[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
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Yl jr WTI GC 102 1 .GS G83 GUAM I @IR 4th Grade Glossary List 1. evaporation - when water turns into steam or vapor. 2. transpiration - when plants "swet" or give off moisture to the air. 3. precipitation - any form of water (rain/snow/sleet/hail) which falls from clouds. 4. infiltration - when water seeps down through limestone rock. 5. condensation - when steam or vapor turns into water. 6. humus - a layer of dead, decaying organic matter on top of the soil. 7. atmosphere - the collection of gases (air) which surrounds the earth. 8. granite - the oldest rock on earth, formed when the hot surface cooled. 9. glacier - a slowly-moving river of ice heading toward the ocean to accumu- late (to pile up). 10. photosynthesize - to make food from minerals, water and sunlight. 11. photosynthesis - the making of food in the green parts of a plant. 12. algae - species of simple plants that live in water. 13. microscopic - so tiny you need a microscope to see it. 14. plankton - plants and animals that drift around in the ocean. 15. energy - the force that makes things live, move or work. 16. predator - animal that hunts and feeds on other animals. 17. prey - animals that are hunted and eaten by other animals. 18. population the number of a species of animals living in one place. 19. decay - to rot away, to break down into tiny parts. 20. mangrove - several species of trees that grow in mud flats where the water is partly fresh and salty (brackish). 21. aquaculture - growing water animals in special ponds and tanks for food. 22. staple important for everyday use. 23. diet - everything a person eats and drinks. r, (N.. 24.. brackish - water which is a mixture of fresh and salty. 25. cargo - items and goods transported in ships and airplanes. 26. fertilizer - something to put into soil to make plants grow better. 'US Department of Comm e NOAA Coastal 22,0,,@ 2-- CL@_TReL J T*E, The Water Cycle Teaching Strategies: 1. This page shows the water cycle* and give a CIOUAS f6m number of basic facts about water. N rcdnCCqAet 2.Have the students @Prv' study and discuss the diagram. Ask them about snow and hail on,Guam. Try to make the students understand how water goes up as vapor and down as rain in a never ending cycle. SU rfclcp- wel4er 3. Discuss the Polar ice e.vcspor A -3 caps. Ask the students what they think might happen if this ice ever Earth's Water (H20) melted. (sea levels would rise all over the world and Two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen make one molecule of water. all low places would be When Earth was first forming, 4 1/2billion years ago, various gases escaped through cracks in the cooling, granite crust. These gases formed clouds above the surface and became Earth's flooded) first atmosphere. As the clouds cooled, they condensed and the first rain fell. When it hit the hot granite crust it immediately evaporated, rose again as steam, cooled, condensed, fell again as rain. So the cycle went on for millions of years, until Earth was cool enough to let 4. Have the students look water collectin the low places, and the firsoceans were formed. The verysame water still goes up glacier in the glossary. through its cycle today, but much more slowly. Ask them what they think About 97% of all earth's water is salt water in the oceans. happens when glaciers About 3% of all earth's water is fresh water in rivers and lakes. About75% of earth's fresh water is locked as ice in glaciers and ice-caps in the polar and cold reach the sea. (chunks regions of earth. break off and form ice- Water, fresh or salt, covers about 70% of earth's surface. A mammal's body is about 65% water! bergs) Our Ocean '7777- `@'&777,777, NIIII 81 I'll,@,@@@'ll-l@@,@\@@,'@Il""Il@@,@,,@I'll'-"@ '77 Teaching Strategies: AN, A "k 14 1. This chapter can be "g W tied in with Chapter 10, page 196 in the Silver Bur- U dett 4th grade Science Book. This chapter gives information about the importance of the ocean to Guam. 2. Make sure the students understand why the ocean is salty. (Silver Burdett, page 199) 3. Discuss the rec- reational uses of ocean water. Brainstorm (on the chalkborad) for all the fun things people can do in v, on the ocean. 4. Address the question As we have seen, most of Earth's surface is covered with water, and nearly all that water is at the bottom of the page salty. The ocean's water gets more salty as time goes by. Rivers flow into the ocean and wash into it all kinds of minerals from the land. These minerals stay in the ocean. They do not and see if the students evaporate with the surface water, so the minerals accumulate and make the water saltier all can suggest any impor- the time. Wecannotdrink salty water We cannot use itforcooking, washingelothes, doing household tances of the ocean (food, chores, watering the gardenoreven for puttingout wildfires. So, if the water itself is not really shipping) much use to us, why is the ocean so important? 5. See if the children can suggest 'why salty water can't be used for cooking etc. (clean, makes things sticky, would kill plants in the garden, would ruin fire-fighting equipment, how do you get the water from the sea to the fire, etc.) The Coral Reef The most important part of the ocean for Teaching Strategies: Guam is the coral reef, it protects the isInnd's coast from pounding ocean waves. You can scc 1. Study and discuss the the waves breaking on the reef, especially dur- ing and after storms. pictures on this page. Ask the children what dead coral looks like. (no color) Ask the children what they think the coral animals are eating. (tiny orga- But the re6f is also important because of all the plants and animals that live in and around nisms, plankton, in the it A reef is built mainly of the limy outer skeletons of tiny coral animals. The living build on water) top of the dead, over and over, as hundreds of years pass. Only the top layer of coralAs alive. There are hard corals and soft corals of many shapes and colors. They form a kind of undersea 2. Discus's how the reef garden which becomes the habitat of more kinds of organisms that can't be found anywhere else in the ocean. Large fish come to the reef to feed. These fish are a good food F;ource for protects the island. people. Guam's reef is a "fring- ing" reef quite close to and attached directly to _0 the land. "Barrier" reefs are separated by a la- goon. 3. Brainstorm for all the kinds of organisms that may be found in., on or around the coral reef. Then have the children organize them into two groups, those that are fixed to the reef (coral a nimals, mussels, clams, 41@ seaweed etc.) and those h, that can move around (fish, snails, octopus, squid etc.) 4. See if you can get students to bring in shells, corals etc., and make a display. Using library or other resources, try to have the students identify the items in the display. Ocean Food Chains 3ust as on land, ocean fool chains begin with Teaching Strategies: plants. Like land plants, sea plants photosynthe- .size and for this they need sunlight. Sea plants 1. Supporting informa- grow in shallow seas, especially around corals reefs. Like land plants they provide shelter and tion on food chains can food for animals. As they carry on photosynthesis, be found in Silver Bur- sea plants make over 40% of the oxygen that is in the air we breath. dett Science, 4th grade, PP. T45-63. Most sea plants are called seaweed by many people, but scientists call the algae. Ile other 2. Have the students ex- kinds of sea plants are sea grasses. amine the pictures and The surface waters of the ocean teem with microscopic plants and animals cAlled plank- see what they can iden- ton. They feed on each other and on a gae. They also form the food for countless varieties of tify. small animals such as crabs, shrimps, snails and tiny fish. 3. Discuss photosynthesis and its importance to the earth. Ask the students In turn these small creatures are eaten by what would happen if larger ones which are eaten by even large ones. So it goes on. Food gives energy to living things, algae stopped photosyn- and energy is passed from one animal to another thesizing. (not enough as it gets eaten. oxygen in the air; many people and animals would die) Ali 4. Have the students Animals which hunt and eat other animals make up some coral reef are called predators. The animals they hunt and eat are calledprey. Most creatures in the od chains. What would sea are both predator and prey. Only the eat what? Try to get pic- largest predators have no enemies to hunt them. tures and books on coral reefs for classroom re- sources. 5. Discuss ocean pre dators. Brainstorm for large ocean predators on the board (remember that the largest whales and sharks eat only very small creatures) 6. Ask the students what animal is the ultimate pre- dator. (man) Ocean Resources Teaching Strategies: 7" kft 7 7 iz A!" "AF, Z 1. Study the picture and A W, discuss the food items @94 shown. See how many the Illy students can identify. 