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yor- 3 WA go A A -0- S-f DESTIN HARBOR MANAGEMENT PLAN CITY OF DESTIN, FLORIDA TC COASTAL ZONE 225 INFORMATION CENTER D47 D47 1987 COASTAL ZO-NNE, ri INFORMATION CENTER 0 Ts DESTIN HARBOR. MANA''GEMENT PLAN.' CITY OF, DESTIN, FLORID r1987 SEPTEMBER 8i rfl. LANDERS-ATKINS PLANNERS, INC. IN ASS 0 C I A T 10 N W I T H Connelly & Wicker, Inc. SPECIAL CON-SULTANTS A. Ouinton White, Phl). Bruce Taylor, Phl). Funding for this project was provided by the National Oceari c. i and Atmospheric Administration through the Office'V Coastal Management Florida Department.of.En0ronmental Regulation under the Coastal Zone ManagementL.Act of 1972, as amended. DER Contract No...CM 176 ....... ... ....... .. .. .. ..... ... ..... . .... MR 01 M ..........- ON C@'INM . . . . ...... mg RAWL A4, .......... IN, Mj J-P WN him A k' .017 -1 .@V .. ........ -... .. . . . ..... IN @?R'l 0@ .................... . it . ... . ..... 13 Ii:4 mm V. 1M. @.3 W.... is ,y- UP ot A Oe *mg, IP rAN' r 4@. LU Ag, J. "AS & M. wkw lit .%% W V. N V R,@ Ah ! ml: N EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The following Destin Harbor Management Plan represents a comprehensive approach to alleviating the problems facing a body of water which.at present is known to have deteriorated from its past condition. The plan is also intended to main- tain the Harbor as the economic center of the city as well. This plan has been prepared in response to the Northwest Florida Coastal Re-source Management Plan as well as a special element of the City's Comprehedsive Plan. Addressed in the Management Plan are several of the key elements required of the City in the establishment of the Coastal Management element, of the afore mentioned Compre- hensive Plan. Included in the plan area review of past studies and research, a complementary analysis of the existing situation, and, finally, policy' and action recommen- dations by which the City of Destin may preserve' and Orotett its Harbor. This plan is the culmination of four interim reports and re@resents input from the local and state governments and the local community. The following recommen- dations are listed in order of priority based upon the degree of severity of conditions 'addressed as well as the degree of positive benefit to be achieved by each recommendation. In summary, the major recommendations of the plan are as follows: Support actions which will increase the flushing and circulation of salt- water through the Harbor, includinj implementation of the Northwest Florida Water Management District's pipe system, and further analyze* effects of widening the Harbor's mouth. Encourage compliance by local petroleum tank owner/o perators in the State of Florida's E.-D.I. program, which addresses potential petroleum contamination of local waters. Undertake specific actions to treat all possible sources of stormwater discharge, currently responsible for the major in-flow of pollutants in the .Harbor, including: - Continued enforcement of the city's first one-inch of runoff rule for all new development and redevelopment. - Undertake engineering studies to evaluate and implement alternative treatment approaches for U.S. 98 outfall D, located at the eastern end of the Harbor. - Install retention/treatment basins at U.S. 98 outfalls A, B and C. - Install grassed swales and other treatment devices on City's streets draining into U.S. 98 and on streets in the Holiday Isle area. - Require boat maintenance facilities to meet local stormwater retention requirements, and additionally, to periodically clean and remove harm- ful sediments from the retention system. - Require reef material storage areas to meet City's stormwater retention rule. - Encourage alteration of private developments which discharge directly into the Harbor to provide treatment. 0 Ensure provision of sewer service to all areas around, the Harbor. � Undertake an urban redevelopment study of the. central Destin north shore area determine specific redevelopment actions available, including tax increment financing, to improve conditions on the north shore, including sewage and stormwater collection and treatment. � Establish a Marina Ordinance to control the operation and construction of existing and proposed marina facilities. 0 Investigate the nature of bottom sediment conditions in the Harbor to deter- mine the need for corrective measures to alleviate potential problems. � Enact local policy governing the- abandonment of docks and their- subsequent removal. � Support actions that result in,increased.'littoral,gr-ass bed areas around the Harbor. � Increase public awareness, of the litter problem and continue voluntary clean-up measures. � Encourage boater participation in the Coast Guard Auxiliary's Courtesy Marine Examination (CME) program. � Encourage property owners adjacent to the canals to support actions to improve circulation of the water in the finger canals connected to the Harbor. Implementati on strategies depend upon both local and state level action. The City's efforts with the Harbor Ordinance, Harbor Master, and local stormwater quality rules can be expanded to cover general stormwater improvements, litter @control, and marina and boat operations. The. Harbor flushing program and improvements to the U.S. 98 stormwater discharges should be. headed by the ,Northwest Florida Water Management District. TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND History Destin Harbor Drainage Basins Figure 2 Economic Base 4 Growth Of Concern 5 II. ANALYSIS SUMMARY 6 III. GOALS 7 IV. POLICY DEVELOPMENT B V. POLICY AND ACTION MATRIX 9 VI. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT 25 Summary & Recommendations. 25 Local Streets 27 U.S. Highway No. 98 28 Private Development 38 VII. APPENDICES 41 A. Stormwater Concept Designs B. DER Class III Standards For Water Quality C. Agency Workshop Attendees D. Bi bl i ogr aphy LBACKGROUND HISTORY The Destin Harbor was originally the pass from the Gulf of Mexico to Choctawhatchee Bay. The Old Pass was closed by a hurricane in the 1930's. In April 1931 the East Pass channel was completed. The 6 by 100 foot channel was authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 1930. The channel was improved in 1952 to 12 by 180 feet and a 6 by 100 foot access channel into Desti.n Harbor was completed. The jetties were constructed in the.1960's to stabilize the East Pass entrance. The East Pass and Destin Harbor channels are maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Destin and Holiday Isle developed rather slowly unti.1 the 1960's. in 1966, U.S. Highway 98 was.,four-laned from the Destin bridge,- to. approximately the current,, location of the "Donut Hole" Restaurant. Three direct stormwater outfal.ls were constructed in conjunctionwith the expansion. Two of these outfalls discharge i,nto the Harbor and one is in East Pass. The Hol.,,iday Isle development began in this time period, including the dredging of. the flnger canals. The canals and other docking facilities..with the accompanying boating activity, steadily began impacting the Harbor. The second four-lane expansion on U.S. 98 was undertaken in 1979 from the 1966 terminus to Airport Road. The stormwater collection system for this section of the highway has one outfall at the end of a canal leading to Sandpiper Cove. This' outfall has the capacity to discharge large vol.umes of stormwater, and it discharges into the portion of Destin Harbor with the least amount of 'natural circulation. The construction boom in the late 1970's and ea rly 1980's affected all facets of the Harbor with development occurring along large portions of the harbor shore- line, 1 incl udi.ng docks and marinas. Boating activity continued to increase proportional.ly with new development and continues to impact the Harbor signifi- cantly, today. The final four' ane expansion was.completed in 1986. This project provided a new.highway parallel to Old U.S. 98. The extreme western end of the project is connected to the Harbor outfall The stormwater system treats a limited volume and then overflows into the a@jacent col lection sy@tem during major storms. This adds-to the potential volume of stormwat& entering Sandpiper Cove. Current local development regulations are in place to help the City of Destin control future development and upgrade sites which redevelop around the Harbor. The improved sewage treatment plant (Destin Water Users, Inc.) will help in the Harbor. The Harbor 'Board and the Harbor Master have helped increase public awareness of the Harbor's pollution problems. QT LEGION Dt 4fo Qc s., 4 7: IN% cc 30 OUTFALL 36" OUTFALL A ID k3o UTFALL' H A RE30R D DRAINAGE A.'R BASIN OR ;000 SANDPIPEI COVE sh PROPOSED FLUSHING PIPELINE DESTIN HARBOR Drainage Basins IRPOR7- -S7'1 US qS p R LA D 0 T,: D iood 2 UTFALL G DETENTION POND GULF 0 F MEXI co BACKGROUND CURRENT USE9 ECONOMIC BASE Destin is located in one of the most rapidly growing coastal areas of the Florida Panhandle. The City and its harbor, offer an array of amenities for both residents and vacationers. The mouth of Destin Harbor lies less than one mile north of the Gulf of Mexico, via the East Pass channel. Because of this ease of access to open Gulf waters and the popularity of fishing in the area, Destin Harbor is home to the largest charter fleet in the state.. This sports fishing fleet is a primary attractor of tourist activity to the City and may well be the largest "industry" in the City. The fleet clearly displays the prime significance of Destin Harbor and the interrelationship between a sound economy and a quality environment. The fleet's large docking facilities are also a strong base on which to build expanded economic and tourist activity on the north shore of the harbor. The harbor also offers excellent dockage and marina facilities for transient craft coming to Destin from all parts of the country. Add to this activity the multitude of other commercial and recreational craft, and the result is an extremely busy harbor. Land borne activity adjacent to the harbor is also thriving. Along the north bank is a variety of restaurants serving up the local catch and offering excellent views of the entire harbor. In this same area can be found various shops and stores catering to area residents and vaca- tioners. East of this commercial area and still on the north bank is a mixed density residential strip. This area consists primarily of single family detached housing, with several multi-family structures. The eastern and southern shores of the lagoon are taken up by various density residential uses as well, from single family detached homes to mid-rise condominiums. Two series of finger canals have been cut into the south bank and are lined with single family homes with private boat slips. Several of the newer condominiums on the south bank also have multi-slip marinas. These south bank residential areas occupy the most desirable real estate in the city. Just as Destin Harbor is the traditional focal point of the city, it also serves as the economic core. Without the Harbor, the city loses much of its uniqueness over nearby coastal towns such as Santa Rosa Beach, Panama City Beach, and Pensacola Beach. Conservative estimates of winter Coff-season) to summer popu- lation increases are in the range of 6 times, with between 5 and 6 thousand visitors in the winter, and over 25,000 in the warmer months. These numbers represent individuals and families who pour into the area each year and who pour money into local businesses, making Destin's economy work. The Harbor also holds economic significance in a second way, and one which is equally as important as its influence on the private sector. The main source of revenue for any municipality comes in the form of property tax collection. The Harbor and its shores are totally contained within the city limits of Destin, and being the primary amenity for the city, land in proximity to the Harbor holds high value. This land, then, serves to further increase the tax base for the City, making the Harbor even more economically important. BACKGROUND GROWTH OF CONCERN That water quality in Destin Harbor has deteriorated is no sudden revelation. Certain events -and 'actions have heightene 'd the public's aware.ness,.and govern- mental awareness as well.' to the problems that exist in this unique body of water. These-events and actions have not only increased awareness but have also served to begin to address potential measures aimed at correcting the problems at hand. r The first major indication of problems that received public attention was an extended fish kill in 1he lagoon in the fall of 1982. This incident prompted. r the County Commissioners to seek assistance in determining the causes and possible solutions to the problems in the lagoon. The cause of the fish kill was determined to be an algal bloom, but more importantly, it pointed to the r potential for other problems with the lagoon water. Late in 1983, Governor Graham established the Northwest Florida Coast Resource Planning and Management Committee and charged it to make policy recommendations to deal wifh escalating local ' development and its effect on the environment and