel deposits exist in great quantities and are being exploited. There are also deposits of coal, titanium, selenium, uranium, and bentonite on the reservation. The annual tribal income of over $1 million comes largely from gas and oil leases. The tribe employs approximately 50 people full time. A development committee, composed of Federal and tribal government representatives, has been organized to develop and execute a reservation development plan. There are presently three trading posts, a cafe, and a service station on the reservation. The tribe plans to construct another service station. CLIMATE The rainfall averages 19 inches annually. Temperatures range from a high of 101 0 to a low of -380. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 666 runs through the reservation north-south. U.S. Highway 164 runs through the Four Corners region in the southwestern portion of the reservation to junction with Route 666. A busline stops on the reservation at Towaoc. Cortez, 16 Vital Statistics miles from the reservation, has regularly scheduled air and truck services. The nearest commercial train is in Durango, Population: Colorado, 60 miles from Ute Mountain. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to The water and sewer system was installed by the Bureau of reservation: 11374 Indian Affairs and U.S. Public Health Service. Gas is supplied Labor Force: by the Southern Union Gas Company. The Western Colorado Total: 438 Power Company and the Empire Electric Association supply Unemployed: 167 electricity to the reservation. The U.S. Public Health Service Unemployment hospital is located in Towaoc. There is also a private hospital rate: 38% in Cortez. Education: (tribal estimates) RECREATION Average grade A Bear Dance is held each June. The tribal center in Towaoc level achieved: 6th has meeting and recreational facilities. 171 Connecticut Wooden doll of the Mohegan Tribe Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives EASTERN PEQUOT &WESTERN PEQUOT RESERVATIONS New London County, CONNECTICUT Pequot and Mohegan Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Eastern Pequot Reservation: North Stonington, Connecticut 06359 Western Pequot Reservation: Ledyard, Connecticut 06339 State Reservations Population: (State est. 1/73) Eastern Pequot: 19 Western Pequot: 2 LAND STATUS Eastern Pequot Total Area: 220 acres Western Pequot Total Area: 175 acres HISTORY The Pequot, or "Invaders," arrived in Connecticut in the early 1600's. Following a rebellion by Uncas against the Pequot chief, Sassacus, the tribe split into two factions, one of which followed Uncas and was called the Mohegan, or "Wolf" tribe. In 1637, the colonial settlers attacked the Pequot fort on the Mystic River, and over 600 men, women, and children were killed when the dwellings were set on fire. After this, the few Pequot remaining in Connecticut joined the Mohegan. Most of the Mohegan died, fled to the Mohawk, or were taken into slavery in New England or the West Indies. A few were re- settled on the Mystic River in 1655. Following King Philip's War, the Mohegan were the only southern New England tribe of significance. The Mohegan and Pequot both spoke related dialects of the Algonquian language. RECREATION The descendants of Uncas today maintain a museum which displays the arts and crafts of the Pequot and Mohegan and other aspects of the life of Connecticut Indians. The museum also includes displays of Southwestern and Plains tribes. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 173 GOLDEN HILL RESERVATION Fairfield County, CONNECTICUT Pequot and Mohegan Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Trumbull, Connecticut 06611 State Reservation Population: 2 (State est. 1/73) LAND STATUS Total Area: .26 acre HISTORY The Pequot, or "Invaders," arrived in Connecticut in the early 160.0's. Following a rebellion by Uncas against the Pequot chief, Sassacus, the tribe split into two factions, one of which followed Uncas and was called the Mohegan, or "Wolf" tribe. In 1637, the colonial settlers attacked the Pequot fort on the Mystic River, and over 600 men, women, and children were killed when the dwellings were set on fire. After this, the few Pequot remaining in Connecticut joined the Mohegan. Most of the Mohegan died, fled to the Mohawk, or were taken into slavery in New England or the West Indies. A few were re- settled on the Mystic River in 1655. Following King Philip's War, the Mohegan were the only southern New England tribe of significance. The Mohegan and Pequot both spoke related dialects of the Algonquian language. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailabie 174 S CHAGHTICOKE RESERVATION Litchfield County, CONNECTICUT Schaghticoke Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Kent, Connecticut 06757 State Reservation Population: 2 (State est. 1/73) LAND STATUS Total Area: 400 acres HISTORY The Schaghticoke are descendants of a group of Pequot Indians led by Sassacus, who were driven from the New London, Connecticut, area. They settled on the banks of the Housatonic River where they became known as Pishgachtigok. Later, they took the name Schaghticoke. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 175 Florida ,71 4-47 N 40, INI 4p V%A IL 414, 40 JW Seminole mother and child BIG CYPRESS RESERVATION Hendry County, FLORIDA Seminole Indian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hollywood, Florida 33024 Federal Reservation Population: 343 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 42,700 acres Tribally Owned: 42,700 acres All land is tribally owned. There have been no individual allot- ments. In addition to the reservation, the State of Florida has set aside approximately 104,000 acres adjoining the Big Cypress Reservation called the Florida State Indian Reserva- tion, jointly administered by the Seminole Tribe (northern portion) and the Miccosukee Tribe (southern portion). The Seminole enjoy hunting and fishing rights on this land, most of which is swamp. HISTORY The people who came to be known as "Seminole" (the name means "runaways") were Yamasee, driven from the Carolinas in 1715; Hitchiti-speaking Oconee from the Apalachicola River; and Creeks fleeing Georgia after the Creek War-all of whom were fugitives from the whites. Their ranks were swelled by fugitive slaves who found refuge and freedom among the Indians. Attempts by owners to recover these slaves led to Andrew Jackson's campaigns in 1814 and 181 a. The Seminole were united by the hostility and fear they felt toward the young United States. In 1821, Florida was annexed by the United States, and pressure by white settlers for Seminole lands and farms led to an attempt in 1832 to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi by force. The wife of their chief, Osceola, was seized as a fugitive, and bloody warfare followed as the Semi- nole fought bitterly. When Osceola was captured under a flag of truce, some of his warriors fled into the Everglades. Later, a portion of the tribe were transported to Oklahoma where they formed one of the Five Civilized Tribes. A truce with the United States was finally signed in 1934. Another treaty was con- cluded in 1937. 177 BIG CYPRESS RESERVATION CULTURE With the withdrawal of troops, the Seminole continued to live in scattered locations and pursue a nomadic existence, mostly by hunting and fishing. They lived in small houses built with cypress poles and thatched with palmetto leaves. Their cloth- ing is colorful and elaborate; deerskin leggings have been replaced by cloth pants. The tunics and overblouses are laboriously fashioned from small strips of different colored material all sewed into long rows and then stitched together. Seminole folk arts, including dollmaking, are still followed. The turban, once the headdress of every Seminole brave, has been replaced by the 10-gallon hat. Seasonal Green Corn and Hunting Dances are still performed during festivities. GOVERNMENT The Seminole Tribe's constitution was ratified in 1957. The tribe has an elected five-member tribal council as its governing body. All problems relating to government, law and order, education, welfare, and recreation are handled through standing committees. Authority for the development and management of tribal resources has been delegated to the Seminole Tribe, Inc., a federally chartered corporation. Non- Indian committeemen are appointed by the board of directors to act as honorary consultants for development. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income for all three Seminole reservations is $500,000. Ten percent of this is derived from forestry, 25 percent from farming, 30 percent from business, and 35 percent from other sources. There are over 100 tribal em- ployees. The Seminole Tribe has a housing authority, a devel- opment company, a village and crafts enterprise, and land development, recreation, and cattle improvement enterprises. In addition, the tribe raises mink. CLIMATE Annual rainfall is 62 inches. Temperatures average a high of 820 and a low of 680. 178 TRANSPORTATION State Routes 832 and 846 serve the reservation north-South. The nearest airport is in Miami, 90 miles away. Trains serve Hollywood, 65 miles away, and bus- and trucklines serve Clewiston, 30 miles distant. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is obtained from wells and canals. There is running water in the Indian housing projects. Gas is not used. Electricity is provided by the Glades Cooperative (Rural Electrification Administration), and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) has put in a central sewer system for the new housing units. Hospitals are in Clewiston and Hendry County, and care is provided through the USPHS. There is a clinic on the reservation. RECREATION One theater and a reservation community center serve recreational needs. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 343 Labor Force: Total: 121 Unemployed: 36 Unemployment rate: 30% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 179 BRIGHTON RESERVATION Glades County, FLORIDA Seminole Indian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hollywood, Florida 33024 Federal Reservation Population: 308 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 35,805 acres Tribally Owned: 35,805 acres All land is tribally owned. In addition to the three Seminole reservations, the State of Florida has set aside approximately 104,000 acres adjoining the Big Cypress Reservation called the Florida State Indian Reservation, jointly administered by the Seminole Tribe (northern portion) and the Miccosukee Tribe (southern portion). The Seminole enjoy hunting and fishing rights on this land, most of which is swamp. HISTORY The people who came to be known as "Seminole" (the name means "runaways") were Yamasee, driven from the Carolinas in 1715; Hitchiti-speaking Oconee from the Apalachicola River; and Creeks from the Chattahoochee River area-all of whom moved into Florida to escape the whites. Their ranks were swelled by fugitive slaves who found refuge and freedom among the Indians. Attempts by owners to recover these fugitives led to Andrew Jackson's campaigns in 1814 and 1818. The Seminole were united by the hostility and fear they felt toward the young United States. In 1821, Florida was annexed by the United States, and pressure by white settlers for Seminole lands and farms led to an attempt in 1832 to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi by force. The wife of their chief, Osceola, was seized as a fugitive, and bloody warfare followed as the Seminole fought bitterly. When Osceola was captured under a flag of truce, some of his warriors fled into the Everglades. Later, a portion of the tribe were transported to Oklahoma where they formed one of the Five Civilized Tribes. A truce between the Florida Seminole and the United States was finally signed in 1934. Another treaty was concluded in 1937. CULTURE With the withdrawal of troops, the Seminole continued to live in scattered locations and pursue a nomadic existence, mostly by hunting and fishing. They lived in small houses built with 180 cypress poles and thatched with palmetto leaves. Their clothing is colorful and elaborate; deerskin leggings have been replaced by cloth trousers. Tunics and overblouses are laboriously made of strips of colored cloth sewed into long rows and stitched together. Seminole folk arts, including doll- making, are still followed. The turban, once the headdress of every Seminole brave, has been replaced by the 10-gallon hat. Seasonal Green Corn and Hunting Dances are still performed. GOVERNMENT The Seminole Tribe's constitution was ratified in 1957. The tribe has an elected five-member tribal council as its governing body. All problems relating to government, law and order, education, welfare, and recreation are handled through standing committees. Authority for the development and management of tribal resources has been delegated to the Seminole Tribe, Inc., a federally chartered corporation. Non- Indian committeemen are appointed by the board of directors to act as honorary consultants for development. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income for all three Seminole reservations is $500,000. Ten percent is derived from forestry, 25 percent from Jarming, 30 percent from business, and 35 percent from other sources. There are over 100 tribal employees. The Seminole Tribe has a housing authority, a tribal development company, a village and crafts enterprise, and land development, recreation, and cattle improvement enterprises. In addition, the tribe raises mink. The major mineral resources are phosphates. CLIMATE Annual rainfall is 62 inches. Temperatures average a high of 820 and a low of 680. TRANSPORTATION State Route 721 runs through the reservation north-south. The nearest commercial airline and train service are at Fort Pierce, 75 miles from the reservation.. Buslines serve Brighton, 8 miles away. Commercial trucklines serve Fort Pierce. 181 BRIGHTON RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is available from artesian wells or through a central water system operated by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) for new housing units. Irrigation ditches provide water for crops. Gas is not used. Electricity is provided through the Glades Cooperative, and the USPHS provides sewer service for the new housing units. The nearest hospital is at Okeechobee, and care is provided by the USPHS. A health clinic exists on Brighton Reservation. RECREATION There are a theater and a community center on the reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 308 Labor Force: Total: 98 Unemployed: 31 Unemployment rate: 32% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 182 FLORIDA STATE RESERVATION Broward County, FLORIDA Miccosukee and Seminole Indian Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Hollywood, Florida 33024 State Reservation Population: 0 LAND STATUS Total Area: 104,000 acres The State of Florida has set aside approximately 104,000 acres, including 60 rented from Miami, for the use and benefit of the Seminole and Miccosukee Indians of Florida. These lands are administered jointly by the Seminole Tribe (northern portion) and the Miccosukee Tribe (southern portion). Although much of the land on the State reservation may not be devel- oped, all Seminole enjoy hunting and fishing rights there. The land on the State reservation, outside of the conservation area of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, will, in time, be developed and utilized by the Indians of Florida. There are no houses or commercial buildings on the State reservation now. One or two members of the Seminole Tribe may have permits to run small numbers of cattle in limited acreage. However, much of this land is under water most of the year. The reservation land can be reached by State Highway 84 or the Big Cypress Cross Road maintained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Vital Statistics No other data applicable 183 HOLLYWOOD RESERVATION Broward County, FLORIDA Seminole Indian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Hollywood, Florida 33024 Federal Reservation Population: 430 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 480.87 acres All land is tribally owned. In addition to the three Seminole reservations, the State of Florida has set aside approximately 104,000 acres adjoining the Big Cypress Reservation called the Florida State Indian Reservation, jointly administered by the Seminole Tribe (northern portion) and the Miccosukee Tribe (southern portion). The Seminole enjoy hunting and fishing rights on this land, most of which is swamp. HISTORY The people who came to be known as "Seminole" (the name means "runaways") were Yamasee, driven from the Carolinas in 1715; Hitchiti-speaking Oconee from the Apalachicola River; and Creeks from the Chattahoochee River area-all of whom moved into Florida to escape the whites. Their ranks were swelled by fugitive slaves who found refuge and freedom among the Indians. Attempts by owners to recover these fugitives led to Andrew Jackson's campaigns in 1814 and 1818. The Seminole were united by the hostility and fear they felt toward the young United States. In 1821, Florida was annexed by the United States, and pressure by white settlers for Seminole lands and farms led to an attempt in 1832 to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi by force. Chief Osceola's wife was seized as a fugitive, and bloody warfare followed as the Seminole fought bitterly. When Osceola was captured under a flag of truce, some of his warriors fled into the Everglades. Later, a portion of the tribe were transported to Oklahoma where they formed one of the Five Civilized Tribes. A truce between the Florida Seminole and the United States was finally concluded in 1934. Another treaty was concluded in 1937. 184 CULTURE With the withdrawal of troops, the Seminole lived in scattered locations and pursued a nomadic existence, mostly by hunting and fishing. They lived in small houses built with cypress poles and thatched with palmetto leaves. On the Hollywood Reservation, however, modern dwellings have replaced the old shelters. Deerskin leggings have been replaced by cloth trousers. The clothing is colorful and difficult to make. Tunics and overblouses are laboriously made of strips of colored cloth sewed into long rows and stitched together. Seminole folk arts, including dollmaking, are still followed. The turban, once the headdress of every Seminole brave, has been replaced by the 10-gallon hat. Seasonal Green Corn and Hunting Dances are still performed and are occasions for meetings and festivities. GOVERNMENT The Seminole Tribe's constitution was ratified in 1957. The tribe has an elected five-member tribal council as its governing body. All problems relating to government, law and order, education, welfare, and recreation are handled through standing committees. Authority for the development and management of tribal resources has been delegated to the Seminole Tribe, Inc., a federally chartered corporation. Non- Indian committeemen are appointed by the board of directors to act as honorary consultants for development. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual tribal income for all three Seminole reservations is- $500,000. Ten percent is derived from forestry, 25 percent from farming,,30 percent from business, and 35 percent from other sources. There are over 100 tribal employees. The Seminole Tribe has a housing authority, a tribal development company, a village and crafts enterprise, and land development, recreation, and cattle improvement enterprises. In addition, the tribe raises mink. Bunker-Ramo Corporation and Okalee Village are located on the reservation. Mineral resources are dolomite, high quality sand, and oil. 185 HOLLYWOOD RESERVATION CLIMATE Annual rainfall is 62 inches. Temperatures average a high of 8211 and a low of 680. TRANSPORTATION State roads and the Florida Turnpike serve the reservation. The nearest airport is located in Miami, 25 miles away. Train-, bus-, and trucklines serve Hollywood, 3 miles distant. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by the city of Hollywood. Gas is not used. Florida Power and Light Company provides electricity, and individual septic tanks provide for sewage disposal. Broward General Hospital at Dania provides care through the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). There is a USPHS clinic in Hollywood. RECREATION There are two drive-in theaters on the reservation, a community center, the Indian Village, and the Craft Shop. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 430 Labor Force: Total: 163 Unemployed: 27 Unemployment rate: 17% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 186 MICCOSUKEE RESERVATION Dade County, FLORIDA Miccosukee Indian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Homestead, Florida 33030 Federal Reservation Population: 430 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 333.3 acres The tribe holds, on a 50-year permit from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the National Park Service, a strip of land 51/2 miles long and 500 feet wide, containing 333.3 acres. This land, known as the Tamiami Trail, is not available for industrial or commercial development. Three tracts of land 600 feet by 65 feet were dedicated in perpetuity by the State of Florida for the sole use and benefit of the tribe. This land is similar to trust land and is available for industrial and commercial development. Presently being developed are a grocery store, service station, and a restaurant. The Florida State Indian Reservation, dedicated in perpetuity to the tribe by the State, is uninhabited. A court decision recently placed the land in a trust status. Future plans call for a campsite in this area. HISTORY The Miccosukee Tribe is politically, but not linguistically or ethnically, separate from the Seminole Tribe of Florida. Its history is the same as that for the Seminole. The Seminole were originally immigrants from Georgia and North Carolina who moved across the border into Florida to escape the clash of Spanish and British interests. Their ranks were swelled by fugitive slaves who found refuge and freedom among the Indians. Friction over recovery of these fugitives led to Andrew Jackson's campaigns of 1814 and 1818. The United States Government in 1832, in possession of Florida, attempted to remove the Seminole west of the Mississippi by force. The seizure of Chief Osceola's wife precipitated war. During the war, Osceola was captured under a flag of truce. Later, a portion of the Seminole were removed to Oklahoma, but about 150 fled into the Everglades. In 1937, when a treaty was signed between the Seminole and United States, the Miccosukee did not join. 187 MICCOSUKEE RESERVATION CULTURE The Miccosukee led a nomadic life hiding out from United States troops for long periods in their history. They survived by hunting and fishing, building small shelters with wooden frames and palmetto-leaf roofs. Their homes today are being replaced with more modern units. Their dress is both colorful and difficult to make, being constructed from many strips of different colored material. Folk arts still exist, and the seasonal Green Corn and Hunting Dances are performed. Most of the Miccosukee have retained their Indian religion, whereas the Seminole are largely Christians. GOVERNMENT The Miccosukee Tribe was officially organized on January 11, 1962, with the adoption of a constitution and bylaws pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act. There is no direct connection with the Seminole Tribe organization, although blood relation- ships exist. The governing body of the tribe is composed of four matrilineal clans, and the business committee is composed of one member from each clan elected for a 3-year period of office. Membership in the tribe is open to Indians of Florida Seminole blood who make formal application for membership. TRIBAL ECONOMY The income of the tribe averages $4,300 annually, 95 percent from grazing and right-of-way leases and 5 percent from business. There are fourfull-time tribal employees. The tribe owns and operates the Miccosukee Restaurant and Tiger's Indian Village. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 62 inches annually. Temperatures average a high of 820 and a low of 68'. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 41 runs through the reservation east-west. The nearest airline is in Miami, 40 miles from the reservation. Train- and trucklines are available in Miami. Commercial buslines pass through and stop on the reservation. 188 COMMUNITY FACILITIES There is a community water system for the new housing units. Bottled gas is obtainable. Florida Power and Light Company provides electricity. The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) has installed sewage disposal facilities for the new housing. There is USPHS contract care hospitalization available in Miami. The Miccosukee Tribal Settlement has a USPHS- operated clinic. RECREATION The Green Corn Ceremony is held every year in addition to Indian religious ceremonies. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 430 Labor Force: Total: 195 Unemployed: 84 Unemployment rate: 43% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 4th 189 Idaho 47 V, 44 A- _'AIR 44. P - IN, Z% 7W "K "A T Battle recorded in pictographs, near Horse Creek (D National Geographic Society COEUR D'ALENE RESERVATION Benewah and Kootenai Counties, IDAHO Coeur d'Alene Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Plummer, Idaho 83851 Federal Reservation Population: 569 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 69,299 acres Tribally Owned: 16,236 acres Allotted: 53,063 acres HISTORY The Coeur d'Alene Tribe was one of 25 of the seminomadic Plateau Indian tribes. They were known as a peaceful group, but were dissatisfied with treaties being negotiated for their lands. In 1858, the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane, who had long declared with truth that they had never shed the blood of a white man, united with the Palouse and Yakima to defeat the United States forces near Rosalia, Washington. The following year an expedition overwhelmed the tribes, forcing their surrender and destroying their horses. The Indians were then contained on reservations, ceding vast areas of their lands. CULTURE The Coeur d'Alene ranged over the dry uplands of Idaho, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington. All Plateau tribes were traditionally fishermen and hunters, who wandered over the country in small, loosely organized bands searching for game, wild seeds, berries, and roots of camas. With basketry techniques that ranked among the best in North America, they wove the grasses and scrubby brush of the plateau into almost everything they used, including portable summer shelters, clothing, and watertight cooking pots. Having no clans, Plateau Indians counted descent on both sides of the family. There was little formal organization. The few tribal ceremonies centered around the food supply. After the early 1700's, horses became prevalent among the tribes- men, and they became highly skilled horsemen. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under a constitution approved on September 2, 1949, and amended in 1961. This constitution provides for a general council form of government. The seven- member tribal council is elected to a 3-year term to administer the tribal business activities. 191 COEUR D'ALENE RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has an annual income of approximately $30,000. An investment fund of $150,000 is available for scholarships for students continuing their education beyond high school. CLIMATE The rainfall averages 14 inches per year. The temperature varies from a high of 850 to a low of 00. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 95 is the major north-south route through the reservation connecting with Interstate 90 to the north to Spokane, Washington. The nearest commercial airline service is located in Spokane, 30 miles from the reservation. Trains, buses, and trucks have regular stops in Coeur d'Alene, 25 miles north of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Washington Power Company provides electricity to the reservation. Medical care for the tribe is available in a private hospital in Spokane. RECREATION Coeur d'Alene Lake, with a shoreline of 125 miles, extends along the eastern boundary of the reservation and offers excellent water sports. Big game hunting as well as upland bird and waterfowl hunting are also available in the area. