[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
Coastal Zone Jnformation Center COASYAL ZONE NTFp STU A., @ [email protected] M AV, ft ' p Rk M @"v A 51- 4 HISTORIC AND ,.fTR-Q.1.qTF-NCE ,@NTORY E 99 E7 N55 1977 _ [email protected](, BEAUFORT SEA DY 'E BOROUGH DECEMBER, 1977 ZONE L '46, T5 Beaufort Sea Study-Ifistoric and Subsistence Site Inventory: A Preliminary Cultural Resource Assessment Ln :[email protected] Jon M. Nielson W North Slope Borough Barrow, Alaska December, 1977 <Iz WORLD (NORTH AMMCA) 1:1,000,0DO UYIIAT @z: [email protected] -N, Z 6. ZIV- x .1 13-1 @Z, ift"i 6 -i @, @ '[email protected] ! IP 4 t A- N'r 15. x, la, q A It M -won= MA Ph 10,i S,,..y. s CONTENTS Title Page i Frontispiece iii PRELIMINARIES Contents v Plates vi Figures and Tables vii Project Vita ix Project Introduction x A Legislative Prospective I The Federal Government I State Government 3 Alaska 4 National Register 8 The Sources 12 History and Historic Sites 14 The Physical Environment 14 The Arctic Coastal Plain 16 The Arctic Foothills and Brooks Range 16 The Rivers 20 The People 20 Precontact and Early Contact 22 The Interior-Coastal Relationship 24 Exploration and Cultural Intrusion 26 Middle Contact 30 Whalers 30 Commercial Influence 35 The Missionary Influence 37 The Scientific Influence 38 Late Contact to Contemporary Period 40 Subsistence and Subsistence sites 47 Definition 47 The Tareumiut 49 The Nunamiut 51 Subsistence Metastasis 55 Firearms 57 Social and Economic Degradation 58 Fur Trapping 59 Reindeer Herding 60 Plates - 63 Conclusion 91 Statement of Significance and Recommendations 97 Bibliography and Literature Search 98 A PLATES* 1. Harrison Bay 11. Teshekpuk Lake 111. Beechey Point IV. Sagavanirktok V. Flaxman Island VI. Barter Island Vfl. Mt. Michelson VIR. Demarcation Pont *Following page 73 Vii FIGURES 1. Proposed (d-2) Withdrawals 7 2. Physiographic Features of the Arctic Slope with Eskimo Groups 15 3. Beaufort and Chukchi Sea Currents 17 4. Summer Boundaries of Polar Pack, 1953-1965 18 5. Offshore Shearline between Pack Ice and Shorefast Ice, Spring, 1973 19 6. Cross Section of Physiographic Provinces of the North Slope 19 7. Historic Native Places, Arctic Slope 21 8. Tareumiut and Nunamiut Territorial Associations 23 9. Aboriginal Trade Routes 25 10. Map of W. H. Hooper's Explorations 27 11. Introduction of Foreign Trade goods 28 12. Invasion of the Whaling Fleet 29 13. Ship Tracks of HMS Investigator 31 14. Leffingwell's Map of the Beaufort Sea Coast 32,33,34 15. Map by S. J. Marsh and F. G. Carter: Ft. Yukon to Flaxman Island, 1901-1902 39 16. Knud Rasmusen's Map of the Fifth Thule Expedition, 1921-1924 41 17. Proposed Gates of the Arctic National Park 47 18. Fish, Waterfowl and Marine Mammals: Range and Migration 50 19. Winter and Summer Distribution of Walrus and Seal 52 20. Caribou Migration Patterns 54 21. Arctic Region Inventory: Recreation and Preservation Opportunities 94, TABLES 1. Mid-Nineteenth Century Sightings of Eskimos in the Beaufort Sea Region 29 2. Origin and Historic Significance of Barrier Island Place Names 35 3. Coastal Population Decline 36 4. Suggested Interior Eskimo Subsistence Harvest, 1850 55 5. Suggested Coastal Eskimo Harvest, 1850 55 6. Nunamiut Harvest totals: Mammals, Fish, Fowl 56 7. Harvest Inventory by Species Taken 56 ix PROJECT VITA the Kobuk River basin, the Seward Peninsula and the St. Sponsoring Agency: North Slope Borough, Barrow, Lawrence Islands. Alaska. OCS development will be guided by the cooperative efforts of federal, state and local governments, Native Project Definition: corporations, and industry toward a development consensus Beaufort Sea historic site and cultural resource study. regarding leasing, exploration and production. In determin- Literature search. ing the scale of developing OCS resources at least four major considerations would seem necessary: 1) social and Project Rationale: cultural analysis 2) economic and demographic studies 3) 1 .To identify historic sites, cultural resources and physical and environmental assessments and 4) technologi- subsistence patterns required for the Coastal cal feasability. Based upon an assessment by cooperating Management Program.* agencies of these considerations, OCS development will then likely conform to four possible alternatives; from a 2. To assess the significance of historic sites, cultural high level of production to no production.' resources and subsistence patterns of the Beaufort Sea The purpose of this study is to consider one proposed region that may be impacted by Outer Continental Shelf area of OCS development-the Beaufort Sea region Development, scheduled for lease sale by the State of (delineated by the Colville River on the west to the Canning Alaska in 1977. River on the east to a point inland at approximately 70' Project Detail: latitude), in terms of an historical and cultural analysis. As part of such an analysis it is essential to develop historical I .To compile literature relevant to a study of the Beaufort narratives, within a regional context, of areas likely to be Sea region, from the Colville to the Canning Rivers, for impacted by OCS or other development utilizing the purpose of identifying historic sites, describing tradi- documented and local sources. tional subsistence practices and considering certain loca- Clearly such studies are needed and particularly so in this tions or areas for nomination to the National Register of northern region, where so little is known of its history and Historic Sites. archaeology. The legal requirements, guidelines and 2. To integrate the results of the literature search with legislative history pertinent to resource management will be Eskimo oral and ethnographic accounts of the Beaufort discussed below. May it suffice here to say that any Sea region and its history. I scenario for development activities in the far north of 3. To present a series of maps locating historic sites and Alaska ( and Canada) will significantly affect and possibly areas of subsistence activities based upon the literature destroy the cultural, historic and archaeological resources and Eskimo oral accounts. possessed by its Eskimo occupants. Furthermore, this im- pact will not be something new, but merely a continuation 4. To compile a substantive bibliography of sources. as a and acceleration of precedent already firri-dy established. guide to the literature of the Beaufort Sea region. We are reminded by Dr. Robert Weeden, Division of INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT Policy Development and Planning, Office of the Governor, that In 1975 the Department of the Interior published a study: OCS is more than oil and fish. OCS development Alaska Sea Grant Project: The Social and Economic Im- means a series of extraordinary changes (only a few of pact Assessment of Alaska Outer Continental Shelf which we dare label as good or bad) in Alaskan life, Petroleum Development, in which it established-a tentative particularly for sparsely inhabited regions destined to framework for the selection and sale of oil leases in the host major onshore petroleum development State of Alaska to recover the oil and gas reserves of the facilities .3 Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). According to the proposed Moreover, areas of OCS development will affect man's schedule the State of Alaska may conduct sales of (primarily Eskimo and other Native people's) use of the offshore- [email protected] tracts as early as'October of 1977.1 land and the physical environment. It will surely continue These proposed lease sales will impact three major areas the process, begun over a century ago, of altering local of Alaska: 1) the southcentral region 2) The south Bering economic and social patterns. In attempting to calculate the Sea-Bristol Bay region and 3) the North Slope region including the Beaufort Sea and arctic coast east of Pt. The Coastal Zone Management Act was passed by Congress Barrow to the Canadian border. In terms of its general in 1972 primarily for the purpose of coordinating, at the impact on the State of Alaska, OCS development, as national level, the use of the coastal waters of the United contemplated, will likely have major long range effects on States. The North Slope Borough is concerned because the Act the entire Continental Shelf area of Norton Sound; the does not extend to areas beyond Borough coastal jurisdiction Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea; the huge area (three mile limit), and these areas are of considerable importance to subsistence, cultural and environmental values. encompassed by the North Slope, including the Barrier The Borough should have a voice in the management of these Islands, Arctic Plain and Arctic Foothills; and the area of areas. X impact of major petrochemical development on the North Coastal Zone Management, Rules and Regulations of the Slope, for example, it is essential to recognize that Coastal Zone Impact Program, Staff Working Draft, Wash- ington, D. C., 1976; U. S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Rural Alaska differs culturally not only from the Land Management, Draft Envrionmental Statement: Pro- dominant western industrial [white] society, but re- posed Increase in Acreage to be Offered for Oil and Gas gions and areas within the state present a wide Leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf, Bureau of Land diversity among themselves.' Management, Washington, D. C. (nd); and U. S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and This picture of things to come is one which takes on a Gas Development and the Coastal Zone,... National Ocean different light depending on who is considering it, what Policy Study (GPO, 1974). criteria is being used and for what purpose. Obviously there 2. Alaska Sea Grant Project, Social and Economic Impact of is a wide variance of opinion regarding possible benefits as Alaska Outer Continental Shelf Petroleum Development, opposed to possible liabilities of such development, and U.S. Dept. of Interior, College, Alaska, 1975. these founded on dissimiliar assumptions and conflicting 3. Ibid., i; See also Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 1953 (43 U.S. code 1331-1343); J. C. Reed and J. C. Slater eds., cultural values.' Beaufort Sea Coast and Shelf Symposium, The Coast and No direct attempt will be made in this study to reconcile Shelf of the Beaufort Sea, Proceedings, Arctic Institue of these often adverse positions as that is beyond both its scope North America, San Francisco, 1974; G. Grye, History of and purpose. There remains, however, the incontestable Petroleum Exploration in Northern Alaska, Geology Semi- nar on the North Slope of Alaska, Proceedings, 1970. fact that this region north of the Brooks Range is rich in 4. Ibid., 3. history and culture and exists today as one of the world's 5. See for example, G. M. Collins Jr., -13 Billion bbl. largely untouched ecological habitats, where man and Potential for Beaufort Sea Area," Oil Week Vol. 17 no. 27 nature exist, as they have for thousands of years, in delicate' (1966) 43-46; L. J. Carter, "North Slope Oil Rush," balance. It is, therefore, well worth considering the far Science Vol. 169 (Oct., 1969) 85-92; Carey Ford, "Is north for its established historical and cultural values as well Alaska's Wildlife Doorned?," Field and Stream LVII no. 2,3 and 4 (Feb., March, April, 1953) 32-33+, 40-42, 63- as for its real and potential petroleum resources, in the 65 +; G. Laycock, "Kiss the North Slope Goodby?, " Audu- interest of all concerned' bon Vol. 77 no. 5 (1970) 68-75; and R. B. Weeden, "Arctic Petroleum Development and Environmental Degradation," ENDNOTES in George W. Rogers ed., Change in Alaska: People, 1. Also see Resource Planning Associates, Onshore Impacts Of Petroleum and Politics, 20th Alaska Science Conference, Oil and Gas Development in Alaska, Prepared for the Univ. of Alaska, 1970: 153-163. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cambridge, 6. Norman Chance. "Directed Change in Northern Peoples," Mass., 1975; U. S. Department of Commerce, Office of Ibid., 180-195. Land Use And Historic Preservation: A Legislative Perspective Concern for the physical environment and natural beauty of raised questions which demanded action from Congress to the United States has increased in recent years; and this create guidelines and procedures for defining such terms as trend has influenced public thinking about wilderness areas, historic value and national priority. pollution and historic sites and their preservation. As The first major action taken by Congress came in 1966 awareness in these areas expanded, however, so too did the with the passage of the Historic Preservation Act. Hereto- realization that the world's nonrenewable energy resources fore, under provisions of the Acts of 1906 and 1935, only were being severely depleted, and that exploration and pro- limited protection was accorded lands owned or controlled duction must be accelerated to meet current needs, while by the federal government and most of the prerogatives lay long range solutions are being sought. The unpredictables with the President .2 It was pointed out, however, that these of history have brought these two, at times conflicting statutes failed to protect privately-owned sites or properties views, into sharp focus. Issues critical to each have tended from destruction or degradation, through the development to polarize proponents into their respective camps. The by private owners or government authorities of surrounding challenge of this decade will be to arrive at some consensus properties, while they did nothing to restrain the federal through compromise which serves the interests of both, government itself from destroying these properties .3 while fulfilling those of the nation at large. The struggle to It was largely to answer such critics that Congress was reconcile these approaches to land and resource use will be able to pass the landmark legislation of 1966, which directly most sharply drawn in Alaska, where, the contrasts come addressed the issue of governmental accountability and re- into such bold relief and the interests are so clearly evident. sponsibility for protecting the national heritage. In a general Upon what legislative basis are these decisions to be made statement of principle Congress declared and who is to make them? that the historical and cultural foundations of the na- THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT tion should be preserved as a living part of our community life and development in order to give a The government of the United States first adopted a sub- sense of orientation to the American people.4 stantive policy for the recognition and care of historic sites The significant implication it seemed was that historic sites with the passage of the Antiquities Act of 1906. In the years could be dynamic rather than static museum properties, and since this policy was announced, subsequent legislation that they should, where possible, be integrated with con- expanded the national program with the passage of the temporary development programs. Historic Sites Act of 1935 and the National Historic Pres- This was an ambitious undertaking that went far beyond ervation Act of 1966, which highlighted similar legislation previous efforts and reflected the work of many commit- in related areas such as environmental quality and pollution. tees, as well as significant public support for such legisla- All of this legislation, in one way or another, was designed tion. Indicative of the philosophy underpinning these joint in recognition of certain aspects of the national heritage efforts, and having important implications for remote areas expressed in terms such as Alaska, was the conviction that of a national policy to preserve for public use historic if we wish to have a future with greater meaning, we sites, buildings, and objects of national significance must concern ourselves not only with the historic for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the highlights, but we must be concerned with the total United States. I heritage of the nation and all that is worth preserving When land becomes a matter of policy, however, it is from our past as a living part of the present. 5 inevitable that conflicting interests emerge over questions of Beyond these general statements of principle, the His- development, where ideas such as preservation "stand in toric Preservation Act established a framework within the way" of projects that may adversely impact or destroy which these principles could be effectively applied. Clearly historical values. Definitions of terms like "significance", the most important link in this structure was the Advisory "necessity" and "progress" receive much attention. Such Council on Historic Preservation created to advise the Pres- broad issues as these, occurring at all levels of government, ident on preservation matters and to oversee development 2 A LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE projects which might pose a threat to historical sites.' Sec- criteria for determining the "significance" of historic sites tion 106 of the Act, for example, required that and overseeing the process of nominating historic sites to any federal or federally supported undertaking includ- the Register." This established criteria model serves as the ing licensing actions, prior to the approval of federal basis upon which the Advisory Council makes its fund expenditures or prior to the issuance of a license, recommendations regarding the possibly adverse effects must take into account the effect of the undertaking on certain development may have on a specific site or district. any district, site, building, structure or object that is A negative decision may result if it can be shown that included on the National Register. Federal construc- tion and licensing agencies must attempt to avoid development may occasion: damage to or impairment or destruction of properties 1) destruction or alteration of the property 2) isolation which should be preserved .7 from or alteration from its surrounding environment Other important features designated the National Park Ser- or 3) the introduction of visual, auditory, or atmospheric elements that are out of character with vice, Department of the Interior, to provide administrative the property and its setting. 12 services and to compile, maintain and expand the National Register; authorized the Secretary of the Interior to initiate a Above all., however, it was recognized that historic, program of matching grants to the states for the preservation prehistoric, and archaeological sites should be determined of "significant" historical, archaeological, cultural and ar- at the local level, not in Washington. Realizing that sites of chitectural sites; and further authorized matching grants to this nature have both intrinsic and associative values, the the National Trust for Historic Preservation, chartered by procedure was to be subject only to these general federal Congress in 1949 as a private organization. guidelines. Closely following the passage of the Preservation Act were three other laws designed to further expand the con- With regard to federal legislation on the que'stion of historic cepts of preserving the national heritage. These were the preservation, two supplemental statutes bear heavily on the Department of Transportation Act (P. L. 89-754), the concept; the National Foundation on the Arts and the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act Humanities Act of 1965 and the National Environmental (P. L. 89-670) and the Federal Aid Highway Act (P. L. Protection Act of 1969. The Humanities Act actually 89-574). Simply stated this legislation provided mandatory predated the 1966 Preservation Acts, but dealt more guidelines for all undertakings of the federal government specifically with the study of history and archaeology than and for all projects in which federal funds were utilized with the preservation of areas or artifacts. Nevertheless, its within these jurisdictions. stated principle Moreover the three agencies involved were required to ... that a high civilization must not limit its efforts to provide matching funds to the states, municipalities, and science and technology alone, but must give full value through the National Trust, to private individuals for and support to the other branches of man's scholarly surveys, maintenance, acquisition and rehabilitation of and cultural activity in order to achieve a better historic sites." It is. significant that while the Historic understanding of the past, a better analysis of the pre- Preservation Act prohibits unrestricted development of sent, and a better view of the future . . . . 13 National Register land, Section 2 (b) 2 of the Department of would seem to capture the essence of the historic preserva- Transportation Act. prohibits such misuse of any historic tion ethic. site "of national, state, or local significance," if A traditional ally of historic preservation has been the determined to be such, by another appropriate authority environmentalist movement with its concern for man's such as a state or local commission. Again it appears that habitat on earth. The National Environmental Policy Act of such prerogatives may have important implications for a 1969 (NEPA) established strict guidelines for development state like Alaska, where comparatively few sites have been and heavy industry, requiring that environmental statements placed on the National Register. 9 must be filed to accompany all proposals or As authorized by the Historic Preservation Act of 1966, recommendations for legislation "and other major federal the National Register of Historic Sites was created to pro- actions significantly affecting the quality of human vide an index to the tradition and varied cultural heritage of environment." It has been clearly demonstrated in cases the United States. The state rationale for creating such an such as the Alaska Pipeline Injunction that development, index was to - the environmental impact of which is likely to be adverse 1) provide the opportunity, as a national policy, to and therefore controversial, must be covered by a NEPA establish land utilization priorities 2) to exercise a impact statement "in all cases"." constructive influence on the character of the The NEPA adds considerable muscle to the Historic environment and 3) to determine what is significant Preservation Act, and other similar legislation, by clearly from our history around which plans for the future establishing historical preservation as a national may be shaped. 10 environmental objective through procedures such as As a function of its administrative services, the'National requiring impact statements. Moreover, the NEPA has Park Service was given the responsibility of formulating declared it a THE STATES 3 continuing responsibility of the federal government to The most significant difference between federal and state use all practical means, consistent with other essential programs is that the federal government is most often con- considerations of national policy [to] preserve cerned with large areas of the public domain-federal land important historical, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage. held "in trust" for the American people-while state gov- ernments are most often dealing with much smaller areas, Environmental legislation, supplemented by the with architectural artifacts and with artifacts of primarily Archeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974, local rather than national significance. The distinctions are represent the federal commitment to the concept of historic not always clearly drawn, however, and there is a basic and natural resource preservation.' 5 difference between a national park that may contain historic sites and a state historical park specifically designated for THE STATES that purpose. The unique and complicated relationship bet- Before considering Alaska's response to the problems of ween Alaska and the federal government creates numerous land-use and historic preservation and its implications for problems in attempting to arrive at a rational solution of Outer Continental Shelf petroleum development, it would land use policy disputes and a program acceptable to a be pertinent to consider briefly the programs of states, in majority."' general, as they relate to the federal statutes we have just The programs of two states, one which has a relationship discussed and to Alaskan legislation. similar to Alaska's with the federal government, may serve We have observed that state and local preservation efforts as examples of the trend in historic preservation at the state predated federal legislation by a considerable period. What level. For example, the state of Arkansas created a planning we describe as "preservation" first occurred during the commission to coordinate and implement a statewide his- mid- 1800s, and before, with the setting aside of old homes toric preservation approach. The commission enjoys broad or special buildings as historic museums, where artifacts powers to plan and cooperate with federal agencies and could be stored and displayed to the public by private reviews those "districts, sites, buildings, structures, and citizens or local historical societies. objects significant in historical, archaeological, architec- Although the federal government first codified its inter- tural, and cultural preservation," for possible nomination to ests in historic preservation in 1906, it was the states that the National Register." The statute also specifically led the way in the movement and initiated innovative pro- protects grams to protect historic sites through the use of selective all relics, specimens, or objects of an historical, pre- zoning. In this manner development, potentially or actually historical, archeological or anthropological nature, harmful to these special places, was restricted, while which may be found above or below the surface of the constraints were placed on the use -prerogatives of earth and which have scientific or historic value as individual property owners. By 1964 fourteen states and objects of antiquity, as aboriginal relics, or as ar- over seventy communities had established "historic cheological specimens... districts" to preserve certain areas and important sites as well as specific sites to include "all aboriginal mounds, within them." forts, earthworks, village locations, burial grounds, historic Generally speaking, however, the response of state or prehistoric ruins, mines or caves, which are or may be legislation for historic preservation has been varied and few the source of artifacts . . . . 20 clear generalizations can be made in assessing their pro- Closer to Alaska, geographically and historically, the grams. Apparently there is at least a general awareness that state of Hawaii initiated a program of identifying and pro- currently, as in the past, state programs tend to be oriented tecting historic sites during the early 1960s, and established to the specific requirements of each, determined under dif- a state register indicative of a policy that was further ex- ferent circumstances and with dissimilar objectives. panded in 1969, with the creation of the Hawaii Foundation However all are equal in sharing certain delegated powers for History and the Humanities. I I This foundation serves as 11 most useful in achieving preservation objectives-the the administrative agent in guiding procedures commensu- police power, the power of eminent domain, and the power rate with provisions of the Hawaii Act Relating to Preserva- of taxation."' 7 tion and Protection of Prehistoric and Historic Sites and A ftindamental problem experienced by most states, until Archeological Remains, from which it originates." De- recently, was the lack of coordination of effort and the velopment guidelines closely parallel those of the federal organizational framework necessary to create a comprehen- government and those of other states in requiring. sive preservation program with the appeal capable of unit- ing conflicting positions and use priorities. Since the late that before any public construction is begun, the head 1960s, however, many states have taken major steps to of the responsible agency shall determine whether the alleviate such problems and to establish effective proce- improvement will encroach upon any designated pre- historic or historic sites. When such encroachment is dures for dealing with local preservation issues. Certainly found, the project may not be begun until it has been the national program as introduced in 1966 has served as a approved by the Department of Land and Natural Re- catalyst to this process. sources with consent of the Governor. 23 4 A LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE Of particular relevance to Alaskan history and culture, ALASKA particularly of Native peoples, is the protection of ar- "Preservation" in Alaska is an important word and is chaeological, and possible archeological, sites within cer- used by many different people to mean many different tain areas of the state. Alaska has a heritage that is unique things: Alaskans want to preserve their unique Alaska life- among the fifty-five states and territories of the United style, Native peoples want to preserve their traditional States and unlike most still retains much of its "untouched" culture, conservationists want to preserve the wilderness nature. While other states do not possess these advantages, areas, biologists would like to preserve the rare northern they have passed legislation protecting both land and un- ecosystems, the state would like to at least preserve what derwater sites, or possible sites, which suggests an aware- autonomy it now possesses, and federal agencies want to ness that sub-surface artifacts-land and water-may preserve their prerogatives in Alaska. Indeed historic pres- prove, as they have in the past, invaluable to the study of ervation, a relative newcomer to the scene, is only one of past cultures. Such policy has particular significance in many preservation impulses now operative in the state that Alaska where the entire arctic coast, from Kotzebue Sound will influence final decisions on land-use policies and who to Demarcation Point, has experienced constant erosion will direct them. The question is how much influence from sea and ice; and the coastal shallows may contain historic preservation concepts will have, how those con- important clues to an obscure Eskimo prehistory in the cepts are perceived and by whom, and to what extent they Beaufort Sea region." will be compatible with other preservation interests. Ulti- To, protect these archaeological resources various state mately, the answer may be determined by the state's statutes require strict adherence to certain guidelines. Al- success in retaining the power to shape its own future, and though they vary to a great extent in language and specifics, the ability of Native corporations to exercise a strong voice some general provisions are evident. These are in the decision-making process. 1) declaration of the state's interest in preserving all Given Alaska's peculiar territorial experience and antiquities 2) vesting title to archaeological sites on relationship to the federal government, it is not surprising public land in the state 3) closely controlling explora- that what had been done in the area of historic preservation tion and excavation of public lands 4) providing prior to statehood in 1959 emanated from Washington and penalties for unauthorized excavations or other viola- specifically from two agencies: The United States Forest tions 5) coordinating activities with other agencies 6) Service and the National Park Service. Their contribution identifying persons or agencies eligible for permits was limited to restoring southeastern totems and and the conditions imposed on such permits 7) retain- ing the power to issue or deny permits for field ar- recognizing certain features and buildings as national chaeology on public lands in one specified agency 8) landmarks, in a low key program that had little impact or requiring procedures for reporting archaeological dis- public support. coveries and 9) discouraging or controlling field ar- With Alaska statehood a new and promising era opened chaeology on privately owned lands. 15 for this vast territory. The constitution that was drafted was in many ways uniquely tailored to Alaska's future needs, Unquestionably state programs have been influential in but, at the time, it didn't seem critical to protect Alaska's shaping a national policy toward historic preservation and equally unique past. Rather than writing into the land-use management; and they should continue to do so as Constitution a substantive provision for the acquisition and long as there is sufficient public support for such commit- preservation of historic sites, the members simply implied ments. It is also true that efforts on the national level, such that something could be done in this area should the as the 1966 preservation legislation and the Historic Trust, legislature ever consider it necessary .26 have pulled together programs of individual states into a Although a minor issue in the early 1960s, the legislature shared awareness of responsibilities. did enact certain statutes pertaining to historic preservation, In considering the status of historic preservation and and designated the Alaska Department of Natural land-use in Alaska, there is no question that the severest test Resources as the primary administrator. To aid the of the "preservation ideal" and national resource priorities department in these efforts, the Alaska State Museum and will occur in this state. The changes which have altered or the State Historical Library also assumed some affected Alaska, both good and bad, in the ten years since responsibilities." 1967 have been far reaching and in some cases irrevocable. Briefly, the two statutes administered under the The recent history of the "land freeze", the land claims Department of Natural Resources (AS 38.12 and AS settlement and the pipeline has established precedents for 38.25) constituted a dual approach to historic preservation, evaluating priorities, choosing between alternatives and set- dealing with 1) state antiquities and preserves and 2) state ting policies; while it has also demonstrating that a basic historic and natural sites and monuments respectively. paradox may exist in the fabric of a nation which demands Various sections of these statutes focused on specific both unhindered supplies of energy and unimpaired enjoy- restrictions and jurisdictions. For example: the designation ment of nature. of historic or scientific preserves, the issuance of excavation AKASKA 5 permits, penalties for and seizure of artifacts illegally tection against their destruction from any state funded or obtained, gubernatorial power to declare state ownership of licensed project. It also created an Historic Sites Advis- historic sites and various other stipulations together ory Committee, Department of Natural Resources, which provided the main body of law and mechanisms for historic was given authority to administer the statewide historic preservation in Alaska .21 survey, as required by the Federal Preservation Act of To a lesser extent the Alaska State Museum, office of the 1966, to develop "criteria for the evaluation of state governor participated in typical preservation activities, such monuments and historic sites ... which may be considered as the collection, presentation, and interpretation of artifacts to be of... significance. 1130 of importance to Alaskan history and culture; and it In addition to expanded powers of acquisition the state functions today as a resource for local museums throughout reserv[ed] to itself title to all historic, prehistoric and the state. Through the auspices of the state museum and the archeological resources situated on land owned or Alaska Native Brotherhood, the old federal program to controlled by the state, including tidelands and sub- preserve the southeastern totems was continued, beginning merged lands, and reserv[ed] to itself the exclusive in 1971, as one example of state efforts to protect historic- right of field archeology on state owned or operated cultural resources. Other programs were begun at Valdez, lands .31 Skagway, Sitka, Eagle, Fort Abercrombie and the Chilkoot Speaking for the state, the legislature justified expanded Trail area. authority in areas of preservation because it was Other agencies were given jurisdiction in preservation ... concerned over the fact that the most recent past matters as well and these included the Department of has seen the neglect, desecration, loss and destruction Economic Development, division of tourism; the State of the historic, prehistoric and archeological resources Area Redevelopment Program and the Rural Development of Alaska with a resulting loss to the people of the Agency, none of which exercised specific powers with re- state of knowledge concerning their heritage .32 gard to historic preservation, although they were given Cognizant of the actions of other states in this area, the broad prerogatives within their areas of responsibility. As legislature took care to specify the resources it considered one would imagine, this rather disjointed structure did not essential to protect under the Act and these included: function smoothly or effectively toward even modest deposits, structures, ruins, sites, buildings, graves, preservation goals, primarily due to lack of funding from artifacts, fossils, or other objects of antiquity which the state, insufficient federal funds, and apparent public provide information pertaining to the historical or disinterest. prehistorical culture of people in the state as well as to The one post-statehood, prepipeline attempt to fashion a the natural history of the state.33 more responsive program came in 1967 with the creation of In accordance with federal guidelines the state historic the Alaska Historical Society. The society was founded on preservation officer is the key liaison between the state, the principle of cooperation between the various public and federal and local governments and his office, within the private preservation interests in the state, and dedicated to Alaska Division of Parks, has primary responsibility for: I I encourage the preservation of Alaska's historic resources 1) compiling the statewide inventory 2) nominating as a cultural, economic and educational asset .... 29 sites to the National Register 3) researching Alaska's Although a beginning, many serious problems remained heritage resources 4) developing the state historic pre- that seemed to grow in complexity with the impending servation plan 5) enforcement of the Preservation Act settlement of the Alaska Native land claims and the and 6) advising the Governor of his activities .31 increasing probability that major oil and gas development Since the passage of the 1971 Preservation Act, Alaska would occur within certain areas of the state, where has indeed experienced the major changes foreseen by virtually nothing had been done to assess the cultural, many-in and outside of the legislature. Provisions of that historical or archeological values. Many of these problems Act have been slowly developed and it, in conjunction with were merely procedural or structural, but the question of federal programs, has fulfilled the purpose for which it was federal- state-Native jurisdiction was an issue that could not enacted. This joint-legislation, supplemented by envi- be resolved by modifying statutes. ronmental statutes, constitute a powerful check to unre- Faced with these problems and the likelihood of dramatic stricted exploration of natural resources and a caution to changes in the concepts of land-use and resource priorities, legitimate development which, nevertheless, must now take the legislature passed the Alaska Historic Preservation Act historical and cultural resources into consideration before in 1971, which immediately brought the state and the proceeding .35 federal preservation programs into a cooperative Alaska's history is much more than colorful stories of the relationship based upon a broad consensus for the protection gold rush, World War [I battles or the fight for statehood of "historic, prehistoric and archeological resources." as reflected in most Alaskan historiography. Native, Eski- This legislation provided the governor with broadened mo and Aleut histories and historians present Alaskan powers in the area of site selection, and guaranteed pro- history in a completely different perspective, and the 6 A LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE desirability of such a view of Alaska's past, collected from tions of major petroleum development remain unclear. Ac- aboriginal sources, is essential to a fuller understanding of cording to the highly controversial Section 17 (d) 2 of the Alaska and its people and for a scholarly approach to settlement, the Secretary of the Interior was authorized to historic preservation. ...withdraw from all forms of appropriation under Under Section 14(h) of the Land Claims Settlement Act, public land laws, including mining and mineral Native regional and village corporations were allowed to leasing laws, and from selection under the Alaska select two million acres of previously unappropriated land Statehood Act, and from selection by Regional Cor- for preservation as historic sites and cemeteries. As in other porations pursuant to Section 11, up to, but not to states, the creation of historic districts may be an effective exceed, 80 million acres of unrestricted public lands in the state of Alaska, including previously classified way in which to protect the integrity of historic sites, by lands ... for addition to or creation as units of the zoning out undesirable development. Moreover the state National Parks, forest Wildlife Refuges, and Wild has recognized that "preservation and protection of village and Scenic Rivers Systems . . . . .39 historic and archaeological sites is essential if [Alaskans] This 80 million acre portion of the public domain was to are to preserve the total Alaskan heritage.,, 36 Now that the be administered by those federal agencies responsible for Native regional corporations are progressing in their site managing federal land for resource development and recrea- selections in historic areas, perhaps a greater emphasis on tional use; the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of native history and culture can be expected .37 Land Management, the National Park Service and the Fish Both Native and non-Native Alaskans will be affected by and Wildlife Service. Initial proposals for withdrawals the larger issue of land-use management, of which historic under the d-2 concept were made in March of 1972 totaling preservation is only a part-albeit an important one. Soon 78 million acres in twenty-six parcels scattered throughout the federal government, state and local governments, rep- the state." In August of the following year the Secretary of resentatives of industry and the Native corporations will the Interior, based upon recommendations from the Joint have to reach decisions on this issue. This issue is already a Federal-State Land Use Policy Commission, proposed ad- continuing and growing source of discord between those ditional withdrawals which brought the total to 83 million who favor management of an industrial/development nature acres-exceeding the limit established by the Settlement and those who favor management of a conservation/ Act and causing considerable opposition within the state preservation nature. and within Congress. By 1976 this figure had increased to It is not within the scope of this paper to attempt a sub- over 100 million acres (the Udall proposal). stantive discussion of the host of complex issues, alternate However a source of controversy more fundamental proposals and legal ramifications of these positions. It is than acreage totals was the question of the use of these lands pertinent, however, to indicate the general context within beyond their recreational or scenic values; in short the con- which future decisions will have to be made." cept of "multiple use." In Congress the Committee on In 1867 when the United States purchased Alaska, the Territories, headed by Senator Henry Jackson, produced a federal government assumed title to all of the district's majority report which suggested that unless prohibited by 556,432 square miles, or approximately 363 million acres. subsequent legislation: Nothing changed for ninety years until Alaska became a 1) exploration and extraction of locatable minerals state and then only very slowly. Today the federal govern- should be allowed in each of the d-2 units under a ment still owns or manages approximately 250 million permit and lease system that requires mineral explora- acres; the remainder being split between the state tion and production be conducted in a manner which (104,000,000 acres guaranteed by the Statehood Act to be will prevent or substantially reduce the adverse en- chosen by 1985), the Native corporations and villages vironmental consequences of such activity and 2) Un- (40,000,000 acres guaranteed by the Land Claims Settle- less prohibited, exploration and production of oil, gas and other so-called leasable minerals should be al- ment Act, selections to be completed in 1978) and the sev- lowed under existing laws and regulations.41 eral hundred thousand acres owned privately throughout the state. Of the federal government total, the Bureau of Land The Committee; cognizant of environmental and preserva- Management, the United States Forest Service, The De- tion laws, further observed that partment of Defense, the National Park Service, and the there are public lands in Alaska, which because of Department of Housing and Urban Development represent their unique scenic, wildlife, or other values the agencies with vested interests in land management. By [historic-archaeological], should be closed to mineral far, however, the great portion of federal land is held as exploration and extraction, '2 public domain (200,000,000 acres); and it is the future of and admitted that in certain areas of the state where prop- this land which forms the nexus of the problem that will osed d-2 lands were located, "archaeological possibilities most directly affect the future of the state and its people. have not yet been assessed." 