[Federal Register Volume 60, Number 52 (Friday, March 17, 1995)]
[Notices]
[Pages 14548-14579]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 95-6545]




[[Page 14547]]

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Part IV





Department of Health and Human Services





_______________________________________________________________________



Administration for Children and Families



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Early Head Start Program Grant Availability; Notice

Federal Register / Vol. 60, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 1995 / Notices

[[Page 14548]]

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Administration for Children and Families
[Program Announcement No. ACYF-HS-93600.952]


Early Head Start Program Grant Availability

AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), 
Administration for Children and Families (ACF), HHS.

ACTION: Announcement of financial assistance to be competitively 
awarded to current Head Start programs--including Head Start Parent and 
Child Centers and Comprehensive Child Development programs--and other 
public and non-profit private entities to provide child and family 
development services for low-income families with children under age 
three and pregnant women.

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SUMMARY: Section 645A of the Head Start Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 9801 
et seq., requires that, beginning in Fiscal Year 1995, the Secretary of 
Health and Human Services will award grants competitively to agencies 
and organizations to implement programs which we call ``Early Head 
Start.'' These programs will provide early, continuous, intensive, and 
comprehensive child development and family support services on a year-
round basis to low-income families with children under age three and 
pregnant women. The purpose of the program is to enhance children's 
physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development; to assist 
parents in fulfilling their parental roles; and to help parents move 
toward self-sufficiency. Thus, the goals for Early Head Start are to:
     Promote the physical, cognitive, social and emotional 
growth of infants and toddlers and prepare them for future growth and 
development;
     Support parents--mothers, fathers, and guardians--in their 
role as primary caregivers and educators of their children, and in 
meeting family goals and achieving self-sufficiency across a wide 
variety of domains;
     Strengthen community supports for families with young 
children; and
     Develop highly-trained, caring and adequately compensated 
program staff, because the quality of staff and their relationships 
with children and parents are critical to achieving all the other 
goals.

DATES: The closing date for submission of applications is May 31, 1995.

ADDRESSES: Applications may be mailed to: Early Head Start Program, 
Ellsworth Associates, Inc., 3030 Clarendon Blvd., Suite 240, Arlington, 
Virginia 22201.
    Hand delivered applications are accepted at the above address 
during the normal working hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, on or before the closing date.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: For questions related to the Program 
Announcement, please contact the ACYF Operations Center, Technical 
Assistance Team at 1-800-351-2293. Staff at this center will answer 
questions regarding the application requirements or refer you to the 
appropriate contact person in ACYF for programmatic questions.
    For a copy of the application kit, or for another copy of the 
program announcement please call or fax your request to the ACYF 
Operations Center at 1-800-351-2293 (phone) or 1-800-351-4490 (fax).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Part I. General Information

A. Table of Contents

    This program announcement is divided into five sections:
     Part I is an introductory section which contains the 
history and background for the Early Head Start program and the 
principles and program description that will guide the development, 
implementation and operation of the programs.
     Part II contains key program information such as a 
description of eligible applicants, project periods, applicable Head 
Start regulations, and Early Head Start as a learning community.
     Part III presents requirements for information that must 
be included in each application.
     Part IV presents the criteria upon which applications will 
be reviewed and evaluated.
     Part V contains instructions for preparing the Fiscal Year 
1995 application. This section notes that the Commissioner of the 
Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, depending on the 
availability of funds and an adequate number of acceptable 
applications, may choose to fund the Fiscal Year 1996 cohort of 
programs out of the pool of applications submitted as a response to 
this program announcement.
    Appendix A includes the relevant forms necessary for completing the 
application.
    Appendix B lists the Single Points of Contact for each State and 
Territory.
    Appendix C is The Statement of the Advisory Committee on Services 
for Families with Infants and Toddlers which guided the development of 
this program announcement and will be referred to throughout.
    An application kit containing applicable Head Start Regulations, 
State Contact lists (e.g. Part H Lead Agency Coordinators) and other 
useful information must be obtained by applicants. (See address listed 
earlier in this announcement.)

B. Program Purpose

    With the reauthorization of the Head Start Act in 1994, Congress 
established a new program for low income families with infants and 
toddlers and pregnant women which we are calling Early Head Start. 
Beginning in Fiscal Year 1995, the Secretary of Health and Human 
Services will award grants to competing agencies and organizations to 
implement ``Early Head Start'' to provide early, continuous, intensive, 
and comprehensive child development and family support services.
    In creating this program, the Congress acted upon evidence from 
research and practice which illustrates that high quality programs 
enhance children's physical, social, emotional, and cognitive 
development; enable parents to be better caregivers and teachers to 
their children; and help parents meet their own goals, including 
economic independence. Such programs answer an undeniable need. As 
pointed out in The Report of the Carnegie Task Force on Meeting The 
Needs of Young Children, many of the 12 million children under three 
and their families in the United States today face a ``quiet crisis.'' 
The numerous indicators of this crisis include: One in four infants and 
toddlers live in families with incomes below the poverty line; nine out 
of every thousand infants die before the age of one; and, more than 
five million children under three receive child care from other adults 
while their parents work, much of that care is of poor quality.
    The Early Head Start program will provide resources to community 
programs to address such needs and to achieve the purposes set forth by 
Congress. The local programs funded through Early Head Start will also 
operate as a national laboratory to demonstrate the impact that can be 
gained when early, continuous, intensive and comprehensive services are 
provided early on to pregnant women and very young children and their 
families.
    Programs participating in this demonstration effort will:
     Provide early, individualized child development and parent 
education [[Page 14549]] services to low-income infants and toddlers 
and their families according to a plan developed jointly by the parents 
and staff;
     Provide these services through an appropriate mix of home 
visits, experiences at the Early Head Start center, and experiences in 
other settings such as family- or center-based child care;
     Provide early opportunities for infants and toddlers with 
and without disabilities to grow and develop together in warm, 
nurturing and inclusive settings;
     Ensure that the Early Head Start center is a welcoming 
setting for families in the community;
     Respond to the needs of families, including the need for 
full-time child care for working families;
     Connect with other service providers at the local level to 
ensure that a comprehensive array of health, nutrition, and other 
services is provided to the program's pregnant women, very young 
children, and their families;
     Recruit, train, and supervise high quality staff to ensure 
the kind of warm and continuous relationships between caregivers and 
children that are crucial to learning and development for infants and 
toddlers;
     Ensure parent involvement in policy and decision making, 
similar to parent involvement in preschool Head Start programs;
     Coordinate with local Head Start programs in order to 
ensure continuity of services for these children and families;
     Ensure quality by focusing on all four cornerstones of 
successful early childhood programs: Child development, family 
development, community building, and staff development; and
     Participate actively in a research and evaluation effort 
to learn from the Early Head Start experience.

C. History and Background

1. Legislation
    In May 1994 the President signed into law the bipartisan Head Start 
Reauthorization Act of 1994. This reauthorization established within 
the Head Start Bureau a new program for low-income pregnant women and 
families with infants and toddlers. The reauthorization sets aside 
funds from the overall Head Start budget for the next four years at a 
rate of three percent in FY 1995; four percent in FY 1996 and 1997; and 
five percent in FY 1998. Consolidated into the new initiative were the 
Parent and Child Centers Program and the Comprehensive Child 
Development Program.
    This section of the legislation had a number of sources, including 
the recommendations of The Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and 
Expansion, as well as recent lessons from research and practice.
2. The Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion
    In June 1993, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human 
Services formed an Advisory Committee to look at Head Start quality and 
expansion. The recommendations of that committee centered around:
     Striving for excellence in staffing, management, 
oversight, facilities, and research;
     Expanding to better meet the needs of children and 
families; and
     Forging new partnerships with communities, schools, the 
private sector, and other national initiatives.
    Included in the report was a recommendation that the Department 
develop a new initiative for expanded Head Start supports to families 
with infants and toddlers, as well as convene a high-level committee 
charged with developing guidelines for this new effort. This 
recommendation was fueled by relevant research findings and recognition 
in the field that a good deal more could be accomplished with earlier 
more sustained support for very young children and their families.
3. Relevant Research
    Findings from more than three decades of research in child and 
family development illustrate that the time from conception to age 
three is critical for human development. The basic cognitive, social, 
and emotional foundation is established in these early years. The 
research also indicates that for infants and toddlers to develop 
optimally, they must have healthy beginnings and the continuity of 
responsive and caring relationships. Together, these supports help 
promote optimal cognitive, social, emotional, physical, and language 
development. When these supports are missing, the immediate and future 
development of the child may be compromised. Fortunately, recent 
research identifies characteristics of effective programs that enhance 
both child and family development. This growing body of knowledge 
provides a foundation upon which the Early Head Start program is based.
    A more detailed discussion about the research in maternal and 
infant health, child-caregiver relationships, and characteristics of 
successful programs can be found in the Statement of the Advisory 
Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers which is 
included as Appendix C.
4. Precursor Program Experiences
    In enacting Early Head Start, Congress was building on lessons 
learned through Federal, State, local and community programs that serve 
some of our country's very young children and their families.
    Most notable among the early Federal efforts include the following:
     Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant has its 
roots in Title V of the Social Security Act which was enacted in 1935. 
It is administered by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of 
the Public Health Service which provides leadership for building the 
infrastructure for health care services delivery to all mothers and 
children in the U.S., with particular responsibility for serving those 
low-income or isolated populations who would otherwise have limited 
access to care.
     The Parent and Child Centers Program (PCC) was established 
in 1967 to provide an array of services for pregnant women, infants/
toddlers, parents, and families as a whole. There are currently 106 
PCC's across all 50 States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. 
Services include health, education, personal and interpersonal 
development, and family assistance.
     The Migrant Head Start program was established in 1969 in 
order to meet the needs of mobile farmworker children and their 
families. The program provides age appropriate infant, toddler and 
preschool programming, full-day services (8 to 12 hours per day), and 
full week services (five to six days per week). These services are 
offered in center-based and family child care settings during 
agricultural seasons. There are currently 76 Migrant Head Start 
programs operating in 35 states. Infant and toddlers comprise over 40 
percent of the children served annually.
     Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) operated as a 
demonstration from 1973 to 1983. Ten CFRP programs linked community 
resources in efforts to enhance families abilities to provide safe, 
stable, nurturing environments for their children.
     Part H of what is now known as the Individuals with 
Disabilities Education Act was initiated in 1986 as an early 
intervention program for children birth to three who have or are at 
risk for developmental disability. Part H supports comprehensive, 
statewide programs which identify and coordinate needed services within 
the context of a family-centered services delivery model. 
[[Page 14550]] 
     The Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP) was 
enacted in 1988 to provide and coordinate a wide range of services to 
children and families involving child development, health care, 
education, economic self-sufficiency, mental health, substance abuse 
treatment and prevention and other services to strengthen the home and 
family.
     Even Start Literacy Program, administered by the 
Department of Education, integrates early childhood education and adult 
education for parents into a unified program.
     Healthy Start Initiative started in 1991 as a 
demonstration program to combat infant mortality through community 
coalitions.
    In addition to these Federal efforts, several States and 
foundations are focusing on the special needs of very young children 
and their families. Among the States active in this area are Colorado, 
Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri and Vermont. Carnegie and Ford 
are among the foundations addressing the needs of pregnant women and 
families with infants and toddlers.