r infrustructure .of the Moreno Point 'area. .A subcommittee of this group was established to specifically address water quality problems in Destin Harbor, or Old'Pass Lagoon. The committee studied conditions in the Harbor and presented recommendations to the state for improving waterquality., These ' recommendations came in the form of the now adopted "Resource Management Plan". A third indication of growth of concern over the Harbor came in 1984. A referendum was held incorporating the Destin area as a municipality. The major motivating force for this action was local concern as to^the development of the area and how it was impacting 'the natural environment.. Incorporation has allowed the City to ena'ct local legislation and develop local infrastructure to begin' to deal with growth management and envi 'ronmental quality control. These measures include the establishment of a Harbor Board and the hiring of a full- time Harbor Master. Incorporation'has allso required the City to comply with the Loca*1 Government Comprehensive Planning and Land Development Regulation Act, as amended in 1985. The intent of the, law is to allow local governments to plan for their future growthand developme .nt, to adopt and.amend comprehensive plans and to imp-lement plans via the adoption of land development regulations. The City of Destin currently is involved in preparing their Comprehensive Plan. To help guide Destin and other local governments in their efforts and to ensure that local plans are consistent with regional and state planning goals, the West Florida Regional Planning Council has formulated a Comprehensive Regional Policy r Plan. Such Measures have been taken on the state, regional, and local levels to put the City of Destin and its harbor on the road to a prosperous future. ANALYSIS SUMMARY From the review of existing studies, interviews with agency representatives and the Agency Workshop, it is clear that there is reason for concern about water qual,ity in Destin Harbor. It is also clear that, in the words of one Agency Workshop part 'icipant, "there has been more positive action in the last two years than in the previous forty". Whether it is an exageration or not, there is agreement that trends have been reversed recently with the improvements in Destin Water Users effluent disposal system, the attention afforded a number of issues by the presence of the Harbor Master, and the beginnings of general public awareness and concern. Problems do remain and need to be addressed. These can be summarized as follows: Toxic and Other Materials in Bottom Sediments: Studies point to the potential for a number of toxic materials - particularly heavy metals - being found in the bottom materials of the Harbor. Given the closed nature of the system and the number of activities feeding into the system one would anticipate that such problems exist. Unfortunately, no study has been undertaken to define the extent of toxic materials, potential sources, and, most importantly, if they pose health or environmental threats. Studies also indicate that there is a high organic content in the sediments analyzed. High organic levels, coupled with low mixing rates can lead to abnormally and dangerously low dissolved oxy- gen levels. At this point, it is recommended that a study design be obtained for an analysis which would better define these situations and that funds be sought to Undertake this analysis. Pollutant1oading: Pollutants are being introduced into the Harbor by several means: untreated stormwater discharge, litter, intermixing with Choctawhatchee Bay water, discharges from boat toilets and bilges, groundwater migration, acci- dential petroleum spills, and boat marina and maintenance operations. The stu- dies indicate that the discharge of untreated stormwater is probably the largest source of a wide range of pollution input, with the outfalls from the U.S. 98 drainage system constituting the most significant single source. Potential policies and actions identified in the following section reflect need for a broad based attack on all potential sources. Continued long term attention to all sources will be required to achieve and maintain positive results. Harbor Configuration/Flushing: A review of the studies performed,on the Harbor and Agency Workshop discussions indicate that improved flushing is an important action for improving water quality in the Harbor. The Harbor is a confined system that has been created and affected by human actions. The flushing pipe and pump system proposed by the Northwest Florida Water Management District should be implemented. Studies should be undertaken on opening and/or stabi- lizing the inlet, on muck deposits in the Harbor, and on the deep pockets in the bottom of the Harbor. GOALS The establishment of goals is vital to the creation of the Harbor Management Plan. Goals serve as indicators of what is expected to be accomplished once the plan is executed. Goals also serve as measures,of plan effectiveness over time. The question of goals was posed both to the city officials and to interested citizens who attended the first Harbor Management-Plan Community Workshop held in February. The preliminary goals, were reviewed at a second Community Workshop in March,, at a City Council Workshop in April, and at a Harbor Board workshop in May. The responses to the question of goals are as follows: City,ldentified Goals: 1. Continued "Joint,Coordinating Committee" meetings with all agencies con- cerned withactivity in and around the Harbor,. 2. 'Preserve and enhance the vitalit y of the local fishing industry. 3. Continued overall economic vitality of the Harbor. 4. Improved water quality which would both promote a viable ecosystem and which would allow people to swim and-recreate, (DER Class III Standards) Community Identified Goa'ls: 1. Restore the blue-green color to the Harbor that existed 15 to 20 years ago. 2. Restore the water quality to a swimmable state. (DER Class III Standards) 3. Eliminate pollution sources, be it through engineering, funding, andlor political measures. Goals: .Based upon the above, the following goals are to be pursued in this Plan: 1.- Restore water quality to DER Class III Standards. (See Appendix B) 2. Continued overall economic vital.ity of the Harbor. 3. Preserve and enhance the vitality of the local fishing industry. 4. Intergovernmental cooperation among all agencies and levels of govern- ment exercising jurisdiction over activity in and around Destin Harbor. IV. POLICY, DEVELOPMENT The initial efforts in preparing this Management Plan consisted of the iden- tification of the various issues potentially affecting the Harbor. To further aid in understanding these issues and their relative importance, an Agency Workshop was conducted on January 9, 1987. Participants included city offi- cials, consultants, and representatives from an array of state and regional agencies which exercise regulatory powers over Destin Harbor. (See Appendix 'C' for a list of attendees). The major outcome of this workshop was the refi- nement of the issues affecting the Harbor. A Community Workshop was conducted on February 11, 1987. The primary purpose of this workshop was to interface with the local community as to the consultants findings concerning the existing condition of the Harbor. Those attending the workshop were presented an Analysis Summary and were then asked what they felt that the goals of the Management Plan should be. The preceding 'goals' section of this report summarizes this discussion. The identification of pertinent issues and goals concerning the Harbor led to the next stage of the planning process, Policy Development. A second com- munity workshop was held on March 12, 1987. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss with the local community alternative policies and actions which were being considered by the consultants for inclusion in the Harbor Management Plan. The Issue Development matrix used in the first two interim reports served as a basis on which potential policies were developed. For each identified issue, existing policies were examined, and based on 'their adequacy at promoting improved conditions in the Harbor, potential policies and potential actions were proposed. For some issues, existing policies were deemed sufficient. In general, though, there were one or several alternative policies recommended for each issue along with potential actions that would support the policy(s). Since this was the initial discussion of the range of potential policy measures, none were discounted for reasons of funding, politics, or logistics. The task at hand was then to determine which policies and actions the City believed should be included in the Management Plan. Policy and Action alternatives were also presented at a City Council workshop on March 30, 1987, and at a meeting with the Harbor Board on May 22, 1987. The intent of both of these meetings was to inform and interface with the local governing bodies about which policies and actions would actually be recommended in the final Management Plan. The format for the final matrix is essentially the same as that used in the interim reports, with the addition of the plan policy category for each of the discussed topics concerning the Harbor. These policies and implementation actions consitute a, comprehensive and long term approach to solving the water quality problems facing Destin Harbor. 8 POLICY & ACTION MATRIX POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ISSUES EXISTING CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE BOATING OPERATIONS Heads A large percentage of the boats in Destin The direct discharge of sewage from boats Harbor do not have holding tanks. These into the Harbor is a serious potential boats therefore discharge directly into the problem due to the limited size and lack of water when using their heads. Boats with flushing of the Harbor. holding tanks have several pumpouts available. Bilges Bilge pumps are generally sublnerged and Bilges are a minor potential contributor to therefore the ails in the bilge compartment the pollution problems of the Harbor and dif- are generally retained. ficult to control. Petroleum Minor petroleum spills occur frequently The Harbor does not have the equipment to during fueling and oil changing operations. deal with a major oil spill. The Harbor Master is currently working on an oil spill containment plan. MARINA OPERATIONS There are currently three pump-out systems Pump-outs are available but are under- Pump Outs available for boats which have holding tanks. utilized. It is suspected that many boats They are either free or have a nominal charge with holding tanks simply pump them out in for use. These facilities are regularly the bay or gulf . With the addition of two inspected by the Harbor Master. There are pumping facilities, the Harbor will be served two additional pumping facilities planned for by four facilities. Increased availability the Harbor. Both will be privately owned and should lead to eased access and convenience operated. for boaters in cleaning their holding tanks of wastes. Reef Building Materials Reef building materials are currently being The storage of these materials becomes a stored immediately adjacent to the Harbor potential problem for the Harbor in that along to the western-most portions of the these materials contain potentially hazardous North Shore area. metals and residues which can enter the har- bor as rainwater passes through them and runs off directly into the harbor. 