11 Of all recent legislation affecting Alaska, the Land In the five years since the d-2 concept was first proposed, Claims Settlement Act of 1971 has had and will continue to the question has been further complicated by the introduc- have the greatest significance, although the full ramifica- tion of no less than six major Alaska public land bills in ALASKA COSTAL WILDLIFE REFUGE A ARTIC [email protected] LEGEND 5 WILDLIFE REFWE PROpasm In i A NQ WITHDRAWLS NOATAK 3NATIONAL NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ALASKA CA E ri I BOUNDARIES OF ESTABLISHED PARKS. REFUGE5,K ER ,__j OR SANCTUARIES N AL % PROPOSED LIMITS OF PARK AREAS UNDER THELD-2) MEN CONCEPT AL [email protected] I NATIO A GATES OF THE ARCTIC NUMEN NATIONAL PARK 10 SE AWIK WILDLIFE REFUGE 6 7 YUKON FLATS CHU I-IMURUK WILDLIFE REFUGE ONAL MONUMENT 6 KOY K ILDLIFE FU E Y KON CHARL R VERS NATION 6 PRESERVE 6 INNOKO 12 WILDLIFE RE UGE 19 ELTA YUKON ZUNT M%WfY WILDLIFE REFUGE J/,NATION tA ARK [email protected] WOQE NA AL ILDLIFE R F (jE 18 22 LAKE CLARK WRANGELL - STELIAS NATIONAL PARK NATION PARK PR Fig. I-Proposed d-2 Withdrawals. 8 A LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE Congress, and various other proposals by the state, Native studies." It has determined that all members of the House corporations and private research agencies. The deadline and Senate Interior Committees should be urged to visit for final selection is scheduled for December of 1978 and Alaska and to acquaint themselves personally with the is- although it is possible that this date will be moved back, sues "before determining what disposition should be given there is an urgent need for the state and for the Native to land in our state.' 146 regional and village corporations to formulate comprehen- It now appears likely that the entire maze of land-use sive land-use positions, based upon the most reasonable policy issues will hinge upon the ability of the State of estimate of priorities and realistic assessment of what is Alaska to arrive at a consensus position regarding the (d-2) attainable as measured against what would ideally be desir- question and to forcefully take the initiative in d 'emanding 'able .44 its rights as guaranteed under provisions of the Alaska With recent developments in the continuing energy crisis, Statehood Act. Initial steps have been taken recently by both in this country and abroad, it is almost certain that the governor in this direction, and it remains now for both proposed d-2 legislation will be discussed in terms of the the public and the elected officials of the state to support or reject the consensus. approach. If such a position is larger questions of non-renewable energy production pol- achieved, it appears that final decisions will have to be icy. Although not as dramatic an issue as the question of hammered out between two major proposals: the state's energy, the preservation of traditional culture and historic consensus position and the so-called Udall Bill (Alaska's patterns of subsistence, is of major concern to the people of National Interest Land Conservation Act) which contains the North Slope and Arctic coastal regions, who will most significant points of conflict. certainly suffer the effects of expanded development, and is Other legislation which will likely influence the final certain to have a significant influence on final d-2 decisions. formula include: The Alaska Conservation Act of 1974 It is because of the importance of attempting to minimize (S 2917), The Submerged Lands Act of 1953, The 1976 the impact of impending resource development through an Organic Act which established BLM guidelines for Na- appreciation for the history and culture of the Eskimo of the tional Resource management, and Municipal Code (AS North Slope and arctic coast that the present study has been 29.18.190) which entitles borough governments to ten per- undertaken, for as one spokesperson of Barrow reminds us: cent of vacant, unappropriated, or unreserved state land locted within borough boundaries. Specifically, the North The fact remains that we, the Inupiat People, base our Slope Borough's decisions will be influenced by the fact culture on the environment, nature and the land that the state of Alaska has filed patent claim to land along around US.45 the Beaufort Sea between the Colville and Canning Rivers, Indeed this statement not only applies to the Inupiat of inland approximately sixty miles from the coast, and cen- Barrow, Wainwright and other remote villages of the North tered on Prudhoe Bay (PLO 5814, March 15, 1974; 3,440,700 acres and approximately forty townships and Slope, but to many villages located in other areas of the land in tentatively approved status). state as well. Studies are now underway in eleven of the Therefore, the Arctic Regional Corporation, the North twelve regional corporations as part of the 14 (h) program to Slope Borough and the eight village corporations, which ascertain cultural values and traditional land-use patterns as now represent the interests of the 3,759 permanent residents a guide to the disposal and classification of Native lands and of this vast region (figures by North Slope Borough, Janu- their management. This is being done under the auspices of ary, 1977) portentous of great change, are now faced with the National Park Service, Bureau of Land.Management decisions of utmost importance regarding the future of tra- and the University of Alaska Department of Anthropology. ditional land-use and dynamic cultural resource patterns. In the political sphere, the Arctic Slope and the Chulista. As major land managers, co-equal with the federal and state Regional Corporations have both sponsored legislation in agencies heretofore exclusively charged with this respon- sibility, strong united input from Eskimo organizations Congress designed to protect the integrity of lands awarded regarding Beaufort Sea-North Slope lease sales and (d-2) to them in 1971. The Nunamiut National Park (SB 3599) in land management decisions will be absolutely essential in the central Brooks Range, as proposed, would incorporate order to preserve the integrity and traditional, use of historic lands selected by the corporation and the village corporation sites and to protect cultural resource values. of Anaktuvuk Pass in the park to guarantee traditional sub- sistence practices and curtail development and certain re- NATIONAL REGISTER creational uses. While to the south, the Nunam Kitlutsisti or OF HISTORIC SITES, ALASKA "Protectors of the Land" has been organized as a Native conservation lobby to initiate legislation that would prohibit Interior District the sanction of transportation corridors and protect subsis- 1. Eagle Historic District, left bank of the Yukon River at tence and cultural values in the lower Yukon and Kuskok- the mouth of Mission Creek. wim River region. Northwestern District In its most recent action, the state legislature has passed a joint resolution that recognizes, among other provisions, the 1. Barrow vicinity, Bimirk Site, five miles northeast of necessity to protect "certain scenic or cultural values"and Bar-row. the importance of "resource inventories and land-use 2. Cape Denbigh Peninsula, Iyatayet Site, Norton Sound. CRITERIA 9 3. Cape Prince of Wales vicinity, Wales Sites adjacent to may then nominate properties for inclusion in the National Cape Prince of Wales on Seward Peninsula. Register. The nominated properties which are approved by 4. Nome vicinity, Anvil Creek Gold Discovery Site, four the National Park Service are entered in the National Regis- and one quarter miles north of Nome on the Seward ter of Historic Places by the chief, Office of Archaeology Peninsula at Anvil Creek. and Historic preservation, National Park Service. 5. Point Hope Peninsula, lpiutak Site, tip of Point Hope CRITERIA at latitude 680 70' N, longitude 167' 50' W. The following criteria have been judged appropriate 6. St. Lawrence Island, Gambell Sites, Northwest Cape. in considering properties for nomination to the National Southcentral District Register, in the belief that the quality of significance in I .Dutch Harbor, Unalaska Island, Church of the Holy American History, architecture, archaeology, and culture is Ascension, Unalaska. present in districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects of state and local importance that possess integrity of loca- 2. Kenai, Russian Orthodox Mission Church, east shore of tion, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and Cook Inlet. association. And furthermore: 3. Kodiak, Kodiak Island, Erskine House, Main Street and 1) That are associated with events that have made a sig- Mission Street. nificant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; 2) 4. Kodiak vicinity, Fort Abercrombie State Historic Site, That are associated with the lives of persons siginficant in Kodiak Island. our past; 3) That embody the distinctive characteristics of a 5. Nikolski vicinity, Chaluka Site, Umnak Island, Aleu- type, period, or method of construction, or that represent tians. the work of a master, or that possess high artistic value, or 6. Pribilof Islands, St. Paul Island, Fur Seal Rookeries. that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; 4) That have 7. Rip Rock vicinity, Hawkins Island, Palugvik Site, three yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in and three quarters miles east of Rip Rock on Prince prehistory or history. William Sound. 8. Yukon Island, Yukon Island Main Site, Kachemak Bay, Eligibility Cook Inlet. Ordinarily cemeteries, birthplaces, or graves of historical Southeastern District figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, structures that have been moved I .Ketchikan vicinity, Totem Bight State Historical Site, from their original locations, reconstructed historic build- west coast of Revillagigedo Island. ings, properties primarily commemorative in nature, and 2. Sitka, American Flag Raising Site, Castle Hill. properties that have achieved significance witnin the past 3. Sitka, St. Michael's Cathedral, Lincoln and Maksoutoff fifty years shall not be considered eligible for the National Streets. Register. However, such properties will qualify if they are 4. Sitka, Baranov Island, Sitka National Monument. integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria or if they fall into the following categories: 5. Sitka vicinity, Old Sitka Site, six miles north of Sitka on 1) A religious property deriving primary significance Staffigavan Bay. from architectural or artistic distinction or historical impor- 6. Skagway and vicinity, Skagway Historic District and tarice; 2) A building or structure removed from its original White Pass, head of Taiya Inlet on Lynn Canal. location but which is significant primarily for architectural 7. Wrangell, Chief Shakes Historic Site, Shakes Island. value, or which is the surviving structure most importantly associated with an historic person or event; 3) A birthplace (Eight additional sites have been tenatively accepted or grave of an historical figure of outstanding importance if for nomination to the National Register in the NPR-4 there is no appropriate site or building directly associated Region as a result of recently compiled cultural re- source surveys and more nominations throughout the with his productive life; 4) A cemetery which derives its North Slope region can be expected.) primary significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, from age, from distinctive design features, or THE NATIONAL REGISTER- from association with historic events; 5) A reconstructed STATEMENT OF PROCEDURE (State Level) building when accurately executed in a suitable environ- ment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a resto- The state liaison officer supervises a professional survey ration master plan, and when no other building or structure staff in conducting a statewise historic sites survey. From with the same association has survived; 6) A property the survey findings a comprehensive statewide historic primarily commemorative in intent, if design, age, tradi- preservation plan is prepared. The plan must be reviewed tion, or symbolic value has invested it with its own histori- and approved by a high-level professional review commit- cal significance; and 7) A property achieving significance tee. The state liaison officer, in accordance with the plan, within the past fifty years if it is of exceptional importance. 10 A LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE ENDNOTES tional, or scientific value. It may reserve them from the Public Domain and provide for their administration and preservation for the use, enjoyment and welfare of the people. 1. Historic Sites Act, 21 August, 1935, 49 Stat. 666-668. 27. Department of Natural Resources (AS 41.20.030); the 2. The President was authorized to "declare by public procla- Alaska State Museum (AS 44.19.023), The State Historical mation historic landmarks, historic structures, and other ob- Library (AS 14.56.080). jects of historic or scientific interest ... to be national 28. For a concise description of these statutes see Historic monuments. Also, certain government officials, the Sec- Preservation inAlaska, 11-24. retaries of Army, Interior and Agriculture could grant per- 29. Ibid., 25-36. See also Alaska's Plan for the Management mits to scientific and educational institutions for historical and Conservation of Heritage Resources, 1971-1976, and archaeologicat field work in areas under their jurisdic- Alaska Division of Parks, Anchorage, 197 1; Alaska's Out- tion. door Recreation and Historic Preservation Report, Division 3. Oscar S. Gray, "The Response of Federal Legislation to of Parks, Juneau, 197 1; and Linda Kay Thompson, Alaska's Historic Preservation," Law and Contemporary Problems, Abandoned Towns; A Case Study for Historic Preservation vol. XXXVI no. 3 (summer, 1971) 314-328. and Interpretation, Division of Parks, Juneau, 1972 as in- 4. Historic Preservation Act, 1966, Public Law 8 9-665. dictive of increased awareness of preservation in State 5. Historic Preservation in Alaska, Alaska Legislative Coun- policy. cil, January, 1970, Juneau, Alaska: 3. 30. Alaska Historic Preservation Act, 1971, Section 41.35.180. 6. The Council consists of twenty members. Eight are from 31. Ibid., Sec. 41.35.020. federal [email protected] and ten are appointed by the President from 32. Ibid., Sec. 41.35.010. outside the government, in addition to the Chairman for the 33. Ibid., Sec. 41.35.320. National Trust and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 34. See A Guide to Historic Preservation, Research and Preser- tion. The federal agencies are represented by the Secretaries vation Planning in Alaska, Liljblad and Brown, Alaska His- of Treasury, Agriculture, Interior, Transportation, Housing torical Commission, Division of Parks, 1976. and Urban Development, Commerce, the Attorney General 35. Many examples may be cited. See Alaska Heritage Re- and the Administrator of the General Services Administra- source Survey, Office of the State Archeologist, Miscel-. tion. laneous Publication, History and Archeology Series no. 4, 7. The National Historic Preservation Act as cited. Anchorage, 1971; Alaska Sea Grant Project, Social and 8. See With Heritage So Rich, Committee on Historic Preser- Economic Impact of Alaska Outer Continental Shelf Pet- vation United States Conference of Mayors, 1966. roleum Development, United States Department of Interior, 9. Pages 27-28 contains National Register sites in Alaska. College, Alaska, 1975; Alaska's Land, Annual Report of 10. Historic Preservation in Alaska, 4. Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission For 11. Pages 29-31 contain the nominating criteria for the National Alaska, Anchorage, 1975; Alaska Office of the Governor, Register. Division of Policy Development and Planning, Environmen- 12. Gray, The Response to Federal Legislation, 317. tal Assessment: Proposed Beaufort Sea Nearshore Pet- 13. As quoted in, A Message From the President of the United roleum Leasing, Juneau, 1975; Report of the Archaeological States on the State of the Nation's Environment, House Survey and Excavations Along the Alyeska Pipeline Service Executive Document no. 92-46, 92d Cong., Ist Sess. Company Pipeline, College, Alaska, 1971: David Hickok, 16(1971). Proposed Study Plan for the NPR in Alaska, Information 14. As in the Case of The Wilderness Society vs Hickle, 1970; and Data Center, Anchorage, 1976: Alaska Aboriginal Cul- Gray,327. ture, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, 15. As quoted from 42 U.S. Code 4321-47 (1970); and Theme XVI, Indigenous People and Cultures Special Study, (P.L.93-291,1974). National Park Service, 1962; and William Schnieder and 16. See De. William Murtagh, "The National Historic Preser- Peter Bowers, Preliminary Cultural Assessment: National vation Act: Its Background," Summary Report of the Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-4), National Park Ser- 1967-1968 Regional Conferences on The New Preservation, vice, 1976. Department of the Interior, 1968. 36. Guide to Historic Preservation as cited, 47. 17. See Paul E. Wilson and H. James Winkler, "The Response 37. For example, the work of the North Slope Borough Planning of State Legislation to Historic Preservation," Law and Commission and Historical Commission is indictive of such Contemporary Problems, Vol. XXXVI no. 3 (summer, efforts. 1971) 329-347. 38. For example see North Slope Borough, Coastal Zone Man- 18. See for example Alaska's Land-1975, Annual Report of the agement Program Considerations, Alaska Consultants, Joint Federal-State Land Use Commission For Alaska, An- Inc., Anchorage, 1976; North Slope Borough, Issues Over- chorage, 1975. view, Ibid., 1976; and Jeff Richardson, "What Hands Shall 19. Wilson and Winkler, 3 34. Shape Alaska's Land," in Alaska Today, vol. IV (1976) 20. Ibid., 346.- 49-57. 2 1. Hawaii Revised Statutes 6-16.1 (supp. 1970). 39. For a discussion of d-2 lands in Alaska see United States 22. Hawaii Revised Statutes 6-11 (supp. 1970). Congress (Jackson) Committee on Territories: Land Plan- 23. Wilson and Winkler, 345. ning and Policy in Alaska, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. (GPO, 24. See J. L. Giddings, "The Tenuous Beaufort Sea Archaeol- 1974), and Alaska's National Interest Lands (d-2): A Sur- ogy," Proceedings of the 5th Alaska Science Conference, vey of Current Congressional Proposals, Cooperative Ex- 1954: 94-100. tension Service, University of Alaska, 1976. 25. Wilson and Winkler, 346 40. Pages 32-33 show the proposed d-2 lands in Alaska. 26. Alaska State Constitution, Article VIII, Section 7: The 4 1. Jackson Committee, 14. Legislature may provide for the acquisition of sites, objects, 42. Ibid., 15 and areas of natural beauty or of historic, cultural, recrea- 43. Ibid., 51 ENDNOTES 11 44. Numerous studies are now in progress funded by the State in Alaska, an Economic Impact Study, Institute for Social, and by Native Regional and Village Corporations in an ef- Economic and Government Research, Report no. 75, Uni- fort to arrive at such estimates, the present study included. versity of Alaska, 1973. Pioneer studies in this area would include, Karen W. Work- 45. Flossie Hopson, Traditional Land Use Inventory, North man, Alaskan Archaeology: A Bibliography 2nd ed., Divi- Slope Borough, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, Bar- sion of Parks, Anchorage, 1974; Michael E. Smith, comp., row, Alaska, 1976. Alaska's,Historic Road Houses, Office of Statewide Pro- 46. Senate Joint Resolution No. 12, Legislature of the State of grams, Division of Parks, Boulder, Colorado, 1974; Lower Alaska, Tenth Legislature, Ist Sess., "Relating to the Coper and Chitina Rivers: An Historic Resource Study, His- forthcoming action by the U.S. Congress regarding (d) (2) tory and Archaeology Series no.5, Division of Parks, land withdrawals, February 2, 1977: 1-3. Juneau, 1974; and Pamela Rich, The National Park System The Sources Our knowledge of the peoples of the North Slope interior worlds set in motion a rapid and uneven process of cultural and arctic coast-that vast area north of the Brooks Range, degradation for one and the assertion of superiority and between Point Barrow and Demarcation Point-is derived dominance by the other. While this process was neither from sources usually associated with investigations of re- unusual nor exclusively harsh by the standards of the day, it mote regions of the world and the settlement of "frontier" did reflect a recurring theme in our association with non- wilderness areas. white peoples, a theme that was not substantially changed For the purposes of this particular study, the record be- until 1971 with the passage of the landmark Native Land gins toward the middle of the nineteenth century and con- Claims Settlement Act. This Act provided at least legisla- tinues into the period following the Second World War. It tive and legal recognition of Native culture and history. was during this hundred year span that the major impact of When Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, the white western culture upon aboriginal culture occurred. , federal government, while not assuming its legal respon- Those who have contributed to the literature and lore of sibilities for administering the new acquisition, did take a northern Alaska include explorers, military personnel, trad- keen interest in determining the possible resource values of ers, missionaries, whalers, prospectors, scientists and the region. For the next fifty years or so, representatives of educators. As the architects of this written record, these various government agencies administering Alaska amassed people were representative of diverse backgrounds and a huge amount of data in reports and investigations of al- motivations; whose observations, impressions, judgements most every aspect of Alaska and its inhabitants; both Na- and actions helped to build our understanding of this unique tive and white. This resource of published documents has part of the world and establish our cultural influence over it proven to be invaluable for the study of Alaskan history and its people. dating from the period of Russian Occupancy. The Tareumiut (people of the sea) and Nunamiut (people Supplementing and in some cases predating this resource of the land) Eskimo, who are the aboriginal occupants of is the literature originating or associated with exploration, this region, have conveyed their story to us largely through scientific investigation and commercial exploitation of the expertise of anthropologists, archaeologists, linguists, natural resources; dating from the early 1800s and extend- and historians, who have worked from the literature left ing to the 1950s. It is from this resource that we derive them by eighteenth and nineteenth century writers; from important information regarding Eskimo activity along the spoken accounts and artifacts of the Eskimos themselves; arctic coast and in the interior regions, from which compari- and from their own investigations, in which they have at- sons and assessments of acculturation can be made. This tempted to interpret all this data and fashion it into a body of period of early contact between Eskimos and whites estab- empirical and intuitive knowledge as a significant historical lished the foundations upon which subsequent relationships and cultural resource. have been built and are valuable for what they reveal of both Because Inupiaq is a spoken, rather than a written lan- cultures. guage, the great majority of literature concerning the arctic British, American and European explorations in search regions (and the rest of Alaska as well) is of Western -origin. of a Northwest Passage were almost yearly occurrences It has been only recently that either whites or Eskimos have between 1820 and 1900. The celebrated search for Sir John been interested in a "Native" literature and then, only be- Franklin, lost in the Arctic in 1845, resulted in over thirty cause it facilitated the settlement of issues of interest to both voyages from many countries to the north polar seas and parties. much information was gained concerning the arctic coast It becomes evident very quickly in this disparity of litera- and its people. ture resources that, until recently, a distinct separation American whaling ships operated in the Arctic Ocean off characterized Alaska; one white and.one Native. The one Pt. Barrow and east to Herschel Island beginning in the evolved independently of the other until the mid- 1850s and continuing until just before the First World War, seventeenth century in some areas and the mid-eighteenth when the industry collapsed. Records of these ships such as century in others. The contact between these different logbooks, maps and charts, cargo manifests and records of ENDNOTES 13 their activities recorded by vessels of the Revenue Cutter and the best features of traditional living. Furthermore it Service, provide another valuable source for studying the must come from those who feel a responsibility to see that effects of Western cultural intrusion into the Arctic. such values are preserved through common interest and not Finally, but most significant, were the expeditions and destroyed through common indifference. investigations conducted north of the Brooks Range by men And finally there is the problem of the origin and source whose interest was primarily in acquiring knowledge of of place names encountered in Alaska .4 Obviously the arctic conditions and Eskimo culture and lifestyle. Such aboriginal inhabitants -the Eskimo, Indian and Aleut investigations by Vilhjamur Stefansson, Knud Rasmussen, peoples- identified their surroundings for hundreds of Helge Larsen, Peter Dease, John Simpson, Ernest Lef- years in their respective languages, and U. S. Geological fingwell, Rudolf Anderson, Storker Storkerson, Ejnar Survey maps have relied heavily on this source. Mikkelson and others have provided by far the most valu- Native names were practical and descriptive and tended able literature source, essential to an understanding of the to evolve in meaning or translation as they became influ- Eskimo and his way of life and the effects of Western enced by the English language, or as certain areas were culture upon it.' occupied by different groups. As a result, particular fea- More recently we owe a debt of gratitude to those schol- tures often have several names which may describe various ars who have specialized in the study of northern cultures associations and uses. In addition the northern Eskimo and their history. Their virtue and service to us all has been tended to assign these names to seemingly insignificant fea- in their ability to successfully reconstruct events and human tures, while leaving more obvious landmarks unnamed; behavior which occurred in the past and to call attention to such as a large mountain or valley. the need for much greater efforts. A difficult and tedious With the coming of the white man to Alaska in the 1730s job at best, it is further complicated by the language barrier other variables were introduced; Russian, Spanish, French and the fact that many of those people, who could have been and English (British and American), which further in- of inestimable help to increasing our knowledge, were not creased the difficulty of precisely identifying geographic asked and are now gone.' features. Inevitably Native oral identifications were given To a large extent material for this study has been drawn foreign language equivalents according to various ortho- from the research and field work of such men as Ralph graphic. standards, so that most geographic dictionaries in- Solecki, Robert Spencer, William Irving, Alfred Brooks, clude multiple listings in offering place name identification. Helge Ingstad, John Campbell, R. L. Raush and many In the far north the foreign influence was limited to broad others who were, or are, authorities in their fields. In this English usage introduced by American whalers, explorers regard it seems appropriate to quote one scholar who re- and traders and by their British counterparts. There was, of minds all those with an interest in the North that course, a smattering of other languages; European, Asian ... active field researchers who collectively have de- and Polynesian, but the place names scattered across the voted ... years to work on the tundra and in the north- North Slope are English. Often explorers would honor a ern forests ... enjoy certain intellectual advantages benefactor or statesman by naming some feature; mountain, over writers who essay to interpret hunting societies, river, lagoon, etc., for him in the ancient prerogatives of but who have never seen one, either extinct or alive.3 "discovery." But such a name would have little meaning In other words, passive research in the literature can for the Tareumiut or Nunamiut, who still prefer Inupiaq to never alone accomplish what needs to be accomplished in English and find significance within their own culture. the North or, by itself, stand as a model for establishing However the incidence of names of English.derivation is, in policy. It serves merely as a point of departure and should itself, an indication of the historical nature of the Beaufort be regarded as such. Sea region. Therefore the period of Alaskan history commonly as- sociated with exploration, frontier settlement, whaling and gold rushes is also a period when dramatic and more sig- ENDNOTES nificant events, for the northern Eskimos, were ocrurring in 1 .Full reference to particular works or individuals will be found remote areas of the northern interior and arctic coast. Here in the bibliography. they had lived for centuries in a delicate balance with na- 2. Edwin S. Hall Jr. (ed), Contributions to Anthropology: The ture, but were soon to experience a drastic alteration of their Interior Peoples of Northern Alaska, National Museums of lifestyle, cultural values and traditional subsistence prac- Canada, Ottawa, 1976. tices. To guide decisions for the future an awareness of the 3. J. M. Campbell, "The Nature of Nunamuit Archaeology," significance of this era of Alaskan history is needed. inIbid., 50. For this story the source must be those people who are 4. See Orth, 2-7 for a discussion of place names and their origins; and M. Baker, Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, able to remember "the old ways" and from those younger US Geological Survey Bulletin no. 299, Series F, Geog- people who have an interest in preserving a cultural heritage raphy, 1906. History and Historic Sites DEFINITION Historic sites for the Eskimo are often defined by their What is an historic site? Even the definition of this term is natural features and use and are not thought of in terms of problematical; there are those who interpret the word "site" set boundaries. Furthermore it is not reasonable to expect literally and there are others who consider it in its broader that a once semi-nomadic hunting culture would think of historical and cultural context. The criteria for selection and their relationship to the land and to nature in terms of evaluation of historic sites is clearly stated in the pertinent boundaries .2 state and federal legislation, and it serves to indicate what is Indeed the traditional and the present day realities of to be specifically identified and protected. But this is not subsistence hunting, whether for caribou or for sea mam- entirely sufficient to meet the needs of northern arctic mals, clearly demonstrates the historic continuity of the Alaska. relationship between the Eskimo and his environment and While it is of the utmost importance to collect as much preserves the integrity of those specific sites referred to in site specific data as possible, within every North Slope this study. quadrangle, there must be a recognition that there are as- It is perhaps not too much to suggest that the entire North sociative and intangible cultural values attached to sites or Slope and Coastal Plain is, in fact, one huge historic district areas of Eskimo habitation or visitation. These values can where man survived for thousands of years only because of extend the limits far beyond a certain location defying the his wise management of the land and its natural resources. standard boundary classifications employed elsewhere in The significance of this expansive area does not alone rest historic preservation programs designed to protect in the physical remains to be found there, but in its continu- specifics. ing occupancy and use as an integral feature within an an- Heretofore it has often been common procedure when cient context. dealing with historic sites to classify them as "things", The separation of "history and historic sites" from "structures," or "objects"; place fences and signs around subsistence and subsistence sites" is, of course, artificial them and make them accessible to the public. Sites such as and reflects only an organizational framework. Historic these are almost entirely representative of white Western sites and subsistence sites are quite often the same thing, culture and history and they comprise the majority of sites and traditional or historical uses of these sites is frequently listed on the National Register.' There are, of course, ex- defined by subsistence practices. Nevertheless a distinction ceptions to this as in the case of national historic parks, the can be made between those sites or geographic features that historic districts of certain states, and the Skagway Historic derived signficance from white exploration, whaling, trad- District in southeast Alaska, for example. ing, and other activities from those which were of impor- Alaska, however, is far from being culturally homogene- tance to northern people exclusive of white cultural ous. Because of its dual heritage, and because this heritage intrusion. is continuing to be defined in the daily lives of the Native THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT village people living on the coast and in the interior, much Tareumiut and Nunamiut peoples, although they were of that we consider "historic" is still being utilized in an the same culture and spoke a language (Inupiaq) common to evolving dynamic process that integrates the past with the both, were nevertheless separate societies; one dependent present. upon the whale (and other sea mammals) and the other The Tareumiut and the Nunamiut Eskimo identify dependent upon the Caribou (and other land animals) for "sites" in an associative context that, in name, designates their existence within two complementary ecological sys- not only a specific stream, or fish camp, or lookout point, tems.' As such they occupied regions where the habitats but perhaps all the surrounding country and features that contrasted markedly. 4 may relate to that particular place, its uses and its history. Therefore the "place of Inualurak", besides referring to a The Beaufort Sea dwelling or camp, might very well refer to all the country Tareumiut people (Ipiutak culture) have occupied the that was hunted or trapped by Inualurak for miles around. northern Alaska coast for at least two to three thousand PHYSIOG ARCTIC WITH ETHN High. 1. Af W E A A R C T I C S PT. BARROw Alaska Na qN 5 510 10N, FEDERAL ICY CAPF 4 FOR DEVELOPME U TUK A- 0 PT. LAY so 4 el @C, BARTER IS. KUKPARUN -M -- -L. - - C. LISBURNE -Z 44= [email protected] PT, HOPE @v At 4 --N [email protected] [email protected] C IS DE LONG MTS. E .0-.. PASS [email protected] PASS [email protected] PASS Fig. 2-Physiographic Features of the Arctic Slope with Eskimo Groups. 16 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES years, from Norton Sound on the northwest (named by Cap- the south, the Coastal Plain represents the northwestern tain James Cook in 1778: S 64, N 164') northeast to De- extension of the interior plains, and is geologically similar marcation Point (an important Eskimo winter rendezvous to the Great Plains region of the United States and known as pataktak or "place where ducks fly low"; Canada." It forms the shore that extends 3,500 miles from identified as Point Demarcation by Sir John Franklin in the mouth of the Ugashik River, Bristol Bay to Demarca- 1826: 69', 41' N, 141", 19' W). Their way of life was tion Point. determined almost entirely by their relationship with the A generally flat region consisting of wet sedge meadow Bering, Chuckchi, and Beaufort Seas .5 tundra and sod, this fifty-mile-wide plain is underlain by Historically the principal settlements and camps of the permafrost 1,000 feet thick which extends out under the Tareumiut were located from Pt. Hope (known as Beaufort Sea to the barrier islands. Here it can exceed 2,000 "lpiutak" or "Tikarahk": 68', 21'N, 1660, 471 W ) to the feet in thickness. Here and there claybanks and bluffs and vicinity of the Colville River Delta. (Nigaleg-Kok meaning scattered willows break the otherwise monotonous contour "goose river"; named by Dease and Simpson in 1837: 70*, of the plain; dotted everywhere with small lagoons, lakes . 27'N, 150', 07V) where the ancient trading site of Nirlik and ponds. During winter this interior water provides an was located.' excellent traveling suface. The remainder of the year, The Beaufort Sea (named by Sir John Franklin in 1826) however, the entire region is a swampy bog very difficult to extends from Pt. Barrow (Nuwak; named by Captain traverse. Beechy in 183 1) on the west, to the vicinity of Banks and The larger rivers and their tributaries, which head in the Prince Patrick Islands to the east in the Canadian ar- mountains to the south, flow sluggishly down to the Arctic chipelago. The sea is characterized by shallow water that Ocean, almost without exception in a south to north direc- extends as far as seven miles offshore at a depth of only ten tion. Historically they have provided the main transporta- fathoms, to much deeperwater beyond the so-called "bar- tion and navigation routes from the interior to the coast. rier islands", which lay just offshore and extend along the Along their floodplain little vegetation exists; while the entire coast between Pt. Barrow and Demarcation Point. banks are often deeply cut and exposed.13 These water- The bottom drops off sharply at the outer limits of the courses tend to flow in shallow "ribbon" patterns that continental shelf.7 bisect the tundra plain and terminate in broad alluvial fans, The dominant current throughout the year runs from east shallow deltas, mud flats and numerous channels with small to west along the coast in a typically clockwise motion islands. known as the Beaufort Sea Gyre, although strong easterly The snow which covers the plain from September to late currents can occur near the islands.' Pack ice is found most May begins to melt by the first week in April. By the end of of the year laying offshore at distances which vary between June, the ground is exposed and thawed to a depth of a few three and thirty miles, often leaving an ice-free zone feet. Flowers begin to bloom and the temperature can climb offshore (early June to late September). Seasonal ice to forty or fifty degrees Fahrenheit, transforming the formed during the winter usually closes the open and normally barren plain into a region of bright color and shallow coastal waters and freezes to depths of sixty activity. feet or more. Such features as ice islands (often 100 feet thick),, floes, pressure ridges and land-fast ice are common THE ARCTIC FOOTHILLS AND BROOKS RANGE to the Beaufort Sea, and are moved along the coast by The Arctic Foothills region is delineated by the rising the current.9 Arctic Plain on the north and the Brooks Range on the During the spring thaw and break-up the major rivers of south. It is characterized by broad east-west trending ridges the coast-the Colville, Sagavanirktok, and Canning- and mesa-like hills, buttes, knobs and pingos, separated by dump large quantities of silt and gravel into the shallow intervening tundra plains. I I waters of their deltas; while offshore, old ice melts and The northern section of these foothills, near Demarca- deposits other sediments and sea bottom material. This ac- tion Point, gradually rises toward the south from 600 to tion in combination with the local currents is responsible for 1,200 feet in height; while the southern section, nearer the the formation of the barrier islands in a process known as De Long Mountains (named in 1886 by Lt. George M. littoral drift. Furthermore these islands, as well as the entire Stoney, USN), rises to a height of 1,200 to 3,500 feet. The arctic coast, experience a constant erosion and building, southern foothills are more irregular in contour and rise which can amount to considerable loss or gain of area in a back from the coast opposite Pt. Barrow at a distance of period of a very few years. sixty to eighty miles; whereas near Demarcation Point, the northern hills approach to within a few miles of the THE ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN Beaufort Sea. Numerous Tareumiut tribes occupied this coastal tundra As the Arctic Plain rises toward the northern slopes of plain and were identified by their proximity to its major the Brooks Range, the vegetation changes from sod and rivers. I I Rising slowly and smoothly from the Arctic Ocean sedge meadow tundra to cotton grass, dwarf birch, heath toward the foothills and mountains of the Brooks Range to and willow shrubs. The foothills are generally free of snow fte: U A;,my of Engi rs, Ales Diss 974. At""" A of sW K odoo. 0 0 10 0 C- [email protected] A, as 4Y c/o f r t Aflokluv.h Pass curren spmdai 1IR11"Jots all normal current Kf,,, Wiseman, weak a d unpre ctable c nts AMIN., pomp, which epend a locpl s And ay [email protected] Croak a er direc on coqst settle lle!Nl z -0 0 so too Was lakok t 0 50 too )(110,00fors Fig. 3-Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea Currents. [email protected] U Army of E eeM A oil [email protected] Alsolown A afA K Y' SO rr ww"wips toy Olt M. out, Pal 4 1/ COV, Van tok *Anaktv.t Post pC41, 40 'dal t. K14". Wiseman, C": leg Source: National Weather Service Fig. 4-Surnmer Boundaries of Polar Pack, 1953-1965. . .... .... . ISO* SHEAR LINE OBSER ED SHEAR LINE OBSERVED 4/1 SHEAR LIN OBSERVED 7/2 HEAR LINE OBSERVED 5/27 7/2 0441TH MAY HARRISON SAY REINDEER 1. 