2. Discuss human pop- ulation. Ask the students if they know why there are more and more peo- ple in the World (rwt be- cause women haN',e more babies, but because mod- + ern medicine and health care make people live lon- iv ger and fever babies die) 3. Ask the students what seafood they have eaten. ------ i Have they eaten sE aweed? (think of sushi) The human population of the earth today is so large that it's hard to feed them all. More and 4. Discuss ho more land is taken over to grow crops and raise food animals, but it's still not enough. So peo,- w we get fish ple are turning to the ocean to provide food for hungry people. and other food from the Many kinds of ocean fish make good eating. Fish provides a lot of protein and very little fat, so it is very healthy food. Crabs, shrimp, prawns and lobsters are delicious. Many people cat sea. Different kin&s of fish- octopus, squid and cuttlefish; oysters, clams, mussels and many kinds of sea snnilq are ing. Ask them what might included in staple.diets in many parts of the world. Even some kinds of seaweed are used as mine happen if we turn more food, as well as for medicine, fertilizer and paper. Seaweed is rich in vitamins and ralq. and more to the sea for food (over-fishing and over use of the ocean's resour- ces-there will be less and less until there are none) 5. Try to get a speaker with slide-show or film from Aquatics and Wild- life to show Guam's reefs. The Mangrove Flat A mangrove flat is a very special enviroment found on protected coasts. Guam's mangrove Teaching Strategies: flat ison the eastern side of Apra Harbor. It is protected to the north and west by Cabras Island and the Glass Breakwater, and to the south by Orote Point. Several small rivers flow into Apra Harbor, bringing fresh water and lots of nutTientsfrom decaying vegetation inland. The ocean tides bring in salty water and different nutrients from the sea. 1. Try to get a copy of Specially adapted plants and animals live in this rich muddy mixture of fresh and salty "Mangrove Flat" in the water known as blackish water. Trees called mangroves with special root systems grow very well in these muddy flats. Hundreds of species of microscopic and small animals live among ife on Guam series put the mangrove roots. Mangrove flats are often called "nurseries of the sea," because fish and out some years ago by other sea animals come in tofeed and lay their eggs. Because of this, mangrove flats are a very important part of the ocean food chains. Guam Science Teachers and Department of Edu- cation. It gives a lot of detailed mformation about mangrove flat ecology. 2. See if in the library, the students can find out anything about a) mud- skippers, b) fiddler crabs. These are two of the most interesting inhabitants of the mangrove flat. 3. Ask the students to watch out for the man- groves if they're every driv- 7 ing past Apra Harbor. '4@ 4. Make sure the students understand how impor- tant a mangrove flat is, because of all the animals that Eve and breed there. 5. Try to get a presenta- tion from Guam Environ- mental Protection Agency or Fish and Wildlife. 7 Farming the Ocean Teaching Strategies: 1. Ask the childrenwhat they think of when they think, of farming. 4-- Ank 2. What sort of "crops" might we farm in the Ocean? (seaweed) See if they can remember why 4 seaweed is useful. People in the future will turn more and more tothesea as a sourceoffood. We must find ways 3. What animals can we of harvesting more sea food without daninging farm in the ocean (Almost the ocean's food chains. One way to farm the resources of the ocean is aquaculture Large tanks or ponds are any animal we can eat) Ask them to name some usually close to the ocean, or even in the ocean, so that seawater can flow in and out. 'iese ponds are stocked with whatever kind of animal you want to grow. Predators are kept out and that are not mentioned lots of food is supplied so that the animals grow fast and big. When they are right, for eat ing on this page (turtles, crabs, they are easily gathered up and taken to market. The best part of this is that the ocenn is not harmed. lobsters, etc.) 4. Make sure the! stu- dents understand why we will need to farm the ocean in the fu- ture. 5. Try to find news- i"@ C paper cutting or informa- tion from Depart- ment of Agriculture and L Oysters can be grown for either meat or Wildlife about aquacul- pearls in protected places in the ocean. Guam am. ture projects on Gu. would be a good place for all kinds of aquacul- 1 ture We could have plenty of fish and other seafood to improve our diet. Chapter Review A) Rewrite these sentences, choosing the correct word from the parenthese Teaching Strategies: 1. Most of Earth's water is (fresh,salty). 2. Granite is the oldest form of (rock, water, gas) on Earth. 1. Select a number of 3. The ocean is getting (more and more, less and less) salty. glossary words for this 4. Only the (top, bottom) layer of coral contains living animals. chapter. Assign them for 5. Plants in the ocean produce (some, most, a little) of the oxygen we breath. study of spelling and/or 6. Food provides (energy, photosynthesis) for living things. meaning and give a test. 7. Most animals in the ocean are (predators, prey, both predators and prey). 8. Earth's human population is getting (bigger, smaller). 2. Use A and B for oral or 9. Mangrove trees like to grow in and near (fresh, salty, brackish) water. 10. We can get more food from the ocean by using (aquaculture, agriculture). written work, as you B) Answer the following questions in your own words using whole sentences. Use the infor- please. Use C for indivi- mation in this chapter to help you. dual Written work or small 1. Why is the ocean salty? group work, or as a whole 2. Why is the coral reef so important? class project construct- 3. Why are sea-plants so important to people? ing it on the board. 4. How is energy passed among living things? 6. Why do you think human beings are the top predators on earth? Q Write a paragraph called "Why the ocean is Important." Be sure to give as much infor- KEY: mation as you can. A - 1. salty, 2. rock, 3. more and more, 4. top, 5. most, 6. energy, 7. both, 8. bigger, 9. brackish, 10. aquaculture B -1. Rivers bring mine- rals, accumulate in ocean, do not evaporate. 2. Pro- tects shores from waves, great source of food from reef animals. 3. Provide most of our oxygen. Use- ful for food, medicine, fer- tilizer and paper. 4. In the food chain when one animal eats a plant or another animal. 5. We can kill anything we want with weapons. We are not the natural prey for any animal (though people can be killed by animals) C - Look for reasons called from the chapter, written expression etc. 9 Glossary Words J.,ecosystem - a) an area within which all the organisms depend upon each other and upon their environment. or b) an area within which all the living and non-living things are dependent upon each other. 2. toxic - poisonous. 3. non-degradable - something that will not break up and rot away. 4. productive - having all the healthy plants and animals it's supposed to have. 5. nuclear - something made by splitting atoms. 6. marine - belonging to the ocean. 7. indigestable - something that an animal's body can't digest. 8. tradition - a practice handed on from father to son over many years. 9. ancestors - members of your family who lived before you in the past. 10 T*E* Our Misuse of the Ocean Even though we know how important the ocean and its resources are, we still find many Teaching Strategies: ways to misuse them. 1. Reef destruction: It takes hundreds of years for a reef ecosystem to form. Every plant and animal, every rock and coral formation is important, providing either food or shelter for the 1. Study and discuss the animals. When collectors break off pieces of coral they are daninging the reef. When they take photos. Talk about shells living sea shells to decorate their house, they are interfering with food chains. If enough people do this for long enough the reef ecosystem breaks down and the reef begins to (lie. and shell collecting. Ask We learned in Chapter 1 how a reef can be destroyed when soil from run-off settles oil it nod the students how they suffocates all the living things. Guam's reefs are often damaged when people illegally feel about killing and dynamite them or pure chlorox in the water for quick fish kills. Everything is killed by these destructive fishing methods, including sesplants and the coral animals themselves. We are animal so you can have left with a section of dead reef which will take years to grow again. its beautiful shell. 2. See if you can get pieces of coral to see the holes where the animals lived. Discuss how that piece of coral may have been broken off. 3. Discuss dynamiting. What would this do to everything in the area? (coral would be blown apart, animals blasted, plants destroyed etc.) 0_@ ;0 4. Discuss pouring chlo- < :,4 n the water. Every- rox i R11 thing would be poisoned. 5. Try to get someone from Aquatic and Wild- life to talk about the dif- ficulties of protecting the reef; laws and punish- ments, the importance of the reef to the island and so on. 6. Have the chil- dren design a poster ap- pealing to people not to destroy the reef. �r,@ 2. Pollution - Oil Spills: 2. Polution - Oil Spills: Teaching Strategies: Some people seem to think that the ocean is so big it can take care of any amount of pollu- tion we choose to dump into it. This is far from true. The ocean is certainly very big. It cnn cope 1. Study the picture. very well with the waste products of all the creatures that live in it, but people pollute the Ask the students if they've ocean in ways that really damage it. seen the mangrove flat. Discuss the strange roots called prop roots - see if Stu dents can Suggest w red mangroves have hy su hold it ch roots. (to 'u- down against the waves "x, and tides) Refer to the "Life on Guam" series "Mangrove Flat"' pg 4. Tell the students about its special kind ofseeds. 2. Ask the students if they can figure out why the oil spill killed trees and other things. (it choked them, cut off air, poisoned them when it InI9 a pip-line taking oil to GORCO leaked hundreds of gallons of crude oil into Gun m's got inside them) mangrove flat in Apra Harbor. Even though the spill was cleaned up as quickly as possible, most of the red mangrove trees were killed. Millions of small organisms that lived among their roots either died or had to go away. These organisms were important links in the ocean food 3. Ask the students who chain and it is hard to measure the damage that resulted. It took years for the trees to recover had to clean up the and may take many more years for the mud-flat ecosystem to be full productive ngain. Oil m 9 (GORCO) spills, whether close to shore or out in the open ocean, kill sea birds, turtles and fish, as well as ess. smaller organisms. Sometimes oil is dumped deliberately into. the sea by ships wanting to.get rid of it! 4. Ask the students if they think people who cause oil spills should be punished - why' What sort of punishment would be good (clean-up,replant, re-stock, take care of the area for a specified length of time, be fined, be made to do environmen- tal work.) 5. Try to get a presenta- tion on the Mangrove I Y Ew Flat from Department of Agriculture or the Envi- ronmental Protection Agency. 