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 569 Labor Force: Total: 176 Unemployed: 94 Unemployment rate: 53% 192 FORT HALL RESERVATION' Bannock, Bingham, Caribou, and Power Counties, IDAHO Shoshone and Bannock Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Fort Hall, Idaho 83203 Federal Reservation Population: 2,744 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 524,01.4.31 acres Tribally Owned: 224,005.78 acres Allotted: 257,665.73 acres Government Owned: 42,342.80 acres HISTORY The Bannock are a Shoshonean tribe who originally lived in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. In the late 1700's, they were assigned to the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho. The failure of the Government to provide sufficient food for the tribe led to a series of conflicts between whites and the Bannock. Although they fought bitterly for their traditional homeland, by 1880 they had been subdued and returned to the Fort Hall Reservation. CULTURE The Shoshone and Bannock were of seminomadic Plateau Indian culture, ranging over the dry uplands of Idaho and eastern Oregon. They were traditionally fishermen and hunters who wandered over the country in small, loosely organized bands searching for game, wild seeds, berries, and roots of camas. With basketry techniques that ranked among the best in North America, they wove the grasses and scrubby brush of the plateau into almost everything they used, including portable summer shelter, clothing, and watertight cooking pots. Having no clans, Plateau Indians counted descent on both sides of the family. There was little formal organization. The few tribal ceremonies centered around the food supply. After the early 1700's, horses became prevalent among the tribesmen, and they became highly skilled horsemen. GOVERNMENT The tribes are organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, operating under a constitution approved on April 30, 1936, and a charter ratified on April 17, 1937. The Fort Hall Business Council consists of persons elected from the reser- vation to 2-year terms. The council has authority over purchases, borrowing, engaging in business, performing contracts, and other normal business procedures. 193 FORT HALL RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribes have an annual income of approximately $500,000. The tribes provide $15,000 annually for student scholarships based on need. The Land Purchase Enterprise is a tribal organization whose purpose is to increase the amount of .tribally owned land. Two industries are located on the reser- vation: Food Machinery Chemical Corporation and the J.R. Simplot Company. Both are privately owned. Deposits of phos- phate on the reservation are being extracted commercially. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the southeastern segment of Idaho where the rainfall averages 12 inches annually. The temperature varies from a high of 90' to a low of 13'. TRANSPORTATION Interstate 15 and U.S. Highway 91 are north-south traffic arteries, while U.S. Highway 30 runs east-west through the reservation. The nearest town where commercial transportation is available is Pocatello, Idaho, 12 miles from the reservation. Vital Statistics Transportation by air, bus, train, and truck is available there. Population: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Indians residing The Fort Hall Reservation is served by the Fort Hall Water and on or adjacent to Sewer District. The sewer system on the reservation was reservation: 2,744 1nstalled by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). The Labor Force: intermountain Gas Company provides gas fuel for the area. Total: 1,136 Electricity is supplied by the Idaho Power Company. Medical Unemployed: 398 care is available to tribal members at the USPHS clinic in Unemployment Fort Hall. rate: 35% RECREATION Education: The tribes' main celebration is the Festival, usually held the (tribal estimates) first week in August at Fort Hall. They also hold two or three Average grade Sun Dances each summer during July and August. The tribes level achieved: 7th also hold an all-Indian rodeo and traditional dance activities Number graduated during holidays. from college in 1972: 3 194 KOOTENAI RESERVATION Boundary County, IDAHO Kootenai Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Bonners Ferry, Idaho 83805 Federal Reservation Population: 51 (131A 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 2,695 acres Government Owned: 12 acres Allotted: 2,683 acres HISTORY The Kootenai Tribe is one of the seminomadic Plateau Indian tribes whose livelihood was centered around a natural abundance of fish and forests. These people acquired horses in the early 1700's and rapidly became excellent horsemen, widely known for breeding and horsedealing. They bred the well-known appaloosa. In the spring of 1855, the Kootenai and other "horse" tribes were called together for a treatymaking. After expressing dissatisfaction with lands offered, the Kootenai and 16 other tribes were established on reservations and ceded vast areas of land in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington Territories. CULTURE The Kootenai ranged over the dry uplands of Idaho, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington. All Plateau tribes were traditionally fishermen and hunters who wandered over the country in small, loosely organized bands searching for game, wild seeds, berries, and roots of camas. With basketry techniques that ranked among the best in North America, they wove the grasses and scrubby brush of the plateau into almost everything they used, including portable summer shelters, clothing, and watertight cooking pots. Having no clans, Plateau Indians counted descent on both sides of the family. There was little formal organization. The few tribal ceremonies centered around the food supply. GOVERNMENT The tribe is not organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, but operates under a constitution which was approved on June 16, 1947. The tribal council is the administrative operating head of the tribe and consists of five members, one being a chief with life tenure. 195 KOOTENAI RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE This reservation lies in the northernmost part of Idaho, near the Canadian border. The temperatures here reach an average high of 800 in the summer and fall to an average low of -10' in the winter. Precipitation measures about 14 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 95 runs north-south just west of the reservation. Commercial buses and trucks serve Bonners Ferry, 10 miles from Kootenai. The nearest commercial train stops in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, 85 miles south of the reservation. Spokane, Washington, which is located 115 miles southwest of the reservation, is served by commercial airlines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES A hospital in Coeur d'Alene is available for the medical needs of the Kootenai Tribe. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 51 Labor Force: Total: 26 Unemployed: 23 Unemployment rate: 88% 196 NEZ PERCE RESERVATION Nez Perce, Lewis, Clearwater, and Idaho Counties, IDAHO Nez Perce Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lapwai, Idaho 83540 Federal Reservation Population: 1,485 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 87,496.92 acres Tribally Owned: 34,185.50 acres Allotted: 53,311.42 acres HISTORY The Nez Perce have always made their home in the north- western part of the United States where the Lewis and Clark Expedition met them. Under the Treaty of 1855, the tribe ceded most of its territory and settled on lands in Idaho and Oregon. With the discovery of gold in the early 1860's, the area was overrun by prospectors. To Nez Perce demands for enforce- ment of treaty terms, the Indian Commissioners responded by calling another treaty council in 1863 to persuade the Nez Perce to "adjust the boundaries of the reservation." Subsequent negotiations divided the tribe into three factions. As none of the faction leaders would yield, the tribe decided to disband, leaving each leader free to negotiate treaties. One group signed an agreement reducing the size of the reservation by three-fourths in return for cash and new build- ings, believing that those who did not sign would not be bound. White officials maintained that the treaty bound the entire Nez Perce Nation. In 1877, the Indians, under Chief Joseph the Young, were ordered to leave the Wallowa Valley; however, a small group rebelled and killed some settlers. The resulting Nez Perce War included some 18 encounters with United States troops as the Indians managed to outmaneuver them. This earned the Nez Perce fame in battle, and, as a result, Chief Joseph was the second American Indian to be placed in the National Hall of Fame of American Indians. Eventually defeated by superior numbers, the tribe settled on the present reservation. 197 NEZ PERCE RESERVATION CULTURE The Nez Perce were of seminomadic Plateau Indian culture ranging over the dry uplands of Idaho, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington. All Plateau tribes were traditionally fishermen and hunters, who wandered over the country in small, loosely organized bands searching for game, wild seeds, 'berries, and roots of camas. With basketry techniques that ranked among the best in North America, they wove the grasses and scrubby brush of the plateau into almost every- thing they used, including portable summer shelters, clothing, and watertight cooking pots. Having no clans, Plateau Indians counted descent on both sides of the family. There was little formal organization. The few tribal ceremonies centered around the food supply. After the early 1700's, horses became prevalent among the tribesmen, and they became highly skilled horsemen. GOVERNMENT The tribe is not organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, but operates under a constitution which was approved in 1958 and revised in 1961. The Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee is the official governing body of the tribe, as authorized by the revised tribal constitution. The committee has a membership of nine persons who are elected at large, but distributed geographically to give the reservation wide representation. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal annual income is slightly more than $180,000. The Nez Perce operate a land lease enterprise and a revolving loan program. The rights to quarry limestone deposits are leased. CLIMATE The reservation is located in the northwestern portion of Idaho near the Wash i ngton-Oregon border where the annual rainfall averages 15 inches. Temperature varies from a summer high of 850 to a winter low of 00. 198 TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 95 crosses the reservation north-south. U.S. Highway 12 runs east-west through the reservation. Train-, bus-, and trucklines have stops on the reservation. Lewiston, 11 miles from the reservation, is served by commercial airlines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Reservation residents draw their water from wells. Gas is provided by the Washington Water and Power Company. The same company and the Clearwater Power Company provide electricity to the reservation. Pacific Northwest Bell provides telephone service to the area. Health care is extended to the tribe at the Lewiston Community Hospital. The tribe has two community buildings for use of the residents. RECREATION The Nez Perce National Historical Park is a scenic area containing historical sites of early-day Nez Perce Indians and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 1,485 Labor Force: Total: 398 Unemployed: 110 Unemployment rate: 28% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th Number graduated from college in 1972: 20-25 199 Iowa A 7,- Sac and Fox Indians on Mississippi River shore Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives SAC AND FOX RESERVATION Tama County, IOWA Sac and Fox (Mesquakie) Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Bureau of Indian Aff airs School, Tama, Iowa 52339 Federal Reservation Population: 561 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,476 acres Tribally Owned: 3,476 acres In 1856, tribal leaders bought 80 acres of land in Tama County, Iowa, and placed them in trust with the Governor of Iowa. Additional land purchases increased the total acreage. In 1896, the Bureau of Indian Affairs assumed jurisdiction over the tribe, and the land is now held in trust by the United States Government. There have been no individual allotments. The people are scattered throughout the reservation. HISTORY The Sac and Fox once lived in the New England area and migrated west. They first encountered Europeans, the French, near present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, in 1635. Frequently at war with other tribes, the Sac and Fox maintained relatively peaceful relations with the whites. The two tribes joined to- gether in a politicai alliance in 1734. Pressured by settlement in the east, the Sac and Fox Tribes moved south and west. Chief Black Hawk, a Sac, led the tribes in a war to preserve their land in Illinois. Ultimately they were driven across the Mississippi River into Iowa. Removed against their will to Kansas and faced with another removal to Oklahoma, several of their leaders purchased land in Iowa with money saved, supplemented by the sale of their ponies. The tribes returned to Iowa and settled. CULTURE The Fox call themselves "Mesquakie" or "Red Earth People"; the Sac call themselves "Osakiwug" or "People of the Yellow Earth." Both are Woodland tribes closely related to the Chip- pewa. They lived in permanent villages of rectangular houses and raised crops in the summer. In winter they followed the herds and lived in portable wigwams. The Sac and Fox, unlike other Woodland tribes, are patrilineal. Artwork includes ribbon applique in stylized designs, beadwork, silverwork, and weav- ing. The tribe values its traditions. The people speak their own language and learn English as a second language. 201 SAC AND FOX RESERVATION GOVERNMENT Tribal politics are polarized along the issues of Indian or white practices. The traditional party prefers to retain much of the culture, own the land cooperatively, and reinstate the hereditary chief, while the other party wants to change the reservation to more closely resemble the surrounding towns. At present, the tribal council, composed of a chief, assistant chief, secretary, treasurer, and three council members, meets monthly. Elections are held every 2 years, and council member- ship is staggered. Members all live on the reservation and are elected at large. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income averages $10,000 annually. It is derived from two leases to non-Indian farmers. The tribe does not have any full-time employees. All time is contributed to the tribe by its members. There is one commercial establishment on the reser- vation, Tamacraft, a part-time enterprise owned and operated by a tribal member. It employs two. There are no minerals on the reservation; however, the soil is rich for farming. CLIMATE Rainfall is approximately 31 inches per year. The average temperature is 500. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 30 passes east-west in the northern part of the reservation. U.S. Highway 63 is a north-south highway that runs to the east of the reservation. U.S. Highway 180 is 21 miles to the south. Commercial airlines are in Cedar Rapids (48 miles east), Waterloo, and Des Moines, Iowa. Two railroads have tracks running through the reservation, but the nearest freight siding is in Tama, 3 miles east. Bus- and trucklines serve Tama and Toledo. 202 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water for residents comes from wells and springs. No gas is presently available to the reservation. The Rural Electrification Administration and the Iowa Power Company provide electric- ity. Septic tanks are the only provisions for sewage. A com- munity hospital is located in Marshalltown, and the University of Iowa Hospital in Iowa City also provides medical care for the tribe. The U.S. Public Health Service operates a clinic in Tama and contracts with local doctors. RECREATION A variety of recreation programs are organized and held in the Bureau of Indian Affairs community building each year. The annual tribal powwow, planned and managed by tribal mem- bers, is held in August and includes Indian dances representing the tribe's history and tradition. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 561 Labor Force: Total: 145 Unemployed: 51 Unemployment rate: 35% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 203 ,Kansas S 'R [email protected] AF [email protected] [email protected] 'A; Massica, a Sac (left), and Wakusasse, a Fox U.S. Signal Corps [email protected] [email protected] IOWA RESERVATION Richardson County, NEBRASKA Brown County, KANSAS Iowa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Horton, Kansas 66439 Federal Reservation Population: 770 (BIA 12/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,219 acres Tribally Owned: 715 acres Allotted: 504 acres The original reservation area included 11,770 acres assigned to 143 individuals. Under a current agreement, individuals who are assigned land are required to pay 4 percent of the ap- praised value of the improvements to the land annually to the tribe. Thus far very little money has been paid to the tribe. Presently 634 acres of tribally owned land are assigned to 12 Indian farmers. HISTORY The Iowa are closely related to the Winnebago, Otoe, and Missouria Tribes. They are thought to have lived on the Missis- sippi River along the Upper Iowa River, moving later into northwestern Iowa and southwestern Minnesota. They later moved to Council Bluffs. About 1760, the Iowa moved east, settling along the Mississippi between the Iowa and Des Moines Rivers. In 1814, they were allotted lands in what was known as the Platte Purchase. They encountered difficulties with the Sioux and were defeated by the Sac warrior, Black Hawk, in 1821. In treaties signed in 1824, 1830, 1836, and 1837, they ceded all their claims to lands in Missouri and Iowa to the United States Government. In addition, claims to lands in Minnesota were surrendered in the Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1825. The original Iowa Reservation was established by the treaty of 1836 and was reduced by the treaties of May 17, 1854, and March 6, 1861. CULTURE The Iowa Tribe is a member of the Siouan linguistic family, specifically the Chiwere subdivision which included the Otoe and Missouria. Due to many years of intermarriage with non- Indians, the Iowa do not appear to be Indians. As a result, they have intermingled with non-Indians in nearby towns and encountered little discrimination. 205 IOWA RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. A constitution, charter, and bylaws were adopted in 1937. The governing body is the executive committee formed by a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, treasurer, and one councilman. Elections are held each July. The executive com- mittee has broad powers and can act in all matters except tribal claims. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation is in an area which has primarily an agri- cultural econom 'y. The growing season extends from early May to early October. The nearby towns, Falls City, Nebraska, and Hiawatha, Kansas, are also dependent on agriculture. The one tract of tribal land not in the allotment program is leased to a member of the tribe to produce income for the expenses of the tribal government. The reservation resources produce income only from agriculture. Total income from leases is about $1,000 annually. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 32 inches per year. Temperatures average 540 and reach a high of 1100 and a low of -200. TRANSPORTATION All roads on the reservation are constructed and maintained by the counties. There is no bus or truck service on the res- ervation. However, there is adequate transportation in nearby Horton, Kansas, which has both bus and truck services. The Vital Statistics nearest airport is in Topeka, Kansas. Population: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Indians residing Water and sanitary facilities are available to all homes on the on or adjacent to reservation, but several homes have no bathrooms. This is reservation: 770 also true of homes in the surrounding area. All homes have Education: electricity. U.S. Public Health Service maintains an Indian (tribal estimates) clinic in Horton, Kansas. All facilities are used by the popula- Average grade tion to the fullest extent. level achieved: 1 Oth 206 KICKAPOO RESERVATION Brown County, KANSAS Kickapoo Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Horton, Kansas 66439 Federal Reservation Population: 825 (BIA 12/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 4,852 acres Tribally Owned: 1,162 acres Allotted: 3,690 acres The original reservation was an area of 19,200 acres allotted to 237 individuals. The Kickapoo ceded their lands in Missouri for 768,000 acres in northeastern Kansas in 1832. In 1854, 618,000 acres were ceded to the United States for $300,000. Allotments to 351 individuals took place under the treaty of June 28, 1862. The reservation is now checker-boarded with non-Indian land. HISTORY In the early 1 7th century, the Kickapoo and related Sac and Fox moved into the Wisconsin area, pushed there by the Iroquois. By 1720, the Kickapoo ranged as far south as the Illinois River. About 1765, the Sac and Fox and Kickapoo par- titioned the conquered area of southern Wisconsin. During this period, members of the Kickapoo Band settled near present-day Peoria, others moved east, and a third group migrated to Texas. In 1809 and 1819, the Kickapoo ceded their lands in Illinois to the United States Government. Between 1819 and 1824 they were moved from Illinois to Missouri. Due to difficulties with other tribes and squatters in Missouri, the Kickapoo petitioned for a new reservation in Kansas. This transaction was finalized in 1832. About 1852, a large party of Kickapoo, along with a few Potawatomi, went to Texas. Later, they moved to Mexico, where they became known as "Mexican Kickapoo." In 1863, another dissatisfied band joined them. By 1873, many "Mexican Kickapoo" were induced to return to Indian territory and the reservation in Kansas. Nearly half of the "Mexican Kickapoo" remained in Mexico and were granted a reservation in the Santa Rosa Mountains of eastern Chihuahua. 207 KICKAPOO RESERVATION CULTURE The Kickapoo are culturally and linguistically related to the Sac and Fox Tribes. The Kickapoo actively participate in several religious organizations. The Drum religion, entirely Indian, has the highest degree of participation. The Kanakuk religion also has a high degree of participation, although it is not as traditional as the Drum religion. Other religious organ- izations are the Native American Church and several Christian missions. GOVERNMENT The Kickapoo Tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganiza- tion Act of 1934 and has a constitution and bylaws approved in February 1937, with subsequent amendments. A corporate charter was ratified on June 9, 1937. The tribal council is composed of seven members. Council members are elected by the tribe and, in turn, elect four officers from their own membership for 2-year terms. Matters pertaining to tribal claims and to the approval of membership applications can be acted upon only by the general council. TRIBAL ECONOMY The area is agriculturally.oriented, with a growing season of a full 5 months. Tribal income is almost $7,400 annually, much of which comes from agricultural leases to non-Indians. The only employment opportunities on the reservation are seasonal farm jobs. Residents generally find employment in the small nearby towns, while some commute to Topeka, Atchison, and the larger towns. There are garment factories and a foundry in the area. There are no commercial estab- lishments on the reservation. CLIMATE The average annual rainfall is 34 inches. The average tempera- ture is 5311, with a high of 110' and a low of -20". 208 TRANSPORTATION State Highway 20 passes through the reservation running east-west. U.S. Highway 75 is 1 mile from the reservation's western border, connecting the reservation with Topeka, Kansas, and Omaha, Nebraska. Railheads are located only short distances from the reservation in Horton, Hiawatha, Powhattan, and Netawaka, Kansas. The nearest commercial airports are in Topeka, Kansas, and St. Joseph, Missouri, both 50 to 60 miles away. COMMUNITY FACILITIES By mid-1969, with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Hous- ing Improvement Program and the U.S. Public Health Service, approximately 80 percent of the homes on the reservation had running water. All homes have electricity, and a few have telephones. In many of the small reservation communities, sewer facilities are not available. The U.S. Public Health Ser- vice operates an Indian health clinic in Holton, Kansas, pro- viding a wide range of health services. RECREATION The tribe has several powwows during the year,:and many members participate in powwows in Kansas and the surround- ing States. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 825 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 2th 209 POTAWATOMI RESERVATION Jackson County, KANSAS Potawatorni Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Horton, Kansas 66439 Federal Reservation Population: 1,371 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 20,325 acres Tribally Owned: 559 acres Allotted: 19,766 acres The original reservation covered 77,440 acres which were allotted to 812 individuals. Through sales, fee patents, and inheritances by non-Indians, the area has been reduced to its present size. HISTORY Southern Michigan is the ancestral home of the Potawatomi Tribe. By 1670, the Potawatomi had moved west of Lake Michigan into the Green Bay area of Wisconsin, partially under pressure from the Iroquois. From here they moved southward, reaching the Chicago area by the end of the century. After about 1765, they expanded into northern Illinois, southern Michigan, and the Lake Erie area. During the struggles of the new United States with England, the Potawatomi sided first with the French against the English and then with the English against the Americans until a general peace was achieved in 1815. In 1833, the United or Prairie Band of Potawatomi, Chippewa, and Ottawa were moved to the Platte Purchase of Missouri, according to treaty agreements. Some of the band members moved to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Canada. A few Potawatomi accompanied the Kickapoo to Mexico. In 1837, they moved again, this time to a reservation near Council Bluffs, Iowa. During the same period a Mission Band of Potawatomi composed of Indiana and Michigan tribes moved to the Osage River Reservation in Kansas. In 1846, Federal agents persuaded the Mission and Prairie Bands to merge and move to the 33-square-mile Kaw River Reservation near Topeka, Kansas. By 1868, Mission Band allottees had sold their individual shares and moved to a new reservation in Indian Territory, where they became known as the Citizen Band of Potawatomi. 210 CULTURE The name Potawatomi means "People of the Place of Fire." They are also known as the Fire Nation. The Potawatomi are members of the Algonquian linguistic family and are closely related to the Chippewa and Ottawa, both Woodland tribes. GOVERNMENT There i 's no present tribal government. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs withdrew approval of the tribal governing document and recognition of the business council on October 4, 1972. The tribe must reestablish tribal government pursuant to Section 16 of the Indian Peorganization Act of 1934. TRIBAL ECONOMY The Potawatomi Reservation is located north of Topeka, Kansas. The land is well suited for agriculture. CLIMATE The climate favors agriculture, with rainfall averaging between 32 and 34 inches yearly. The average temperature is in the low 50's. Temperature extremes are a high of 1100 and a low of -20' TRANSPORTATION The reservation is conveniently located along U.S. Highway 75, a north-south route connecting with Interstate Highways 75 and 35 in Topeka. The nearest commercial airport and bus, rail, and trucking companies are in Topeka. Vital Statistics COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Indian homes in Kansas compare favorably with those of Population: non-Indians. Utilities are connected to most homes. Where Indians residing sanitation facilities are inadequate, the U.S. Public Health on or adjacent to Service (USPHS) assists the tribe in installing new facilities. reservation: 1,371 Health care is made available by the USPHS clinic in Holton, Labor Force: Kansas. The same agency also provides for private contract Total: 162 health care. Unemployed: 15 Unemployment rate: 9% 211 SAC AND FOX RESERVATION Brown County, KANSAS Richardson County, NEBRASKA Sac and Fox Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Horton, Kansas 66439 Federal Reservation Population: 43 (BIA 12/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 80 acres Allotted: 80 acres The reservation originally contained 7,924 acres in 131 allot- ments. However, most of the area has been lost to non-Indians since that time. The Indian lands are now scattered throughout the non-Indian community of the area. HISTORY The Sac and Fox once lived in the New England area and migrated west to Green Bay, Wisconsin, where they were first encountered by the French in 1635. Although frequently at war with other Indian tribes, the Sac and Fox maintained rela- tively peaceful relations with the whites. The two tribes joined together in a political alliance in 1734. Pressured by eastern settlements, they continued to move south and west. The Sac chief, Black Hawk, led the tribes in a war to preserve the tribal land in Illinois. However, they were ultimately driven across the Mississippi River into Iowa., In 1842, the Sac and Fox ceded their lands in Iowa for a tract in Kansas. By 1867, most of the Kansas land had been ceded, and the tribes moved to Indian Territory. A few tribal members returned to Iowa. In 1889, they took up land in severalty and sold surplus territories to the Government. .CULTURE Both the Sac and Fox are Woodland tribes closely related to the Chippewa and speak an Algonquian language. They lived in permanent villages of rectangular houses and raised crops in the summer. In winter they followed the herds and lived in portable wigwams. The Sac and Fox, unlike other Woodland tribes, are patrilineal. Artwork includes ribbon applique in stylized designs, beadwork, silverwork, and weaving. 