10 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN ACTIONS Florida law an Id the Harbor ordinance prohi- It shall be the policy of the City of Destin. The city shall pursue whatever. steps bit discharge of waste into the Harbor. to encourage all vessels using the harbor to necessary to provide the Harbor Master with participate in the Coast Guard Auxiliary's enforcement powers of local ordinance con- The Harbor Board has published a pamphlet CME (Courtesy Marine Exami nation.) pr ogram. cerning the harbor. showing pumpout facility locations. The City is pursuing a Federal EPA No-Discharge" designation for the Harbor. Florida law and local ordinance prohibit See above. See above. discharge of petroleum laden (oily) bilge water into the Harbor. Florida Law and local ordinance prohibit See 'Heads' above. See 'Heads'. above. discharge of any petroleum products into Destin Harbor. The City is currently pursui ng an oil con- tainment plan and the' purchase of equipment for cleanup of oil spills. The Harbor Master has researched and is knowledgeable of the various types of spill containment apparatus available, and the relative limitations of each. A close daily observation of the Harbor for spills should be included in the Harbor Master's duties. It is prohibited by state low and by local It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The Harbor 'Master shall &ontinue io per'iodi- ordinance to pump out holding tanks directly that operation of all commercial marinas be cally inspect pump out facilities in the har- into the Harbor. The city has applied to EPA subject to local permitting. Via the annual bor for proper operation. In addition the for a federal "No Discharge Zone" designs- issuance of an operating permity the City City shall actively pursue public" education tion, adding federal jurisdiction to the load will have regulatory power over marina opera- as to the potential problem of direct pumping on direct discharge into the harbor. tions such as fueling stations, associated out of boat tanks into area waters. spill abatement plans and equipment, pump-out facilities, stormwater management, and the storage of reef building materials. The City of Destin currently allows storage It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The City shall study the benefits and feasi- of reef building materials adjacent to the that all reef material storage areas must bility of a public sponsored reef building Harbor only during the winter off-season meet local 111 stormwater run-off require- program. months. ments. POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ISSUES EXISTING CONDITION -SIGNIFICANCE MARINA OPERATIONS(cont.) Petroleum Several of the marinas have associated over- With the operation of fueling stations there the-water fueling stations. These stations is the constant threat of spillage. The are a potential spill source, but are routi- upland storage tanks are also a source of nely inspected by the Harbor Master. These potential pollution. Some sort-of spill con- stations also have associated with them tainment should be in place before any addi- upland fuel storage tanks which could pose tional fueling facilities are allowed. potential pollution hazards. There are no future fueling facilities planned for the harbor at present. BOAT MAINTENANCE Boat maintenance is conducted in the imme- Maintenance activities are taking place in diate area of the Harbor. Maintenance acti- the water or in Iareas Which have stormwater vities, such as bottom cleaning and painting, runoff leading directly into the lagoon. are known to create various potentially harm- These activities are a potential source of ful by-products. In-water boat maintenance, toxic and hazardous wastes entering the specifically boat bottom scraping, is also a. lagoon. Future boat maintenance operations potential source of pollution. The process must be monitored, as need by existing opera- of bottom scraping introduces excessive orga- tions, for pollution impacts they may be nic materials (i.e. barnacles) and toxic creating for the harbor., materials (bottom paints) into the water. Future maintenance operations will be poten- tial sources of toxic pollutants just as existing maintenance operations are now. LITTER It is unlawful to litter in the Harbor. Public awareness is potentially the best tool Litter is and will continue to be a problem, in litter control', once formal legislation is though, as long as people use it. in place. Boating operations continue to be a major The litter problem is an area of concern contributor to the litter problem. Upland which will require public education as the parking lots, highways (storm sewer), and best solution. construction materials from dock building and other projects also contribute to the litter There is no one-time measure which Will solve problem. the problem. 12 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN ACTIONS It is prohibited by State law and local ordi- It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The city should seek funding for an effective nance to discharge any petroleum product into that operation of all commercial marinas be spill containment system to be available for the harbor. In addition, the DER "Early subject to local permitting. Via this per- all portions of the lagoon. See "Potential Detection Incentive" program was created to mitting, the City will have, regulatory power Action "for" Boating Operations, Petroleum." assist owners and operators of petroleum over marina operati one including fueling sta- storage facilities. Also, the Harbor Master tions, associated spill abatement, plans and routinely inspects over-the-water fueling equipment, pump-out facilities, and the stations for potential problems. The City of storage of reef building materials. r Destin could expand upon local policy con- cerning petroleum spills over the water, delegating responsibility for clean-up of r said spills and possibly providing assistance for same. r Discharge of hazardous waste into waters of The City of Destin shall expand the local The City shall actively pursue further stu- the state is illegal and falls under DER Harbor ordinance to include no in-water bot- dies to investigate the presence of toxic/ r jurisdiction. Not enough is known at present tom cleaning of boats in the harbor. hazardous wastes in the water and sediments to determine if violations exist, and if they of the lagoon. do, who is at fault. r It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The City shall pursue public education as to Existing local stormwater management require- that all out-of-water boat maintenance faci- potential sources and consequences of toxic ments should prevent runoff pollution by lities shall be paved and shall meet existing sediments which may well be present in the hazardous/toxic sediments from future Boat local 111 stormwater retention requirements, harbor. r Maintenance facilities. and in Addition, shall install a serviceable (cleanable) sediment trap which shall periodically cleaned to ensure proper main- r tenance. r Under State and Local laws, it is illegal to The City shall affect policy to increase The City shall institute "Clean Harbor" days litter in the City and its harbor. There public awareness of the litter problem and at various times throughout the year, and r have been periodic voluntary clean-up opera- should create incentives for voluntary com- make cleaning up the harbor area of trash a tions carried out and they have been effec- munity participation in clean-up measures. community event. tive, but only for a certain length of time and the problem becomes apparent again. The City shall expand the local Harbor ordi- The City shall establian some sort of local nance, in effect, requiring all craft, recognition for those people or business es operating within the harbor to have wind- who exert exemplary effort in local litter proof, litter containment. means on board of control. sufficient capacity, as warranted by the size and nature of use of the craft. The ordi- nance shall also be expanded to require that all docks provide wind..;proof trash con- r r r r J tainers. (i.e. provision of IX' number of trash containers per IYI number of slips.) 1 3 POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ISSUES EXISTING CON;@ITION SIGNIFICANCE FISH CLEANING The Fish cleaning problem has been reduced Fish cleaning is a problem when the fish substantially since the problem was iden- remains are dumped into the Harbor in larger tified. quantities than natural processes can remove the remains. Any future fish cleaning stations installed must be upland from the Harbor and fish car- The problem has been identified and measures ceases must be disposed of upland. have been taken to effectively deal with it. HARBOR CONDITIONS Marina/Dock Construction The permitting process currently requires a NPEB's currently have not had a significant net positive environmental benefit (NPEB) effect on the Harbor due to the youth of the program for construction of marines. program and non-compliance. Construction activities are a potential The construction activities will likely pollution source including fuel spills, soil continue to be a problem in the future. erosion, sedimentation, litter, etc. Construction permits should include plans and specification for erosion and sedimentation The circulation patterns of the Harbor could control. be effected by the construction of additional docks. The NWWMD/FSU study of Choctawhatchee Bay and the Harbor raised concerns about the potential negative impacts of the materials used to preserve wood dock pilings. In an extensive literature search, there were no studies discovered that established a rela- tionship between the presence of treated wood, pilings and degraded water quality. 'Sediments Preliminary analysis conducted on samples The existing body of knowledge on bottom taken from the harbor indicate a potential sediments is insufficient to determine (if a for organic from bottom sediments. -The exact problem exists or) if corrective measures cause of the high input is not known. While need be undertaken. there have not been a detailed analysis per- formed of toxic materials, such as heavy metals, the FSU study indicates some presence of such materials. 14 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN ACTIONS Both the DER and local ordinance require all No additional policy required., The proposed North Shore sewage system pre- fish cleaning stations to be upland. sently under. consideration could provide the disposal mean a for fish cleaning operations, via the installation of grinder pumps at the point of entry of fish remains and carcasses. The proposed Harbor Auxiliary shall monitor fish cleaning activities reporting and docu- menting violators. Marina and dock construction is currently The City of Destin shall draft a 'Marina The City shall monitor all new dock aid under the jurisdiction of DER, Corps of Ordinance' to regulate the construction and marina construction as to their potential Engineers, Destin Harbor Board and the Coast operation of such facilities. These regula- impacts on the Harbor, especially in terms of Guard. tory measures within said ordinance shall water circulation and navigation. reflect the intent of the current Harbor Destin's current policy allows one boat slip Ordinance and shall ensure- that Marinas are per 8 L.F. of shoreline in the Harbor * proper built and maintained in a manner not detri- The City shall further review the and 2 slips per 45 L.F. in the finger canals mental to the Harbor. implications of current policies on the residential lot. By direct application of potential number of boats in the harbor and the standards, up to 3p125 boats (2700 in the evaluate further objectives for docking Harbor; 425 in the canals) could be accom- capacity. modated given redevelopment of all dock areas and minimal impact of the Harbor width stan- dards of the ordinance. This is estimated to be six times the present peak season boat count. DER Class III Waters criteria provides for It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The City shall actively pursue further stu- allowable levels of various substances in that the nature of bottom conditions should dies to ascertain the extent to which, hazer- surface waters. (See Appendix B) be ascertained and, if needed, corrective dous and toxic substances exist in the water measures undertaken. and sediments of the harbor. The City shall seek to amend the proposed F.S.U. study of Choctawhatchee Bay sedimen- tation to include additional harbor sampling r r r points. 15 POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ISSUES EXISTING CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE SEWAGE- Raw sewage indicators (coprostanol) were not Raw sewage is not a problem at present. DIRECT DISCHARGE. found to be present in water and sediment Improvements to the FAU sewage system has samples run an the Harbor. served to help curb any potential problems which may have been building. GROUNDWATER There are a small number of sewage generating That residential septic tanks are not a MIGRATION. uses surrounding the harbor which are using problem could be related to the fact that DWU Sewage/Septic Systems, septic tank systems. The largest con- has extended its sewer service to include centration is in the north shore area with 10 the Holiday Isle area. The conditions that to 12 facilities. Septic tanks do not appear exist along the north shore of the harbor, to contribute appreciably to water quality however, warrant immediate attention. The problems in the lagoon. Septic tanks in this proximity of these facilities to the harbor area are not suitable for commercial uses. and the high volume generated by commercial In this same area, there are also several and restaurant uses presents a high potential commercial establishments with no restroom for problems. facilities, despite Health Department requirements. These conditions are com- pounded by the lack of local sewer service lines with which the problems could beat be corrected. Effluent Ponds Studies 'have shown that the IBWU ef fluent Groundwater nutrient loading is one area of ponds have been a source of nutrient loading water quality degradation for which a source specifically nitrogen, into the Harbor due to has been identified and action has been taken ground water flow patterns in the vicinity. and has been effective in reducing the Improvements in the sewage treatment impact. system have served to greatly reduce this problem. Specifically, the affecting ponds have been either lined, relocated or ter- minated. DER/DWU Monitoring now shows that the ponds are no longer a source of loading in the lagoon. Hazardous Wastes/ There are . indications that there may be an The extent of the problem is not known and Petroleum existing problem with petroleum storage in warrants further investigation. The fact the vicinity of the Harbor. No other poten- that there are storage tanks in the area tial hazardous waste groundwater sources have poses a constant potential threat to area been identified. water quality, both in the Harbor and in the surficial aquifer. 