0 0 mi. SYSTEM 0 S A GRACKS R T 0 50 KK OBSEFRWNVED Map of vicinity of Harrison Bay, Alaska showing successive shear lines between pack ice and ice stationary with respect to *tore during the spring of 1973. Shear line labeled 7/2 for July 2 is believed to be limit of shore-fast ice. Fig. 5-Offshore Shearline Between Pack Ice and Shorefast Ice, Spring, 1973. '7 [email protected] h", A Source: Alaska Regional Profiles, Arctic Region. Division of Policy Development and Research, Juneau, 1975. Fig. 6-Cross Section of Physiographic Provences of the North Slope. 20 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES and ice for the three months, June to September; but there is Coleen, Jago, Hulahula, Sadlerochit, Canning, and the considerable permafrost, ice wedges, and polygonal ground Wind Rivers to the northeast .21 typical of the North Slope region. THE PEOPLE Immediately adjacent to the foothills rise the northern There are four major national divisions of the Eskimo: slopes of the Brooks Range, the northern extension of the Greenlandic, Asian, Canadian, and Alaskan. Twenty-one Rocky Mountain system, which continue to a height of groups or societies of Alaskan Eskimo have been identified 4,000 to 6,000 feet (named for Alfred Huse Brooks in 1925 and of these, eight are Inupiaq speaking, or northern Es- and first seen by Sir John Franklin in 1826). 11 Standing kimos." We have discussed above a traditional separation above the Arctic Circle, this range extends in a southwest to between these groups into two reciprocal societies; the northeast direction for 600 miles, slanting diagonally to- Tareumiut and the Nunamiut. 11 The remaining major ward the coast from the southwest, where it comes within Northern Alaskan Eskimo groups were: six to seven miles of the Beaufort Sea. Four passes provide access through its 100-mile width to the Arctic Plain be- 1) Noatagmiut, who historically occupied the region yond: Howard, Anaktuvuk, Survey, and Ulo. inland from the Noatak River and numbered Significantly the Arctic Mountain System drains in three perhaps 400 in the 1880s. 2) Selawikmiut, who historically occupied the region directions; south to the Bering Sea through the Yukon inland from Selawik Lake along the Selawik River River, west to the Arctic Ocean at Kotzebue Sound via the and numbered perhaps 300 in the 1880s. Kobuk, Noatak and Selawik Rivers, and north across the 3) Malemiut, who historically occupied the Kotzebue North Slope to the Beaufort Sea via the Colville, the Sound region and portions of the Seward Peninsula and numbered perhaps 600 in the 1880s. Sagavanirktok and the Canning Rivers among others. As 4) Kauwerak or Kaviaqmiut, who historically oc- we shall see, these mountain passes and their major river cupied nearly all of the Seward Peninsula and systems were essential to the subsistence economy and cul- numbered perhaps 900 in the 1880s. ture of the Northern Eskimo. 5) Kovagmiut, who historically occupied the Kobuk River country and numbered perhaps 500 in the THE RIVERS 1880s. 6) Kingikmiut (related to the Kaviagmiut), who his- "Rivers were the primary avenues of inland transporta- torically occupied the northwest tip of the Seward tion in aboriginal Northwest Alaska," and this was true for Peninsula and the King Islands and numbered the entire North Slope during the summer travel months .18 perhaps 650-700 in the 1880s .25 Although for the purpose of this study we are concerned Of our two main groups the Tareumiut historically oc- primarily with the area between two of these rivers: the cupied the arctic coast from Pt. Hope northeast almost to Colville and the Canning, each of these navigation routes Demarcation Point and were divided into smaller village (see page 28) was used at one time or another for hunting, subsistence groups normally of 100 to 150 people. These trading or transportation purposes. The major divisions or sub-groups were: 1) Tikragmiut 2) Killimmiut 3) societies of Tareumiut and Nunamiut were often known by Kaiakiravigmiut 4) Utikiagmiut 5) Nuvukmiut 6) Tul- their traditional use or occupation of certain areas. Because limanirkmiut 7) Kaktovigmiut and 8) Palaktokmiut. 16 Based river navigation was so important, the various societies on information from three nineteenth century explorations were commonly known by their proximity to rivers and of the arctic coast from Cape Prince of Wales to Demarca- streams within these areas, in the same way that Tareumiut tion Point, the entire Tareumiut population numbered bet- means "people of" or "inhabitants of" the sea because of ween 1,500 and 2,000 in the 1830s . 27 the suffix "miut." Thus there were Kobukmiut, Noatak- The Nunamiut historically occupied the huge interior re- miut, Killikmiut and Sagavanirktokmiut; there were the gion north of the Brooks Range and were also divided into Colville People, and there were other groups identified with various sub-groupings primariily for subsistence purposes. specific sites or Villages such as the Tikiragmiut, the These were 1) Kanianigmiut [Colville People] 2) Killik?niut Nuvukmiut, and the Kaktovigmiut.19 3) Kanmalilaniut and 4) ltkillikmiut which represented the Within the North Slope and Brooks Range region there traditional regional societies. Other smaller groups such as are fifty rivers and numerous streams and creeks which lvishakmiut, Ikpikpugmiut, and Sagavanirtokmiut rep- comprise this vast interior navigation system; all of them resented only temporary or seasonal Nunimiut societies." north of the Arctic Circle. 11 Not all of these were as It has been suggested that "...in 1800 just over 1,000 important as others and many were used only infrequently, Nunamiut were living in the northern Brooks Range [and] and particularly so toward the east approaching Demarca- this figure probably represents the peak of Nunamiut popu- tion Point." However, several were of historical signifi- lation in the past hundred years."" while others have cance to the northern Eskimo and these included: the suggested that the population of the inland regions between Noatak, Kobuk, Utukok, Meade and lkpikpuk Rivers to the 1895-1905 was nearly 3,000.10 Based on reports from exp- northwest; the Colville, Killik, Anaktuvuk, Chandler, lorations of the northwest interior between 1881 and 1885, Kuparuk, Ivishak and Sagavanirktok Rivers in the central the estimated population was 2,380, as compared to the North Slope-Brooks Range; and the Chandalar, Sheenjek, nearly 10,000 inhabitants of the 1700s.11 HISTORI ARCr A R C T I C 0 C 9 A N AI&9k& Na % FEDERAL POIN w FOR DEVELOPME t, BARRO 0.1 A;' F- V $0 0* *e. so 4f BEAUFORT SEA [email protected] le e, CAPE UsBuRNE o os uko" DE LONG M S B R 0 0 K S Fig. 7-Historic Native Places, Arctic Slope. 22 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES These estimates are significant in reflecting the impact of 32W), Birnirk ("Pirginik" four miles SW of Pt. Barrow: white Western culture on regional Eskimo populations. 710, 2(Y, 50"N, 156, 36" W), lpiutak (1.8 miles NE of Pt. Such estimates for the nineteenth century can only be ap- Hope: 68', 21', 25"N, 166, 45', 45"W), Norton (sites on proximate at best and particularly so for the Nunamiut, who shore of Norton Sound: 64N, 153W) and Choris (Kotzebue were highly mobile and semi-nomadic in their lifestyle as Sound, named by Otto Kotzebue, IRN, in 1816: 66, 17N, late as the last decade of the nineteenth century. The effects 166', 53'W) represent later cultures of the period 2,000 of Western culture in this context and others will be discus- B.C. to A.D. 500 .37 sed further below. The Eskimo prehistoric period may be traced from ap- proximately A. D. 500 to the era of the Russian intrusions Because white culture had such a profound influence on into the Bering Sea (late 1700s), and the archaeological the northern Eskimo societies, the history of this process of remains unearthed at Birnirk seem to date from the Bering acculturation has been divided into three or four periods that Sea-Siberian culture and help to document the transitional correspond to certain distinct or important changes within links between North America and the Siberian mainland. Eskimo culture. These in turn are set against the continuum An understanding of this cultural progression through sev- of alteration that occurred during the hundred year period eral millennium helps us to see these Folsom, or Paleo- 1850-1950 in traditional cultural and social values, Eskimo cultures as predecessors of the pre-Columbian In- economy and subsistence practices. These divisions are: 1) dian Tribes of North and South America." Because the precontact and early contact to 1850 2) middle contact, western North Slope contains the few remaining portions of 1850-1914 3) late contact, 1914-1940 and 4) contemporary the Bering Sea Bridge that remain above water, the ar- to present day, 1945-11 chaeological remains which may be found there are likely to be extremely important in reconstructing the history of early PRE-CONTACT AND EARLY CONTACT, man. 39 10,000 B.C. to 1850 The ancient northwestern and arctic coastal cultures were We know appreciably more about the early cultures of the ancestors of the Tareumiut Eskimos of the historic northwestern Alaska than we do about those that must cer- period with which we are concerned. Nunamiut archaeol- tainly have inhabited the eastern region-the subject area of ogy, however, poses more difficult problems of identifica- the present study. As one authority has observed: tion and interpretation. What was the origin of the ... the northwestern Arctic is noted arch acologic ally Nunamiut and when did they first occupy the North Slope for its important role in the development of early interior? Unfortunately at present, no chronological outline American cultures and, in more recent periods, the of a Nunamiut cultural continuum is available .40 development of Arctic Eskimo culture ... 33 From archaeological remains collected in the early 1960s It is possible here to only touch briefly upon these in the Noatak, Koyukuk, and Kobuk River basins; in the early cultures. late 1960s from the northern tundra region of the Killik The arctic coast and North Slope region have produced River west to Pt. Hope, from the Noatak Valley north to artifacts and sites which indicate that ancient cultures inha- the southern edge of the Arctic Coastal Plain, and from the bited this area as long ago as 12,000 years B.C. and perhaps Tukuto Lake region ("Nioqtun," 20 miles north of How- as long ago as 30,000 years B. C.11 These artifacts and sites ard Pass); and during the early 1970s in the Atigun and suggest that several pre-Eskimo cultures such as the Thule, Sagavanirktok River Valleys, and in the Prudhoe Bay re- Norton, Choris, Denbigh, Pearyland Dorset and Kahroak gion, it is reasonably certain that the people we know as existed here in ancient times, as representatives of the Arc- Nunamiut settled in the Arctic Slope and north Brooks tic Small Tool Tradition." Range between A. D. 1500 and A. D. 1600, having mig- Between 9,000 and 2,200 B. C. the occupants of the rated from the coast and from the Noatak and Kobuk River coastal and adjacent areas were full-time tundra hunting and regions. While in the eastern arctic interior, migrants from coastal fishing peoples, dependent entirely upon what the the Beaufort Sea coast (rather than central Alaska) settled land and the sea offered them. Sites excavated from the there in the late eighteenth century. upper Utukok River, from the Walakpa Bay region (noted Nearly all the sites east of the Killik River imply that by Comdr. Maguire, RN in 1854 as the "sixth camp site Nunamiut were not present here or to the eastward below Nuwuk- on the Chukchi Sea: 71',08', 25" N, 157', lie. Chandler Lake, Anaktuvuk Pass, Itkillik Lake and the A figun Valley] until about A.D. 1800. 02', 45" W), and from Amak at Onion Portage (Kobuk River, thirty-five miles NW of Shungnak: 67', 07N, 158', Our other source of archaeological and historical data for 18'W) have provided significant data regarding this period. the eastern interior and Beaufort Sea coast, is the earlier These sites have demonstrated that ancient cultures have work of explorers and scientists, who were active in this and been present in northwest Alaska since the period of sea adjacent regions during the nineteenth and twentieth cen- level stabilization approximately 4,500 years ago. I I turies. These would include: the 1884-1886 expedition of Other sites uncovered at Denbigh ("Nuklit," east end of George Stoney and William Howard in the treeless regions Norton Sound in the Reindeer Hills: 64', 23'N, 161*, of the central and western Brooks Range; to some extent the C @N C E 0- U IQ 41 1 it AX It MW iN 16 1" 1 Ay` LONG Mo @,A 71 J10- S0 IN* It r N DIG WIM Source: Arctic Regional Profiles, Division of Policy Development and Research, Juneau, 1975. Fig. 8-Tareurniut and Nunarniut Territorial Associations. 24 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES studies of John Murdoch, who worked among the Barrow The Interior-Coastal Relationships people in 1892; Vilhjalmur Stefansson's six year, 1906 Between the coastal Tareumiut, the Malemiut of the 1912, explorations and travels among the North Slope Es- Kobuk region, the Noatakmiut, and the interior Nunamiut kimo, in which he traversed the Arctic Coastal Plain inland there was considerable cultural, social and economic in- to the mouth of the Itkillik River; R. M. Anderson's explo- teraction from the early historic period through the early rations of 1908-1909 which took him into portions of the twentieth century. The historic Nunamiut also came into eastern Brooks Range, from the Romanzof Mountains to contact with the Indians of the southern Brooks Range and the Itkillik; and Ernest de K. Leffingwell's studies of the the eastern- Arctic, and referred to them as Koyukon eastern arctic Nunamiut, up the Canning River from his Uyagamiut" and Kutchin, or " Tagagavik. " 46 base on Flaxman Island, 1906-1914.11 The Nunamiut lived in the region of Survey Pass at the Despite the pioneering work of these early explorers, and head of the Alatna River and slowly migrated northeast to the more recent efforts of archaeologist, anthropologists and the Colville River, while others settled in the Brooks Range historians, knowledge of Nunamiut culture is highly tenta- and on the North Slope. Disputes between the Kobuk tive; it has merely lain a foundation for further research and people and the Kutchin forced the Indians eastward to the field work. In a call for such studies one authority has Howard Pass, Nigu River region, where they encountered observed that the Numaniut. The resulting hostility forced the Kutchin ... the archaeology, ethnology and natural history of still further eastward during the early 1800s. About 1850, the Nunamiut geographical area relate to an impres- according to oral traditions, a great battle was fought at the sive range of research objectives which, while they mouth of the Itikmalakpak River (20 miles NE of Anak- embrace much, and perhaps all, of the total span of tuvuk Pass: 68', 24', 15"N, 151, 28', 00"W) where the Eskimo history, also include numerous other prob- lems having to do with the lives of hunting peoples in Kutchin were beaten and driven south .47 43 general. Between the Nunamiut and the Koyukon there apparently was not much contact, although trade goods were ex- Implicit in such language is the awareness that many ques- changed betwen the two via the Kobuk people. Occasional tions remain to be answered such as: 1) What other cultures, trade fairs and feasts were held, such as the one at Hunt if any, occupied Nunamiut areas? 2) If there were migra- Fork (40 miles South of Anaktuvuk Pass Summit) in the tions from the Kobuk and Noatak country, what prompted 1880s." these people to move and why did they settle beyond the Prior to white contact Nunamiut also migrated to the tree line instead of in the highlands? And why, as it ap- Arctic Plain and coastal regions in the form of seasonal pears, did the Tareumiut migrate inland from the eastern hunting forays and reconnaissance. It was probably in this Arctic coast to occupy the Arctic Plain, and then not until manner that the Numamiut first encountered the Bar-row centuries after the western migrations?41 people. According to oral accounts, territorial disputes re- Answers to these questions and others can only come sulted in a large battle between them sometime during the from extensive and long-term field work and research in mid to late 1700s near the Colville River delta, where again regions left as undisturbed as possible; in areas preserved the Nueamiut were narrowly successful.19 for such work; and in localities protected from degradation It was by such contacts that a well-developed trading or destruction by industry or development projects. interrelationship had been established between the Relevant to these needs is the observation by one ar- Tareumiut, the Nunamiut and various other Eskimo and chaeologist that Indian groups by the time the Russian voyages of explora- Beginning in 1959, intensive private explorations of tion to northern Alaska occurred during the late 1700s. U. S. oil reserves lying north of the Brooks Range Moreover these contacts included a substantial trade with Divide resulted in the looting of numerous archaeolog- Siberian Eskimos across the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, ical sites by often well meaning but nevertheless highly and these articles circulated along the arctic coast and into destructive souvenir hunting members of airborne the interior.50 exploration crews, The Russians only once (in 1838) ventured as far north as Beechey Point, but their trade goods had preceded them and by another who reported that at Chandler Lake even as far eastward as the Mackezie, where they were in .... a considerable amount of unauthorized digging use prior to the British explorations of the late 1700s. Such has occurred .... resulting in destruction of much of items as copper kettles, tobacco, knives and tinware were the site." traded by Barrow people to Mackezie people for wolverine skins. This exchange occurred at the great Arctic trading Certainly such activities cannot be attributed only site of Negalik (Nirlik) at the mouth of the to those involved in oil production and related activities, but Colville." these observations stand to illustrate what has already oc- Nirlik was the nexus for the interior and coastal trade of curred in areas where such development has taken place. the arctic Eskimos, and as such, it heavily influenced social MOM AL OKA ABOR1011 L TRADE I OUTE3 P-1 F-- ........ ... c-1 7N 4/ Source: Robert F. Spencer, The North Alaska Eskimo: A Study in Ecology and Society (GPO, 1959). Fig. 9-Aboriginal Trade Routes. 26 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES and cultural interaction between the peoples of various re- sion and some hostility. Beechey was afraid of the "na- gions. The Kobuk and Noatak people traveled down the tives" and did not go ashore; while the Russians, under Colville in the spring to trade and returned in the summer to Kashevarof, were actually driven from Beechey Point in the interior to hunt (details in the chapter on Subsistence). 1838 and apparently harassed all the way back to Kotzebue The Barrow people came to Nirlik for the great trade fairs Sound .5 'Within a few years, however, this adjustment and some even went further east to Oliktok and Barter- period had ended and relations began to improve, primarily and later to Herschel Island. At Barter they were met by the because in the initial trade between white and Eskimo Mackenzie and the Coppermine Eskimo and the Kutchin "quality" goods were exchanged of mutual satisfaction to Indians, who traveled the east fork of the Chandalar through both parties. The hostility of the environment also necessi- the Brooks Range, and down the Hulahula River to Barter tated at least a working relationship conducive to coopera- Island.52 tion and survival.58 During the winter months, Bar-row people often traded Perhaps the one feature that emerges clearly from the into the interior via the Colville system, and they visited accounts of early explorers is the activity and evidence of Nunamiut villages and family sites on the Kongakut, habitation they encountered all along the coast between Pt. Sagavanirktok, Itkillik, Ikpikpuk, Utukok, Kukpuk, Can- Barrow and Demarcation Point. Fortunately we have evi- ning, Kuparuk, Anaktuvuk, Meade, and Kokolik Rivers." dence that the arctic coast at one time supported a substan- The influence of white culture spread slowly from the tial population; for now it is virtually deserted and has been Kotzebue Sound region beginning in the 1-700s across the since the 1940s. In 1953 only one family lived permanently interior and along the arctic coast, primarily in the form of along the 500 mile coast between Barrow and Barter Island. trade goods and technology. News of Russian and British Moreover, this reconnaissance of the coast revealed that explorations of the Bering Sea, interior Alaska, and Canada had most likely reached the interior by 1815, via the con- ... there was a great deal of evidence of past habita- tracts between the Nunamiut and the coastal groups and tion. House sites and camp sites, some only a few through their trade to the east .54 years old, were situated on almost every ideal hunting point. Refuse in abundance attested to the amount of But there was no actual contact with Western civilization former activity ... only scattered camp debris and the until the British navy rounded Pt. Barrow and entered the sod walls of roofless houses remain as a mute tes- Beaufort Sea in 1826. Moreover, those articles of Western timony of all this activity ... where have all these civilization that had reached these northern people had very people gone?51 little impact on the Tareumiut east of Barrow or the The answer lies essentially in the cultural impact of Nunamiut of the interior. Western goods were sought as Western civilization and the drastic economic and social prestige items as well as for their utilitarian values, but their changes it produced among the northern Eskimo. To be introduction into Eskimo society had no appreciable effects sure the seasonal nature of the Tareumiut and Nunamiut on their social structure or subsistence hunting culture in hunting culture, and the harsh realities of a subsistence this early period. economy, meant that large numbers of people were on the Exploration and Cultural Intrusion move during the spring and summer months and that vil- lages or camps had to be small to insure adequate food for The exploration of the arctic coast began with the voyage the inhabitants. This, in addition to the Eskimo habit of of Captain W. F. Beechey, RN, in 1826, a voyage which frequently changing house location, accounts for the took him as far north as Pt. Franklin (near 71', 23', 31"N, numerous sightings of traveling Eskimos and observations 156', 2 V, 3 0"W). There a long boat was sent to explore the of apparently abandoned tents, karigi, umiaks, and ikirraks coast northward when the Blossom could proceed no further throughout the early contact period. because of ice. This small boat reached the point of land on Also in 1826, Sir John Franklin traveled down the Mac- which the Eskimo village of Nuwuk was located, but kenzie River to the Beaufort Sea and then west toward Pt. Beechey decided to rename it "Point BarTow" in honor of Barrow, but was forced to abandon the effort at Return Admiral Sir John Barrow "to mark the progress of northern Island ("Oloiktome": 70', 27'N, 148', 47'W, 13 miles discovery.' 155 north-east of Gwydyr Bay). During his expedition Franklin For the next eighty-six years the exploration impulse noted Eskimo huts, tents, camps and umiaks all along the brought at least fifty separate expeditions to the arctic coast coast from Demarcation to the west of Barter Island in beyond Pt. Barrow (east to the Mackenzie Delta and from Camden Bay."Later explorers such as Thomas Simpson, the Atlantic west toward Siberia), as Englishmen, Danes, Peter Dease, William Pullen, Thomas Moore, Robert Norwegians, and Americans searched for the fabled M'Clure, Richard Collinson, Rochfort Maguire, John Northwest Passage." Simpson, and M.A. and C.L. Hooper all confirmed the How did the Eskimo react to this sudden appearance of habitation of the coast .6 1 For example, these sightings are Western civilization? At first there was mutual apprehen- representative of their observations: '1" 144) 120 luo 4-A O.M., jjp )V,-VTlty or T to" It (),@T-" " V, 0, 41- 4'. -kg OW 7J VO ... . .. .. .. . .... [email protected] wo fl 7,k, %V, [email protected] JK 0,.L, 441 "s-0-T e- "'Od aq 14o 140 1p, Fig. 10-Map of W. H. Hooper's Explorations. @ 00000 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 c? 0 0\ _PW 0 ITI CL ITI 0 0 0 0 0 m z 0 CD z 7 70 10 o -0 cLAm 0000 o 010 @ @00 0 0 PRE-CONTACT AND EARLY CONTACT 29 Table I Mid-Nineteenth Century Sightings of Eskimos in the Beaufort Sea Region July, 1826 Franklin W of Barter "large tent, 18 sleds". Aug., 1837 Simpson Barter I I one tent". Canning R. "large camp". Aug., 1849 M. A. Hooper E of Barter I I eight tents, one driftwood hut". Humphrey Pt. "four tents, 24 people". Icy Reef "two boats, several huts". Pt. Berens "Barrow People, 100. 13 tents, going west". E of Berens "One umiak, 24 men, one woman". E end of Jones Is. I I native party and two goodly collections of tents, five boats, 16-20 in each". Beechy Pt. -84-85 men". Return Reef "three boats from village". Aug., 1849 Pullen near Beechy Pt. " 100 men". W end Return Reef "two boats, 40 men". E end Jones Is. "four boats, 80 men". Aug., 1850 Simpson Pt. Berens "Barrow people here after July 26, Colville people have then gone inland".61 These observations were not merely isolated contacts, but rather are indicative of the traditional use and lifestyle of the northern Eskimo during the summer months of seal, walrus, kl and whale hunting and of their established trading activities. f: x In 1852 Surgeon John Simpson, a member of the British naval search expedition to the Arctic looking for traces of the Franklin party, observed that Fourteen parties, fourteen bo ats, and 74 persons plks- 71"L sed ship [Plover] on 3 July, 4th day at Dease Inlet. They cross the river at Dease Inlet [Mayoriak] and cross by umiak, and at Smith Bay they leave their sledges and take to boats. The route was probably up z the Ikpikpuk River, across Teshekpk Lake to Harri- son Bay and the Colville River. They net fish, catch a few birds, and occasional deer on the route .63 Simpson also noted that a regular trading network existed z and that between the major centers "there is a yearly com- munication." At the Colville meet the nu-na-tang-meun about 26 July. The 6-8-10 days of barter terminated, [Noatak- Fig. 12-Whalemen in Fur Suits. miut] back down Colville. Barrow People to Pt. Be- rens [Oliktok], then on the Barter Pt. [Kaktovikl." Atlantic, and both he and Miertsching recorded their obser- vations of the northern coast. 65 In 1850 HMS Investigator, Commander Robert At the mouth of the Colville a depth of 3-6 fathoms M'Clure, sailed arctic waters in search of Franklin, and on was recorded seven miles offshore, [and Miertsching board was a Moravian missionary (and Eskimo interpretor) noted that] today in the bitter wind no Eskimos came named Johann Miertsching. M'Clure is credited with dis- to the ship. We saw many of their tents on this covering the Northwest Passage, which he reached from the coast.66 30 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES The Investigator sailed on until at 70*, 36'N, 150', 16'W But a whaler's life also had its dangers. In the years prior they came upon a to the industry's zenith in the Arctic, fleets suffered three ... low island of gravel, devoid of vegetation, but major disasters, and almost yearly lost ships to the floes and covered with driftwood, containing trees 56 feet long, storms of the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas .72 and two-and-one-half feet in diameter towards the In the loss of thirty-one ships off Belcher Point in 1871 root. Of men or of their dwellings no trace could be (13 miles northeast of Wainwright: 70', 47, 40"N, 159', seen [this must have been either Thetis or Leavitt 32', 02"W) an incident occurred which illustrated the Island; the trees either from the Mackenzie or the effects of the introduction of alcohol into Eskimo-Native Siberian coast]. 9 am. came two umiaks full of Es- kimos bringing small fish and sea fowl to barter with, society and what happened when ships were abandoned to for these they were paid well and received an assort- the ice: ment of gifts .... 11 As they approached "Johns Island" (Jones Island) they ... as soon as the crews were clear of the stranded ships the natives hastened on board in search of the encountered "many Eskimos who had hoisted a flag on a esteemed beverage.' Everything they could find in pole": bottles they took along with them, contents of the These Eskimos had a very pleasing appearance; they medicine chest and all, and returned home to enjoy were well clad and clean . . . . Their fine clean tents the plunder. It ended in poisoning the whole village. with their families stood on a sandy knoll at a little At the present day in their underground houses, may distance from the beach. During the winter, they told be seen the remains of whole families who died just as us, they live three day's journey inland; for three they @at, poisoned by the medicine, which in their months only in the summer do they bring their ignorance, they mistook for whiskey." families to live in tents on the seashore. Some of these families travel each summer to Nuniwokingok along But the introduction of whiskey and other alcoholic the coast, where they meet and do business with the beverages into northern Eskimo society was perhaps only Eskimo who dwell farther to the east [no precise the most obvious of those features of white culture so location obtained]."' destructive to the Eskimo. Indeed, Miertsching was told that not far from Jones Island lived the "Nunatarmiuts," but that no meeting had as yet taken . . . in almost all major aspects; such as physical place. Before leaving, Captain M'Clure gave the chief a appearance, village organization, dwellings, social boat's flag and asked him to "forward a letter to the organization, social relationships, and economic Russian traders on the Colville River," and this the chief status, the Eskimo [has] been negatively affected by promised to do." early contact with whalers.71 Although the whalers were clustered at first near Pt. Barrow (Cape Smyth or "Utkiakvik" as the town MIDDLE CONTACT: 1850-1914 was called), and then only during the short summer season, Whalers they soon pushed eastward into the Beaufort Sea, skirting the shallow waters of the barr ier islands, and on to Barter It was during this span of nearly seventy years that the Island (Kaktoavik or "whaling place") and Herschel Island eastern Arctic regions were opened to Western culture, (35 miles east of Demarcation Point), where the bowhead primarily through the commercial whaling industry, but whale were numerous. also through the activities of traders, scientists and In examining the diaries and logs of the whalers, it can be missionaries. These years witnessed the rise and fall of the easily seen that they soon became expert in their knowledge New England and west coast based whaling industry, which of the coast and the islands east of Barrow. They frequently began sending ships into the Arctic Ocean to fish in the went ashore or stopped to trade with the inhabitants. 1850s. By 1880 more than 300 vessels were likely to be However, it is often difficult to establish identity of various operating off Pt. Barrow and to the east, with a few even sites because as Leffingwell noted, "there is no settled wintering on the ice because they failed to get south in usage among the whalers .1175 Nevertheless, a glance at the tiMe.70 map reveals the age-old practice of naming geographic If the Tareumiut and other groups with whom these features after those things most closely associated with them whalers interacted were "uncivilized," they as their at the time of their "discovery." This was certainly the case opposites, were often little better. Despite the tall tales there in the Beaufort Sea and those named below serve to remind was no glamour in the life of a whaler. Crews often us of the mixed historic character of the arctic coast: consisted of "illiterate, ignorant New England farmers, Eskimo and white .76 convicts, Figians, Kanakas, and Hawaiians," who lived by As one explorer phased it, "every whaling captain that the harsh code of the sea and were notorious hell raisers. In ever visited these waters, every trader, every squaw man on the Arctic it was no different .71 this coast has his island or that point. 1177 C h - -- --------- 12 0 K T It Fig. 13-Ship Tracks of HMS Investigator. )LOGICAL SURVEY 56 26 ,_Spy W.A. It i @yh*;. W.W o to Levitt 0 IV 14 o2 IF at Vj, to 4L s I 2d p A j to 4 tv 14 to o 0 A, to Ft. [email protected]:, to 44 34 to it to PI, - A& V, [email protected] Fig. 14a-Leffingwell's Map of the Beaufort Sea Coast. R-dw 1 5 D W A y I S L A 3 if 1, if C- w.0 Ajp I 31 4 if It 44 4 31 s 44 it If Sf C. 26 3 St&k- f 4 2 21 I"P7 21 Pt wer. 21 3 -P-k M ... Md It 34 It lk If P4 .4tyA I NO I of .. d .uw., @mo-- Fig. 14b-Leffingwell's Map of the Beaufort Sea Coast. 41 24 It 4 at to "? 4 1.6m H.. 20 4 34 21 3 at 4 4 Pt1 4 of I U..k 1 01 It 84 21. at to Pt at at I @A ,00-121f, st at M It at F1 LA ND B it to it "VI Azl 21 a# -Apma., Pt W so it 24 24 2 it Ak k "it if it 40 20, T7 Fig 14c-Leffingwell's Map of the Beaufort Sea Coast. COMMERCIAL INFLUENCES 35 Table 2 tools, powder, lead, and shot; and such things as denim, Origin and Historic Significance calico", foot and hand sewing machines, chewing gum, of Barrier Island Place Names tobacco, bread, flour, molasses, sugar, tea, dried apples, East of the Colville River three phonographs, 110 records, clocks, primus stoves, Long Island for Capt. Long of the whaling fleet. scissors, hammers, spy glasses, screw drivers, boat Pole Island for direction pole errected by compasses suspenders, paint, playing cards, and "one whalers. house 30 X 20 feet cut and fitted."80 Cross Island for grave of whaler marked by cross. But there were also others who traded in the Arctic, Cottle Island for Capt. Steven Cottle, whaler. whose cargo consisted mainly of liquor and firearms. They Bodfish Island for Capt. Hartson Bodfish, whaler. outfitted in Hawaii, San Francisco or Santa Barbara and Leavitt Island for Capt. George Leavitt, whaler. even further north, and made their runs into the Bering and Bertoncini Island for Capt. John Bertoncini, whaler- Chukchi seas. Of course the customs laws forbad such "Johny the Painter". trade; but unless caught, these traders made tremendous Jones Island for Reverend Davis Jones of profits. Enforcement of the customs laws was entrusted to Red River, Canada, NWT. vessels of the Revenue Cutter Service which regularly Reindeer Island for the ship wrecked near there. patrolled coastal and offshore waters, in the attempt to at Narwhal Island for Capt. Leavitt's ship. least discourage illicit trafficking. The cutters Bear, Corwin Challenge Entrance for ship of Canadian Arctic and Thetis, in particular, were regular sights in the Arctic Expedition of 1913. for most Eskimos and whalers, and now and then they were Karluk Island for Capt. Cottle's ship. successful in seizing a contraband cargo. Belevedere Island for the whaler Belevedere. In 1886 the Bear boarded the Clara Light of San Alaska Island for the schooner of the Canadian- Francisco Registry at 630, 421N latitude, and found the Arctic Expedition. crew drunk and in possession of 8,000 Winchester cart- Duches Island for the ship Duchess of Bedford, ridges. As the Bear approached, twenty-six barrels of Anglo-American Expedition, whiskey and two cases of rifles were thrown overboard. 1906-07. Such incidents were indicative of the kind of exploitation North Star Island for vessel of Canadian Arctic that had been occurring for years since Alaska was Expedition. purchased. Seven years before, traders outfitted in Santa Mary Sachs Island for vessel of Canadian Arctic Barbara and Hawaii had cleared port with over 11,000 Expedition. gallons of "spirits," many stands of arms and thousands of Stockton Islands for Rear Admiral C. H. Stockton, cartridges.81 USN. Captain Bodfish remarked of their business: Maguire Island for Comdr. Rochfort Maguire, RN. As for trading it [liquor] to the Natives, it was done Flaxman Island for the sculptor John Flaxman. certainly . . . but no man would ever enjoy good fortune who gave the Natives liquor .... If I knew anyone who was going into the Arctic I would certainly advise him to peddle no liquor to the COMMERCIAL INFLUENCES Eskimos." During the winter of 1894-95, eighteen ships wintered at The effects of this trade among the inland people and those Herschel Island, or north of it; and their crews, numbering who lived on the coast were tragic. Again Bodfish noted: nearly 1,000 men, made the island their home for the long There used to be five or six hundred Natives on St. cold winter months. Charles- Brower, the well known trader Lawrence Island before my time, but when I went of Pt. Barrow, noted that "Eskimos are now wintering at there a very few were left. The whiskey traders had Herschel . . . Barrow Eskimos went with them to hunt. 1178 been there and had kept the Natives drunk all through In effect the economic and social foundations of Eskimo the summer, so that they couldn't hunt and lay up society had already undergone irrevocable alteration. With food for the winter. The result was they starved.83 this establishment of a pen-nanent base, the whalers soon The larger question of the significance of these influences, began to carry large inventories of trade goods cast on their and the one that is most relevant to this study, will be voyages to the Arctic in anticipation of lucrative exchange discussed in the chapter on "Subsistence," but there is no at Barrow, Flaxman, Beechey Point, Barter Island and question that: "The changes introduced by the white man other posts operated by Brower and a few independents in were profound. The Eskimo . . . almost completely adopted competition with the Hudson's Bay Company posts at his methods and materials."' Herschel and the Mackenzie Delta. 19 Besides liquor, disease had the greatest local effects on Illustrative of such trade was the voyage of the whaler Tareumiut and Nunamiut Eskimos of the North Slope re- Beluga in 1902 which carried, among other things: forty- gions. Disease in the Arctic was practically unknown in nine rifles, five shotguns, 39,000 cartridges, reloading epidemic form prior to 1855 when American whalers and 36 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES traders arrived. According to Petroff, the French Explorer cities. Indicative of this movement were the census returns La Perouse noted pox marks among the Natives as early as for 1890 which revealed the population decline on the coast: 1786.11 Siberian epeidemics spread eastward with trade in 1653, 1691, 1768 and 1774 to the central Alaskan coast. Table 3 Syphilis was introduced at Unalaska in 1778, and Zagoskin Coastal Population Decline noted the reluctance of the Natives to trade out of fear of 1828 1890 disease in 1838. However he observed that it did not appear Pt. Barrow 1,000 100 as though the disease existed north of the Kuskokwim- Pt. Hope 2,000 35093 Yukon region as of the 1840's 11 Measles was also a killer among Natives and major Economic exploitation of the Eskimo was also charac- epidemics struck Sitka and north to Unalaska in 1848-50, teristic of white cultural intrusion into the arctic regions. It but the disease was unknown in the Arctic prior to 1855." is not uncommon when reading accounts. of traders and However influenza, cold, and pneumonia ravaged Pt. whalers to find mention of the keen or shrewd trading abil- Barrow in 1848, and in a particularly bad winter, killed ity of the northern Eskimo. While it is true that by the 1880s forty people (ten percent) of the population in 1851-52.11 the Eskimo knew the value of money and had developed a Disease was not confined to the coast, but also spread feel for barter and exchange from years of experience, it has inland through trading contacts. also been shown that the average profit margin of whaling In 1900 the Barrow people invited the Colville people to station and post operators was between 500 and 1,000 per- a huge feast and trade fair in celebration of a good whaling cent after expenses." Furthermore these stores and posts season. Over fifty umiaks journeyed down the Colville to often advanced gear and provisions to the Eskimo, in an Pt. Barrow bringing several hundred people. Much trading arctic version of the crop-lien system, which by 1912-13, occurred, as always, but the whalers were now at Barrow for example, and most of the men at Pt. Hope $750 to and from them the Nunamiut obtained large amounts of $2,000 in debt. Meanwhile, their main source of income, whiskey. Unfortunately, the ships also brought influenza whalebone (baleen) dropped in value from $8.00 per pound against which the Eskimo had no resistance. Shamans in the 1880s to $.50 to $.25 per pound in 1912.'5 directed that they return to the interior quickly, but Captain Bodfish described a typical transaction in which 'perhaps 200 died before they reached home. "'9 perhaps $7,000-8,000 in trade goods was exchanged for Again this was not an isolated incident, but merely a -3,353 lbs. of whalebone, 39 white fox pelts, 6 deer, I seal repetition of a condition which had existed for years from at coat," and various other items during the 1902 season.91 least the 1880s. Around 1890 a flu and fever epidemic The average price paid for baleen was then about $5.00 per killed over 100 Nunamiut at a feast and trade fair on the pound and for Arctic white fox between $2 and $15 per pelt upper Noatak River. Apparently only isolated families were on the American, Canadian and European markets. Thus, able to escape the ravages of veneral disease, flu, measles $8,000 in trade goods was exchanged for bone and fur and tuberculosis." worth at least $17,000.11 Moreover, it was not uncommon In the early 1880s a Nunamiut woman estimated that 7,000 for over $200 in furs and other goods to be exchanged for "people of the land" had camped at Nigalik one summer, one bottle of whiskey. 