D. Consultation

    In the statute establishing the new program which we call Early 
Head Start, Congress called on the Secretary to develop program 
guidelines in consultation with experts in early childhood development, 
experts in health, and experts in family services; and taking into 
consideration the knowledge and experience gained from other early 
childhood programs including the Comprehensive Child Development 
Programs, Head Start Parent Child Centers and Migrant Head Start 
programs that serve large numbers of infants and toddlers. As a result, 
the Secretary formed the Advisory Committee on Services for Families 
with Infants and Toddlers. The Committee was charged with advising the 
Department on the development of program approaches for the initiative. 
In September 1994, the Advisory Committee unanimously agreed to a 
statement that sets forth the vision, goals, principles, and program 
cornerstones for Early Head Start (the Statement, which includes the 
Advisory Committee membership list, is included as Appendix C).
    In addition, Federal staff conducted approximately 30 focus groups 
during the summer of 1994 to hear from parents, practitioners, 
researchers, advocates, and representatives of professional 
organizations. Further, Federal staff met with or received materials 
and recommendations from a number of other parents, practitioners, and 
researchers. The suggestions, guidance, and information received 
through this consultation process helped shape the development of this 
program announcement.

E. Principles Recommended by the Field

    The Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and 
Toddlers identified nine principles that are characteristic of 
successful programs for families with very young children. These 
principles are consistent with the themes that emerged from the broader 
consultation conducted by the Department. Therefore, applicants are 
expected to design their programs around these principles:
    1. High Quality: Programs will ensure high quality in both the 
services provided to children and families directly, and the services 
provided through referral. Programs will recognize that the conception-
to-three age period is unique both in the rate of development and in 
the way young children's physical and mental growth reflects and 
absorbs experiences with caregivers and the surroundings. Because of 
this, the experiences and environments need to be of highest quality to 
promote child development.
    2. Prevention and Promotion: Recognizing that windows of 
opportunity open and close quickly for very young children and their 
families, programs will seek out opportunities to promote the physical, 
social, emotional, cognitive and language development of young children 
and families before conception, prenatally, upon birth, and during the 
early years. Program staff will seek to prevent and detect problems at 
their earliest stages, rallying the services needed to help the child 
and family anticipate and overcome problems before they interfere with 
healthy development.
    3. Positive Relationships and Continuity: Programs will support and 
enhance strong, caring, continuous relationships among the child, 
parents, family, and caregiving staff. Programs will support the 
mother-child, father-child bond by recognizing each parent as his or 
her child's first and primary source of love, nurturance and guidance. 
Programs will ensure that relationships between caregiving staff and 
young children support infant and toddler attachment to a limited 
number of skilled and caring individuals, thus maintaining 
relationships with caregivers over time and avoiding the trauma of loss 
experienced with frequent turnover of key people in the child's life.
    4. Parent Involvement: Programs will ensure the highest level of 
partnership with parents, both mothers and fathers. Programs will 
support parents as primary nurturers, educators, and advocates for 
their children; assure that each parent has an opportunity for an 
experience that supports his or her own growth and goals, including 
that of parenting; encourage independence and self-sufficiency for 
parents; and provide a policy-making and decision-making role for 
parents.
    5. Inclusion: Programs will develop services and create an 
environment which builds upon and responds to the unique strengths and 
needs of each child and family. Further, programs will support 
participation in community life by young children with disabilities and 
their families; families of very young children with significant 
disabilities will be fully included in all program services.
    6. Culture: Programs will demonstrate an understanding of, respect 
for, and responsiveness to the home culture of children and families as 
culture is the context for healthy identity development in the first 
years of life.
    7. Comprehensiveness, Flexibility, Responsiveness, and Intensity: 
Programs will respond in flexible ways to the unique strengths, 
abilities, and needs of the children, families and communities they 
serve. Developmental opportunities provided to each infant and toddler 
will address the whole child and be continually adapted to keep pace 
with his or her developmental growth. Programs also need to be 
responsive to the distinct needs and experiences of parents whose 
children are disabled and those parents who have disabilities.
    8. Transition: Programs will be responsible for ensuring the smooth 
transition of children and their families into Head Start or other 
preschool programs which are of high quality and provide consistent and 
responsive caregiving.
    9. Collaboration: Recognizing that no one program will be able to 
meet all of a child's and family's needs, programs will build strong 
connections to other service providers and to community sources of 
support for families. These efforts will foster a caring, comprehensive 
and integrated community-wide response to families with young children, 
maximize scarce financial resources, and avoid duplication of agency 
effort.
    These principles (explained in more detail) are included in the 
Statement of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with 
Infants and Toddlers which is attached as Appendix C. [[Page 14551]] 

F. Program Description

    In addition to the principles outlined above, a description of the 
Early Head Start program also emerged during consultation with the 
field. The Advisory Committee members set forth the formal framework 
for the program which includes four cornerstones: child development; 
family development; community building; and staff development.
1. Child Development
    To develop fully, children need individualized support that honors 
the unique characteristics and pace of their physical, social, 
emotional, cognitive and language development. Critical to this 
development are the promotion of child health; positive relationships 
between the child and parents and other significant caregivers; 
opportunities for children's active engagement in appropriately 
stimulating environments; and enhancement of each parent's knowledge 
about the development of their child within healthy, safe, 
environments. The services that programs must provide to support the 
child development cornerstone include:
     High quality early education services provided both in and 
out of the home in a range of developmentally appropriate settings for 
infants and toddlers;
     Home visits (especially for families with newborns and 
other infants, as needed);
     Parent education, including parent-child activities;
     Comprehensive health and mental health services for 
children; and
     Part- and full-day child care services, as needed by 
children and families (the ACF does not expect Early Head Start 
grantees to pay for off-site child care but instead envisions the role 
of the grantee being a broker to help the family identify and access 
child care services from appropriate providers in the community as 
needed); the Early Head Start program must assume responsibility for 
ensuring that the child care settings meet standards for high quality, 
developmentally appropriate care.
    In addition, Early Head Start programs would be responsible for 
helping the family identify and access the services of a consistent 
health professional who can provide ongoing care for the family, child 
and pregnant woman. Further, Early Head Start programs would be 
responsible for coordinating with programs providing services in 
accordance with Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
Act so that children and families served by these two programs can 
experience a seamless system of services.
2. Family Development
    Healthy child development depends on the ability of parents and 
families to support and nurture children, while at the same time 
meeting other critical social and economic needs. Therefore, programs 
must work to help parents set and achieve goals for themselves and 
their children through individualized family development plans, which 
are collaboratively designed and updated by families and staff, and are 
responsive to the goals and ideals of the families. When families are 
served by additional programs which also require an individualized 
family development/service plan, such as Part H of the Individuals with 
Disabilities Education Act and family employability plans, then a 
single coordinated plan should be developed so families experience a 
seamless system of services.
    The types of services that programs must provide directly or 
through referral include:
     Ongoing support to parents, through case management, peer 
support groups, or other approaches;
     Child development information;
     Health services, including services for women prior to, 
during, and after pregnancy;
     Mental health services;
     Services to improve health behavior such as smoking 
cessation and substance abuse treatment;
     Services to adults to support progress towards economic 
independence, such as adult education and basic literacy skills, job 
training, assistance in obtaining income support, food, and decent, 
safe housing, and emergency cash or in-kind assistance; and
     Transportation to program services.
    Programs also must provide directly opportunities for parent 
involvement in the program so that parents can be involved as decision-
makers, volunteers, and/or employees. Additional services not listed 
above, but identified by families through community assessments and 
mappings, may be provided either directly or through referral at local 
option.
3. Community Building
    Children develop within the context of the family and the family 
develops within the context of the community. Therefore, to support 
children's development, Early Head Start must establish collaborative 
relationships with other community providers and strength-building 
organizations to create an environment that shares responsibility for 
the healthy development of its children and their families.
    The goal of these community relationships will be three-fold: 
Increasing access to high quality services for program families; 
assuring that the program's approach to serving families with infants 
and toddlers fits into the existing constellation of services in the 
community so that there is a coherent, integrated approach to 
supporting families with very young children; and encouraging systemic 
improvements in service delivery for all the families in a community.
    All programs will be required to conduct an in-depth assessment of 
existing community resources and needs and engage in an ongoing 
collaborative planning process with a range of stakeholders, including 
parents and residents of the community. If the community recently 
conducted such an assessment, the program would be able to use the 
results from that study and then proceed with the collaborative 
planning process.
4. Staff Development
    Programs are only as good as the individuals who staff them. Thus 
staff development will be a key element of Early Head Start programs.
    To ensure the recruitment and development of high quality staff, 
all programs will be required to:
     Select staff who, together, cover the spectrum of skills, 
knowledge and professional competencies necessary to provide high 
quality, comprehensive, inclusive, culturally appropriate, and family-
centered services to young children and their families;
     Select staff who are capable of entering into one-to-one 
caregiving relationships with infants and toddlers, and caring, 
respectful and empowering relationships with families and other 
coworkers;
     Select program directors who possess the above 
characteristics and are highly skilled administrators who exemplify 
leadership qualities such as integrity, warmth, intuition and holistic 
thinking;
     Provide ongoing staff training, supervision and mentoring 
for both line staff and supervisors that reflects an interdisciplinary 
approach and an emphasis on relationship building and employs 
techniques and opportunities for practice, feedback and reflection;
     Provide training so staff are ``cross-trained'' in the 
areas of child development, family development and community building, 
in addition to the areas of home visiting, caregiving 
[[Page 14552]] relationships, effective communication with parents, 
family literacy, healthy/safe environments and caregiving practices, 
early identification of unhealthy behaviors or health problems, service 
coordination, and the provision of services and support to diverse 
populations, including families and children with disabilities and 
developmental delays; and
     Recognize that high quality performance and development 
occur when they are linked to rewards such as salary, compensation, and 
career advancement.
    These cornerstones (explained in more detail) are included in the 
Statement of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with 
Infants and Toddlers which is attached as Appendix C. Applicants who 
become Early Head Start grantees will be expected to build their 
program around these four cornerstones.