16 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY: PLAN ACTIONS DER has regulatory control over any discharge It shall be the policy of the City of Destin .. See septi6'syetem below. into waters of the state. HRS also that all future development shall be con- exercises water quality authority. nected to the DWU system, and that, when ser- vice is made available, all development currently serviced by septic tank systems shall connect to the DWU system. State Department of Health will not issue It shall be the policy of the City, of Destin Install North Shore interceptor sewer system, septic tank permits where sewer service is to ensure provision @ of sewer service to all sized for existing and future demand and available. DWU encourages that existing sep- areas within the city. adaptable for input from upland fish cleaning tic tank users connect to sewer lines if they (grinder pump) facilities. The city can are available. either install the system itself, encourage DWIJ to install the system, is part of a pro- posed north shore redevelopment program. to DWU has moved disposal to better ponds and is It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The City shall continue, review DER and also currently spraying effluent onto * the to continue to support the obtaining of DWU monitoring of effluent disposal. Indian Bayou Golf Course. DWIJ is also alternative disposal sites and methods. currently pursuing the use of the Destin Airport as an additional disposal site.. DER has the authority to deal with con- City of Destin shall encourage compliance by The City shall monitor compliance by owners/ tamination from underground tanks. The State all underground petroleum storage tank operators. Underground Petroleum Environmental Response owners/operators by educating those concerned Act was passed in 1986, a major provision of as to the methods and benefits of par- The City shall undertake a general monitoring which was funding for an Early Detection ticipating in the State's EDI program. An of the harbor for oil contamination, via Incentive (EDI) Program. advanced recommendation to the City has the Harbor Master. resulted from this study concerning implemen- tation of DER's EDI program. r r r r r 17 POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ISSUES EXISTING CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE HARBOR CONDITIONS (cont.) Water Circulation Destin Harbor is a confined system the mid- Studies by the Northwest Water Management to upper reaches of which are little affected District (NWFWMD) have analysed several by tidal action. The Harbor is long and has alternatives for increasing water circulation a very confined mouth. The tidal range in (flushing) of the Harbor. The studies indi- the Gulf is very small. This results in cate that increased flushing of the upper varying levels of salinity, stratification of reaches of the Harbor is an essential action saltwater and freshwater and, retention of for improving water quality. The NWFWMD has pollutants in the upper reaches of Sandpiper conducted an extensive study of the harbor Cove and the several finger canals. and designed a pumped flushing system to bring water from the Gulf into Sandpiper Cove Aeration Systems have been installed in the (See "Water Resource Restoration of Old Pass canals and Sandpiper Cove in an attempt to Lagoon, Destin Florida". NWFWMD Water increase dissolved oxygen (DO) and reduce Resource Assessment 87-1, for complete saltwater/freshwater stratification. details on this proposal). Analysis studies indicate that improvements in DO levels are accomplished but that little mixing occurs, in the Harbor as a whole. Vegetation There is little to no presence of aquatic Research studies have shown very positive vegetation - submerged and littoral - in the results from the creation of littoral grass Harbor. There is also little evidence that beds (particularly spartina juncus) but poor the Harbor has supported such vegetation results in planting submerged grasses. the historically since it was formerly the main establishment of littoral zones will require channel between the Gulf and Choctewhatchee the modification of water depths end, Bay. Given the positive contribution of possibly, the provision of protective vegetation in a water system - increasing substrate. dissolved oxygen and providing habitat - it is desirable to increase the level of vegeta- tive materials. 18 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN, ACTIONS There are no true policies related to cir- It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The City of Destin shall continue to support culation. The NWFWMD has designed a flushing to support actions that will maintain and construction of the flushing pipe and pumping pipe and pumping system for installation bet- increase the flushing/circulation of salt- system as proposed by the NWFWIMD. ween Sandpiper Cove and the Gulf, and is water through the Harbor. This policy inclu- pursuing its implementation through State des marina design standards which will not funding and permitting. The City Council has impede flow and circulation. Docking atruc- The City of Deatin shall seek funding or endorsed this proposal and committed to tures should be designed with minimal piling actions by others to analyze the mouth of the paying a portion of the annual operational and other structural impediments to water Harbor, to evaluate methods of stabilizing costs. Jurisdiction on actions that would flow and natural bottom configuration. the channelp and to evaluate the potential affect circulation is retained by DER, DNR, effect that a widening of the mouth will have and COE and varies depending upon the speci- upon circulation/flushing action. fics of the proposed action. The City of Destin shall continue to publish educational literature on the purpo as and protection of aeration devices so 'long as they are utilized in the Harbor. The City of Destin, through the Harbor Board, It shall be the policy of the Ci ty af Destin The City shall establish design and construc- supports the development of littoral grass to require provision of littaral groom beds tion standards for littoral grass beds as a beds as a Net Positive Environmental Benefit as an NPEB for all dredge and fill and marine guide to private developers/property owners. (NPEB) through DER for private dredge and activities in the Harbor. fill and marina construction activities. The City shall undertake an analysis of the it shall be thar policy of the City of Dootin littoral zones of the Harbor to determine to support direct actions that result in potential grass bed areas to classify poten- ineresosd littoral gro@o bad areas. tial areas by required degree or extent of construction and to prepare a development program including cost analysis. Th@ City shall prepare educational materials on the function of grass beds, their protec- tion and' the desirability of establishing Wditional beft. Th@ City @hall establish ofrective NPEB stan- d@rdg and request adhoronce thereto. OWN M POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS - : - I W ISSUES-., EXISTING CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE HARBOR CONDITIONS (cont.) Debris The term "debris" includes litter, abandoned Debris can be cumbersome and costly to remove dock pilings and boards, and discarded from the Harbor. Some debris constitute construction materials around and in the hazards to navigation, as well. Harbor STORMWATER The DOT outfalls are the major stormwater The DOT outfalls are very significant due to Public discharge points. For the purpose of the "double" loading of public road rights- existing discussion, the 4 outfalls will hence be of-way and adjacent private developments. referred to as outfalls A, 8, C and D, with Any effort to deal with the treatment of the outfall A being the outfall at the western stormwater discharged via these outfalls must most end of the Harbor (See Figure 12 in the reflect the large volume of water to be following 'Stormwater Management' chapter). treated and the diverse conditions of dif- The DOT drainage system collects stormwater ferent portions of the overall discharge from within its right-of-way, from adjacent area. city street rights-of-way, along with signi- ficant private development contribution from adjacent properties draining into it. The private developments along U.S. 98 poten- tially are as detrimental in terms of water volume discharged to the Harbor as the high- way and other street rights-of-way. The eastern outfall, D, is by far the largest single stormwater pollution source since it serves approximately 60% of the US 98 drainage basin. The impact is greatly increased by the outfall's location which is at the end of a canal leading into Sandpiper Cove. The naturally poor flushing of this body of water increases the impact further by allowing the stormwater pollutants to remain in the canal and cove. Some of the local streets an the north side of US 98 also discharge untreated stormwater into the Harbor via the US 98 system. In some cases, these local streets also serve as a conduit to the US 98 system for runoff from private development. 20 EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN ACTIONS State and local litter laws govern the The City shall enact local policy governing The City shall contract with a privet6 con- discarding of debris into the harbor, but do the abandonment of docks and their subsequent cern the removal of all debris from the not address existing and abandoned dock removal, and shall also address the main- Harbor, and also the periodic maintenance of pilings and larger trash items which already tenance of construction activities in a the Harbor, in a debris-free condition. exist in the harbor area. manner which introduces no debris into the harbor. The City shall incorporate debris removal into proposed voluntary harbor clean-up programs. There are no existing policies or jurisdic- It shall be the policy of the City of Destin The following 'Stormwater Management' chapter tions requiring existing public facilities to that all due effort shall be taken to upgrade provides several retention/treatment designs be upgraded to meet current regulations. existing public stormwater systems to meet which can be applied to the existing DOT out- current local ordinance. falls as well as to local streets. The City shall program stormwater management improvements as part of its local street improvements program with emphasis on streets which drain into the U.S. 98 system and streets on Holiday Isle. The City shall work through the Northwest Florida Water Management District to design treatment facilities for U.S. 98 outfalls. A, 8, C, and D, and to seek state funding for construction of these outfalls. 21 POLICY & ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS ire EXISTING CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE ISSUES STORMWATER (cont.) future The public sector will be subjected to the Any future expansion or modification of U.S same stormwater treatment requirements as the 98 should require the Department of private sector. Transportation to meet current City of Oestin and DER stormwater regulations. Private existing Stormwater management for private development The impact from developments in the direct currently falls into four categories: 1) and indirect discharge without treatment that which discharges directly into the categories is substantial and should be alle- Harbor; 2) that which discharges indirectly viated as soon as possible. The indirect through U.S. 98 stormwater outfalls without discharge category is a larger pollution treatment; 3.) that which is treated to DER problem than the direct discharge due to the 17-25 minimum (1/211 runoff) requirements; and larger number of contributors and the larger 4) that which meets City of Destin starmwater land area involved. treatment (111 runoff) requirements (NWFRPC Resource Management). The western end of the Harbor is the most intensively developed land adjacent to the Harbor. It is the focal point of commercial and sports fishing business and the central business area of Destin. The ratio of imper- vious area is high and much of it drains either directly into the Harbor or via the US 98 system. Because of the intensity of this developed area and its significance to the Destin economy, special consideration should be given to enhancement of the quality of runoff from the area. future- The future development of private property Existing policies will result in future deve- will be required to meet the DER 17-25 and lopments which have a minimal negative impact City of Destin stormwater rules and therefore on water quality in the harbor. should have limited impact on harbor pollu- tion. ow EXISTING POLICY PLAN POLICY PLAN ACTIONS Public facilities built in the future shall The City of Destin shall maintain current I" The City of