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Coastal Zone information Center 0 J Q:D rcD 00 0 GB 45-9.4 03-8 1974 V. 4 H. T. Odum B. I Copekand 19. A. McMmhmn oastal Zone f i] I Ena on orm t Center M edited by H. T. Odum University of Florida B. J. Copeland North Carolina State University at Raleigh E. A. McMahan University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill published by The Conservation Foundation Washington, D.C. in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Coastal Environment 'us Deipartment of Contmerce NOAA coastal services center LibraW 2234 South Robson Avenue Ch&rI0Bt0ZL, SC 29405-2413 The Conservation Foundation is a non- profit organization dedicated to encouraging human conduct to sustain and enrich life on earth. Since its founding in 1948, it has attempted to provide intellectual lea&rship in the cause of wise management of the earth's resources. It is now focusing increasing attention on One of the critical issues of the, day-how to use wisely that most basic resource, the land itself. This publication is available as-a four- volume set from: Publications Department The Conservation Foundation 1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 Price per set: $28.06 (if payment accompanies order) $30.00 (if billing is required) Published: June, 1974 ds dim% IL J0L__1 144W lqw Coastal Ecological Systems of the United the Conservation Foundation agreed to make States was originally prepared for the Federal this material available to a wider audience by Water Pollution Control Administration as reproducing the amended manuscript in the part of the National Estuarine Pollution Sur- most inexpensive way possible. vey conducted in 1968 and 1969. It was the Those whose personal efforts merit recog- product of a group of scientists led by staff nition are Robert W. Knecht, director, and members of the University of North Carolina's Edward T. LaRoe, coastal ecologist, of the Institute of Marine Sciences. Its four volumes Office of Coastal Environment, who foresaw include a comprehensive survey of scientific, the relevance of this work to the practical information through 1969, as well as a new needs of coastal zone management; Eugene T. system for the classification of coastal ecosys- Jensen and A. L. Wastler, of the U.S. Envi- tems. The manuscript was submitted to the ronmental Protection Agency, who arranged U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (which for the original study; and John Clark and absorbed the FWPCA in 1970), but was not Laura O'Sullivan of the Conservation Foun- published. dation, who, respectively, persuaded their or- The Conservation Foundation is now able ganization to publish this massive work and to publish this work because of an assistance attended to the myriad details of bringing it grant (Grant No. 043-158-68) provided by the into print. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- tration's Office of Coastal Environment, which The Editors: is responsible for implementing the Coastal H. T. Odum, Zone Management Act of 1972. The purpose University of Florida of the grant was to assist the Conservation B. J. Copeland, Foundation in preparing an amended version North Carolina State University of this comprehensive work for N OAA's pro- E. A. McMahan, gram use. Upon completion of that activity., University of North Carolina CONTENTS VOLUME FOUR Part VI. Bibliography and Place Index Bibliography ....................................................... 1 Place Index ........................................................ 450 CONTENTS OF OTHER VOLUMES VOLUME ONE: Part I. A Functional Classification of the Coastal Ecological Systems Part II. Foraminifera in Estuarine Classification Part III. Ecological Systems by State Part IV. General Recommendations Part V. Chapters on Types of Ecological Systems A. Naturally Stressed Systems of Wide.Latitudinal Range B. Natural Tropical Ecosystems of High Diversity VOLUME TWO: C. Natural Temperate Ecosystems with Seasonal Programming VOLUME THREE: D. Natural Arctic Ecosystems with Ice Stress E. Emerging New Systems Associated with Man F. Migrating Subsystems Part VI BIBLIOGRAPHY OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Joyce Shields and Ann Rogers University of North Carolina The references that follow concern the marine ecological systems of the United States. Using the classification of coastal systems set up in PartII, we have indicated the contribution of the references by annotating the entries with systems and states involved in the article. A large proportion of the papers listed provide important material about particular representative examples and case histories of natural and disturbed systems. The identification of a paper by system type allows the reader to refer to the chapter or chapters where the reference is appropriate. As much as possible of the so called "gray literature" (mimeographed reports, leaflets, and anonymous documents of agencies) has been included. This literature contains some of the most valuable and least distributed information on estuaries. In the absence of a personal author, these entries are listed in the bibliography under the agency name. Bibliogra- phic notations conform to those of the Style Manual, 2nd edition., American Institute of B@ological Science. The bibliography is not complete, nor free of error, but it does attempt to provide some'entrance into reference sources of all types and all s@ates, with-a special effort to include references since 1960. A worthwhile'project ror the future would be to provide detailed, bibliographies pertinent to each ecosystem. All of the references ci.ted in the chapters of the study are included in the-bibli.ography, butthere are, in addition, many other references which increase its usefulness as a general entrance into the ecology literature. At the end of the bibliography is a special section. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CQASTAL 'BIBLIOGRAPHIES, which provides special groupings as well as many titles not included in the main bibliograpfty. Table it A classification of coastal ecological systems and sub- systems according to characteristic energy sources* Category Name of type Characteristic energy source or stress As Naturally stressed High Stress Energies systems of wide latitudinal range A-1. Rocky sea fronts and in- breaking waves tertidal rocks A-2* High energy beaches breaking waves A-3,. High velocity surfaces strong tidal currents A-4. Oscillating temperature shocks of extreme channels temperature range A-5- Sedimentary deltas High rate of sedimen- tation A-6. Hypersaline lagoons briny salinities A-7* Blue-green algal mats temperature variation and low nighttime oxygen Bo Natural tropical Light and Little Stress ecosystems of high diversity B-la Mangroves light and tide B-2. Coral Reefs light and current B-3* Tropical Meadows light and current B-4. Tropical inshore organic supplements plankton B-5. Blue water coasts light and low nutrient C. Natural temperate eco- Sharp seasonal program- systems with seasonal ming and migrant stocks programming C-1. Tidepools spray in rocks, winter cold C-2* Bird and Mammal Islands bird and mammal colonies 2 Table I (cont'd.) Category Name of type Characteristic energy source or stress C-3, Landlocked sea waters little tide, migrations C-4. Marshes lightly tidal regimes and winter cold C-5- Oyster reefs current and tide C-6. Worm and clam flats waves and current, intermittent flow C-7A. Temperate grass flats light and current C-7B. Shallow Salt Ponds small waves; light en- ergy concentrated in shallow zone C-8. Oligohaline systems saltwater shock zone, i4nter cold C-9. Medium salinity plankton mixing intermediate estuary salinities with some stratification C-10. Sheltered and strati- geomorphological iso- fied estuary lation by sill Q-11. Kelp beds swells, light and high salinity C-12A. Neutral embayments shelfwaters at the shore C-12B. Coastal Plankton eddies of larger oceanic systems Do Natural Arctic Eco- Winter ice, sharp mi- systems with ice grations and seasonal stress programming D-1. Glacial fiords icebergs D-2. Turbid outwash fiords outflow of turbid ice- water lens D-3A. Ice stressed coasts winter exposure to freezing 3 Table I (cont'd.) Category Name of type Characteristic energy source or stress D-3B. Inshore Arctic eco- ice, low light systems with ice stress D-4, Sea ice and under-ice low light plankton E, Emerging new systems New but characteristic associated with man man-made energy sources and/or stresses E-1. Sewage waste organic and Inorganic enrichment E-2. Seafood wastes organic and inorganic enrichment E-3- Pesticides an organic poison E-4. Dredging spoil heavy sedimentation by man E-5- Impoundment blocking of current E-6. Thermal pollution high and variable temperature discharges E-7. Pulp mill waste wastes of wood processing E-8. Sugar cane waste organics, fibers, soils of sugar industry wastes E-9. Phosphate wastes wastes of phosphate min- ing E-10. Acid waters release or generation of low pH E-11. Oil shores petroleum spills E-12. Piling treated wood substrates E-13- Salina brine complex of salt manufacture E-14* Brine pollution stress of high salt wastes and odd element ratios 4 Table I (c ont'd. ) Category Name of type Characteristic energy source or stress E-15. Petrochemicals refinery and petro- chemical manufacturing wastes E-16. Radioactive stress radioactivity E-17, Multiple stress alternating stress of many kinds of wastes in drifting patches E-18. Artificial reef strong currents F. Migrating subsys- Some energies taxed tems that organize from each system areas 5 B-5 Abbott, B. C. and D. Ballantine. 1957. The toxin from Gymnodinium veneficum Ballantine. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 36(1):169-189. E-3 Abbott, D. C., R. B. Harrison, J. 0. Tatton and J. Thompson. 1966. 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C-10 Richards, F. A., J. D. Cline, W. W. Broenkow and L. P. Atkinson. 1965. Some consequences of the decomposition of organic matter in Lake Nitinat, an. Wnoxic fjord. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10 (Supp.):R185-R201. 324 C-10 Richards, F. A. and R. F. Vaccaro. 1956. The Cariaco Trench, an anaerobic basin in the Caribbean Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 3:214-228. C-9,C-12 Richards, S. W. 1963. The demersal fish population of Long N. Y. Island Sound. 1. Species composition ana relative abundance in two localities, 1956-57. 2. Food of juveniles from a