212 GOVERNMENT The governing body is a tribal council consisting of five mem- bers elected on a staggered-term basis annually. Three mem- bers of the tribal council constitute a quorum. Due to the fact that the tribe has difficulty in securing a quorum of the general council at meetings, about 30 eligible voters, a holdover tribal council has been serving since 1964. The council has a long history of self-succession. The tribe adopted a constitution and bylaws in 1937 and ratified its charter in the same year. The constitution was written under the authority of the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation lies in northeastern Kansas about 1,000 feet above sea level. Most of the land is used for agriculture. There are no other significant resources. The growing season lasts from early May through early October. CLIMATE The temperature, which averages about 53', reaches a high of 1100 and a low of -200. Rainfall measures 32 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION Roads are constructed and maintained by the counties. The Vital Statistics nearest airport is in Topeka, Kansas. Bus and truck services are Population: available in Horton and Hiawatha, Kansas. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to Water and sanitary facilities available to residents are equal to reservation: 43 those of nonreservation families in the surrounding area. The Labor Force: homes of residents are fully modern. Medical and other forms Total: 5 of care are provided to Indian residents by the U.S. Public Unemployed: 1 Health Service. Unemployment rate: 20% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 213 Louisiana NIMBI P. 190 Ceremony of the calumet, concluding peace between the Chitimacha and the French, 1718 Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives CHITIMACHA RESERVATION Saint Mary Parish, LOUISIANA Chitimacha Indian Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Charenton, Louisiana 70523 Federal Reservation (limited services) Population: 268 (BIA 1962) LAND STATUS Total Area: 262.23 acres The Chitimacha obtained title to their land about 1830 and later divided the land among individuals, many of whom were unable to pay the taxes which were assessed. A friend of the tribe bought up the land when it was placed in a sheriff's sale, and the Federal Government then took over the mortgage and put the land in trust at the request of the tribe in 1935. HISTORY Indian settlement at Chitimacha dates back'at least 6,000 years based on artifacts found in the area. About 800 B.C., the people were living in large villages of over 500 inhabitants with a well- developed political system. When the French arrived in Louisi- ana in the early 1700's, the Chitimacha were a peaceful people. However, when they were attacked by a band of Mississippi Indians in whose company was a French priest, they repelled the attack and killed the priest. French reprisals followed under the governor of New Orleans, Bienville, and protracted war con- tinued for many years thereafter. With thefielp of Indian allies, the French nearly succeeded in decimating the Chitimacha Tribe. The settlement has survived in its present location since 1764 and has recently 'begun to grow. From only 35 residents in 1880,, the tribe now numbers about 600 members. CULTURE The Chitimacha 'Indians lived @b fishing and a'riculture and y 9 were the most advanced of the Louisiana Indians in the arts of basketmaking and metalwork. They raised beans, pumpkins, melon, and corn. They constructed houses of wooden frames with roofs of mud and palmetto leaves. Community granaries ,protected the grain from mice. Chitimacha baskets, , articularly @p the "double" basket whereboth the inside and the outside are intricately woven, are considered to be the finest ever produced. Unfortunately, the art was both time-consuming and difficult and 215 CHITIMACHA RESERVATION is no longer practiced. The early Indians buried their dead in large mounds, some in the shape of flying birds, and placed food beside the graves for the ancestors to use. Their women had a strong voice in tribal affairs and were even elevated to the status of chief, an honor rare among American Indians. GOVERNMENT The Chitimacha Tribe is governed by a council of two members, a chairman, a vice chairman, and a secretary, all elected for 2-year terms. It is presently preparing a constitution which will enable the tribe to function as a legal entity and to be so recognized by the Federal Government. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income is approximately $1,200 a year, derived mainly from land leases. Most of the members of the tribe work in the oilfields, as workers, drillers, and foremen. On the reservation there are a gas station, a mechanic shop, and a garbage pickup service, all Indian owned. The women's cooperative, the Chiti- macha Bead Association, has a small capital investment in beadwork and is planning to set up a trading post to sell crafts and to revive some of the traditional arts.. CLIMATE Average annual rainfall is 58'inches. The average July tempera- ture is 820, and the average January temperature is 54". The first frost comes in late December. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 90 runs northwest-southeast, south of the reser- vation about 10 miles. State Highway 19 runs southwest-north- east through the reservation. The nearest commercial airline is at Patterson, a distance of 40 miles, and the nearest train runs through Berwick, 45 miles distant. Bus- and trucklines serve Franklin, 10 miles away. 216 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided both by wells and from a county waterline. Gas is available from the Glayco Company, and electricity is provided by Central Louisiana Electric. Sewage is treated in septic tanks. There are a private hospital and clinic services in Franklin. The only community building is the school. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 268 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 217 Maine --M 4A 4i 4-7 Birch bark lodge of thePassamaquoddy Tribe Smithsonian Institution ;National Anthropological Archives PENOBSCOT RESERVATION Penobscot County, MAINE Penobscot Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Indian Island, Old Town, Maine 04468 State Reservation Population: 425 (tribal est. 11/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 4,446 acres Tribally Owned: 4,446 acres None of the land is allotted, although land-use assignments have been made to individuals. The reservation consists of some 146 islands in the Penobscot River. These islands were included in the tribe's domain from precolonial times and today are the only lands within the State remaining to the tribe. Twenty-one of the islands were divided into individual lots in the mid-1 9th century. Only members of the tribe may legally hold interest in any of the reservation lands. At present, only Indian Island is inhabited year-round; at onetime, schools and farms were located on some of the larger upstream islands. HISTORY Early treaties affecting the Maine Indians were made between the various colonial governments and the "Eastern Tribes" and between the tribes and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Upon achieving statehood in 1820, Maine agreed to assume these treaty obligations either through renegotiations with the tribes or through provisions in the Compact of Separation be- tween Massachusetts and Maine. For some 30 years prior to 1966, the administration of programs for the Indians of Maine had been the responsibility of the State Department of Health and Welfare. Now the State Department of Indian Affairs is responsible for such programs. Maine's tribes, in common with some 100,000 other Indians in 22 States, have never had a relationship with the Federal Government, as the original treaties from which such relationships normally developed were negotiated between the tribes and the original colonies prior to the existence of the Federal Government. CULTURE The Maine Indians speak a Coastal version of the Algonquian language stock. Their culture is a combination of both Wood- land and Coastal characteristics. The Penobscot were forced to move, whether by land or water, wherever food supplies were plentiful. 219 PENOBSCOT RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The Penobscot Tribe is governed by a governor, lieutenant governor, and a 12-member council, which is elected biennially by the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual income of $1,000 is acquired completely from excise taxes. The revenue acquired from the sale of two town- ships is held in a trust fund by the State. The reservation has a housing authority, a planning committee, women's club, and Girl Scouts. Commercial establishments on the reservation in- clude two arts and crafts shops, a small grocery store, and a snack shop, all privately owned by Indians. CLIMATE This area averages 43 inches of rainfall each year and 92 inches of snowfall. The average high temperature is 680; the average low is 200. Temperatures reach extremes of 100' and -350. TRANSPORTATION Vital Statistics Interstate 95 is a major north-south highway. U.S. Highway 2 Population: also crosses the reservation east-west. Bangor, 12 miles from Indians residing the reservation, is served by commercial air-, bus-, and truck- on or adjacent to lines. The nearest available train service is in Boston, Massa- reservation: 425 chusetts, 275 miles distant. Labor Force: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Total: 100 The city of Old Town has adequate public facilities. As no Unemployed: 25 natural gas is supplied to the reservation, residents purchase Unemployment bottled gas. The Bangor Hydroelectric Company provides elec- rate: 25% tricity to the area. Health care clinics are held in Old Town and Education: Bangor through.the State Department of Indian Affairs for low- (tribal estimates) income people only. Hospital care, under the same provisions, Average grade is available in Bangor. level achieved: 8th RECREATION Number graduated The reservation community center and parish hall and several from college in theaters are located in Old Town, the center of reservation 1972: 2 activities. The tribe holds an annual Indian Pageant in July. 220 PLEASANT POINT AND INDIAN TOWNSHIP RESERVATIONS Washington County, MAINE Passamaquoddy Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Peter Dana Point, Maine 04668 State Reservations Population: 652 (tribal est. 1/73) Pleasant Point: 410 Indian Township: 242 LAND STATUS Total Area: 23,100 acres Pleasant Point: 100 acres Indian Township: 23,000 acres The Passamaquoddy Tribe is geographically and structurally divided into two groups living on separate reservations. The larger reservation, Indian Township, is near Princeton, Maine, and has two communities, one at the Princeton "Strip" and one at Peter Dana Point. The two reservations are 50 miles apart by road, with Calais, Maine, a midpoint economic and service cen- ter for the area. On the 23,000-acre Indian Township Reserva- tion, 7,000 acres are alienated from the tribe. These lands are the subject of current litigation between the tribe and the, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. None of the tribal land has been allotted, although use assignments have been made. HISTORY Early treaties affecting the Maine Indians were made between the various colonial governments and the "Eastern Tribes" and between the tribes and the Commonwealth of Massachu- setts. Upon achieving statehood in 1820, Maine agreed to assume these treaty obligations either through renegotiations with the tribes or through provisions in the Compact of Separa- tion between Massachusetts and Maine. For some 30 years prior to 1966, the administration of programs for the Indians of Maine had been the responsibility of the State Department of Health and Welfare. Maine Indians, in common with some 100,000 other Indians in 22 States, have never had a relation- ship with the Federal Government. The original treaties from which such relationships normally developed were negotiated between the tribes and the original colonies prior to the exis- tence of the Federal Government. Maine established a State Department of Indian Affairs in 1966. 221 PLEASANT POINT AND INDIAN TOWNSHIP RESERVATIONS CULTURE The Maine Indians speak a Coastal version of the Algonquian language stock. Their culture is a combination of both Wood- land and Coastal characteristics. The Passamaquoddy were forced to move, whether by land or water, wherever food supplies were plentiful. GOVERNMENT Although divided into two geographic areas, there is only one Passamaquoddy Tribe. The two reservations function both in- dividually and jointly as the occasion demands. Each reserva- tion is governed by a biennially elected governor, lieutenant governor, and a six-member tribal council. At each tribal elec- tion, the combined tribal membership elects an Indian legisla- tive representative, who serves as a delegate without a seat or vote. Since 1954, members residing on the reservations have been able to vote in Federal, State, and county elections, and, since 1967, in district elections for the House of Representa- tives. Maine was the last State in the Nation to enfranchise its Indian citizens. They were given the right to vote through Fed- eral legislation in 1924. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe's income sources are an excise tax and timber sales. The tax totals $1,400 annually. The tribe receives as working income 40 percent of the timber sales, or $2,000. The remaining 60 percent is deposited in the tribal trust fund, held in trust by the State. The tribe has not been given an accounting, and the interest in the fund accrues to the State. The tribe has organized a housing authority. The only natural resource on the reservation is timber, which is the basis of the tribe's economy. CLIMATE The reservations are located in the easternmost county of the United States. Temperatures average a high of 900 and a low of -251. 222 TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 1 passes through both reservations. This highway runs east along the southern portion of Maine and then swings north continuing along the Maine-Canada border. A bus stops in Perry just 2 miles from the reservation. Bangor, 125 miles distant, is served by commercial air- and trucklines. The near- Vital Statistics est train service is located in Boston, Massachusetts. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Population: . Pleasant Point The water and sewer provisions are individual and local. A Indians residing commercial water supply is located 7 miles from the reserva- on or adjacent to tion. Other water is drawn from lakes. The new housing units reservation: 410 have small sewer systems. Electricity is available from the Labor Force: Eastern Maine Electric Cooperative and the Bangor Hydroelec- Total: 150 tric Company. Only bottled gas is used. Medical care for tribal Unemployed: 75 members is provided through the State Department of Indian Unemployment Affairs at the Eastport Community Hospital, and at Calais, rate: @0% Maine. Both reservations have community centers where tribal business is conducted. Education: (tribal estimates) RECREATION Average grade This part of Maine has numerous campsites and attrac 'ts many level achieved: 8th visitors during the summer outdoor season. The Passama- quoddy Tribe has an annual Indian Ceremonial Day every Indian Township August, a tribal powwow in which other Indians and non-Indians Population: are welcome to share in the celebration of the Indian's heritage. Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 242 Labor Force: Total: 108 Unemployed: 61 Unemployment rate: 57% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 223 Massachusetts A'' Massasoit, Chief of the Wampanoags Plimoth Plantation HASS ANAMISCO RESERVATION Worcester County, MASSACHUSETTS Hassanamisco-Nipmuc Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Grafton, Massachusetts 01519 State Reservation Population: 1 (tribal est. 8/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 11.9 acres Tribally Owned: 11.9 acres This land was originally set aside for the use of James the Printer's family. About 20 direct descendants still remain. HISTORY The Hassanamisco Reservation prior to 1728 consisted of 8,000 acres. Members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony negotiated with the Indians to buy their land, but never paid them for it. Instead, the money was placed in a bank for the Indians. Later investigations revealed a portion of the money was invested in State bonds and was Jost. The remainder was "borrowed" by a State official and never replaced. Finally, in 1848, 11.9 acres were set aside by the State as a reservation. CULTURE The Hassanamisco-Nipmuc were originally hunters, fishermen, and agronomists. They were noted for basketmaking, weaving, and the making of moccasins. Tribal arts and crafts are being revived. Traditional methods of hunting and fishing are followed. GOVERNMENT The sachem is the traditional leader of the tribe. However, since Vital Statistics 1962, the tribe has been governed by a chairman and board of directors. All members over 18-years of age serve on the board Population: of directors and are entitled to one vote each. According to Indians residing tribal bylaws revised in 1969 and 1970, anyone of Hassana- on or adjacent to misco-Nipmuc descent can be elected to the board. reservation: 1 TRANSPORTATION Labor Force: Residents depend on automobiles for transportation. Worcester, Total: 1 8 miles distant, provides bus and air services. Unemployed: 0 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Unemployment rate: 0% The reservation depends on an artesian well and spring for Education: water. Electricity and a sewer system are available. (tribal estimates) RECREATION Average grade Of interest to visitors are the craft sales, lectures, group visits, level achieved: 1 2th fair in July, Indian museum old longhouse, and library. 225 Michigan x [email protected] [email protected], 7 k Xf 4A J Wooden effigy pipe bowl, Chippewa Tribe Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives BAY MILLS RESERVATION Chippewa County, MICHIGAN Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Brimley, Michigan 49715 Federal Reservation Population: 1,006 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 2,189 acres The area comprising the original Bay Mills Reservation was purchased by the Methodist Mission Society for the Indian community. The reservation land was acquired in accordance with the treaty of July 1, 1855, and the Indian Appropriation Act of June 19,1850. Additional land was purchased under the Ex- pandable Land Acquisition Project of the Indian Reorganiza- tion Act. HISTORY The Chippewa Tribe, a member of the Algonquian linguistic family, was once among the largest north of Mexico, with lands extending along both shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior and westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. Uni- formly friendly with the French, the Chippewa utilized French weapons to drive the Sioux further westward. The Chippewa joined in Pontiac's Rebellion, which broke out against the British in May 1763. Every British-held post in the west except Fort Pitt and Detroit was overrun. Later, the Chippewa joined Tecumseh along with the Potawatomi, Winnebago, and other tribes. The defeat of Tecumseh and his death in 1813 ended the organized resistance, and the cession by the Indians of their lands quickly followed. In i815, a treaty of peace was signed with the United States Government. The last great Indian battle in Michigan was fought in 1830 between the Sac and the Chip- pewa over hunting and fishing grounds. Over 4,000 Sac warriors were defeated by the Chippewa. The failur6 of the Great Lakes tribes to band together against the invading settlers meant the loss of their lands and their way of life. By treaties signed in 1815, the present Bay Mills Reservation of Chippewa was organized. CULTURE The Chippewa were a hunting and fishing people who practiced some agriculture and gathered fruits and wild rice. Their most important society was the Grand Medicine Society which con- ducted religious and magico-medical ceremonies in long 227 BAY MILLS RESERVATION lodges. The people lived in dome-shaped bark or mat-covered lodges. They buried their dead in mounds. Hiawatha was their warrior-hero god, and the gods of thunder and lightning were believed to live in the caverns of the Upper Peninsula. When the white man arrived in the area, the fur trade became the main economic base of the Chippewa. Today hunting and fishing are still of importance. Some tribal members prefer to live in wigwams and tepees during the summer months. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. A five-member executive council is elected by the eligible voters of the tribe and holds office for 2-year terms. All eligible members of the tribe constitute the general tribal council. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE The average rainfall is 31 inches a year. Temperatures average 49.20 in the summer and 31.90 in the winter. TRANSPORTATION State Route 129, surfaced with tar and chips, runs north-south. Vital Statistics The nearest airport is at Sault Ste. Marie, 21 miles from the res- ervation. Sault Ste. Marie is also the terminal for trains, buses, Population: and trucks. Indians residing COMMUNITY FACILITIES on or adjacent to Water comes from artesian wells. Gas for heating is obtainable reservation: 1,006 from. local bottled gas companies. Electricity is provided by the Labor Force: Rural Electric Company, and septic tanks provide sewage dis- Total: 319 posal. The nearest hospital is in Sault Ste. Marie and provides Unemployed: 110 medical and social services through contract with the U.S. Unemployment Public Health Service. There are community buildings on the rate: 34% reservation. Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 228 HANNAHVILLE RESERVATION Menominee County, MICHIGAN Potawatomi Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Wilson, Michigan 49896 Federal Reservation Population: 159 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,408 acres Allotted: 3,408 acres The land was purchased by Congress, June 30,1913, except for 39 acres added later in 1942 with Indian Reorganization Act funds. HISTORY When the first Europeans arrived in the Upper Great Lakes area, they found the Potawatomi, a numerous and powerful tribe, living along the shore of Lake Michigan. Their chief saved a band of LaSalle's men from starvation in 1680. When the Potawatomi ceded their lands in 1833 and agreed to move to the Iowa Territory, about 400 remained in Wisconsin. After the Black Hawk War in 1833, they lost the Nottawaseepe Reserva- tion which amounted to over 73,000 acres. Several of their chiefs became famous. Chief Simon Pokagon became a lec- turer of note in the 1850's. Another of their chiefs, who sold his tribe's reservation in 18W for $10,000, was poisoned by his peo- ple when he attempted to persuade them to leave for the rich hunting grounds promised in Kansas. For years the survivors led a poverty-stricken existence. Their last properly designated chief died in 1934. CULTURE The Potawatomi shared the culture patterns of the Ottawa and Chippewa. They lived in agricultural groups in the summer and traveled in hunting bands in the winter. The bands appear to have been politically independent, each ranging through its own territory. The society was organized according to clans which carried animal names. Clothing was of deerskin and fur. They have continued to be isolated due to lack of transporta- tion routes and facilities and the poor resources of the reser- vation. Hunting and fishing rights do not exist compared with other Indian reservations. 229 HANNAHVILLE RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The tribe was organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. A council composed of three council officers and nine council members governs the community. Elections for all members of the governing body are held annually. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. There are no commercial or indus- trial establishments on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 30 inches per year. Temperatures average a high of 520 in the summer and 32' in the winter. TRANSPORTATION State Route 41 serves the reservation. The road is hard-surfaced with tar and chips and runs north-south. The nearest commer- cial airline is in Escanaba, Michigan, 17 miles away. Commer- cial trains, buses, and trucks also serve Escanaba. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by artesian wells. Local companies supply bottled gas for heating. Electricity is provided by the Rural Electrification Administration, and sewage is disposed of by septic tanks and outdoor privies. Medical and social services are available in Escanaba. The hospital contracts services through the U.S. Public Health Service. There is one community building on the Hannahville Reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 159 Labor Force: Total: 53 Unemployed: 43 Unemployment rate: 81% 230 HURON POTAWATOMI BAND9 INC. Calhoun County, MICHIGAN Polawatorni Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Athens Township, Michigan 49011 State Reservation Population: 50 (tribal est. 2/73) LAND STATUS Total Area: 120 acres Tribally Owned: 120 acres On June 8,1845, President James K. Polk conveyed 40 acres of land to John S. Barry, Governor of Michigan, to be held in trust for a certain band of Indians of which Mo-gwa-go was chief. In addition, William and Louisa Booth conveyed to the Governor of Michigan 80 acres of land to be held in trust for Chief Mo-gwa-go and his band. HISTORY The Potawatomi belong to the Algonquian linguistic family, being most closely affiliated with the Chippewa and Ottawa. The members of the Huron Potawatomi Band, Inc., are descen- dants of a band of Indians led by Chief Mo-gwa-go. In 1840, the United States Government attempted to move Mo-gwa-go and his band to Kansas. They refused to go. Forced by U.S. troops, the Potawatomi left for Kansas in the Spring. Mo-gwa-go and several of his band, protesting the removal, escaped and returned to Michigan. GOVERNMENT There is no tribal government. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 50 Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 12th Number graduated from college in 1972: 6 231 ISABELLA RESERVATION Isabella County, MICHIGAN Saginaw Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48858 Federal Reservation Population: 450 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,184 acres Tribally Owned: 506 acres Allotted: 678 acres Isabella Reservation is located in the north-central part of the Lower Peninsula, 3 miles east of the city of Mount Pleasant, Michigan. HISTORY In the mid-17th century, the Chippewa Tribe, a member of the Algonquian linguistic family, was among the largest north of Mexico, with lands extending along both shores of Lake Supe- rior and westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. Uniformly friendly with the French, the Chippewa utilized French weapons to drive the Sioux further westward. The Chip- pewa joined in Pontiac's Rebellion, which broke out against the British in May 1763. Every British-held post in the west except Fort Pitt and Detroit was overrun. Later, the Chippewa joined Tecumseh along with the Potawatomi, Winnebago, and other tribes. The defeat of Tecumseh and his death in 1813 ended the organized resistance, and the cession by the Indians of their lands quickly followed. In 1815, a peace treaty was signed with the United States. The last great Indian battle in Michigan was fought in 1830 between the Sac and the Chippewa over hunting and fishing grounds. Over 4,000 Sac warriors were defeated by the Chippewa. The failure of the Great Lakes tribes to band together against the invading settlers meant the loss of their lands and their way of life. By treaties signed in 1864 and 1865, the Isabella Reservation was established for the Saginaw, Swan Creek, and Black River Bands of Indians. CULTURE The Chippewa were a hunting and fishing people who practiced some agriculture, principally the gathering of fruits and wild rice. Their most important society was the Grand Medicine Society which conducted religious and magico-medical cere- monies in long lodges. The people lived in dome-shaped bark 232 or mat-covered lodges. They buried their dead in mounds. Hia- watha was their warrior-hero god, and the gods of thunder and lightning were believed to live in the caverns of the Upper Peninsula. When the white man arrived, the fur trade became the main economic base of the Chippewa. Today hunting and fishing are still of importance. Some tribal members prefer to live in wigwams and tepees during the summer months. GOVERNMENT The governing body of the tribe is a 10-member tribal council elected at large from all eligible voters on the reservation for a 2-year term of office. The members of the tribal council are known as "headmen." TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. There are no commercial or indus- trial establishments on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 31 inches a year. Temperatures average 560 in the summer and 34' in the winter. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 20 runs east-west and serves the reservation. Vital Statistics The nearest commercial airline is at Mount Pleasant, 3 miles away. Trains, buses, and trucks also serve Mount Pleasant. Population: COMMUNITY FACILITIES Indians residing Water is provided by the city of Mount Pleasant. Gas is sold in on or adjacent to bottled form by local com' anies. Electricity is provided by the p reservation: 450 Rural Electrification Administration, and septic tanks handle Labor Force: sewage disposal. Medical and social services are available in Total: 135 Mount Pleasant through contract with the U.S. Public Health Unemployed: 49 Service. There is one community hall in Mount Pleasant. Unemployment rate: 36% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 233 KEWEENAW BAY RESERVATION Baraga County, MICHIGAN Lake Superior Band, Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Baraga, Michigan 49908 Federal Reservation Population: 404 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 13,750 acres Tribally Owned: 1,610 acres Allotted: 8,124 acres Government Owned: 4,016 acres HISTORY The Chippewa Tribe, a member of the Algonquian linguistic family, was once among the largest north of Mexico, with lands extending along both shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior and westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. Uni- formly friendly with the French, the Chippewa utilized French weapons to drive the Sioux further west. The Chippewa joined Pontiac's Rebellion, which broke out against the British in May 1763. Every British-held post in the west except Fort Pitt and Detroit was overrun. Later, the Chippewa joined Tecumseh along with the Potawatomi, Winnebago, and other tribes. The defeat of Tecumseh and his death in 1813 ended the organized resistance, and the cession by the Indians of their lands quickly followed. In 1815, a peace treaty was signed with the United States Government. The last great Indian battle in Michigan was fought in 1830 between the Sac and the Chippewa over hunting and fishing grounds. More than 4,000 Sac warriors were defeated by the Chippewa. The failure of the Great Lakes tribes to band together against the invading settlers resulted in the loss of their lands and their way of life. The present reservation site was recognized by the treaty of 1854 between the Chip- pewa and the United States. CULTURE The Chippewa were a hunting and fishing people who practiced some agriculture, principally the gathering of fruits and wild rice. Their most important society was the Grand Medicine So- ciety which conducted religious and magico-medical cere- monies in long lodges. The people lived in dome-shaped bark or mat-covered lodges. They buried their dead in mounds and used some copper tools, carrying on a widespread trade in copper. Hiawatha was their warrior-hero god, and the gods of 234 thunder and lightning were believed to live in the caverns of the Upper Peninsula. With the arrival of the white man in the area, the fur trade became the main economic base of the Chippewa. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a 12-member council, elected by the eligible voters of the tribe for 3-year terms. The terms of office are staggered. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. No commercial or industrial estab- lishments are located on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 32 inches per year. Temperatures average 51' in summer and 30" in winter. TRANSPORTATION Interstate Highway 41 runs north-south through the reservation. The nearest airport is at Houghton, Michigan, a distance of 33 miles. Train and truck services are available at Marquette, Michigan, 73 miles away, and commercial buslines run into L'Anse, Michigan, 3 miles-from the reservation. Vital Statistics COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is supplied from artesian wells, and bottled gas is sold Population: by local companies for heating. Electricity is provided by a Indians residing local cooperative, and septic tanks and outdoor privies provide on or adjacent to sewage disposal. Hospital and social services provided through reservation: 404 the U.S. Public Health Service are available at L'Anse. There Labor Force: are two community buildings, Zeba Community Hall, located Total: 114 about 3 miles north of L'Anse, and the Keweenaw Bay Indian Unemployed:. 34 Community Center, located in Baraga. Unemployment rate: 30% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 235 Minnesota Z' Midwewinind (One-Ca I led -From -A- Distance), Chippewa from White Earth Indian Reservation Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives FOND DU LAC RESERVATION Carlton and Saint Louis Counties, MINNESOTA Mississippi Band of Chippewa Tribal Headquarters: Cloquet, Minnesota 55720 Federal Reservation Population: 680 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 40,000 acres Tribally Owned: 4,213 acres Allotted: 17,154 acres Non-Indian: 18,633 acres HISTORY The Chippewa, or Ojibway, were one of the largest Indian nations north of Mexico and controlled lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior and westward into North Dakota. Their migration to this area was influenced by Iroquois pressure from the northeast. Drifting through their native forests, never settling on prized farmlands, the Chippewa were little disturbed by the first onrush of white settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the French and were coura- geous warriors. In the early 18th century, the Chippewa drove the Fox out of northern Wisconsin and then drove the Sioux across the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. By this time they were also able to push back the Iroquois, whose strength and organization had been undercut by settlers. The Chippewa of the United States have been officially at peace with the Govern- ment since 1815 and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. CULTURE The Chippewa were nomadic Timber People traveling in small bands, engaging primarily in hunting and fishing, sometimes settling to carry on a crude form of agriculture. These foods were supplemented by gathering fruits and wild rice. Their wigwams of saplings and birchbark were easily moved and erected. Birchbark canoes were used for journeys, but other travel was usually by foot. The tribe was patrilineal, divided into clans usually bearing animal names. Although tribal social organiza- tion was loose, the powerful Grand Medicine Society controlled the tribe's movements and was a formidable obstacle to Chris- tianizing attempts of missionaries. A mysterious power, or manitou, was believed to live in all animate or inanimate ob- jects. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, including French [email protected] 237 FOND DU LAC RESERVATION GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secre- tary of the local reservation business committees form the 12- member tribal executive committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The only natural resources found on the reservation are sand, gravel, and peat. The forest timber has been overcut. The annual tribal income averages $1,900. Ninety percent of this comes from the forestry industry. Most of the remainder is earned in farming. The tribe has organized a reservation hous- ing authority. Many different types of commercial and industrial establishments are located in the reservation communities of Brookston, Sawyer, and Paupor, and in the bordering city of Cloquet. CLIMATE The reservation lies in an area which averages 70 inches of snowfall each year. The annual precipitation measures 22 inches. The average summer high temperature is 660; the average winter low is 9'. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 2 runs east-west through the reservation. U.S. High- way 210 is a second east-west highway. Minnesota Route 33 crosses the reservation north-south. Duluth is served by com- mercial airlines. Railroad and buslines stop on the reservation. Truck companies serve Cloquet. 238 COMMUNITY FACILITIES The communities on the reservation have water and sewer sys- tems. Rural areas use wells and septic tanks. The Northwestern Power and Gas Company sells natural gas to the reservation area. Electricity is provided by the Minnesota Power and Light Company. Tribal members contract for medical care through the U.S. Public Health Service. Hospitals are located in Cloquet and Duluth. Vital Statistics .Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 680 Labor Force: Total: 133 Unemployed: 85 Unemployment rate: 64% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 239 GRAND PORTAGE, RESERVATION Cook County, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe ' Tribal Headquarters: Grand Portage, Minnesota 55605 Federal Reservation Population: 189 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 44,752 acres Tribally Owned: 37,390 acres Allotted: 7,283 acres Government Owned: 79 acres The Chippewa, or Ojibway, were one of the largest Indian nations north of Mexico and controlled lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior and westward into North Dakota. Their migration to this area was influenced by Iroquois pressure from the northeast. Drifting through their native forests, never settling on prized farmlands, the Chippewa were little disturbed by the first onrush of white settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the French and were coura- geous warriors. In the early 18th century, the Chippewa drove the Fox out of northern Wisconsin and then drove the Sioux across the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. By this time they were also able to push back the Iroquois, whose strength and organization had been undercut by settlers. The Chippewa have been officially at peace with the Government since 1815 and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. CULTURE The Chippewa were nomadic Timber People traveling in small bands, engaging primarily in hunting and fishing, sometimes settling to carry on a crude form of agriculture. They supple- mented these foods by gathering fruits and wild rice. Their wigwams of saplings and birchbark were easily moved and erected. Birchbark canoes were used for journeys, but other travel was usually by foot. The tribe was patrilineal, divided into clans usually bearing animal names. Though tribal social orga- nization was loose, the powerful Grand Medicine Society con- trolled the tribe's movements and was a formidable obstacle to Christianizing attempts of missionaries. A mysterious power, or manitou, was believed to live in all animate or inanimate ob- jects. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, includ- ing French and English. 240 GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secre- tary of the local reservation business committees form the 12- member tribal executive committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The only natural resources on the reservation are timber and a small amount of gravel. The tribe operates a trading post under the Grand Portage Trading Post Association and the Grand Portage Boat Marina. A cafe, tavern, shopping center, and service station located on the reservation are privately owned. CLIMATE The reservation lies on the shore of Lake Superior in the ex- treme northeast corner of Minnesota, approximately 150 miles northeast of Duluth. Average annual precipitation measures 37 inches. The average high temperature is 83'; the average low is -140. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 61 bisects the reservation along the north shore of Lake Superior. The nearest commercial air and train services are located in Duluth. Bus and truck services are available 35 miles from the reservation at Grand Marais. Rail, bus, truck, and shipping facilities also are available at the Canadian cities of Port Arthur and Fort William, 35 miles distant. COMMUNITY FACILITIES In 1970, a new water and sewer system was completed to ser- vice most of the community. Electricity is provided by the Rural Electrification Administration, and Pickens Gas Services sup- plies the area with gas. The community hospital in Grand Marais is the nearest such facility. The school district community build- ing serves as a center for tribal business. 241 GRAND PORTAGE RESERVATION RECREATION The reservation is located in one of the most scenic settings of the Lake Superior shoreline. The Grand Portage National Monu- ment, established by Congress, is being developed. Headquar- ters are located in Grand Portage where visitors may embark on trips to Isle Royale National Park. The band holds Summer 'Rendezvous Days annually, a 2-day celebration. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 189 Labor Force: Total: 61 Unemployed: 27 Unemployment rate: 44% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 242 LEECH LAKE RESERVATION Beltrarni, Cass, Hubbard, and Itasca Counties, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Cass Lake, Minnesota 56633 Federal Reservation Population: 2,846 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 26,766 acres Tribally Owned: 14,069 acres Allotted: 12,693 acres Non-Indian: 4 acres The reservation was ceded by treaty to the Chippewa Nation in 1854. Though originally encompassing almost a million acres, the area,was gradually reduced in size by Congressional acts, including the Allotment Act of 1921, and by Executive orders. HISTORY The Chippewa Tribe was among the largest north of Mexico, with lands extending along both shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior and westward through Minnesota to the Turtle Moun- tains of North Dakota. They migrated to this area in the mid- 17th century, having been driven by the Iroquois from an area further to the northeast. The Chippewa, in turn, pushed the Sioux west, forcing their adaptation from Woodland People to the dominant tribe of the plains. The Chippewa in the United States have been at peace with the Government since 1815 and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. Their reservations are parts of their traditional homelands. CULTURE The Chippewa were Timber People of the Algonquian linguistic family, living in family groups and small bands, who engaged primarily in hunting and fishing. They supplemented these occupations with the gathering of fruits and wild rice, and practicing some simple agriculture. They lived in wigwams and traveled in birchbark canoes and on foot. The Grand Medicine Society controlled the tribe's movements and deterred efforts to Christianize the Chippewa. Today, many Chippewa are of mixed blood, including French and English. GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected 243 LEECH LAKE RESERVATION on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secre- tary of the local reservation business committees form the 12- member tribal executive committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY Several businesses on the reservation are Indian owned. These include a cab company, a few retail and service stores, and a small resort. A variety of small resorts are owned by non- Indians, as are several small sawmills and a prefabricated housing firm. CLIMATE There are four distinct seasons. Rainfall averages 25 inches per year. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 2 and State Highway 34 cross the reservation east-west. Trains, buses, and trucks serve Cass Lake on the reservation. The nearest air service is located in Bemidji, 17 miles from Leech Lake. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Some areas of the reservation have municipal water and Vital Statistics sewer systems. Only bottled gas is available. Electricity is supplied by the Ottertail Power Company. The U.S. Public Population: Health Service operates a hospital at Cass Lake for tribal Indians residing members. The tribe is building a community facility; in on or adjacent to addition, there are two tribal halls. reservation: 2,846 RECREATION Labor Force: Leech Lake is popular for most outdoor activities. Hunting Total: 804 is excellent, and there are numerous (akes and beautiful Unemployed: 322 scenery. Several resorts have already been established. The Unemployment tribe plans to participate in the tourism business and is plan- rate: 60% ning several resort and recreation facilities. Ball Club is the Education: setting for the annual July powwows. (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 244 LOWER SIOUX RESERVATION Redwood County, MINNESOTA Eastern or Mississippi Sioux Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Morton, Minnesota 56270 Federal Reservation Population: 104 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,743 acres Tribally Owned: 1,743 acres HISTORY The Sioux and the Chippewa were rivals for the territory now known as Minnesota. Decisive engagements occurred before 1750 in which the Chippewa defeated the Sioux-Fox near St. Croix Falls and then destroyed Sioux villages at Sandy Lake and Mille Lacs. Under the Treaty of Washington, 1837, the Sioux began the sale of their Minnesota lands and agreed that the proceeds should go to pay off their debts to traders. Deprived of hunting grounds and reduced to semistarvation, the Sioux, under Little Crow, staged an uprising in 1862. Congress abro- gated all Minnesota Sioux treaties and declared their lands and annuities forfeit. Approximately $200,000 of their funds was expropriated to pay off claims by whites. Between 1887 and 1893, Congress moved to alleviate the desperate conditions by appropriating funds to buy back land for the tribe. CULTURE The economic life of the Minnesota Sioux was based on hunt- ing and gathering, with periodic trips onto the plains to hunt the buffalo. Their society was complex and highly organized with the high level of group loyalty and intelligence character- istic of the Sioux people. Most of the Sioux moved west and obtained horses, but the Minnesota Sioux, after fleeing to Canada in 1862, returned to Minnesota. They have now assimi- lated to a moderate degree, and their standard of living has improved. Reservation members find employment on farms and construction work, sometimes traveling as far as Duluth. GOVERNMENT The reservation was organized under the Indian Reorganiza- tion Act. The tribal constitution and bylaws were approved in 1936, and the corporate charter was ratified by members in 1937. 245 LOWER SIOUX RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income of $4,000 per year is largely from farm and gravel permits. About one-quarter of the income is profits from farming. Gravel is the only marketable natural resource. CLIMATE The reservation lies 1 mile south of Morton, Minnesota, near the Minnesota River, where the rainfall averages 24 inches annually. The average July high is 750, and the average January low is 130. TRANSPORTATION U.S., State, and county roads run in all directions. Redwood Falls, which lies 6 miles from the reservation, is served by commercial air-, train-, bus-, and trucklines. The bus also stops at Morton. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Sanitary facilities are poor. Water is drawn from private wells. Oil and wood rather than gas are used for fuel. The Northern States Power Company supplies electricity to the reservation. Medical care and hospitalization, either through personal or welfare payments, are available at Redwood Falls. There is one community building on the reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 104 Labor Force: Total: 44 Unemployed: 13 Unemployment rate: 30% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 246 MILLE LACS RESERVATION Mille Lacs, Aitkin, and Pine Counties, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Onamia, Minnesota 56359 Federal Reservation Population: 748 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,620 acres Tribally Owned: 3,552 acres Allotted: 68 acres This reservation was established in 1855 by a treaty with the U.S. Government. Most of the original Indian land has passed from Indian ownership. The major Indian community is at Vineland, Minnesota. HISTORY The Chippewa, or Ojibway, were one of the largest Indian nations north of Mexico and controlled lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior westward through Minnesota to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. Their mi- gration to this area resulted from Iroquois pressure from the northeast. Drifting through their native forests, never settling on prized farmlands, the Chippewa were little disturbed by the first onrush of white settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the French and were courageous warriors. In the early 18th century, the Chippewa drove the Fox out of northern Wisconsin and then forced the Sioux across the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. Vineland was the location of the Sioux village of Kathio, the oldest known village name in Minnesota. Kathio was the location of major battles between the resident Sioux and invading Chippewa tribes. By this time they were also able to push back the Iroquois whose strength and organi- zation had deteriorated and had been undercut by the settlers. The Mille Lacs area was the first west of the Great Lakes to be penetrated by white men. The Chippewa of the United States have been officially at peace with the Government since 1815, and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. CULTURE The Chippewa were nomadic Timber People, traveling in small bands, engaging primarily in hunting and fishing, sometimes settling to carry on a crude form of agriculture. They supple- mented these foods by gathering fruits and wild rice. Their wigwams of saplings and birchbark were easily moved and 247 MILLE LACS RESERVATION erected. Birchbark canoes were used for journeys, but other travel was by foot. The tribe was patrilineal, divided into clans usually bearing animal names. Although social organization was loose, the powerful Grand Medicine Society controlled the tribe's movementt and was a formidable obstacle to Christian- izing attempts of missionaries. A mysterious power, or manitou, was believed to live in all animate or inanimate objects. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, including French and English. GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secretary of the local reservation business committees form the 12-member tribal executive committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY Efforts are being made to improve the economy. The tribe has organized the Reservation Business Enterprise which does contract work for IBM. Numerous commercial and industrial enterprises are owned and operated by non-Indians in the communities located in the former reservation area. Deposits of sand are used locally, while the gravel and granite are used commercially. There are also peat bogs which are not presently being cut. CLIMATE The reservation lies in east-central Minnesota approximately 100 miles north of the M inneapolis-St., Paul metropolitan area and enjoys a variable and seasonal climate. Temperatures range from an average summer high of 600 to an average winter low of 120. 248 TRANSPORTATION State Highway 169 runs north-south through the reservation. North Central Airlines serves Brainerd, 45 miles from Mille Lacs. The Soo Line Railroad serves Princeton, Minnesota, 30 miles from the reservation. Buses and trucks schedule stops in towns on the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Mille Lacs Water and Sewer Association serves the reser- vation's infrastructure. The new public housing units all have a central sewer system. Residents purchase bottled gas. Electricity is provided by the Mille Lacs Region Power Coop- erative. Tribal members contract for medical care through the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) at the municipal hospital in Onamia. The USPHS operates a hospital in Vineland. RECREATION The Mille Lacs Reservation lies in the center of a major out- door recreational area for the Twin Cities population. Lakes and wild game are abundant in the area. The Chippewa Tribe holds an annual Fourth of July celebration, an opportunity to see Indian dancing and displays of crafts. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 748 Labor Force: Total: 219 Unemployed: 92 Unemployment rate: 42% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 249 NETT LAKE RESERVATION Koochiching and St. Louis Counties, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Nett Lake, Minnesota 55772 Federal Reservation Population: 662 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 105,284 acres Tribally Owned: 30,035 acres Allotted: 11,744 acres Government Owned: 5 acres Non-Indian: 63,500 acres HISTORY The Chippewa, or Ojibway, were one of the largest Indian nations north of Mexico and controlled lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior westward through Minnesota to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. They migrated to this area after having been driven by the Iroquois from land further to the northeast. Drifting through their native forests, never settling on prized farmlands, the Chippewa were little disturbed by the first onrush of white settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the French, and were coura- geous warriors. In the beginning of the 18th century, the Chip- pewa drove the Fox out of northern Wisconsin and then moved against the Sioux, forcing them across the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. By this time they were also able to push back the Iroquois whose strength and organization had dete- riorated through confrontation with the settlers. The Chippewa of the United States have been officially at peace with the Government since 1815 and.,have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. CULTURE The,Chippewa were nomadic Timber People, traveling in small bands, engaging primarily in hunting and fishing. Their foods were supplemented by gathering fruits and wild rice. Occa- sionally the Chippewa settled briefly to carry on a rudimentary form of agriculture. Their wigwams, made of saplings and birchbark, were easily moved and erected. Birchbark canoes were used for journeys; otherwise travel was by foot. The tribe was patrilineal and divided into clans usually bearing animal names. Although social organization was loose, the 250 powerful Grand Medicine Society controlled the tribe's move- ments and was a formidable obstacle to Christianizing attempts by missionaries. A mysterious power, or manitou, was believed to live in all animate or inanimate objects. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, including French and English. GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secretary of the local reservation business committees form the 12-member tribal executive committee of the Minne- sota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY Nett Lake is located in a sparsely populated timbered region about 60 miles south of the Canadian border. The land is generally level, and there are numerous swamps and lakes. The area is poorly adapted to agriculture. Most of the tribal income is earned in forestry. Other income is derived from the wild rice crop and lease payments. The tribe has organized a wild rice cooperative to harvest, process, and sell the wild rice which grows abundantly on the reservation. CLIMATE About two-thirds of the average annual rainfall of 22 inches falls between May and September. The area's snowfall averages 50 inches each winter. The average July high temperature is 660; however, it sometimes reaches 100'. The January average is 150, with occasional winter readings as low as -500. TRANSPORTATION A gravel-surfaced county road, No. 65, crosses the reserva- tion southeast-northwest. International Falls, 80 miles from Nett Lake, is served by North Central Airlines. The city of Orr, 20 miles distant, has commercial train and bus services. The nearest truckline stops in Cook, 36 miles from the reservation. 