Destin shall review all public meet DER 17-25 and City of Destin rules. retention requirements. projects performed within the drainage See discussion below under Stormwater - basin(s) of the Harbor for compliance with Private - existing. the City ordinance. All new construction is regulated by DER The City of Destin shall require existing The City shall undertake an urban design/ 17-25 rules. All redevelopment and new development to meet the city 1" runoff urban redevelopment study of north shore/ construction is regulated by the City of retention rule if and when such development central Destin business area to determine Destin stormwater ordinance. This ordinance applies for redevelopment, improvement or potential, specific redevelopment action, meets the guidelines set by the Resource expansion permitting. including various infrastructure improvements Management Plan (Northwest Florida Coast such as stormwater treatment/retention and Resource Planning and Management Committee), sewage collection. i.e. it requires retention facilities to treat the first one inch (111) of runoff. It A portion of this study should be to analyze has been shown through considerable nation- the potential qualification of the north wide research that retention of the first 1" shore/central Destin Business area as a of a rainfall event achieves a very high Community Redevelopment Area under Chapter le'vel of removal of nutrients, ails, sedi- 163 F.S. including potential application of ments, tracts and other pollutants which tax increment financing. accumulate on paved, other impervious, and intensively landscaped areas. The following Stormwater Management chapter offers an in depth discussion of situations and solutions of private sector stormwater problems. DER 17-25 and City of Destin rules require The City of Destin shall maintain current 111 The City shall continue its current review new development to retain the first 1/211 and retention requirements. program for all development, improvement and I" of runoff, respectively. See discussion redevelopment projects on private property above under Stormwater - Private - existing. for conformance to the City ordinance. 23 V1. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SUMMARY The City of Destin has experienced significant growth over the past several years, particularly in the Destin Harbor drainage -basin. Consequently, the harbor's water quality has been negatively impacted by development related fac- tors, including stormwater runoff. There are three types of contributors for stormwater runoff 1) local streets; 2)-U.S. Highway 98 (Florida D.O.T.); and 3) private development. Local streets are maintained by the City of Destin. Many of these streets have inadequate stormwater treatment facilities and/or , drainage facilities. Treatment facilities can be defined as providing for the treatm ent of stormwater in accordance with the City of Destin code (111 of. runoff) or DER Chapter 17-25 (1121, of runoff). Drainage facilities can be defined as structures that transport stormwater runoff to the treatment facilities. The U.S. Highway 98 drainage system is, the largest stormwater runoff contributor to the Harbor. This is magnified by the local streets and private developments that have stormwater runoff flowing directly into the U.S. 98 drainage system. Additionally,-the current collection system does not provide a significant level of stormwater treatment. The impact on the Harbor depends. on two primary factors, volume of stormwater flow and distance of the outfall from the mouth of the Harbor. Thus, Outfall "A" is the least damaging and Outfall I'D" is the most detrimental stormwater outfall. There have been several alternatives studied for each of the four major outfalls. Rerouting stormwater runoff, exfiltration systems and treatment near the point of discharge were alternatives studied for each outfall. Outfall I'D" was looked at in greater detail, with more alternatives studied. In addi- tion, the study concentrated on three evaluation factors for each alternative. These factors were: estimated cost, treatment level and disruption level. Private development which took place prior to DER Chapter 17-25 stormwater rules (1982) and the City of Destin stormwater code (1986) generally do not meet current rules and regulations regarding stormwater runoff. The two types of private development of highest concern are those which yield direct runoff, without meeting current regulations, into the Harbor or the U.S. Highway 98 stormwater collection system. Typical solutions have been presented, such as retention basins and exfiltration systems. Several site specific solutions are also presented for areas such as the marine boatyard and the Sandpiper Cove Golf Course. 25 RECOMMENDATIONS Based upon the findings of this investigation of stormwater runoff in the Destin Harbor drainage basin, it is recommended that the City of Destin take the following actions: � The City Council adopt the recommendations contained in this study. � The City continue efforts to upgrade and resurface local streets, and as part of these projects, upgrade stormwater treatment and drainage facilities to meet the City of Destin code. Streets in the Destin Harbor drainage basin should be given a higher priority than other streets in the City. � The City work with the Northwest Florida Water Management District to seek funding from the Florida SWIM program and/or the Florida Department of Transportation to provide retention at Outfalls "A", "B", and 11C11 in a manner similar or equivalent to that shown on Figures 3, 4 and 5, with suf- ficient volume to retain the first 1/211 of runoff as an absolute minimum. � The City work with the Northwest Florida Water Management District to seek funding from the Florida SWIM program and/or the Florida Department of Transportation to provide retention to Outfall I'D" with the retention volume being adequate to retain at least 11' of runoff as an absolute minimum. Alternatives D4, 05, D7, and D8 should be studied further and the selected alternative implemented. These alternatives are described again as follows: D4 - Route to existing lake with overflow to Harbor. D5 - Route to existing lake with overflow to Gulf. D7 - Use existing conduit as wet well and pump to upland retention area. D8- Use existing lake as storage and pump to upland retention area. 0 The City continue to require private developers to meet City of Destin code requirements when a site is redeveloped or developed. 26 Previous interim reports, supplemented by workshops, have gradually evolved into the following findings and study recommendations. The stormwater problems can be separated into. three broad categories. The first category relates to the drainage issues in the City of Destin as a result of the City's responsibility for,maintaining local streets. The-most extensive category is discussed in the second section and concerns the, Florida Department of Transportation's U.S. 98 corridor. The U.S. 98 drainage system has 4 major outfalls that impact the Destin Harbor directly. The third category addresses private development. LOCAL STREETS The City of Destin is responsible for maintaining local streets with some funding derived from a dual taxation agreement with the county. As part of the City's drive to upgrade and resurface their streets, they should strive to pro- vide adequate stbrmwater management facilities for each street.- The streets adjacent to U.S@. 98 and Destin Harbor should be given a higher priority than other streets more remote from the water. The exi'sting roadways north of U.S. 98, as a whole, have inadequate drainage facilities judged by current City standards for stormwater retention. Two general problems exist north of 'U.S. 98. The first is' typically 2-lane roads running north from U.S. 98 with very small or no swales. The second situation also involves roads running north from 'U.S. 98, but consists of pavement extending from right-of-way Tine to right-of-way line because of wide commercial drive entrances and parking. The solution to the first situation is simply to improve the swales providing stormwater retention in accordance with current stormwater regulation of the City. The second situation Will require an analy- sis of traffic and parking as wel.1 as grading and drainage. This wil '1 entai I narrowing the access driveways to efficiently channel traffic to parking and/or service areasl, removing excess pavement within the right-of-way, and then pro- viding stormwater retention through the ' use of 'swales, retention basins, exfiltration pipes, or other means, depending upon the particular site con- ditions. Holiday Isle, south of U.S.- 98, has several right-of.-ways that directly affect Destin Harbor. In addition, Gulf Shore Drive has temporary ponding problems during most storms due to prior drainage of the roadway. Most of the roads on Holiday Isle have enough right-of-way for the construction of swales for storm- water retention. The life of the pavement and traffic safety in the ponding areas would also be improved by providing better drainage along the paved road- ways. (See Figures 1 and 3, Appendix A). 27 U.S. HIGHWAY NO. 98 The U.S. 98 drainage system through the Destin Harbor basin has four (4) major outf al I s. The outfalls have been labeled as "A". "Bils, IICII and "DO' for the pur- poses of this study. The first three outfalls, "A", "B", and #ICI1 . have been flowing into Destin Harbor since 1966 when U.S. 98 was originally four-laned. Outfall I'D" was constructed at its current location and size in 1979. The U.S. 98 drainage basin was effectively enlarged in 1986 when the U.S. 98 By-Pass was constructed. The last expansion was not detrimental in most cases since the area was designed to meet DER stormwater requirements. The three older outfalls do not treat a significant quantity of the stormwater runoff. The most recent study to be published on the Destin Harbor (Water Resource Restoratton of Old Pass Lagoon, Destin, Florida, 1987 by NWFWMD) indicated that the bay was the largest source of.nitrogen Tn-dphosphorous introduction into the harbor. This indicates that the City of Destin should also be concerned about the water quality of the bay. This study has investigated a concept which calls for rerouting Outfalls "B", "C", and possibly I'D" along U.S. 98 to Outfall "A". This concept does not provide any stormwater treatment. It simply relocates the points of discharge away from the Harbor. Although this would reduce the direct pollutant loading on the harbor, an increase of poll.utants at the mouth of the harbor and, the tidal action in this area would still have a negative impact on the harbor. When considering the bay's pollution contribution to the Harbor, it becomes apparent that any stormwater system modification should, as a minimum, meet DER state standards. ,The concept of rerouting the stormwater from Outfalls "B", "Cis and 11011 into Outfall "A", in addition to not providing stormwater treatment, is expensive to construct and would be very disruptive to the City of Destin during construc- tion. The Harbor Board requested that this study look at the possibility of constructing a collector in the harbor instead of in the U.S. 98 right-of-way. This would significantly reduce the disruption to the City. Boating activities in the area of construction could be affected and the cost of construction would still be very high. The lack of effective stormwater treatment under this rerouting concept remains a major disadvantage of this concept. The Water Resource Restoration of Old Pass Lagoon, Destin, Florida, 1987 report contains statistics on sources of fresh water to the har6bor. According to the report, 11 percent of the fresh water introduced to the harbor is stormwater. This is a significant proportion of the fresh water supply. If the stormwater was filtered using retention basins and subsequently introduced into the ground- water, the water chemistry of the harbor would be favorable influenced. This would not, however, significantly change the fresh water makeup of the harbor. Conversely, the concept of rerouting all of the stormwater from the harbor basin would adversely affect the bay and lower the fresh water percentage in the har- bor significantly, which could be detrimental to the harbor. This is therefore another major disadvantage of the rerouting concept which would redirect all of the U.S. 98 right-of-way stormwater from the Harbor into the bay. 28 Outfall "All is located adjacent to the Destin uriage, near the mouth of Destin Harbor. The drainage sub-basin for this outfall is the smallest of the four with approximately 1,550 linear feet of the U.S. 98 corridor flowing into the system. The impact of this outfall on the Harbor is relatively small when com- pared to the other outfalls. The actual direct impact of this particular out- fall varies greatly, depending upon the tidal flow through East Pass. If the tide is going out of the bay, the stormwater runoff will flow back into the Har- bor. When the'tide is flowing into Choctawhatchee Bay, this stormwater flow and the majority of its pollutants will end up in the bay. Three approaches were considered for handling the stormwater at Outfall "A". The first approach continues the current discharge at the couth of the harbor. It also considers the diversion of stormwater from Outfalls "B", IICII and possibly I'D" to Outfall "All for direct discharge into the bay as discussed above. No stormwater treatment is provided. The second approach considered provides for treatment of the first inch of runoff from the highway right-of-way. Exfiltration (see Figure 8, Appendix A) parallel to the highway could easily be designed to meet City of Destin stan- dards. The construction of this system would significantly disrupt the imme- diate area and the cost are estimated to be approximately $238/linear foot in 1987 dollars. A third and the most cost effective alternative is to modify the existing struc- ture at Outfall "All to direct the stormwater runoff to a retention basin as illustrated in Figure 7 in Appendix A. The retention basin can be constructed to the southeast of the outfall behind the existing bulkhead. Optionally, this retention area could be filled with course aggregate and/or covered with a boardwalk in a manner similar to that shown in Figure 3 in Appendix A. The biggest advantages of this solution are the low cost of construction, the rela- tively insignificant disruption of daily business in Destin, and the capability of treating at least the first 1/211 of runoff from the U.S. 98 right-of-way. Outfall "B" Outfall "B" discharges in an Iarea where the north shore bank 'has a relatively gradual incline to the waters edge. The drainage sub-basin for this outfall is approximately 2,800 linear feet in length along the U.S. 98 right-of-way. The 'impact of this outfall on the Harbor is about equal to that of Outfall "C". Outfall "C', is smaller in area, but also extends further into the stagnate waters of the Harbor, thereby offsetting the benefit of having less stormwater runoff. 