12 3. Pollution - Dumping of Wastes: 3. Pollution - Dumping of Wastes: Teaching Strategies: There was a time when sewage (kitchen and bathroom wastes) were piped out into the ocean. People thoughtall thatocean watercould deal with the poisons in the rnwFlowage. Now 1. Study and discuss the we know better. Poison gets into plankton which is eaten by small fish which are eaten by picture. Ask the students bigger fish. When people eat these bigger fish they get poisoned. All sewage on Guam is taken to picture these wastes tosewage treatment plants whichremove all the poisons. Only harmless water isemptled into (urine and feces, not just the sea. The rest is turned into useful fertilizer. Because the ocean off Guam is so deep, some people want to dump nuclear waste into it. dishwater and laundry Nuclear waste is what is left over when electricity is made in atomic power plants. It, is very, water). Explain that very toxic. Scientists believe such wastes can stay dangerously toxic for thousands of years. harmful bacteria breeds They say the poison would seep out of whatever it was stored in, and poison everything in the ocean. Sooner or later we would all get poisoned. Nuclear wastes must never be allowed to be in human and animal dumped in our ocean. wastes that can give peo- ple diseases. 2. See if you can arrange a field trip to one of Guam's sewage treat- ment plant so they can find out how it is treated. Ask the students why the problem is worse now than 50 years ago (more Po A people). 3. Discuss radioactive wastes. Ask if the stu- dents know why scien- tists are turning to nu- clear power to make elec- tricity? (Oil is getting scarce, nuclear power plants make a lot of inex- pensive electricity once they have been built, big problem of what to do with the wastes because they are so toxic for so long) Ask students for ways of disposing of nuclear waste. (Not one good way has ever been found. Shooting it into outer space is too expen- sive - one lift-off costs billions of dollars) Try to find simple books on nuclear energy and its problems. Have students design a poster or a T-shirt to protect our ocean from nuclear waste dumping. 13 .4. Pollution - Trash and Litter: 4. Pollution - Trash and Litter: Teaching Strategies: 1. Study the picture and ask the students if it looks familiar. Ask them if they ever have family picnics at the beach. Do they pick up all their 4@ trash? What can they do if the trash cans are al- ready full? (Bring all their trash home) `CZ 4 Study the informa- 2. tion in the report and dis- cuss all the ways plastic items can harm marine animals. You have all seen the assorted rubbish left on the beach by people - bottles, cans, plastic 3. Ask the children how bags, pampers and soon. Much of this gets swept into the sea when the tidecomesup. Someof it, the plastic stuff, can cause unbelievable damage. Scientists say it takes 450 years for most they think people can be plastics to break up and rot away. stopped from throwing The following is a May 1987 report from Defenders of Wildlife: Millions of sea animals every year suffer tragic deaths to non-degradable plastics. In fact, trash in the ocean. (they the plastics problem is almost as bad as oil spills and toxic-waste discharges in overall deR- may suggest fines and truction of marine birds and animals. punishments, stress that It is estimated that every year plastic kills: people have to unders- Northern fur seals -- 50,000 in Alaska waters alone tand what damage they Dail's porpoises -- 8,3000 in the North Pacific do, so that they will be seabirds -- more than 1 million of U.S. and Canadian shores willing themselves to sea otters nearly 7 percent of California's total population sea turtles untold thousands in the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans stop doing it.) Plastic -- the synthetic, durable, non-destructible wonder of the modern world -- is des- troying nature. 4. Have the children Here's how. Seals, sea lions, porpoises and sea otters become entangled in submerged, write a letter (to the local almost invisible plastic fishing nets and lines and mistaken forjellyfish and die of intestinal blockage or suffocation ... turtles drown when caught in the plastic nets of shrimp fisher- paper) explaining the men ... seabirds strangle in plastic six-pack rings or become trapped in old fishing nets ... hirds problem and asking for eat indigestible plastic pellets, mistaking them for floating fish eggs, and then suffer damage to their stomachs, starvation and death. public education -to stop it. Don't forget the sheer unpleasantness of a filthy, littered beach!! 14 Other Harmful Practices: 5. Other Harmful Practics: Teaching Strategies: Out in t-he open ocean where commercial fishing is carried o, fishing boats use huge nets called seine nets to catch tuna fish. unfortunately many dolphins also get caught in these nets 1. Study the pictures and can't Fome to the surface to breath. They drown just as you would. and Some p@ople who depend on fish for the greater part of their diet, think dolphins cat too ask the students if many fish. So they kill the dolphins. In other parts of the world people kill hundreds of pilot they have ever seen a whales every year, not because they need the meat, but because they're just following the dolphin or a turtle. traditions oftheir ancestors. Elsewhere thousands ofbaby harp seals are clubbed to death so that coats for rich women can be made from their lovely white fur. flow long will it be before there are no harp seals left? 2. Ask them if there are Shrimp fishermen use special nets to catch huge quantities of shrimp. llundreds of any seals around Guam. endangered sea-turtles get caught in these nets by accident. Because they're reptiles and must breathe air, they drown before they can be set free. Sea-turtles come ashore in the same (no, but there are a few beaches every year to lay their eggs. in some countries ignorant people gnther turtle eggs by monk seals around Ha- the thousands, just to feed to their pigs! In other places the turtleR'nest ing beaches have beell waii) Try to get pictures taken over by huge hotels and beach resorts. Some sea-turtles swim in Cunill'g occall find all species are endangered. Soon, if we are not more careful, there will be none left anywhere in of baby harp seals to the world. show the white fur. 3. Ask the students for _7 _7 @__7771_ suggestions of what can be done to protect the animals discussed on this page. (In fact, spe- cial nets are now being used so that dolphins and turtles do not get trapped. Conservation movements like Green p ace are trying to stop e the slaughter of baby harp seals and pilot whales. Turtle nesting sites are protected from development) 4. Have students design a poster or a T-shirt for "Save the Turtles." 5. Remind the students that every animal is important in an ecosys- tem. If one species is wiped out, the balance of nature is upset. 15 Chapter Review A) Choose the correct ending for each sentence beginning and write the complete sentences on your activity paper. Teaching Strategies: Beginning Ending 1. Select 10 words from 1. Every plant and animal a. when people dynamite them this chapter and have 2. People who take sea-shells b. must be piped to a sewage treatment plnnt them study for a spelling 3. Guam's reefs are damaged c. can strangle marine animals and/or vocabulary test. 4. Oil spills d. often get swept out to sea 2. Use A and B as oral or 5. Kitchen and abthroom wastes e. is important in an ecosystem written exercises with 6. Nuclegr wastes f. protected nesting beaches your students, whichever 7. Plastic six-pack rings g. get caught in tuna fishing nets best suits your purpose. 8. Trash and litter left on a beach h. are toxic for thousands of years 3. Key to A: 9. Often, many dolphins L kill everything they touch 10. Sea turtles need j. are interfering with food chains le; 2j; 3a; 4i; 5b; 6h; 7e; 13) Have you understood? Answer the following questions in whole sentences. 8d; 9g; 10f. 1. In what ways can snorkelers damage the reef? Key to B: 2. What lazy fishing practices can damage parts of the reef.? 3. Why are oil spills so destructive? 1. Breaking off pieces of 4. What is the biggest problem with nuclear power? 5. How is plastic trash dangerous to marine wildlife? coral. Collecting living 6. Why do fishermen in some places kill dolphins on purposes? seashells etc. C) Write a paragraph explaining why sewage should not be dumped into the ocean. 2. Dynamiting and pour- ing chlorox. 3. They choke and poi- son everything they touch. 4. The wastes are! poiso- nous for thousands of years and nobody knows how to get rid of them. 5. Marine wildlife can be strangled, trapped, choked by plastic trash. 6. They think the dolphins eat the fish they ought to have. Key to C Accept all sensible sug- gestions. Ocean can't deal with it, poisons, plants and animals, stinks, poi- sons people etc. 16 Guam's Landforms Vocabulary Words 1. Landform a natural feature of the earth's surface. 2. Limestone a rock formed by accumulation of organic remains like shells. 3. Plateau a large level area raised above next to another land. 4. Mountain high land pushed up by pressure or volcanic activity. 5. Hill high land smaller than mountain. 6. Eruption to force out suddenly and violently something as lava and steam. 7. Poacher hunter illegally in pursue of forest animals. 8. Erosion soil gradually worn away by wind and water. 9. Valley low land between hills. 10. Fertile productive, fruitful. 11. Vegetation - plant life in an area. 12. Savannah - vast land covered by plants. 13. Reef - ridge of rock near the sea. 14. Cliff - high face of rock on the side of a mountain. 