Part II. Program Information and Requirements

A. Statutory Authority

    The Head Start Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 9801 et seq.

B. Eligible Applicants

    Those who may apply to become an Early Head Start program include: 
Entities operating Head Start programs and other public entities and 
nonprofit private entities capable of providing community-based child 
and family services that are consistent with recognized best practices 
and other requirements as established by the Secretary. Priority will 
be given to entities with a record of providing early, continuous, and 
comprehensive child and family development services. In awarding grants 
to eligible applicants, the Secretary shall ensure an equitable 
national geographic distribution of the grants and award grants to 
applicants proposing to serve communities in rural areas and to 
applicants proposing to serve communities in urban areas.

C. Eligible Participants

    Persons who may participate in the Early Head Start program include 
pregnant women and families with children under age three who meet the 
income criteria specified for families in the Head Start regulations 
(See Part II, Section G). The report from Congress discussing the 
creation of this program encouraged that participants in programs 
funded through this initiative should be identified while pregnant or 
while their children are infants.
    While Early Head Start programs will be targeted primarily toward 
families who have incomes at or below the poverty line or who are 
eligible for public assistance, regulations permit up to 10 percent of 
children in local programs to be from families which do not meet these 
low-income criteria. Head Start regulations also require that a minimum 
of 10 percent of enrollment opportunities in each program be made 
available to children with disabilities. Such children are expected to 
be enrolled in the full range of services and activities in inclusive 
settings with their non-disabled peers and to receive individualized 
services.
    As a comprehensive family development program, Early Head Start 
will be expected to assess the strengths and needs of the whole family 
and develop strategies for ensuring services are available. For 
example, grantees would be responsible for recognizing the child care 
needs of older siblings (i.e., children in the family age three or 
older) but would not be expected or authorized to pay for such 
services. Instead, the role of Early Head Start would be to work with 
the family and community providers to identify programs where the older 
sibling may be served.

D. Target Populations

    There will be no required target populations other than that 
specified in Part II, Section C. However, applicants may choose to 
focus on special populations such as teen parents or design a program 
linked to welfare reform initiatives if they wish. In future years, the 
ACF may look at programs focusing on these populations for more in-
depth study and evaluation.

E. Project Period, Funding and Project Sizes

    A total of approximately $17 million in ACF funds will be available 
for funding approximately 15-25 new Early Head Start programs in FY 
1995. Applicants will be required to enroll at least 75 families. In 
order to fund as many different projects as possible, the ACF does not 
intend to fund any applicant to serve more than 150 families, unless it 
is the judgment of the selecting official that a higher enrollment 
level will enable the ACF to better meet the stated purposes of Early 
Head Start. Awards, on a competitive basis, will be for a one-year 
budget period, although project periods may be for five-years. 
Applications for continuation grants funded under these awards beyond 
the first one-year budget period but within the five-year project 
period, will be entertained in subsequent years on a non-competitive 
basis, subject to availability of funds, satisfactory progress of the 
grantee and a determination that continued funding would be in the best 
interest of the Government. Continuation funds will be available to 
serve eligible families who were initially enrolled and eligible 
families which replaced starting families who left the program during 
any single year.
    Parent and Child Center Programs and Cohort I of the Comprehensive 
Child Development Programs (Cohort I) are eligible to apply for this 
money according to the terms of this announcement but are not required 
to do so.

    Note: The statute creating Early Head Start allows Cohort II of 
the Comprehensive Child Development Programs (Cohort II) to continue 
in their demonstration phase and receive funding for the duration of 
the project period.

    If they do not choose to apply, they will generally continue to 
receive financial assistance in fiscal years 1995, 1996, and 1997 as 
permitted by section 645A(e) of the Act. When a Parent and Child Center 
Program or Cohort I competes successfully for an Early Head Start 
grant, the current grant will be replaced by the new Early Head Start 
grant. Thus, the grantee's current base funding will be folded into the 
new award and its current project period will be replaced by a new 
Early Head Start project period that extends a full five years. If a 
Parent and Child Center Program or a Cohort I chooses to compete for 
Early Head Start and does not succeed, the Parent and Child Center 
Program or Cohort I will generally continue to receive financial 
assistance through FY 1997 and may recompete to become an Early Head 
Start program as new funds become available in FY 1996, 1997, and 1998. 
Parent and Child Center Programs and Cohort I and Cohort II of the 
Comprehensive Child Development Program are receiving additional 
information about the terms affecting them as a result of this program 
announcement.
    Allowable costs for developing and administering an Early Head 
Start program may not exceed 15 percent of the total approved costs of 
the program. Costs classified as development and administrative costs 
are those costs related to the overall management of the program. 
Additional information pertaining to limitations of costs on 
development and administration of Early Head Start programs can be 
found in Head Start Grants Administration regulation 45 CFR 1301.32, 
Limitations on Costs of Development and [[Page 14553]] Administration 
of a Head Start Program, which is available in the application kit.
    All programs will be thoroughly reviewed at the end of the first 
year to determine their suitability for receiving continued funding. 
Programs will be expected to submit an ongoing operation plan and 
revised budget. Federal staff also may ask for additional material as 
part of the review.
    Given the importance of planning, selecting high quality staff and 
setting in place training mechanisms, and coordinating with other 
programs within the community, we expect that programs will spend some 
portion of the first year focusing on start-up activities. Programs are 
strongly encouraged to begin serving children and families within the 
first year. Programs should plan to be fully operational no later than 
October 1, 1996. Because the first year is unlikely to include 12 
months of full operation, it is assumed that first year budgets will be 
lower than budgets for future years.
    Subject to the availability of additional resources in FY 1996 and 
to the number of acceptable applications received as a result of this 
program announcement, the selecting official may elect to select 
recipients for the FY 1996 cohort of programs out of the pool of 
applications submitted for FY 1995 funds.

F. Required Match

    Grantees that operate Early Head Start programs must provide at 
least 20 percent of the total approved costs of the project. The total 
approved cost of the project is the sum of the ACF share and the non-
Federal share. The non-Federal share may be met by cash or in-kind 
contributions, fairly evaluated, including facilities, equipment or 
volunteer services. Therefore, a project requesting $100,000 in Federal 
funds (based on an award of $125,000 per budget period), must include a 
match of at least $25,000 (20 percent of total project costs). 
Applicants are encouraged to provide more than the minimum 20 percent 
non-Federal share.
    In certain instances, the requirement for a 20 percent non-federal 
match may be waived in part or in whole, if the circumstances described 
in Section 640(b) of the Head Start Act exist. This section states that 
``For the purpose of making such determination, the Secretary shall 
take into consideration with respect to the Head Start program 
involved--(1) the lack of resources available in the community that may 
prevent the Head Start agency from providing all or a portion of the 
non-Federal contribution that may be required under this subsection; 
(2) the impact of the cost the Head Start agency may incur in initial 
years it carries out such program; (3) the impact of an unanticipated 
increase in the cost the Head Start agency may incur to carry out such 
program; (4) whether the Head Start agency is located in a community 
adversely affected by a major disaster; and (5) the impact on the 
community that would result if the Head Start agency ceased to carry 
out such program.''

G. Applicable Head Start Standards

    Agencies that receive funding through this announcement must adhere 
to those standards set forth in certain regulations that govern Head 
Start programs in addition to Department of Health and Human Services 
regulations that govern discretionary grants generally. The relevant 
Head Start regulations are: Head Start Grants Administration, 45 CFR 
part 1301; Head Start Program Performance Standards, 45 CFR part 1304; 
and Eligibility, Recruitment, Selection, Enrollment and Attendance in 
Head Start, 45 CFR part 1305.
    There are a number of specific provisions in the foregoing Head 
Start regulations that relate only to children ages three to five. For 
example, the Head Start Performance Standards, Subpart B--Education 
Services in large part describes services that are to be provided to 
older preschool children and are not appropriate for children under age 
three. As is currently the case for Head Start Parent and Child Center 
programs and Migrant Head Start programs that serve children under 
three years of age, such provisions do not apply to Early Head Start 
programs.
    New Performance Standards for Head Start programs are currently 
being developed. After a period of public comment, this regulation will 
be issued in final form in FY 1996 when agencies selected to become 
Early Head Start programs are beginning to provide services. At that 
time, programs will be expected to comply with the Performance 
Standards, as applicable under the time frames specified in the 
regulation.
    Copies of the current applicable Head Start regulations are 
available in the application kit.