29 An exfiltration system is a viable solution for Outfall "B". The cost is moderately high when compared to retention basins, but this is a very effective method of stormwater treatment. The design would be similar to Figure 8, and run parallel to U.S. 98. The existing collection system could be used as an overflow for large volume storms. Land acquisitions costs would be very low since most of the construction would take place within the highway right-of-way. The property immediately west of Outfall IIBII is undeveloped and has potential for use as a standard retention basin similar to that shown on Figure 7 in the Appendix. Figure 4 shows a landscaped retention area, including a boardwalk along the Harbor's edge, that could serve as an aesthetic amenity as well as stormwater treatment. The largest portion of the cost for developing this treatment facility would be land acquisition. Outfall "C" Outfall IICII currently discharges under an ex.isting dock as illustrated by Figure 5, Appendix A. Immediately east of the outfall is a small, steeply inclined parcel of land which could easily be converted into a stormwater treatment faci- lity. The sketch shows a new deck constructed over the structure. The new deck could just as easily be constructed as part of a "Harbor Walk". From an econo- mic standpoint, the deck has the potential, as an aesthetic amenity, to improve the commercial value of the area. An exfiltration system and the outfall rerouting discussed above are also possible option for this outfall. Outfall I'D" The 7211 outfall, Outfall I'D", is by far the second greatest pollution problem in Destin Harbor. The Harbor's biggest problem is a lack of flushing. Interim Report 2 introduced eight ideas for providing treatment facilities at Outfall I'D". With input from the community workshops, the list was modified, replacing some of the original concepts with new ones to study. Interim Report 3, accom- panied another workshop with the new list of ideas presented. The analyses con- sidered estimated costs, treatment factors and disruption factors, and are discussed in the following (See Figure 6, Appendix A). The first alternatives proposed an exfiltration system in the same manner as described for the other outfalls. This would provide a high level of treatment meeting City of Destin standards * The disruption factor is at a moderate level while the cost is moderately high. The second alternative proposed a rerouting of the.stormwater from Outfalls I'D", "Coo and "B" to Outfall "A". As discussed earlier, any proposed stormwater improvements should provide treatment of the runoff. Relocating the point of discharge simply moves the problem to the bay and it involves considerable disruption to local businesses as well as being extremely expensive. At the Destin Harbor Board workshop, a proposal was made to reroute the outfall to a retention basin to the east. An investigation of this proposal indicated that there was not enough topographic relief to accomplish this diversion and thereby, this stormwater treatment alternate. 30 The existing treatment structure (a concrete sediment trap and oil skimmer) is grossly undersized. As a third alternative, the capacity of the structure could be significantly increased by utilizing the last 200 feet of the canal for construction of a filtering structure and an additional oil and trash rack. This could treat up to 1/411 of runoff, depending upon the final design. The first 1/41, of runoff has a substantial portion of the pollutants carried by stormwater due to the initial "wash" effect of small rain storms. It should, however, be the City of Destin's policy to meet DER standards (11211) as a mini- mum. The permitting for this concept would be difficult to impossible because it would not meet current stormwater treatment regulations. The disruption fac- tor is low but treatment effectiveness is also low. The lake located immediately east of Destin Harbor could be converted into a treatment facility using the wet detention approach. The lake acreage is ade- quate to act as a stormwater treatment facility for the entire Outfall I'D" drainage basin. The asbestos bulkhead, which poses a potential health hazard due to the cancer-causing effects of asbestos, should be removed and a littoral zone (shallow water with plants) created to improve the lake's water quality. The outfall to the lake should have an oil and trash skimmer with a sediment basin of adequate size for the outfall. This fourth alternative provides for rerouting Outfall I'D" into the lake. An overflow back into the Harbor would be constructed parallel to the pipe diverting stormwater into the lake. This would provide good stormwater treatment with a low disruption factor. The fifth alternative is very similar to the fourth alternative with the overflow diverted into the Gulf of Mexico. This alternative rates as excellent for removing the stormwater runoff from the Harbor. The disruption factor is low, but the decrease of freshwater could be a disadvantage and the cost would be relatively high. A vacant parcel of land is situated just east and north of the 721, outfall. The use currently proposed for this land is the construction of the Admiralty Condominium. This site is the best possible location for a single, large reten- tion basin and is considered as the sixth alternative. One major drawback to this site is the high land value because of the proposed land use. An overflow into the lake and then into the harbor could be constructed to complete the treatment system. This solution has a good treatment factor and moderate disruption factor. The existing 721, outfall and the associated storm sewer provide a large storage volume if they are considered as being empty when a rainfall event occurs. A seventh alternative could take advantage of this storage capability, if three modifications were made to the current outfall system. First, the outfall would have to be sealed to keep Harbor waters from backing up into the pipe. Next, the pipe joints would have to be repaired to prevent infiltration of ground- water. Finally, a pump station, force main, and an upland retention area would be necessary. Good treatment for the right-of-way area could be provided with the drawback of higher operation and maintenance costs. The eight alternative investigated for Outfall I'D" also utilized the existing lake east of Destin Harbor as a storage and surge basin. However, instead of providing discharge into the harbor or gulf, the stormwater could then be pumped to an upland retention area similar to the seventh alternative. Excellent treatment levels could be expected along with the relatively low factor of disruption. It is however, a costly alternative. 3 1 BRIEF:REVIEW OF INDIVIDUAL SOLUTIONS The various approaches have been grouped by combining similar solutions for Outfalls "A"2 "Bit and "C". Outfall I'D" has been studied in more depth based on the higher, impact on the Harbor, and eight possible solutions are presented for consideration. ABC 1 Exfiltration trench for Outfall A, B, & C watersheds ABC 2 Reconstruct B & C Outfalls to discharge at East Pass (Outfall A.) ABC 3 Retention at each existing outfa,l] Di Exfiltration trench for Outfall D watershed D2 Reconstruct B, C, & D Outfalls to discharge at East Pass (Outfall A) 03 Construct Wier & Underdrain in canal D4 Route to existing lake with overflow to harbor D5 Route to existing lake with overflow to Gulf D6 Upland retention with overflow to existing lake and harbor D7 Use existing conduit as wet well and pump to upland retention area D8 Use existing lake as storage and pump to upland retention area Construction costs, treatment factors and disruption factors are presented in Table 1. The left hand column lists the eight alternatives for Outfall I'D". The second column from the left displays the construction cost in millions of dollars, the treatment factor (T.F.) as defined below, and the disruption factor (D.F.) as defined below for each of the eight alternatives The top row displays construction cost, treatment factor and disruption fa@tor for each of the three alternatives in the same manner as the second column displayed these factors for Outfall I'D". The remaining boxes present the combined construction cost for each combination of alternatives shown by row and column. For Example, alternative D1 at $2.357 Million and solution ABC1 at $1.425 Million when com- bined total $3,800 Million in the third column from the left. 33 Table 2 graphically presents the combi-ned treatment and disruption factors in the matrix portion of the table. The upper left corner illustrates the level of treatment. The lighter shades represent high levels of treatment and darker shades represent lower levels of treatment. The lower right corner illustrates the level-of disruption caused by construction. Darker shades represent heavier disruption impact on the City than lighter shades. A cost benefit analysis is presented in Table 3. The numbers shown in the second row and second column were derived by multiplying construction costs (millions) times the treatment factor times the disruption factor. The numbers in the matrix portion are derived by adding the numbers in the second row and the second column for each combination of alternatives. These numbers are an indication of the relative costs of the three factors with the lowest cost being the probable best combination of sol-utiohs for the City. A combination of alternative ABC 3 wi th alternatives D4, D5, D7 and D8 con- sistently stand out in all three tables as the most beneficial solutions. This indicates that the City should study these further and approach the Florida Department of Transportati.on forfunding assistance for the selected improvement program. TREATMENT FACTORS FACTOR RATING DEFINITION 0.7 Excellent At least 11211 treated and discharge route away from the harbor 1 Good At least 11211 treated .1.21 Fair 1/411 to 11211 treated 1.60 Poor Less than 1/411 treated'. DISRUPTION FACTORS FACTOR. RATING. DEFINITION, I Low Low levels of inconvenience to residents, business and tourists in a limited construction zone for short period of time (days) 2 Moderate Low to moderate levels of inconvenience to resi- dents, businesses and tourists in a larger construction zone for moderate periods of time (weeks) 3 High High levels of inconvenience to residents, busi- nesses and tourists in the fully developed U.S. 98 corridor for long periods of time (months) 34 ABC I ABC 2 ABC 3 1.425 2.200 0.155 T.F. I T.F * 1.60 T.F. 1 D.F. 3 D.F. 3 D.F. I Dl 2.375 3.800 4.575 2.530 T.F. 1 D.F. 2 D2 8.200 9.625 8.200 N/A T.F. 160 3 D3 0.035 1.460 2.235 0.190 T.F. 1.21 D.F. 3 D4 0.500 1.925 2.700 0.655 T.F. I D.F. I D5 1.000 2.425 3.200 1.155 T.F. 0.70 D.F. 1 D6 3.100 4.5 25 5.300 3.255 T.F. 1 D.F. 2 D7 0.200 1.625 2.400 0.355 T.F. 0.7 D.F. 1 D8 0.500 1.925. 2.700 0.655 T.F. 0.7 D.F. 1 CONSTRUCTION COSTSt TREATMENT FACTORS AND DISRUPTION FACTORS (CONSTRUCTION COSTS IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) TABLE 1 35 ABC I ABC 2 ABC 3 1.425 2.200 0.155 I T.F. 1.60 T.F. 1 D.F. 3 D.F. 1 - -- -- -- ----- - Dl 2.375 T.F. I D.F. 2 D2 8.200 T.F. 1.60 m D.F. 3 D3 0.035 ..,XX T.F. 1.21 D.F. 3 D4 0.500 T.F. 1 D.F. I ................. D5 1.000 T.F. 0.70 D.F. 1 D6 3.1-00 ........... T.F. 1 1). F.2 ......... . D7 0.200 .. ......... T.F. 0.7 1). F.I .... ...... D8 0.500 T.F. 0.7 D. F'.I CONSTRUCTION COSTS, TREATMENT FACTORS AND DISRUPTION FACTORS (GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION) TABLE 2 36 ABC 1 ABC 2 ABC 3 4.275 10.560 0.155 Dl 4.750 9.025 15.310 4.905 D2 39.360 43.635 39.360 N/A D3 0.042 4.317 10.602 0. 