251 NETT LAKE RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) provides the reserva- tion's sewer system. Water is drawn from individual wells. Residents purchase bottled gas, and electricity is supplied through the Rural Electrification Administration. The North- western Bell and Spring Creek Telephone companies supply telephoneservice. Tribal members contract for medical care through the USPHS at the Cook Community Hospital. The Cook County Public Health Service sponsors a clinic at Nett Lake. Community and tribal affairs are conducted at the community center in Nett Lake. RECREATION The Nett Lake Chippewa hold an annual Fourth of July cele- bration on the reservation. The harvesting of wild rice, a major event for both employment and recreation, takes place from September through November. Lake Vermilion is a developed resort area. Visitors are attracted to the water recreation and excellent hunting and other outdoor activities. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 662 Labor Force: Total: 233 Unemployed: 113 Unemployment rate: 48% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 252 PRAIRIE ISLAND RESERVATION Goodhue County, MINNESOTA Eastern or Mississippi Sioux Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Welch, Minnesota 55089 Federal Reservation Population: 89 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 534 acres Tribally Owned: 534 acres HISTORY The Sioux and Chippewa were rivals for the territory now known as Minnesota. Decisive engagements occurred before 1750 in which the Chippewa defeated the Sioux-Fox near Saint Croix Falls and then destroyed Sioux villages at Sandy Lake and Mille Lacs. Under the Treaty of Washington, 1837, the Sioux began the sale of their Minnesota lands and agreed that the proceeds should go to pay debts to traders. De- prived of hunting grounds and reduced to semistarvation, the Sioux, under Little Crow, staged an uprising in 1862. Congress abrogated all Minnesota Sioux treaties and declared their lands and annuities forfeit. Approximately $200,000 of their funds was expropriated. Between 1887 and 1893, Congress moved to alleviate the desperate conditions by appropriation of funds to buy back land for the tribe. The land on this reser- vation has never been allotted. CULTURE The economic life of the Minnesota Sioux was based on hunt- ing and gathering food, including wild rice, with periodic trips to the plains to hunt buffalo. Their society was complex and highly organized with the high level of group loyalty and intelli- gence characteristic of the Sioux. Most of the Sioux moved farther west and obtained horses, but the Minnesota Sioux, after fleeing to Canada in 1862, returned to Minnesota. They have been assimilated to a moderate degree, and their stan- dard of living has improved. Reservation members generally find employment on farms or construction work in nearby Minneapolis-St. Paul. Residents receive a crop share rental from the farming of their assigned homesites. 253 PRAIRIE ISLAND RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The reservation was organized under the Reorganization Act of 1934. Its constitution and bylaws were approved by the Secretary of the Interior on June 30, 1936. The corporate charter was ratified on July 23, 1937, by the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE Precipitation averages 30 inches per year. Temperatures range from 1060 to -360. TRANSPORTATION 'U.S. Highway 61 is 31/2 miles to the southwest of the reserva- tion. County roads serve the reservation. The nearest airport is in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 50 miles away. Trains and com- mercial bus- and trucklines serve Red Wing, 14 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by individual wells. There are no gas- or sewerlines. The Dakota County Electric and Power Company supplies electricity. There are no Govern ment-owned buildings Vital Statistics or Federal employees stationed on the reservation. In Red Wing there are a community hospital and a clinic which pro- Population: vide service through the welfare department. There is one Indians residing community building on the reservation. on or adjacent to RECREATION reservation: 89 An annual powwow is held in the area in July. Labor Force: Total: 36 Unemployed: 17 Unemployment rate: 47% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 254 PRIOR LAKE RESERVATION Carver County, MINNESOTA Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Prior Lake, Minnesota 55372 Federal Reservation Population: 59 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 258 acres Tribally Owned: 258 acres Reservation lands were acquired pursuant to acts of Congress approved March 2, 1888, June 29, 1888, and August 19,1890. HISTORY The Sioux and Chippewa were rivals for the territory now known as Minnesota, much of the fighting being over who con- trolled the wild rice beds around Prior Lake and other lakes. Under the Treaty of Washington, 1837, the Sioux began the sale of their Minnesota lands and agreed that the proceeds would go to pay debts to traders. Soon they were reduced ' to semistarvation and suffered injustices at the hands of both officials and settlers. Under Little Crow, they rose against the whites in 1862 in an uprising which took more than 480 lives. Congress abrogated all Minnesota Sioux treaties and declared their lands and annuities forfeit. The Sioux were driven into Canada. Between 1887 and 1893, Congress appropriated new funds to buy back land for the tribe. The Prior Lake Reservation was part of the Lower Sioux Reservation until November 28, 1969, when its constitution was approved by the Secretary of the Interior. CULTURE The Minnesota Sioux culture was based on hunting and gath- ering. The society was complex and highly organized with the high level of group loyalty and intelligence characteristic of the Sioux. Most of the Sioux people moved farther west, but the Minnesota Sioux, after fleeing to Canada following the uprising of 1862, returned to Minnesota. They are now moderately assim- ilated, and their standard of living has improved. Reservation members generally find employment on farms and construction work, sometimes traveling as far as Duluth. 255 PRIOR LAKE RESERVATION GOVERNMENT The tribal constitution was approved by the Secretary of the Interior, November 28, 1969. The first election of the business council was held on December 14,1969. The general council is composed of all persons qualified to vote in community elections. The business council chairman, vice chairman, and secretary perform duties authorized by the general council. They are elected to a 1 -year term. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE The reservation is north of Prior Lake. Precipitation is 37 inches per year. The high temperature is 94'; the low is -22'. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 13, U.S. Highway 169, and County Highway 16 serve the reservation. The nearest airline is in Minneapolis- St. Paul, 20 miles from the reservation. The Shakopee and Prior Lake Railway goes through Indian land. There are com- mercial buses and trucks at Shakopee and Prior Lake, 3 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided by individual wells and heating by bottled gas. There is no sewer system. Northern State Power Company supplies electricity. The nearest hospital and clinic, 3 miles Vital Statistics away in Shakopee, is a private facility. Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 59 Labor Force: Total: 26 Unemployed: 9 Unemployment rate: 35% 256 RED LAKE RESERVATION Beltrarni and Clearwater Counties, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Redlake, Minnesota 56671 Federal Reservation Population: 2,761 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 636,964 acres Tribally Owned: 564,426 acres Non-Indian: 72,538 acres Upper and Lower Red Lakes form over one-third of the res- ervation's surface area. The tribe owns scattered holdings up to the Canadian border totaling 156,690 acres in addition to the reservation area. HISTORY The Chippewa Tribe was among the largest north of Mexico, with lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior and westward through Minnesota to the Turtle Moun- tains of North Dakota. They migrated to this area in the mid- 17th century, having been driven by the Iroquois from an area further to the northeast. The Chippewa, in turn, pushed the Sioux west, forcing their adaptation from Woodland People to the dominant tribe of the plains. The Chippewa in the United States have been at peace with the Government since 1815 and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. Their reservations are parts of their traditional homelands. CULTURE The Chippewa were Timber People and engaged primarily in hunting and fishing. They supplemented these occupations with the gathering of fruits and cultivation of wild rice. They lived in wigwams and traveled in canoes. Although social organization was loose, the powerful Grand Medicine Society controlled the tribe's movements and was a formidable obstacle to Chris- tianizing attempts by white missionaries. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, mostly French and English. GOVERNMENT The tribal governing body is the Red Lake Tribal Council con- sisting of 11 members. This includes a chairman, secretary, and treasurer who are elected at large, and eight councilmen elected, two each, from the four districts. 257 RED LAKE RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The average annual tribal income is $351,000, over 95 percent of which is derived from forestry. Timber is the primary natural resource of the reservation. Quantities of ferrous metals, marl, and peat also exist, but are not presently being exploited. The tribe also owns several commercial and industrial enterprises. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 23 inches annually; snowfall averages 72 inches each winter. The mean high temperature is 670; the mean low is 150. TRANSPORTATION State Highway 1 is the east-west route through the reservation. State Highway 89 crosses the reservation north-south. Com- mercial air, train, bus, and truck services are readily available in Bemidji, 32 miles from Red Lake. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Wells supply the water for the reservation. Only bottled gas is available to residents. Electricity is provided by the Beltrami Electric Cooperative Association. Hospital care is available in the U.S. Public Health Service hospital in Redlake, and at Vital Statistics other hospitals in nearby towns. RECREATION Population: Hunting and fishing are excellent throughout the area. Attrac- Indians residing tions include St. Mary's Mission and Indian Handicraft, a tribal on or adjacent to arts and crafts store. An annual fair is held on the reservation. reservation: 2,761 Labor Force: Total: 871 Unemployed: 342 Unemployment rate: 39% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 9th 258 UPPER SIOUX RESERVATION Yellow Medicine county, MINNESOTA Eastern or Mississippi Sioux Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Granite Falls, Minnesota 56241 Federal Reservation Population: 55 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 746 acres Tribally Owned: 746 acres HISTORY The Sioux and Chippewa were rivals for the territory now known as Minnesota. Decisive engagements occurred before 1750 in which the Chippewa, with the help of French arms, defeated the Sioux-Fox at St. Croix Falls and then destroyed Sioux villages at Sandy Lake and Mille Lacs. Under the Treaty of Washington, 1837, the Sioux began the sale of their lands and agreed that the proceeds should go to pay debts to traders. Deprived of hunting grounds and reduced to semi- starvation, the Sioux, under Little Crow, staged an uprising in 1862. Congr-&-ss abrogated all Minnesota Sioux treaties and declared their lands and annuities forfeit. Approximately $200,000 of their funds was expropriated. In 1938, the Sec- retary of the Interior proclaimed certain lands purchased for the use and benefit of the Upper Sioux Indian community in Minnesota to be an Indian reservation. CULTURE The economic life of the Minnesota Sioux was based on hunt- ing and food gathering, including wild rice, with periodic trips to the plains to hunt buffalo. Their society was complex and ' highly organized with the high level of group loyalty and in- telligence characteristic of the Sioux. Most of the Sioux moved farther west and obtained horses, but the Minnesota Sioux, after fleeing to Canada in 1862, returned to Minnesota. There is no employment on the reservation, and residents must find employment in nearby communities, largely in farming or construction work. GOVERNMENT The reservation has not been formally organized. The com- munity members do, however, elect five of their number to serve as a board of trustees. This board is elected for a 4-year term. 259 UPPER SIOUX RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE Precipitation averages 23 inches per year. Temperatures range from -350 to 110". TRANSPORTATION State Highway 67 runs through reservation land. There is no nearby airport. Railroad and commercial bus and truck facili- ties are at Granite Falls, 3 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is provided from individual wells and heat from oil, wood, and propane gas. The Minnesota Valley Cooperative and the Rural Electrification Administration provide electricity. There is no sewer system. A hospital in Granite Falls is avail- able through welfare or private payment of fees. One commu- nity building is on the reservation. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 55 Labor Force: Total: 23 Education: (tribal estimate) Average grade level achieved: 8th 260 WHITE EARTH RESERVATION Mahnomen, Becker, and Clearwater Counties, MINNESOTA Chippewa Tribe Tribal Headquarters: White Earth, Minnesota 56591 Federal Reservation Population: 2,546 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 835,200 acres Tribally Owned: 25,568 acres Allotted: 1,993 acres Non-Indian: 779,084 acres Government Owned: 28,555 acres Only 6.7 percent of the original reservation is now tax-exempt Indian land or U.S. Government Farm Security Administration (FSA) or resettlement land. The fragmented pattern of land ownership poses problems in the best utilization of the land and resources. The FSA-resettlement land was acquired during the 1930's by the U.S. Government for the use of the Indians on the White Earth Reservation. While this Govern ment-owned land was improved to some degree by the Indian people, the tribe is reluctant to invest in the area since it does not have title to the land. HISTORY The Chippewa, or Ojibway, were one of the largest Indian na- tions north of Mexico and controlled lands extending along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior and westward into North Dakota. Their migration to this area was influenced by Iroquois pressure from the northeast. Drifting through their native forests, never settling on prized farmlands, the Chippewa were little disturbed by the first onrush of white settlers. They maintained friendly relations with the French and were cour- ageous warriors. In the early 18th century the Chippewa drove the Fox out of northern Wisconsin; this time they were also able to push back the Iroquois whose strength and organiza- tion had been undercut by settlers. The Chippewa of the United States have been officially at peace with the Government since 1815 and have experienced less dislocation than many other tribes. 261 WHITE EARTH RESERVATION CULTURE The Chippewa were nomadic Timber People, traveling in small bands, engaging primarily in hunting and fishing, sometimes settling to carry on a crude form of agriculture. These foods were supplemented by gathering fruits and wild rice. Their wigwams of saplings and birchbark were easily moved and erected. Birchbark canoes were used for journeys, but other travel was usually by foot. The tribe was patrilineal, divided into clans usually bearing animal names. Although social orga- nization was loose, the powerful Grand Medicine Society con- trolled the tribe's movements and was a formidable obstacle to Christianizing attempts of missionaries. A mysterious power, or manitou, was believed to live in all animate or inanimate objects. The Chippewa today are largely of mixed blood, including French and English. GOVERNMENT This reservation is one of six Chippewa reservations in the State that are organized to form the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Each reservation has a local reservation business committee of five members elected on a staggered basis to 4-year terms. The chairman and secretary of the local reservation business committees form the 12-member tribal executive committee of the Minne- sota Chippewa Tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY Most of the tribal income is earned in forestry. One-third is farming profits, and the remainder is business revenues. The tribe runs a small forestry and sawmill operation. CLIMATE The reservation lies in northwestern Minnesota where precipi- tation averages 23 inches per year. Temperatures average highs of 681 and lows of 51. 262 TRANSPORTATION There are all-weather hard-surface roads giving access to all directions. Trains, buses, and trucks have scheduled stops at various towns on the reservation. The nearest airport served by a commercial airline is at Detroit Lakes, 12 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Each community has a water and sewer system. No natural gas is supplied to the area. Electricity is provided by the Wild Rice Cooperative. The U.S. Public Health Service holds clinics in White Earth, Ponsford, and Naytahwaush. There is a county hospital in Mahnomen. The only community building is located in Rice Lake. RECREATION Theaters provide entertainment in Mahnomen. The tribe has a swimming program. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 2,546 Labor Force: Total: 841 Unemployed: 303 Unemployment rate: 36% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 263 Mississippi :z_- Y N - T, @@1 n, 4k X A, ZINN - z E4 PU, KE i*'@@ X M4, [email protected]', @-, 4, Choctaw playing stickball Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives CHOCTAW RESERVATION Neshoba, Newton, Leake, Scott, Jones, Attala, Kemper, and Winston Counties, MISSISSIPPI Choctaw Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Pearl River, Neshoba County, Mississippi 39350 Federal Reservation Population: 3,294 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 17,819 acres Tribally Owned: 17,381 acres Allotted: 209 acres Government Owned: 229 acres Reservation lands are checkerboarded with non-Indian lands. At the time of the 1830 removal of the Choctaw to Oklahoma, 104,320 acres were awarded to those remaining. By 1918, only one of the 163 sections remained in Indian ownership. The U.S. Government sponsored a land-purchase program and acquired 16,805 acres in seven counties. The title is held in trust by the United States. The tribe is continuing its effort to purchase additional land. HISTORY The Choctaw were one of the most powerful tribes in what is now the Southeastern United States. The first white man to encounter them, Hernando de Soto, fought a fierce battle with the Choctaw in 1540. The Indians, although defeated, terror- ized the Spanish. After 1700, the Choctaw Tribe was caught between and cleverly divided by the French and English. After 1780, the tribe was caught in a similar situation between United States and Spanish interests. Between 1763 and 1830, the Choctaw signed a series of eight treaties which ceded most of their land to the United States. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, in 1830, provided for the removal of the tribe to Oklahoma, including a provision allowing those so choosing to remain in Mississippi. The last group to move left Mississippi in 1903, and, from then until 1916, the remaining Choctaw were largely forgotten. A series of epidemics brought the tribe to the attention of the U.S. Senate, which prompted an investiga- tion resulting in appropriation of Federal funds for schools and services to the tribe. 265 CHOCTAW RESERVATION CULTURE The tribe is and has been predominantly agricultural, raising crops typical of the area: squash, beans, and corn. The Choc- taw dislike war and prefer to settle disputes over the table. Their game of stickball, an often deadly sport, was used to settle differences between tribes. The tribe is democratic and places women in a prominent, rather powerful, position. A part of the Mound Builders' culture, the Choctaw are the builders of the famous "Nanih Waiya," or Mother Mound, from which the first Choctaw are said to have been born. Choctaw all learn their own language first and English in school so that most of the tribe is at least bilingual. GOVERNMENT The Choctaw Tribe adopted a constitution in 1945 under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. A 16-member council repre- senting the seven major towns on the reservation is elected every other year. This council elects a chairman and a vice chairman, not necessarily from its own members. A secre- tary-treasurer is also elected. The council meets four times annually, with additional meetings called when necessary. The chairman is a full-time employee of the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The reservation land consists of low, rolling sandy hills. Most of the land, 13,900 acres, is forest land. The remainder is used for agriculture and homesites. The tribal income is derived primarily from forestry and usually averages about $40,000 annually. The tribe organized a land enterprise which operated under tribal authority to develop and utilize land. It is now a profitmaking organization. Indians go to nearby towns for shopping and consumer services. The Choctaw operate an arts and crafts shop in Philadelphia. CLIMATE In the mild Mississippi climate, rainfall for the area averages 53 inches per year. The average summer high temperature is 780; the average winter low is 51 0. 266 TRANSPORTATION All local communities are linked by paved roads, with some paved and dirt roads extending through the reservation. Interstate 20 runs east-west through Meridian and Jackson. Two other Interstates, 55 and 59, run north-south through Jackson and Meridian to New Orleans. State Highway 19 connects Meridian and Philadelphia with Pearl River. The nearest air services are located in Meridian and Jackson and provide regularly scheduled service. Train, bus, and truck services are all available in Philadelphia, with no scheduled service to the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Gas and electricity are provided to most of the homes for domestic use. Water and sewer services are inadequate for domestic purposes. The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) maintains a 28-bed hospital in Philadelphia next to the Bureau of Indian Affairs agency. The USPHS also contracts with the hospital in Philadelphia for additional services. Several doc- Vital Statistics tors, a dentist, and field nurses provide medical care for the Choctaw. The community building at Pearl River is used for Population: educational and recreational activities. Indians residing RECREATION on or adjacent to The school at Pearl River is used for sports and community reservation: 3,294 events. Non-Indians may obtain hunting and fishing permits for Labor Force: the reservation from the tribe. The Choctaw Tribe holds an Total: 988 annual fair each August, providing recreational events and Unemployed: 101 tribal exhibits. Unemployment rate: 10% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 4th Number graduated from college in 1972: 20 267 Montana A :N, 21"", "T, TAW L 96 rX -A Blackfeet warriors Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives BLACKFEET RESERVATION Glacier and Pondera Counties, MONTANA Blackfeet Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Browning, Montana 59417 Federal Reservation Population: 6,216 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 950,643.24 acres Tribally Owned: 119,805.72 acres Allotted: 775,412.52 acres Government Owned: 11,223 acres Non-Indian: 44,192 acres HISTORY The present-day Bladkfeet are descendants of a confederacy of Piegan, Blood, and Siksika, all of Algonquian linguistic stock. Until confined to a reservation in the late 19th century, Blackfeet held most of the territory from the North Saskatche- wan River in Canada to the southern headstreams of the Missouri River in Montana. The first treaty signed between the United States and Blackfeet set aside a vast area for the tribe, but 4 years later part of the land was designated by the Government as common hunting grounds. These were to be shared by the Blackfeet, Flathead, Gros Ventre, and Assiniboine. In 1888, the Blackfeet were gathered onto their present reservation. CULTURE The seminomadic culture of the Blackfeet was tha' of the Plains tribes generally. The Sun Dance was important, as were the All Comrades, a series of 12 or more war societies in which membership was based on age. The Blackfeet Were famous horsemen, hunters, and warriors who were greatly feared by their enemies. GOVERNMENT The Blackfeet Tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganiza- tion Act of 1934, with a constitution and bylaws. The governing body is the popularly elected Blackfeet Tribal Business Council consisting of nine members elected for 2-year terms. 269 BLACKFEET RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY Average annual tribal income is $500,000. Ninety percent of this income is derived from minerals and 10 percent from miscellaneous sources. There are several industrial enterprises on the reservation, including a pencil manufacturer and a lumber cut-stock plant, providing employment for tribal members and income to the tribe. CLIMATE Rainfall averages about 14 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 85' to a low of-20'. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 89 runs southeast-northwest, and U.S. Highway 2 runs east-west through the reservation. Train, bus, and truck services are available on the reservation at Browning, while commercial air service is available at Great Falls, 125 miles away. COMMUNITY FACILITIES A large community building is available at Browning for various tribal activities. A modern library with 3,000 volumes was recently completed. The water system at Browning is munici- pally owned. Electricity is furnished by Glacier Cooperative and natural gas by Montana Power Company. The U.S. Public Health Service hospital at Browning provides medical care for tribal members. Vital Statistics RECREATION Browning, gateway to Glacier National Park, is the principal Population: reservation shopping center. This is also the site of the Indians residing Museum of the Plains Indians, a nationally known repository of on or adjacent to Indian artifacts. North American Indian Days are celebrated reservation: 6,216 annually with dances, ceremonies, and a rodeo. In addition to Labor Force: Glacier National Park, reservation recreation areas include Total: 1,353 Lower St. Mary's Lake, Duck Lake, and other such areas. Unemployed: 495 Unemployment rate: 37% 270 CROW RESERVATION Big Horn, Yellowstone, and Treasure Counties, MONTANA Crow Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Crow Agency, Montana 59022 Federal Reservation Population: 4,208 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,554,253.87 acres Tribally Owned: 344,304.69 acres Allotted: 1,209,949.18 acres HISTORY The Crow Tribe, known to other Indians as the Absarokee or Children of the Large-beaked Bird, was formerly a north- eastern tribe. Pressures of colonial expansion forced it to move westward where it became nomadic and was affected by the Plains culture. The friendliness of the Crow to the white man dates as far back as 1825 when they joined United States soldiers in fighting other Indian tribes with whom the Crow were at war. The treaty signed at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, in 1851, gave the Crow 38.5 million acres in Montana. By 1888, the Crow were confined to their present reservation which is also the site of the Custer Battlefield National Monument. CULTURE The early ancestors of the Crow lived in the eastern forests. They practiced agriculture and achieved a high level of civilization. As they were forced westward into the wilderness, they gradually became more and more dependent upon the hunt. By the time of their settlement in the West, their .agricultural pursuits were limited to the planting of corn and squash. Soon after their separation from the main tribe, the Crow abandoned agricultural ways and became a nomadic people. They were always on the move after game and in constant warfare with other tribes of the plains and mountains. This manner of living came to an end in 1878 when reserva- tion life began. GOVERNMENT The Crow Tribe is governed by a general council composed of all male members of the tribe 21 and over, and all female members of the tribe 18 and over. The tribal executive committee consists of 14 members and represents all of the 271 CROW RESERVATION districts on the reservation. Administrative officers are selected by the council. Various commissions have been appointed to assist in specific areas of endeavor. These include industrial development, recreational development, and water and utilities. TRIBAL ECONOMY Primary sources of income include surface leases, coal, oil, and gas royalties and bonuses. The 1972 tribal income is estimated at $720,000. The tribe is pursuing a program of industrial and tourism development. A carpet manufacturing plant currently employing 65-70 people is negotiating expan- sion. The tribe's Sun Lodge provides a complete tourist facility of motel, tepee village, racetrack, and related facilities for visitors in the area. In addition, the tribe is negotiating with the National Park Service for development of the Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area. Facilities will include camping and trailer facilities, marina, and other services. CLIMATE Average annual rainfall is 15.3 inches at Crow Agency. The reservation rainfall varies from less than 7 inches in Garvin Basin to over 30 inches on the mountain summit. Temperature ranges from a maximum of 110' to a minimum of -500. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 212 traverses the reservation east-west and Interstate 90, north-south. Rail, bus, and truck services are available. Air service is available at Billings, 63 miles distant. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The community facilities available at Grow Agency include the Crow Tribal Office, the Sun Lodge Motel (restaurant, pool) ,located 1/2 mile west of Custer Battlefield, 2 grocery stores, and a service station. The town of Lodge Grass has two grocery stores, three service stations, and a community hall. The remaining villages of Wyola, Saint Xavier, Blacklodge, and Pryor have their own community halls or centers. 272 RECREATION A major tourism complex [email protected] a motel, restaurant, tepee village, heritage village, and grandstands. Other areas of interest include the Custer Battlefield National Monument, Yellowtail Dam, and Big Horn Canyon. Tribal Sun Dances, Custer Battle Re-Enactment, and the Crow Fair and Rodeo are annual summertime events. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 4,208 Labor Force: Total: 1,251 Unemployed: 334 Unemployment rate: 27% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth Number graduated from college in 1972: 12 273 FLATHEAD RESERVATION Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders Counties, MONTANA Salish and Kootenai Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Dixon, Montana 59831 Federal Reservation Population: 2,833 (BIA 3/71) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,243,968 acres Tribally Owned: 562,277 acres Allotted: 50,752 acres Government-Owned: 1,017 acres Non-Indian: 629,922 acres The reservation was established by the Hellgate Treaty of July 16, 1855, which ceded most of Montana to the United States in exchange for 1,234,969 acres. A succession of acts followed that dissipated tribal holdings through land allotment and non-Indian homesteading. About one-half the land within the reservation, including almost all of the better agricultural land located in the valley bottoms, is non-Indian owned. The mountains, upland range, and valuable forest lands are Indian-owned. HISTORY The Salish and Kootenai occupied western Montana, eastern Washington, southern British Columbia, and northern Idaho when the Europeans reached the continent. The Indians moved in groups to other areas for visits and usually maintained friendly relations with the tribes to the north, south, and west. However, as the Plains tribes were confined by.the westward expansion of the Europeans, conflicts with the neighboring Blackfeet increased. CULTURE The two tribes are from different linguistic families, but both are related to other Pacific Northwest tribes. The Salish were originally fisheaters, but in time acquired horses and many of the characteristics of the Plains Indians. GOVERNMENT The tribal government consists of a 10-man council elected from five districts. Five members are elected to 4-year terms in biennial elections. Following the election, a chairman and vice chairman are chosen by the council, and a secretary and treasurer are selected at large by the council. 274 TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has an anInual income of $3 million, almost all of which is earned from forest industry. Approximately 50 persons are employed in various tribal enterprises. The tribe owns and operates the Blue Bay Lodge and the Hot Springs Bathhouse. Tribal members own five separate logging operations; 10 or more are owned by non-Indians. The two major sawmills and a number of retail and service stores on the reservation are all owned by non-Indians. There are deposits of silver, iron, potassium, and aluminum on the reservation. Abundant clear water resources are provided by the lakes and rivers. CLIMATE Rainfall measures between 8 and 40 inches per year, varying with the elevation. The average high in July is 67'; the average January low is 250 in the valley. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 93 is the major north-south highway passing through the reservation. U.S. Route 2 is an east-west highway. Polson, which lies on the reservation, is served by commercial train- and buslines. The nearest truck service is located in Kalispell, 15 miles from the reservation. Missoula, which lies 28 miles from the reservation, is served by commercial airlines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The towns on the reservation have water systems and at least partial sewer systems. Residents buy bottled gas. Electricity is drawn from the Flathead Irrigation Project. The Indian Health Service contracts with the four hospitals located on the reservation to provide health care and hospitalization to tribal members. An old Bureau of Indian Affairs complex is now used as a community center. There are also community centers at Elmo, Arlee, and Saint Ignatius. 275 FLATHEAD RESERVATION RECREATION The Flathead Reservation is considered to be one of the most beautiful areas in western Montana, having spectacular mountain and lake scenery. The tribal resort, Blue Bay Lodge, is beautifully situated on a lake offering guests an excellent view. The tribe holds a 4-day powwow during the week of July Fourth. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 2,833 Labor Force: Total: 962 Unemployed: 326 Unemployment rate: 34% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 276 FORT BELKNAP RESERVATION Blaine and Phillips Counties, MONTANA Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Harlem, Montana 59526 Federal Reservation Population: 1,938 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 616,047.66 acres Tribally Owned: 162,932.63 acres Allotted: 427,579.93 acres Non-Indian: 25,535.10 acres The Treaty of Fort Laramie ceded a large block of land to the Assiniboine north of the Missouri in the western two-thirds of Montana. This was divided into the Fort Peck and Fort Belknap Military Reservations in 1873. The Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was established in 1888. It was reduced to its present acreage in 1895. Under the Allotment Act of 1921, almost half a million acres were allotted to individuals. HISTORY The Assiniboine originated in the Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnipeg areas of Canada where they early became allied with the Cree. The Gros Ventre, on the other hand, probably came west from the Red River country at the eastern edge of the plains. In the 19th centurythe Gros Ventre lived in the Milk River area across northern Montana. They allied with the Blackfeet against the Crow and then with the Crow against the Blackfeet. In the 1880's, remnants of the Assiniboine and Gros Ventre within the boundaries of the United States were placed on the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck Reservations. CULTURE The Assiniboine speak a Siouan dialect while the Gros Ventre speak a language of the Algonquian family. Despite this basic difference, earliest recorded history indicates that these tribes occupied adjacent hunting grounds and followed a nomadic Plains culture centered on the buffalo. Both tribes also performed the Sun Dance. GOVERNMENT The Fort Belknap Community Council, which is the official governing body for the reservation, is composed of 12 members from four districts. The Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes have equal representation. 277 FORT BELKNAP RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income averages about $100,000 each year, derived largely from land leases. The tribe employs four people full time. There are two small Indian-owned stores and a tribally owned utility commission. Gravel is presently being extracted. There are also large deposits of bentonite, gas, and oil; however, these have not been extracted commercially. CLIMATE The climate is semiarid, with temperatures averaging a summer high of 700 and a winter low of 90. The relative humidity is quite low. TRANSPORTATION A major east-west highway, U.S. Highway 2, crosses the reservation, and State Highway 376 provides a north-south traffic axis. Harlem, 3 miles off the reservation, has train service. Transportation by air, bus, and truck is available in Havre, 47 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water is piped from the Milk River to the northwest corner of the reservation. Other such facilities are presently inadequate and are being constructed. The Montana Power Company is the Vital Statistics chief provider of natural gas and electricity. Also providing Population: electric power are the Bureau of Reclamation and the Big Flat Indians residing Cooperative. The U.S. Public Health Service operates a 15-bed on or adjacent to hospital on the reservation. There are tribal halls at Fort reservation: 1,938 Belknap, Hays, and Lodgepole. Labor Force: RECREATION Total: 669 There is good fishing for trout and hunting for mule deer, Unemployed: 366 whitetail deer, antelope, and some migratory waterfowl. Two Unemployment major celebrations are held on the reservation, the Labor Day rate: 55% Indian Celebration and the Mid-Winter Fair in February. There Education: are picnic and camping grounds in some parts of the (tribal estimates) reservation and overnight accommodations in Havre. Average grade level achieved: 8th 278 FORT PECK RESERVATION Valley, Roosevelt, Daniels, and Sheridan Counties, MONTANA Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Poplar, Montana 59255 Federal Reservation Population: 5,015 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 964,864.75 acres Tribally Owned: 233,153.17 acres Allotted: 645,114.20 acres Government Owned: 86,597.38 acres Under the 1908 Allotment Act, each tribal member received 320 acres in addition to 40 acres of irrigable land. Heads of families also received 20 acres of timberland. Remaining lands were opened to homesteading in 1916. In addition to the land held in trust, the tribe has control of 85,000 acres of sub- marginal land through a lease agreement with the Department of the Interior. Title to the Indian-owned land is complicated due to multiple inheritance, Indian lands are checker-boarded by non-Indian lands throughout the reservation. HISTORY The Assiniboine are a Siouan-speaking people who originally lived in northern Minnesota. The Assiniboine and many Sioux tribes moved westward into Montana because of pressure from the east exerted by the powerful Chippewa and the European settlers. Both tribes adapted to the Plains culture of their new environment. The Assiniboine participated actively in fur trading with both French and British companies. In an 1851 treaty, the Assiniboine in the vicinity of Fort Peck were granted hunting and fishing privileges in common with the Blackfeet, Gros Ventre, and other tribes in the area. By 1871, larger bands of Sioux had moved into this area. To accommodate these groups, the Fort Peck Reservation was established by an Executive order of 1873 as a home for both Assiniboine and Sioux tribes. The reservation boundaries were set by Congress in 1888. CULTURE Approximately one-half the reservation population is Sioux, one-third Ass.iniboine, and the remainder mixed blood. They live in two distinct tribal groups, the Assiniboine occupying the southwestern and the Sioux occupying the southeastern portions of the reservation. The tribes, once nomadic hunters 279 FORT PECK RESERVATION of the buffalo, still adhere strongly to their Indian customs, although they have adopted many of the white man's ways. Family ties are strong, and tribal members still practice the Indian custom of sharing whatever they have with relatives and friends. GOVERNMENT The Fort Peck tribes did not accept the 1934 Indian Reorganiza- tion Act. The tribes are governed by a 15-man council. Twelve members are elected from six geographic districts. The chair- man, vice chairman, and sergeant-at-arms are elected at large. Each elected executive board member serves a 2-year term. The board operates under a constitution and bylaws revised in 1960. The board is empowered to act on all matters concerning the tribes subject to the powers of the general council. The general council may initiate or reject any action of the executive board as outlined in the constitution and bylaws. TRIBAL ECONOMY Average annual tribal income aggregates $500,000. Tribal income is derived largely from farming, supplemented by mineral income, and permits and licenses. Several people are employed full time by the tribe, principally through tribal associations and cooperatives which operate tribal business enterprises and planning programs. There are an Indian-owned commercial enterprise and several others, non-Indian-owned, on the reservation. Oil is currently being utilized on the reservation. Deposits of lignite coal, salt, bentonite, gravel, and clay are also known to exist in sizeable amounts. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 13 inches per year, and the climate is rather dry. The temperature averages a summer high of 720 and a winter low of 00. Snowfall is usually light. 280 TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 2 runs east-west through the reservation. Commercial air, train, and bus services are available at Wolf Point on the reservation. The nearest truckline is located in Glasgow, Montana. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Water and sewer systems are provided through the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and city utility companies, where indi- vidual Indians are assessed a monthly fee. USPHS hospitals serve both Indians and non-Indians in Wolf Point and Poplar. RECREATION No facilities exist at present. Hunting of small and large game is widespread. Indian dances and other special events are held during the summer. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 5,015 Labor Force: Total: 1,299 Unemployed: 623 Unemployment rate: 48% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 6th Number graduated from college in 1972: 2 281 NORTHERN CHEYENNE RESERVATION Big Horn and Rosebud Counties, MONTANA Northern Cheyenne Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lame Deer, Montana 59043 Federal Reservation Population: 2,683 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 433,594.21 acres Tribally Owned: 262,295.63 acres Allotted: 171,297.90 acres Government Owned: .68 acre The Northern Cheyenne Reservation was established by Executive order in 1884. In recent years, the tribe has success- fully conducted a program to consolidate allotted holdings, purchase non-Indian holdings, and to discontinue non-Indian leases in favor of leases of family-sized ranch tracts to tribal members. HISTORY The Cheyenne originally lived in the Minnesota area and later moved west and settled on the Cheyenne River, in what is now North Dakota, and the upper Missouri watershed. Pushed southwestward by the Sioux, the Cheyenne located in the Black Hills near the headwaters of the Cheyenne River in South Dakota. During the early part of the 19th century they moved to the headwaters of the Platte. When Bent's Fort was built on the upper Arkansas in 1832, a large part of the tribe decided to establish themselves near it, but the remainder continued to live near the headwaters of the North Platte and the Yellowstone. This separation in the tribe was made permanent by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851, the two sections being known respectively as Southern and Northern Cheyenne. The Cheyenne actively opposed the advance of the frontier and the wholesale destruction of the buffalo, resulting in clashes with the United States Army. Following the decisive defeat of Custer at Little Big Horn in 1876 by the Sioux and Cheyenne, efforts to subjugate the Cheyenne were intensified. Finally subdued, they were taken prisoner to Fort Reno, Oklahoma, for resettle- ment. Led by Chiefs Little Wolf and Morning Star, the Northern Cheyenne escaped. Pursued by 1,000 soldiers, they made their way back to Montana in the dead of winter with enormous loss of life due to battles and the cold. Refusing to return to Oklahoma, they finally were allowed to remain and were given 282 lands adjacent to the Crow Reservation in 1884. Until post- World War 11, the tribe held a deep distrust of the non-Indian and the neighboring Crow. CULTURE The Cheyenne, who speak an Algonquian language, migrated from the Minnesota area where their culture had been forest- oriented and agricultural. Gradually substituting the buffalo hunt and gathering wild fruits and vegetables for growing food crops, the Cheyenne had developed a Plains Indian life style by the time of contact with the Europeans. Life was nomadic, based upon the horse and the buffalo. The Cheyenne religious tradition is distinguished by the Sun Dance and their treasured sacred bundle, their "Ark of the Covenant," which was carefully protected and deeply revered. GOVERNMENT The tribe is governed by a 10-member council headed by a president who is elected at large. Both members and president serve terms of 4 years, the members being elected on a staggered basis. TRIBAL ECONOMY Most of the annual tribal income of $300,000 is a product of the reservation's mineral resources. The remainder is earned through farming. The tribe employs over 20 persons. Tribal organizations formed to increase and strengthen reservation resources include the Land Acquisition Enterprise, the Steer Enterprise, the Cheyenne Livestock Association, and the Northern Cheyenne Arts and Crafts Association. The tribe is also a member of the Big Horn Economic Development Corporation, which includes the remainder of Big Horn County and the Crow Indian Reservation. Tribal members find work in a variety of industries on the reservation. Guild Arts and Crafts, Inc., produces plastic jewelry and other items, employing approximately 120 persons. A post and pole company, a gas station, and an eight-unit motel and restaurant are owned by Indians and employ a total of 13. Two other establishments, 283 NORTHERN CHEYENNE RESERVATION owned by non-Indians, a branch plant for the Glendive Upholstering Company, and two gas station complexes employ a total of 20. Mineral deposits include coal, which is being mined, and oil and gas, not presently exploited. Ponderosa pine is also found on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages slightly over 12 inches annually. Temperatures reach seasonal extremes of 1050 and -40". TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 212 runs through the reservation east-west to junction with the soon-to-be-completed Interstate 90 at Crow Agency. Billings lies 98 miles to the northwest on Highway 212. Truck and air companies serve Billings. Truck, bus, and rail services are available at Crow Agency, 18 miles west of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe operates water and partial sewer systems in Lame Deer and Busby. Only bottled gas is available. Electricity is supplied by the Tongue River Rural Electrification Administra- tion. The U,S. Public Health Service operates a hospital serving both the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Reservations at Crow Vital Statistics Agency. Additional clinics are held at Lame Deer on the Population: Northern Cheyenne Reservation. A new community building Indians residing has recently been completed at Lame Deer. There are also on or adjacent to several small community buildings at Ashland and Busby, reservation: 2,683 the latter serving also as a factory. Labor Force: RECREATION Total: 949 The reservation lies in a section of Montana known for its Unemployed: 253 outdoor activities such as fishing and hunting. The Custer Unemployment Battleground National Monument is located on the nearby rate: 27% Crow Reservation and attracts many visitors each year. Visitor Education: facilities are generally campgrounds with trailer spaces and (tribal estimates) picnic areas. Motels are located in nearby towns. Average grade level achieved: 10th 284 ROCKY BOY'S RESERVATION Chouteau and Hill Counties, MONTANA Chippewa-Cree Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Box Elder, Montana 59521 Federal Reservation Population: 1,244 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 107,612.76 acres In April 1916, 56,035 acres were set aside by Congress for the Chippewa and Cree Bands of Chief Rocky Boy. Other lands were added later. None of this land has been allotted or sold though individual assignments have been made. HISTORY A band of Chippewa from Minnesota moved into northern Montana and nearby Canada in the latter part of the 19th century. During the same period, Cree, led by Chief Little Bear, were in the same area. Having no land base, both bands squatted on the fringes of Montana cities and reservations. They were officially but unsuccessfully deported to Canada in 1896 through action of Congress. In 1916, through the efforts of Chiefs Rocky Boy and Little Bear and prominent citizens, the reservation was established on part of the Fort Assiniboine Military Reserve by Executive order. CULTURE The Chippewa and Cree lived in small bands on both sides of what is now the Canadian border from the Great Lakes as far west as northern Montana and Saskatchewan, with the Cree generally living further north. These groups spoke languages of the Algonquian family. The Chippewa Band which settled at Rocky Boy's originated in Minnesota though it had adopted a Plains rather than Woodland culture in most respects. GOVERNMENT Organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of June 1934, the Rocky Boy's adopted a constitution in 1935 and ratified their charter in 1936. The governing body is the nine-member business committee elected by popular vote from the five districts. 285 ROCKY BOY'S RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY Three-fou rths of the annual tribal income of $42,000 is earned through farming. Most of the remainder comes from mineral leases, hunting permits, and forestry. The tribe has organized the Chippewa-Cree Crafts Cooperative to produce the traditional patchwork quilts and beadwork. This organization is assisted by the Rocky Boy's Development Corporation. The only commercial establishments on the reservation are a general store and gas station owned by a non-Indian. Coal is currently being mined. Also existing in large quantities are natural gas, vermiculite, and columbium. CLIMATE Rainfall in this area averages 15 inches annually. The temperature reaches a high of 1000 and a low of -350. TRANSPORTATION Interstate 87 is the major north-south route passing through the reservation. Box Elder lies just one-quarter mile outside the reservation and has commercial train and bus services. The nearest air- and trucklines stop in Havre, Montana, 20 miles from Rocky Boy's. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The only public utilities are in the community of Rocky Boy's. Outlying areas use wells and septic tanks. Reservation residents have bottled gas. The Montana Power Company supplies electricity to the reservation. The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) provides health care-at a clinic in Rocky Boy's, and at the USPHS hospital in Harlem, Montana, 60 miles from the reservation. There is also a private hospital in Havre. A large community building and training center has been completed. There is also a small tribal office building. 286 RECREATION Excellent fishing and hunting are available on the reservation. The tribe owns and operates the BaIdy Butte Inn offering restaurant and lounge facilities. The annual Sun Dance is held in July. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 1,244 Labor Force: Total: 416 Unemployed: 249 Unemployment rate: 60% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 7th 287 Nebraska e Pawnee family at lodge entrance, Loup Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives OMAHA RESERVATION Thurston County, NEBRASKA Omaha Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Macy, Nebraska 68039 Federal Reservation Population: 1,367 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 39,413 acres Tribally Owned: 11,553 acres Allotted: 18,860 acres Disputed: 9,000 acres (pending court action) What is now Thurston County, Nebraska, was the Omaha Indian Reservation as determined by the treaty of March 16, 1854, which called for the ceding of 93 million acres to the United States. By the treaty of March 6, 1865, the Omaha sold the northern half of their reservation to the Winnebago Tribe. Non-Indians own about half the original reservation acreage. HISTORY The traditional home of the Omaha was centered around the confluence of the Big Sioux and Missouri Rivers at present-day Sioux City, Iowa. After the arrival of the Europeans on the continent and before the establishment of the reservation, the Omaha were in frequent conflicts with the Sioux, to the north and west. The Omaha Tribe was decimated by smallpox in 1802. The Omaha and Winnebago, with a similar language, were traditional friends. CULTURE As early as 1690, the Omaha lived in the vicinity of the present- day city of Omaha. Their homes were of earth construction, and skin tents were used when on the move. They farmed, hunted buffalo, and made pottery and a variety of household and culi- nary items. Their language is shared with four tribes: Ponca, Osage, Kaw, and Quapaw. They had a complex social structure, strict in moral code. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized as a Federal corporation under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The constitution and bylaws were ratified by the tribe and the Secretary of the Interior in early 1936 and revised in 1966. The tribal council is composed of seven members, including a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, and treasurer. The council is elected at large by majority vote for a 3-year term and elects its own officers. 289 OMAHA RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe earns $40,000 a year from lease income and $80,000 interest on judgment funds. Ten people are full-time employees of the tribe. The tribe operates the Omaha Tribal Farm, which raises livestock, and the Chief Big Elk Park, a recreation area. The tribe is also a member of the Nebraska Inter-Tribal Development Corporation, together with the Winnebago and the Santee Sioux, and has formed the Omaha Tribal Opportunities Corp. Two industries, owned by non-Indians, are located on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall on the reservation averages just under 29 inches per year. The temperature ranges from an average high of 76' to an average low of 190. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highways 77 and 73 cross north-south through the reservation, while Nebraska Routes 51 and 94 run east-west. Bus- and trucklines stop in all towns on the reservation. Rail freight service is available in Walthill and Rosalie. The nearest commercial air service is in Sioux City, Iowa, 33 miles from the reservation. Vital Statistics COMMUNITY FACILITIES Population: Walthill and Macy have community water and sewer systems. Indians residing Other areas obtain water from underground wells. Gas is on or adjacent to provided by the Iowa Electric Light and Power Company; reservation: 1,367 electricity by the Consumer Public Power District. The U.S. Labor Force: Public Health Service (USPHS) operates a hospital in Total: 592 Winnebago. Tribal members can also secure medical care Unemployed: 372 through a USPHS contract and private hospitals in Omaha and Unemployment Sioux City. rate: 63% RECREATION Education: The reservation lies along the Lewis and Clark Trail. All towns (tribal estimates) have parks. Indian dancing is held weekly in Macy. An annual Average grade powwow is held in August at Macy. A county fair takes place level achieved: 9th in the last week of August. There is good hunting and fishing. 