15. Sea Level - level of the surface of the sea. 16. Beach - sand and rock fragments found in the sea, lake or river. 17. Reservoir - a place where something is stored. 18. Coral - stony or thorny material that forms the skeleton of colonies of tiny sea animals. 19. Algae - water plant used as food by water animals. 20. Calcareous - containing calcium or calcium carbonate. 21. Calcium - soft metallic chemical element found in bones, limestone, shells or plant ashes. 22. Spring - source of supply of water from the ground. 23. River - natural stream bigger than a brook. 24. Igneous Rock - a hard rock formed by fire. It doesn't absorb water easily. 25. Silt - small particles of matter like soil and mud and other things that float on water. 26. Cave - a small hollowed chamber on earth. 27. Mangrove Flat - swampy meeting place of fresh and salt water where plants and animals live. 28. Swamp - a marsh, a wet spongy low-lying ground. 29. River - natural stream of water flowing in a channel. 30. Lake - a large body of water within land. 31. Shore - land joining sea or large lake. 32. Brook - a small stream, a small flowing body of water. 33. Stream - a small flowing body of water. 34. Elevate - to raise up. 17 Loss Of Habitat Teaching Strategies: Guam is the southernmost and largest of the fifteen islands that form the Mnrintin Islands chain. It is approximately 45 kilometers (km) long and 6 to 13 km wide.The northern limes- 1. Discuss vocabulary tone plateau while thesouthern half is largelyof volcanicorigin. Mixed evergreens grow on the words. Use glossary. Use northern plateau and the southern half is largely savannah with ravine forest in river valleys. A series of volcanic hills up to 390 miles extend along the west side of the island in the South. A each word in a sentence. coral reef nearly surrounds the island. The climate is tropical with a dry and wet season. Strategically located, Guam is an important military base, communications center, and stopover for several airlines. It has become a major center of activity for the Pacific. Con- 2. Brainstorm why currently, Guam's wildlife has declined. Loss of habitat is a growing problem on Guam. wildlife on Guam has Habitat is used to describe the home for a species. It is an area that supplies everything an animal needs to survive. The following are components of habitat: declined. 1. Food is necessary for any form of life. The greater its supply the more kinds of wild animals can live. 3. Discuss 3 com- 2. Water is essential too. Water supports the vegetation needed for food and cover. It's ponents of habitat. Re- absolutely necessary for fish and other aquatic species. view or name animals found in our habitat. 4. Discuss each of the 4 habitats shown. 5. Discuss how each of the habitat changed through the years.. 6. Draw some limes- tone forest turned into housing areas. Discuss the effect on wildland 3. Cover can be any material that gives wildlife aptace to bide from enemies or n place plants and animals. that offers shelter from the weather. It might be a patch for shelter, mass of aquatic plants or coral for a fish, a brushpile or thicket for a rabbit, or a forest for a herd of deer. The slime vegetation often serves as both food and cover for wildlife. 7. Make a poster on Location of the three (3) elements is very important. They must be properly located foreach how to conserve our kind of species. What might be too far for a gecko might not be too far for a (leer. wildland. Display pos- Guam is a small island so you wouldn't expect many different kinds of habitat.There are ters at school, commen- four primary habitat types on Guam: cal areas like Agana 1. the limestone forest Shopping Center and 2. savannah Gibson's. 3. strand 8. Discuss how students 4. reef can help conserve the The pictures below show the four primary habitat types on Guam: habitat left for wildlife. Z_ 'j, 7:7 18 Types of Habitat: Teaching Strategies: The limestoneforest used to be the predominant habitat type on the island but flow there are only small patches of forests left, mostly on military reservations like the Northwest Field at the Naval Communications Center (NCS) and the forests at Andersen Air Force Base (AAFB). Common plants in the forest include breadfruit, banyan chopak, pnii(lanus and 1. Discuss meanings of hibiscus. Because there is a wide variety of food plants and cover, most of our rintive wildlife vocabulary words. Check prefers to live in limestone forests. the glossary. Use them in Grassland orsavannah cover mostof the southern hills. Mo.9tof the vegetntion is f lie razor- edged swordgrass. The savannah grows eachyearas fires race across tile dry grass killing trees sentences. on the border. Introduced species such as quail and deer can utilize the grasslands but tile savannah is not very suittible to our wildlife. Tho land bordering t If(,. bench is called a strand.The Fit mild oil (,until supports frvtiriely of' 2. Discuss the types of plant life including cocomit palm, puting, nomink, hench morning glory, irmiwood find sen habitat found on Guam. beans. There are also different kinds of algae growing in the shnilow waters next to I lie shore. Some common beach animals are hermit crabs, starfish, clams, wormR, find birds. Guam's richest habitat is the coral reef. Over 600 different RPCOCS Of fiFill ATC found liCar OUT 3. Name other types of reef plus thousand of mollusks (shells), echinoderms (urchins and starfish), Rponges, crus- taceans (crabs and shrimp), and many other animals. habitat not mentioned in student book. (ocean, farmland) 4. Discuss the list of endangered and threa- tened species on Guam. 5. Try to remember the Chamorro common and scientific names of 5 species and have a con- test by groups. 6. Discuss the plight of the endangered species. There are over 350 species of coral forming the base of our reef. Their growth provides food 7. Name what people and homes for many of the other reef creatures. Some other less common types of habitat include the ravine forest, wetlands, agricultural can do to protect these lands, and some mangrove flats or swamps. Another type overrunning the others is human species. (educate the habitat. Villages, housing tracts, highways, shopping and commercial areas compose this habitat. Some animals like the gecko, rat, sparrow, and pigeon f ind human habitat suitable to public, enforce laws) their needs, but most wildlife cannot survive in human habitats, Wildlife problems on the island are due to increased human population demanding more 8. Have a field trip in commercialization and over-development. Predators like snakes, rats, cats, dogs, pigs, and disease, habitat destruction through fire, littering illegal dumping, erosion, improper farm- one or two of the types of ing and construction methods, overhunting and poaching, have rapidly destroyed needed habitat and list all plants habitats. and animals one can find. 9. Discuss the causes of loss of habitat. 19 Guam's Endangered Species: Teaching Strategies: Many of Guam's plants and animals are endangered species. The only native Guam mam- mal, the fruit bat, is but one of the endangered. Endangered means that, the population is threatened with extinction and may not survive without help. Extinction is a sad situation , It 1. Discuss vocabulary means all of the population is dead and will be gone forever. A great majority of species that have become extinct are known to have disappeared because of man's ignorance or words. Check in the thoughtlessness. We are responsible for the welfare of plants and animals to make the world a glossary. Use the senten- brighter and better place to live. We all depend on the stability of the environment so we must take care of it. ces. Mammals: 2. Discuss endangered Guam's Fanihi or fruit-eating bats are becoming rare. There were three different species of and extinction in length. these bats but two of these may be extinct as the chart shows. All the species are on the U. S. Endangered Species List. The Mariana fruit bat is estimated of about 60 in 1978. Currently the species,is estimated at about 800. The increase due to bats immigrating from Rota, an 3. Name some species island north of Guam. threatened, endangered Overhunting and loss of habitat appear to be responsible for the decline. Fruit bats are known to a popular item on Guam. or maybe extinct on Guam. 4. Compare Gualln's list with the U. S. list and make a class chart.. 5. Discuss about the Fanihi. Show a picture of the fruit eating bat. . . .... 6. Discuss how the fruit bat became extinct. 7. Draw the fruit bat and display poster urg- ing the public to protect the only native mammal 4 on Guam. 8. Discuss how people try to get fruit bats even if there are laws prohibit- ing hunting. 9. Name ways how to protect the Fanihi. 20 The fruit bat is a traditional entree at fiestas--the entire bat cooked in coconut milk. The Teaching Strategies: bats are protected by law since 1973 but illegal hunting still continues. Importation of bats became a practice, but in 1981, importing from any island was prohibited. Populations of fruit bats must be closely monitored on other islands to prevent over exploitation. Birds: 1. Discuss vocabulary words. Check meanings Guam's birds have declined sharply in recent decades. Fourspecies have become extinct in the glossary. Use them and all ten species are endangered. The wetland drainage and clearing, overh unting disease and predators like the brown free snake adversely affected the Species. The Gunin rail is in sentences. vanishing. It needs slot of help to protect its population. Forest birds are now largely reRtric- ted to the limestone forest in the far north and some species occupy the northern pInteau. Once some native land birds occupied the south but at present none of them can be seen in the 2. Discuss about Guam's southern part of Guam. endangered bird species. Check the chart for the names. C_ '7 3. Compare Guam & U.S. list and discuss how each became endangered. 