197 D4 0.500 4.775 11.060 '0.655 D5 0.700 4.975 11.260 0.855 D6 6.200 10.475 16.760 6.355 D7 0.140 4.415 10.700 0.295 D8 0.350 4.625 10.910 0.505 COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS TABLE 3 37 PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT The stormwater requirements for the private sector have in the past been unregu- lated and therefore many of the older developments retain or detain inadequate volumes of stormwater at best. The Department of Environmental Regulation is responsible for statewide enforcement of Chapter 17-25 of the Florida Administrative Code (Regulation of StormWater Discharge). The City of Destin has developed its own stormwater ordinance based on the Northwest Florida Coast Resource Planning and Management Committee's Resource Management Plan. These criteria exceed that of the Department of Environmental Regulation. The City of Destin has several options to consider for regulating developed sites which do not meet current stormwater rules. The first option is to main- tain the statutes quo, which requires an upgrading of stormwater facilities to meet minimum design standards when site is redeveloped. Another alternative is to require all sites in non-conformance to meet City of Destin rules by some specified date in the future. The third viable option is for the City of Destin to develop a "North Shore Development Area" and/or set up a tax increment district along the north shore area in an effort to collectively solve the pro- blems in that area encountered by both private and public sectors. The tax increment district would then generate capital funds for redevelopment of the North Shore Area and subsequently upgrade the stormwater facilities in the area. Stormwater retention can be accomplished utilizing a variety of methods. Retention basins are the most common and economical method of stormwater manage- ment. All future stormwater facilities should be sized to provide a storage volume equivalent to one inch of runoff in accordance with present City of Destin requirements- The cost of retention basins could be as high as $10,000 for each acre of land developed. However, if retention basins are provided in green space areas required by the City of Destin code, their cost could be negligible since the primary expense involved is the land. Exfiltration systems are a viable alternative to retention basins where open land is limited. They may also prove feasible in locations where the ground water table is deep. Exfiltration systems are basically perforated or slotted pipe set in a gravel and sand bed to allow the stormwater to percolate into the ground. Cost per acre of development is estimated at $15,000. The aggregate trap (Figure 3) is suitable for inlets not located in heavily tra- veled portions of parking lots. This type of treatment facility is for relati- vely small drainage areas. Many existing developments may use various combinations of retention basins, exfiltration systems, aggregate traps, or other methods to meet City of Destin retention requirements. The landscaped island retention basin illustrated on Figure 4 shows an existing stormwater inlet within a grassed island. The inlet accepts direct flow from the parking lot via the grassed island with no retention. A retention basin can be created by simply excavating as shown on Figure 4 leaving the inlet to act as an overflow. An option would be to excavate around the inlet and replace with clean coarse aggregate to create retention. 38. r There are several landscaped areas, including a golf course, that slope toward the Harbor. Their stormwater runoff has the potential to carry undesirable nutrients from fertilizers applied to those areas. Figure 5 illuistrates a berm system that would require very little earthwork and cost. There are a few light industrial areas in the study area. Some of these, including a marine boatyard, are located along the edge of the Harbor. Because of the increased heavy metal and hydrocarbon pollutants that might be expected from these areas, some extra measures are included. To prevent leaching of pollutants into the Harbor, impervious paving is recommended. The site's runoff should be directed away from the harbor to a retention basin with a filter media bottom equipped with an overflow structure and an oil skimmer device. The filter media should be replaced to regular intervals. The estimated cost of these measures is approximately $43,000 per acre of development including paving. The importance of private developers treating stormwater runoff generated by their sites cannot be over emphasized. It is comparable to the City and State treating the stormwater runoff generated which their facilities generate. When runoff is not treated at the source, the burden on the downstream owner(s) is, proportionally increased. This significantly reduces the efficiency of the downstream owner's treatment system to the extent that the system may become completely ineffective., As an example, many of the developments along U.S. 98 do not.retain any stormwater, and therefore, the DOT stormwater system collects and discharges this runoff into the Destin Harbor. Considering the limited alternatives and the extremely high respective costs for a U.S. 98 stormwater treatment system, private development must provide stormwater treatment prior to discharge into the DOT system as part -viabT-e overall solution to the stor water runoff problems intoDestin Harbor. 39 r r r Vil. APPENDICES r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r 41 I I I APPENDIX A I I N i I I 14 I I i I I I I I I STORMWATER CONCEPT DESIGNS INDEX OF SKETCHES FIGURE NO. DESCRIPTION 1 ROADSIDE SWALES 2 RETENTION CHECK DAM FOR ROADWAY WITH SWALES 3 0UTFALL "A" TREATMENT 4 OUTFALL "B" TREATMENT 5 OUTFALL "C" TREATMENT 6 DESTTN HARBOR DRAINAGE BASINS, OUTFALL "D" TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES 7 RETENTION BASIN 8 EXFILTRATION TRENCH 9 AGGREGATE TRAP 10 GRASSED ISLAND RETENTION BASIN IN EXISTING PARKING LOT 11 RETENTION AREA AND BERMING FOR GOLF/GREEN SPACE AREAS ADJACENT TO HARBOR 12 MARINE BOATYARD _n 27e.,ttA5,rj,f0A0WAY Pvirmour SA40OVIAIS NEW &xl;7r 4'44gSWA)l CA46C9 OAMS 14 ex AVAPwAr AfVjfffgtf--,* V^1.0400 ANO CA14felr',0-0019 Af ALAWMA NA)e j9VA0rr10#Aq emom OA.-S) AMPA/449 (exls-rwa aems eaAweerlow momloe Re- A /V Yr4wwwArsc marmovriav RETENTION CHECK DAM FOR 777-7 POADWAY WITH SWAIES FIGURE 2 .44 SWAee Se-:r rY,PIC eAfr Awfs FIGURE 1 0-1 "Att" coov dwe, aw re New vfr&vrvv IOPOMMIW" AM POAdWr" AWW oww o/owslow -tome "w IACAMOrf XfreNrMoV AQW r4 2& Cftr.WAI dfffA iA OUTFALL "A" TR I ATMINT. FIGURE 3- vlw OYCRc /-Ow f Mucracff AIACOOR T lllle-,-@,"- ro New MEW CC-*:Hr1O" At 9 $XeSr OUMAL4. P1,ope-- -T '6PSr AvAml '0155topw rme A Own ow Pl- A At ro owrec r "Flgf r &4 &Vw Remove --xl,;rpl,-4e - olv-ee r rd New Adow ro tlew opele,04opy grguerwo fl-,41V 4!1115r1AO OdeauNo eX15'roarr4ed '6 IVEWALOMNMHAREA IV46W (-ANOSCAPe4o R6rr6Mr1O1V AR6A 57,4,vo sec r/0" fecrIalv,4r xergIvrlo1v Ae6A OUTFALL "B" TREATMENT FIGURE 4 OUTFALL C TREATMENT FIGURE 5 A 4Z@ A@ v I" lood LEGION OR. Q CID 0 //V DI? f9/ G) W4 Lu nP, LL HAR 5 SOR DEsrlV DRAINAGE HAR80j? BASIN SANDPIPEA COVE ,WV G UL F SH PROPOSED J FLUSHING PIPELINE I r r r 191 1&, P -fo Pttu@HAKcfv, AT A T0--AjMr--WT Al fXl/;7Tlt-46j 1711 fALA, Ij,jj r VA-.llZr-,ATMf,@Krr IW LAKO WITA OVV-IZ;:WWa If4 LM Wrfi@ PJ5-,lZfL-oW i@aW 6?tAtr V(0AArL,0JP O-Tr:@,QTWNI YVITR oVfWI,0W IQTe LAKf, HWevP- r M; 90KA@r-, MAmr -fo 101,4JO rt;lfWlIclK 9*-LAKf, Ae; t2TOKA64fl PLAMr -ra WFLANP KOTr,@TIOK IRPOR7. ' @sr L L4/V-r BASIN INAGE-,@@@ Doy DRA Lf--4' 7 cb @R. DETENTION POND 6 U L F OF MEXICO r r Vel2TIN HAK50K PFLAWACiV, r lKeATmc@Wj ALle@KMATI[Vr,15 A-f OUTFAL.L."t>" FIGURE 6 r S,CeO AWO ^VZC.V OR Sao A 100 64ss-( CGAre 44 SoferION A -A Xis 9 Q^P90jr. MZ C(l..r AWreNrIO" Al c RETENTION BASIN P6.41V FIGURE 7 AS?We. r Pmvemwwr awavw MR IWORIC W,54arreo sraRA4 aeAlly Nor.-: i ewaillOff R-PreNrIOAl COX AOv.Oeo9X- Rt 140 .feC r/0,V A -A EXFILTRATION TRENCH @1-64 FIGURE 8 09RArlffig A4 4.40ow, YAR169 r-rR4 re SPOW.44 r ;Tl-l-14ref^AOXAC,41-4 AROVA10 SrORA4 C4 eAV WARSe 56CrIOAl rHROUCPH IN66 AGGREGATE TRAP 70,0,4ecv ra exl5r (;@eA55,eo /5(-,RNO 3 FIGURE 9 eo,4,f5e //4fp/ C&TOf/v rION AAfA - 50o ae ev"s 49 !AsaleesArlc -x1sr 1"4,-r e rex AWISIVIC 6ECrION ;r#lf(.?UIIW 154ANO GRASSED ISLAND RETENTION BASIN IN EXISTING PARKING LOT , @Nfwe FIGURE 10 -xecIR6cr exl5r. smeerozow AROV HAR60R rO AereV rlOAl ourFW44 4 f Al Re'reWdrIOW AREA rlVoY Ya4el"e T A',-e4,4Cdr A7- R66(14AR. MAINAEMAHC-6 IN reRyAe_ 6 e6.,esf wl rq ex cA Y-4 7eo AiA reRl 41- TION 7-AIROU6i4 6,4511Y A,4 ff eeRW5 /,V CUR Yle- 11V6AR AOR OR,41A1.46.6. 5eeo 4NO 44414 CR OW 50 0 eeAm ),vl e-v"wreo A4,4n5wA41 MARINE BOATYARD FIGURE 11 eO4RS6 C46AAIS,41VO PVIO 6660 l9le foo A-A RETENTION AREA AND BERMING FOR GOLF/GREEN SPACE AREAS ADJACENT TO HARBOR FIGURE 12 A :7-7g@' _41 APPENDIX B i I i r r r r r - r r r DER CLASS III r STANDARDS FOR WATER QUALITY r r DIER1983 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 17-3 '(25) Transparency - the depth (4) Antimony shall not exceed. of the compensation point for photo- 0.2 milligrams per liter in predomi- synthetic activity shall not be nantly marine waters. reduced by more than 10% as compared (5) Bacteriological Quality - to the natural background value. feca'I coliform bacteria shall not Specific Authority: 403.061, exceed a monthly average of 200 per 403.062, 403.087, 403.504, 403.704, 100 ml of sample, nor exceed 400 per 403.804, F.S. Law Implemented: 100 ml of sample in 10 percent of 403.021, 403.061, 403.087, 403.088, the samples, nor exceed 800 per 100 403.141, 403.161, 403.182, 403.502, ml on any one day, nor exceed a to- 403.702, 403.708, F.S. History: tal coliform bacteria count of 1,000 Formerly 28-5..08, 17-3.08, Amended per 100 ml as a monthly average, nor 6-10-72, 8-30772, 7-3-73, Amended exceed 1,000 per 100 ml in more than and Renumbered 3-1-79,.Amended 20 percent of the samples examined 2-1-83. during any month, nor exceed 2,400 per 100 ml at any time. Monthly 17-3.12 Definitions. averages shall be expressed as geo- Specific Authority: 403.061, F.S. metric means based on a minimum of Law Implemented: 403.021, 403.031, 10 samples taken over a 30 day pe- 403.061, 403.101, F.S. History: riod. Either MPN or MF counts may Formerly 28-5.12, Amended and be utilized. Renumbered as 17-3.021, 3-1-79. (6) Beryllium - in predominant- ly fresh waters shall not exceed 17-3.121 Criteria: Class 1111 0.011 milligrams per liter in waters Waters - Recreation - Propagation with a hardness equal to or less and Maintenance of a Healthy, Well- than 150 (in milligrams per liter of Balanced Population of Fish and CaC03) and shall not exceed 1.10 Wildlife. The criteria listed below milligrams per liter in harder are for surface waters classified as waters. Class I 11. The standards contained (7) Biological Integrity - the in @ Sections 17-3.051 and 17-3.061, Shannon-Weaver diversity index of F.A.C., also apply to all waters of benthic macroi nverteb rates shall not this classification unless addition- be reduced to less than 75 percent al or more. stringent criteria are of established background levels as specified below. The following measured using organisms retained by criteria are to be applied except a U.S. Standard No. 30 sieve and, in within zones of mixing. predominantly fresh waters, collect- ( 1) . Alkalinity - shall not be ed and composited from a minimum of depressed below 20 milligrams per. three Hester-Dendy type artificial liter as CaC03 in predominantly substrate samplers of 0.10 to 0.15 fresh waters. m2 area, each, incubated for a . (2) Aluminum - shall not exceed period of four weeks; and, in pre- 1.5 milligrams per liter in predomi- dominantly marine waters, collected nantly marine waters. and composited from a minimum of (3) Ammonia (un-ionized) three natural substrate samples, shall not, exceed 0.02 milligrams taken with Ponar type samplers with per liter in predominantly fresh minimum sampling area of 225 square waters. centimeters. 17-3.1111(25) 17-3.121(7) 2-1-83 DER1983 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 17-3 (8) Bromine and Bromates - free (16) Lead - shall not exceed (molecular) bromine shall not exceed .03 milligrams per liter in predomi- 0.1 milligrams, per liter in predomi- nantly fresh waters. nantly marine waters, and bromates (17) Mercury - shall not exceed shall not exceed 100 milligrams per 0.1 micrograms per liter in pre- liter in predominantly marine dominantly marine waters; shall not waters. exceed 0.2 micrograms per liter in (9) Cadmium - shall not exceed predominantly fresh waters. 