290 SANTEE RESERVATION Knox County, NEBRASKA Santee Sioux Tribe Tribal Headquarters: R.R. #2, Niobrara, Nebraska 68760 Federal Reservation Population: 357 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 5,791 acres Tribally Owned: 3,599 acres Allotted: 2,192 acres HISTORY The Santee Sioux, unlike their neighbors the Yankton Sioux, were inclined to battle, and in 1862, most of the warriors were killed at the New Ulm Massacre. In 1863, the remaining tribal members, mostly old men, women, and children, were moved from Minnesota to Grow Creek from whence they moved in 1866 to the present reservation. CULTURE The Santee Sioux, including the Sisseton, Wahpeton, Mdewakanton, and Wahpekute Bands, is a relatively small group of the Sioux family. They have the cultural characteristics of the mainstream Sioux. They were migratory, aggressive, and dependent upon wild game and plantlife for their sustenance. GOVERNMENT The Santee Sioux Tribe is organized as a Federal corporation having a constitution and bylaws ratified in 1936. The tribal charter was ratified in August of 1936. The tribe is governed by a council of 12 members. Regularly scheduled tribal meetings are held four times a year. Councilmen are elected to a 3-year term on a staggered basis, with four new members elected each year. The council elects a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, and treasurer from its own membership. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income of less than $3,000 per year comes from leases granted by the tribe. The Santee Tribe is a member of the Nebraska Indian Inter-Tribal Development Corporation together with the Omaha and Winnebago Tribes. There is one resort on the reservation owned by non-Indians. A gas station and shoe repair shop have recently been established, both Indian owned. Lime, gravel, and sand deposits exist, but are not being exploited to any appreciable extent. 291 SANTEE RESERVATION CLIMATE Rainfall averages 23.5 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 950 to a low of 100. TRANSPORTATION Highway 12 runs east-west. Highway 14 runs north-south. The nearest commercial air and rail services are 30 miles distant in Yankton, South Dakota. Bus service is available at Niobrara. COMMUNITY FACILITIES A community facilities center is under construction. This building will house such things as a gym, tribal offices, restaurant, day care center, and related tribal activities. A recreational park is presently under construction. This facility will contain water, sewer, and electrical hookups for trailer- campers, in addition to providing campsites, and paved driveways. A housing project of 36 units was completed in the fall of 1972. Emergency hospitalization is provided for the Santee in Creighton, Nebraska. Regular care is provided by the U.S. Public Health Service at Wagner, South Dakota. Vital Statistics Wagner also operates a biweekly clinic at Niobrara, Nebraska. Population: RECREATION Indians residing The potential is great for recreation and tourism development on or adjacent to since the reservation is located immediately adjacent to the reservation: 357 Lewis and Clark Lake and the Devil's Nest Development Area Labor Force: on the Missouri River. Total: 119 Unemployed: 71 Unemployment rate: 60% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th Number graduated from college in 1972: 4 2k WINNEBAGO RESERVATION Thurston County, NEBRASKA Winnebago Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Winnebago, Nebraska 68071 Federal Reservation Population: 877 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 27,468.85 acres Tribally Owned: 3,040.67 acres Allotted: 24,414.92 acres Government Owned: 13.26 acres HISTORY The Winnebago Tribe lived in the Lake Winnebago and Green Bay areas of Wisconsin when the Europeans first arrived on this continent. Through smallpox, struggles with the white man, and hostile tribes, the Winnebago subsequently were decimated. They moved constantly until 1865, when 1,200 were settled near their old friends and allies, the Omaha, in Nebraska. CULTURE The Winnebago are a Timber People with houses, dress, and most crafts similar to the Sac and Fox and Menominee. Their language is a Siouan dialect intimately related to the Otoe, Iowa, and Missouria groups. The tribe was traditionally divided into four Upper, or Air Clans, and eight Lower, or Earth Clans. Marriages between Upper and Lower individuals were required. The Thunderbird and Bear Clans were the most prominent, respectively, of the two groups. The two most important religious ceremonies are the Summer Medicine Dance and Winter Feast. GOVERNMENT The 1936 constitution and bylaws were amended in 1968. The tribe is a Federal corporation. The nine-member council is elected at large by secret ballot from tribal membership. The chairman, vice chairman, and secretary are elected by the council from its own membership to serve for 1 year. Thp treasurer and lesser officers are appointed. The council meets monthly. 293 WINNEBAGO RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribal income of $42,600 is composed entirely of lease rental monies. The tribe is a member of the Nebraska Inter- Tribal Development Corporation together with the Omaha and the Santee Tribes, and is also a member of the Winnebago (village) Industrial Development Corporation. Winnebago Pet Food, owned by a non-Indian, employs all Indians. There are also two groceries, a feedstore, a hardware dealer, and gas stations, all owned by non-Indians. Limestone is being quarried for agricultural use. A new industry on the reservation is Winnebago Cedar Timber Building, Inc., 49 percent owned by the Winnebago Tribe, 49 percent owned by Thomas J. Dalhasen and Associates, and 2 percent held in trust by the Secretary of the Interior. CLIMATE Rainfall measures 24 inches annually. Temperatures range from an average July high of 760 to an average January low of 201. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highways 77 and 73 and State Highway 9 cross north-south through the reservation. Commercial bus- and trucklines stop on the reservation. Rail freight service is available in Rosalie and Walthill on the reservation. For air service, Winnebago residents must drive 23 miles to Sioux City, Iowa. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Winnebago has a community water and sewer system. Other areas on the reservation obtain water from deep wells. The Iowa Electric and Power Company provides gas to the area. A 34,500 volt feed of electricity is supplied by the Consumer's Public Power District. Hospital care for residents is available at the U.S. Public Health Service hospital in Winnebago and at private hospitals in Omaha and Sioux City through contracts. The tribe has an old community building and a tribal office building. The tribe owns a new office building that it leases to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 294 RECREATION. Hunting, fishing, and boating along the Missouri River are popular. The Lewis and Clark Trail passes through the reservation. The annual Indian powwow is held in Winnebago. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 877 Labor Force: Total: 417 Unemployed: 253 Unemployment rate: 61% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth Number graduated from college in 1972: 2 295 Nevada "o; lig F_- Am- J 7 The Pyramid-Pyramid Lake Reservation ALPINE COLONY Alpine County, CALIFORNIA Washoe Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Nevada Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Stewart, Nevada 89437 Federal Reservation Population: NA LAND STATUS Total Area: 80 acres Tribally Owned: 80 acres Under Public Law 91-362, July 31, 1970, the Secretary of the Interior set aside 80 acres of land in Alpine County, California, for the use of members of the Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California. Title to the land is held in trust by the U.S. Government. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 297 BATTLE MOUNTAIN COLONY Lander County, NEVADA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Battle Mountain, Nevada 89820 Federal Reservation Population: 159 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 688 acres Tribally Owned: 688 acres HISTORY In 1847, due to a great influx of non-Indians, the food supply on which the Indians depended became scarce. The angered Indians fought with the military forces sent there to maintain peace. Major peace treaties were agreed upon in 1863, and, by 1880, the area was generally peaceful. The Battle Mountain Colony was established by Executive order in 1917 for the Shoshone Indians. This band claims descent from the Western Shoshone Indians as they were closely affiliated with Chief Te-Moak, allegedly the grandson of the Chief Te-Moak who signed the Treaty of 1863, resolving the differences between the Indians and the United States military. As part of the peace settlement, qualified Indians could select land for assignment. CULTURE The Shoshone, who lived in the Great Basin area, have been called the "Digger Indians" because of the way in which they obtained their food. They gathered nuts and berries, dug for roots and other edibles, and hunted small game in an area offering only sparse subsistence. Because food was difficult to obtain, they traveled in small bands of 25 to 30 persons, usually the extended kin group, moving on when they had gleaned all they could from an area. Only simple social organization and crafts were developed. The Shoshone readily adopted the horse and developed a new life style typical of the Plains Indian hunters. Very few Indian arts and crafts are practiced today. The language is spoken by the majority of the tribe; however, little of the cultural tradition otherwise is practiced. GOVERNMENT The tribe is informally organized and is governed by the general council and a tribal council of six members. 298 TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income. It is a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, an organization formed to promote the development of, and opportunities for, Nevada reservations. CLIMATE Rainfall in this arid region of Nevada averages only 6 inches per year. The temperature varies from a high of 900 to a low of 150. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west through the reservation. The nearest commercial air service is in Elko, 60 miles from the colony; however, trains, buses, and trucks serve the town of Battle Mountain, 1 mile from the colony. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe has its own water and sewer system. Electricity can be purchased from the Sierra Pacific Power Company. There i3 a tribal community building on the reservation. Health care for tribal members is available in the U.S. Public Health Service clinic at Elko and at the Battle Mountain General Hospital. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 159 Labor Force: Total: 25 Unemployed: 12 Unemployment rate: 48% 299 CARSON COLONY Ormsby County, NEVADA Washoe Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Carson City, Nevada 89701 Federal Reservation Population: 157 (BIA 3/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 160 acres Tribally Owned: 160 acres HISTORY The Washoe were among the nomadic tribes living in the Nevada area before the arrival of the white man. Traditional enemies of the Paiute and Shoshone, the Washoe regarded the white men as saviors. As a result of skirmishes with the Northern Paiute in the early 1860's, the Washoe lost their lands. They now live primarily in three communities near Reno. CULTURE Some of the tribal arts and crafts are still practiced, and the language is spoken by the elders. For the most part, the Indian heritage of the people is retained, but the life style is necessarily altered from the mobile hunting and gathering economy they once had. GOVERNMENT Carson Colony is part of the Washoe Tribal Council, a body of nine members governing the three Washoe communities. The constitution and bylaws were written under the Indian Reorgan- ization Act, approved in 1936 and revised in 1966. The Carson Community Council is a subcouncil of five members. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 8 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1000 to a low of 00. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 395 runs north-south through the reservation. Commercial trains and airlines serve Reno, 34 miles from the colony. Buses and trucks stop in Carson City, 2 miles away. COMMUNITY FACILITIES Vital Statistics Water and sewage disposal are provided by the tribe. Electricity Additional data is available from the Sierra Pacific Power Company. Health care unavailable through the Bureau of Indian Affairs is available in Stewart. 300 DRESSLERVILLE COLONY Douglas County, NEVADA Washoe Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Dresslerville, Nevada 89410 Federal Reservation Population: 152 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 40 acres Tribally Owned: 40 acres In March 1917, the United States purchased with $10 in gold the 40 acres of land for the use and benefit of the Washoe Indian Tribe with the stipulation that if the lands are not employed by the United States for the use and benefit of the Washoe Indian Tribe, the land would revert to and become the property of the seller, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Dressler. Adjacent to the Dresslerville Colony, the Washoe Tribe of Nevada owns 794.57 acres of land known as Washoe Ranches. No Indians live on this land, but much of it has been leased for farming and grazing purposes. HISTORY Before the gold rush days in California and Nevada, the Washoe lived quietly in the valleys and watersheds of the Truckee and Carson Rivers in southwest Nevada, near Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Mountains in California. The advent of the prospectors and settlers diminished the Indians' natural food supply, caus- ing the Indians to expand over a wider area in search of food. In this way, they came to the Washoe Valley about 1860. Land not suitable for agriculture was allotted to them in'1895. A 40-acre tract was purchased for their agricultural use in 1917. CULTURE The Washoe Tribe lived in the Nevada and California area, gathering all edible food for subsistence. Their social organ- ization was simple. The scarcity of fbod and resources forced the people to expend all their energies on survival. Most of their crafts products were designed for practical use, such as the seed-gathering baskets. Today, very few of the people speak their Indian language. Traditional customs and arts and crafts are virtually no longer practiced. GOVERNMENT The Dresslerville Community Council governs the reservation. It is a subcouncil of the Washoe Tribal Council. 301 DRESSLERVILLE COLONY TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has an income of $400 per year, which is derived from the interest from the tribal treasury. The tribe owns and operates a ranch, where it grows and harvests hay. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 7 inches per year. The temperature varies from a high of 950 to a low of 100. TRANSPORTATION Highway 395 runs north-south through the reservation. Commercial bus and truck services are located in Gardnerville, Nevada, 4 miles from the reservation. To obtain air or train transportation, residents must drive 60 miles to Reno. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water and sewer systems on the reservation were installed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). The reservation is not connected to any commercial gaslines, but electric power is provided by the Sierra Pacific Power Company. Health care for the Washoe Indians is provided in the USPHS hospital in Schurz, Nevada, and at a clinic in Gardnerville. Tribal activities are headquartered in two quonset huts, which are used as office space and a community center. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 152 Labor Force: Total: 47 Unemployed: 20 Unemployment rate: 43% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 1 Oth 302 DUCK VALLEY RESERVATION Elko County, NEVADA Owyhee County, IDAHO Shoshone and Paiute Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Owyhee, Nevada 89832 Federal Reservation Population: 877 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 293,674 acres Tribally Owned: 289,819 acres Nevada: 144,274 acres Idaho: 145,545 acres Government Owned: 3,855 acres The reservation is held in tribal trust status. Most of the land is tribally owned and was never allotted. It may be assigned to members of the Shoshone and Paiute Tribes. HISTORY The Duck Valley Reservation was established by Executive order in 1877 for the Western Shoshone. In 1886, a group of Paiute, by Governor's order, settled the north side of Duck Valley [email protected] These two groups were combined and organized into one tribe in 1938 under the Indian Reorganization Act. The reservation today has been enlarged by subsequent Executive orders. CULTURE There is no grouping according to cultures, but rather a grouping according to standards of the community. There is a marked difference in home environment, ranging from the poorest to the very well off. Because of mixed marriages, the public school system, and overall acceptance of the non-Indian student, the Indian culture is slowly disappearing and is now almost nonexistent. GOVERNMENT The tribal constitution and bylaws were prepared under the Indian Reorganization Act and approved in April of 1936. The governing body is the business council composed of seven members elected to 3-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE Rainfall averages slightly over 13 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1081 to a low of -341. 303 DUCK VALLEY RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION State Highways 11 and 51 pass north-south through the reser- vation. Public transportation and shipping facilities by air, train, truck, and bus are located in Elko, 100 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water and sewer systems are extended to individuals by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). The Idaho Power Company makes electricity avail- able to the reservation. Hospital and health care through USPHS can be obtained by the Indians in Owyhee. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 877 Labor Force: Total: 282 Unemployed: 119 Unemployment rate: 42% 304 DUCKWATER RESERVATI ON Nye County, NE"DA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Duckwater, Nevada 89314 Federal Reservation Population: 78 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 3,785 acres Tribally Owned: 3,785 acres A Department of the Interior proclamation of November 13, 1940, declared the various purchases of 1940 through 1944 to be an Indian reservation for the use and benefit of Shoshone of Duckwater and other Indians of southern Nevada. HISTORY The original white settlement in the Duckwater Valley was in 1868. The white settlers homesteaded on land that the Shoshone had maintained was rightfully theirs. The Shoshone Tribe had lived in this area long before the Europeans settled on the American continent and had developed their own system of recognizing land rights. Most of the Shoshone who lived here are now located in Idaho and the Western Shoshone Duck Valley Reservation in Nevada and Idaho. CULTURE The Shoshone lived in the Great Basin area, traveling in small groups of 25 to 30. Land resources were barely sufficient for the tribes to maintain a subsistence level, while making use of every edible food in the area, such as nuts, roots and berries, and wild game. Social organization was of necessity very simple. The bands were usually an extended kin group led by the oldest able male. Their religion was shamanistic. The majority of the people today still speak their language; however, they retain very little else of their culture. GOVERNMENT The tribal constitution and bylaws prepared under the authority of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 were approved in November 1940. The constitution provides for a governing body, the tribal council, which is composed of five members elected to serve staggered terms. 305 DUCKWATER RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income of its own. It is a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, organized by the tribes to promote the development of, and opportunities for, the reser- vations in the State. There are no significant resources on the reservation land. CLIMATE Rainfall averages about 6 inches annually. The temperature reaches a high of 1050 and a low of -100. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 20 runs northeast-southwest through the reservation. Ely, 40 miles from the reservation, is the major location for transportation by air, truck, or bus in the area. The nearest commercial train service is in Elko, 160 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES All facilities for water supply and waste disposal are indi- vidually owned. There are presently no commercial sources of power supplied to the reservation. Health care for the Duckwater Shoshone is provided at the Steptoe Hospital in Ely, Nevada. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 78 Labor Force: Total: 11 Unemployed: 2 Unemployment rate: 18% 306 1 ELKO COLONY Elko County, NEVADA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Elko, Nevada 89801 Federal Reservation Population: 327 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 193 acres Tribally Owned: 193 acres Residents of this colony are the descendants of the Shoshone who selected their allotments near the town of Elko. HISTORY The Indians of Nevada were first encountered by whites in the 1820's. The influx of traders, miners, and settlers began rapidly to restrict the Indians' life style, and, by 1850, there was friction between the two groups. After several major battles, the United States Government and Nevada tribes signed a series of treaties in 1863. The area was generally peaceful by 1880. Bands of Indians began living near towns, such as the group of Elko. The Elko Colony, however, was not established until 1918 by an Executive order. CULTURE The Shoshone, who lived in the Great Basin area, have been called the "Digger Indians" because of the way in which they gathered their food. They gathered nuts and berries, dug for roots and other edibles, and hunted small game in an area offering only sparse subsistence. Because food was difficult to obtain, they traveled in small bands of 25 to 30 persons, usually the extended kin group, moving on when they had gleaned all they could from an area. Only simple social organization and basic crafts were developed. Most Indians still speak their language. The Indians are proud of their heri- tage, although they practice few traditions. GOVERNMENT Elko Colony is a member of the Te-Moak Western Shoshone Council, a governing body having total jurisdiction over all matters concerning lands of member reservations. The council is an active organization which meets at least monthly. The local councils have retained sovereignty over all matters other than land. The Elko governing body is a council of six members who are elected to 2-year terms. 307 ELKO COLONY TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income of its own and consequently has no independent projects. The tribe is a member of the Inter- Tribal Council of Nevada, an organization to promote the development of opportunities for Nevada reservations. CLIMATE The reservation is in an arid climate which averages only 6 inches of rain per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 900 to a low of 100. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Route 40 crosses east-west through the reservation. The city of Elko, 2 miles from the colony, is served by commercial trains, buses, trucks, and airlines. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The colony is connected with the Elko water and sewer system. The California Pacific Utility Company provides both gas and electricity. Health care for the Indian is available at the Elko General Hospital. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 327 Labor Force: Total: 50 Unemployed: 23 Unemployment rate: 46% 308 ELY COLONY White Pine County, NE"DA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Ely, Nevada 89301 Federal Reservation Population: 159 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 9.95 acres Tribally Owned: 9.95 acres All the land is tribally owned in trust with the United States Government. The land was conveyed to the United States in 1931 for the Ely Shoshone. This purchase was made for these Indians since they did not have tribal rights on any established reservation. HISTORY The Shoshone lived as mobile bands in the eastern part of Nevada. When horses became available they adopted a Plains Indian life style. The influx of whi te settlers and prospectors beginning in the 1830's drastically altered their way of life. After some friction with the settlers and the United States military, the Shoshone and the United States agreed to treaties in 1863, and by 1880, Nevada was peaceful. The Indian bands frequently settled near the new towns and adopted many facets of white culture. Small purchases of land were made for these groups in the late 19th and early 20th centuries so they could share the Indian's right to'special land privileges and Government services. CULTURE The Shoshone were a "Digger Indian" group, traveling in small bands in search of the scarce food in their region, making use of every edible plant and animal. They readily adopted the horse and the Plains culture; they thus had more contact and friction with other tribes than their neighbors, the Paiute. However, with the settlement of the area, the basis for their living pattern was eliminated, and they were forced to adapt to the new culture. All Indians on this reservation are Shoshone. Most speak the Shoshone language. Some indi- viduals still do traditional craft work. GOVERNMENT The tribe adopted a constitution and bylaws in 1966 under the Indian Reorganization Act. 309 ELY COLONY TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has an annual income of $30 from the rental of a building. The tribe is a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, an organization formed by the tribes to promote the development of the Nevada reservations. TRANSPORTATION Highway 50 runs east-west through the reservation. The north-south highway is Nevada 6. Commercial air, bus, and truck services are located in Ely, between 1 and 4 miles from residents' homes. Commercial airlines serve Wells, 138 miles from the colony. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The colony is connected with the city of Ely water and sewer system. The city also provides electric power and gas to the colony. The White Pine Hospital in Ely provides medical care for the tribe. The Steptoe Hospital and the Eastern Nevada Medical Center, also in Ely, provide additional medical care. There is a community building on the colony where tribal activities are centered. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 159 Labor Force: Total: 25 Unemployed: 12 Unemployment rate: 48% 310 FALLON COLONY AND RESERVATION Churchill County, NEVADA Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Fallon, Nevada 89406 Federal Reservation Population: 224 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area 5,540 acres Tribally Owned on Reservation: 840 acres Tribally Owned on Colony: 60 acres Allotted on Reservation: 4,640 acres Inheritance to allotted lands is a problem because many heirs may be attached to one lot. As a result, lease, sale, and management of these lands is impeded. The land is held in trust patent for the tribe by the United States Government. HISTORY As a result of the General Allotment Act, 196 allotments were made to a band of Paiute living in the Sink and Stillwater area. In 1906, an agreement was reached between the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Fallon Indians to trade acreage for water rights. In 1917, 840 acres were added as tribal trust land. After a number of sales and exchanges, the present reserva- tion acreage was reached. Sixty acres were added in 1917 to establish the Fallon Colony at Rattlesnake Hill. CULTURE Before the formation of the reservation, the Paiute and Shoshone moved about in small bands utilizing natural foods and game in the area. Crafts that have survived include beadwork, cradle- board making, and some basket weaving. Fishing and hunting are now pursued more for recreation than from necessity. GOVERNMENT The governing body of the Fallon Paiute and Shoshone Tribes, the Fallon Business Council, consists of five members elected by tribal members. They serve a term of 2 years or until they are replaced. Members elect from among themselves a chair- man, vice chairman, and secretary-treasurer. The constitution and bylaws, approved in 1964, cover the duties and privileges of these members. 