98 although it seems unlikely that the number was this large." Perhaps even more significant were the ecological and There is no question, however, that the population of both economic effects of commercial whaling and the excessive the coastal and the interior regions were drastically reduced harvesting of other sea mammals and land animals, with the during the peak years of whaling and trading activities; only islands and coast of the Beaufort Sea serving as hunting and 200 people arrived at Nirlik in 1900 to trade with the Bar- slaughtering depots in support of the industry. Between row people. By 1906 only three or four families lived along 1848 and 1912 American whalers decimated the whale the coast, one family was living on the Sagavanirktok, very stock in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea, reducing the few were living on the Colville, and fifty were counted at bowhead population from over 5,000 to a few hundred; Herschel Island in 1913-14.11 the peak catch occurring in 1893 when 309 whales were By contrast Cape Smyth, or Barrow as it was then called, taken.99 slowly grew in population after 1890, as more and more Huge numbers of other species were taken by whalers for coastal and interior Eskimo were drawn to the relative sec- subsistence, or killed by the Eskimos for them under con- urity and economic advantages of the centralized village or tract. Captain Bowhead recorded that on one voyage, town life. The coast and much of the interior was deserted "Captain Owen," of the whaler Napoleon, "killed 250 by 1905-06, except for a few families and perhaps a walrus on the cake ice," in a few minutes, while the total hundred or so who remained in the Brooks Range in iso- for the season surpassed 600.100 On these voyages one ves- lated solitude. Those who had not died of starvation or sel could easily account for several thousand ptarmigan and disease had either moved west to Barrow, east to the Mac- other birds, in addition to as much as 50,000 pounds of kenzie Delta, or in some cases, south into central Alaskan meat per vessel.101 While caribou supplied the greater por- THE MISSIONARY INFLUENCE 37 tion of this total, other animals such as musk oxen were group leader) and the shaman (often an umialik as well), taken as well. Of the musk ox, which was virtually extinct and social interaction occurred in various associations such in the Arctic by 1900, Bodfish noted that as hunting parties and the ceremonial karigi or dance house. . . Natives had not, apparently, hunted musk oxen Their "religion" then consisted essentially of superstitions much before the ships wintered in the north and they and supernatural beliefs centered in the two most important did not know much about the habits of the forms of subsistence-the whale and the caribou-and the animals.... While we wintered in the Arctic they kit- more socially oriented Messenger Feast. There was no con- led all the musk oxen in an area of 150 miles...1 cept of the social practice of religion or community wor- don't know if there are any left .102 ship; religion was of highly individual provenience. Although such practices continued, and even accelerated, Needless to say, the world view or cosmology of the Es- throughout the period 1880-1910, the industry declined kimo differed considerably from Western concepts, and his rapidly just prior to the First World War. But while the belief in demons and other beings was more akin to medival bowhead and other whales were plentiful and the market for cosmology than modem Christian belief."' corset stays remained stable, commercial whaling returned The establishment of missions and proselytism to Christ- as much as a million dollars a year to the San Francisco ian beliefs effectively challenged, undermined and finally based fleet alone.103 When the market collapsed, not only overcame Eskimo religious beliefs, although in some cases the whalers but the Eskimos suffered and they to a much not completely. The missionaries were successful in this greater extent. The Eskimos had been suddenly exposed, in largely because they effectively weakened the power and only a few years, to a rich and dynamic economic windfall, influence of the shaman. In this they were aided by the which when it collapsed left them in an economic and cul- whalers, who ignored traditional taboos against whaling and tural vacuum with no foundation or future. hunting and suffered no ill effects; and by the economic THE MISSIONARY INFLUENCE impact of Western goods, which undermined the impor- tance of the umialik and the entire subsistence based cul- In addition to the influence of whalers and traders, the ture. Furthermore as Eskimos were exposed to various Tareumiut and Nunamiut Eskimos were also exposed to dogmatic themes and biblical teachings, they tended to Western cultural values through Christianity and the apply them to their daily lives in the most literal terms. missionary during this middle period of contact. While most Illustrative of such strict interpretation was the nature of of the coastal people had known white men for years by the Sabbath, which in most cases the Eskimo was taught 1900, younger people could still be found in the interior was a day when no labor was permitted. Thus no whaling who had only heard of them or never seen one at all .104 was done on Sundays for many years, resulting in the loss However, there was a general knowledge of white customs, of up to one-sixth of the short, six-week summer season manners and morals gained through trading contacts in the spent in idleness. In another instance, the word was spread interior, and a somewhat more intimate knowledge along from Kotzebue Sound to the interior that God forbad the use the coast. of fishnets on Sunday, so the Nunamiut of the Colville Many of the explorers at this time noted that certain region pulled out their nets and resorted to using hooks, principles or fragments of Christian teachings had been which substantially reduced their catch and disrupted sub- adopted by the northern Eskimos, but this varied considera- sistence practices. I's bly from the western to the eastern Arctic. While it is only Many examples could be cited in the area of morals, possible here to briefly touch upon certain cultural influ- marriage, social and personal conduct, but these are not ences of Western religion on Eskimo society, it should be particularly germane or within the scope of this study and recognized that the larger impact of Christianity altered they have been more than adequately covered elsewhere. 119 much of the structure and cultural traditions of the Eskimo, But there were other influences of an associative nature as part of the desire to "Westernize" him.105 which should be noted. In the 1890s the Federal Council of Churches divided Charles Brower of Barrow noted how the missionaries Alaska into several districts and the villages of Wainwright, attempted to prevent Eskimo trapping along the coast and in Barrow and later Anaktuvuk Pass were assigned to the the interior, because such "dispersion" would hinder their Presbyterians. There were additional influences derived ability to influence the Eskimo residents.110 Furthermore from the activities of Episcopal, Moravian, and Quaker the abandonment of coastal and interior settlements can be missionaries, but the North Slope and arctic coast were attributed in part to the influence of missionaries who con- most influenced by Presbyterian missionaries. 106 vinced the Eskimos that their salvation depended upon close When these missionaries first arrived they encountered an proximity to the mission, mission school and store. It has aboriginal society which centered around the immediate or even been suggested that the rationale for establishing mis- the extended family in the village. In villages such as Bar- sion schools in the villages was the contention that the - best row or in smaller assemblages of the coast and interior, way to reach the parents was through the children. I I I traditional authority was shared by the umialik (hunting Additional cultural impact which can be traced directly to 38 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES religious influences was the entire concept of central village camps, lookout points, fish racks, abandoned boats and living, focused on the mission and the school. This concept sleds, graves above and below ground, dog posts and other was not too unfamiliar to the more vi I lage- oriented signs of civilization, which were still on occasion being Tareumiut, but was completely contrary to Nunamiut soci- used by individuals and families for shelter or for subsis- ety. It compelled many people to leave, at least temporarily, tence activities. For the purpose of this study these explora- the old traditional family hunting, fishing and camping tions are significant because they identify sites by their use sites. and often by their location, and provide primary source In their desire to centralize Eskimo society, missionaries accounts of Tareumiut and Nunamiut utilization of cultural and teachers discouraged reindeer herdsmen from taking and historical resources. their herds long distances to gaze, because they would be Vilhjalmur Stefansson recorded that from Icy Cape (48 away from the village for extended periods. This practice miles southwest of Wainwright, "Utikok" or old and an- resulted in serious overgrazing in areas of northwestern cient place: 70', 201N, 1610, 52'W) to Pt. Barrow, "the trip Alaska, where the western arctic caribou herd also foraged, is a very simple one to make, for Eskimo houses are scat- and the disruption of animal migrations and subsistence tered along the beach every twenty miles or so.... 11114 and hunting patterns .112 that from Barrow east, "we found no Eskimos, although of However the impact of Western religion is viewed, it course the old, ruined houses which indicate the large popu- combined with other facets of Western cultural intrusion to lation that has vanished are scattered along the coast.' 1115 disrupt and transform traditional Eskimo society. As one He also noted an Eskimo camp site ten miles SW of Pitt interior village chief noted in 1915: Point, near a "well-known fishing lake," and also a village Before the school came we never spent more than one of five houses at the junction of the Itkillik and Colville year in the same house. If we decided to remain in the rivers .116 same locality a second year, we would move across On July 31, 1908 Stefansson recorded that at the once the river or half a mile in some direction. We never great trading center of Nirlik (Nigalik) there were forty-six lived in one great village, but in camps along the people waiting for the Barrow traders, and that the Eskimo river .... Before school there was no regular store. Some supplies came from miners, some from Native trading village at Flaxman Island was still in operation and traders who visited the salt water each summer. 113 numerous families huddled there. "I Further he observed that "Alaska in the last ten years has become 'poor country' SCIENTIFIC INFLUENCE through the depletion of its resources by the extermination It was also during this period of middle contact that the of the caribou," and that, pioneering scientific explorations were conducted in the arc- ... the day has long gone when the Pt. Barrow people tic regions of the North Slope and the Beaufort Sea. These were economically independent. There was a time included: when they got from their own land and ice covered sea all their food, clothing, fuel, and other necessities of 1) The International Polar Expedition to Barrow, life, but now they import tea, clothing, phonographs, 1881-85. jewelry, chewing gum, perfumeries, and a hundred 2) The Alaska Boundary Survey, U. S. Coast and other things of which they formerly had no need."' Geodesic Survey, J. H. Turner, 1890. 3) Frederick Funston's expedition to the eastern Ejnar Mikkelson went to the Arctic and explored the boundary of Alaska in 1894. Beaufort Sea region in 1908, in hopes of finding land to the 4) The reconnaissance of F. C. Schrader and W. J. north of Alaska. His travels revealed other interesting Peters to the arctic coast via the Anaktuvuk and Col- things about this region. For example: at Collingson Point ville Rivers, 1901. (Collinson Point, 30 miles southwest of Barter Island 5) The explorations of S. J. Marsh, F. G. Carter, and H.T. Arey in the interior from Barrow to the Canning "Nuwuak" : 69',59', 30"N, 144*, 54', 90"W) "were River, 1901-1903. numerous Eskimo houses and 6) The Anglo-American Polar Expedition to the .. ruins, and judging from the number of ruins the Flaxman Island region, 1906-07; Ejnar Mikkelson vil,lage must have been pretty large ... skulls and other and Ernest de K. Leffingwell. Leffingwell sub- human bones are scattered all over the place, a picture sequently returned, 1909-11, 1913-14. of utter desolation.' 19 7) The Arctic expedition of Hudson Stuck, arch- deacon of the Episcopal missions of Alaska, 1901- The Eskimos referred to this place as "where Barrow 1920. people met the Kokmoliks" (people living to the east). 8) T'he Canadian Alaska Boundary Survey of 1912. Mikkelson's fellow explorer, Ernest de K. Leffingwell, had 9) The Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913. his base camp located at Flaxman Island and they spent By the time these expeditions took place the interior and several years there and in the Canning River region to the coastal regions had already been nearly depopulated by dis- south. Mikkelson noted: ease, starvation and the migrations to the Mackenzie Delta on the extreme west end of Flaxman Island there were or Barrow. Nevertheless a reading of any one of them re- some houses in ruins, while some tombs showed that veals that the coast, islands and interior were dotted with the last inhabitants had died, caught, as we learned sod huts, caribou and canvas tents, fishing and hunting later, in a blizzard and froze to death.' 'I 21 4' 4 41 r WE, J! Source: Donald Orth, Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. (U.S.G.S. Professional Paper no. 567, GPO, 1967). Fig. 15-Map by S. J. Marsh and F. G. Carter: Ft. Yukon to Flaxrnan Island, 1901-1902. 40 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES He and Leffingwell also determined that Flaxman was ac- tion Point: 69*, 51'N, 1420, 08'W), 12 ' and even south to tually a huge section of ice or ancient glacier covered by the Yukon River via the Firth. only a few feet of soil deposits. On trips to the interior, hunting and fishing camps were LATE CONTACT TO CONTEMPORARY PERIOD, located. Several days were spent at one camp approximately 1914-1945 seventy miles up the Koogaro River; a similar site was With the decline of the whaling industry and the closing visited on a small island fifty miles up the Hulahula of the trading posts at Herschel and elsewhere, activity in River;" and an old Kokmolik village was discovered on the Arctic east of Barrow declined also; the interior ex- the east shore of the Sadlerochit River near the beach. This periencing even greater isolation. Fur trapping replaced sea particular site was remembered as the place where a man mammal and caribou hunting as a source of money and burned himself and his daughter to death in grief over the employment for Eskimos, and the number of whites living death of his wife."' along the coast from Pt. Hope to Demarcation Point was In Elson Bay (between Plover Islands and mainland just less than forty in 1915. to the southeast of Pt. Barrow: 71', 15'N, 155', 31'W) By 1920 there were only twenty Numaniut people still Mikkelson investigated an ancient Eskimo burial ground living in the Brooks Range or on the North Slope east of known as "Dead Man's Island," and to the east of Elson, Barrow, and within a few years they too had nearly all they visited an old village site at the mouth of the moved to the coast or to the Yukon-Tanana valleys in Sagavanirktok River. 123 Mikkelson was fascinated by the search of jobs. Only a handful remained in isolated spots Eskimo and sensitive to their plight. At a "hulahula" given along the Beaufort Sea coast near the Colville River delta, at Flaxman for the local people, he noted that these people: Flaxman Island and Camden Bay. Were all born in the neighborhood of Pt. Barrow or on Reindeer had been imported to Alaska from Siberia in the west shore as far down as Kotzebue Sound, from 1898, in part as an effort to provide the northern Eskimos whence they have immigrated because they were not with a cash and subsistence source to supplement the deci- willing to tolerate the superiority of the average white mated caribou herds. At first restricted to Eskimo owner- man, because they knew that they could not hold their own if they remained where they were born, and ship, the Lomen Brothers bought into the industry in 1920, realized that their children would be still more under and ten years later they had become the controlling interest the white man's bondage than they were ... some and main source of employment for Eskimo herders .128 went along the coast, some overland, and finding the For a decade, between 600 and 1,000 Eskimos through- country of the Kokmoliks deserted, they claimed it as out the North worked as reindeer herders, with the last great theirs and settled there .... 124 drive taking place in December of 1929, when 3,000 deer The years spent by Leffingwell at Flaxman Island were were driven the 1,200 miles to the Mackenzie River. After productive of a great deal of information on the geology of 1935 when this drive ended and prices for deer meat fell in the arctic coast, barrier islands and the eastern interior. He the general gloom of the Depression, this industry, like was responsible for the correction of inaccurate maps and contract hunting and trapping before it, also collapsed and place names; and he standardized English-Eskimo usage in was taken over by the government in 1940. many cases. He also noted, as had others, that "formerly Times were hard too along the coast as money and the inland Eskimos were abundant on every large river," employment opportunities dwindled and many Tareumiut and cited the 1910 census as an indication that only sixty- and Nunamiut had to once again depend heavily upon tradi- five Eskimos lived along the coast between Barrow and the tional practices to survive. In 1937-38 several Nunamiut 14 1 st meridian .125 families returned inland to the central Brooks Range, where His summary of the early nineteenth century explorations the caribou were beginning to return also and where few is helpful in reconstructing their specific routes and ac- whites ventured. These people initially settled in their an- tivities, and for extracting specific site locations, such as cestral areas; the Killik River valley and Chandler Lake those of Arey Island ("Nalageavik," just west of Barter region. Subsequent moves brought them to Anaktuvuk Pass Island: 70', 07"N, [email protected], 54"W), where a village of forty and the valley of the Anaktuvuk River, where they and their houses was located; Leavitt Island ("Pingok," one of the descendents live today."' Jones group: 70', 34"N, 149, 35"W), where there were The 1924 expedition of Knud Rasmussen, traversing the remains of twelve-fifteen houses; and the Eskimo camp arctic coast as part of the Fifth Thule Expedition, was the located one mile east of Beechey Point, where Lt. Pullen last of the great exploratory treks across the North Slope received a hostile welcome in 1849: (70', 29', 20"N, 149*, until the late 1960s .13 0 He found that although conditions 09', 3(Y'W) .126 were bad, some people were also beginning to return to the According to Leffingwell, who had intimate knowledge old coastal sites as well ' Of whaling operations in the Beaufort Sea, the whalers did There were a few resident whites living along the coast, not restrict themselves to the floes or the immediate coast. and as conditions worsened in Barrow, Wainwright, Pt. They ranged far inland from Herschel Island, west to the Hope and elsewhere, they too began to notice that Eskimos Aichillik River (twenty-two miles northwest of Demarca- were reestablishing themselves in historically occupied IQUJD RASMUS SENS EKSPEDITIONER ZW [email protected] A* &.4-. d A&.k..AW-X IF A.&M.P &IAv.,..&k ....... .-W OWIN S. &d14-d -J*U4W ...... ............. .... .........w . ......... .......-... A Vj KO :11 ---Gp S ZA VXT L A S 10 Source: Rasmusen, Across Arctic America: Narrative ofthe Fifth Thule Expetlition, 1927. Fig. 16-Knud Rasmusen's Map of the Fifth Thule Expedition, 1921-1924. 42 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES areas. One excellent source of knowledge ofthis period and the first time an ordained minister ever conducted a service the people living in the Beaufort Sea Region is provided by there. the Reverend Fred G. Klerekoper of the Presbyterian Mis- Continuing east they found Andrew Akuckuk's home sion at Barrow .131 and his family of thirteen children. Andrew had been re- In April of 1937 Reverend Klerekoper and his Eskimo cently elected head of the reindeer company. Toward driver, Vincent Nageak, journeyed to Demarcation Point Beaufort Lagoon they came to the trading post of John by dogsled in order to minister to people along the coast. Olson (seventeen miles northwest of Demarcation Point : His observations provide examples of coastal habitation and 690, 52'n, 1420, 12'W), where Klerekoper found "fox- subsistence activities as they existed at that time. At Tan- skins ... sealskin lashing in coils, caribou legs, outboard gent Point (" Kulgurak, " thirty-nine miles southeast of Bar- motors, oil skin raincoats, dogfeed, everything from soup to row: 71', 08', 50"N, 155*, 05', 30"W) they came upon a nuts in the warehouse." village site "of several old houses," which they were not A half hour's sledding from Icy Reef brought them to the able to identify. But Vincent had heard about the people homes of Micky Gordon and his wife and several Eskimos living there .132 Within several miles they came to the house located on the Kongakut River (sixteen miles northwest of of Roy Ahmaogak on Cape Simpson. Near Kokruagarok Demarcation Point: 69', 46'N, 14 1', 37W) - (eighty-eight miles southeast of Barrow near Pitt Point: 70*, On their return trip the route was a little different and 55'N, 153', 05'W) they stopped at George Leavett's place, other places were visited. They heard that things were bad located on the site of an old Eskimo camp. that year: They next reached Cape Halkett, where a white man, Willie Morris, had established a small trading post ("Adig- ... food is scarce, not many foxes this year. Foxes live on lemmings and this season they seem to be garu" or "Isuk," west entrance to Harrison Bay: 70', 48', scarce or have migrated to better feeding grounds. 10"N, 152-, 40', 05"W), where there were many things from old ships, including the floor of the cabin. They Near Oliktok Point (sixteen miles west of Beechey Point learned that Ollie had gone up the Colville trapping and "Point Berens": 70', 39, 45"N, 149', 51', 30"W) one of buying fox pelts. Klerekoper estimated that they were Leffingwell's triangulation posts was found and examined; traveling fifty miles offshore on. the pack ice and it was it read "please do not disturb this post L191l." They difficult to get their bearings and direction. Turning inland, reached Cape Halkett on May 1, 1937, and most of the their next stop was at "Cyrus' camp," an hour from coor- village was out on the ice hunting. Klerekoper noted that a dinates 71*, 23'N latitude where a large family lived. Then short railroad ran from the beach to the storehouse, appar- it was on to "Takpuk's camp" near Beechey Point, where ently to expedite the unloading of supplies. On May 5 the they overnighted with Jack and Lucy Smith and a Mr. journey ended with their return to Barrow after a month on Seegard. the trail. Continuing along the coast they crossed Prudhoe Bay and It is obvious from this description of conditions along the noted that "many deserted camps were passed." They met coast in 1937 that indeed many people, a few hundred at a man who agreed to take them to his sod and driftwood least, had returned to traditional hunting and habitation sites house on Foggy Island (thirty-five miles southeast of and were living in the traditional manner, supplemented by Beechey Point in the Sagavanirktok Delta: 70', 16'N, 147*, the few "luxuries" available from scattered trading posts. 48'W). The next day they passed on by Return, Midway, The 1930s were notable also because of the beginnings of Maguire and Flaxman Islands and arrived at Brownlow airplane and airship explorations of the Arctic and the inter- Point, where Henry Chamberlin operated a small post (be- ior Brooks Range. This meant the elimination of the trading tween Camden and Lion Bay near the mouth of the Canning journey to the coast, because now supplies could be flown River: 70', 10'n, 145', 51'W). Here they found "many in directly on a delivery schedule. Suddenly Western cul- deserted igloos." ture and products were much more accessible, although it Fifteen miles west of Barter Island they came to was not until after the World War 11 that such flights be- "Richard's camp" at the mouth of the Sadlerochit. At Bar- came a regular feature of "bush" living. ter they met Tom Gordon, Andrew Akutckuk, Mildred Prior to the Second World War the only major intrusions Keaton and a Mrs. Daughtery (the school teacher and rein- of Western culture and technology into the interior regions deer advisor from Barrow). Here Reverend Klerekoper held came as the result of an executive order in 1923, which a regular service: created the 23 million acre Naval Petroleum Reserve no. 4, The congregation sits on the floor, the preacher leans better known as "PET-4. 11133 Explorations of this vast re- against a saw horse. Half a reindeer carcass, sleeping serve began almost immediately via the Kukpowruk, bags, and skins of caribou for mattresses, camp Utukok, Kokolik and Noatak rivers. After the war these stoves, pans for dog feed, oil drum stove, and about a explorations were continued, while others proceeded along hundred souls make up the meeting place and congre- the coast betwen Pt. Lay and Cape Lisburne. gation. - Overshadowing the development of a petrochemical in- The Reverend baptised twenty babies and noted that it was dustry in Alaska, however, and its impact on Eskimo Cul- ENDNOTES 43 lure, were the more far-reaching changes effected by the 20. Reference: Orth, Map no. 2 following p. 1084. massive military build-up which occurred in Alaska in 21. Gubser, 341. 22. Much of our knowledge of the eastern North Slope was provided by 1942-43, and continued through the early 1950s with con- Leffingwell, as previously cited; and by S. J. Marsh, F. G. Carter, struction of the DEW Line network."' As these changes and H. T. "Ted" Arey who, as prospectors, spent twelve years in the were most clearly revealed in their impact on traditional area (u.s.g.s. maps for 1903) as discussed in Orth, 19. subsistence hunting patterns, village economy, lifestyle and 23. See for example Edward Wyer, The Eskimos: Their Environment and Folkways (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1932); and Kaj culture, they will be discussed in the chapter which follows. Birket-Smith, The Eskimos. (London: Methune and Co. Ltd., 1936). 24. On this division there is some disagreement on how much of a distinc- tion there was between the two; particularly in terms of their origins, as discussed in Irving, Solecki, Campbell, Giddings and others (com- ENDNOTES plete citations below). 25. See Ivan Petroff, Population, Industry and Resources ofAlaska, U. S. 1 .See Federal Register, Department of the Interior, National Park Ser- Department of Interior, Census Office.(1882); Robert P. Porter, vice, National Register of Historic Sites, Washington, D. C., 1966 by Population and Resources of Alaska at the Eleventh Census, 1890, volume and number. Ibid, (1893); and Arthur E. Hippler, A Selected Annotated Bibliog- 2. See Ernest S. Burch, Jr., "The Eskimo Trading Partnership in North raphy of Alaskan and other Eskimo Acculturation Studies, ISEGR, Alaska: A Study in Balance Reciprocity," Antropological Papers of University of Alaska, College, 1970: Report no. 28. the University ofAlaska Vol. 15 (1970) 49-80; and Burch and T. C. 26. See Wendell H. Oswalt, Alaskan Eskimos (San Francisco: Chandler Correll, "Alliance and Conflict: Inter-Regional Relations in North Publishing Co., 1969): 2- 10. Alaska," in D. L. Gumple, ed., Alliance in Eskimo Society. Proceed- 27. The explorations of Beechey and Franklin, 1826-27 in F.S. Beechey, ings of the American Ethnological Society, Supplement, (Seattle: Uni- Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Bering Strait (London: H. versity of Washington Press, 1972) 17-39. There were, of course, Colburn and R. Bently, 183 1) and Sir John Franklin, Narrative of a traditional tribal boundaries between Eskimo groups and between Es- Second Voyage to the shores of the Polar Sea in 1825, 26 and 27 kimo and Indian tribes to the south. (London and Philadelphia, 1828); Simpson, 1837 in Thomas 3. Robert Spencer, The North Alaskan Eskimo: A Study in Ecology and Simpson .... Discoveries on the North Coast of America ... During Society, Smithsonian Institution, Bulletin 171 (GPO, 1959) 441. the years 1836-39 (London: R. Bently , 1843) and the British Naval 4. See for Example Clyde Wahrhaftig, Physiographic Features of Expedition of 1949-50 in TEL. Moore, Comdr, RN, Narrative Alaska, Geological Survey Professional Paper 482 (GPO, 1965) ... of HMS Plover, Sept., 1849-Sept. 1850, British Blue Books, 1851 18-22. Vol. 33:2"0. 5. Unless otherwise noted place names and locations are as reported in 28. See Gubser, Appendix A: 337-352. Donald J. Orth, Dictionary of Alaskan Place Names, Geological Sur- 29. Mid., 52. vey Professional Paper 567 (GPO, 1967). 30. See Helge Larsen and F.G. Rainey, lpiutak and the Arctic Whale 6. Many sources may be cited, see Vilhjamur Stefansson, My Life With Hunting Culture, Anthropological Papers, American Museum of the Eskimo (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1913) 117-18. Natural History, no, 42 (N.Y., 1948) 3 1. 7. See D.C. Burrell, comp., Beaufort Sea Environmental Data, 31. See the reports of P.H. Ray, Report of the U.S. Expedition to Point USCGC Northwind, 1968 (1970). Barrow, 1881-1884, U. S. War Department, House Exec. Doc no. 4, 8. See L. K. Coachman, "Physical Oceanography in the Arctic Ocean," 48th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, 1885) George Stoney, Lt., USN, Arctic vol. 22 no. 3 (1969) 214-24. Naval Explorations in Alaska, U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, 1900; 9. See Louis Shapiro, A Preliminary Study of the Formation of Land and M. A. Healy et al., Report of the Cruise of the Revenue Steamer Fast Ice at Barrow, Alaska, Geophysical Institute, University of Corwin in the Arctic Ocean ... 1885 (Washington, 1887). Alaska, 1975. 32. Hippler, iv. John and Irma Honigmann, Arctic Townsmen: Ethnic 10. See the study of Naidu A. Sharma, Texture and Chemistry ofArctic Backgrounds and Modernization, Canadian Research Center for An- Ocean Sediments, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, thropology, Ottawa, 1970, define them as the Formative Period, the 1972; Environmental Studies of an Arctic Estuarine System, Final Florescent Period, and the period of Planned Development: 17. Report, V, Ibid. (Sea Grant Program Report 73-16); Ernest De K. 33. D. Anderson, The Archaeology of the Northwestern Arctic (ms), Leffingwell, The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska, U. S. 1973:1. Geological Survey Professional Paper 109 (GPO, 1919); and W. G. 34. Ibid., 2-23 passim. McIntire et al., Alaskan Arctic Coastal Process and Morphology, 35. See the summary by John M. Campbell, "The Nature of Nunamuit Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State Univ., 1973. Archaeology," in Hall, Contributions to Anthropology ... as previ- 11. See Gubser, 337. ously cited: 1-25; and W.R. Irving, "Evidence of Early Tundra Cul- 12. Wahrhaftig, 1. tures in Northwestern Alaska," Anthropology Papers, vol.1 no.2 13. See for example N. J. Gubser, The Nunamiut: hunters of the Caribou, (1953) 55-85. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1965); and 36. See William S. Schneider and Peter M. Bowers, Preliminary Cultural Stefansson, My Life With the Eskimo (1919). Resource Assessment: National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, Na- 14. See L.L. Selkregg, ed., Arctic Environmental Information and Data tional Park Service, Univ. of Alaska: 1- 10. Center, Alaska Regional Profiles: Arctic Region, University of 37. Spencer, 13 and Ralph Solecki, "Archaeology and Ecology of the Alaska, 1975; and J. J. Koranda, "The North Slope; its physiography, North Slope of Alaska," Smithsonian Institution, Annual Rpt. for fauna, and flora," Alaska Geographic vol. 1 no. 1 (1972) 1-37. 1950: 469-495. 15. In addition to the sources previously cited, see Alfred H. Brooks, The 38. See James A. Ford, "Eskimo Pre-history in the Vicinity of Point Geography and Geology of Alaska ... USGS Professional Paper no. Barrow, Alaska, " Anthro. Papers, AMNH, Vol. 47 no. 1 (1959). 45 (GPO, 1906). 39. Campbell summary. 16. Also known as the Arctic Mountain System, Brooks (1906). 40. See Edwin S. Hall Jr., "The Late Prehistory/ early Historic Eskimo 17. See also Ernest S. Burch Jr., "The Eskimo Trading Partnership in of Interior Northwestern Alaska: An Ethno- archaeological Ap- North America: A Study in Balanced Reciprocity," Anthropological proach,?" Anthropology Papers, Vol. 15 no. 1 (1970) 1-4; J. L. Papers of the University of Alaska vol. 15 (1970) 49-80; and Don C. Giddings, The Arctic Woodland Culture of the Kobuk River, Museum Foote, Exploration and Resource Utilization in Northwestern Alaska Monographs no.9, Univ. of Penna, Philadelphia, 1962,-Forest before 1855 (Ph.D., McGill University, Montreal, 1965-The Don Eskimos, Museum Bulletins 20(2), Univ. of Penna., Phil., Foote Papers, University of Alaska, College). 1956,-Kobuk River Peoples, Univ. of Alaska, Studies of North- 18. Burch, "Inter-Regional Transportation in Traditional Northwest ern Peoples 1, College, 1961; John C. Cook, Final Rpt. of the Ar- Alaska," Anthropological papers vol. 17 no. 2 (1975) 5. chaeological Survey and Excavation along the Alyeska Pipeline Ser- 19. N. 1. Gubser, The Nunamiut Eskimos: Hunters of Caribou (New vice Co., Pipeline Route, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Alaska, Haven: Yale University Press, 1965) 337-344. 1971; H. L. Alexander Jr., "Archaeology in the Atigun Valley," 44 HISTORY AND HISTORIC SITES Expedition Vol. I no. 2 (1968) 35-37; and D.E. Derry, "The Ar- vol. 2 (Washington, 1887); John A. Cook, Persuing the Whale: A cheology and Anthropology of a Recent Eskimo Habitation at Quarter Century of Whaling in the Arctic ... (Boston: Houghton PrudhoeBay, Alaska," inFinalRpt. ...as cited above: 6-116. Some Mifflin Co., 1926); J.R. Hadley, Whaling Off the Alaska Coast: work has been done in the Itivlik, Itkillik, and the Sadlerochit and From the Journal of Jack Hadley of Point Barrow, Alaska (N.Y.: Franklin Mountains which has produced artifacts of the Arctic Small American Geographic Soc. Bull no. 47, Dec., 1915: 905-921. Tool tradition. 71. Gubser, 7. 41. Campbell, 31. Although a stone projectile point found in the Itkillik 72. The burning of the Bering Sea Fleet by the Confederate commerce River Valley in 1959 dates to A.D. 1400, loc cit. raider Shenandoah in 1865; the disaster off Pt. Belcher in 1871, when 42. See Stoney, Explorations in Alaska as cited above; William L. How- 31 ships were abandoned and crushed in the ice; and the loss of 12 ard, Diary of the Point Barrow Expedition, 12 April to 9 August, ships in 1876 off Pt. Barrow. 1886 (unpublished ms, Houghton Library, Harvard Univ.); John 73. Hedley, "Whaling Off the Alaska Coast," 907. Murdoch, Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition, 9th 74. Petroff, 88. Annual Rpt., Bureau of Ethnology (GPO, 1892); Stefansson, My 75. Leffingwell, 98. Life With the Eskimo as cited [email protected],-; R.M. Anderson, Rpt. on the 76. Ibid., Natural History Collection of the Expedition "My Life With The 77. Ibid., ; and Orth, Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, passim; See Eskimo, supra.; and Ernest De K. Leffingwell, The Canning River Hudson Stuck, A Winter Circuit of Our Arctic Coast (London: T. Region as cited above. Werner, Laurie Ltd., 192Q) 298. 43. Campbell, 25. 78. Don Foote Papers, Box 52; Charles Brower, Fifty Years Below Zero 44. Ibid., 22-23. (London and N.Y., 1948). 45. Ibid., 3; and see Edwin S. Hall Jr., "An Archaeological Survey of 79. Bodfish, 195. Interior Northwest Alaska, "Anthropological Papers .... Vol. 17 no. 80. Don Foote Papers, Box 53. 2(1975) 17. 8 1. Ibid, Box 5 3 46. See Gubser, 47. 82. Bodfish, 197. 47. Gubser, 43. Apparently heaps of human bones discovered in this 83. Ibid., 217. area would confirm this account. 84. Hadley,920. 48. fbid.,50. 85. Petroff,44. 49. Ibid.,49 86. Zagoskin, 59, 126. 50. See Spencer, The North Alaskan.Eskimo, 193-209; Burch, "The 87. P. Tikhmenev, Historical Review of the Russian American Company Eskimo Trading Partnership...," as cited previously; and The Don 2 Vols. (St. Petersberg, 1861, 1863) 28. C. Foote Papers, Archives, Univ. of Alaska, College, Box 9. 88. John Simpson, "Observations Upon the Western Esquimaux and the 51. Gubser, 233, Stefansson, My Life..., 117-118, and George H. Country they Inhabit," Arctic Anthropology and Ethnology Vol. I Bancroft, History of Alaska, 552-553. (1875) 233-275: 237 52. Honnigmann, Arctic Townsmen,8-1 1. 89. See Brower; and Gubser, 52, 55, 127. 53. Ibid., 11. 90. lbid.,53. 54. See E. S. Burch ND T.C. Correll, "Inter-Regional Relations in 91. Ibid., 52. Nothern Alaska," in D.L. Guenple ed., Alliance in Eskimo Society, 92. See Lefffingwell and Schrader and Peters as previously cited. Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, Seattle: Univ. of 93. Diamond Jenness, Eskimo Administration: 1, Alaska. Montreal, Washington Press, (1971) 17-39. Arctic Instititue of North America, Technical Papers no. 10, 1962,7. 55. Beechey, 302; and Blossom, Ships Log Book, July to September, 94. Dale W. Rice, Eskimo Whaling in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Fish and 1826, Royal Geographic Society (London, 1826). Wildlife Service (Seattle, 1964). 56. See for examply James Burney, Chronological History of Northeast- 95. Don Foote Papers, Box 53; and Stefansson, My Life, 60-61. ern Voyages of Discovery (London, 1819); and the summary pro- 96. Bodfish, 195-196. vided in Leffingwell, The Canning River Region: 69-89; J.E. Cas- 97. Commerical prices according to figures quoted in Don Foote Papers, well, Exploration in the Far North (Norman: Univ. Of Oklahoma Box 53. Press, 1956; and John Richardson, Arctic Searching Expeditions, 2 98. Norman Chnace, the Eskimo of Norhtern Alaska: Case Studies in vol s. (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longman, 195 1). Cultural Anthropology (N.Y.: Holt, Reinhart, Winston, 1966) 19. 57. Beechey, 307-3 10; and Bancroft, 252-53. 99. Don Foote Papers, Box 100. Bodfish, 21. 58. Alex Ricciardelli, The Causes Which Have Led to the Abandonment 10 1. Ibid., 170,270. of the Arctic Coast of Alaska (MA., Univ. of Penna., Phil., 1953) 102. Ibid., 186. 72-85. 103. Chance, 14. 59. Ibid., 1953 field expedition by J.L. Giddings and Ricciardelli. 104. Stefansson, My Life, 85-86. 61. See Arctic Bibliography, Arctic Institute of North America, 1975, 105. lbid.,45. See for example the summary in Spencer, 255-357. subheadings "British Explorations." 106. Chance, 59. 62. Data compiled from material in the Don Foote Papers, Univ. of 107. See Margarite Lantis, "The Religion of the Eskimos," in V. Ferm Alaska Archives, College, Alaska, 1977. ed., Forgotten Religions (N.Y., 1950) 309-340; and Spencer, loc 63. John Simpson, Surgeon, RN, Observations upon the Western Es- cit. quimaux with Native Map, British Blue Books, 1854-55, Vol. 35 108. Stefansson My Life, 88. 917-942; and Arctic Searching Expeditions, Vol. 3 (London, 1855). 109. E.A. Richards, Arctic Mood (Caldwell: Caxton Printers,1949) 64. IBid., 236-265. 143-44. 65. Sherard Osborn, Comdr., RN, ed., The Discovery of the Northwest 110. Brower, Autobiographical Notes as found in Don Foote Papers. Passage by HMS 'Investigator', Capt. R. M'Clure, 1850-1854 (Rut- 111. Anna N. Benjamin, "The Innupiat of Alaska, "Outlook Vol. 58 land: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., 1969) (1850). (1898)860. 66. L.H. Neatby,ed., Frozen Ships: The Arctic Diary of Johann 112. See H.D. Anderson and W.C. Eells, Alaskan Natives (Stanford: Miertsching, 1850-1854 (Toronto: Macmillan, 1967) 43. Stanford Univ. Press, 1935) 209; and Chance, 15-16. 67. Ibid.,44. 113. From report of Fred Sinclair, Village of Shungnak, 1915-16, Social 68. Ibid., 45. Economic Bureau, NA, file No. 806, drawer 148. 69. Ibid., 46; Because many of the trade goods found on the coast were 114. Stefansson, My Life,91. of Russian manufacture of origin it was assumed that Russian traders 115. Ibid., 68. on the Colville passed them down river; a highly unlikely possibility. 116. Ibid., 65, 85. This message and its canvas bag were subsequently recovered from 117. Ibid., 18, 72, 12 1. an Eskimo near Pt. Barrow by Capt. Maguire in 1852, as cited in 118. Ibid., 379, 385. M'Clure, Northwest Passage, Appendix,393. 119'. Ejnar Mikkelson, Conquering the Arctic Ice (London: William 70. See J.E. Bodfish, Chasing the Bowhead (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Heinemann, 1909) 101-102. Press, 1936); H.H. Clark, The Whale Fishery, Its History and Pre- 120. Ibid., 98. sent Condition, Fishing and Fishing Industires of the U.S., See. 5 121. Ibid., 123,326. ENDNOTES 45 122. Ibid., 323. 131. Diary of F.G.K. Klerekoper, "First Dogsled Trip to Demarcation 123. Ibid., 124, 294. Point and Return, April 7, 1937, ms, Barrow, Alaska, 1977. 124. Ibid., 332. 132. Unless otherwise indicated material cited has been extracted from the 125. Leffingwell, 67. Klerekoper Diary. 126, Ibid., 72 133. See Philip S. Smith and J.B. Merti Jr., Geology and Mineral Re- 127. Ibid.,72 sources of Northwestern Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bull. No. 128. See Carl J. Loman, Fifty Years in Alaska, Foreward by Richare E. 815 (1930); Robert M. Chapman and Edward G. Sable, Exploration Byrd (N.Y.: McKay, 1954); and C. L . Andrews ed., "A Brief of Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 and Adjacent Areas, Northern History of Reindeer Work in Alaska," Eskimo Vol. 8 No. 2 (April, Alaska, 1944-1953 Ibid., (1960). 1941) 1-8;-"Reindeer History," Ibid.,Vol. 9 No. 3 (July, 1942) 135. See for example George W. Rogers and R.A. Cooley, Alaska's 2-4; and --The Reindeer Industry in Alaska," Ibid.,Vol. 10 Polulation and Economy, 2 Vols., Department of Economic De- No. I (January, 1943) 1-4. velopment and Planning, State of Alaska, Juneau, 1962; Marvin R. 129. See Gubser as previously cited, passim; and Robert Raush, "Notes Marsten, Men of the Tundra: Eskimos at War (N.Y. October House on the Nunamiut Eskimos and Mammals of the Anaktuvuk Pass 1969) and Norman Chance, "Investigations of the Adjustment of the Region, Brooks Range, Alaska," Arctic Vol.4 No. 3 (1951) 147- Eskimos atBarterIsland, Alaska, torapid Cultural Changes," Arctic 195. Vol. 13 No. 3 (1960) 205. 130. Knud Rasmussen, Across Arctic America: Narrative of the Fifth Thule Expedition (N.Y.: G. P. Putnum and Sons, 1927. Subsistence and Subsistence Sites DEFINITION This precarious existence was further indicated a year later As in the case of historic sites, those places or regions in a report compiled by the Arctic Slope Regional Corpora- tion and the North Slope Borough which indicated a which derive their significance from "subsistence" use are "strong inclination to traditional diet which will require a the subject of differing assumptions and priorities. continuing level of subsistence hunting.' 