H. Early Head Start as a Learning Community

1. Overview
    On both the local and national level, Early Head Start is 
envisioned as a learning community for how quality services should be 
delivered to pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. 
Thus, continuous improvement, evaluation, research and dissemination 
activities play a critical role in this initiative. These activities 
include, but are not limited to:
     Continuous review and measurement of program processes to 
determine progress toward stated objectives and for the purpose of 
program improvement;
     Studies of program processes including services offered to 
and received by families and descriptions of how the services are 
delivered;
     Qualitative studies of individual families and programs;
     Studies of child, family, program and community variables 
that contribute to program outcomes;
     Studies of program quality and the relationship of quality 
to program outcomes;
     Studies of program variations and their relationship to 
impacts;
     National impact studies, conducted by a national 
contractor;
     Establishment of longitudinal research in a sample of 
Early Head Start national impact study sites; and
     Documentation of the program models and development of 
materials for dissemination purposes.
2. Requirement on the Use of an Automated Information System
    In order to facilitate learning community activities, all Early 
Head Start programs will be required to use an automated information 
system to collect program information on families, services, 
collaborative arrangements, staff, training, services utilization and 
costs. The Head Start Family Information System (HSFIS), which is Head 
Start's new automated record keeping system, is currently being 
modified to accommodate the needs of Early Head Start. The HSFIS 
software and User's Manual will be made available to Early Head Start 
grantees at the time of award and grantees will be responsible for 
coordinating the collection of data for and management of HSFIS.
    As Early Head Start sites will be in the first wave of HSFIS 
implementation in the field, technical assistance for implementation 
issues, including linkages to existing systems, will be provided 
through the ACYF-supervised contractor responsible for implementing 
HSFIS and through mentor sites from the pilot phase of the HSFIS 
project.
3. Continuous Improvement and Formative Evaluation Requirements
    In order to enter fully into the learning community environment on 
both the national and local level, all [[Page 14554]] Early Head Start 
programs will be required to:
     Conduct a local assessment of progress toward stated 
objectives and program improvement using the automated information 
system and other sources of data which will measure progress toward 
stated objectives and contribute to a process of continuous improvement 
within the program and sponsoring agency;
     Provide information from the Early Head Start automated 
information system as requested by a National Contractor;
     Collect qualitative information on the program and on 
individual families;
     Participate in the program variation and quality studies, 
if requested to do so by the ACYF; and
     Document the program model and develop dissemination 
materials.
    All Early Head Start programs are required to have the capacity to 
carry out the activities listed above. Thus, applicants for Early Head 
Start funds will need access to expertise in developing and using 
performance measures, as well as in conducting qualitative evaluation. 
Applicants are strongly encouraged to form partnerships with 
representatives of local universities or other research organizations 
who can assist them in the conduct of formative evaluation and 
continuous improvement activities, and who can become potential 
candidates for the research and impact studies discussed below.
4. Impact Study and Research Site Requirements
    Any Early Head Start program could be required to participate in 
the national impact study and therefore should be prepared to 
participate in random assignment over a specified time period. A 
limited number of funded Early Head Start programs will be selected by 
the ACF as special research sites in FY 1996. Selected sites shall 
fulfill all of the continuous improvement and other evaluation 
requirements listed above, and, in addition:
     Serve as a research site where a university or research 
organization will conduct research on the child, family, program and 
community variables that affect outcomes; and, as such, become eligible 
to participate in the Early Head Start/Head Start longitudinal study.
     Collaborate with the university or research organization 
in the development of relevant research questions and in the design of 
the local study; and/or,
     Serve as a national impact study site and accept 
assignment under either an experimental or quasi-experimental condition 
and/or cooperate with a national contractor and the ACF in establishing 
comparison groups appropriate for answering questions of impact, 
recruitment and/or generalizability.
    The ACF will award approximately $2 million for local research 
activities in FY 1996. Early Head Start programs which are chosen by 
the ACF as impact evaluation and special research sites will be 
required to cooperate in carrying out intensive research and evaluation 
activities (e.g. random assignment of recruited families to comparison 
and program groups). The Request for Proposal for research site 
competition involving original or newly identified research partners, 
will be released in the Fall of 1995. Selection of research sites will 
be based on a combination of factors that may include proposed study 
design, research partner qualifications, location, program composition, 
and projected program readiness for evaluation.

Part III. Application Requirements

    Applicants must address the following requirements in their 
applications for financial assistance. For the convenience of the 
applicants, these requirements have been organized according to the 
evaluation criteria presented in Part IV.

A. Objectives and Need for Assistance

    1. State the objectives for the program and indicate how these 
objectives relate to the four Early Head Start Program Goals (see the 
Summary Section of this Announcement or Appendix C), and demonstrate 
that there is a need for the program that relates to these objectives 
and is based on an assessment of the community (conducted by the 
applicant or resulting from a recent study of the community) and 
consultation with consumers. Provide letters of support for your 
program from community leaders and residents.
    2. Identify the population to be served by the project and explain 
why this population is most in need of the program. Identify the target 
enrollment size (number of families and estimated number of infants and 
toddlers) and provide assurances that the population the program 
intends to recruit and enroll will meet Early Head Start eligibility 
criteria.
    3. Identify the geographic location to be served by the program. 
Describe the key characteristics of the targeted area and explain what 
makes the area an identifiable community or neighborhood. Describe what 
services and resources are/are not currently available in the area 
which serve pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. 
Provide demographic and other information on the target area which 
demonstrates that there are a sufficient number of eligible, unserved 
families in the area to justify the target enrollment size. In 
addition, demonstrate that the program will be able to recruit at least 
twice as many eligible families to be enrolled from the target area 
should the program be selected as a national impact study site and be 
required to establish a randomly assigned comparison group (See Part 
II, Section H, Number 4). Attach relevant maps or other geographic 
aids.

B. Results or Benefits

    1. Identify the specific results or benefits that could be expected 
for families and children participating in the program. Identify the 
specific community-wide results or benefits. Identify the specific 
results or benefits that could be expected for the staff working in the 
Early Head Start program as well as other child development caregivers 
and family development staff working in a variety of relevant community 
agencies.
    2. Identify the kinds of qualitative and quantitative data the 
program will collect to measure progress towards the stated results or 
benefits.
    3. Provide assurances that the program will collect data on groups 
of individuals and geographic areas served, types of services to be 
furnished, service utilization information, types and nature of needs 
identified and met, and such other information as may be required 
periodically by the ACF for purposes of the national evaluation.
    4. Describe how the lessons learned from the program will benefit 
national policy, practice, theory and research.