311 FALLON COLONY AND RESERVATION TRIBAL ECONOMY The annual average tribal income of $1,000 is derived entirely from lease payments. Tribal associations and cooperatives include Tribal Industries, Inc., Nevada Indian Rodeo Associa- tion, and Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada. CLIMATE Rainfall averages almost 5 inches per year. The temperature varies from a high of 730 to a low of -39". TRANSPORTATION Interstate Highway 80 now crosses east-west through the reservation, and U.S. Highway 50 is also an east-west route. U.S. Highway 95 runs north-south. Commercial air and train services are located in Reno, 71 miles from the reservation. Bus- and trucklines serve Fallon, 13 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The Sierra Pacific Power Company supplies water, gas, and electricity to the Fallon Reservation. The sewer system was installed by U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Hospital care is located in Fallon at the Churchill Public Hospital, in Schurz, Nevada, at the Schurz Indian Hospital, and at the Walker Vital Statistics River USPHS hospital. RECREATION Population: The tribe's activities such as sports, dances, and dinners are Indians residing usually held in the community hall or the Senior Citizens on or adjacent to Building. reservation: 224 Labor Force: Total: 57 Unemployed: 20 Unemployment rate: 35% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 11th 312 FORT MCDERMITT RESERVATION Humboldt County, NEVADA Malheur County, OREGON Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: McDermitt, Nevada 89421 Federal Reservation Population: 378 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 34,810 acres Tribally Owned-Nevada: 16,396 acres Allotted-Oregon: 18,269 acres Nevada: 145 acres HISTORY This reservation was established as a military post in 1867 and abandoned some years later. The site was transferred to the Secretary of the Interior by Executive order in 1889, making the area public domain land. The act of August 1, 1890, authorized disposition of this land under the Homestead Law. In 1892, allotments of this land were made to the Indians under the General Allotment Act of 1887. CULTURE With the exception of speaking the Paiute language, participa- tion in a distinctly Indian culture is practically nonexistent here. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act, with a constitution and bylaws approved in 1936. The governing body is the tribal council, whose eight members are elected to serve 4-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY There is no tribal income. CLIMATE Rai'nfall averages 6 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a July average high of 70" to a January average low of 260. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway 95 passes in a north-south direction through the reservation. Commercial air and train service are located in Winnemucca, some 75 miles from the reservation. Buses and trucks. serve the reservation. 313 FORT MCDERMITT RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water and sewer systems are tribally operated. Electricity is provided by the Harney Electric Company. The Humboldt General Hospital is located in Winnemucca. RECREATION Tribal activities are held in the reservation community building. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 378 Labor Force: Total: 117 Unemployed: 91 Unemployment rate: 78% 314 LASVEGASCOLONY Clark County, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 Federal Reservation Population: 105 (BIA 3/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 10 acres Tribally Owned: 10 acres The land of the colony was purchased in 1911 for the use of the Paiute. HISTORY The Paiute were a peaceful tribe living in Nevada until their way of life was changed by the arrival of the settlers and prospectors during the decades beween 1820 and 1850. The Paiute attempted to prevent the influx to retain their old way of life and met with the U.S. military in several battles. By 1880, however, they had recognized the futility of their efforts and tried instead to adapt to the new way of life imposed upon them. Bands of Paiute settled near towns and adopted some of the imported culture. The Government eventually purchased small sections of land for these bands to use as reservations. CULTURE The Paiute traveled in small bands, usually the extended kin group. As the food supply was meager, they had to make use of every edible plant and animal, moving on to new areas when one could no longer support them. Because it was neces- sary to devote almost all their energies to simple survival, the Paiute rarely engaged in frictions with other tribes or bands. Their social organization was simple; the bands were led by the oldest able male. Their religion was shamanistic, and the Paiute attributed great importance to dreams and to the powers of the shaman or medicine man. As in most colonies in the State, the manifestations of Indian culture are rarely evident. Arts and crafts are not produced; the traditions are no longer observed. The Paiute have intermarried with Indians of Arizona, so very little of the language is spoken. 315 LAS-VEGAS COLONY GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under its Articles of Association which were approved in January 1966. The governing body is the colony council formed of three members. The council is supported by the advisory board of four members. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe as an organization has no income. It is a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, an organization formed by the tribes to promote the development of the Nevada reser- vations. Because of the colony's location in the Las Vegas area, the economic activities of individuals are integrated with the economy of the city. CLIMATE The Las Vegas area is extremely arid, but popular as a resort and vacation location because of the clear weather which is prevalent most of the year. The rainfall averages barely over 1 inch per year, and the temperature shows seasonal extremes of 111' and 15'. TRANSPORTATION Interstate Highway 15 and U.S. Highway 91 cross Las Vegas northeast-south west, connecting the area with Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. U.S. Highway 93 junctions with the Interstate and runs north through Nevada and southeast to Interstate 40 and Phoenix. U.S. Highway 95 runs northwest and south of the city. All types of commercial transportation are available in the city of Las Vegas. Bus, truck, and train stations are no more than 3 miles from the colony, while the airport is 6 miles away. 316 COMMUNITY FACILITIES The colony is connected to the Las Vegas water and sewer infrastructure. The Nevada Power Company provides elec- tricity. Health care for the Paiute of Las Vegas is available at the Southern Nevada Memorial Hospital in Las Vegas and through the District Health Department of Clark County, also in the city. A private doctor runs a clinic in the city which treats the Indian population. The tribe maintains a community building for tribal activities. RECREATION The colony is located in one of the most active cities in the State. Nevada is popular as a resort State because of the weather and the natural environment and the legalization of gambling. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 317 LOVELOCK COLONY Pershing County, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lovelock, Nevada 89419 Federal Reservation Population: 117 (BIA 3/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 20 acres Tribally Owned: 20 acres The re are no heirship claims. The entire acreage is used for residential purposes by tribal members. HISTORY The Paiute Tribe was first encountered by white traders in 1825. From that time, whites moved to and through Nevada in increasing numbers until, by the time of the gold rush of 1849 and Nevada's Statehood, the Indian life style was severely inhibited. The Indians expressed their frustration and attempted to regain the past in the Paiute War, which was primarily two battles in 1860-61. This led to a series of treaties with the United States in 1863. The Lovelock Colony was not established until November 1, 1907, when the Secretary of the Interior allotted 20 acres for the use of the Lovelock Band of Indians. CULTURE The Paiute are from the Great Basin cultural group, where the daily life was so taxing that social organization and culture remained simple and uncomplicated. The Indians made use of every edible, including roots, berries, and wild game. They traveled in small bands of about 30 people, moving to new areas when the food where they were became sparse. The strictly Indian culture no longer exists among them due to their proximity to the non-Indian community; however, a large portion of the people do speak Paiute. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws were approved in March 1968. The governing body is the Lovelock Colony Council composed of five members. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income. However, it is a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, organized by the tribes to promote the development of the Nevada Indian reservations. 318 CLIMATE Rainfall averages only 41/2 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 680 to a low of 290. TRANSPORTATION A major east-west highway, U.S. 40, crosses the reservation. Commercial trains, trucks, and buses stop in Lovelock, 1 mile from the colony; however, residents must drive 92 miles to Reno for air transportation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The colony is served by the city water and sewer system. Electricity is purchased from the Sierra Pacific Power Company. Health care for tribal members is provided by the U.S. Public Health Service in Lovelock. The tribe has a community hall, where sports and social events are scheduled. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 319 MOAPA RIVER RESERVATION Clark County, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Moapa, Nevada 89025 Federal Reservation Population: 138 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 1,174 acres Tribally Owned: 1,174 acres The present reservation was finalized in 1875 by an Executive order for the Paiute. Approximately 616 acres were allotted to Indian residents; however, in 1941, all allotted lands were re- stored to tribal status through relinquishment by the owners. HISTORY The Paiute lived in Nevada relatively peacefully until their way of life was altered during the decades between 1820 and 1850 by the arrival of settlers and prospectors in-increasing numbers. The Paiute attempted to drive the whites out of their area and met them in several skirmishes or battles known as the "Paiute War." There were several treaties ir n 1863, and most of the friction had disappeared by 1880. The Paiute then adopted some of the customs of the new settlers and began to live in permanent settlements and learn new ways to provide food and shelter for themselves. CULTURE The Paiute had been a peaceful tribe, traveling in small bands searching for food. Because of the meager food supply, they made use of all edible plants and animals. Their total attention was put to survival, and they rarely concerned themselves with war. Social organization was necessarily simple, the leader of the band usually being the oldest able male. Religion was shamanistic, and great emphasis was placed on the importance of dreams and the powers of the shaman or medicine man. Today, the Indians on the Moapa Reservation still observe the Indian wake or burial service in conjunction with church services. They do the traditional beadwork. A majority of the tribe speak the Paiute language. 320 GOVERNMENT The tribe adopted a constitution and bylaws in 1942 under the authorization of the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution provides for the Moapa Business Council as the governing body. The six council members are elected to 3-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe's income is $5,000 per year from a farming lease. The tribe has formed a farming cooperative. TRANSPORTATION Highways 7 and 14 and U.S. 93 provide north-south transportation facilities. A trainline stops at Moapa, 3 miles from the reservation. Buses and trucks service Glendale, 7 miles from the reservation. The nearest commercial airlines are located in Las Vegas, a 55-mile drive from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe has its own water supply, the Overton Water Company. The tribe also provides septic tanks. Individuals buy bottled gas and obtain electricity from the Overton Power Company. Health care is available in the U.S. Public Health Service hospital in Schurz, Nevada, and the Memorial Hospital in Las Vegas. Clinics are held in Las Vegas by the local welfare department. The tribe has one community building where tribal activities take place. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 138- Labor Force: Total: 44 Unemployed: 20 Unemployment rate: 45% 321 PYRAMID LAKE RESERVATION Washoe County, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Nixon, Nevada 89424 Federal Reservation Population: 414 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 475,085.55 acres Tribally Owned: 475,085.55 acres The reservation is in trust status with the U.S. Government. Several lots in the township of Wadsworth and several ranches within the boundaries of the reservation are owned in fee by non-Indians. Pyramid Lake lies in the center of the reservation. HISTORY The reservation was created by Executive order of 1874 for Paiute and other Indians residing there. The tribe is incor- porated and owns the land. The Paiute never signed a treaty with the United States. CULTURE As most of the school children attend public schools away from the reservation, there is a resulting drift away from the old Indian culture. About the only remaining facets of Indian culture are the small amount of beadwork being done by a few and the native tongue spoken by the majority of residents. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act, with a constitution and bylaws approved in 1936. The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribal Council is the governing body and performs the minor administrative functions of the tribe. It is composed of 10 members. TRIBAL ECONOMY The average annual tribal income is $47,700. Tribal associa- tions and cooperatives include the Cattlemen's Association, The General Store, and Pyramid Lake Arts and Crafts. There is a combination trading post and service station, which is owned by an Indian. No known mineral deposits are to be found on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 7 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 920 to a low of 31 0. 322 TRANSPORTATION State Highways 33 and 34 run along the west and east sides of the reservation to connect with Interstate 80, a major east-west highway. Commercial transportation of all types is available in Reno, 40 miles from the reservation. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The water system is operated by the tribe. Electricity is pro- vided by the Sierra Pacific Power Company. Hospital care is available to Pyramid Lake residents at the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) in Schurz, Nevada. Tribal members may also contract for medical care through the USPHS in Sparks. Monthly clinics are held on the reservation. RECREATION The tribe organizes various sports in the tribal gym and community hall. Pyramid Lake, from which the reservation derives its name, has been a major recreation attraction for tourists; however, the water level has been lowered to supply water to California and Nevada. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 414 Labor Force: Total: 119 Unemployed: 53 Unemployment rate: 45% 323 RENO-SPARKS COLONY Washoe County, NEVADA Washoe and Paiute Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Reno-Sparks, Nevada 89431 Federal Reservation Population: 564 (BIA 3/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 28.38 acres Tribally Owned: 28.38 acres The entire acreage is held in trust for the tribe by the United States Government. The water rights for the reservation have been lost. The land is divided into small lots assigned to individual members. HISTORY The U.S. Government, through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, set aside 19.58 acres for displaced Nevada Indians in 1917. In 1924, an additional 8.8 acres were added to the original pur- chase. The reservation is now almost entirely surrounded by various types of industry. CULTURE Indian arts and crafts have diminished to practically nothing. The Indian languages are spoken by a few of the older people; however, most of the younger members speak only English. Customs and traditions have all but vanished. GOVERNMENT The colony is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws, approved in 1936, provide for a six-member Reno-Sparks Indian Council. Members serve for a 2-year term. TRIBAL ECONOMY The average annual tribal income is $400, which is derived entirely from the rental of office space. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 7_5 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 1000 to a low of, 00. TRANSPORTATION U.S. Highway-40 passes east-west through the colony. U.S. Highway 395 is a north-south route. All means of commercial transportation are readily available in Reno, 1 mile or less from the reservation. 324 COMMUNITY FACILITIES All public utilities on the reservation are provided by the Sierra Pacific Power Company. Health care for Indian residents is available in the Washoe.Medical Center in Reno. Additional contract medical care in Reno is arranged by the U.S. Public Health Service. RECREATION Colony activities are centered in the community building. Additional recreation is readily at hand in Reno. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 325 RUBY VALLEY RESERVATION Elko County, NEVADA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: c/o Nevada Indian Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Stewart, Nevada 89437 Federal Reservation Population: 40 (131A 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 120 acres Allotted: 120 acres Land was allotted under the Allotment Act of February 8, 1887. Trust patent was issued to allottee June 4, 1970. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 326 SOUTH FORK AND ODGERS RANCH RESERVATIONS Elko County, NEVADA Shoshone Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Lee, Nevada 89829 Federal Reservation Population: 93 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 15,036.56 acres Tribally Owned: 15,036.56 acres This reservation was established by Executive order in 1941 under the Indian Reorganization Act. Approximately 9,500 acres of land purchased in 1938 and 1939 in connection with the land acquisition program were proclaimed as an Indian reservation for the use of the Te-Moak bands of Western Shoshone. Subsequent-land purchases have been added to the reservation. HISTORY The Western Shoshone originally roamed over parts of Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and California, constantly searching for food, With the coming of prospectors and settlers, trouble broke 0-ut between the Indians and whites. Military forces were sent to restore peace and order. Several Shoshone groups refused to move to lands set aside for them in the peace treaties of 1863. One of these groups was still living in the headwaters of the Reese River when lands in that area were purchased for their use in 1937. CULTURE The Shoshone have been called the "Digger Indians" because of the way in which they gathered their food. The Utah and Nevada Great Basin area where they lived offered only a sparse subsistence. The Indians gathered nuts and berries, dug for roots and other edibles, and hunted small game. Because food was difficult to obtain, they traveled in small bands of 25 to 30 people, usually the extended kin group, moving to a new area when they had gleaned all they could where they were. Only simple social organizations and basic arts were developed. Very few of the Indian arts and crafts are practiced on the reservation today. The language, however, is still spoken by most. 327 SOUTH FORK AND ODGERS RANCH RESERVATIONS GOVERNMENT The South Fork Reservation, together with Elko Colony, formed the Te-Moak Western Shoshone Council, a governing body for the Te-Moak Western Shoshone bands having total jurisdiction over all matters concerning land. The local councils retain sovereignty over all other matters. The Te-Moak Western Shoshone Council is an active organization which meets monthly. The South Fork Community Council, a subcouncil of the Te-Moak Western Shoshone Council, is the local govern- ment for the South Fork Reservation. Six tribal members are elected to serve 2-year terms. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income and, as a result, sponsors no economic activities. It i's a member of the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada and, through this organization, is making efforts to improve the economy of the reservation. CLIMATE The climate in this area is typical of central Nevada and Utah. It is relatively dry, averaging only 6 inches of rain each year. The temperature is usually seasonable with a high of 90" in the summer and a low of 150 in.the winter. Vital Statistics TRANSPORTATION Population: U.S. Highway 40 crosses east-west through the reservation. Indians residing The city of Elko, 28 miles from the reservation, is served by on or adjacent to commercial air, bus, train, and truck transportation. reservation: 93 COMMUNITY FACILITIES Labor Force: Residents provide their own water and sewer facilities. Health Total: 42 care is available at the Elko General Hospital and at the U.S. Unemployed: 5 Public Health Service clinic, also in Elko. There is one Unemployment community building on the reservation. rate: 12% Education: (tribal estimates) Average grade level achieved: 8th 328 SUMMIT LAKE RESERVATION Humboldt County, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: c/o Nevada Indian Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Stewart, Nevada 89437 Federal Reservation Population: 1 (BIA 3/70) LAND STATUS Total Area: 11,054.27 acres Tribally Owned: 10,289.33 acres Allotted: 764.94 acres HISTORY The old Camp McGarry Military Reserve was a part of this reservation. The land for this reservation was withdrawn from entry, sale, or other disposition by Executive order in 1913 and set aside for the Paiute, Shoshone, and such other Indians as the Secretary of the Interior might settle there. The Paiute Tribe has never concluded a treaty with the United States Government. CULTURE There is very little, if any, evidence of clinging to, or desire to retain, the Indian culture. As there is at present only one tribal member living permanently on the reservation, tribal organization and culture can have little function. GOVERNMENT The tribe is organized under the Indian Reorganization Act. The constitution and bylaws were approved in 1965. These provide for a tribal council of five members elected to serve a 3-year term. TRIBAL ECONOMY Tribal income is limited to funds received from grazing rights. There are no cooperatives, tribal organizations, or industries on the reservation. There are no exploitable minerals on the reservation. CLIMATE Rainfall averages 10 inches per year. The temperature ranges from 7011 to 250. TRANSPORTATION There are no State or U.S. highways crossing the reservation. Air service is 75 miles from the reservation. Commercial train-, truck-, and buslines serve Alturas, California, 100 miles away. 329 SUMMIT LAKE RESERVATION COMMUNITY FACILITIES There are no provisions for water, sewage, or power on the reservation. For health care, the Paiute can go to a hospital in Cedarville, California, or in Nevada to U.S. Public Health Ser- vice clinics in Fort McDermitt and Winnemucca. Vital Statistics Additional data unavailable 330 WALKER RIVER RESERVATION Churchill, Lyon, and Mineral Counties, NEVADA Paiute Tribe Tribal Headquarters: Schurz, Nevada 89427 Federal Reservation Population: 437 (BIA 3/72) LAND STATUS Total Area: 323,386.35 acres Tribally Owned: 313,670.34 acres Allotted: 8,751.78 acres Government Owned: 964.23 acres HISTORY On November 25,1859, there was recommended the establish- ment of a reservation for the Indians in the vicinity of Walker River. By Executive order of March 19, 1871, land was set aside for Paiute. Various resolutions following the original Executive order changed the land status of Walker River to its present area. CULTURE The distinctly Indian culture has all but disappeared from the everyday li'ves of the members of this tribe. They all speak English, and very few of the older members cannot read or write. Few among the younger generation speak their Indian language. GOVERNMENT The tribe drew up a constitution according to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Both constitution and bylaws were approved in March 1937. The constitution established the Walker River Paiute Tribal Council as the governing body for the tribe. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has an income of approximately $30,000 per year. Tribal members have formed a Cattlemen's Association. The tribe owns a bar, service station, and motel combination. There are large iron ore deposits on the reservation which are not currently being mined. CLIMATE Walker River lies in the western part of Nevada. Rainfall averages 6 inches annually, and temperatures reach a high of 100' and a low of -240. 331 WALKER RIVER RESERVATION TRANSPORTATION The reservation lies along the major north-south highway, U.S. 95. Reno, 100 miles from the reservation, is served by commercial trains and airlines. The nearest buses and trucks stop in Schurz. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The tribe operates a water and sewer system which serves most of the reservation. Those individuals not served by the tribe provide their own facilities. The U.S. Public Health Service extends medical care to tribal members at the h6spital in Schurz. The gym and tribal building is the focus of tribal business and recreational activities. Vital Statistics Population: Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 437 Labor Force: Total: 159 Unemployed: 73 Unemployment rate: 46% 332 WINNEMUCCA COLONY Humboldt County, NEVADA Paiute and Shoshone Tribes Tribal Headquarters: Winnemucca, Nevada 89445 Federal Reservation Population: 30 (tribal est. 1/73) LAND STATUS Total Area: 340 acres Tribally Owned: 340 acres HISTORY The Indians of Nevada were first encountered by whites in the 1820's. Whites began rapidly to affect the Indians' life style, and by the 1850's, with the coming of the gold rush and Statehood, there was a great deal of friction between the two groups. The Paiute War, two battles in the early 1860's, and the extension of United States authority over the land resulted in the treaty settlements of 1863. The Winnemucca Colony was not established until 1917 when an Executive order set aside lands for homeless Shoshone. An act of May 21, 1928, authorized the purchase of land in the vicinity of Winnemucca to be used as an Indian colony, but did not specify a tribe. CULTURE The colony originally consisted mainly of Shoshone, of which there are now very few. The majority are Paiute from the Fort McDermitt Reservation. Most speak their language, but Indian arts, crafts, and traditions are almost nonexistent. 'These Indians are from the Great Basin cultural groups, also known as the "Digger Indians." They were able to live only at a subsistence level, digging for roots and other edibles in an area of scanty food supply. They traveled in small groups, as the food supply in a given area was not sufficient to supply more than an extended kin group. Of necessity, social organization and culture were simple. GOVERNMENT The tribe is informally organized and is governed by a general council and a spokesman. The council meets monthly. TRIBAL ECONOMY The tribe has no income of its own. It is a member of the Inter- Tribal Council of Nevada, an organization formed by the tribes to promote the development of opportunities for the Indian reservations of Nevada. 333 WINNEMUCCA COLONY CLIMATE In this and region, the rainfall averages 6 inches per year. The temperature ranges from a high of 900 to a low of 150. TRANSPORTATION A major east-west highway, U.S. 40, passes through the reservation. Commercial trains, buses, and trucklines serve the community of Winnemucca, 1 mile from the colony. The nearest commercial air service is located in Elko, Nevada, 130 miles .from the colony. COMMUNITY FACILITIES The colony is served by the city water and sewer system and purchases electricity from the Winnemucca Light and Power Company. Health care through clinics is available in Winnemucca and at the Elko General Hospital. Vital Statistics Population: (tribal estimates) Indians residing on or adjacent to reservation: 30 Labor Force: Total: 20 Unemployed: 10 Unemployment rate: 50% Education: (tribal estimates)