12 On one side of the issue are those people who are most In 1974 the Department of Interior released a Final En- interested in wilderness areas for their recreational and sport vironmental Impact Statement concerning the proposed hunting and fishing qualities. Much of Alaska's wilderness Gates of the Arctic National Park.' In the section on social areas, particularly north of the Brooks Range, are within the and economic considerations it was noted that: public domain or have been, reserved according to certain use priorities which do not necessarily preclude such The social and cultural patterns of these [Indian and 'sport" use. Many advocates feel, therefore, that they are Eskimo] groups of Native Peoples are intimately tied to their relationship to the land and its resources. The entitled to enjoy the resources of these areas, within the small remote interior villages participate only mini- established guidelines of state and federal land management mally in the cash economy of northern Alas- practices. These people, representing the white resident ka.... Anaktuvuk Pass continues important social and majority in Alaska, derive their livelihood almost entirely cultural ties with the arctic coastal communities.' from a wage-labor, market economy based primarily upon a Furthermore, the statement accepted the principle that, cycle of year-round, employment. Their access to wilder- "traditional subsistence use of the park will be allowed to ness areas is restricted, by the nature of this employment continue. This is recognized as a dynamic cultural activity cycle, to several weeks during the summer months, to an not directly related to economics.' "And that occasional weekend or to the regular fall hunting seasons. in the event conflicts occur among uses or in cases On the other side of this question are the Alaska where a resource cannot support all demands for its Natives-Indians, Aleuts and Eskimos-who possess his- use, subsistence needs will be given priority over torical and traditional (and now in some regions legal) ties other demands on natural resources, such as demands to the land, takes, rivers and coastal areas of Alaska. The imposed by sport hunting pressure ... 6 Natives have been dependent for at least 10,000 years on Similar language may be found in other park pro- these areas for the great majority of their subsistence, liveli- posals for the North Slope and Brooks Range with regard to hood and well-being; and have assumed a protective view of subsistence. In its analysis of the proposed Noatak National these natural resources. They would restrict or prohibit the Arctic Refuge, the government planning group recognized introduction or expansion of sport-interest activities within that: these areas, or would provide for more liberal regulations and management of wilderness regions supportive of their Most people of the area are economically, socially subsistence requirements. and culturally oriented to the subsistence utilization of Clearly "traditional" uses of land and water have the resources of the land and water which provided a livelihood for their ancestors. Historically, the Inup- changed in the process of acculturation. In 1972 a prelimi- iat of the Noatak and Kobuk River basins have fol- nary report on Native subsistence values noted that: lowed a subsistence pattern focused on caribou hunting and to a lesser extent, on fishing.' Natives today ... combine subsistence with jobs. @ self-employment benefits, social security, Na- The planning group has also considered the proposal for a tional Guard pay, unemployment benefits, welfare Porcupine National Forest and in its statement said flatly: and anti-poverty programs to survive ... if one of the "Subsistence income is the economic mainstay of the Na- props to this existence is weakened-such as a poor tive population." Of the approximately 1000 inhabitants of harvest, lessening of seasonal job opportunities, a the region, not more than sixty are permanently employed.' drop in fur/hide prices-then he [or she] slips to a lower level of living unless cushioned by the very In reaching a settlement on the Alaska Native land claims poor alternative of increased welfare benefits. I in 1971, Congress recognized that white and Native Alaska 0 0- : . . @: 01' . . % SRO 0 4 t7 Is M 11w, 1 4 0 %SAN 17 0 4 5 0 [email protected]@ L I KIL 1% 50 0 50 k T-T- 4 scale in miles 6 7 6 5 4 LI a R ID IM bu .a 07 a A National Wild and Scenic Rivers Systems Proposed Park Boundary 01% Area of Ecological Concern Source: Final Environmental Statement Proposed Gates ofthe Arctic National Park, 1974. Fig. 17-Proposed Gates of the Arctic National Park. 48 SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSISTENCE SITES differed significantly in how each viewed their source of the taking of fish and game for use and consumption livelihood, and on the basis of its own investigations admit- by the person taking the fish or game and his family or ted that: household or for the consumption of his domestic Given the relationship between living in a Native vil- animals; however, by-products of fish and game may lage and the maintenance of subsistence pursuits, it is be used in the construction of Native handicrafts (but not unexpected that residents of small and medium this precludes the sale or barter of fish and game re- villages most frequently name hunting and fishing as sources) .12 the aspect of village life which they like best. And no Since precontact, the traditional Eskimo subsistence other problem facing Natives elicited such extensive hunting and fishing patterns have been faithfully main- replies as those dealing with the future of subsistence tained; not merely out of sentiment for the "old ways," but activity.9 from continuing subsistence needs. It is important to recog- Finally, despite the alterations which have occur-red in nize that it is not the necessity to hunt which has changed, Eskimo subsistence patterns and the dependence of some of but rather the means employed in achieving the harvest of the villages and towns on these changes for increasing pro- sea and land animals that so clearly separates the modem portions of their livelihood, it is mainly in the areas which Eskimo hunter from his ancestors. Furthermore it was this have experienced the greatest impact and where the family very alteration of the technological and material founda- unit or unique Eskimo "identity" has been disrupted, that tions of Eskimo culture, both Tareumiut and Nunamiut, traditional methods and cultural values are being eroded." which created first the need and then the social pr Iessures for Generally in the smaller more isolated villages the tradi- a stable cash economy to pay for and to maintain Western tional lifestyle continues, with only marginal change being technology and material culture. Such items in a relatively effected by Western influences. It appears that these short period of time became "necessities" rather than "bush" villages and isolated coastal communities have "luxuries," and the result was a trade-off, a mixed blessing maintained a large degree of their cultural identity, and may at best. As one authority has noted: continue to do so for a long time to come. For as one study The technological changes that have occurred over the has observed: past twenty years have resolved some of the basic Popular opinion now holds that these villages are in economic insecurities of the Eskimos. At the same the process of disappearing. Recently available popu- time, they have changed the whole structure of lation data, however, suggests that contrary to this community social life .13 widely held notion, Alaska Native villages are neither Unlike the chronological divisions which were used in disappearing nor depopulating. In fact the reverse may be true .... [this] suggests that villages will not the previous section to discuss the history and some of the only remain for the indefinite future-but they will historic sites of the North Slope and Beaufort Sea region, probably increase in size as well. I I @ traditional or established subsistence practices, and sites Therefore, in light of the attitude the federal govem- specifically or generally related to them, must be considered ment has taken as its minimum position on the issue of within the broader context of Eskimo culture as a whole. subsistence guarantees in the proposed national parks, We have already established that the generic northern forests and refuges; the evidence which shows that most Eskimo culture was distinguished by two major societies, Natives (especially Indians and Eskimos) remain dependent the Tareumiut and Nunamiut, and these in turn were upon traditional subsistence hunting and food procurement divided into smaller groups which historically occupied for their well-being; and the studies which have indicated specific geographic areas of the interior and coastal regions. that Native villages will likely remain as a permanent fea- The Tareumiut and Nunamiut Eskimo were in many ture of Alaska's socio-economic and political fabric; it is ways complementary societies which depended upon one reasonable to assume that subsistence sites, and those things another in certain ways through the exchange of basic which may affect subsistence-related activities will continue commodities necessary to the well-being of each. One soci- to be an essential aspect of Native-Eskimo culture and ety derived its subsistence from the whale and other sea well-being in the years to come. They are a reality which mammals; the other from the caribou and other land ani- cannot be ignored by federal, state, local government or mals. Therefore each year, when the kobuk or Noatak industry. people traveled to the Colville region or the Nunamiut voy- Fundamental to the issue of how subsistence practices are aged down the Colville to Nirlik for the huge trade fairs to be planned for and protected within the jurisdiction of with the Barrow people, this relationship was renewed and federal and state land management agencies is the concept strengthened in the exchange of commodities peculiar to of subsistence itself. What are traditional subsistence prac- each; and the human ecology of this vast northern expanse tices and how, if at all, have they been altered by Western was brought, once again, into a dynamic interaction. culture? In the commodity exchange and social interaction of Subsistence 'is generally considered to mean obtaining I or these two societies a "subsistence economy" was created manufacturing from natural resources the food, shelter, and which served both well, provided there were no major clothing necessary to sustain life. It is defined in Alaska shocks to the environment such as a fall in the lemming statutes as population, a change in caribou migration or an unusually THE TAREUMIUT 49 long winter that restricted spring whaling and hunting. back to the village by the crews which had participated in Indeed, subsistence economies and subsistence patterns the kill, and was formally welcomed into the community themselves are very sensitive to any change in the natural with much ceremony and appreciation. The whale was then environment disruptive to established land uses. Although butchered and divided according to tradition, so that the large numbers of sea and land animals had been taken for hunters and the rest of the village benefited from the good subsistence over thousands of years, there occurred no fortune. wanton exploitation of the resource prior to the 1870s and This ritual was repeated throughout the season and might 80s; the sea and land continued to provide everything last into June if conditions were excellent. At the official necessary for survival. termination of the season huge celebrations were held in the As we have seen, by 1900 this ancient subsistence karigi, where everyone danced and sang and ate prodigious economy had collapsed in response to a number of external amounts of food. At the end of several days of feasting and and internal influences. It was no coincidence that this thirty dancing, preparations were made for the outdoor festival, or or forty year period coincided with the influx of Western I Inalukataq. " The various crews participated in all manner culture via the whaler, the trader, the government official of games, competitions and other physical activities, includ- and the missionary. The scienti st- explorers are excluded ing the walrus-hide blanket toss in honor of the successful from this group because they, unlike the others, in their hunters. The remainder of the short summer was spent in attempt to understand the Eskimo and his culture, tended to sea and land hunting and fishing activities and in the impor- assume the Eskimo life-style for their own and to live for tant trading journeys to meet the Nunamiut and Coppermine years by Eskimo cultural standards. Eskimo to the east. As for those of the preceding groups, only an initial effort The Bar-row people also engaged in fall whaling to catch was made to understand rather than to exploit the Eskimo, the return migration of the bowhead. If conditions were during that brief period when their knowledge of the Arctic right, this might occur well into September and October to was needed for survival and their hunting expertise needed be followed with a less elaborate feast. While the crews for food. After these techniques had been mastered, how- were out the rest of the village would be at the interior ever, the Eskimo was often no longer of any concern, ex- fishing camps, on the tundra hunting caribou, or at the cept for what he could be bribed to exploit from the land ponds and lagoons shooting or snaring ducks, ptarmigan that had once supported him. For better and for worse this and geese. As winter approached and new ice began to form meeting of the two cultures marked a point of no return for along the shore, the village busied itself in cutting blocks of the northern Eskimo. ice and storing them in their ice cellars for the next sum- For thousands of years the life of the northern Eskimo mer's meat storage." revolved around the seasons as, to a diminished degree, it Although the Tareumiut took certain species of inland does today. The oldest of the two major subsistence cycles game, fowl and fauna to supplement their diet, the sea, ice, occurred along the arctic coastal areas occupied by various lagoons and barrier island habitats provided their principal Tareumiut sub-groups, from Pt. Hope, around to Pt. Bar- source of nutrition and sustenance. row and east into the Canadian archipelago. In addition to the bowhead, several other species of THE TAREUNUUT whale occurred off the Arctic coast including the beluga, or white whale, the narwhale, the killer whale, and the right For the Tareumiut, spring and fall were the most impor- whale. Of these, however, the bowhead was of much great- tant of the seasons; and spring more so than fall. The entire er subsistence value and the only one that occurred in large winter was spent in spiritual and material preparation for the numbers east of Barrow. The average annual harvest at spring whaling. Much ritual and social activity occurred in Barrow was between twenty and twenty-five whales, of a the various karigi, or ceremonial houses of the village. The precommercial whaling population of approximately 5,000. karigi were of great significance to the whaling crews and to As with all game taken for subsistence purposes, every part the entire village. By March everyone was engaged in whal- was utilized in some fashion. The meat, oil, blubber, inter- ing related work; the men cleaned or repaired equipment nal organs and even the entrails were eaten; and because and the women sewed new clothes and umiak covers, be- wood was scarce in the coastal areas, the bones were often cause tradition and taboo required that the whale could only used as house supports and frames. At approximately be taken by those who were newly clothed." By mid-April 48,000 pounds each, a harvest of twenty bowhead would ice conditions favored whaling and the bowhead was begin- yield the village over 900,000 pounds of meat, muktuk, ning its migration to the east. The men of the crews congre- bone and oil. Even one bowhead could yield as much as gated in the karigi, where they prepared themselves in four 3,200 pounds of bone and 327 barrels ofoil.16 days of rituals before going out on the sea. Next to the bowhead, the seal and the walrus were the On the evening of the fourth day the crews emerged and most important subsistence mammals. Of the four species made their way to the shore near an open lead and, after of seal which are found in the Arctic-the ringed seal, the much ceremony and singing, launched the umiaks and they bearded seal, the harbor seal, and the ribbon seal, the ringed were off to the hunt. When a whale was taken it was towed seal was preferred for its meat and the harbor seal for its 91 c ARCTIC OCEAM @o 19 ........................... BEAUFORT SE Bator island A Floxma ,0Pzf, j-, @'Z V t 4,%- L RANQF 1, J. I MOLTING AREA FOR GEESE ITY 2 PEREGAIN FALCON BREEDING 3 ONLY SIGNIFICANT BREEDING COLONY OF SNOW GEESE IN ALASKA 4SN GEESE STAGING IN FALL OW 401 ROUTE .0 MAJOR MIGRATION ;-4$L'@YEAR-ROUND HABITAT FOR NERITIC SEABIRD AND RAPTORS MARINE RANGE FOR PELAGIC BIRDS MARINE MAMMAP; r ZONJES [email protected] MARINE MAMMAL HUNTING ADJACENT TO MAJOR COMMUNITIES 0.00 "1 MAJOR ANADROMOL11 FISH STREAM MAJOR FRESHWATER SPORT FISHING LAKE LIMITED COMMERCIAL FISHERY (WHITEFISH AND CISCO) Nk Fig. 18-Fish, Waterfowl and Marine Mammals: Range and Migration. THE NUNAMIUT 51 skin. The ringed seal was an important source of food for almost always temporary, those of the Tareumiut were of a polar bear, fox and wolves and was by far the most numer- more permanent nature and consisted of both seasonal and ous. The entire animal was used: the meat was eaten, the year-round dwellings. skins were used for clothing of all kinds and for umiak Permanent Tareumiut coastal dwellings were constructed covers and the valuable oil was used for fuel, light, food of natural materials such as whalebone or ribs, driftwood and as a trade item. I I and sod. Every household had its ice cellar dug in the The walrus was important also, but only rarely seen east ground and an "ikirrak" (or rack) of driftwood stood near of Barrow and therefore not commonly utilized locally in the house, upon which was stacked sleds, urniaks or other the Beaufort Sea region. Only certain parts were considered gear. Adjacent to the dwelling were the driftwood dog posts appropriate for human consumption, but it was commonly which were sunk into the ground as far as permafrost would fed to dogs and, of course, had great value because of its permit. Other dwellings constructed along the coast, as ivory. The young calfskins were often used for making rope noted by early explorers, consisted of sod houses, hide or and that of the old bulls for umiak covers.' 8 skin-covered domes (later, canvas-covered tents) and occa- Fish taken from the Beaufort Sea included tom cod, cape- sionally, ice houses or igloos. These places were used as lin, arctic char, whitefish, and candlefish; but the great hunting, fishing, trapping or stopover shelters depending on majority of fishing was done inland in fresh water lakes, the season and the need. They might also go unused for rivers, streams and ponds, where grayling, take trout, years at a time. It is these locations and similar sites which, humpback salmon and polar cod were plentiful. Because of in part, comprise the subsistence sites of the Beaufort Sea its low fat content, fish was never thought of as more than a coast. Many of these, in addition to the historic sites of the secondary food source and supplement to the regular diet of previous sectiQn, have been identified and plotted on the the maritime Tareurniut. Even so, a large village would maps which accompany this study." take over 100,000 pounds annually by seining. 19 Besides the umiak, the dogsled was the most important Prior to the introduction of Western technology and conveyance and was indispensable during the winter and exploitive harvest philosophies, the Tareurniut utilized only early spring. Two basic sled designs were utilized; the materials from the animals they hunted and other natural Iqamun," which was a flatbed of cross pieces lashed be- materials, in the design and construction of tools, weapons, tween two thick wooden runners, and the "umapiaq," conveyances, household articles and other items, and took which was the familiar stanchion and runner design and the only what was necessary to insure subsistence needs. As one most used in northern Alaska. The dog traces were one authority has noted: made from walrus hide and the sled itself of birch or Prior to the nineteenth century Eskimo hunting was spruce .23 based upon sound conservation principles .... The total capture of killed game, the total escape of living THE NUNANHUT game and killing only to meet the needs of the im- The subsistence environment of the inland peoples was mediate group.20 considerably different from that of the coastal peoples; and The weapons and materials used in sea mammal hunting these differences meant that there existed certain cultural included the wooden harpoon, spear and lance (which had a contrasts between the two societies. Heretofore in this point of bone, flint, ivory or slate attached to it by seal or study, the term Nunamiut has been used in a manner which walrus thongs) and the long-bladed knife. The umiak was denotes a rigid division between coastal and interior constructed of a driftwood frame, dovetailed and lashed peoples. There has been considerable discussion in recent together with sealskin ropes or strips of baleen, and was years regarding this term, its precise meaning and just how large enough for a crew of six to ten men and two to three substantially these Eskimo societies differed culturally. An- metric tons of cargo. It was covered with six to eight walrus thropologists have disagreed on the rigidity of the distinc.- and eight to ten bearded sealskins which had to be replaced tions between the two, and it has been shown that there is every season or two. Inflated bladders of sealskin were disagreement among the Eskimos themselves .24 utilized as floats to keep whales or other mammals afloat The question may seem 'merely academic today because while being towed back to the village. Hundreds of feet of the Nunamiut have, except for a small group of families at seal, walrus and moosehide/caribou rope were required, Anaktuvuk Pass, ceased to exist. Nevertheless there appar- and perhaps ten to twenty caribou hides were needed for ently were considerable variations from one region to tent coverings and for bedding. Seal oil or blubber was used another, among groups in both societies, and recently for light, fuel and heat, and various chisels and axes were Nunamiut groups have been broken down into eastern and also used .21 western and even riverine and mountain sub-groups. Ar- By comparison, Tareumiut house and settlement patterns chaeological remains, house types and other artifacts were more established and elaborate than those of the suggest that differences occurred, and there is no question Nunamiut, largely because of the differences in subsistence that in the Eskimo world view this dichotomy existed. As practices and materials. While Nunamiut settlements were one chief declared: Atka". tat 0 0 R A [email protected] 0-- P.. Walrus Distribution Low Density Ring Seat Distribution Lo. Density ...... CQ High Density` Bearded Seat Distribution Low Density ...... roe: State of laska,Deparonelit High Density So A 4 A U 0 4-t Nor.. Okwal 10 It R A NIt if A.01 ... k Walrus Distribution, L. Density ............. Higir Dansity .... Walrus Spring Migration (reversed in t he fail) ... Ring Seal Distribution Ring Seat Spring Migration (reversed in the f.w. Bearded Seal Distribution ...... ...... Bearded Seal Spring Migration (reversed in IM fail). C:> Seasonal Sea Ice Edge Zone ... ....... S- c l.k. Dp#,- t of [email protected] -u Garr. 1973. Alw*Ws ff. erw biM. Fig. 19-Winter and Summer Distribution of Walrus and Seal. THE NLTNAMIUT 53 ... we are a different people as we are mixed Indian seemed to migrate from its winter grounds near the head- and Eskimo blood. The coast people concentrated to- waters of the Koyukuk, Chandelar and Kobuk Rivers north ward where seafood was plentiful. We scattered to to the plain, and summered in the Colville region. Another find the game and caribou and bears that roamed about the hills and tundra. Our fishing places could herd apparently could be found in the Utukok and Kokolik not support more than a few families, as we had not River drainage. A third roamed far to the east along the the material to make proper nets. Each family had its Porcupine and lower Chandalar rivers. It wintered there and own lakes and creeks. We only came together at times moved into the Romanzof Mountains during the spring and when we wished to trade or dance or to make war. We summer, but in aboriginal times not much hunting was done fought the Eskimo and the Indian, we also fought 25 among ourselves.... very far east of the Colville."' Nunarniut subsisted primarily on caribou meat and Like the Tareumiut of the coast, the life of the Nunamiut thousands of caribou were harvested in a season that might revolved around the seasons, but it was a life sensitive to an last from March through October, although caribou were ecology different from that of the arctic coast biota. Spring taken at any time during the year. A distinction was made usually arrived in March with high winds and often heavy between the caribou of each season according to their meat snowfalls, but the interior slowly began to thaw in response and hide value. to the long hours of daylight. With the beginning of April Before the introduction of the rifle, caribou were taken many animals had emerged from their winter hibernation, generally in one of two ways; corralled and killed or herded the caribou had begun their migration toward the Arctic into the water and killed. In the corral the animal was in- Plain, and the ice on the rivers had begun to weaken until by geniously snared and then killed with bow and arrow. A early May the rivers ran free to the coast .26 similar technique was used in the water, only in this case This was the most important time of the year for the from a kayak. Nunamiut, because the caribou was the keystone of reli- When the arrows had been exhausted and the lances all gious, economic and social activity in the northern interior; thrown, any surviving animals were allowed to escape and and the hunt brought hundreds of people together in this any of the wounded were killed. On a good day the kill communal enterprise. In many ways the "cult" of the could exceed 200 to 300 animals for one hunting party. caribou resembled that of the whale in its ceremony and As on the coast, all animals hunted for subsistence were ritualism and it brought the semi-nomadic and scattered accorded a reverence which demanded that they be properly inhabitants of the interior together in a social, economic and welcomed and thanked for allowing themselves to be killed. religious interaction. As on the coast, activity centered in When this had been done the women began the butchering the karigi and prestige was accorded to the "umealit," or and cleaning of hides and every part of the carcass was hunting leader, who directed the winter preparations for the utilized in some way. Before steel knives, slate and then hunt .27 flint single-edged knives were used and scrapers of similar A karigi was erected at the site chosen for the hunting material were employed to clean the hides. camp and the prescribed four-day rituals were observed, The meat was butchered and distributed and then hung to presided over by the shaman or shamans of the various dry. The bones were cracked and the marrow extracted, the hunting groups. However no sewing or cutting of meat with contents of the stomach were removed (assorted flora) and a knife was allowed during this period. At the end of four eaten, and even fetuses were boiled and eaten. Sewing days the hunting party left the karigi and set out in recon- needles were made from bone and antler; fish nets from naissance of the migrating herds. The next three to four sinew; rope from summer hides unfit for anything else; months would determine the well-being of the Nunamiut; punches and awls from antler; water bags from stomachs; historically few societies have been so dependent upon one and clothing of all kinds, tent and house covers, and kayak resource for their survival. covers were made from the hides. Scraps and other unusa- With the change of season the Nunamiut knew that the ble parts went to the dogs." If the hunt was successful the caribou moved in huge herds through the Brooks Range Nunarniut could be sure of having enough to make it passes toward the Arctic Plain for calving. However they through the long winter months. But as one Nunamiut by apparently had little conception of why this occurred and the name of Maptiraq remembered, "Times were often dif- could never be sure which route would be taken, because ficult. If the caribou came to an end, life came to an end these could vary each season. For at least 1,000 years there too 1 1.30 had been two and possibly three separate herds occupying Although of the greatest importance to the subsistence the Brooks Range and North Slope region; and they could needs of the Nunamiut, the caribou was not the only animal be found at any time of the year from the Noatak to the hunted or depended upon. Like the Eskimo of the coast, Mackenzie River. In precontact times the number of there was a secondary source of sustenance which supplied caribou inhabiting these northern regions may have num- a welcome addition to the Nunamiut diet. Moose could be bered as many as one million animals. Most of the hunting found in the Colville and Sagavanirktok drainages; arctic by the Nunarniut was done in the central Brooks Range and fox were common and numerous on the plain, the sea ice the Anaktuvuk, Killik and John River valleys. This herd and in the dunes and foothills; the grizzly bear was found to T-7 00 A- 44 t o.* K AK " KO o 10 ARCTIC HERD MIGRATORY ROUTES PORCUPINE HERD SUMMER RANGE z:-- 3 SUMMER RANGE r_::':3 WNTER RANGE amam 1101,RING SPRING FALL WINTER RANGE SUMMER MIGRATION LY 8 FALL ONLY SUMMER MIGRATION to CALVIkO AREA Source: University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center, Alaska Regional Profiles: Arctic Region, Juneau, Alaska, April 1915 Fig. 20-Caribou Migration Patterns. SUBSISTENCE METASTASIS 55 the east in larger numbers around the Canning River as Table 5. were the musk oxen prior to the 1880s. Other ungulates, Suggested Coastal carnivores and rodents were common throughout the region Eskimo Harvest, 1850 such as mountain sheep, polar bear, wolf, coyote, wol- Caribou 1,719 verine, lynx, marten, mink, otter, weasel, porcupine, mar- Grizzly Bear 16 mot, ground squirrel, lemming, vole and shrew. Fish were Mountain Sheep plentiful in the varieties already noted and there were at Marmot 1,050 least 170 species of birds common to the coast, the islands Squirrel 51,250 and the interior. A normal summer population would in- Varying Hare x clude 800-1,000 whistling swan, 15,000 Canada geese, Bowhead Whale 11 35,000 black brant, 50,000 white fronted geese, 1,000 White Whale 147 snow geese and tens of thousands of different varieties of Walrus 69 ducks.31 Polar Bear 43 We can only speculate what the seasonal harvest of these Bearded Seal 623 animals, fish and fowl, amounted to during the 1800s. Harbour Seal 249 However, the following figures might be considered rep- Ringed Seal 4,469 resentative of interior Eskimo subsistence needs prior to Ducks 4,430 Western contact. Murres 3,909 Table 4. Ptarmigan 2,920 Suggested Interior Eskimo Murre Eggs 13,120 Subsistence Harvest, 1850 Whitefish Caribou 9,527 and Grayling 72,400 lbs. Grizzly Bear 74 Salmon and Trout 45,050 lbs. Mountain Sheep 224 Polar Cod 13,086 lbs. Marmot 2,900 Willow Leaves x Squirrel 5,250 Berries 7,720 lbs. Varying Hare 1,000 Sourdock x35 Bearded Seal 397 Harbour Seal 390 A four year subsistence survey of the Arctic Slope Native Ringed Seal 356 region conducted between 1969-1973 revealed that present Ducks 4,273 day subsistence needs still remain high along the coast and Ptarmigan 9,253 much higher in the one remaining Nunarniut village of Whitefish Anaktuvuk Pass. The figures for four villages are of par- and Grayling 156,000 lbs. ticular relevance to this study: Anaktuvuk Pass, Pt. Hope, Salmon and Trout 236,150 lbs. Pt. Barrow, and Kaktovik. Willow Leaves 4,522 lbs. These figures may then be broken down further to indi- Berries 25,174 lbs. cate specific animal totals for the Nunamiut and for the Sourdock 5,315 lbs. 32 Tareumiut from Pt. Barrow east to Kaktovik in the Beaufort Sea: In addition to these totals as much as 70,000-90,000 This table suggests the possible mid-nineteenth century pounds of berries and other plant products were harvested as subsistence harvest for the Naupaktomiut and Noatagmiut well. In terms of human consumption these figures indicate based upon census returns, seasonal caloric intake and cur- annual per capita subsistence requirements to be: Anak- rent population figures, including dogs." In terms of the tuvuk Pass, 1,299 pounds; Pt. Barrow, 710 pounds; Pt. dependence on caribou alone, a 1948 study estimated the Hope, 1,616 pounds and Kaktovik, 816 pounds. The higher northern interior population in the 1850s at 3,000 and the figure at Anaktuvuk Pass reveals the heavier dependence on average household at seven persons. Using an average har- subsistence resources than is the case at the coastal villages, vest figure of sixty-four caribou per household per year, a due to the greater degree of Western cultural impact and total harvest of 27,429 animals is suggested as the possible cash economy. Pt. Hope, although it experienced a major annual take during this period of nearly total dependence on mid-nineteenth century cultural impact, is not now the site subsistence hunting. 34 of any significant white settlement, research or military Along the coast it was much the same, but with a greater activities. dependence upon sea mammals. The suggested figures for SUBSISTENCE METASTASIS the Tigeragmiut (Pt. Hope) are indicative of coastal subsis- tence patterns in the Arctic at the time of major Western In rhetoric "metastasis" denotes a radical transition from contact. one point to another; this is literally the process which the 56 SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSISTENCE SITES Table 6. Nunamiut Harvest totals: Mammals, Fish, Fowl Pop. Mammals Fish Fowl Total Anaktuvuk Pass 97 156,555 3,950 540 161,045 Point Hope 369 537,600 40,000 19,300 596,900 Point Barrow 1,904 1,284,550 61,550 7,600 1,353,700 Kaktovik 108 91,500 15,500 2,300 109,300 (pounds in dressed weights) Table 7. Harvest Inventory by Species Taken Animal Anaktuvuk Barrow Kaktovik Brown Bear/Grizzly Bear 5 2 2 Polar Bear X 6 5 Caribou 1,000 3,500 100 Fox, Arctic 15 2,000 100 Fox, Red too 60 15 Hare, Arctic 30 X X Hare, Snow 10 X x Marmot x Moose 5 6 5 Porcupine 15 x 5 Sheep, Dall 200 X 30 Squirrel 1,000 250 Weasel X to 12 Wolverine 15 15 5 Wolf 75 30 10 Seal, Bearded x 150 30 Seal, Hair x 1,000 75 Walrus X 33 1 Whale, Beluga x 5 x Whale, Bowhead X 12 1 Auk, Puffin X 50 Murre Ducks X 5,000 1,100 Ptarmigan 500 1,000 750 Harvest Eggs x X few Geese 10 400 100 Arctic Char 100 100 2,500 Ling Cod 30 100 x Tom Cod X 500 x Grayling 1,000 2,500 x Herring 5,000 10,000 X Coho, Silver X 200 X Humpy, Pink X 200 X King, Chinook X 200 X Smelt x X X Trout Soo 50 1,000 Whitefish, large X 8,000 X Whitefish, small 500 8,000 2,50036 FIREARMS 57 Eskimos of northern Alaska experienced in their traditional Deer were plentiful coming in close to the coast. Most subsistence practices and culture during the late 1800s and any time I could leave the house in the morning and for a number of years into the twentieth century. shoot a deer or two and be back before dark .39 We have already mentioned or discussed some of the But seven years later he observed that there had "not been ways in which commerical whaling, technology and fur many caribou since 1897-98, although the winter of '98 trapping; traders, government officials, explorers and scien- Eskimos brought in 1,200 caribou and 3Q,000 lbs. of tists; the military and the missionary affected the cultural fish".10 foundations of Tareumiut and Nunamiut culture. We have suggested that alcohol and disease virtually depopulated the FIREARMS North Slope and Mackenzie Delta in only a few years and, Ironically the essential tool in the destruction of tradi- furthermore, the Eskimo conceptions of community, fam- tional subsistence practices was apparently introduced by ily, and'personal relationships, morals and values were ir- accident by the British in 1828 at Barter Island, when a revocably compromised or destroyed. musket was inadvertently left behind by the Franklin Changes of such magnitude were bound to have equally party." A similar musket was seen and examined by Pullen severe effects on traditional subsistence practices and, of and Hooper in 1849 which was stamped "Barnet. 1843", course, all of these influences are merely parts of the larger identifying it as being of Hudson's Bay Company issue .42 phenomenon of acculturation. The two most decisive influ- Because the Russians expressly forbade the sale or trade of ences occur-red in technology and in economics, with the guns to Natives, and apparently enforced it; Eskimos, in introduction of firearms and a cash/commodity exchange particular, obtained their firearms from British posts on the system. The rifle, shotgun, pistol and harpoon gun enabled Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers. Some of these had reached Eskimo hunters to kill easily, at great distances and in huge Nuwak by the 1840s.11 numbers. The incentive for such mass slaughter were the However no significant quantities were introduced into cash and trade goods offered by whalers and traders in the northern country until the 1850s or later, and these guns exchange for the products of Eskimo labor. An intelligent were obtained through trade from Fort McPherson, and adaptive stone age culture was virtually catapulted Lapierre House, Fort Yukon, and possibly the Russian technologically and materially several thousand years ahead posts at St. Michael and Nulato. During the summer of in time in one whirlwind decade. 1848 Alexander Murray, factor at the Hudson's Bay Post at By the 1880s and 90s Eskimo and white hunting pressure Fort Yukon, noted that "he could dispose of any quantity of on caribou and other animals rose to unsupportable levels. guns if he could be supplied" .44 That they began to reach This external influence combined with a natural cycle the Beaufort Sea coast in the early 1850s is substantiated by which had apparently begun in the 1850s, when the western Collinson. In 1854 he encountered a group of forty-one arctic herd began to decline drastically in health and num- Eskimo armed with three muskets dated 1850; and later that bers, and made it impossible for the Nunamiut and other summer he encountered the same group, which had some- interior groups to exist anywhere except on the coast. Ex- how obtained eleven more. Indications were that they had plorations were made to the east in the Sheenjek, White, come from the Fort Yukon post to Camden Bay as the result Kongakut annd Hulahula River valleys, where large num- of a trading venture .41 bers of caribou were found. This discovery induced many to The Hudson's Bay Company paid one musket for twenty move east from the central Brooks Range and Colville beaver pelts or their equivalent, while the Russian- River region, while others settled at Pt. Hope and at Bar- American Company's price varied between ten and twenty. row. Those who migrated to the east to Barrow, Kaktovic However Russian guns were of modern percussion design, and Herschel Island met many families and individuals who while the British were of the outdated flintlock pattern .46 had been carried north by the whalers to work as hunters Breech-loading rifles came into general use along the arctic and feminine "companions". In this way not only was the coast in the 1880s and a little later in the interior, a favorite interior evacuated, but also many coastal inhabitants were being the standard military issue .45-70 Springfield. From dislocated and moved about from one village to another .37 then on Eskimos were able to obtain quality firearms of As Charles Brower noted in 1894: .44-40, .30-30 and .25-20 caliber. After the Second World Almost every Eskimo from Pt. Hope was here work- War these older models were replaced by smaller caliber ing for [John WjKelly or us. We had only a few. high velocity rifles and small gage shotguns. At subsistence Most of our men were at Pt. Barrow from the villages and habitation sites of the historic period many of these near Wainwright and Icy Cape." older cartridges may be found, and provide one way of determining the age and use of a specific location .47 Brower also reveals the effects of the extreme hunting Along the coast the introduction of firearms and the gen- pressure on caribou. Although his comments are of condi- eral influence of the whalers completely altered traditional tions at Pt. Barrow, much the same existed further east, whaling methods. Soon the old harpoon and lance were particularly along the coast. In the spring of 1892 he replaced by the darting gun, shoulder gun and bomb lance, remembered that while in many cases the umiak was discarded altogether. 