4. Discuss the habitat Discuss of the birds. where these birds can be found based on the maps. L 5. Draw some posters S- of the birds to be dis- played urging the public 4 to protect the species. Sea food has always been an important source of protein for the people of Guam. Many of 6. Look at the photo- Guam's reef flats are currently being overfished, resulting in a decline in reef flat fish. Some graphs and discuss how people are using poisons and explosives to kill fish. Chlorine, the most common poison used, each can be protected. not only kills fish but also all other life in the area including invertebrates, coral and algae. It is also used in streams and rivers thus killing freshwater fish and shrimp. Dynamiting is another non-selective and wasteful practice. Many fish may not be recovered due to ruptures and subsequent sinking. Dynamite is used near the reefs, thus habitat essential for reef pro- ductivity is destroyed. Because islands develop in isolation, their flora and fauna are usually limited, and their ecosystems are simplier. This makes them more vulnerable to disruption by man. Island species are confined and cannot seek new habitat. Continental animals usually have broad selections of food and cover resources. For these reasons and others already mentioned, islands have many endangered species. Changes wrought by people like overhunting, illegal settingof wildland fires, illegal dumpingof trash, over-development, illegal fishing, and other careless environmental change will result in loss of habitat and eventual extinction of wildlife. 21 Habitat alteration by people is a primary reason why our wildland animals and plants are Tea endangered. Many of our wildlife losses can by prevented without disrupting our economic ching Strategites: growth. It's simply a matterof planningand foresight. We should take into consideration tile (Page 8) plight of our endangered species when we build projects such as housing developments and dams. Law should be passed and put into effect. All people who don't abide by the law should by properly punished. The public must be involved and out laws must be enforced. 1. Discuss vocabulary words. Check in the glos- sary. 2. Name some animals threatened because of the destruction of our reefo. 3. Discuss how people destroy our coral reefs. 4. Discuss why flora and fauna of islands can easily be endangered. 5. Compare how species on islands and continen- tal land survive. AT:- 6. Discuss how man's %@V rol e in changing the en- vironment play a vital role in the decline of wildlife. 7. Draw all the causes of wildlife decline. Dis- play all posters for public awareness. 22 Guam's Landforms Vocabulary Words 1. Landform - a natural feature of the earth's surface. 2. Limestone - a rock formed by accumulation of organic remains like shells. 3. Plateau - a large level area raised above next to another land. 4. Mountain - high land pushed up by pressure or volcanic activity. 5. Hill - high land smaller than mountain. 6. Eruption - to force out suddenly and violently something as lava and steam. 7. Poacher - hunter illegally in pursue of forest animals. 8. Erosion - soil gradually worn away by wind and water. 9. Valley - low land between hills. 10. Fertile - productive, fruitful. 11. Vegetation - plant life in an area. 12. Savannah - vast land covered by plants. 13. Reef - ridge of rock near the sea. 14. Cliff - high face of rock on the side of a mountain. 15. Sea Level - level of the surface of the sea. 16. Beach - sand and rock fragments found in the sea, lake or river. 17. Reservoir - a place where something is stored. 18. Coral - stony or thorny material that forms the skeleton of colonies of tiny sea animals. 19. Algae - water plant used as food by water animals. 20. Calcareous - containing calcium or calcium carbonate. 21. Calcium - soft metallic chemical element found in bones, limestone, shells or plant ashes. 22. Spring - source of supply of water from the ground. 23. River - natural stream bigger than a brook. 24. Igneous Rock - a hard rock formed by fire. It doesn't absorb water easily. 25. Silt - small particles of matter like soil and mud and other things that float on water. 26. Cave - a small hollowed chamber on earth. 27. Mangrove Flat - swampy meeting place of fresh and salt water where plants and animals live. 28. Swamp - a marsh, a wet spongy low-lying ground. 29. River - natural stream of water flowing in a channel. 30. Lake - a large body of water within land. 31. Shore - land joining sea or large lake. 32. Brook - a small stream, a small flowing body of water. 33. Stream - a small flowing body of water. 34. Elevate - to raise up. 23 GUAM"S LANDFORMS Teaching Strategies: 1. The Different Landforms Look at the map of Guam. Guam is an island having different landforms. The 1. Discuss the under- northern part of the island is a vast limestone plateau with thick limestone forests. Mt. lined vocabulary words. Sta. Rosa is located in the north - the only mountain found in the north. We find the Check in the glossary. numerous hills and mountains, river valleys with massed vegetation, RavannnhR, mangrove flats or saltmarsh, and freshwater wetlands inthesouth. Cliffs, fringing reefs and beaches surround the island. The map shows where to rind the landforms. 2. Ask what children see key: in the picture. 1. -limestone forest 2. iver valley 3. Show map of Guam 3. -mountain & hill 4. -savannah and ask students to show 5. -mangrove flat the different landforms 6. eshwater wetland 7. -cliff found on Guam. 8. -beach 9. eef 4. Brainstorm how the north became a limes- tone plateau. 5. Brainstorm how the south became fertile val- leys between hills and mountains. 6. Discuss the location of Guam in the Pacific and illicit the idea that neighboring islands have the same landforms, plants and animals as Guam. 7. Do the writing activity-match the numbers to the landforms found on Guam. 24 2. Limestone Plateau Teaching Strategies: The northern part of Guam is an eleuated large flat land called a limestone plateall. The plateau emerged as a result of a long process of the change tile island had froln tile volcanic eruptions under the sea to the present landform. Limestone forests call be found 1. Brainstorm the mean- in Dededo, Yigo and the military bases in the north. Poachers still ronm tile forests lo hunt wild deer and wild pigs. Most of the flat lands inTamuning, Dededo And Ylgo 11re Ing of the underlined coverted to commercial and residential areas. Mt. Santa Rosa is the only inountitin vocabulary words and located in the north. Rainwatereasily soaks into limestone that's why there are no imijor check in the glossary. streams in the north. 2. Discuss what the pic- 0 ture shows. Ap 3. Discuss how the nor- them part of Guam is mos- tly a large limestone pla- teau. 4. Brainstorm ideas why Mt. Sta. Rosa is the only high land in the north. (It's a block between two rock formation and is thrown up. Limestone has been deposited around the "horst" - Mt. Sta. Rosa since its upheaval). 5. Brainstorm what poachers hunt besides pigs and deers. 6. Discuss the legal ways of hunting. 7. Draw some limestone forests and the animals found in them. 8. Draw other things found in the north. 25 3. Hills and Mountains Teaching Strategies: Mountains are elevated lands pushed up under pressure or formed by volcanic activity. Mountains are the highest lands on earth. Hills are high lands too. They dwin- 1. Discuss the voca- dle by erosion. We find mountains and hills in the south. Mt. Lamlarn is the highest mountain on the island. Some of our mountains are sites for hunting. Most of them are bulary words. Check in good for boonie stomping. Mountains in the south are habitats of plants and animals - We the glossary. can see deep ravines and steep slopes in the south. We find rivers, brooks, swamps, lakes and waterfalls in the south too. 2. Ask students what they see in the picture. 3. Brainstorm the dif- ferent mountains and hills found in the south. (Mt. Lamlam, Mt. Jumulong, Nimitz Hill). Name the only one mountain found in the north. (Mt. 'Aa. Rosa) 4. Discuss some animals found in southern forests. 5. Name some crops found in the south. 6. Ask the places where freshwater can be found. 7. Draw a tourist spot found in the south. 8. Draw some mountains and hills. 9. Ask what other interesting things or places can be found in the south. 26 4. Savannahs Teaching Strategies: A savannah is a vast land covered by unique plants adapted to Guam's volcanic soil. Tall grasses or sword-grasses, soft low grasses, dense tall reeds and a mixed shrub com- munity are the most common vegetation on Guam's savarmahs. Generally, the term 1. Discuss meanings of savannah is used for flat plains with scattered trees, but on Guam, the savannahs are the bare country-side or hillsides covered with vegetation. We find savannahs in the south. vocabulary words. Check Burning happens on the savannah. Fire doesn't harm the swordgrass. It sprouts again, in the glossary. but fire harms other trees and plants that cannot grow again after an area is burnt. Growth of trees should be encouraged in the savarmahs to protect our land and animals. The koko bird lives by the savarmahs and roadsides. It is an endangered animal. Some 2. Discuss the picture. animals living on savannahs are rodents. 3. Ask students whether they've played in a savannah. 4. Elicit ideas why savannahs easily get burned. 5. Ask for solutions on how to prevent savan- n h fires. a "C' 6. Ask what other animals can be found in a savannah. (toads, A snails, lizards, snakes, "g-U 01 `4- odents and the koko `0 r av 7! birds) 7. Discuss endangered animals like koko and fruit bats. Ask for some ways on how to protect Guam's endangered animals. 8. Make a poster of endangered animals and write the title: "Help Protect Our Endangered Animals". 9. Draw a savannah with plants and animals. 27 5. Beaches Teaching Strategies: Beaches are an accumulation ofsand nnd rock fragincrits riffected 1) *v ordinary wilvv action. They come in many sizes and shapeq, from little pockets of.4mid fid hervd bil ween cliffs and water's edge, to wide expanses of snnd likeTinnon widTartigov. Cocot4 1. Discuss the meanings Island has beaches too. Beaches nre always in motion. Large sinble bviii-hes linve an of vocabulary words. inland resertioirof sand. Snnd consists of loose par(iclesofliard broken mck fir ofbrolwn shells and skeletons of plants and animals. 