C. Approach

    1. Describe the method used to undertake the community assessment 
and consumer consultation process that caused the applicant to conclude 
that there is a need for the proposed program as discussed in Part III, 
Section A. An applicant need not conduct an independent assessment of 
the community if such an assessment already exists. In this case, the 
applicant should describe the method of the recently conducted 
assessment and explain any additional consultation with consumers as it 
relates to the development of the proposed program. In addition, all 
applicants must describe the planning the program will do during the 
start-up period to prepare for implementation of the program and 
explain how consumers and other [[Page 14555]] stakeholders in the 
community will be involved in the planning.
    2. Explain the approach to recruiting and enrolling the number and 
type of children and families from the target recruitment area, as 
discussed in Part III, Section A. Discuss any special efforts you will 
make to recruit and enroll pregnant women and families with children 
under age one. Provide assurances that you will carry-out random 
assignment should your program be selected to participate in the 
national impact study.
    3. Describe how the program will ensure that at least 10 percent of 
enrollment and participation opportunities will be made available to 
children with disabilities (as defined by the IDEA Part H Lead Agency 
for the State). Describe the policies and practices the program will 
have in place to assure that a child will not be denied enrollment or 
participation in the program on the basis of a disability or the 
severity of such a condition. Describe how the program will work with 
the Part H local lead agency or, if available, the local Interagency 
Coordinating Council to arrange or provide for special services needed 
by these children and their families. Describe how staff will 
coordinate their efforts with others to ensure children with 
disabilities and their families receive high quality services.
    4. Describe the approach to providing child development services 
and explain the rationale for choosing the approach. Identify and 
describe the specific approaches that will be used for assuring the 
intellectual, social, emotional and physical development of the infants 
and toddlers served. Describe the philosophy, curricula, staffing 
patterns, staff qualifications, types and quality of settings and any 
other relevant information that will comprise the program's model for 
supporting the growth and development of very young children. Clearly 
explain how your model will meet the developmental needs of very young 
children (including children from non-English speaking families).
    5. Explain how the program's child development approach will 
promote parent/guardian-child interaction and support the mother-child 
and/or father-child bond. Also explain how caregiving will be provided 
in ways that support infant and toddler attachment to a limited number 
of skilled and caring individuals.
    6. Describe how high-quality infant and toddler full- and part-day 
child care will be provided to children of parents who are working or 
in training or to children who require out-of-home care due to special 
parental circumstances like substance abuse treatment. Discuss the 
relationship between these resources and the program's overall child 
development approach. Describe the process the program will use to 
determine that child care (provided either directly or through 
referral) will be of high quality. In addition, describe the program's 
approach to building capacity in communities where high quality infant/
toddler child care is lacking.
    7. Describe the program's approach to ensuring the continuation of 
developmentally-appropriate services for children, including those with 
disabilities, and their families once the children reach the age of 
three and the family exits the Early Head Start Program.
    8. Describe the specific approaches for providing, either directly 
or through referral, ongoing well-baby and well-child health services 
such as early and periodic screening, diagnosis, treatment, 
immunizations, nutritional assessment, developmental surveillance and 
anticipatory guidance. In addition, describe the approach for ensuring 
that children are cared for in safe and hygienic environments.
    9. Describe the approach for supporting family growth and 
development and explain the rationale for choosing the approach. 
Explain the framework of and procedures for developing each family's 
individualized plan. Explain how you intend to work with other service 
delivery systems which require a similar plan, such as the Part H 
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP), to ensure that the family 
only need to complete one plan and that one plan can be used by all 
relevant programs to ensure a seamless service delivery system for the 
child and family. Describe how your family development approach will 
assist families and individual family members in identifying, pursuing 
and achieving goals and overcoming obstacles on the way to achieving 
those goals.
    10. Describe how the program will develop relationships with 
parents which promote their involvement with the program. Describe the 
strategy and the opportunities for parent involvement providing 
assurances that it meets or exceeds the parent involvement standards 
described in 45 CFR Part 1304 Instruction I-30, Section B-2, 70.2, the 
Parents. Explain what special efforts the program will make to reach 
out to and involve fathers.
    11. Describe what services the program will provide, either 
directly or through referral, to promote adult and family health and 
wellness. Identify and explain the mental and physical health services 
which will be made available to and accessible by the parents, siblings 
and other significant family members of the infants and toddlers served 
by the program. Describe what the program will do to promote women's 
health and wellness prior to, during and after pregnancy. In addition, 
describe what the program will do to provide access to smoking 
cessation and substance abuse prevention and treatment services for 
affected families.
    12. Describe what services the program will provide, either 
directly or through referral, to promote progress toward economic self-
sufficiency for parents. Describe the program's approach for basic 
literacy training, adult basic education, employability skills training 
and job development and placement services.
    13. Describe what assistance the program will provide, either 
directly or through referral, to families in obtaining needed income 
support, food, and decent, safe housing.
    14. Identify the existing transportation resources available to 
families in reaching services provided at the program site and in off-
site locations. Describe any transportation arrangements the program 
will make to ensure that families and children are able to access 
needed services.
    15. Describe the program's approach to community building and 
explain the rationale for choosing the approach. Describe how the 
program will be coordinated with other programs and services in the 
community which serve pregnant women, infants, toddlers and their 
families and how the program will assist in the development of local 
community capability, expertise and commitment to carry out 
comprehensive service programs built around the needs of pregnant women 
and families with very young children. Describe any barriers to 
collaboration in your community and explain your strategy for 
addressing these. Identify by name specific providers, agencies and 
organizations with which the applicant will coordinate in order to 
carry out the requirements of this project. Applicants should furnish 
formal interagency agreements or contracts (if available) indicating 
which services will be provided to which program participants for what 
periods of time, by each of those provider agencies and/or 
organizations.
    16. Describe linkages that the program will make with the following 
communities during the planning, implementation and operation of the 
program: Health and nutrition (e.g., public health departments and 
other [[Page 14556]] health providers and programs including Title V, 
Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and 
Medicaid prenatal care services and the Medicaid Early and Periodic 
Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment program (EPSDT)); early intervention 
(e.g., Part H local lead agency or, if available, local interagency 
coordinating councils and University Affiliated Programs); mental 
health and substance abuse prevention and treatment; education (e.g., 
local preschool, child care, Head Start, and elementary schools); child 
care resource and referral agencies and their networks; business (e.g., 
the local Private Industry Council); parent groups; and other strength-
building organizations.
    17. Describe the approach to staff selection and explain the 
rationale for choosing the approach. Describe what staffing patterns 
and mix of staff qualifications and language/cultural competencies the 
program will require to ensure that staff, together, cover the spectrum 
of skills, knowledge and professional competencies necessary to provide 
quality, comprehensive, inclusive and family-centered services to young 
children and families. Describe the process the applicant will use to 
identify and select individual staff--from directors to caregivers to 
data management staff--who demonstrate the personal characteristics, 
competencies and skills necessary to provide quality services and 
promote quality relationships with and among children, families, the 
community and other staff. Explain how the program will ensure that all 
infant/toddler caregivers are qualified, with sufficient grounding in 
infant/toddler development and care, and parent/caregiver relations 
prior to working with children and families enrolled in the program.
    18. Describe the approach to staff development and the rationale 
for choosing the approach. Describe the training, technical assistance, 
and supervision that will be provided to ensure continued enhancement 
of staff skills and teamwork. Describe how training and technical 
assistance opportunities will be coordinated with other service 
providers in the community so that Early Head Start both provides and 
benefits from the knowledge, expertise, and training opportunities of 
other relevant community programs and service delivery systems. 
Describe how the program will ensure that staff are knowledgeable about 
the rights of children with disabilities and are capable of providing 
such infants and toddlers with high quality care in a supportive and 
developmentally appropriate environment.
    19. Identify and explain the management and continuous improvement 
plan(s) for implementing the program. Include: An outline of the time 
frames and milestones for all key activities that the program will 
engage in during the first year of operation, as well as a preliminary 
outline of time frames and milestones for key activities in the 
remaining years of the project; a description of the procedures for 
assessment of progress toward stated objectives including how 
collection of data on the results and benefits identified in Part III, 
Section B will contribute to a process of continuous improvement within 
the program and the sponsoring agency; a description of how an 
automated information system will become an integral component in the 
management and continuous improvement of the program; a description of 
how confidentiality of user data will be maintained; a description of 
the applicant's capacity (e.g. facilities, administrative and support 
personnel, etc.) to support the program at the proposed target 
enrollment size; a description of the strategy for reducing staff 
turnover; and a description of how the program will go about 
establishing a Policy Council (as described by Head Start Regulation, 
45 CFR part 1304) and a Health Services Advisory Committee (as 
described by Head Start Regulation, 45 CFR part 1304).

D. Staff Background and Organizational Experience

    1. Describe the applicant's experience in providing comprehensive 
child development and family development services to families with 
infants and toddlers, as well as the applicant's experience in 
collaborating with local, State and Federal partners. Describe the 
applicant's history and relationship with the target community. Include 
a complete discussion of relevant program, administrative and fiscal 
management experience.
    2. If the applicant represents a consortium of partner agencies, 
explain the relevant background of each partner and the partners' 
experience in planning and implementing programs to serve children and 
families. Each partner must provide a letter of commitment which 
authorizes the applicant to apply on behalf of the consortium.
    3. Identify and provide a brief description of key staff who are 
proposed to work in the program and indicate their educational training 
and experience working with similar programs. Provide resumes. Build on 
the answer to Part III, Section C, Number 17 by explaining how these 
particular staff persons comprise a multi-disciplinary team of experts. 
In addition, explain how the ethnic and racial composition and language 
proficiencies of these particular staff persons is reflective of the 
community where the program is located.
    4. Describe the expertise the organization will utilize in 
conducting the formative evaluation and continuous improvement 
activities described in Part II, Section H, Number 3. Describe the 
experience of and provide resumes from the individuals who will assist 
the program with continuous improvement and formative evaluation 
activities.
    5. Provide assurances that the applicant will cooperate with a 
multi-site evaluation contractor and any other contractor the ACF may 
fund to provide management support or technical assistance services to 
Early Head Start programs.

E. Budget Appropriateness

    1. Provide two detailed, line-item budgets: one that accounts for 
all relevant start-up and operating costs to be incurred in the first 
year of the project and one that reflects ongoing operating costs. In 
the proposed budgets, applicants must set aside sufficient funds so 
that 5 staff can travel to Washington, D.C. for two annual meetings to 
be convened by ACYF (i.e., 5 staff  x  2 trips = 10 trips). Each budget 
should include the required non-Federal share of the cost of the 
project (See Part II, Section F).
    2. Describe how these budgets reflect high quality, ongoing 
services provided at a reasonable cost. Include discussions on the 
appropriateness of staff compensation levels and funds set aside to 
promote staff development (programs are encouraged to set aside up to 
10% of the annual budget for staff development purposes), costs 
associated with special equipment needs and the removal of 
architectural barriers for disabled families and children, renovation 
costs associated with providing environments conducive to the high 
quality provision of child and family development services, costs 
associated with family transportation and emergency resource needs, 
etc. Explain what efforts the applicant has made or will make to secure 
other community cash and in-kind resources, besides those shown in the 
budgets, and what additional resources will be used to support the 
provision of Early Head Start services to children and families. 
[[Page 14557]] 

Part IV. Evaluation Criteria

    In considering how applicants will carry out the responsibilities 
addressed under Part III of this announcement, competing applications 
for financial assistance will be reviewed and evaluated against the 
following five criteria. The point values following each criterion 
indicate the numerical weight each criterion will be accorded in the 
review process.

A. Criterion 1. Objectives and Need for Assistance (15 Points)

    The extent to which, based on community assessment information, the 
applicant identifies any relevant physical, economic (e.g., poverty in 
the community), social, financial, institutional, or other issues which 
demonstrate a need for the Early Head Start program; in addition, the 
extent to which the applicant identifies the strengths of the community 
the project will serve. The extent to which the applicant lists 
relevant program objectives that adequately address the strengths and 
needs of the community. The extent to which the applicant describes the 
population to be served by the project and explains why this population 
is most in need of the program. The extent to which the applicant gives 
a precise location and rationale for the project site(s) and area(s) to 
be served by the proposed project.
    Information provided in response to Part III, Section A of this 
announcement will be used to evaluate applicants on this criterion.

B. Criterion 2. Results or Benefits Expected (10 Points)

    The extent to which the applicant identifies the results and 
benefits to be derived from the project and links these to the stated 
objectives. The extent to which the applicant describes the kinds of 
data to be collected and how it will be utilized to measure progress 
towards the stated results or benefits. The extent to which the 
applicant describes how the lessons learned from the program will 
benefit national policy, practice, theory and research.
    Information provided in response to Part III, Section B of this 
announcement will be used to evaluate applicants on this criterion.