58 SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSISTENCE SITES Eventually gasoline and the outboard motor provided the term changes resulting from an exploitative cash economy hunter a far greater range and mobility, but it also tied him and commodity exchange practices. For example, whaling to a dependence on gas and oil, motors, repairs, tools and captains often required that their crews be supplied with the money required to support them; one more step away large amounts of winter clothing. One such captain pro- from self-sufficiency. cured 500 pairs of caribou boots, reindeer coats, fawnskin and squirrel shirts for his crew for two summers and one SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEGRADATION winter, in exchange for trade goods valued at between fifty These technological changes were exacerbated by some cents and two dollars." misguided missionary influences and outright commercial Perhaps the clearest picture of the impact that the de- exploitation, and soon the ritual and community signifi- velopment of the commercial whaling industry at Herschel cance of the hunt had largely disappeared. The karigi were Island had on northern Eskimo society has been provided by condemned as evil and torn down for firewood as traditional Vilhjalmur Stefansson. By 1892 most of the Barrow people subsistence practices lost much of their religious meaning and others along the coast had gone to Herschel for the and social function. Cold frame houses replaced the warm, winter to hunt for the whalers, who were perhaps "as efficient, but squalid looking sod structures of the past. In hardy, brave, lecherous and murderous a crowd of toughs as 1928 Charles Brower commented of Barrow people: ever walked the earth or sailed the seven seas," and They seem as if they had forgotten how to whale. Herschel Island, Whales were plentiful close along the ice. Many were the world's last jumping-off place where no law struck and bombed, but only two small ones had been existed and no writs ran, a paradise of those who taken up to the 14th of May." reject all restraint upon appetite and all responsibility Furthermore he observed that the Barrow Eskimos were for conduct .55 digging up artifacts to sell to the whalers, even "skeletons Within such an environment and in the company of such from oil lakes", and that most of the old graves and remains men as these, the northern Eskimos became caught-up in a on Dead Man's Island had been exhumed and their contents bewildering progression of changes and influences. As sold or traded to the whalers .49 Stefansson observed: Liquor had become such a problem by 1892 that Brower recalled that This had a sudden effect on the fortunes of the Es- we did not go much to the village these days, kimo. Before that time they had been in the habit of everyone was making hootch; all were getting poorer, making summer trading voyages up to Ft. McPherson there was no one that seemed to want to acquire any to buy a few small things, but now, when this large wealth as had been the CUStorn.50 whaling fleet came, all their conditions of life were changed.... All of the articles which they had been Early explorers had generally praised the kindness, intelli- used to buying [from the Hudson's Bay Company] gence, and appearance of the Tareumiut Eskimo, and later they could now get cheaply, or for nothing, from the whalers, and they soon learned the use of a great explorers such as Stefansson, Stuck and Rasmussen con- many other articles, the very names and appearance of firmed these traits of the interior people as well. In 1893 which were unknown to them before-articles which Robert Porter observed: even the Hudson's Bay Company factor at McPher- son had been compelled to do without. The ships too Generally I find that those natives who have been brought an abundance of provisions. At first the Es- brought into contact with whaling ships and the class kimo would have nothing to do with any of these, but of uneducated white residents at the stations are the in the course of a few years they learned the use of worst to have dealings with. On the whole, the people flour, molasses, sugar, etc, which became first are hospitable and good-hearted and are, in the situa- luxuries and then necessities. tion that nature has placed them, on a par with any uncivilized race.5 .1 As to the impact on traditional subsistence practices Thus, when Captain C.L. Hooper cruised northern waters Stefansson noted: in the Convin in 1881 and observed the people of Pt. It was important for the whaling ships to get fresh Hope-long a stopover for whalers and traders, he noted: caribou to keep the crews from getting scurvy and The natives came on board in large numbers during they employed practically the whole population in the our stay at Pt. Hope. They are lazy, filthy, worthless, pursuit of caribou, fish and ptarmigan. Such things as and dishonest and require constant watching .52 flour, hard bread, sugar, canned meats and vegeta- bles, butter, etc., they gave with a free hand to the However, Captain Bodfish condemned white excesses and Eskimo urging them to save meat. The Eskimo, of concluded harshly that "natives never stole until the white course, preferred meat as an article of diet, and now man taught them to.1153 they were further impressed with the fact that the In addition to the direct influence whalers had upon the white men seemed to consider meat of priceless value and the other food articles of little value or none. subsistence patterns of the northern Eskimos, they may also Meat, therefore, came to have a fabulous price com- be credited with the introduction of the indirect and long pared to other commodities. 5 6 FUR TRAPPING 59 As Eskimos received small amounts of money for bought ... our business increased so that the time came hunting and trapping, they could afford to buy more and when I opened up a branch station at Wainwright and more and the "little extras", which had little or no subsis- another far to the east of us at Beechey Point." tence or utilitarian value, assumed a disproportionate Soon trading posts sprang tip along the coast at Shingle prestige and social value. Such buying, of course, was Point, Herschel Island, Demarcation Point, Barter Island, encouraged by whalers, traders, store operators and others Collinson Point, Flaxman Island, Beechey Point (at the in what,amounted to a policy of "created want". In this mouth of the Itkillik) Cape Halkett, Cape Simpson, and, of manner the old trade relationship, based primarily on course, Pt. Barrow, where the headquarters of the Cape quality goods, was quickly undermined by the introduction Smyth Whaling and Trading Company was located.59 The of such things as calico flannelette, phonographs, enam- Mackenzie Delta and Ballie Island posts also became im- elled pails, opera glasses, suspenders, ladies coats and portant fur trade centers, and many Alaskan interior and scores of other items of a specialty nature." coastal Eskimos migrated to this region for jobs and mar- With the more permanent establishment of Western cul- kets. One hundred left Pt. Barrow in 1918. 60 ture along the coast, Eskimos were encouraged to discard Fox, mink, marmot and wolverine were so plentiful that items of a traditional nature for "modem" goods, often at a number of Eskimos cashed in to become what amounted the insistence of missionaries, traders, store operators and to a middle class, with incomes exceeding $8,000410,000 teachers, who soon were sitting on village councils advising annually, substantial bank accounts and even their own the conduct of village affairs. Obviously there were excep- schooners.61 However credit was also easy to come by tions to these practices. Western trade and commerce did when times were good and store managers would often much to raise the material standard of living, and consider- outfit a hunter or trapper on a yearly basis with the harvest ing the distances these cargoes traveled and the dangers serving as collateral. If the harvest was plentiful the account involved, there may have been justification for charging might be settled, but if not, indebtedness resulted and the exorbitant prices. Also many whites went north for reasons lien increased accordingly. other than greed or exploitation. Unfortunately the negative During the Fifth Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Knud cultural influences have had more persistent and long range Rasmussen observed the change that now characterized the effects than the material benefits. Northern Eskimo: FUR TRAPPING At Cape Lyon [NWT] we encountered the first Es- kimo immigrant from Alaska, who like the white The collapse of the whaling industry was followed by a trapper, were now seeking their fortune in the country period of depression and unemployment for many coastal of their "wild'" kinsmen. They were extremely hos- and interior Eskimos which lasted for two or three years. pitable, spoke fluent English and soon proved to be There was some inclination and necessity to return to tradi- throughly business like, A joint of caribou meat, such tional subsistence living, but the North Slope had been so as would have been given us freely further east, here cost $8.00. depleted of subsistence resources that few could now sur- vive outside of the larger communities. But the principle here was unquestionably right; the Then for a period of twenty to thirty years fur trapping Eskimo had now to compete with the white men, and if they were to make ends meet, it was necessary to replaced contract hunting in another phase of the boom or ask fair payment for services rendered." bust cycle becoming peculiar to Alaska's economy as a whole. Many former whalers converted their ships to float- However certain benefits of Western material culture ing trading posts and small isolated posts were maintained may have accrued to Tareumiut and Nunamiut Eskimos, it along the Beaufort Sea coast by white resident entre- brought with it pejorative consequences. Trapping for a preneurs, who traded goods and credit for furs. Once again living represented a form of subsistence in contrast to Eskimos had a source for cash and the material and subsis- traditional hunting, fishing and social practices, because it tence goods to which they had become accustomed. While required men to be out and away from the village during the the industry lasted, many Eskimos not only survived but long winter months-traditionally a special time of family prospered as well, and the period 19094939 witnessed an and village activity. An individual skill, trapping conflicted acceleration in the process of cultural and economic assimi- with the cooperative hunting practices formalized over lation. centuries in the harvest of sea mammals and caribou; and Charles Brower had anticipated the decline in whaling village, family and personal identity bluffed as family units and had begun to encourage Eskimos to trap as a means of became dispersed. maintaining and advancing their newly assumed standard of Ironically two external developments made trapping both living. There was some reluctance at first, but in 1909 he highly profitable and, within twenty years, defunct as a noted that: significant subsistence resource. The steel trap allowed Es- Finally word got around that we were a surefire mar- kimos to trap large numbers of animals at a high rate for ket. This brought Natives from all over the east and several years, along a trapline which might be 150 miles far inland. All came loaded with skins which we long. At the same time the high fashion industry was 60 SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSISTENCE SITES severely depleted by the First World War and its aftermath, kimos placed in the role of herdsmen. By the late 1930s and a large part of the European market was lost or dis- initial enthusiasm turned to disdain. These influences com- rupted. American companies quickly took over from the bined with the Depression, a revival in subsistence hunting German dye firms and bad soon perfected the dying of interest and new job opportunities presented by the war cheap imitation furs. Furs, like whales, had been ousted construction and service boom of the 1940s and 50s insured from their place of prominence by technology, and although the collapse of yet another northern enterprise based upon the market never recovered completely, it still remains an Western economic schemes and private investment inter- important subsistence source for the Eskimo. ests. REINDEER HERDING With the passing of the trapping and reindeer industries came an increased awareness by the federal government of With trapping, reindeer herding provided the economic the problems of Alaska Natives in general and northern mainstay for the northern Eskimo prior to the Second World Eskimos in particular. New federal programs were initiated War. In 1891-92 the deer was introduced into the North at Barrow, Kaktovik and other Eskimo villages in a pater- from Siberia under the auspices of the General Agent for nalistic effort to bring these culturally distinguished people Education in Alaska, Dr. Sheldon Jackson. This had been into the multifarious mainstream of Western/North Ameri- done in an attempt to provide Eskimos with an abundant can society .64 subsistence resource to replace the decimated caribou and Although a great deal of legislation has been enacted at sea mammal populations. Reindeer were distributed from both the federal and state level since 1924 when Alaska Pt. Barrow south to Metlakatla, but they were of greatest Natives were granted American citizenship, a subtle and importance in the northern regions. sometimes unrecognized cultural arrogance has made the After serving a short apprenticeship with Lap herdsmen task of finding an entry into this mainstream an elusive and imported to teach Eskimos herding techniques, Eskimos altogether tragically discouraging proposition for the major- were provided with a small herd of their own, which they ity of Natives who have tried. As a report by the federal paid back with new stock. Between 1892 and 1916 all herds government in 1969 noted: were kept separate and each owner had his own mark or A great contrast exists between the high income, brand; close management techniques kept the quickly grow- moderate standard of living and existence of reason- ing herds under control. By 1917 there were ninety-eight able opportunity of most Alaskans and the appallingly herds totaling nearly 99,000 animals tended by 1,938 her- low income and standard of living, and the virtual ab- ders and owners. sence of opportunity for most Eskimos, Indians and At this time the reindeer industry was primarily a Native Aleuts of Alaska.6' owned and operated industry with nearly 66,000 of the Furthermore at the root of this contrast is the success 99,000 deer owned by Eskimo, Aleut and Indian herdsmen. federal and state programs and public attitudes have had in They recieved $97,515.00 income from this resource in placing the northern Eskimo and other Native peoples in a 1917, prompting the Secretary of the Interior to remark: cultural netherland. This netherland is based upon concepts the one constructive thing done by the government on of "equality" which unfortunately ignore the fundamen- behalf of Alaska, in nearly half a century, was the tally disadvantageous and unequal nature of the historical importation of reindeer for the benefit of the Eskimo relationship between North American and Native culture. on the border of the Arctic Ocean." Rather than extending real possibilities for assimilation into By 1935 the original Pt. Barrow herd of 125 animals had American society, government has chosen instead to throw grown to number 30,000 animals and the total growth out the sop of welfare and social programs; and to set increase had been from 1,250 to approximately 600,000. Eskimos, Indians and Aleuts apart by preferential treatment This great expansion was only possible because the deer which only serves to exacerbate the problems of identity had no serious competition from caribou, which also loss, depression and self-degradation. depended upon tundra for nourishment, and huge expanses Despite the two most recent "boom" periods in the cycle of range within which to forage. However the very presence we have seen dominate in Alaskan [email protected] to varying of large numbers of deer tended to retard the recovery of the degrees since the late 1800s, defense development and now caribou herds until the late 1940s. By that date, due to oil development, the problems of Native subsistence within government and private exploitation, mismanagement and a cash economy have not been seriously addressed much predation, deer herds had decreased by one-third, until by less solved. The experience of Eskimos and other Natives, 1950 fewer than 25,000 remained and many of these were particularly in oil development training programs, have absorbed into wild caribou herds. been far from satisfactory or productive. These problems Several influences combined to effectively put an end to for Natives occur at a time when "the leading growth reindeer herding as a subsistence resource for northern Es- industry-oil and gas-is one of the most capital intensive kimos. Certainly the decision by the government to open and technology intensive of all commodity-producing in- the industry to white ownership marked the beginning of the dustries and employs almost no unskilled or semi-skilled decline, but there were also cultural aversions felt by Es- labor."" Moreover the same Federal study suggests that ENDNOTES 61 future employment opportunities in Alaska, requiring gradually became dependent upon imported energy, minimum qualifications, will be neutralized by "the disap- and more and more upon imported foods-even pearance of unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in declining though at present 80% of this region's gross nutrition and 95% of its protein, are still derived from local industries or trades ... resulting from automation, moderni- sources.69 zation and upgrading of work in general." It appears that Natives may be caught in the middle, or excluded al- These are the very real paradoxes which exist in northern together, and faced with a debilitating situation where cash Alaska which, perhaps sooner and to a much greater extent, and its acquisition is in direct competition with subsistence, is likely to experience the trauma of major development. It and where Natives have no choice but to choose between remains as the great challenge to the northern Eskimo one or the other. This for many Natives is no choice at all. people to place the historical character of their relationship With the passage of the Native Land Claims Settlement with Western culture in proper perspective, to reaffirm their Act in 1971, Native peoples in Alaska received belated own cultural heritage and to formulate policies of self-suffi- recognition of their aboriginal rights to certain traditional ciency, recognizing both traditional needs and the political lands and of their desire to continue subsistence practices. and economic realities of the contemporary Alaskan setting. This occurred in part because it was realized that there were many villages and people for whom assimilation was not a desirable or practicable goal. ENDNOTES However since the passage of the claims act there has been a growing concern among many village residents, who 1. In Art Patterson, Subsistence Harvests in Five Native Regions, Joint fear that protection of the land and subsistence practices will Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, Anchor- age, 1974: 2. be jeopardized by what has been termed the "Brooks 2. In Final Environmental Statement, Proposed Gates of the Arctic Na- Brothers" leadership guiding the fortunes of many Native tional Park, Alaska, Alaska Planning Group, U.S. Dept. of Interior, corporations .67 As one advocate of this position com- Oct., 1974, Washington: 288. 3. See map on following page. mented: 4. Final Environmental Statement, Gates of the Arctic, 69. 5. Mid. 5. The claims act protects the Native who wants to live 6. Ibid.: 2. in Anchorage and make bucks, but not aunts and 7. Final Environmental Statement, Proposed Noatak National Arctic uncles who want to live from the land.... When I Range, Ibid. (1974): 103. came back from the service in 1971, 1 knew nothing 8. Final Environmental Statement, Proposed Porcupine National of the claims act. Some leaders got us into this whole Forest, Ibid. (1974): 79,93. thing and now we must live with it.... The real 9. As quoted from The Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act, reason seems to me to give up being Eskimo and to 1971, Section 2 (c), 89. get some lands, [but] we are trying to find ways to 10. See Norman Chance, "The Dynamics of Change," in Chance, The Eskimo ofNorthern Alaska (N.Y.: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1966) still continue subsistence living and keep from devel- 80-99 (Kaktovik)- "Cultural Change and Integration,: An Es- oping all the land." kimo Example," American Anthropologist Vol. 66 (1960) 1028-1044 (Kaktovik); Palmer W. Roberts, "Employment of Eskimos by the Another village resident observed: Navy at Point Barrow," Proceedings, Third Alaska Science Confer- ence (1954) 4-43; James W. Van Stone, "A Successful Combination Substantial pressures now force the villages of this of Subsistence and Wage Economics on the Village level," Economic region [Chulista Corporation] to hook up to hard, Development and Cultural Change Vol. 8 (1960) 174-191 (Pt. Hope); alien imported technologies for the energy and food and Charles C. Huges, "The Patterning of Recent Cultural Change in required to survive there, and also to the cash a Siberian Eskimo Village," The Journal of Social Issues Vol. 14 economy which must be present in the village to sup- (1958) 25-35. port these technologies .... Rather than continuing the 11. See Arthur E. Hippler, "Sorne Observations on the Persistence of practice of gathering natural fuels traditional to the Native Village Populations," Institute of Social, Economic and Gov- Yu'pik culture, the Eskimo has been forced into a fuel ernment Research, Report No. A 1, Univer. of Alaska, College, 1969: 1-2. oil economy by virtue of the growing presence of 12. Sec. 16.05. 940(17) Alaska Statutes. government housing, schools and related services, In 13. Chance, The Eskimo of North Alaska, 45. effect these programs have curtailed seasonal move- 14. For this summary many sources could be cited. See for example, ment and much of the way of life which accompanied Spencer, The North Alaskan Eskimo, 332-353; M. Lands, "The it. Now in the present day, those migrations have Alaskan Whale Cult and its Affinities," American Anthropology Vol. been terminated by permanent, year-round residences 40 (1938) 438-464; H. Larsen and F.G. Rainey, lpiutak and the [and] the hunter has to strike a compromise: summer Arctic Whale Hunting Culture, Anthropological Papers, American is best to harvest natural, subsistence foods for which Museum of Natural History no. 42 (N.Y., 1948); and J. Murdoch, he must now travel further than ever before-but "The Animals known to the Eskimo of Northwestern Alaska," American Nature Vol. 32 (1898) 719-734. summer is also the best time for the seasonal employ- 15. See Brower, Fifty Years Below Zero, 45-55; J. Murdoch, "Whale ment, which is now needed by that same hunter to pay Catching at Point Barrow," Popular Science Monthly Vol. 38 (1891) for his imported fuels and foods.... 830-836; and Laurel L. Bland, The Northern Eskimos of Alaska: A Source Book, Alaska Methodist Univ., (1972). And he concluded: 16. Spencer, 340-353; and Bodfish, 95. 17. See J. Murdoch, "Seal Catching at Point Barrow," Smithsonian What has now become evident is that the coastal Es- Misc. Collections Vol. 34 (1893) 102-108; V. Stefansson, "Food of kimo who was self-sufficient in gathering foods and the Ancient and Modern Stone Age Man," Journal of American Di- fuels and who provided his own transportation- etary Association Vol. 13 no. 2 (July, 1937) 102-119; and for a gen- 62 SUBSISTENCE AND SUBSISTENCE SITES eral survey, J.A. Allen, History of North American Pinnipeds: A tic Slope", Resource Planning Team, Joint Federal-State Land Use Monograph of the Walruses, Sea Lions, Sea Bears, and Seals of Planning Commission, Anchorage, Feb., 1974. It should be noted North America, U.S. Geologic and Geographic Survey, Misc. Pub. that the totals for all these villages showed a declining trend. 12, 16+ (Wash., 1880). 37. See Burch, "The Caribou/Wild Reindeer as a Human Resource," 18. See John L. Bums, The Walrus in Alaska: Its Ecology and manage- American Antiquity Vol. 37 no. 3 (1972) 339-368. ment, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Game, 3& Brower, Autobiographical Notes, Don Foote Papers. Juneau,1965. 39. Ibid.; 418 19. John Murdoch, "Fish and Fishing at Point Barrow, Arctic, Alaska," 40. Ibid.; 517. See also Mayor Eben Hopson's Testimony Before The Trans-America Fish Cultural Assoc. 13th Annual Meeting (1884) Alaska Board of Game, March 23, 1976 for an interesting assess- 111- 115; and Norman Wilimousky, The Utilization of Fishery Re- ment based on the "one herd" concept. sources by the Arctic Alaska Eskimo, Natural History Museum, Stan- 41. Franklin, 148 ford Univ. Occasional Paper no.2 (1956). 42. W. 14. Hooper, RN, Ten Years Among the Tents of the Tuski..., 20. Don C. Foote, Changing Resource Utilization by Eskimos in North- (London; J. Murray, 1853) 237. west Arctic Alaska, 1850-1952, Paper read before Arctic and Sub- 43. John Simpson, 235. Arctic Section VII, International Congress on Anthropology and 44. Alexander Murray, Journal of the Yukon, 1847-48 (Ottawa; Gov. Ethnology, Moscow, August, 1964; and Chance, Eskimos of North- Printing Bureau, 1910) 100. ern Alaska, 35-45. 45. Collinson, 315 21. See C. Wissler, "Harpoons and darts in the Stefansson Collection," 46. Murray, 48; W.H. Hooper, 272; and Berthold Seeman, Narrative Anthropology Papers of the American Museum of Natural History of the Voyage of HMS Herald During the Years 1845-51 Under Vol. 14 no. 2 (1919) np; Murdoch, 335-344; and Beechey, Vol. 1 Command of Captain Henry Kellett... (London: Reeve and Co., 398, 404-405. 1853)143. 22. See Spencer, 43-61; and Edwin S. Hall Jr., "A Preliminary Analysis 47. See Final Rpt. of the Archaeological Survey and Explorations of House Types at Tukuto Lake, Northern Alaska," in Hall ed., Along the Alaska Pipeline Service Co. Pipeline, College, 1971, Contributions to Anthropology ... as previously cited, 98-134. particularly the sites uncovered at Prudhoe Bay. 23. See Gubser, 289-291; Spencer, 465-469; Murdoch, 205-215; and 48. Brower, 845. Edward Nelson, "The Eskimo About the Bering Strait," l8th Annual 49. Ibid., 865. Rpt. ofthe Bureau ofAmerican Ethnology (GPO, 1899). 50. Ibid., 418. 24. See the discussion by Ernest S. Burch Jr., "The Nunamiut Concept 51. Porter, I I th Census, 152. and the Standardization of Error," in Hall, ed., Contributions to 52. Hooper, Cruise ofthe Revenue Cutter Thomas Corwin in the Arctic Anthropoplogy, 52-97. Ocean, 1881 (GPO, 1884) 41. 25. The Report of Fred G. Sickler, Village of Shungnak, 1915-1916 as 53. Bodfish, 5 1. previously cited. Testimony of a local chief. 54. Riccidelli, 45. 26. See particularly Gubser, 353-356; HeIge Ingstad, Nunamiut: Among 55. Alex Stevenson, "Lawless Land," North Vol. 16 no. 1 (1969) Alaska's Eskimos (N.Y.: W.W. Norton Co., 1954); and Burch, 45-50; and "Whaler's Wait," Ibid.; Vol. 15 no. 5 "Inter-Regional Transportation in Traditional Northwest Alaska," (1968)28. Univ. ofAlaska Anthropology Papers Vol. 17 no.2 (1976) 1-12. 56. Stefansson, My Life With the Eskimo, 39-40. 27. As described in Spencer 27-32, 353-357; and Gubser 295-333. 57. Bodfish, 195. 28. Loc. cit.; and Rausch, "Notes on the Nunamiut Eskimo and the 58. Brower, Autobiographical Notes, 94. mammals of the Anaktuvuk Pass Region, Brooks Range," Arctic 59. Originally the Pacific Steam Whaling Company, the new firm was Vol. 4 no. 3 (Dec., 1951) 147-195; Burch, "The Caribou/Wild Rein- established in 1893. deer as a Human Resource," American Antiquity Vol. 37 no. 3 (1972) 60. In Work of the Bureau of Education For the Natives of Alaska, 339-348; and Helge Larsen, The Material Culture of the Nunamiut Bull. of the Dept. of Interior no. 40 (1917) 73. and its Relation to Other Forms of Eskimo Culture in Northern 61. See R.N. Hourde, "Sophisticated Eskimos," Beaver (September Alaska, Proceedings of the 32d International Congress of 1952)36. Americanists, Copenhagen, 1958. 62. Knud Rasmussen, Across Arctic America.... (N.Y., London: 29. Gubser, 295-333. P. G. Putnam, 1927) 189. 30. Ingstad, 288. 63. C. L. Andrews, "Reindeer History," Eskimo Vol. 9 no. 3 31. A.M. Bailey, Birds ofArctic Alaska, Colorado Museum of Natural (1942)3. History, Popular Series no. 8, Denver, 1948. 64. See George W. Rogers ed., Change in Alaska: People, Petroleum, 32. Don Foote Papers, University of Alaska, College. and Politics (College: Univ. of Alaska Press, 1970) 180-194. 33. Ibid.; and for a discussion of dog maintainance see J.L. Durer and 65. As quoted in Chance, "Directed Change and Northern Peoples," J.P. Handson, Seasonal Varities in the Caloric Intake of Dogs Ibid, 188. living in an Arctic Environment, Arctic Acromed Lab., Ft. Wain- 66. As quoted in Chance, "Directed Change," 190. wright, Alaska, 1961. 67. See Peter Gruenstein, "Alaska Natives, Inc., "The Progressive 34. Larsen and Rainey, 3 1. (March, 1977) 33-38. 35. Don Foote Papers 68. Ouoted in Rural Alaska Newsletter Vol. 3 no. 3 (Fall, 1976) 2. 36. See Inventory, Subsistence Harvests in Five Native Regions, "Arc- 69. Ibid., 4-5. Plates 1. Harrison Bay above quadrangles (I-VIII) and in the remaining quadrang- 11. Teshekpuk Lake les of the greater North Slope region. References to the III. Beechey Point Barrier Island sites may be found on page 35. IV. Sagavanirktok Broadly speaking, any place or setting that has been the V. Flaxman Island site of human habitation, contact, or interaction may be VI. Barter Island considered "historic". After all, history implies that VII. Mt. Michelson something has been written or remembered about a partic- VIII. Demarcation Point ular place or location which makes it significant in terms of On the USGS 1:250,000 maps which follow, historic and why or by whom it was recorded or remembered. What subsistence sites of the Beaufort Sea region have been lo- determines the greater significance of one site over another, cated. While often supportive of references made to specific or its "unique" qualities, is both an objective and a sites in the sections, History and Historic Sites and Subsis- subjective value judgement and an issue sensitive to tence and Subsistence Sites, these site locations and the interpretive frameworks -sometimes at odds with one accompanying inventory represent ethnolocations and oral another. Indeed it must be recognized that the history and accounts of generations of Eskimo residents of the Beaufort culture of aboriginal Alaska is perhaps unmatched in this Sea coast and interior regions. They have been collected respect and that in certain cases it may be impossible to and interpreted by Flossie Hopson of the North Slope quantify (on a scale of I - 10) or put a particular label on the Borough Planning Department, Commission on History quality or degree of "significance". Above all, however, and Culture. the question must be approached from both the dominant @ The dots on the maps indicate site locations and each has and the aboriginal culture. been given a reference number which corresponds to the Because of the nature and traditional substance of inventory. The inventory contains three general headings: Northern Eskimo culture, many of these sites are still used, Site, Location, and Significance. Under the heading, "Sig- as indicated in the inventory, in addition to representing nificance", there are eleven explanatory categories iden- historic, archaeological, architectural, ecological and tified as: 1) cabin/shelter cabin today, 2) grave/cemetery, 3) environmental values. ruins/bones/sodhouses, 4) fishing a. iuagniksmelts b. Inventory iqaugruak- salmon c. anaaik-white fish d. iqaukpik-lake trout e. qaaktaq-small white fish f. tittaalikling cod g. Tiiyugak (Mrs. Annie Ologak) who is one of two oldest sulukpaugak-grayling h. iqaluapak-arctic char 5) trapping, residents in Kaktovik gives us a brief account of her years 6) hunting/camping/stopover place, 7) cellars, 8) other/ on the North Slope, whether it be in the Kaktovik, Barrow, nesting area, seals, roots, 9) whaling settlement, 10) impor- Killik River, lkpikpuk River, Demarcation Point, Beechey tant events/old sites, 11) kunilaat (reindeer herding). Point, areas. She is now eighty-four years old, born in 1893 Plates I and 11 (Harrison Bay and Teshekpuk Lake) have at lkpikpuk River. This is the time when people used to been included but not inventoried in this study. A com- travel by boat downstream (ataaq). She remembers some prehensive report, Traditional Land Use Inventory North travel accounts when her grandparents and parents were still Slope Borough: National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska living around the middle 1800's. Her father's name is Tak- (August 1, 1976), provides a complete reference to site paan, her mother Pallanana. Her grandmother's name is identification within these two quadrangles, and should be Alivruna and grandfather is Anupkana. Her husband used as a supplement to this study in any assessment of Richmond died while at Herschel Island, Canada (they had North Slope-Beaufort Sea cultural resources. These two lived there for five years, then back to Kaktovik). She has plates were included, however, to indicate the extent of eight children; she uses the number of children she has for a historic and subsistence sites in the entire region-Pt. Bar- time frame. row to Demarcation Point. She grew up in the Killik River area with her parents. She Other studies in progress will provide further data in the remembers that there were Kovakmiut (kobuk-Noatak 64 PLATES River area) who she knew when she grew up in this area. gathered roots, berries, some squirrels. There were some People (families) went to Kikikragruk (Kotzebue) through reindeer around but they had certain times for butchering the headwaters of a river (kangik of the Colville, Noatak them. Fishing was the major activity along the rivers. River). At this point the Kovakmiut traded with them for Tom Gordon had the first trading post at Kaktovik; that such things as tobacco. (This area is Killik River south). was his chain store from Demarcation Point. Jack Smith The family was at Bar-row for a number of years. She was had a trading post in Nuvvuak. Henry Chamberlin has a a young woman then. They left Barrow after she married store at Aliguaruk (Brownlow Point). and had three children (Soplu, Taipana, and Asiyak), and Charles Edwardsen (Etuk) or Charles Brower had a trad- the year after 1917 they went back to Kaktovik. There were ing Post at Beechey Point, Uuliktuk. (This was just before a few families in that area, but they were one of the first Annie got married in the early 1900s). Most of these trading families at Kaktovik, although there were some families not posts closed down because no credit was allowed and the far from Kaktovak at Ugruktalik (Griffin Point). They were price of fox was very low. (1930's) first there when she was a little girl. The first families that To list some utensils that she used until metal: One settled in Kaktovik included: Kunuyuk (Dorothy Gordon's wooden bowl, one wooden water bowl made from tree father) who first lived there with them, Pipsuk's grand- stumps (muniknaq) and usually a pair of snowshoes (taglu). fath6r, Tigutaak, who also had a trapping cabin in the As a young woman, she first used fabric clothing at Bar- Tamayagiak River area. Other families were Tigluk, Ikka- row. The point for this is that there were no metals; no cans, gifi, Akootchook (Isaac Akootchook's Father), Tom Gor- no utensils, no pots and pans-just wood before ships or don, llgutchiak (Kiatun's father), Tukkayak, Tuigan traders came. (Matumeak's mother). Other families moved there from The above mentioned were settlements of families who smaller settlements (old sites). The area that these families used to live there until the 1930s and 1940s before they knew includes: the Salgutchi River, Hula Hula River, Jago pen-nanently settled at Kaktovik, Barrow area, (()ikiktag) River, sites of Kanignivik, Sannisaaluk. They have some Herschel Island and other parts of the Canadian Beaufort old ruins (sod) at Nuvvuak (Pt. Collinson), Analaak (An- Sea coast. There are family relations between Kaktovik and derson Point). While their great-grand-parents were still the Canadian villages. Eventually when customs at the bor- living, they had old houses at Okpilurak and Killik River der began to be troublesome and expensive, traveling occur- area. Niglik known as Kisik (Woods) Inaat is the old time red less and less between the islands. place where the coastal and the inland people used to trade goods:caribou skins for sea] oil, meat for fish, berries for Special Event dried meat. They traded with the Barrow people, Killikmiut River When the sun sets for the winter, people gathered to- people, Kuupikmiut people on the Colville River and Kag- gether as families and relatives (a number of family settle- maliit. The Kagmaliit also traded with Herschel Island ments) to have a feast, play competitive games (especially (Qikitag) people for what they didn't have after they traded soccer), dance Eskimo dances, clean homes by placing new at Niglik. Other items traded were rope, musso-roots and willows on the floor, and make new clothes and parkas. the basic foods that were from the ships-flour, molasses, They prepared all kinds of foods. Aklavik was one such beans, oatmeal, prunes and raisins bought from the trading place where this took place. This was later referred to as the posts. They traded their foxes for these goods or whatever Christmas days when the missionaries and doctors came skins of catch they had. Before any trading took place, they (every five years) to Aklavik in northern Canada. We still had no guns and therefore used snares for ptarmigan, they celebrate Christmas in the same manner. MASTER LIST I . Pattaktuq (Demarcation Point) 13. Tapquaraq (Tapkaurak) 2. Gordon 14. Pipsuk Point 3. Kaniqluaqpiat 15. Oaaqtukvik Ist. (Kaktovik) 4. Kuvluuraq (kuviurak) 16. Qaaqtugvik 2nd 5. Piguqsraaluk (Pingokraluk) 17. Qaaqtugvik Present 6. Siku (Icy Reef) 18. lgluqpak (Elupak) 7. Atchalik (Aitchilik) 19. Naalagiagvik (Arey Island) 8. Angun (Angun Point) 20. Ukpiilam paaij a (Mouth of Okpilak) 9. Imaigflauraq (Humphrey Point) 21. Sanniqsaaluk 10. Iglukruatchiat 22. Aanallaaq (Anderson Point) 11. Pukak(Pokok) 23. Kanigfiiivik (Konganwvik) 12. Uqsruqalik (Griffin Point) 24. Agliguakruk (Brownlow Point) PLATES 65 25. Point Hopson 34. Navraq (Lake from Shublik Hills) 26. Point Gordon 35. Tikigaakruk (Heald Point) 27. Sivugaq 36. Inaat Kisim Inaa 28. Fish Hole 1 37. Kakianaam Inaa 29. Fish Hole 2 38, Pole Island 30. Paaqta (Fish Hole 3) 39. Sikiakruum Inaa 31. Kaiji 40. Imialat 32. Nuvuaq (Point Collinson) 41. Ninijulit 33. lqniq (Iqnik Valley) 42. Siiqsihfiiq Beechey Point Quad of Tasikpak Nuiqsut Inventory with Additions 91. Uuliktuk 106. Siglaktitacl (7) Sanniaruk 107. KaDigluk 94. Piiogu 108. Niaquq 95. Mouth of Ugruknavik 110. Napagsralik 96. Milne Point 111. Foggy Island 97. Ugruknavik (14) Point Brower 98. Qaviarat 112. McClure Island (12) Takpam Inaat (8) Ekooloo, Inaat 100. Nukatpiat (Bodfish) 113. Qafgusilik 101. Tapkakturuak (9) Koganak Inaat 102. Beechey Point 114. Point Lookout 103. Sakvagayak 115. Tigvagiak Island 104. Aquvlaak 116. Savvivgvik (11) Ikpikpaurak Additions to Beechey Point Quad from Beaufort Sea 35. Tikigaaruk 38. Pole Island 36. Kisirn Inaat 39. Sikiagruum Inaa 37. Kakianaam Inaat 66 PLATES SITES LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 1. Pattaktuq 1. 141 19'05" 1,3, 6,10. Old site. Cabins were built by Tom Gordon in (Demarcation Point) 69 41'01" 1916. Trading post location where goods used to be brought (Demarcation Point, A) from ships. 2. 141 17'20" 69 38'4V' 2. Gordon 1_141 12'00" 2,3,6, 10. Old site. Old graves. Ruins located about 4 miles (Demarcation Point, A) 69 4YOO" west, at the edge of a lake on the trail. Named after Tom 2. 141 12'0(Y' Gordon, father of the Gordon Family who lived in this area. 69 4(Y2U' 3. Kaniqluaqpiat 1. 141 160(Y' 1,3,6,10. Old site. Cabin location about 1.5 miles from (Demarcation Point, A) 69 38'00" Turner River-built in 1916. Old ruins. 2. 141 14'30" 69 37'40" 4. Kuvluuraq 1. 141 24!3(Y' 1,3,4,6,10. Old Site. Ruins. Cabin location. Fishing- (Demarcation Point, A) 69 43'3(Y' Kaktaq, lqalukpik. It means a small thumb-jocated in the 2. 141 23'00" spit. 69 42'50" 5. Piljuqsraaluk 1. 141 42'00" 1., 2,3,5,6, 10,11. Old graves on top of the hill (pigu). Three (Demarcation Point, A) 69 42'00" cabins belonging to Gordon Family. Old reindeer herding 2. 141 3 1'2(Y' area-KaUigak ruins still there. Old site. 69 33'00" 6. Siku (Icy Reef) I . 141 37'00" 1,3,6,8,10. Old site. Old and present campsite. 2 cabins (Demarcation Point, A) 69 46'00" built in 1918. Old ruins. Goosenesting area. 2. 141 5 l'OO" 69 48'4(Y' 7. Atchalik 2. 143 26'00" 3,4,5. Old ruins. (Demarcation Point, A) 69 03'00" 8. Anijun 1 . 142 23'0(Y' 3. It means an oil seep. Old ruins off Nuvagapak Lagoon. (Demarcation Point, Q 69 56'00" 2. same as 1. 9. Imaighauraq I . 142 3 1'30" 2,3,10. Old graves located at the mouth of Kimikruak (Humphrey Point) 89 58'45" River. 5 old sod house ruins. (Demarcation Point, Q 2. 142 31YOO" 69 58'001' 10. Iglugruatchiat 2. 142 34'00" 2. Old graves located about 2.5 miles from this site. (Demarcation Point, Q 69 59'30" 1. same as 2. 11. Pukak I . 142 46'00" 3, 10. Old ruins. I old sod house ruin of Steve Hopson. Old (Barter Island, D) 70 02'00" store used to be owned by Paneak, now of Amaktuvuk 2. same as 1. Pass. Old site-this place was left around the 1930s when families headed west to Barrow and east to Kaktovik and Anaktuvuk Pass. 12. Uqsruqtalik 1. 142 54'00" 1.3.6. Cabin owned by Fred Gordon, still being used today (Griffin Point) 70 04!00" as a shelter cabin. Old ruins located about 1.5 miles from (Barter Island, D) the mouth of the John River. 2. 142 52'00" 70 03'51" PLATES 67 SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 13. Tapqauraq 1. 143 0 F00" 1,2,3,4,6,7,10. A cabin is still being used-it is located Barter Island, D) 70 05'00" about 5 miles upstream on the Kallukagvik creek. Old 2. 143 12100" graves located on the south side of the lagoon. Old sod 70 07'20" house ruins of 2, one of Dan Gordon. On the spit are also old ruins and about 3.5 miles east near a jutting point from Ologak River. Old cellars. At Jago spit, fishing of qaktaq, iqalukpik on the sand bars. 14. Pipsuk Point 1. 143 35'45" 2,3,4,6, 10. Old site. Old ruins. I grave of Pipsuk. Summer (Barter Island, F) 70 07'45" camping. The very reason of the name of Kaktovik is linked 2. 143 34'00" here. Pipsuk, grandson of Tigutaak, one of the permanent 70 07'35" settlers in this area, had drowned in the lagoon and they qaaktuq him out with a seining net. This point is named as his namesake (name importance). Kaktovik(Ist. 1. Same as 2. Kaktovik was relocated the first time in 1947 when the location) (Barter DEW Line started construction of the Air Force airport. Island) 2. 70 08'19' Reference is made to Nelsaluk location of this original vil- 143 3617" lage. Old houses and cellars were left there for move, which (3,5,7,9,10) was 1650 yards away. The DEW Line started the road construction and the relocated village was at the site of the 16. Kaktovik 1. Same as 2. road so it was relocated the 2nd time in 1953. Excavations (2nd. Location) 2. 70 08'10" were made along the airport road and the location of what (Barter Island, F) 143 36'17" was dug up is not known. The original trail to and from the (2,3,5,7,9,10) location became the DEW Line road. Because of another DEW Line relocation, Kaktovik was relocated the 3rd time 17. Kaktovik (present I . Same as 2. in 1964, its present location. The DEW Line site is on the location) 2. 70 08'30" Old Kaktovik village site and this is verified by the old (Barter Island, F.) 143 37'00" cemetery site located right on military withdrawal of land. (1,2,5,7,9,10) Cellars are still seen in this area. (The Village has asked to fence or withdraw the cemetary as part of the village site.) The present cemetery is on the south side of the village. The whaling-butchering site used to be on the Beaufort Sea coast. Recently the Kaktovik Lagoon is used for whaling festivities and the docking area for boats. Of interest are some buildings that have survived the moves. Fred Gor- don's house has been standing since 1923. It used to be the old trading post that traded goods with the ship, Norseman. One half of the house is now Gordon's home and the other half is the local store, Mark Sims house. The other house is the village corp, which they bought from Harold Kaveolook, who used the house as the first schoolhouse. 18. lgluqpak (Elupak) 1. 143 42'00" 2.3. 10. Old ruins and old graves on the west side. C. Gor- (Barter Island, F) 70 07'00" don's house used to stand here until relocated. Old ruin of 2. 143 43'00" Tigluk. Old Site. 70 07'30" 19. Naalagiagvik 1. 143 54'00" 2,3,4, 11. Means where you go to listen. Old graves located (Arey Island) 70 0700" near the bigger lake. Old reindeer herding camp-Kagigak, (Barter Island, F) fishing. 2. 143 54'12" 70 07'00" 68 PLATES SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 20. Ukpillarn paaija 1. 143 59'00" 3,6,8,10. The Hopson family used to live here. Squirrel (Mouth of Okpilak) 70 04!35" hunting. Old ruins. (Barter Island, F) 2. 144 28'09' 70 03'42" 21. Sanniqsaaluk 1. 144 17'00" 3,8, 10. Ruins. Sod ruins of Ologak family. Goose hunting 70 02'21Y' located about 3 miles E. Old site. (Flaxman Island, B) 2. 144 08'10" 70 02'20" 22. Aanallaaq 1. 144 28'30" 1,2,3,10. Old site. Ruins. Graves, shelter cabin. Graves (Anderson Point) 70 00'50" and ruins are located about 2.5 miles south coast, near the (Flaxman Island, B) creek. The families that used to live here include: Itch- 2. same as 1. uagak, Patkotak, Koganak. (1,2,3,10) 23. Kanigfiiivik I . 