5.0 micrograms per liter in predomi- (18) Nickel - shall not exceed nantly marine waters; shall not 0.1 milligrams per liter. exceed 0.8 micrograms per liter in (19) Nutrients - In no case predominantly fresh waters in water shall nutrient concentrations of a with a hardness (in milligrams per body of water be altered so as to liter of CaC03) of less than 150, cause an imbalance in natural popu- and shall. not exceed 1.2 micrograms lations of aquatid" fl-o'r a or fauna. per liter in harder waters. (20) Pesticides and Herbicides: (10) Chlorine (total residual) (a) Aldrin plus Dieldrin - - shall not exceed 0.01 milligrams shall not exceed 0.003 micrograms per liter. per liter. (11) Copper - shall not exceed (b) Chlordane - shall not ex- .015 milligrams per liter in pre- ceed 0.01 micrograms per liter in dominantly marine waters; shall not predominantly fresh waters and shall exceed .03 milligrams per liter in not exceed 0.004 micrograms per li- predominantly fresh waters. * ter in predominantly marine waters. (12) Cyanide - shall not exceed (c) DDT - shall not exceed 5.0 micrograms per liter. 0.001 micrograms per liter. (13) Dissolved Oxygen - in pre- (d) Demeton - shall not exceed dominantly fresh waters, the concen- 0.1 micrograms per liter. tration shall not be less than 5 (e) Endosulfan - shall not ex- milligrams per liter. In predomi- ceed 0.003 micrograms per liter in nantly marihe' waters, the concentra- predominantly fresh waters and shall .tion shall not average less than 5 not exceed 0.001 micrograms per li- milligrams per liter in a 24-hour ter in predominantly marine waters. period and shall never be less than M Endrin - shall not exceed 4 milligrams per liter. Normal 0.004 micrograms per liter. daily and seasonal fluctuations (g) Guthion - shall not exceed, above these levels shall be main- 0.01' micrograms per liter. tained in both predominantly fresh W Heptachlor - shall not ex- waters and predominantly marine ceed 0.001 micrograms .per liter. waters. 0) Undane - shall not, exceed (14) Fluorides - shall not ex- 0.01 micrograms per liter -in predom- ceed 5.0 milligrams per liter in Inantly fresh waters and shall not predominantly marine waters. exceed 0.004 micrograms per liter in (15) Iron - shall not exceed predominantly marine waters. 1.0 milligrams per liter in predomi- 1 (1) Malathlon - shall not ex- nantly fresh waters; 0.3 milligrams ceed 0.1 micrograms per liter. per liter in predominantly marine W Methoxychlor - shall not waters. exceed 0.03 micrograms per liter.. 17-3.121(8) -- 17-3.121(20)(k) 2-1-83 DER1983 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 17-3 (1) Myrex - shall not exceed -exceed 0.025 milligrams per liter. 0.001 micrograms per liter. (26) Silver - shall not exceed (m) Parathion - shall not ex- 0.07 micrograms per liter in predom- ceed 0.04 micrograms per liter. inantly fresh waters and 0.05 micro- (n) Toxaphene - shall not ex- grams per liter in predominantly- ceed 0.005 micrograms per liter. marine waters. (21) pH - shall not vary more (27) Total Dissolved Gases - than one unit above or below natural shall not exceed 110% of the satura- background of predominantly fresh tion value for gases at the existing waters and coastal waters as defined atmospheric and hydrostatic pres- in 17-3.05(l)(c), F.A.C., or more sures. than two-tenths unit above or below (28) Transparency - the depth natural background of open waters as of the compensation point for photo- defined in 17-3.05(l)(c), F.A.C., synthetic activity shall not be provided that the pH is not lowered reduced by more than 10% compared to to less than 6 units in predominate- the natural background value. ly fresh waters, or less than 6.5 (29) Zinc - shall not exceed units in predominately marine wa- .03 milligrams per liter in predomi- ters, or raised above 8.5 units. If nantly fresh waters. natural background is less than 6 Specific Authority: 403.061, units, in predominately fresh waters 403.062, 403.087, 403.504, 403.704, or 6.5 units in predominately marine 403.804, F.S. Law Implemented: waters, the pH shall not vary below 403-021, 403.061, 403.087, 403.088, natural background or vary more than 403.141, 403.161, 403.182, 403.502, one unit above natural background 403.702, 403.708, F.S. History: of predominately fresh waters and Formerly 28-5.09, 17-3.09, Amended coastal waters, or more than two- 6-10-72, 8-30-72, 7-3-73, Amended tenths unit above natural background and Renumbered 3-1-79, Amended of open waters. If natural back- 2-1-83. ground is higher than 8.5 units, the pH shall not vary above natural 17-3.13 Drainage Wells, Permits. background or vary more than one Specific Authority: 403.061, F.S. unit below natural background of Law Implemented: 403.021, 403.031, predominately fresh waters and 403.061, 403.182, F.S. History: coastal waters, or more than two- Formerly 28-5.13, Repealed 3-1-79. tenths unit below natural background of open waters. 17-3.131 Criteria: Class IV (22) Phosphorus (elemental) - Waters - Agricultural Water Supplies. shall not exceed 0.1 micrograms The criteria listed below are for per liter in predominantly marine surface waters classified as Class waters. IV. The standards established in (23) Phthalate Esters - shall Sections 17-3.051 and 17-3.061, not exceed 3.0 micrograms per liter F.A.C., also apply to all waters of in predominantly fresh waters. this classification, unless addi- (24) Polychlorinated Biphenyls tional or more stringent criteria shall not exceed 0.001 micrograms are specified below. The following per liter. criteria are to be applied except (25) Selenium - , shall not within zones of mixing. 2-1-83 17-3.121(20)(1) -- 17-3.131 APPENDIX C AGENCY WORKSHOP ATTENDEES I Agency Workshop Destin January 9, 1986 PARTICIPANTS 7 PHONE Destin City Staff: Mr. J.E. Dorman, Jr., City Manager 837-4242 City of Destin P.O. Box 399 415 Mountain Drive Suite 1 Destin, Florida 32541 Mr. Herb Brown, Planning Director 837-4242 City of Destin P.O. Box 399 415 Mountain Drive Suite 1 Destin, Florida 32541 Mr. Mitch Dudley, Harbor Master 837-4242 City of Destin P.O. Box 399 415 Moutain Drive Suite 1 Destin,, Florida 32541 Destin Planning Commission: Mr. J. Rod Himes 837-4242 City of Destin P.O. Box 399 415 Mountain Drive Suite 1 Destin, Florida 32541 Destin Harbor Board: J.B. Anderson DER: Dr. James W. Stoutamire 488-4805 Mr. Jim Eggert DER - Office of Coastal Management Department of Environmental Regulation 2600 Blair Stone Road Tallahassee, Florida 32301 11J, Mr. James W. Carr 436-8300 Dredge and Fill Supervisor 436-8428 160 Governmental Center Pensacola, Florida 32501 Mr. Norm Morrissette 436-8380 Domestic Wastewate Engineer 160 Governmental Center Pensacola, Florida 32501 Mr. John Cox 488-0782 Nonpoint Source Management Section Bureau of Water Quality Management Division of Environmental Programs 2600 Blair Stone Road Tallahassee, Florida 32301 Dr. Norman Richards, Assistant District Manager 436-8300 Department of Environmental Regulation 160 Governmental Center Pensacola, Florida 32501-5794 DOT: Mr. Jimmey Bailey, Environmental Coordinator 6384250 Florida Department of Transportation P.O. Box 607 Chipley, Florida 32428 Mr. Fred Simmons, District Assistant Design Engineer 638-0250 Florida Department of Transportation P.O. Box 607 Chipley, Florida 32428 DNR: Ms. Susan Radford Department of Natural Resources Division of State Lands 160 Governmental Center Pensacola, Florida 32501-5794 436-8300 DCA: Mr. George M. Smith 488-9210 Coastal Programs Department of Community Affairs 2571 Executive Center Circle East Tallahassee, Florida 32301 NWFWMD: Mr. Douglas Barr 487-1770 Northwest Florida Water Management District Route 1, Box 3100 Havana, Florida 32333 Ms. Pat Blackshear 487-1770 Northwest Florida Water Management District Route 1, Box 3100 Havana, Florida 32333 Mr. William McCartney 487-1770 Northwest Florida Water Management District Route 1, Box 3100 Havana, Florida 32333 HRS: Mr. Joel M. Couch Mr. Douglas Sims 244@-1997 State of Florida 224-5090 Okaloosa County Health Unit 221 Hospital Drive Ft. Walton Beach, Florida U.S. COE: Mr. Alton Colvin 763-@2881 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Panama City Area Office P.O. Box 151 Panama City, Florida 32401 380 COMMITTEE: Mr. Frances Spence 678-1615 c/o Spence Brothers Properties 301 Bayshore Drive Niceville, Florida 32578 CONSULTING TEAM: Howard Landers, Landers-Atkins Planners, Inc. 354-8066 William Mann, Landers-Atkins Planners, Inc. 201 North Hogan Street, Suite 400 Jacksonville, Florida 32202 Robert Connelly, Connelly & Wicker, Inc. 249-7995 Connelly & Wicker Inc. P.O. Box 51343 1301-D Penman Road Jacksonville Beach, FL 32240-1343 Rick Welch!, Connelly & Wicker, Inc. 837-4252 Connelly & Wicker, Inc. P.O. Box 309 Destin, Florida 32541 Dr. Bruce Taylor, Taylor & Divoky, Inc. 731-7040 Taylor & Divoky, Inc. 9086 Cypress Green Drive Jacksonville, Florida 32216 Dr. Quinton White 744-3950 Jacksonville University 2800 N. University Boulevard Jacksonville, Florida 32211 APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY Studys of Old Pass Lagoon and Bay Estuaries. (Chronological) "Reconnaissance Report, East Pass Channel" United States Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District. November, 1980. "East Pass Lagoon Boat Study" Phases 1, 11, and III. Anne 0. Merriam, Institute of Science and Public Affairs, F.S.U. Tallahassee, Florida. 3 Volumes. September 1981 - August 1982. "Choctawhatchee Bay; Analysis and Interpretation of Baseline Environmental Data" Dewey.A. Baylock, technical paper #29. Insititute for Statistical and Mathmatical Modeling, University of West Florida. Pensacola, Florida. March 1983. "Old Pass Lagoon*Aerator Study" Sanford N. Young, Environmental Cons ultant. Tallahassee, Florida. March 1985. "A Compendium of Studies conducted on Old Pass Lagoon for Holiday Isle Improvement Association" Sanford N. Young ("Evaluation of the Salt Wedge in Old Pass Lagoon"), William T. Cooper ("P.hysical/Ch,emlical Characteristics of East Pass Lagoon"), and Donald Esry ("Engineering Aspects of the Old Pass .Lagoon Problem"). Northwest Florida Water Management District. April 1985. "Resource Management Plan". Northwest Florida Coast Resources Planning and Management Committee (380). March 1985. "Effects of Aeration/Mixing on Dissolved Oxygen and Salinity in Sandpiper Cove". Jess Van Dyke, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Research and Control, 1985. "Results of Ground-water Nutrient Monitoring at Wastewater Percolation Ponds, in Destin, Florida". Douglas E. Barr and Edward. Bowman, Northwest Florida, Water Management District, Report #85-1. 1985. "Seasonal Survey of Biologic&l Habitat and Water Quality Cqndi.tions in Old Pass Lagoon". William T.. Young and Glenn L. Butts, Department" of Environmental Regulation. 1985. "Compilation of Studies Conducted by the Northwest-Fl.orida Water Management District.on Choctawhatchee Bay". Richard J. Musgrove, P.E., Water Resources Special Report.. January 1986. "The Choctawhatchee River-Bay System" Volume I, Executive Summary. February, 1986". Robert J. Livingston, Dtrector, Center for Aquatic, Research and Resource Management. F.S.U., Tallahassee, Florida. December. 1986. "Water Resource Restorat-ion of Old Pass Lagoon, Destin, Florida', Agust in .Maristany, P.E., Donald Esry, P.E., and Douglas E. Barr. Northwest Florida Water Management District. Water Resources Assessment 87-1j 1987. II. Related Readings "Nonpoint Pollution: Runoff in Urban Areas". G2958. T.C. Daniel, R.C. Wendt, and J.G. Konrad. University of Wisconsion - Extension, in coopera- tion with Department of Natural Resources. August 1978. "Nonpoint Pollution: Causes and Consequences" G2956 T.C. Daniel and Dr. Keeney. University of Wisconsin - Extension in cooperation with the Department of Natural Resources. September 1978. SIThe Waterfront Property Owners Guide". East Central Florida Regional Planning Council. November 1979. "A Water Quality Assessment of Selected Coastal Marinas. Beaufort County, South Carolina". Technical Report 022-83. J.M. Marcus and G.R. Swaringen. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. 2 Volumes. 1983. "Urban Stormwater Quality Management: The Florida Experience". Eric H. Livingston and John H. Cox, Florida Department.of Environmental Regulation. 1985. "Report to the Governor with Recommendations for Resource Management in the Indian River Lagoons System". Office of Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Regulation. May 1986. "Comprehensive Watershed Approaches to the Control of Point/Nonpoint Source Pollution in Florida". Eric H. Livingston. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. 1986. "Stormwater Management in Florida: An Evolving Regulatory Program". Eric H. Livingston. Florida Department of Environmental Regul,ation. Presentation to ASCE Seminar. June 1986. "Ecology of Small Boat Marinas". S.W. Nixon, L.A. Oviatt, and S.L. Northby. Sea Grant Marine Technical Report 5. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 1978. "Wood Preservative Pesticides: Creasote, Pentachlorophenol, Inorganic Arsenicals." Position Document U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, July, 1984. "The Future of Tampa Bay", Tampa Bay Management Study Commission. 1985. "Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve Management Plan." -Draft- Biscayne Bay Management Committee Metro-Dade Board of County Commissioners. Miami, Florida. November, 1986. 3 6668 14102 3624