C. Criterion 3. Approach (50 Points)

    The extent to which the applicant outlines a workable plan of 
action which relates to the four Early Head Start program cornerstones 
(see Part I, Section F or Appendix C), reflects the nine program 
principles (see Part I, Section E or Appendix C), and details how the 
proposed work will be accomplished. The extent to which the applicant 
explains why the approach chosen makes sense in light of the needs, 
objectives, results and benefits described above. The extent to which 
the approach is grounded in recognized standards and/or guidelines for 
high quality service provision or is defensible from a research or 
``best practices'' standpoint.
    The extent to which the applicant's management plan demonstrates 
sufficient management capacity to implement a high-quality Early Head 
Start program.
    Information provided in Part III, Section C of this announcement 
will be used to evaluate applicants on this criterion.

D. Criterion 4. Staff Background and Organizational Experience (15 
Points)

    The extent to which the proposed program director, proposed key 
project staff, and the organization's experience and history with the 
community demonstrate the ability to effectively and efficiently 
administer a project of this size, complexity and scope. The extent to 
which the organization's (and/or university/research organization 
partner's) experience demonstrates an ability to carry out the 
continuous improvement and qualitative evaluation activities described 
in Part II, Section H, Number 3.
    Information provided in response to Part III, Section D of this 
announcement will be used to evaluate applicants on this criterion.

E. Criterion 5. Budget Appropriateness (10 Points)

    The extent to which the program's costs are reasonable in view of 
the planning and activities to be carried out and the anticipated 
outcomes. The extent to which the salaries and fringe benefits reflect 
the level of compensation appropriate for the responsibilities of 
staff. The extent to which assurances are provided that the applicant 
can and will contribute the non-Federal share of the total project 
cost. The extent to which the program has attempted to and/or succeeded 
in garnering cash or in-kind resources from other sources in the 
community.
    Information provided in response to Part III, Section E of this 
announcement will be used to evaluate applicants on this criterion.

Part V. The Application Process

A. Availability of Forms

    Eligible applicants interested in applying for funds must submit 
all of the required forms included at the end of this program 
announcement in Appendix A.
    In order to be considered for a grant under this Announcement, an 
application must be submitted on the Standard Form 424 which has been 
approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under Control 
Number 0348-0043. A copy has been provided (see Appendix A). Each 
application must be signed by an individual authorized to act for the 
applicant and to assume responsibility for the obligations imposed by 
the terms and conditions of the grant award.
    Applicants requesting financial assistance for a non-construction 
project must file the Standard Form 424B, ``Assurances: Non-
Construction Programs.'' Applicants must sign and return the Standard 
Form 424B with their application.
    Applicants must provide a certification concerning lobbying. Prior 
to receiving an award in excess of $100,000, applicants shall furnish 
an executed copy of the lobbying certification. Applicants must sign 
and return the certification with their application.
    Applicants must make the appropriate certification of their 
compliance with the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. By signing and 
submitting the application, applicants are providing the certification 
and need not mail back the certification with the application.
    Applicants must make the appropriate certification that they are 
not presently debarred, suspended or otherwise ineligible for award. By 
signing and submitting the application, applicants are providing the 
certification and need not mail back the certification with the 
application.
    Applicants must also understand that they will be held accountable 
for the smoking prohibition included within P.L. 103-227, The Pro-
Children's Act of 1994. A copy of the Federal Register notice which 
implements the smoking prohibition is included in the application kit.

B. Application Submission

    Applicants submitting proposals should use the following format 
guidelines: Proposals should be organized according to the evaluation 
criteria located in Part IV of this Federal Register announcement. For 
each of the five specified criteria, applicants should provide 
information in response to the application requirements described in 
Part III of this announcement. These application requirements are 
cross-referenced by number in the last paragraph of each criterion. All 
persons [[Page 14558]] who prepared sections of the proposal should be 
identified along with those sections, as well as identified according 
to their responsibilities with regard to the proposed program.
    One signed original and two copies of the grant application, 
including all attachments, are required. The program announcement 
number (ACYF-HS-93600.952) must be clearly identified on the 
application. Each application must be limited to no more than 125 
double-spaced pages of program narrative (not including the forms which 
make up the SF-424 and resumes) including the one-page project summary. 
If the narrative portion of the application is more than 125 double-
spaced pages, the other pages will be removed from the application and 
not considered by the reviewers. The attachments/appendices to each 
application must be limited to no more than 100 pages. If the 
attachments/appendices to each application are more than 100 pages, the 
other pages will be removed from the application and not considered by 
the reviewers.
    The application must be paginated beginning with the Form 424 and 
also contain a table of contents listing each section of the 
application with the respective pages identified. Only one application 
per applicant will be accepted.

C. Application Consideration

    Applicants will be scored against the evaluation criteria described 
above. The review will be conducted in Washington, DC by a panel 
consisting of experts in the areas of child and family development and 
other related fields.
    To further inform the Associate Commissioner of the Head Start 
Bureau and the Commissioner of ACYF, representatives from the Federal 
government may conduct site visits to programs whose applications fall 
within a certain range of competitive rankings (i.e., all programs 
which have made the ``first cut'', but which the Commissioner of ACYF 
will not approve without additional data). This site visit will take 
place following the competitive review and before the award decision 
for the purpose of obtaining additional information, clarifying 
programmatic strategies and other issues which surfaced in the 
applications, and identifying any problem areas needing to be resolved.
    The results of the competitive review will be taken into 
consideration by the Associate Commissioner, Head Start Bureau, in 
recommending the project to be funded. The Commissioner of ACYF will 
make the final selection of the applicants to be funded. An application 
may be funded in whole or in part, depending on the relative need for 
services, applicant ranking, geographic location and funds available.
    The Commissioner may elect not to provide funding to applicants 
experiencing problems in providing quality services identified either 
through the panel review or the site visit.
    Successful applicants will be notified through the issuance of a 
Financial Assistance Award which sets forth the amount of funds 
granted, the terms and conditions of the grant, the effective date of 
the grant, the budget period for which support is given, and the total 
project period for which support is provided.
    Subject to availability of additional resources in FY 1996 and the 
number of acceptable applications received as a result of this program 
announcement, the Commissioner may elect to select recipients for the 
FY 1996 cohort of programs out of the pool of applications submitted 
for FY 1995 funds.

D. Checklist for a Complete Application

    The checklist below is for your use to ensure that the application 
package has been properly prepared.

--One original, signed and dated application plus two copies.
--The narrative portion of the application does not exceed 125 double-
spaced pages in a 12-pitch font with 1\1/2\ inch margins at the top and 
1 inch at the bottom and both sides.
--Attachments/Appendices to the application do not exceed 100 pages. 
Attachments/appendices should be used only to provide supporting 
documentation such as maps, administration charts, position 
descriptions, resumes, and letters of intent/agreement. Please do not 
include books or video tapes as they are not easily reproduced and are 
therefore inaccessible to the reviewers. Each page should be numbered 
sequentially.
--A complete application consists of the following items in this order:

    (1) Application for Federal Assistance (SF 424, REV.4-88);
    (2) Table of Contents;
    (3) Budget information--Non-Construction Programs (SF 424A&B 
REV.88);
    (4) Budget justification for Section B--Budget Categories, 
including subcontract agency budgets;
    (5) Project Summary (not to exceed one page);
    (6) Application Narrative and Appendices;
    (7) Any non-profit organization submitting an application must 
submit proof of its non-profit status in its application at the time of 
submission. The non-profit agency can accomplish this by providing a 
copy of the applicant's listing in the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) 
most recent list of tax-exempt organizations described in Section 
501(c)(3) of the IRS code or by providing a copy of the currently valid 
IRS tax exemption certificate, or by providing a copy of the articles 
of incorporation bearing the seal of the State in which the corporation 
or association is domiciled.
    (8) Assurances Non-Construction Programs;
    (9) Certification Regarding Lobbying;
    (10) Where appropriate, a completed SPOC certification with the 
date of SPOC contact entered in line 16, page 1 of the SF 424, REV.4-
88).

E. Due Date for the Receipt of Applications

    Deadlines: Applications shall be considered as meeting an announced 
deadline if they are received on or before the deadline date at the 
address or receipt point specified in this program announcement. 
Applicants are responsible for mailing applications well in advance, 
when using all mail services, to ensure that the applications are 
received on or before the deadline date. (Applicants are cautioned that 
postmarks will not be considered as a methodology for meeting the 
deadline.)
    Late applications: Applications which do not meet the criteria 
above are considered late applications. ACF shall notify each late 
applicant that its application will not be considered in the current 
competition.
    Extension of deadlines: ACF may extend the deadline for all 
applicants because of acts of God such as floods, hurricanes, etc., or 
when there is a widespread disruption of the mails. However, if ACF 
does not extend the deadline for all applicants, it may not waive or 
extend the deadline for any applicants.

F. Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980

    Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Public Law 96-511, the 
Department is required to submit to OMB for review and approval any 
reporting and record keeping requirements in regulations, including 
program announcements. This program announcement does not contain 
information collection requirements beyond those approved for ACF grant 
applications under OMB Control Number 0348-0043. [[Page 14559]] 

G. Executive Order 12372--Notification Process

    This program is covered under Executive Order 12372, 
``Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs,'' and 45 CFR part 100, 
``Intergovernmental Review of Department of Health and Human Services 
Programs and Activities.'' Under the Order, States may design their own 
processes for reviewing and commenting on proposed Federal assistance 
under covered programs.
    All States and territories except Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, 
Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Montana, 
Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, 
Washington, American Samoa, and Palau have elected to participate in 
the Executive Order process and have established Single Points of 
Contact (SPOCs). Applicants from these nineteen jurisdictions areas 
need not take action regarding Executive Order 12372.
    Applications for projects to be administered by Federally-
recognized Indian Tribes are also exempt from the requirements of 
Executive Order 12372. Otherwise, applicants should contact their SPOC 
as soon as possible to alert them to the prospective application and to 
receive any necessary instructions. Applicants must submit any required 
material to the SPOC as early as possible so that the program office 
can obtain and review SPOC comments as part of the award process. It is 
imperative that the applicant submit all required materials, if any, to 
the SPOC and indicate the date of this submittal (or date of contact if 
no submittal is required) on the Standard Form 424, item 16a.
    Under 45 CFR 100.8(a)(2), a SPOC has 60 days from the application 
deadline to comment on proposed new or competing continuation awards.
    SPOCs are encouraged to eliminate the submission of routine 
endorsements as official recommendations.
    Additionally, SPOCs are requested to clearly differentiate between 
mere advisory comments and those official State process recommendations 
which may trigger the ``accommodate or explain'' rule.
    When comments are submitted directly to the ACF, they should be 
addressed to: Department of Health and Human Services, Administration 
for Children and Families, OFM/DDG 6th Floor East, 370 L'Enfant 
Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20447.
    A list of Single Points of Contact for each State and territory is 
included as Appendix B of this announcement.

H. Closing Date

    The closing date for submission of applications is May 31, 1995.

(Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Number 93.600, 
Project Head Start)

    Dated: March 10, 1995.
Olivia A. Golden,
Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families.

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BILLING CODE 4184-01-C
[[Page 14561]]

Instructions for the SF 424

    This is a standard form used by applicants as a required 
facesheet for preapplications and applications submitted for Federal 
assistance. It will be used by Federal agencies to obtain applicant 
certification that States which have established a review and 
comment procedure in response to Executive Order 12372 and have 
selected the program to be included in their process, have been 
given an opportunity to review the applicant's submission.
    Item and Entry:
    1. Self-explanatory.
    2. Date application submitted to Federal agency (or State if 
applicable) & applicant's control number (if applicable).
    3. State use only (if applicable).
    4. If this application is to continue or revise an existing 
award, enter present Federal identifier number. If for a new 
project, leave blank.
    5. Legal name of applicant, name of primary organizational unit 
which will undertake the assistance activity, complete address of 
the applicant, and name and telephone number of the person to 
contact on matters related to this application.
    6. Enter Employer Identification Number (EIN) as assigned by the 
Internal Revenue Service.
    7. Enter the appropriate letter in the space provided.
    8. Check appropriate box and enter appropriate letter(s) in the 
space(s) provided:

--``New'' means a new assistance award.
--``Continuation'' means an extension for an additional funding/budget 
period for a project with a projected completion date.
--``Revision'' means any change in the Federal Government's financial 
obligation or contingent liability from an existing obligation.
    9. Name of Federal agency from which assistance is being 
requested with this application.
    10. Use the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance number and 
title of the program under which assistance is requested.
    11. Enter a brief descriptive title of the project. If more than 
one program is involved, you should append an explanation on a 
separate sheet. If appropriate (e.g., construction or real property 
projects), attach a map showing project location. For 
preapplications, use a separate sheet to provide a summary 
description of this project.
    12. List only the largest political entities affected (e.g., 
State, counties, cities).
    13. Self-explanatory.
    14. List the applicant's Congressional District and any 
District(s) affected by the program or project.
    15. Amount requested or to be contributed during the first 
funding/budget period by each contributor. Value of in-kind 
contributions should be included on appropriate lines as applicable. 
If the action will result in a dollar change to an existing award, 
indicate only the amount of the change. For decreases, enclose the 
amounts in parentheses. If both basic and supplemental amounts are 
included, show breakdown on an attached sheet. For multiple program 
funding, use totals and show breakdown using same categories as item 
15.
    16. Applicants should contact the State Single Point of Contact 
(SPOC) for Federal Executive Order 12372 to determine whether the 
application is subject to the State intergovernmental review 
process.
    17. This question applies to the applicant organization, not the 
person who signs as the authorized representative. Categories of 
debt include delinquent audit disallowances, loans and taxes.
    18. To be signed by the authorized representative of the 
applicant. A copy of the governing body's authorization for you to 
sign this application as official representative must be on file in 
the applicant's office. (Certain Federal agencies may require that 
this authorization be submitted as part of the application.)

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BILLING CODE 4184-01-C
[[Page 14564]]

Instructions for the SF-424A

General Instructions

    This form is designed so that application can be made for funds 
from one or more grant programs. In preparing the budget, adhere to 
any existing Federal grantor agency guidelines which prescribe how 
and whether budgeted amounts should be separately shown for 
different functions or activities within the program. For some 
programs, grantor agencies may require budgets to be separately 
shown by function or activity. For other programs, grantor agencies 
may require a breakdown by function or activity. Sections A, B, C, 
and D should include budget estimates for the whole project except 
when applying for assistance which requires Federal authorization in 
annual or other funding period increments. In the latter case, 
Sections A, B, C, and D should provide the budget for the first 
budget period (usually a year) and Section E should present the need 
for Federal assistance in the subsequent budget periods. All 
applications should contain a breakdown by the object class 
categories shown in Lines a-k of Section B.

Section A. Budget Summary

Lines 1-4, Columns (a) and (b)

    For applications pertaining to a single Federal grant program 
(Federal Domestic Assistance Catalog number) and not requiring a 
functional or activity breakdown, enter or Line 1 under Column (a) 
the catalog program title and the catalog number in Column (b).
    For applications pertaining to a single program requiring budget 
amounts by multiple functions or activities, enter the name of each 
activity or function on each line in Column (a), and enter the 
catalog number in Column (b). For applications pertaining to 
multiple programs where none of the programs require a breakdown by 
function or activity, enter the catalog program title on each line 
in Column (a) and the respective catalog number on each line in 
Column (b).
    For applications pertaining to multiple programs where one or 
more programs require a breakdown by function or activity, prepare a 
separate sheet for each program requiring the breakdown. Additional 
sheets should be used when one form does not provide adequate space 
for all breakdown of data required. However, when more than one 
sheet is used, the first page should provide the summary totals by 
programs.

Lines 1-4, Columns (c) Through (g.)

    For new applications, leave Columns (c) and (d) blank. For each 
line entry in Columns (a) and (b), enter in Columns (e), (f), and 
(g) the appropriate amounts of funds needed to support the project 
for the first funding period (usually a year).
    For continuing grant program applications, submit these forms 
before the end of each funding period as required by the grantor 
agency. Enter in Columns (c) and (d) the estimated amounts of funds 
which will remain unobligated at the end of the grant funding period 
only if the Federal grantor agency instructions provide for this. 
Otherwise, leave these columns blank. Enter in columns (e) and (f) 
the amounts of funds needed for the upcoming period. The amount(s) 
in Column (g) should be the sum of amounts in Columns (e) and (f).
    For supplemental grants and changes to existing grants, do not 
use Columns (c) and (d). Enter in Column (e) the amount of the 
increase or decrease of Federal funds and enter in Column (f) the 
amount of the increase or decrease of non-Federal funds. In Column 
(g) enter the new total budgeted amount (Federal and non-Federal) 
which includes the total previous authorized budgeted amounts plus 
or minus, as appropriate, the amounts shown in Columns (e) and (f). 
The amount(s) in Column (g) should not equal the sum of amounts in 
Columns (e) and (f).
    Line 5--Show the totals for all columns used.

Section B. Budget Categories

    In the column headings (1) through (4), enter the titles of the 
same programs, functions, and activities shown on Lines 1-4, Column 
(a), Section A. When additional sheets are prepared for Section A, 
provide similar column headings on each sheet. For each program, 
function or activity, fill in the total requirements for funds (both 
Federal and non-Federal) by object class categories.
    Lines 6a-i--Show the totals of Lines 6a to 6h in each column.
    Line 6j--Show the amount of indirect cost.
    Line 6k--Enter the total of amounts on Lines 6i and 6j. For all 
applications for new grants and continuation grants the total amount 
in column (5), Line 6k, should be the same as the total amount shown 
in Section A, Column (g), Line 5. For supplemental grants and 
changes to grants, the total amount of increase or decrease as shown 
in Columns (1)-(4), Line 6k should be the same as the sum of the 
amounts in Section A, Columns (e) and (f) on Line 5.
    Line 7--Enter the estimated amount of income, if any, expected 
to be generated from this project. Do not add or subtract this 
amount from the total project amount. Show under the program 
narrative statement the nature and source of income. The estimated 
amount of program income may be considered by the federal grantor 
agency in determining the total amount of the grant.

Section C. Non-Federal-Resources

    Line 8-11--Enter amounts of non-Federal resources that will be 
used on the grant. If in-kind contributions are included, provide a 
brief explanation on a separate sheet.
    Column (a)--Enter the program titles identical to Column (a), 
Section A. A breakdown by function or activity is not necessary.
    Column (b)--Enter the contribution to be made by the applicant.
    Column (c)--Enter the amount of the State's cash and in-kind 
contribution if the applicant is not a State or State agency. 
Applicants which are a State or State agencies should leave this 
column blank.
    Column (d)--Enter the amount of cash and in-kind contributions 
to be made from all other sources.
    Column (e)--Enter totals of Columns (b), (c), and (d).
    Line 12--Enter the total for each of Columns (b)-(e). The amount 
in Column (e) should be equal to the amount on Line 5, Column (f), 
Section A.

Section D. Forecasted Cash Needs

    Line 13--Enter the amount of cash needed by quarter from the 
grantor agency during the first year.
    Line 14--Enter the amount of cash from all other sources needed 
by quarter during the first year.
    Line 15--Enter the totals of amounts on Lines 13 and 14.