145 10'30" 1,2,3,6,10. Old site. Graves. Ruins. Ruins also located (Flaxman Island, D) 70 01'30" across on the coast. Winter Camp. Some families that used (1,2,3,6,10) 2. 145 12'00" to stay here include: Nashanik, Ekoolook families, Ologak 70 01'30" cabin location. 24. Agilguagruk 1. 145 5 VOW 2,3,6,10. Old trading post site which was one of Jack (Brownlow Point) 70 10'W' Smith's chain stores, run by Henry Chamberlin. This was (Flaxman Island, D) left in the 1930s. Gravesite of the Panningona family- 2. 145 50'00" grandparents and couple of kids; John Akurak-Morry who (2,3,6,10) 70 08'10" was the son of Maptigak was the first one to be buried there. The present family now lives in Anaktuvuk Pass. There are more graves about 1.5 miles south of Agliguaruk (Delta). From this place people went to the Shublik means here the water flows through and into a lake here. 25. Point Hopson I . 70 1 V25" Old Cabin site of Fred Hopson. (ruin) (3, 10.) (Flaxman Island, F) 146 V45" 2. 70 1 F00" 146 32'00" 26. Point Gordon I . 70 1 Yl 9' (2,10.) Named after Tom Gordon, father of the Gordon (Flaxman Island, F) 146 37'30" Family, who lived in this area. 2. 70 10'30" 146 36'40" 27. Sivujaq, 1. same as 2. (3,4,) Ruins. Main trail starts into the river. Bluff area. (Mt. Michelson) 2. 69 57'00" 144 03'00" 28. Fish Hole 1 1. same as 2. (4,6,10.) This is one of the main fishing spots for (Mt. Micheakson, A) 2. 144 15'02" iqaluaqaak, dolly varden sulukpaugak, iqalukpik. It is lo- 69 45'00" cated in the Hula Hula River. Camping and sheep hunting area. PLATES 69 SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 29. Fish Hole 2 1. same as 2. 4,6,10. One of the fishing spots for iqdluaqak, dolly var- (Mt. Michelson, A) den, Sulukpaugak, iqalukpik. A story is linked to this loca- 2. 144 23'10" tion about an old man and a woman (agayukagsrak, akuaj- 69 29'20" srak). Camping area, stopover. Sheep hunting area. 30. Fish Hole 3 1 . 144 3600" (4,6,10) Same fish as 29. Camping area. Sheep hunting (Paqta) 69 10'00" area. (Mt. Michelson, B) 2. 144 3600" 69 10'00" 31. KaiUi 1 . 144 35'00" (4,6, 10.) Means where the river has its headwaters. Same (Mt. Michelson, B) 69 02'00" fish as 29. Camping. Sheep hunting area. 2. 69 02'00" 144 35'00" 32. Nuvuaq I . 144 54!00" (3,4,5,6,10.) Location of DEW Line Pow D. Another (Point Collinson) 69 59'31Y' reference name is Sallute, used by Indians. A legend is (Mt. Michelson, A) connected to this place in which two Indian kids got swal- 2. 144 52'00" lowed by fish. Trapping area. Duck hunting area. Ruins of 69 58'25" Ologak family who used to live there. Ruins about I mile from Nuvuak spit on Simpson Cove, west of Marsh Creek. 33. Igniq 1. 146 04!OY' This is considered a natural landmark. This is an area where (Mt. Michelson, Q 69 36'30" it was constantly on fire-associated with sulphur. It is out 2. 146 04'00"W now. Well known by Nashanik of Barrow. 69 36'30"N 34. Navraq 1. same as 2. 4. Lake well-known for jigging anaalik, sulukpaugak, tit- (Lake from Shublik Hills) taalik, iqaluaqpak (same fish as the Kugruak River). (Mt. Michelson, Q 2. 145 58'00"W 69 15'15"N 35. Tikigaagruk 1. same as 2. 3,6,7, 10. Old site. Mr. Andrew Oeegna has applied for a (Beechey Point, B) native allotment in this area. He left this place in the years 2. 148- 12'32" before 1940. Spring caribou migration route. Ice cellars still 70 21'00" there, still usable. 36. Kisim Inaa I . 147 28'00" 6, 10. Old site, well-known and used for camping by woods (Beechey Point, B) 70 1 F1 0" (Kisik), now the family lives in Nuiqsut area. 2. 147 28'00" 70 1110" 37. Kakianaam Inaa 1 147 19'3U' 2,5, 10. Referred to a] so Qallinik Inaat Kakianak is Qallihik (Beechey Point, B) 70 1 F00" (Elizabeth Griest's father) Putuliayuk-grandfather. This 2. 147 19'3U' was a family settlement-old site. Gravesite of Kakianak, 70 1 FOW Kivgirak. 38. Pole Island I . same as 2. 3,4,6,8,9. Whaling, camping, hunting seals. Seining (qaaq- (Beechey Point, B) 2. 70 18'15" tuk) ikalukpik. Nesting and isaa-where ducks get so fat 147 02'11Y they can't fly anymore. Ruins. 39. Sikiagrurn Inaa I . 70 1 F20" 4,6, 10. Located at the mouth of Kalgusilik River. Old fam- (Beechey Point, B) 147 36'0(Y' ily site of Sikiagruk-Mrs. Eli Solomon's father. 2. 70 1 F20" 147 3600" 70 PLATES SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 40. Imialat 2. 147 38'29" 2,4,6,10. Siiksinik. Fishing of iqalusaak titaalik, sukuk- 69 12'10" paurak, iqalukpik. Mrs. Elizabeth Griest was born here in (Sagavanirktok, B) 1. same as 2. 1902. 41. Nigulit 1. same as 2. 2,4,6,10. Siiksinik. Fishing of iqaluksaak, tittaalik, (Sagavanirktok, B) sulupaurak, iqalukpik. Mr. Henry Nasanik and his family 2. 147 44'30" lived in this area till they headed to the coast in 1938. 69 07'20" Nashanik's mother (Nauyak), also reference to the place name Nauyalik, is buried here who died from the famine accounted there. 42. Siiksinik 1. same as 2. 4. Means water seepage. Fishing-iqaluksaak, saviunak, (Sagavanirtok, D) 2. 69 12'40" tittaalik, sulukpaurak, iqalukpik. 148 43'00" LAKES, RINTERS, CREEKS Kaijigak River (Kongakut) -4, Old reindeer herding area, kanigak, I I Igaksrak River (Egaksrak) -4 Atchalik River (Aichilik) -4 Jago River -4, qaaqtak, iqaluaqpak Okpikurak (Okpilak) -Ruins of Richmond Ologak, 3 SaIgutchi River (Sadleroohit)-4 iqaklupik, sulukpaugak Kugruak (Canning) River -4 Titaalik, iqalukpik, sulukpaurak, sheephereding area Hula Hula River -4 iqaluqapak, anaalik, dollyvarden, sulukpaugak, 6, sheepherding Caribou Migaration Old Man and Old Woman Creeks, Paqta, Arctic Creek Ignik Creek, Lake Schrader and Peter Lake ulukpaugak, lqalukpik, iqaluaqpa, 6 Lake (Unnamed) in T25 R26- off Kugruak -4 Kavik River -4 ivishak River -4 Sagava nirktok River -4 iaalugruak, Sulukpaugak, iqalukpik Camden Bay -4 Clarence River -3,4. Known to the Tom Gordon family Ologak Creek -3, Well-known area to the Ologak family, one of the first families to settle there. Kallukavvik Creek -3,7, cellar of Richmond Ologak Nigvanak River -4 SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 9 1. Uuliktuk (it shakes) 700 30'45" The Navy's construction of Pow 2 on this site destroyed (Bee,chey Point, F) 1490 57'00" grave sites and cellars by covering them with gravel and bulldozing. Old store site; Ruins of a cabin used as a store which was owned by Etuk still stand; Graves of Amajuaj- naat, Taalak, Ahsogeak member, grave of Martha Woods-four miles west of QuIvi 1940. Patsy Tukle's frame house. Cabin of Baxter Adams. Salmon fish. 92. Mitqutial4qtuuq 700 33'00" 2, 3, 4 Arctic Char during the summer; Old sod house (Missing in map) 2nd 1500 00'00" ruins belonging to families that lived there around 1920s. group of Islands 8 (seals) (Beechey Point F) PLATES 71 SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 93. Thetis Island 700 33'25" 2, 3, 8 (seals, nesting) (Harrison Bay, B) 1500 10'00" 94. PiUgu 700 3 l'I 0" 2, 3 Numerous "old" whaling bones; Whales and seals (Beechey Point F) 1490 3 Y30" caught in this sea; three graves of Billy Kinneaveak (Saglu) from Point Hope, Ikayuak, Nalikak. 95. Ugrugnavik 700 28'10" 7 (Beechey Point, F) 1490 47'00" 96. Milne Point 700 3 l'OO" 1, 2 Graves of Ahkivgak family members-Kuunik, (Beechey Point, F) 1490 27'30" Kisiilaaq and Nashaknik's father. . 97. Ugrugnavik (abundancy 700 29'30" 1, 2, 3, 6 Between Ugrugnavik & Beechey Point, three of Ahaliks) River 1490 46'30" graves of Kunaknana & Aknuk; one frame house, three sod (Beechey Point, F) houses, one cellar. 98. Kaviarat 690 1752" 2, 5 At the mouth are located old graves. (Sagavanirktok, D) 1480 08'48" 99.' Kataktugvik (Kaviarat) 700 31YOO" 3, 4, 6 Camping site of Kasak family, "old site" (Beechey Point, F) 1490 04!00" 100. Nukatpiat 700 32'0(Y' (Bodfish Is.) 1490 07'00" 101. Tapkakturuak (Long Island) 700 29'09' 8 (Beechey Point, D) 1480 55'00" 102. Beechey Point 700 29'20" 2, 3, 5, 8 One of the larger settlements in the area; Old (Beechey Point, F) 1490 09'30" trading post owned by Kastialurak in 1924, one of Etuk's chain stores, then given to Jack Smith and Lucy Ahvakana; 15 graves. 103. Sakurjauyak 700 26'40" 2, 4, 5, 6 Grave of Qutuq from Paneak family; Well-known (Beechey Point, D) 1490 0 V00" gathering place for Nunamiut people. 104. Aquvlaak . 700 274Y' 3 (Beechey Point, D) 1490 00'45" 105. Kukpaagruk (meaning 700 23'00" 1, 2, 4, 5 Salmon berries (Anugviat) are found in the area. big river) 1480 52'00" Grave of 1905. (Beechey Point, D) 106. Siglaktitaq 700 2,VOU' 3, 7 Ahmaogak, Nashaknik, Samarualuk, Agnik. Cabins, 7 (Beechey Point, D) 1480 35'00" cellars. 107. Kaniqtug 700 19'IY' 1, 4, 5, 8 Begins fishing trail near Prudhoe; Cabin storage (Beechey Point, D) 1480 1605" for fish of Pausanna family. 108. Niaquq 700 20'4(Y' (Beechey Point, D) 1480 1 l'OO" 110. Napagsralik 700 29'30" 1, 5, 6 Whaling, seal, Uugruk; Taakpak (2) whales; a. (Cross Islands) 1470 56'30" Marked with wooden cross; 1921-Woods, Pausanna, (Beechey Point, B) Savgaq, Ulaak, Ahsoak, Ikpikpak. b. Napagsraligarak 700 29'19' b. place. (Reindeer Island) 1480 27'00" (Beechey Point, B) I 11. Foggy Island 700 1600" 2, 3 Site of Ekoolook, Woods, Kisiilaak, Ahgook; 10 (Beechey Point, B) 147o 48'00" graves; Whaling. 72 PLATES SITE LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE 112. McClure Island 700 24'00" 3, 5, 6 Whaling (Beechey Point, B) 1470 30'00" 113. Qalgusilik (means it has 700 12'00" 3, 4, 6 Graves are unidentified. Sod ruins. something on top, a cover)' 1470 35'05" (Beechey Point, B) 114. Point Lookout on 700 13'15" 2,3,4,6 Tigvagiak Island 1470 20'55" (Beechey Point, B) 115. Tigvagiaq Island 700 13'15" 2, 3, 4, 6 Grave of Kakianak; Old immemorial graves in- (Beechey Point, B) 1470 20'55" cluding Ekolook's son and daughter. 116. Savviagvik River 700 1 Y30" Kitgirak, Greist, Utuan's cabin on the other side one mile Savvakvik 1470 15'00" off. One sod house still standing on land across. (Beechey Point, B) 117. Bullen Point 700 1 I'l 0" 3,4 (Flaxman Island) 1460 52'00" 118. Flaxman Island) 700 11'15" 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. Additional information is in the (Flaxman Island) 1460 03'14" Beaufort Sea Inventory. One sod house belonging to Otuayuk, Kunaknana, and Kunutchiak. 119. Point Thompson 700 1 I'l 5" (Flaxman Island) 1460 19'45" ( 2) Ittiglak (refer to 700 04'00" #81 on list) 1510 22'00" ( 3) Itkillikpaat (refer to #77) 4) Qanaak 4, 6 Fishing done especially in winter. 5) Anayuk 700 20'05" 1500 @9'00" 6) Wood's Inaat 700 2600" 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. Nannie Wood's Camp-Cabin and (Kisim Inaa) 1500 26'00" smokehouse. Original settlers in this area. 7) Sanniaruk 700 34'00" 5, 6, 8, 10. Whaling, summer camping and seal-hunting (Spy Islands) 1490 50'00" area, especially during the summer months. (Beechey Point, F) 2, 3 Has three graves and three sod houses. 8) Ekoolook Inaat 700 12'20" (Beechey Point, B) 1470 3 l'OO" 9) Koganak Inaat 700 13'2(Y' 3, 6 Two Sod houses. (Beechey Point) 1470 3 VOW (10) Siisinik 690 46'40'1 3, 4 Bubbling water, no ice. 1470 43'00" (11) lkpikpaurak (Pow 3) 3, Three Sod houses one mile away on Kunuatchiak, one is (end of shoal) still standing. (12) Takpam Inaat 700 3900" 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9. A well-known whaler of the north (Tak- (Beechey Point, F) 1490 25'30" pak). Old house now belongs to Abe Stine. Old ruins. Old (13) Aivigiak whaling area by Takpak. (Aivik) 2 Tukle grave near Island. (14) Point Brower 700 17'20" addition to this site in Beaufort Sea Inventory. (Beechey Point, B) 1470 47'00" PLATES 73 REFERENCE TO BARRIER ISLANDS LOCAL RESOURCE PEOPLE All of the barrier islands were used for whaling areas, hunt- KAKTOVIK ing seals, hunting and nesting of several species of ducks. Tiiyugak (Mrs. Annie Ologak) People from the coastal areas camped on the islands season- ally during the summer months. Land Selection Committee I .McClure Islands- 112 Fred Gordon 2. Napagsralik (Cross island)- 110 Archie Brower, Land Chief 3. Napagsraligarak (Reindeer Island)- I 10 Tom 0. Gordon 4. Tapkakturuak-101 George Agiak 6. Mitkutialaktuuq (Jones Island)-94 Nora Agiak 7. Sanniaruk (Spy Islands)-(7) Herman Rexford 8. Pole Island-38 Mildred Rexford 9. Flaxman Island- 118 Isaac Akootchook 10. Naalagiagvik (Arey Island)-19 Mary Akootchook 11. * Qikiktaq (Herschel Island)-3,4,6, 10. Alice Agiak Canadian Island used historically and culturally by both Alaskan and Canadian Inupiats, especially those BARROW from Kaktovik area. Levi Griest 118. Tikigak (Flaxman Island) 70 1 F15" Elizabeth Griest 146 03'14" Henry Nashanik (1,2,3,5,6,8,9,10.) (Flaxman Island) Etta Ekolook Samuel Panningona Cabin owned by Samuel Panningona, of Barrow. It was Andrew Oeenga built in 1924. Mr. Panningona and his family headed to- wards Barrow in 1949. His daughter, Mary Akootchook, was bom on this island in 1921. Some of the families that Kaktovik City Council used to live here includes: Sagviatchiak (who moved to Kaktovik Village Corporation Nuvuk), Virat, Sagmaliurak, Okpik, Nashanik, Commission on History and Culture Okomailak, Oegna, Kunvatchiak, Ekoolook. During the Plant Office summer months, there were more people camping here for Bart Ahsogeak whaling, seal hunting. Number of people died from the flu epidemic of 1945. National Register site. 14. Agligvurak (Point Brower) 147 47'00" 70 17'20" (Beechey Point, B) (2,3,5,6,9.) NOTE: Number I place name locations haVe been re- Agligvurak was the name of the whole island of Foggy ferenced from: Island (III). Jack Smith had a trading post there. One of the Orth, Donald. DICTIONARY OF ALASKA well-known men, Saglu used to live there. During the flu PLACE NAMES U.S. Dept. of Interior, Geolog- epidemic, a number of people died here. ical Survey, Professional Paper 567 HARRISON RAY C 'E A JI A N tl- @V, N A L, [email protected] T R l.'r, t % 7V A/ 46'A +; "0 4i- - HARAISON BAY, ALASKA ---- --------- M, pw X1, &.4 v'p, R r @[email protected] A J a 4! a lu IP 2_ N, 1) Vr k, V ili p K's t R e0 J V 4,1 s j [email protected] t W, x, :7 p, 77 Z % Z, "IL Nv" T" I '[email protected]' ---------- T q7:EC, HEY 03,N' I' . . ..... .... . zj V S F I 0 oi 7 rJ, x, al IVI 116 -ZZ Z. j P7 %N > 7-, lit iuX, Z 'N" NL "FE4,@JCY POINI -A-SKA '4 140[ wiv [email protected] 02- 7 -7 '4m- Al [email protected] @tV 41, [email protected] -Ij I % [email protected] -4 i,i-jl IA --k4. sm - M @,JA tT nt j", iT A t'i I-M, A, ':s [email protected] "A J,@ 4 ql, 7 7T 1: Sp, j & itV W4 RoN - i'p- vq 4w, U iiT ih, L A k, io "j- - [email protected] - @51 IM [email protected] !Ivii "t, NS'm I @,4- 4- 4VII '7 F; m K dL V2 j vs,", "Al FLA-1-AAN, ,@I-AIND . ...... . 4" J -A s n Jo- @14 k AM 21( A [email protected] FLAXMAN ISLAND, [email protected]! f;Wu'olc'@k [email protected] 0 v [email protected] T, @q' zr, J Z' tA P, j, 7 4*'t 4 0 to -E,4 A "'f A","' 77- 7, p"r" -04 Ain, 9) M4TCR tSLAND. A LA5KA -4 -41:Li @A y -,l . ..... R19 I I ww, "r MK JI 4s A, It, @4 3 1 4 1%1 h lr-2-p L N A T, 0 -A; IiI -,Nq [email protected] x o q, I,j @,N v k T4 tu, K- I jv" I, -A, j Pt, 10 tv, 1, 4 a, 44, k" A- RC In 141 [email protected] [email protected] ALASKA Conclusion Almost forty years ago Robert Marshall, chief of the Slope and the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, since the white division of recreation and lands, United States Forest Ser- man first encountered the northern arctic Eskimo. From this vice, proposed that all of the land north of the Yukon River, overview and admittedly selective discussion, an historical with the exception of a small area adjacent -to Nome, be pattern can be deduced which demonstrates the long and zoned as a region where the federal government. will con- short term effects of development via Western/North tribute no funds for road building and permit no leases for American culture. industrial development." I He reasoned that Furthermore, it is suggested that current petrochemical industrial development, as envisioned in the proposed economically, the population is so scattered that airplane Beaufort Sea Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas explora- transportation is the only feasible means of mechanical tion, is only the most recent variation of a well established conveyance, and auto roads could not possibly justify theme in northern history, the general and local effects of the cost.At the same time, the country is far too remote from markets for successful industry. Sociologically, which are predictable based upon histo .ric and economic the country of northern Alaska is inhabited chiefly by precedent. Native populations, which would be much happier, if Preceeding sections of this study have been devoted to 1) U.S. experience is any criterion, without either roads past and current legislation designed to deal with questions or industries.2 of historic preservation, environmental integrity and land Conditions in Alaska have changed dramatically since management in Alaska; 2) the history of the North Slope 1939 when Marshall expressed his views on the future of and Beaufort Sea region and specific sites which recall that the Brooks Range and its North Slope. A forty-eight inch history; and 3) the nature and significance of traditional diameter pipeline and a winter haul road, flattered by the subsistence activities, the changes which have occurred in title "Hickle Highway", now cut across the range and these established patterns as the result of white contact and connect the oil and gas rich fields of Prudhoe Bay with those sites or areas which were, and continue to be, impor- Fairbanks and Valdez. The industry that could not be tant to northern Eskimos for subsistence purposes. I Isuccessful" is firmly established and expanding out be'- These three broad areas of concern-preservation, his- yond the tundra, to near-shore and off-shore sites in the tory, and subsistence-share a common denominator. Un- form of man-made drilling platforms and support facilities derlying each are fundamental values and issues which must in the Beaufort Sea. Indeed, the intensity of military and be considered in any discussion of land and resource man- petroleum related development, extending over the past agement in northern Alaska. Consideration of these and twenty-five years and concentrated in the only arctic associative issues was not, and indeed could not be, re- taundra. region of its kind in the United States, has been so stricted to the primary study area of the Colville to Canning intrusive that one authority has ventured the opinion that: River corridor as outlined in the Project Vita. Historically speaking hunting, trade, social interaction and village habi- Except in some of the mountain vastnesses of the Brooks tation, particularly in the interior, were dynamic Range, I doubt that one can find a 100 Square mile plot phenomena which were sensitive to larger regional changes of ground east of the Colville River-including the Arc- as well as to local influences. The arctic environment is tic Wildlife Range-that does not show some irrepara- delicate and easily disrupted by human activity. An external ble sign of man's activities.' influence that may be introduced in one area is likely to be eventually felt in others. For example, there is every reason Perhaps in only one respect did Robert Marshall's prophecy to believe that continuing major North Slope oil and gas accurately forecast the character of northern Alaska; many development, even if confined to certain areas, will have a of the aboriginal inhabitants of this historically and cultur- profound impact on the entire North Slope region, much the ally rich expanse would indeed have been happier "without same that the interior Nunamiut were affected by the intro- either roads or industries". duction of the whaling industry at Herschel Island. The purpose of this study has been to broadly outline the Therefore, the expansion of oil and oil related industy continuum of change which has occurred -on the North north of the Brooks Range and in the Beaufort Sea cannot CONCLUSION 91 be restricted or isolated by legislation or lease sale restric- gions: the West Arctic (Utvkok and Barrow, 31,000 sq. tions. The nature of the industry and the nature of the land miles), the Colville (Umiat, 24,000 sq. miles), and the East do not permit of a mutually beneficial relationship between Arctic (Sagavanirktok and Barter Island, 36,000 sq. miles). the two; and by any yardstick, the land is the exploited host Within the category of preservation interests these regions in a parasitic association. Ecology, environment, historical were classified according to 1) Natural Areas, 2) Primitive significance and subsistence vaiue of areas contiguous and Values, 3) Wilderness Potential, 4) Ecological Preserves, noncontiguous to industry or developed sites may suffer and 5) Cultural Areas. irreparable damage. An already severely pressured northern Eskimo culture is likely to be further endangered, if not The following observations were made regarding the re- destroyed. For in the opinion of one authority: gions of concern to the present study. (They should only be The oil companies may hire all the ecologists they can considered as fragmentary). find, back-haul every stick of trash to Fairbanks and WESTERN ARCTIC, POINT BARROW beyond, and practice the finest housekeeping they know. They may deal firmly with their sub-contractors as they 1) Natural Areas must, and cooperate fully with state inspectors. But the fact remains that they will scar the land irreparably. In a) Teshekpuk Lake short, these lands which have been turned over to oil are, b) lkpikpuk River in no sense, multiple use areas. This is oil country, and a c) Middle section of the Mead River brief two years of oil work has proved that the scars can d) Kasegaluk Lagoon neither be erased nor repaired.' 2) Primitive Areas However, despite the wide acceptance of such views out- a) Rates "good". General lack of intrusions. side the oil industry, no position is likely to be seriously 3) Wilderness Potential considered by the state or federal government and certainly a) Related to recreation, "low"; in terms of ecosystem preservation "high". not by the industry, which advocates the curtailment of 4) Ecological Reserves (Statewide System) plans to expand oil and gas development on the North Slope a) Point Barrow, 10,000 acres in order to protect subsistence, historical or ecological/ b) Teshekpuk Lake, 150, 000 acres environmental resources. Historically the politics of oil c) Kuk River fossil amber, 20,000 acres have not mixed well with such issues of public concern. As d) Valley of Willows/old village site on lkpikpuk Robert Weeden, game biologist with the Alaska Depart- River ment of Fish and Game, admits: 5) Cultural Areas I have no illusions about how often we will bar the gate a) Bimirk "and perhaps others near Barrow". to oil development. Despite Prudhoe, however, where government did not even build a gate let alone decide COLVILLE, UPPER COLVILLE AND UMIAT whether to open or close it, I think the question has Upper Colville relevance for the future.' 1) Natural Areas Indeed it has, for the primary issue confronting the a) Area bordering Colville River people of the North Slope is not whether there will be b)@ Area bordering the Killik drainage expanded oil development, but under what guidelines this C) The Kurupa-Cascade Lakes and Upper Nigu expanded development will be allowed to occur. River I accept the premise that taking oil from under the tundra 2) Primitive Areas is a worthwhile activity," Dr. Weeden concludes: a) Quality high. Some oil exploration, but most of I accept the fact that some disturbance of the whole land in natural state. organism, 'land', is inevitable. Some is economically 3) Wilderness Potential acceptable. I deny, however, that oil is the only signifi- a) Most of Killik drainage and Kurupa-Cascade cant Arctic resource or that private industry should be Lakes region, high potential. allowed to degrade public values at will while it extracts 4) Ecological Reserves (Statewide System) oil.6 a) Colville River Bluffs, 100 miles What are the public values of the North Slope which must b) Killik Tundra fire area, 8,000 acres (for re- be protected? In this study we have focused primarily on search) those values of significance to the Eskimo inhabitants; their 3) Noluck Lake, for arctic ecosystems research history, culture and subsistence traditions. In 1974 the re- 5) Cultural Areas source planning team of the Joint Federal-State Land Use a) "No sites or features are presently identified for Planning Commission, published an inventory of the Arctic intensive preservation and interpretation." region in an attempt to define recreation and preservation (viewed in light of the present study this is the opportunities of general public interest .7 best evidence possible that substantial work re- The study divided the North Slope into three major re- mains to be done in all regions). 92 CONCLUSION Umiat 5) Cultural Areas "There are important archaeological sites associated a) Leffingwell's camp, Flaxman Island; ar- with prehistoric man in the Arctic." chaeological values of Galbraith Lake likely to be impacted. 1) Natural Areas a) Chandler Lake Barter Island b) Shainin Lake "The diversity of mountains and the isolation of the area c) Castle Mountain make this entire unit above average for scenic and primi- d) Itkillik and upper Nanushuk and Kanayut Riv- tive ratings when considered on a statewide basis." ers. 2) Primitive Values 1) Natural Areas a) Good to high. Lack of intrusions; remoteness a) An "extremely fine complex". Porcupine from population centers. caribou herd calving grounds. 3) Wilderness Potential 2) Primitive Values a) Lowlands, low to poor "due to previous and a) Good to high, except on the arctic slope near current exploration activities. Upland areas village and military installations. "high" potential. 3) Wilderness Potential 4) Ecological Reserves (Statewide System) a) "The entire unit has high potential for wilder- a) Colville Bluffs ness designation." b) Colville Delta, sand dunes 4) Ecological Reserves c) Similar area on Sagavanirktok Delta "lost to a) Jago River; tundra and floodplain vegetation development needed to support oil develop- b) Neruokpuk Lakes; arctic aquatic ecosystems ment". c) Shublik Springs; balsam poplar 5) Cultural Areas d) Firth River Valley; northernmost stands of a) "The Anaktuvuk Pass archaeological district white spruce in Alaska, alpine tundra ecosys- has potential for intensive preservation and in- tems. terpretation efforts. To maintain intergity of the 5) Cultural Areas area, developments should be rustic and kept to a) "no areas or sites are presently identified." (a- a minimum. gain, much work remains to be done. See map section) EAST ARCTIC, SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER Such preliminary studies must be continued and ex- Barter Island panded in an ongoing program of cultural resource assess- "The protected lagoons and bays provide habitat for ments in those areas subject to withdrawl as oil or gas nesting waterfowl of many varieties of birds. The lake- production lands. As Dr. William Schneider, National Park dotted plain also is important habitat for both birds and Service cultural anthropologist, notes: animals." Data collected from cultural resources, be they ar- Sagavanirktok chaeol ogical ... or historic ... are important in under- standing not only the past, but in helping to make 1) Natural Areas reasonable assumptions about the future ... Archaeolog- a) Elusive and Galbraith Lakes ical, paleoenvironmental, and historical data can be b) Ribdon River (south fork) and Accomplishment utilized in establishing such things as population Creek dynamics, changes in vegetation and climate, variations prehistorically in game distribution movements, and 2) Primitive Values subsistence patterns ... This information ... is vital in a) "low" value in lowlands due to oil develop- making intelligent land-use planning decisions.... ment. Uplands, "high". 3) Wilderness Potential For cultural and other resources to exert a positive influ- a) Upper Ivishak and Ribdon Rivers ence in the decision-making process, guidelines must be 4) Ecological Reserves (Statewide System) established to insure that these resources are identified, in- a) Prudhoe Bay; as a control site ventoried, interpreted and preserved. They must be fully b) Echooka Springs and balsam poplar stands, documented in the literature and this material integrated and 30,000 acres compared with Eskimo oral accounts. Finally, but most c) Franklin Bluffs; peregrine falcons importantly, exhaustive fieldwork must be undertaken to d) Atigun Canyon; dall sheep determine exact site locations and to analyze material which e) Prudhoe Bay; pingos ' may be uncovered. Close monitoring of construction ac- f) Galbraith Lake; fish, archaeology and revegeta- tivities must be maintained to insure that sites of possible tion significance are not degraded or destroyed completely. [email protected] OC61116 ARCITIC OCEAN 6EAUFOJT SEA Ail I SEA 117 12 W 41 112C] NTIFIC FEATURES &107 11-1 -T -EORI -RET OT.I. OOETTAAE I------ ARCTIC OCEAN ARCTIC OCEA 11 oll I UM T13 SCENIC,NATURM I 111-IT-E @ALUFS C7:, Oje- OR TER- T 0.EETR-T-F,..'ET--OOTT-AE111 107 1-1.0-1 IF--- Source: Inventory Arctic Region, Recreation and Preservation opportunities, Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission, May, 1974. Fig. 2 1 -Arctic Region Inventory: Recreation and. Preservation Opportunities. ENDNOTES 95 Comparatively much less is known of the cultural re- 2. Loc Cit. sources and ecological relationships in the eastern Arctic 3. Dr. Tom Cade, Research Director, Laboratory of Ornithol- than is known in the western regions of the North Slope. ogy, Comell Univ., as quoted in Rogers, ed., Change in However there is every reason to believe, based upon this Alaska, 157. For the effects of oil development on Alaska and a discussion of pertinent issues see for example, Mary C. Be- preliminary assessment and corroborative data from other try, The Alaska Pipeline: The Politics of Oil and Native Land sources, that the eastern Arctic contains substantially more Claims (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1975); Tom data fundamental to our knowledge of arctic environments, Brown, Oil on Ice: Alaskan Wilderness at the Crossroads (San as well as cultural and subsistence values essential to the Francisco: The Sierra Club, 1971); Harvey Manning, Cry well-being of the northern Eskimo people. Of this region it Crisis: Rehearsal in Alaska (San Francisco: Friends of the Earth, 1974). has been written: 4. In G. Laycock, "Kiss the North Slope Goodby," Audubon There is a conviction among the few students who have Magazine Vol. 77 no. 5 (1970) 75. some knowledge of the [eastern Arctic] that our study 5. Robert Weeden, "Arctic Petroleum Development," in Ro- area does contain significant evidences of early people, gers ed., Change in Alaska, 157; and see also Richard although this remains to be proved. That it is unique Rohmer, The Arctic Imperative: An Overview of the Energy ecologically and bears striking circumstantial evidence Crisis (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1973) for a of being a place of profound historical significance al- Canadian perspective; and Vern Vigoren, The Politics of En- ready is granted.' vironmental Action Groups and the Effect on Alaska's Oil Industry (M.A., Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, 1973) arguing In all likelihood the fate of the eastern Arctic and perhaps for development and "controlled preservation". the entire expanse of the Brooks Range and North Slope as 6. As quoted in J. P. Milton, Nameless Valleys; shining Moun- well will be determined within the next two years. tains: The Record of an Expedition to the Vanishing Wilder- ness ofA laska's North Slope (N.Y.: Walker, 1970) xxii. 7. Richard J. Stenmark and T.H. Schroder, Anchorage. 8. Schneider and Bowers, Preliminary Cultural Resource As- ENDNOTES sessment: National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-4) 1. In George Marshall ed., Robert Marshall, Alaska Wilderness: 21. Exploring the Central Brooks Range (Berkeley: Univ. of 9. George L. Collins, Northeast Arctic: The Last Great Wil- California Press, 1970) xxxiv. derness, Sierra Club Bull., nd. Statement of Significance and Recommendations The North Slope Borough has a vital interest in preserv- 4) Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970; 42 USC- ing from destuction or detrimental impact those sites or 1857 et seq. as amended PL 91-604. areas of historic, architectural, archaeological and general 5) The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. cultural significance which occur in substantial and 6) The Deleware Coastal Zone Act of 1971; title 7 documented numbers within the borders of the North Slope Deleware Code, 7001-7014. and Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska. These sites are unique in 7) The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972; the United States because of their intrinsic values and be- 33 USC-1251 et seq. cause they represent in situ examples of dynamic historical 8) The Organic Act of 1976. evolution, as evidenced by their continued use in traditional 9) The Coastal Zone Management Act of 197 1. practices and Eskimo culture. Concern has been expressed by the northern Eskimo State people and others who feel that such unique sites and cul- Historic Preservation tural resources are endangered by proposed State oil and gas 1) The Alaska Historic Preservation Act of 1971; AS leases. These leases would affect land within this region of 41.35.240. the North Slope and Beaufort Sea, particularly between the 2) Alaska Statutes: 41.35.20, 41.35.70, 41.35.80, Colville and Canning rivers, but including the entire 41.35.90,41.35.200. coastline to the Canadian border. Those who share such a concern are convinced that cer- Environmental Protection (subsistence) tain legislative provisions of both the federal and state gov- ernments regarding historic preservation and environmental 1) The Alaska Conservation Act of 1974; S 2917. protection support a position which seeks to restrict or pro- 2) Alaska Statutes: 46.03.050, 46.03.140, 46.03.160, hibit undesirable development in this region, contrary to the 46.03.170, 46.03.020, 46.03.040, 46.03.710, best interests of northern Eskimos, Alaskans and the people 46.03.740, 46.03.760, 46.03.770, 46.03.780, of the United States. Some of the legislation and legal pre- 46.03.800, 46.03.810. cedents which have a direct bearing on questions of historic preservation and environmental (subsistence) protection in Legal Precedents (federal) Alaska are: 1) Huron Portland Cement Co. vs City of Detroit; Federal 362 US 440 (1960). State Powers and Preemption. Historic Preservation 2) Zabel vs Tabb; 430 F. 2d. 199 (1970). 1) The Antiquities Act of 1906. 3) Askew vs American Waterways Operators; 411 US 2) The Historic Sites Act of 1935. 325(1973). 3) The National Historic Preservation Act of 1969. Furthermore, the North Slope Borough is of the opinion 4) Executive Order 11593 of 197 1. that in seeking such protection of historical, cultural and 5) The Historic Preservation Act of 1974. subsistence resources it is acting in the best interests of the 6) Section 14 (h) of the Alaska Native Land Claims Eskimo people of the North Slope and Beaufort Sea region. Settlement Act of 197 1. Such an opinion is based upon the following observations: Environmental Protection (subsistence) 1) Final determination of land status and management priorities will not be made until December of 1978, 2) The 1) Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899; 33 USC-401 et state of Alaska is still in the process of selecting lands under seq. I provisions of the Alaska Statehood Act of 1958, 3) The 2) Submerged Lands Act of 1953. North Slope Borough, Regional Corporation and village 3) National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; PL corporations will assume major land management respon- 91-190. sibilities within the Beaufort Sea region, 4) Local and re- BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE SEARCH 97 gional government and the people of the North Slope have ever in many cases substantial fieldwork is needed to fully an historic and on-going vital cultural, subsistence and realize the historic potential of the Beaufort Sea region, to economic interest in the offshore and coastal zone manage- interpret these sites in greater detail, and to guarantee that ment of the Beaufort Sea region, 5) The North Slope historic preservation and environmental requirements are Borough will have a significant influence in decisions re- completely met. Precedent exists in the designation of sites garding the development of natural resources and associa- such as Birnirk, Iyatayet, Whales, and lpiutak. tive industries on the North Slope, and 6) The North Slope Specifically, the following sites have been indicated as Borough and people of the region will likely be impelled by being of particular concern in the Teshekpuk, Colville, and an "energy imperative" to reach critical decisions without eastern coastal areas. the benefit of sufficient time necessary to insure sound Teshekpuk Lake Quadrangle management policies and priorities. Alaktak Qalluvik Taglii In light of these observations, the North Slope Borough Igsinat Isuk Saktui appears to have certain alternatives to choose from in its Imagruak Sikulik Atigruk efforts to assure the protection of local, regional and na- Cape Halkeet Ikaluuruak Kanigluq tional interest values. These could include the following: 1) Based upon precedent established in the designation Lower (west) Colville River of Eagle and portions of Skagway as historic districts and Niglik (nirlik) Tulugaluk Ilanikruak upon the principles of district zoning, the Borough might Apkugaruk Uyagagvik want to consider the feasibility of creating historic districts nanuq Kuugruatchiak within the North Slope and Beaufort Sea region, and the funding of an Historic District Commission to research, Upper (east) Colville River oversee and coordinate the protective zoning process; Anayuk Sigiaruk Nauyatuuq 2) Based upon precedent established in the designation Woods Inaat Putu Nuiqsutpiat of Ketchikan, Wrangell, Hatcher Pass, The Chilkoot Trail, Kayuktusiluk Napaun Niglnaat Fort Abercrombie and the so-called Gold Rush Trails (the Agki Qakimak Amauliqtuuq Iditarod and the Valdez-Eagle Trail) as state historic parks, (Thetis Island) sites, or areas of historic significance, the Borough might Puviksuk Pisiktagvik Uulugsrak want to consider the possibilities of approaching the state Tiagruak Milugiak with nominations to the State Park and Historic Site or Eastern Coastal Areas Monument System, to include extraordinary provisions recognizing the dynamic and cultural significance of these Uuliktuk sites and related subsistence priorities; Mitkutialaqtuuq (Jones Island) 3) Based upon this study, The Final Cultural Resource Kataktugvik (also Takparn Inlet) Assessment conducted in the NPR-4 region (ms. National Beechey Point Park Service, 1977) and the results of the 14(h) program, Sakuagayak Napagsralik (Cross Island) the Borough might want to consider the submission of indi- vidual nominations to the National Register of Historic Foggy Island Sites based upon criteria models outlined in Part One of this Tigvagiaq Island study. Such initiative would accomplish both the protection of specific sites already identified and interpreted, while Bibliography and Literature Search allowing the badly needed time for further studies and It should be emphasized again that one of the primary field-work necessary to an intelligent approach to cultural objectives of the Beaufort Sea Study was to explore the resource assessment and protection policies. literature available on the subject in the areas pertinent to Possible Historic District Nominations the interests of the North Slope Borough: history, culture, and subsistence. While these subjects have been em- 1 )The Upper Colville River region phasized and therefore overlie the thesis, they should be 2) The Colville River Delta viewed within the context of impending oil and gas de- 3) The Camden Bay region velopment of the North Slope and Beaufort Sea reserves. 4) The Barrier Islands (to include the region Thetis This being the case, it was felt that issues caught up in the Island to Icy Reef) debate over the demonstrated and potential impact of such 5) The Sadlerochit Mountains region development on this region and its people, must receive some attention as well. Therefore, while an attempt has Possible Historic Site Nominations been made to address the questions of history, culture, and subsistence, the necessity of bringing into the discussion 1) Many of those sites shown on the USGS 1:250,000 environmental, ecological and administrative issues was maps could possibly meet National Register criteria. How- both unavoidable and imperative. 98 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of this decision a formidable number of Moulder, David S. and Allen Varley complex and thorny issues have been mentioned in a 1971 A Bibliography on Marine and Estuarine cursory and unavoidably tenuous manner requiring much Pollution, Laboratory of the Marine Biolog- greater emphasis and substance. It is to be hoped that forth- ical Association of the United Kingdom, coming studies will more adequately fulfill such a need. Citadel Hall (Plymouth, Devon: 1073 en- The following bibliography is intended to be a guide to tries). literature representative of what is available and relevent to National Archives Circular Beaufort Sea issues. Primary and secondary material for 1942 Materials in the National Archives Relating history, culture and subsistence has generally been brought to Alaska (GPO). together under the heading History. Material for scientific Pinchette, Patricia R. studies in the Beaufort Sea region, as they bear on questions 1972 Annotated Bibliography ofPermaftost, Veg- of environment, ecology, and arctic petroleum development itation, and Wildlife landform Relation- have been brought under the heading Scientific Studies. ships, Forest Management Institute, Infor- This listing is, however, by no means intended to be sub- mation Report FMR X-43 (Ottawa: On- stantive and those seeking a more complete bibliography are tario, 500 titles). directed to the heading Bibliographies. Ricks, Melvin B. Material dealing with questions of historic preservation, 1970 A Basic Bibliography of Alaskan Literature: land management, legislation and the official reports and Annotated 4 Vols., (Juneau: typescript 5277 publications by government agencies may be found under multiple listings). the headings Federal Government and State Government. Selkregg, Lidia L. Two smaller headings Theses and Collections will contain 1975 Alaska Regional Profiles, Arctic Region, references to material of a more specialized nature. Sponsored by the State of Alaska, Office of A listing of contributors and those consulted has been the Governor, in Cooperation with the Joint included, to acknowledge the assistance of many libraries Federal-State Land Use Planning Commis- and agencies in locating material for this study, which in sion, Univ. of Alaska, Arctic Environment some cases, supplemented the resources of the Rasmusen Information and Data Center (College). Library, University of Alaska and to provide a convenient Stefansson, Evelyn guide to these resources. 1958 A Bibliographical Exploration of Alaska, in Dartmouth College Library Bull. Vol. 1 no. Bibliographies 3 (April) 55-65. Stefansson, Vilhjalmur ed., 1939 Alaska History Research Project, Docu- 1950 Encyclopedia Arctica, sponsored by Office ments Relating to the History of Alaska, of Naval Research (N.Y.: Stefansson Lib- College. rary). 