2. Ask what students see in the picture. Y 3. Ask students their experiences in the beach. 4. Ask what they find in the beach. (plants and 77" animals) plants: beach ng glory, sea beans, morm puting, hunek, nigas, A A----@ I I., coconut tree) animals: fish, mollusks, crabs, birds, turtles, geckos, etc.) 5. Discuss in what areas on Guam one can find beaches. 6. Discuss the development going on in some areas for tourism. 7. Ask how beaches can be kept clean. 8. Draw a beach on a poster board. 9. Draw some activities done in beaches. 28 6. Fringing Reefs Teaching Strategies: The shore around Guam is half fringing reefs. Reef-; are ridges of rocks near the sen. The island is surrounded by the sea so we find shallow reefs in the northern, central nnd southern parts of the island. Some reefs are narrow and some ore wide. (Innin's first corril 1. Discuss meanings reefs grew around in the volcanic central part of the island. Reefs are buill 2 kinds of of underlined voca- organisms: corals, which are animals, and calcareous algae, calcium cont aining plants, There are many little plants and animals that live in reefs. Some animals are corill bulary words. Check fireworms, coneshells, starfish, eels, crabs, shrimps, lobsters nnd many others. Some in the glossary. plants found in reefs are algae, seaweeds and others. 2. Discuss what stu- dents see in the pic- ture. 3. Ask students what they do at the reefs when they go to the beach. What do they see? -7@ 4. Ask students where on Guam they can find reefs. 5. Ask students some animals and plants they A can find in reefs. MMW . . . I . . 6. Draw some fringing reefs. 7. Draw a poster on how to enjoy a day by the reefs. 8. Draw some plants and animals found in the reefs. 29 7. Cliffs Teaching Strategies: Cliffs are high rocks on the sides of mountains. The cliffs of Mt. Ln villan, in t.he Rout I, and at Two IA)vers Point in Harmon add to the awesome beauty of the motintairis.There are cliffs along Marine Drive in East Agana and Tamuning, too.These rocky side,; are 1. Discuss meaning of dangerous to climb. Waves wear away the rock wherewater mectsa cliff'. lfwe took upthe underlined words. Check face of some cliffs, we can see several "nips" where the rock has been worn awny.Thr4e. nips indicate former higher sea levels. At some places more prominent features such As in the glossary. sea level benches and terraces are cut into rocky shorelines. 2. Ask students what other mountains they can name. A", 3. Illicit ideas what peo- ple do in mountains. 4. Discuss how people can protect mountains. 5. Name some Ways J mountains can be useful. t 6. Explain how moun- tains can have nips. c -i 1*0 7. Draw a poster of a mountain showing a cliff. 8. Draw some animals and plants found in mountains. 30 8. River Valleys Teaching Strategies: Some people live in river valleys. Valleys are low Innds between hills. We, find river valleys in Agat and Umatac in the South. A river flows from Ow hills or 11](11111111ins through the valley. 1 . Discuss the meaning A valley is a veryfertile land so we find massed vegetation in the south. 1$ople gr(lw different crops like watermelon, bananas, vegetables and fruit freeg. Anininig like pigs of the vocabulary words. and chicken are raised theretoo. Thesouth isom interesting place to live and visil-There Check in the glossary. are plenty of tourist spots tovisit like the Inarajan pool, the'I'aloWo FnIls, N111no Pnils, Cocos Island, Umatac Village, Golf Courses and others. 2. Discuss how valleys become very fertile and a good place to raise animals and plants. 3. Ask students where they can find valleys on Guam. 4. Discuss the life in the valley-name some plants and animals found in the T valley. %Aw, 5. Discuss the places often visited in the south, how they help tourism. 6. Draw any tourist spot found in the south. 7. Draw any valley with the plants and animals. 31 9. Freshwater Wetlands Teaching Strategies: Freshwater wetlands can be found from the north to the south of Gunin. These abound in the south. The north being mostly limestone doesn't have plenty orwetlands because limestone absorbs water easily. Thesoutb has igneous rocks that don't absorb 1. Discuss meanings of water fast so some freshwater collect in pools or run downhill. In the north, we call find underlined words. Check some freshwater in the Ritidian Cave, a small spring near Yigo called the Japanese War Memorial Spring. Agana Spr 'ings can be found in Sinajana hill and Agana swamp is near in the glossary. NAS Barrigads. There are plenty fresbwnter wetlands in the south. Some of them are the Pago River, Talofofo River, Talofofo Falls, Malojloj stream, Inarajan River, Padre pools in Merizo, Umatac River, Namo River, Rizal Beach, swomp and marsh in Naval Sta- 2. Ask students what tion, Atantano River in Apra Harbor, Laguas River in Piti, and Fena Lake at Naval they see in the picture. Magazine. 3. Discuss how small pools of water collect on the ground to form springs, brooks, swamps or rivers. 4. Discuss the dif- ference of limestone and 41 igneous rocks. 5. Show map of Guam and ask students names of villages where they can find limestone rocks. (All northern villages) 6. Ask students names of villages where they can find igneous rocks. (All southern villages). 7. Draw some fresh water wetlands found on Guam by groups. Each group can be assigned one or two to draw. 8. Name some fresh water wetlands that become tourists attractions. 32 10. Mangrove Flats Teaching Strategies: Land and sea meet at three different shores: muddy, sandy and rocky. Muddy shores develop where water is calm and currents are slow, behind some rocks or little islands. Small rivers bring some waterandsilt to this meeting place. Silt is a combinations ofsoil, 1. Discuss meanings of mud and other particles. We find plants and animals in mangrove flat. A rn a ngrove flat is the meeting places of fresh and salt water where plants and animals live. Some vocabulary words. Check animals found in mangrove flats are crabs, mudskipper fish, lizards and others. Some in the glossary. plants found are tall grasses, beach morning glory, shrubs, ferns and some trees. 2. Ask students what they see in the picture. J, 3. Discuss the dif- r ference of mangrove flat and freshwater wetland. ?4' 4. Ask the different plants found in a man- grove flat. 5. Ask the different animals found in man- S, grove ats. 6. Make a list of the _4AI same plants or animals found in both freshwater wetland and mangrove flat. 7. Draw a mangrove flat with plants and animals. 8. Make a short test on the chapter. 33 Glossary 1. nitrogen - a nonmetallic colorless, odorless gas (78% of air). 2. oxygen - a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas (21% of air). 3. exhaust - gaseous fumes from a car or bus. 4. noxious - harmful 5. open burning - burning outside so smoke goes into the open air. The burning does not take place inside a closed container. 6. noise pollution - excess noise or very loud noise that is unpleasant to the ear. 34 Air Pollution Teaching Strategies: 1. Discuss the dic- tionaries definition of air. t What do jets flying low overhead, radius blast- Explain what nitrogen and ing, fires burning and cars and buses with excess exhaust all have in common? They are all con- oxygen are. tributing to the pollution of our air. Air carries things such as noise, smoke and small solid nitrogen - a non-metallic particles. colorless, odorless gas TO- making up 4/5 of our air. w We cannot waste air, but e can pollute !ffi'J oxygen - a colorless, odor- less, tasteless gas mak- The dictionary defines air as an odorless, ing up 21% of our air. colorless, tasteless gaseous mixture of nit- rogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) plus varying amounts of moisture, low altitude pollutants and particles of matter. Sky and atmosphere Stress the other syn- are other names for air. 011yins for air - sky and atmosphere. 2. Stress that all plants, If we can smell air, see black smoke or exhaust animals and people need in the air, or if it tastes smoky or scratches our throat when we breath it, or it hurt.,; our eyes, air for breathing. If the then we know our air is not pure but pollute(]. air is dirty, it can cause People in Tokyo, Japan wear masks over their breathing problems and nose and mouth to filter the air so it does not su hurtthem tobreath. People, plants and animals ch illnesses as asthma cannot live without clean air. and emphysema 3. If you can find a pic- ture of someone in Tokyo wearing a breathing mask, show it to the class and discuss the situations that would cause someone to wear such a mask. Where does this pollution come from? (mostly vehicle exhaust) Would we need to wear such a mask on Guam? This could be a lead into the rest of the air pollution discussion for Guam. 35 Guam's location as an island in the Pacific helps it to be almost free from OiTpOlIUtiOn ast he Teaching Strategies: trade winds blow across the island carrying any polluted air with it. Therefore; we experience clear, blue skies almost every day. Guam does experience some problems with air pollution however. One of these problems is 1. Discuss with : ur Yo motor vehicle exhaust which occurs most often during rush hour traffic. Even though cars students the harniful that are imported to Guam must be equipped with pollution controls, some exhnust 8 1 ill escapes. As of January 1, 1988, cars will be inspected for exhaust safety as well as a regular effects of exhaust fumes. safety inspection. (difficulty with breath- If a carorbusis seen to have excess exhaust fumes, theperson who notices itcan reportthere ing, eyes hurt and become findings to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and they will call the owner in and require him to have the vehicle repaired and inspected. This is one way of solving the air pollu- red, throat feels scratchy) tion problem. Many suicides have taken place by breathing ex- haust fumes, so they can be deadly. 