1953 Arctic Bibliography. Prepared by the Arctic U.S. Library of Congress, Division of Bibliography Institute of North America, with Support of 1943 A Selected List of Recent References, Government Agencies of the United States mimeo (GPO). and Canada, 16 Vols. (GPO). Wickersham, James Brombery, Eric 1927 A Bibliography of Alaskan Literature, 1949 A Bibliography of Theses and Dissertations 1724-1927, Alaska Agricultural College Concerning the Pacific Northwest and and School of Mines (Cordova, Alaska: Alaska, Pacific Northwest Quarterly (July) Cordova Times Printeis). 203-252. Carley, Nora T. comp. Collections 1975 Polar and Cold Regions Library Resources: The British Library, Department of Manuscripts, London A Directory (Ottawa: Northern Libraries The Barrow Bequest, ms. Sir John Barrow's Voyages of Colloquy). Discovery and Research Within the Arctic Regions, Judson, Katherine B. 1845-46 (Add. ms. 3530); The Queen's Illuminated 1913 Subject Index to the History of the Pacific Magazine and North Cornwall Gazette, Published in Northwest and Alaska as found in the U.S. Winter Quarters, Arctic Regions, 28 Oct., 1852- 12 Government Documents, Congressional Feb., 1853 (Add. ms. 35305); Letters to Col. John Bar- Series, American State Papers, and Other row from officers and civilian members of expeditions in Documents, 1789-1881 (Olympia: State search of Sir John Franklin, 1849-1889 (Add. mss. Public Library). 35306-35309); Col. Barrow, Notes on the Stature and 1976 Library Catalog of the Scott Polar Institute, Language of the Pt. Barrow Eskimos (Add. ms. 35308 Cambridge, England, 20 Vols. (Boston: ff. 175-78); Chart Discoveries made in Alaska up to C.K. Hall and Co.). 1817 (Add. ms. 31981 K); and Sketches of the Coastline FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 99 by R. M'Cormick during Franklin Search Expedition, Univ., Cambridge (56M-180 (3) BMS AM 1485). Dif- 1852-53 (Add ms. 33930). fers from USNIP version. Dartmouth College Library Van Valin Collection, University of Alaska, College. Re- Brower, Charles, Autobiographical Notes; typescript ports and Diaries, U.S. Bureau of Education, Alaska ms. from dictation, Stefansson Collection; Brower, Division, villages of Shinuk and Wainwright, 1911- Charles, Original ms of published book Fifty Years 1914. Below Zero, Stefansson Collection; and the Dictionary Wordie Collection of Polar Exploration, Shelf Catalog Catalog of the Stefansson Collection. Collection of (G,K. Hall and Co.: Boston). twenty log books from voyages to the Eastern Arctic, Yale University Library, Sterling Memorial. Brewer Regis- (mostly Canadian). ter and misc. Papers of the Harriman Expedition, 1899; Foote, Don Charles Log Books of the Searler Julian, 1859. Foote Collection, University of Alaska Archives, Col- Zagoskin, Lavrentii. Account of Pedestrian Journeys in the lege. Correspondence, research notes, diaries, papers, Russian Possessions in America in 1842, 43, and 44, pt. articles, and bibliographies relating to research in Arctic 1, St. Petersberg, ms translation, Arctic Institute of Geography; sixty boxes: whaling, sealing, history, ex- North America Library, Montreal. ploration, Eskimo culture, hunting and subsistence, vil- Institutions, Libraries and Agencies Consulted (as com- lage studies, human ecology and demography. piled from Ash, Lee comp., Subject Collections: A Guide Glenbow-Alberta Institute to Special Collections and Subject Emphases as reported by Journals of explorations: Amundson, 1903-06; Universities, Colleges, Public and Special Libraries and Stefansson, 1913-18; Parry, 1918-20; Simpson and De- Museums in the U.S. and Canada, 4th ed. (N.Y.: R.R. ase, 1837-39. Bowker Co., 1974) and Young, Margaret ed., Directory of Harvard University, Houghton Library Special Libraries and Information Centers, 3rd. ed., 2 Howard, William L. Diary of the Point Barrow Expedi- Vols. (Detroit: Gale Research Co., Book Tower, 1974). tion 12th April to 9th August, 1886, unpublished ms.; Howard, Sledging Expedition to the 'no-talk' River, Ist Dec., 1885, unpublished ms.; Widner Library Collec- Alaska Historical Library; American Institute for Explora- tion, General Alaskana (800 items). tion; Arctic Institute of North America; Boston College; National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London The British Museum; Cleveland Public Library; Coastal Collinson mss.; Journal of HMS Enterprise found at Engineering Research Library; Columbia University; Beechey Point in 1937 by Charles Brower. Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement; De Golyer Old Dartmouth Historical Society, New Bedford Foundation Library; Explorers Club of New York; Federal Log books of Arctic whalers numbering approximately Communications Commission Library; The Geological 1,000. Of these, forty are of voyages between Colville Survey Library; Glenbow-Alberta Institute Library; How- and Canning Rivers. ard University Library; Library of Congress; Marine and Royal Geographic Society, London Earth Sciences Library; Marine Historical Association; ms. Chart of the North Polar Sea by Admiral Sir F.L.M. Nantucket Museum Historical Association; Nantucket McClintock (1848-49), originally posted in the Journal Whaling Museum; National Archives, Navy Department; kept when serving in HMS Enterprise in the first National Geographic Society Library; National Maritime Franklin search expedition; ms. map of the Arctic Coast Museum; National Resources Library; Naval Oceanog- of America from Return Reef (of Sir J. Franklin) to Point raphic Office; New Bedford Whaling Museum; New York Barrow (Capt. Beechey), explored by the Honorable Public Library; Peabody Museum; Presbyterian Historical Hudson's Bay Company Northern Discovery Expedi- Library; Public Record Office; Rhode Island Historical tion, 1837, Peter Dease and Thomas Simpson; Printed Society; Royal Geographic Society; Scott Polar Institute; map The Arctic Shores of America and Asia showing the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research Center; U.S. Coast tracks and discoveries ... and of HMS Investigator from Guard Academy; University of Alberta; University of Behring Strait to Mercy Bay by Capt. McClure 1850, California, Berkeley; University of Michigan Library; 51, 52 and 53 ... Coasts Discovered and examined by the University of Oregon Library; University of Wisconsin Officers.. .; printed chart illustrating Lieut. Hooper's (Geographic and Polar Research Center); Vancouver Pub- narrative showing the country of the Tuski and the prog- lic Library; Washington State Library; Yale University Lib- ress of the Boat Expedition, 1853; and various mss. rary; Yukon Archives. Scott Polar Research Institute Collection; catalog, Author, Subject, and Region (303,000 entries). Simpson, William. Diary written on board the Plover, Jan., Federal Government 1848 to Dec., 1850. Unpublished ms. National Maritime 1962 Alaska, Aboriginal Culture, National Sur- Museum, Greenwich, London (JUD/76). vey of Historic Sites and Buildings, Theme Stoney, George M. Narrative of the Expedition to Alaska XVI, Indigenous People and Cultures, Spe- in 1885-1886, ms unsigned. Houghton Library, Harvard cial Study (National Park Service). 100 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1968 Alaska Natives and the Land, Federal Field Hok J. Committee for Development and Planning 1969 A Reconnaissance of Tractor Trails and Re- in Alaska (Anchorage, Oct., 1968). lated Phenomena on the North Slope of 1974 Arctic Institute of North America, The Arc- Alaska, U.S. Dept. of the interior (BLM). tic Coast: A Background ofAvailable Know- Hooper, C.L. ledge, Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps. 1881 Cruise of the Corwin in the Arctic of Engineers. Ocean... 1880 (GPO). 1975 Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center, Alaska Regional Profiles, Arctic 1884 Report on the Revenue Cutter Thomas Cor- Region, sponsored by the State of Alaska, win in the Arctic Ocean... 1881 (GPO). Office of the Governor. Jackson, S. Baker, Marcus 1904 Fourteenth Annual Report on the Introduc- 1906 Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, 2nd ed, tion of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, An- (GPO). nual Rept. of the Bureau of Education, 58th Brooks, Alfred H. Cong. 3rd Sess., Senate Doc. 61, Vol. 2: 1906 The Geography and Geology of Alaska, 4764. Prof. Paper no. 45, (USGS). Jackson, Sheldon Brooks, JW., et. al. 1893 Report on Education in Alaska, 1889-90 1971 Environmental influences of Oil and Gas (GPO). Development in the Arctic Slope and Jarvis, D.H. Beaufort Sea, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 1898 Report of the Cruise of the Bear and the Wildlife Resource, Pub. no. 96 (GPO). Overland Expedition in Relief of the Clark, A.H. Whalers.... (GPO). 1887 The Whale Fishery: History and Present Keller, A.S., R.L. Detterman and R.H. Morris Condition of the Fishing Industries of the 1961 Geology of the Sagvanirktok and Shaviovik U.S., Sec. 5 Vol. 2 (Washington). Rivers Region, Alaska, Prof. Paper no. 303 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act, as (USGS) 169-222. Amended (16 USC. 1451 et. seq.; P.L. King, J.G. 92-583) Sec. 304 (a). 1965 Some Aspects of the Relationship of Eskimos Federal Register and Waterfowl, U.S. Bureau of Sport 1976 Coastal Energy Impact Program, Proposed Fisheriers and Wildlife, Unpublished Regulations for Financial Assistance to mimeo. Coastal States, Vol. 41 no. 206 (October). 1973 Major Ecosystems of Alaska Map, Joint 1972 Final Environmental Impact Statement Federal-State Land Use Planning Commis- Proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline, Federal sion for Alaska. Task Force on Alaskan Oil Development, 6 Miller, D.I., T.G. Payne and George Grye Vols. 1959 Geology of Possible Petroleum provinces in 1974 Final Environmental Statement Proposed Alaska, Bull. no. 1094 (USGS). Gates of the Arctic National Park, Alaska 1920 Mineral Leasing Act, Feb. 25 (41 Stat. 137) Planning Group, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 3 0 USC, 181 et esq. Grye, George Montgomery, D.T. and L.A. 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Steamer Thomas Corwin in the Arctic 1953 Outer Continental ShelfLands Act (43 USC; Ocean in the year 1884 (GPO). 1331-1343). STATE GOVERNMENT 101 Patton, W.W. and I.L. Tailleur U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce 1964 Geology of the Killik - Itkillik Region, 1974 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas De- Alaska, Prof. Paper no. 303-G (USGS) velopment and the Coastal Zone, Prepared 409-500. by the Honorable Warren G. Magnuson, Petroff, Ivan Chairman, for the use of the Committee on 1882 Population, Industries, and Resources of Commerce pursuant to Senate Resolution Alaska, U.S. Dept. of the Interior Census 222, National Ocean Policy Study (GPO). Office (GPO). Wahrhaftig, Clyde Porter, Robert P. 1958 Physiographic Divisions of Alaska, Prof. 1893 Population and Resources of Alaska at the Paper no. 482 (USGS). Eleventh Census, 1890, Dept. of the Inter- 1917 Work of the Bureau of Education for the ior, Census Office (GPO). 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Preservation Report, Division of Parks 1959 Vegetation of the Arctic Slope of Alaska, (Juneau). Prof. Paper no. 302-B (USGS) 19-58. 1971 Alaska's Plan for Management and Conser- Stenmark, Richard J. and T.A. Schroder vation o Heritage Resources, 1971-1976, If 1974 Recreation and Preservation Opportunities, Division of Parks (Anchorage). Arctic Region, Joint Federal-State Land Use Bums, John L. Planning Comm. (Anchorage). 1965 The Walrus in Alaska: Its Ecology and U.S. Coast Pilot no. 9 Management, Alaska Dept. of Fish and 1964 Pacific and Arctic Coasta, Alaska, Cape Game, Div. of Game (Juneau). Spencer to the Beaufort Sea 7th ed., (GPO). 1976 Department of Community and Regional Af- U.S. Congress fairs, Div. of Community Planning, Alaska 1971 Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act Coastal Management Program, Local Pro- (P.L. 92-203). gram Development Grants, Preliminary U.S. Congress, Senate Guidelines (Juneau). 1974 Land Planning and Policy in Alaska, 93rd 1975 Environmental Standards for Northern Re- Cong., 2nd Sess. (GPO). gions: A Symposium, June 13-14, 1974, In- U.S. Department of the Interior (BLM) stitute of Water Resources, Univ. of Alaska, n.d. Draft Environmental Statement: Proposed College. Increase in Acreage to be offered for Oil and Hemming, J.E. Gas Leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf 1971 The Distribution and Movement Patterns of (GPO). Caribou in Alaska, State of Alaska, Dept. of U.S. Department of Commerce, Fish and Game Tech. Bull. no. I (Juneau). Office of Coastal Zone Management 1970 Historic Preservation in Alaska, Legislative 1976 Rules and Regulations of the Coastal Zone Affairs Agency, Sixth State Legislature Impact Program, Staff Working Draft (Juneau). (GPO). Kogl, DR. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1971 Monitoring and Evaluation ofArctic Waters 1970 Reconnaissance Rept. on the Impact on Fish with Emphasis on the North Slope Drain- and Wildlife Resources of the North Slope ages, Colville River Study, State of Alaska, Oil Development.... (Juneau). Dept. of Fish and Game, Project no. F-5-R- I I (Juneau). 102 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS Li1jeblad, Sue E. and C.M. Brown Aldrich, Herbert L. 1976 A Guide to Historic Preservation Research 1889 Arctic Alaska and Siberia, or Eight Months and Preservation Planning in Alaska, Misc. With the Arctic Whalemen. N.Y.: Rand Publications History and Archaeology McNally and Co. 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Barrow, Sir John Smith, Michael E. 1881 A Chronological History of Voyages Into 1974 Alaska's Historic Road Houses, Office of the Arctic Regions. London: David and Statewide Programs, Div. of Parks (Boul- Charles Reprints (1971). der, Colorado). Beechey, F.W. Smith, Theodore G. 1831 A Narrative of Voyages to the Pacific and 1969 Alaska State Park System, 1970-1976, Bering's Strait to Cooperate With the Polar Alaska Div. of Lands (Anchorage). Expedition Performed by HMS 'Blos- Thompson, Linda Kay som'... in the Years 1825, 26, 27 and 28. 1972 Alaska's Abandoned Towns; Case Studies 2 vols. London: A. Colburn and R. Bentley. for Preservation and Interpretation, Div. of Berry, Mary C. Parks (Juneau). 1975 The Alaska Pipeline: The Politics of Oil and 1976 Traditional Land Use Inventory, North Native Land Claims. Bloomington: Indiana Slope Borough, National Petroleum Re- Univ. Press. serves in Alaska (Barrow). Bicchieri, M.G. ed., History; Subsistence and Culture 1972 Hunters and Gathers Today. N.Y.: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Books Birket-Smith, Kaj 1976 Alaska's National Interest Lands (d-2): A 1936 The Eskimos. London: Methune and Co. Survey of Current Congressional Proposals, Ltd. Cooperative Extension Service, Univ. Of Bland, Laurel L. Alaska (College). 1972 The Northern Eskimos of Alaska: A Source 1975 Alaska Sea Grant Project, Social and Book. Alaska Methodist Univ, Economic Assessment qfA laska Outer Con- 1826 HMS Blossom. Ships Log Book, July to Sep- tinental Shelf Petroleum Development, tember, 1826. Royal Geographic Society, Univ. of Alaska (College). London. IIISTORY, SUBSISTENCE AND CULTURE 103 Bodfish, J.E. Dosman, Edgar J. 1936 Chasing the Bowhead. Cambridge: Harvard 1975 The National Interest: The Politics of Univ. Press. Northern Development, 1958-1975. To- Brower, Charles ronto: McClelland and Stewart. 1942 Fifty Years Below Zero. N.Y.: Dodd, Mead Durham, Floyd E. and Co., Inc. 1973 Ancient and Current Methods of Taking the Brown, Tom Bowhead Whale. Univ. of Alaska, Sea 1971 Oil On Ice: Alaskan Wilderness at the Grant Rept. no. 73-9. Crossroads. San Francisco: Sierra Club. 1938 Federal Writers Project. Whaling Masters Burney, James Voyagers, 1731-1925. New Bedford: Old 1819 Chronological History of the Northeastern Dartmouth Historical Society. Voyages of Discovery. London. Ford, James A. Caswell, J.E. 1959 Eskimo Pre-history in the vicinity of Point 1956 Arctic Frontiers: U.S. Explorations in the Barrow, Alaska. Anthropological Papers of Far North. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma the American Museum of Natural History Press. Vol. 47 pt. 1. New York. Collins, George L. Foote, Don C. n.d. Northeast Arctic: The Last Great Wilder- 1959 The Economic Base and Seasonal Activities ness. San Francisco: Sierra Club. of Some Northwestern Alaska Villages: A Collins, Henry B. Jr. Preliminary Study. 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London: Grubser, N.J.- Royal Geographic Society Vol. VIII (213- 1965 The Nunamiut Eskimos: Hunters of 225). Caribou. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. 104 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS Hadley, J.R. Kelly, J.W. 1915 Whaling Off the Alaska Coast: From the 1890 Arctic Eskimos in Alaska and Siberia. Journal of Jack Hadley of Point Barrow, Natural History and Ethnology Bull. no. 3. Alaska. N.Y.: American Geographical Soc- Washington. iety Bull. no. 47 (905-92 1). Lantis, Margaret Hall, Edwin S. Jr. ed., 1947 Alaskan Eskimo Ceremonialism. American 1976 Contributions to Anthropology: The Interior Ethnology Society Monograph no. 11. New Peoples of Northern Alaska. The National York: J.J. Austin. Museum of Canada. Ottawa. Hegarty, Reginald B. 1959 Returns of Whaling Vessels Sailing From 1952 Present Status of the Alaskan Eskimos. Sci- American Ports, 1876-1928. New Bedford: ence in Alaska, Arctic Institute of North Old Dartmouth Historical Society. America: Fairbanks. (3 8-5 1). Hippler, Arthur E. Larsen, H. and F.G. Rainey 1969 Some Observations on the Persistence of 1948 1piutak and the Arctic Whale Hunting Cul- Alaska Native Village Populations. Univ. of ture. Anthropology Papers, American Alaska, ISEGR. Museum of Natural History no. 42. New Holmes, Lewis York. 1857 The Arctic Whalemen. Boston: Wentworth. Laughlin, W.S, Honigmann, John J. and Irma 1967 Human Migration and Permanent Occupa- 1970 Arctic Townsmen: Ethnic Backgrounds and tion in the Bering Sea Area in D.M. Hop- Modernization. Ottawa: St. Paul Univ. kins ed., The Bering LandBridge. Hooper, William H. Leopold, A.S. and F.F. Darling 1853 Ten Months Among the Tents of the Tuski, 1953 Effects of Land Use on Moose and Caribou With Incidents of an Arctic Boat Expedition in Alaska. Transactions of 18th North in Search of Sir John Franklin as Far as the American Wildlife Conference, Wildlife Mackenzie River and Cape Bathhurst. Lon- Management Institute: Washington. Hughes, C.C. don: J. Murray. 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Osborn ed., The Discovery of the Northwest 1953 An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Passage by HMS Investigator, Capt. R. Lower Colville River and Delta Regions. ms M'Glure, 1851-52, 53, and 54. London: J. Naval Arctic Research Library. Murray. Manning, Harvey 1974 Cry Crisis: Rehearsal in Alaska, A Case 1954 Preliminary Rept. on an Archaeological Re- Study of What Government by Oil did to connaissance in the Western Part of the Alaska and does to the Earth. San Fran- Brooks Range. Submitted to the American cisco: Friends of the Earth. Academy of Arts and Sciences: Boston. Marshall, Robert Jenness, Diamond 1970 Alaska Wilderness: Exploring the Central 1964 Dawn in Arctic Alaska. Minneapolis: Univ. Brooks Range. Berkeley: Univ. Of Calif. of Minnesota Press. Press. IFUSTORY, SUBSISTENCE AND CULTURE 105 Miertsching, Johann Perry, William E. 1967 Frozen Ships: The Arctic Diary of Johann 1824 Journal of a Second Voyage of Discovery of Miertsching. Toronto: Macmillan. the Northwest Passage. London: J. Murray. Mikkelson, Ejnar Rasmussen, Knud 1909 Conquering the Arctic Ice. London: W. 1927 Across Arctic America: Narrative of the Heinemann. Fifth Thule Expedition. N.Y.: G.P. Putnum Milan, Frederick A. and Sons. 1958 Observations on the Contemporary Eskimo Rainey, Froelich G. of Waineright, Alaska. Technical Rept. 1947 The Whale Hunters of Tigara. Vol. 41 pt. 2 57-14, Arctic Aeromed Lab. Ladd AFB, Anthropological Papers of the American Fairbanks. Museum of Natural History. Miller, M. Reed, J.C. 1935 The Great Trek: The Story of the Five Year 1958 Exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve no. Drive of a Reindeer Herd through the Icy 4 and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska, Waters of Alaska and Northwestern Canada. 1944-1953., pt. 1, History of Exploration. N.Y.: Doubleday. Prof. Paper no. 301 USGS. Milton, J.P. Rice, Dale W. 1970 Nameless Valleys; Shining Mountains: The 1964 Eskimo Whale Hunting in Arctic Alaska. Record of an Expedition to the Vanishing U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Seattle. Wilderness of Alaska's North Slope. N.Y.: Rice, Pamala L. Walker. 1973 The National Park System in Alaska: An Moore, T.E.L. Economic Impact Study. Univ. of Alaska, 1850 General Proceedings of Comdr. T.E.L. Rept. no. 75 ISEGR. Moore, HMS Plover, Sept., 1849-Sept., Richards, E.A. 1850. British Blue Books Vol. 33 (28-40). 1949 Arctic Mood. Caldwell: Caxton Printers. Murray, Alexander Richardson, John 1910 Journal of the Yukon, 1847-48. Ottawa: 1951 Arctic Searching Expedition. 2 vols. Lon- Government Printing Bureau. don: Longman, Brown, Green and Nelson, R.K. Longman. 1966 Alaska Eskimo Exploitation of Summer Sea Rohmer, Richard Ice. Progress Rept. no. 3. Univ. of Wiscon- 1973 The Arctic Imperative: An Overview of the sin: NARL. Energy Crisis. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, Ltd. 1969 Hunters of the Ice. Chicago: Univ. of Scammon, Charles H. Chicago Press. 1874 Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Nourse, Joseph E. Coast of North America. N.Y.: G.P. Put- 1884 American Explorations in the Ice Zones. 3rd nam. ed. Boston. Schneider, William S. and Peter Bowers Olson, Dean F. 1976 Preliminary Cultural Resource Assessment: 1969 Alaska Reindeer Herdsmen: A Study of Na- National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska tive Management in Transition. Univ. of (NPR-4). ms. Univ. of Alaska. Alaska, Rept. no. 22, ISEGR. Schrader, F.C. Oquilluk, William A. 1904 A Reconnaissance of Alaska Across the 1973 People of Kauwerak: Legends of the North- Rocky Mountains Along the Koyukuk, John, ern Eskimo. Anchorage: Alaska Methodist Anaktuvuk and Colville Rivers and the Arc- Univ. tic Coast to Cape Lisburne, in 1901. Proof Osborn, Sherard Paper no. 20. USGS. 1852 Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal, or Seeman, Berthold C. Eighteen Months in the Polar Regions in 1853 Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Herald Search of Sir John Franklin's Expedition in During the Years 1845-51; Under Com- the Years, 1850-51. London: Longman, mand of Captain Henry Kellett.... London: Brown, Green, etc. Reeve and Co., Ltd. Senungetuk, J.E. 1856 The Discovery of the Northwest Passage by 1971 Give or Take a Century: An Eskimo Chroni- HMS Investigator, Captain R. M'Clure. cle. San Francisco: The Indian Historian London: Longman, Brown Green, Etc. Press. 106 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS Sherwood, Morgan Thornton, H.R. 1965 Explorations in Alaska, 1865-1900. New 1931 Among the Eskimos of Whales, Alaska, Haven: Yale Univ. Press. 1890-93. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Simpson, Thomas Press. 1843 Narrative of the Discoveries on the North- Van Stone, JW. ern Coast of America Effected by the Offic- 1962 Point Hope: An Eskimo Village in Transi- ers of the Hudson's Bay Co. During the tion. 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Leopold 1952 What's Happening in Alaska, Animal King- dom Vol. 55 (170-174). Debetz, G. 1961 The Tuktu Complex ofAnaktuvuk Pass, An- 1959 The Skeletal Remains of the 1piutak Cemet- thro. Papers of the Univ. of Alaska, Vol. 9 ary Actas del 33 Congresso Internacional de no. 2 (62-80). Americanistas, Vol. 33, San Carlos, Costa Rica (157-164). DeLaguna, Frederica 1968 Territoriality Among Ancient Hunters: In- 1952 Preservation of Archaeological and Ethno terpretationsfirom Ethnography and Nature, graphical Material in Alaska, Alaska Sci- in Anthropological Archaeology in the ence Conference (52-59). Americas, Anthro. Soc. of Washington (1- Ekblaw, Walter E. 21). 1926 The Material Response of the Polar Eskimos Carter, L.S. to Their Far Arctic Environment, Annals of 1969 North Slope Oil Rush, Science Vol. 169 the Assoc. of American Geographers Vol. (October: 85-92). 18 no. 4. Chance, Norman Ellis, William S. 1970 Directed Change in Northern Peoples, in 1971 Will Oil and Tundra Mix?, National Geog- George W. Rogers ed., Change in Alaska raphic (October: 485-517). Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press (180- Fisher, Joseph L. 195). 1970 Alaska Oil in Historical Perspective, in Ro- gers, Change in Alaska (15-23). 1960 Cultural Change and Integration: An Es- Ford, Carey kimo Example, American Anthro. Vol. 62 1953 Is Alaska's Wildlife Doomed?, in three no. 6 (December: 1028-1044). parts, Field and Stream Vol. LVII no. 10 (February) 32-33+; (March) 40-42+; (April) 63-64+. 1960 Investigation of the Adjustment of the Es- Giddings, J.L. Jr. kimos at Barter Island, Alaska, to Rapid 1956 Forest Eskimos, Univ. of Penna. Museum Cultural Changes, Arctic Vol. 13 no. 3 Bull. Vol. 20 no. 2 (June). 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Canada, in Alaska Conference of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, National Re- search Council, Washington (November: 1971 The Prehistory of the Upper Koyukuk River 60-65). Region in North Central Alaska, in Final Johnson, H. and H. Jorgenson Rept. of the Excavations Along the 1963 The Land Resources ofAlaska: A Conserva- Aleyeska Service Co. Pipeline Route, Dept. tion Foundation Study, Univ. Publications. of Anthro, Univ. of Alaska (326-400). Judge,Joseph Hone, Elizabeth, comp. 1975 Alaska: Rising Northern Star, National 1934 The Present Status of the Muskox in Arctic Geographic (June: 730-767). North America and Greenland, American Lantis, M. Comm. for International Wildlife Protec- 1938 Alaskan Whale Cult and its Affinities, tion, Philadelphia (8, 35-38). American Anthro. Vol - 40 (43 8-464). 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Papers of the Lucier, Charles Univ. of Alaska Vol. I no. 2 (55-85). 1958 Noatagmuit Eskimo Myths, Anthro. Papers of the Univ, of Alaska Vol. 6. no. 2 (89- 118). 1962 1961 Field Work in the Western Brooks Mason, John A. Range, Alaska: Preliminary Report, Arctic 1930 Excavations of Eskimo Thule Culture Sites Anthro. Vol. I no. 1 (76-83). at Point Barrow, Alaska, Proceedings of the Irwin, Colin 23d Congress of Americanists, New York: 1974 Trek Across Arctic America, National (383-394). Geographic (March: 295-321). McLenegan, S.B. Jeffery, David 1885 Exploration of the Noatak River, Alaska, in 1975 Our Last Great Wilderness, National Geog- Rept. of the Cruise of the Revenue Cutter Corwin (GPO). raphic (June: 769-7990). Milan, Frederick A. Jenness, Diamond 1970 The Demography of an Alaskan Eskimo Vil- 1966. Administration olf Northern Peoples: Ameri- lage, American Anthro. Vol. V11 no. I ca's Eskimos-Pawns of History, in R. St. (26-43). ARTICLES 109 Mills, W. Rasmussen, Knud 1970 Arctic Refuge, Sierra Club Bull. Vol. 55 no. 1933 Adjustment of the Eskimo to European 4(4-7). Civilization With Special Emphasis on the Milton, J.P. Alaska Eskimos, Proceedings of the 5th 1969 Arctic Walk, Natural History Vol. 78 no. 5 Pacific Science Conference no. 4. Toronto: (44-53). Univ. of Toronto Press (2884-2896). n.a. Mr. Mikkelson's Ice Expedition in the Rainey, F.G. Beaufort Sea, Geographic Journal 1942 Discovering Alaska's Oldest Arctic Town, (517-524). National Geographic (September: 319-336). Murdoch, J. 1891 Whale Catching at Point Barrow, Popular Science Monthly Vol. 38 (830-36). 1941 Natural Economy and Survival in Arctic Alaska, Applied Anthro. Vol. I no. 1 (Oc- tober: 9-14). 1888 The Eskimo Tribes: A Review, American Rausch, Robert Anthro. Vol. 1 (125-133). 1951 Notes on the Nunamiut Eskimo and Mam- mals of the Anaktuvuk Pass Region, Brooks Range, Alaska, Arctic Vol. no. 3 (De- 1898 The Animals Known to the Eskimos of cember: 147-195). Northwest Alaska, American Nature Vol. Rearden, Jim 32 no. 382 (719-734). 1974 Caribou: Hardy Nomads of the North, Na- tional Geographic (December: 858-878). Rock, Howard 1884 Fish and Fishing at Point Barrow, Arctic 1954 Arctic Survival, Tundra Times Vol. 3 no. 2 Alaska, Trans-American Fish Cultural As- (26 October: n.p.). soc., 13th Meeting (111- 115). Scott, R.F. 1951 Wildlife in the Economy of Alaska Natives, Transactions of the North American 1893 Seal Catching at Point Barrow, Smithsonian Wildlife Conference Vol. 16. Misc. Collection Vol. 34 (102-108). Shapiro, H.L. Murie, M.E. 1931 The Alaskan Eskimo: A Study of the Rela- 1960 We Explore the Sheenjek, Alaska Sportsman tionship Between the Eskimo and the Vol. 26 no 2 (10-13). Chipewewyan Indians of Central Canada. Nelson, T. Seaton, E.T. 1896 The Eskimo about the Bering Strait, Bureau 1906 The Caribou and its Kindred, Scribner's of Ethnology Annual Rept. Magazine Vol. 39 (426-443). Neuman, Dr. Daniel S. Simpson, John 1917 Locomotion in the Stone Age, The Eskimo 1875 The Western Eskimo, in A Selection of Pap- Vol. 2 no. 2 (October: 1-3). ers on Arctic Geography and Ethnology, Royal Geographic Society, London: J. Mur- 1918 Nature Study in the Stone Age, The Eskimo ray(233-275). Vol. 2 no. 7 (March: 2, 5-6). Spencer, Robert F. 1970 Outer Continental [email protected], in One Third of the Nations Land: A Report to the President and 1954 Forms of Cooperation in the Culture of the the Congress by the Public Land Law Re- Barrow Eskimo, Proceedings of the Alaska view Comm., Washington. Conference (130-132). Paneak,S. Solecki, Ralph 1960 We Hunt to Live, Alaska Sportsman Vol. 26 1950 A Preliminary Report of an Archaeological no. 3 (12-13). Reconnaissance of the Kukpowruk and Parry, Albert Kokolik Rivers in Northwestern Alaska, 1945 Yankee Whalers in Siberia, The Russian American Antiquity Vol. 16 no. 1 (66-69). Review Vol. 5 no. 2 (36-49). Pospisal, L. 1964 Law and Social Structure Among the 1950 Archaeology and Ecology of the Arctic Nunamiut Eskimos, in W.H. Goodinough Slope ofAlaska, Annual Rept. of the Smith- ed., Explorations in Cultural Anthropology. sonian Institution for 1950. Washington N.Y.: McGraw Hill (#95-43 1). (469-495). 110 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS Wiggins, Ira 1953 North ofAnaktuvik, Pacific Discovery Vol. 1950 New Data on the Inland Eskimos of North- 6(8-15). ern Alaska, Journal of the Washington Woolfe, Henry D. Academy of Sciences Vol. 40 no. 5. 1893 The Seventh Census or Arctic District," in Sonnenfield, J. Robert Porter, Report on the Population and 1959 An Arctic Reindeer Industry: Growth and Resources of Alaska, I Ith Census of the Decline, Geographic Review Vol. 49 no. I U.S., 1890 (GPO). (76-94). Stefansson, V. Scientific Studies 1937 Food of the Ancient and Modern Stone Age Books Man, Journal of the American Dietary As- Allas, R.M. soc. Vol. 13 no. 2 (July: 102-119). 1973 Fate and Effects of Oil Pollution in Ex- tremely Cold Marine Environments, Final Report of Project NAS 7-100 RD-65 for 1909 Northern Alaska in Winter, American U.S. Office of Naval Research. Geographic .Society Vol. 41 (601-610). Ayers, R.C. Jr. et aL, Stevenson, Alex n.d. Oil Spills in the Arctic Ocean; The Extent 1969 Whalers Wait, North Vol. 15 no. 5 of Spreading and Possibility of Large Scale (24-31). Thermal Effects, Esso Production Research Co. (unpublished). Banfield, A.W.F. 1969 Herschel Haven, North Vol. 15 no. 6 (24- 1951 The Barren Ground Caribou. Canadian 32). Dept. of Residential Development, North- ern Admin. and Lands Bureau: Ottawa. Bailey, A.M. 1969 Lawless Land, North Vol. 16 no. 1 (23-3 1). 1948 Birds of Arctic Alaska. Colorado Museum Van Stone, James of Natural History Popular Series no. 8: 1960 A Successful Combination of Subsistence Denver. and Wage Economies on the Village Level, Bartonek, J.C. Economic Development and Cultural n.d. Arctic Slope and Trans-Alaska Pipeline Change Vol. 8 no. 2 (January: 174-19 1). Task Force Report. The Bird Resources of Alaska's Arctic Slope and Petroleum Development. Northern Prairie Research 1958 Commercial Whaling in the Arctic Ocean, Center: Jamestown. Pacific Northwest Quarterly Review Vol. 1966 Bering Sea and Strait Pilot. 4th edn. Hyd- 49 no. 1 (1-10). rographer of the Navy: Beaufort Sea Charts 2435, 2443. Point Barrow to Demarcation Pt. Chart no. 593 (420-423), London. 1952 Notes on the 19th Century Trade in the Kot- 1974 Beaufort Sea Coast and Shelf Research zebue Sound Area, Alaska, Arctic An- Symposium. The Coast and Shelf of the thropology Vol. I no. I (n.p.). Beaufort Sea. San Francisco: Arctic Insti- tute of North America. 1970 Beaufort Sea Environmental Data, 1968- 1964 Some Aspects of Religious Change Among 1969. Institute of Marine Science, Univ. of Native Inhabitants of West Alaska and the Alaka Rept. no. R70-20. Northwest Territories, Arctic Anthro. Vol. Brooks, James W. 2 no. 2 (21-24). 1954 A Contribution to the Life History and Ecol- Weeden, Robert ogy of the Pacific Walrus. Special Rept. no. 1970 Arctic Petroleum Development and En- 1, Alaska Cooperative Wildlife Research vironmental Degradation, in Rogers ed., Unit: College. Change in Alaska (153-62). Brown, J. et a]. Weistart, John C. ed., n.d. Effect of Disturbance on Permafrost Ter- 1971 Historic Preservation," Law and Contem- rain. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research porary Problems, School of Law, Duke and Engineering Lab., Special Rept. no. University Vol. XXXVI no. 3 (315-444). 138, Hanover: N.H. SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ill Burnell, D.C. comp. Lewellen, R. 1970 Beaufort Sea Environmental Data, USCG 1970 Permafrost Erosion Along the Beaufort Sea Cutter Northwind, 1968, Univ. of Alaska: Coast. Privately Printed. College. Lewis, C.R. Bums, J.J. and J. E. Morrow 1959 Geology of Barter Island and the Alaska 1973 The Alaska Arctic Mammals and Fisheries. Arctic Coast. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fifth Inter. Congress Arctic Oil and Gas: Geological Survey, Military Geology Problems and Possibilities. Rept. no. 303. Branch Preliminary Rept. of the Mt. Dunbar, M.J. Chamberlin-Barter Island Project, 1958. 1968 Ecological Development in Polar Regions: U.S. Air Force: Cambridge Research A Study in Evolution. Center. Durrer, J.L. and J.P. Hanson 1974 Life Histories of Freshwater Fishes in 1961 Seasonal Variations in the Caloric Intake of Beaufort Sea Drainages, Yukon Territory. Dogs Living in an Arctic Environment. Arc- Canadian Arctic Gas Study Co. tic Aeromed Lab., Ft. Wainwright: Fair- Linnel, K.A. and G. Johnson banks. 1973 Engineering Design and Construction in 1974 Environmental Studies of an Arctic Es- Permaftost Regions-A Review. Permafrost; tuarine System. Final Rept. V, Univ. of Second Inter. Permafrost Conference, North Alaska, Institute of Marine Sciences Sea American Contribution, National Academy Grant Rept. 73-16. of Sciences. Feder, Howard M. comp. 1976 The Arctic Coastal Environment of Alaska. Nelson, R. and William Sackinger Univ. of Alaska, Institute of Marine Sci- 1977 Experimental Measurements of Sea Ice ences Sea Grant Rept. 76-3. Stresses Near Grounded Structures. Univ. 1975-76 Geophysical Institute, Univ. of Alaska An- of Alaska, Geophysical Institute, in Annual nual Rept. Research Projects: Beaufort Sea. Rept. Glaesar, J.L. College. Ostercamp, Thomas 1975 A Conceptual Model of Offshore Perma- 1971 A Discussion of the Future Oil S ill Prob- ftost. Univ. of Alaska, Institute of Marine p Sciences Sea Grant Retp. 75-3. lems in the Arctic. Joint Conference on Pre- vention and Control of Oil Spills, American Payne,,T.G. et. al. Petroleum Institute (479-489). 1951 Geology of the Arctic Slope of Alaska Oil Johnson, M.W. and Gas Investig *ation Map OM 126. 1956 The Plankton of the Beaufort and Chuckchi USGS: Washington. Sea Areas of the Arctic and Its Relation to 1975 Resource Planning Associates, Onshore Im- the Hydrology, Arctic Institute of North pacts of Oil and Gas Development in Alaska America Tech. Paper no. 1. Prepared For the U.S. Environmental Pro- tectionAgency: Cambridge. Kinney, P.S. et al. Rogers, S. 1971 Baseline Study of the Alaskan Arctic Aquatic 1976 Beaufort Sea Permafrost Studies. Univ. of Environment, Univ. of Alaska Institute of Alaska, Geophysical Institute. Marine Sciences Rept . no. R 72- 3. Kline, D.R. Scott, E.M. and C.A. Heller 1973 The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas De- 1962 Nutrition of a Northern Population. Confer- velopment in the Northern Environment, ence on Medical and Public Health in the Proceedings of the 3rd Inter. Congress, Arctic and Anarctic, Conference doc. no. Rome: Italy. 18, World Health Organization: Geneva. Le Resche, R.E. Shapiro, Lewis A. 1972 The International Herds: Present Know- 1975 A Preliminary Study of the Formation of ledge of the Forlymile and Porcupine Car- Land Fast Ice at Barrow, Alaska. Univ. of ribou Herds, Proceedings First Rangifer Alaska, Geophysical Institute. Symposium. Sharma, Nidu A. Lent, Peter 1972 Texture, Minerology and Chemistry of Arc- 1960 Caribou Investigations, Northwest Alaska. tic Ocean Sediments. Univ. of Alaska Insti- Univ. of Alaska, Biology Dept. tute of Marine Science. 112 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS Short, A.D. et al. Bums, JJ. and J.E. Morrow 1974 Beach Dynamics and Nearshore Morphol- n.d. The Alaska Arctic Marine Mammals and ogy of the Beaufort Sea Coast, Alaska, Fisheries, in Oil and Gas: Problems and Beaufort Sea Coast and Shetf Research: A Possibilities, Fifth Inter. Congress: Foun- Symposium: Arctic Institute of North dation Francaise D'etudes Nordiques America. (mimeo). Stringer, W.S. Carsola, A.J. 1974 The Morphology of Beaufort Sea Shorefast 1960 Bathymetry of the Beaufort Sea, in Geology Ice. Beaufort Sea Symposium. San Fran- of the Arctic, First Inter. Symposium on cisco: Arctic Institute of North America. Arctic Geology (678-689). 1973 Symposium of the Impact of Oil Resource Coachman, L.K. Development on the Northern Plant 1969 Physical Oceanography in the Arctic Ocean, Community. Proceedings. Univ. of Alaska Arctic Vol. 22 no. 3 (219-24). Institute,of Arctic Biology. Dixon, J.S. Walker, H.J. 1943 Birds Observed Between Point Barrow and 1973 Morphology of the North Slope in Alaska Herschel Island On the Arctic Coast of Arctic Tundra. Arctic Institute of North Alaska, Condor Vol. 45 (49-57). America Tech. Paper no. 25. Heinbecker, Peter 1928 Studies on the Metabolism of Eskimos, Jour- nal of Biological Chemistry Vol. 80 (461- 1974 River Overflow into the Beaufort Sea. Pre- 475). sented at the Symposium on the Beaufort Sea Hume, JD. and M. Schalk Coastal and Shelf Research, Arctic Institute 1967 Shoreline Process Near Barrow, Alaska: A of North America. Comparison of the Normal and the Catas- Wiggins, I.L. and J. Thomas trophic, Arctic Vol. 20 (86-103). 1962 A Flora of the Alaska Arctic Slope. Arctic Johnson, Philip L. Institute of North America. 1969 Arctic Plants: Ecosystems and Strategies, Wilson, H.P. Arctic Vol. 32 no. 3 (341-353). 1974 Wind and Currents in the Beaufort Sea, in Beaufort Sea and Coastal Shelf Research Symposium. Arctic Institute of North 1970 Ecological Strategies or Technological America. Tragedy?, Arctic Institute of North Wiseman, W.J. et. al. America Rept. on Alaskan Ecology (1-13). 1974 Characteristics of the Alaskan Arctic Near- Kessel Brina and T.J. Code shore Oceanographic Environment, 1958 Birds of the Colville River, Northern Beaufort Sea and Coastal Shelf Research Alaska, Univ. of Alaska Biology Papers Symposium. Vol. 4 (59). Articles Koranda, J.J. Anderson, J.P. 1972 The North Slope of Alaska Its Physiog- raphy, Fauna and Flora, Alaska Geog- 1939 Plants Used by the Eskimos in the North raphic Vol. I no. 1 (1-37). Bering Sea and Arctic Regions of Alaska, Mac Carthy, Gerald R. American Journal of Botany Vol. 26 1953 Recent Changes in the Shoreline at Point Aronson, J.D. (714-16). Barrow, Alaska, Arctic Vol. 6 no. 1 (44- 1951 The Medical History of Alaska," Proceed- 51). ings of the Alaska Science Conference Bull. MacGinitie, G.E. no. 22, National Resource Council (April). 1955 Distribution and Ecology of The Marine In- Barry, T.W. vertebrates ofPoint Barrow, Alaska, Smith- 1968 Observations on Natural mortality and Na- sonian Misc. Collections Vol. 128 no. 9. tive Use of Eider Ducks Along the Beaufort Pitelka, F.A. Sea Coast, Canadian Field Naturalist Vol. 1969 Ecological Studies on the Alaska Arctic Brown J. 82 no. 2 (140-144). Slope, Arctic Vol. 22 (333-340). 1970 Structure and Function of the Tundra Reed, E.B. Ecosystem at Barow, Alaska, Proceedings 1962 Freshwater Plankton Crustacea of the Col- of the Conference on Productivity (41-7 1). ville River Area, Arctic Vol. 15 (27-50). THESES AND DISSERTATIONS 113 Rice, S.D. Chesemore, Daniel L. 1973 Toxicity and Avoidance Tests with Prudhoe 1967 Ecology of the Arctic Fox in Northern and Bay Oil and Pink Salmon Fry, Proceedings Western Alaska. M.S., Univ. of Alaska. Joint Conference on Prevention and Control Crook, James L. of Oil Sills: American Petroleum Institute 1971 Determination of the Abundance and Dis- (167-170). tribution ofBrown Bear North of the Brooks Schofield, E. and W. Hamilton Range, Alaska. M.S., Univ. of Alaska. 1970 Probable Damage to Arctic Ecosystems Foote, Don through Air Pollution Effects on Lichens, 1965 Exploration and Resource Utilization in Alaska Science Conference Proceedings Northwestern Arctic Alaska Before 1855. (271-291). Unpublished PhD., Dept. of Geography, Wagner, F.J.E. McGill Univ.: Montreal. 1972 Molluscan Fauna as Indicators of Late Hall, Edwin S. Pleistocene History-Southeast Beaufort Sea, 1966 'Kangiguksuk': A Cultural Reconstruction 29th Inter. Geological Congress; Section 8: of a 16th Century Eskimo Site in Northern Marine Geology and Geophysics (252- Alaska. Unpublished PhD., Yale Univ. 261). Humphrey R. Jr. Weller, Gunter 1962 The Prehistory of the Arctic Slope ofAlaska, 1976- Outer Continental Assessment Program in Pleistocene. Unpublished PhD., Univ. of the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Bull. National Sci- New Mexico. ence Foundation Vol. 2 no. 9 (125-142). Irving, W.N. White, Clayton et a]. 1964 Punyik Point and the Arctic Small Tool 1971 Cliff-Nesting Raptors and Ravens Along the Tradition. Unpublished PhD., Dept. of An- Colville River in Arctic Alaska, The Living thro., Univ. of Wisconsin. Bird no. 10: Cornell Lab. of Ornithology Johnson, L.L. (107-150). 1971 The Migration, Harvest and Importance of Wilimousky, Norman - Waterfowl at Barrow, Alaska. M.S., Univ. 1956 The Utilization ofFishery Resources by Arc- of Alaska. tic Alaskan Eskimos, Natural History Pegau, Robert E. Museum: Stanford Univ. Occ. Papers no. 2. 1968 Reindeer Range Appraisal in Alaska. M.S., Univ. of Alaska. Theses and Dissertations Ricciardelli, Alex F. Alexander, H.L. Jr. 1953 The Causes Which Have led to the Aban- 1969 Prehistory of the Central Brooks Range: An donment of the Arctic Slope ofAlaska. M.A. Archeological Analysis. Unpublished PhD., Univ. of Penna. Dept. of Anthro., Univ. of Oregon. Skoog, R.O. Bacon, Glenn H. 1968 Ecology of the Caribou in Alaska. PhD., 1972 Archaeological Survey and Excavation Near Univ. of Calif. Murphy Lake in the Arctic Foothills, North- Sonnenfeld, J. ern Alaska. M.A., Univ. of Alaska (Col- 1957 Changes in Subsistence Among the Barrow lege). Eskimos. PhD., John Hopkins Univ. Campbell, J.M. Spetzman, L.A. 1962 Anaktuvuk Prehistory: A Study in Environ- 1951 Plant Geography and Ecology of the Arctic mental Adaptation. Unpublished PhD., Slope ofAlaska. M.A. Univ. of Minnesota. Dept. of Anthro., Yale Univ. Challinor J.L. Vigoren, Vern 1971 Vehicle Perturbation Effects Upon A 1973 The Politics of Environmental Action Tundra-Soil-Plant System. M.A., Univ. of Groups and the Effect on Alaska's Oil In- California. dustry. M.A. Univ. of Alaska: Anchorage. NOAA COASTAL SERVICES CTR LIBRARY 3 6668 14110078 6