2. Let the students dis- cuss a time when they were behind a bus or car -with excess exhaust fumes. 4 7@ -7 How did they feel? Did 42@@ they want to tell the driver to get the automobile fixed? 3. Discuss reasons why the exhaust fumes do not create a pollution pro- blem the magnitude of Tokyo or Los Angeles. We have the trade winds, and also we don't have as r riany cars. hnpress on them. that it is still a problem to be reckoned with as our pop- ulation grows and the number of cars on Guam increase. 36 Because Guam is an isolated island, we have no fuel source for our power so we in ust import 'Teaching Strategies: oil. This oil is burned in the power plants at Piti and Tanguissen. Any unburned oil esenpestis smoke and noxious fumes. Usually, the winds carry the smoke out to sea and our air remains clean. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors the level of air pollution from 1. Discuss and make a these powerplantsand requiresa lowsulfurfuel tobeburned during therainy season when the list of all the ways your trade.winds cease. Because of this, we experience clean air most of the time. students use electricity We cannot take that clean air for granted and the government and EPA must continutilly research and implement methods of pollution control as our island continues to progress and M their homes and in to demand more power. Maybe new sources of power will have to be tried which will not school. Discuss where this pollute the air at all. power comes from, and how it gets to their homes. How do you feel when there is a power outage? (can't watch TV, play the ... stereo, no lights, can't cook 4@4 etc.) Electricity has be- ....... come a very important ...... .11111-,;4 ....... part of our lives. Therefore, we need the power plants, A but we also need our clean air. 2. Discuss alternate sources of power such as wi ndmills. Would wind- mills pollute the air? Would they be efficient supplying enough power9 What about solar power? Who has solar hot water heaters? Do they work? Is it hot all the time? Do we have enough sun- shine to keep the heater working? 37 The biggest contributor to air pollution is open burning. There are still many people on Teaching Strategies: Guam who burn there trash and garbage and clear land by burning even though it is against the law. If a farmer wants to clean his land for planting, be can get a burning permit from EPA. This fire will then be watched to keep it under control. 1. Ask the students if However; many people do not obey these laws because they have always burned their trash they burn their trash at and land and can see no reason to stop now. Therefore; much of our land is lost to fires which home. Discuss how bad it also creates much pollution (smoke and particles of matter) into the air. This makes it dif- ficult to breath, our eyes water and our throats feel scratchy as we breath this polluted air. smells if their neighbors These fires, big or small, are a major contributor to air pollution. burn their trash and it We can best find a solution to this problem in changing attitudes toward burning, and to get, in the babit of taking trash to the dump or let the garbage trucks pick it up. We do not live in blows over into your yard isolation, but everythingwe do, like openburning, affects others. It destroys land and pollutes and through the Win- the air. dows of you house. Does this make them want to go over an d ask the neighbor to please stop? 4 It should and the neighbor should do so. 2. Discuss the alter- natives to burning the trash. (take it to the dump or have the garbage truck pick it up) 3. Invite a person from T, the Environmental Pro- tection Agency or the 71 Department of Foresty to speak to your students on the loss of land and thus habitats for plants and animals due to uncon- trolled fires which often begin with open burning. 38 Planes cannot fly in or out of the Narita.airport in Tokyo, Japan or the National airport in 'Teaching Strategies: Washington, DC after 10:00 p.m. Why should such a restriction be placed on these airports? The reason is noise pollution because airplanes do make a lot of noise. 1. Discuss what noises Guam has no noise pollution laws, but we are concerned with the loud noises that the air carries. Every now and then the Navy carries on "tough and go" operations in which the the students consider too planes fly from the aircraft carriers out in the ocean to the airport-and back causing very loud loud or too excessive in noises as these planes fly low. their home or around their If this were a daily activity we would be concerned and consider limiting this activity in neighborhood. What could some way. Noise bothers us and interrupts our regular activities such as sleeping nnd talking. If you play your radio or stereo at the highest volume, or if a hand plays so loud you can't talk be done to lessen these to the person next to you, that is a form of air pollution. You must be considerate of your noises? Can you make a neighbor when you play your music because not everyone likes the same music and volume dog bark softer or a roos- level that you do. Be considerate and we will never need laws to control noise pollution. With Guam's population increasingand houses being built closer toget her an(] more apart- ter crow softer? Are these ment living taking place, it becomes very important for us to be considerate of those. living air pollution noises? Is it close to us. We can't be as loud as we once were when we were the only ones living oil the being considerate of your street. neighbor if you have many dogs that bark or roosters that crow? Would it be better to move these animals out to a ranch somewhere? 2. Experiment with noise levels in your class- room. Use the stero, talk- ing, shouting, closing of the door etc. at different volumes. Check with the class next door if they were disturbed. Ask each stu- dent at what point these sounds became noisy and thus offensive to them. Use this to impress upon your students the impor- tance of noise control for living a comfortable life, and for making the work place a more pleasant place to be. 39 T.E. (Review Questions) Comprehension: 1. Name 3 forms of air pollution. a. open burning b. motor vehicle exhaust c. power plant fumes d. noise pollution 2. Does Guam have any laws regarding air pollution? It is illegal to burn trash openly. 3. Why does Guam experience little air pollution? The trade winds below across the island and carry most polluted air out to sea. 4. Is there such a thing as noise pollution? Yes-Any reasonable answer. 5. What is the most serious air pollution on Guam? Open burning Don't burn trash at all. Any reasonable solution. Thought Question: Hawaii has a law somewhat like this. Let the students discuss their answers together. They should conclude that is would be a difficult law to enforce, but should also realize that all these activities to bother some people, and we must be considerate of those around us. 40 T,E, A. Definitions: After your students have written their definitions, compare them to the definitions in the glossary. Discuss each definition and how it relates to land pollution. B. Critical Thinking: These statements can be answered orally or written. After the students have answered the questions, try changing each statement or situation into a positive statement as a solution to land pollution. Example: Johnny, take this pamper and throw it in the trash can over there. 41 Glossary 1. scenery - that which our eyes see surrounding us. 2. natural resources - air, land, water (those resources not created by man). 3. wants - anything our heart desires. 4. needs - things we need to stay alive. 5. consumer porducts - anything we can buy in the stores. 6. importation - the means of bringing goods into Guam. 7. solid waste - trash, garbage, rubbish which is thrown away. 8. toxic waste - harmfW poisonous substance created by the solid waste at the landfill. 9. recycling - to use again. 10. transfer stations - places where trash can be brought and from there it will be brought to the landfill. 11. illegal dumping - dumping trash anywhere but at the Landfill or legal dumps. 12. incinerator - a machine to burn trash. 13. leaching - to dissolve and wash out or remove by means of draining through the soil or rocks. 14. attitudes - a feeling toward something. 15. GEPA - Guam Environmental Protection Agency. 16. public - all people living on Guam. 17. capacity - how much something can hold. 18. legal dumping - dumping trash in approved places. 19. littering - throwing things outside of trash containers. 42 Legal and Illegal Dumping Teaching Strategies: 1. Discuss uses Of Guam's land. Write these uses on the board. What is m ost of the land used NO LITTERINO OR ou PIING F@, for? (housing and busi- ness) How do 4th graders By Order of the Guam Envi ronnvervW' theland? use rol", Protection Agency Secton 5120 7 ol I OGCA Chapter 51 StZlS #Vt Meting shall be punishable by a one gal 41. 2. Discuss what our Z,@ not less than two hundred doilars ($2 natural resources are. (air, 00) nW More than five hundred dofts 05M land, water, resources that 41, which sW, not tw suspended by the CML are not created by man) i List the natural resour- ces on Guam. Discuss ------ what limited resources mean (can use them up Guam as a beautiful island on which to live. It has some of the most beautiful scenery in the and then there will be no world from the southern mountains to the limestone flats and breathtaking cliffs in the north. more) What resources The ocean sparkles, the air is clean, and the beauty and fragrance of flowers can be expe ced all over the island. rien- could we use up? (land, limited natural resour- watnA Living on an island should make us very aware of how precious our ces are. Salt water surrounds us, both the land stops at the waters edge. Each square inch of our 38 mile long island, whether it be hills, valleys, mountains, flatlands, beaches, farms or 3. Discuss what reasons parks, is important for food, housings, recreation, business, tourism and is a habitat for a tourist might have for numerous plant animals and birds. coming to Guam? (tropi- cal island, warm, beauti- ful beaches, friendly people, beautiful scenery etc.) Does he find these things when he gets here? Why or why not? 43 Teaching Strategies: 1. Discuss the dif- ference between wants and needs. MW 2. How do our wants create throw away pro- ducts and disposal pro- blems? (eventually, every- thing is thrown away) 3. Make two lists. One for wants and the other for needs. Have the chil- j < dren think about what is in their house and place The Guam Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that each person on Guam the things under wants produces approximately 2.5 pounds of solid waste, such as trash, garbage and rubbish every or needs. Discuss things day. This means that YOU could be responsible for producing 895 pounds of waste products we absolutely must have each year. Given the population of 1986, approximately 100 million pounds of solid waste are produced each year. to survive and those we As in may states in the United States recycling is one answer to disposing of solid waste, but can get along without. on Guam it is not the answer because we are so far from recycling centers and it would cost too much to ship it off island. Therefore, most solid waste must be disposed of on island.There are places to recycle aluminum cans, but that's only a small part of the total solid waste problem. 4. Take a field trip to commercial port and see first hand how all our goods are brought to Guam and then to our stores. 44 Guam has changed rapidly over the last twenty Teaching Strategies: years and will continue to doso. Thepopulation x, has increased and so has tourism thus creatinga demand for more housing, unitis and more hoteir. 1. Discuss with your .-@4! A Land Ims been cleared nnd limise nnd holvi-q udents how they dis- st have been built nlong with roadq nnd recreaf iou areas, thus replacing grass, trees and jungle "44 'S @11 _-1 h wit cement and buildings. The monitor lizards pose of the trash at their home. Encourage them and kako bird have been replaced by houses, to be honest. Make a chart cars and buses. listing dump, burn, trash pick-up, leave in yard. Check off the various ways homes represented take care of their trash. Then point out that if this chart ultiplied by how were m many classes there were ..... .. .. m your school, and by how many schools there are on the island, it would show the magnitude of our solid waste disposal P., p oblem. r z A_ 2 Discuss the ever pre sent problem of littering 'W' and dumping all over the island. Discuss ways each child could help rid Guam of this problem. List them As our island developed, the wants and ducts from the United States, Australia, Asia on the chalkboard, and needs of the people increased the demands and other countries. Nearly all these pro- stress if we each do only for better and wider variety of consumerpro- ducts eventually become waste of one type or one thing on the list it ducts. These needs have been met by the another to be thrown away. importation of thousands of different pro- will be a start in solving the problem. 45 The Ordot Landfill is the only approved solid waste dumping site on Guam. There are also Teaching Strategies: transfer stations in Dededo, Malojloj and Agat where people can bring their trash for free. These stations are open six days a week. Even though these facilities are available, there are still illegal durnping problems. Some- times it seems as if there is more trash and garbage right outside the dump than is brought 1. Ask if anyone has ever inside. been to the Ordot Landfill To help reduce the illegal dumping of solid waste around the island, the guarn Envornmen- tal Protection Agency has strict litter control laws. They have the authority to issue litter tic- or to one of the transfer kets or fine and in 1986 they issued 73 tickets. The money collected is used to clean lip dump stations. Maybe you could sites and to educate the public concerning the problems of solid waste and litter. take a field trip to one "No place to put the garbage" is a problem experienced by almost every state in the UnRed States. 95% of that garbage is buried in landfills, and so is ours on Guam. However, the Ordot of them. Landfill has just reached its capacity or will do so soon and attempts are being made to keep it open. 2. You could bring in someone from EPA to dis- cuss the illegal dumping problem. J 3. Discuss the dif- ference between legal and illegal dumping. Go over the legal sites, and then Al discuss reasons why some- -hose one would not use 1. sites and dump their trash in the boonies or alongside the road. 4. Discuss the En,@iron- mental Protection Agen- cy's role in dumping and littering, the governments role (operates the landfill and transfer stations and finances each projects) and the publics role. Write these on the board, and write down each agen- cy's job and then discuss who is doing their job and who is not. (The public is failing as people dump their trash right next to a container or outside the dump) It should be noted that people and their prac- tices are the main pro- blem. 46 Solutions to this problem must not only meet today's needs, but olso those of the future. Proposals have been made to buy more land next to the landfill so it can expand. Another pro- Teaching Strategies: posal would be to move to a new site in Asan. A third proposal is to build an incinerator to hum the excess garbage. Each of these proposals is very costly to the Government of Guam. 1. Discuss what atti- Besides being almost full, the Ordot Landfill has another poltentinl problem nild that is a possibilityof toxic waste notbeingleached out asthe liquid runoff from the garbagegoes down tudes are. Discuss peoples through the soil and into the water lens. If this should prove to be happening, the site would attitudes toward litter- have to be closed and a new site opened. These are serious legel dumping problems, but illegal dumping is considered one of tile Ing and dumping. Are the more serious and difficult environmental problems to correct. The real answers will involve attitudes good and heal- changing the attitudes and practices of those responsible for illegal dumping. thy? If not, how can we change our attitudes to- ward littering? (take pride in our island and make a conscious effort to not lit- ter and to pick up litter we see) 4" c :7 2. Have your students write anti-littering slo- gans, and design to be placed around the school, me and around the the ho island. . ....... .. 3. Have your students d e velop a "Keep Guam Clean" advertisement for TV or a local magazine or newspaper. They could make a video and share it with the rest of the school. 4. Your students could set up a mock trial for someone accused of lit- tering. 5. Your students could hold a debate on the pros and cons of keeping our island clean for the pre- sent and the future. 47 Yes, changing our attitudes toward littering and dumping is the only real solution to keep- Teaching Strategies: ingour island from being known as "trash island." The state of Michigan passed a law giving a ten cent refund for every bottle and can returned. Oregon has forbidden the useof pampers. Both of these have helped to keep the roadside cleaner. What can we do on Guam? Essentially, litter stays right where people put it until someone picks it up. Our beaches are 1. Discuss the pros and littered with cans, bottles, and trash. Our roadsides are littered with fast food containers, bot- cons of each solution to tles, cans and sacks of garbage thrown out of cars. Almost every place you took you see garbage the dumping problem and litter. given in the text: a) buy more land b) move to a new site C) build an incinerator What might the best solution be? 2. Discuss the leaching by which liquids process percolate down through the limestone and coral and in the process im- 14 purities and wastes are 4 dissolved or gotten rid of. This keeps our water clean and pure. However; if the toxic wastes from the Ordot Landfill are not leached out, and they end up in the water supply the dump must be closed or the runoff diverted in a new direction and area. 48 But, trashy problems can be found right in your own back yard. If you keep your own home Teaching Strategies: and yard free from trash, you will want to keep Guam clean too. More trash cans can be placed around the island, but unless we each take pride in Guam and make sure we don't litter, trash cans won't do any good. People sit trash right next to the cans instead of in them! 1. Just as there axe Not only does litter and illegal dumping hide Guam's beauty, it is also bad for health groups against alcohol reasons. Trash and garbage lying around and open dump site are breeding grounds for flies, (SADD, Just Say No) you mosquitoes and rats, all of which can carry and cause diseases. We must get rid of these health hazards. could start a group in your What can YOU do to solve this problem? YOU can say "This is my island, my home and I'm school against litter. Give proud of it. I will make sure I don't litter, I'll pick up after others, and I'll tell my family and it you own names such as friends that littering is definitely not cool." I want other people to see Guam's real beauty the moment they set foot on Guam and not after they dig through the trash to find it. (SALT - Students Against Litter & Trash) and give it the authority to fine those caught littering and the fines could be use to beautify the school. AI * 4 Az@ 2. Make a pledge card 0 to fill out as a member '4, 1 that pledges each mem- ber to take pride in Guam and to do everything in their power to keep it clean. "'y 49 This text was funded by the U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management and the Guam Coastal Management Program Bureau of Planning Government of Guam 3 6668 1,1109 7396