Section E. Budget Estimates of Federal Funds Needed for Balance of the 
Project

    Lines 16-19--Enter in Column (a) the same grant program titles 
shown in Column (a), Section A. A breakdown by function or activity 
is not necessary. For new applications and continuation grant 
applications, enter in the proper columns amounts of Federal funds 
which will be needed to complete the program or project over the 
succeeding funding periods (usually in years). This section need not 
be completed for revisions (amendments, changes, or supplements) to 
funds for the current year of existing grants.
    If more than four lines are needed to list the program titles, 
submit additional schedules as necessary.
    Line 20--Enter the total for each of the Columns (b)-(e). When 
additional schedules are prepared for this Section, annotate 
accordingly and show the overall totals on this line.

Section F. Other Budget Information

    Line 21--Use this space to explain amounts for individual direct 
object-class cost categories that may appear to be out of the 
ordinary or to explain the details as required by the Federal 
grantor agency.
    Line 22--Enter the type of indirect rate (provisional, 
predetermined, final or fixed) that will be in effect during the 
funding period, the estimated amount of the base to which the rate 
is applied, and the total indirect expense.
    Line 23--Provide any other explanations or comments deemed 
necessary.

ASSURANCES--NON-CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMS

    Note: Certain of these assurances may not be applicable to your 
project or program. If you have questions, please contact the 
awarding agency. Further, certain Federal awarding agencies may 
require applicants to certify to additional assurances. If such is 
the case, your will be notified.

    As the duly authorized representative of the applicant I certify 
that the applicant:
    1. Has the legal authority to apply for Federal assistance, and 
the institutional, managerial and financial capability (including 
funds sufficient to pay the non-Federal share of project costs) to 
ensure proper planning, management and completion of the project 
described in this application.
    2. Will give the awarding agency, the Comptroller General of the 
United States, and if appropriate, the State, through any authorized 
representative, access to and the right to examine all records, 
books, papers, or documents related to the award; and will 
[[Page 14565]] establish a proper accounting system in accordance 
with generally accepted accounting standards or agency directives.
    3. Will establish safeguards to prohibit employees from using 
their positions for a purpose that constitutes or presents the 
appearance of personal or organizational conflict of interest, or 
personal gain.
    4. Will initiate and complete the work within the applicable 
time frame after receipt of approval of the awarding agency.
    5. Will comply with the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 
(42 U.S.C. Secs. 4728-4763) relating to prescribed standards for 
merit systems for programs funded under one of the nineteen statutes 
or regulations specified in Appendix A of OPM's Standards for a 
Merit System of Personnel Administration (5 CFR 900, Subpart F).
    6. Will comply with all Federal statutes relating to 
nondiscrimination. These include but are not limited to: (a) Title 
VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-352) which prohibits 
discrimination on the basis of race, color or national origin; (b) 
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended (20 U.S.C. 
Secs. 1681-1683, and 1685-1686), which prohibits discrimination on 
the basis of sex; (c) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 
as amended (29 U.S.C. Sec. 794), which prohibits discrimination on 
the basis of handicaps; (d) the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as 
amended (42 U.S.C. Secs. 6101-6107), which prohibits discrimination 
on the basis of age;
    (e) the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-
255), as amended, relating to nondiscrimination on the basis of drug 
abuse; (f) the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 
Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-616), 
as amended, relating to nondiscrimination on the basis of alcohol 
abuse or alcoholism; (g) Secs. 523 and 527 of the Public Health 
Service Act of 1912 (42 U.S.C. 290 dd-3 and 290 ee-3), as amended, 
relating to confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient 
records; (h) Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 
Sec. 3601 et seq.), as amended, relating to nondiscrimination in the 
sale, rental or financing of housing; (i) any other 
nondiscrimination provisions in the specific statute(s) under which 
application for Federal assistance is being made; and (j) the 
requirements of any other nondiscrimination statute(s) which may 
apply to the application.
    7. Will comply, or has already complied, with the requirements 
of Titles II and III of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real 
Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-646) which 
provide for fair and equitable treatment of persons displaced or 
whose property is acquired as a result of Federal or federally 
assisted programs. These requirements apply to all interests in real 
property acquired for project purposes regardless of Federal 
participation in purchases.
    8. Will comply with the provisions of the Hatch Act (5 U.S.C. 
Secs. 1501-1508 and 7324-7328) which limit the political activities 
of employees whose principal employment activities are funded in 
whole or in part with Federal funds.
    9. Will comply, as applicable, with the provisions of the Davis-
Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. Secs. 276a to 276a-7), the Copeland Act (40 
U.S.C. Sec. 276c and 18 U.S.C. Secs. 874), and the Contract Work 
Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. Secs. 327-333), regarding 
labor standards for federally assisted construction subagreements.
    10. Will comply, if applicable, with flood insurance purchase 
requirements of Section 102(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act 
of 1973 (P.L. 93-234) which requires recipients in a special flood 
hazard area to participate in the program and to purchase flood 
insurance if the total cost of insurable construction and 
acquisition is $10,000 or more.
    11. Will comply with environmental standards which may be 
prescribed pursuant to the following: (a) institution of 
environmental quality control measures under the National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (P.L. 91-190) and Executive Order 
(EO) 11514; (b) notification of violating facilities pursuant to EO 
11738; (c) protection of wetlands pursuant to EO 11990; (d) 
evaluation of flood hazards in floodplains in accordance with EO 
11988; (e) assurance of project consistency with the approved State 
management program developed under the Coastal Zone Management Act 
of 1972 (16 U.S.C. Secs. 1451 et seq.); (f) conformity of Federal 
actions to State (Clear Air) Implementation Plans under Section 
176(c) of the Clear Air Act of 1955, as amended (42 U.S.C. Sec. 7401 
et seq.); (g) protection of underground sources of drinking water 
under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, as amended, (P.L. 93-
523); and (h) protection of endangered species under the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, as amended, (P.L. 93-205).
    12. Will comply with the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (16 
U.S.C. Secs. 1271 et seq.) related to protecting components or 
potential components of the national wild and scenic rivers system.
    13. Will assist the awarding agency in assuring compliance with 
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as 
amended (16 U.S.C. 470), EO 11593 (identification and protection of 
historic properties), and the Archaeological and Historic 
Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 469a-1 et seq.).
    14. Will comply with P.L. 93-348 regarding the protection of 
human subjects involved in research, development, and related 
activities supported by this award of assistance.
    15. Will comply with the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 
(P.L. 89-544, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) pertaining to the 
care, handling, and treatment of warm blooded animals held for 
research, teaching, or other activities supported by this award of 
assistance.
    16. Will comply with the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention 
Act (42 U.S.C. Secs. 4801 et seq.) which prohibits the use of lead 
based paint in construction or rehabilitation of residence 
structures.
    17. Will cause to be performed the required financial and 
compliance audits in accordance with the Single Audit Act of 1984.
    18. Will comply with all applicable requirements of all other 
Federal laws, executive orders, regulations and policies governing 
this program.

Signature of Authorized Certifying Official
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Title
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Applicant Organization
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Date Submitted
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BILLING CODE 4184-01-C
[[Page 14568]]

Certification Regarding Debarment, Suspension, and Other 
Responsibility Matters--Primary Covered Transactions

    By signing and submitting this proposal, the applicant, defined as 
the primary participant in accordance with 45 CFR Part 76, certifies to 
the best of its knowledge and belief that it and its principals:
    (a) Are not presently debarred, suspended, proposed for debarment, 
declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from covered transactions 
by any Federal department or agency;
    (b) Have not within a 3-year period preceding this proposal been 
convicted of or had a civil judgment rendered against them for 
commission of fraud or a criminal offense in connection with obtaining, 
attempting to obtain, or performing a public (Federal, State, or local) 
transaction or contract under a public transaction; violation of 
Federal or State antitrust statutes or commission of embezzlement, 
theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, 
making false statements, or receiving stolen property:
    (c) Are not presently indicted or otherwise criminally or civilly 
charged by a governmental entity (Federal, State or local) with 
commission of any of the offenses enumerated in paragraph (1)(b) of 
this certification; and
    (d) Have not within a 3-year period preceding this application/
proposal had one or more public transactions (Federal, State, or local) 
terminated for cause or default.
    The inability of a person to provide the certification required 
above will not necessarily result in denial of participation in this 
covered transaction. If necessary, the prospective participant shall 
submit an explanation of why it cannot provide the certification. The 
certification or explanation will be considered in connection with the 
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) determination whether to 
enter into this transaction. However, a failure of the prospective 
primary participant to furnish a certification or an explanation shall 
disqualify such person from participation in this transaction.
    The prospective primary participant agrees that by submitting this 
proposal, it will include the clause entitled ``Certification Regarding 
Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility, and Voluntary Exclusion--Lower 
Tier Covered Transaction'' provided below without modification in all 
lower tier covered transactions and in all solicitations for lower tier 
covered transactions.

Certification Regarding Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility and 
Voluntary Exclusion--Lower Tier Covered Transactions

(To Be Supplied to Lower Tier Participants)
    By signing and submitting this lower tier proposal, the prospective 
lower tier participant, as defined in 45 CFR Part 76, certifies to the 
best of its knowledge and belief that it and its principals:
    (a) Are not presently debarred, suspended, proposed for debarment, 
declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from participation in this 
transaction by any Federal department or agency.
    (b) Where the prospective lower tier participant is unable to 
certify to any of the above, such prospective participant shall attach 
an explanation to this proposal.
    The prospective lower tier participant further agrees by submitting 
this proposal that it will include this clause entitled ``Certification 
Regarding Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility, and Voluntary 
Exclusion--Lower Tier Covered Transactions.'' without modification in 
all lower tier covered transactions and in all solicitations for lower 
tier covered transactions.

Certification Regarding Lobbying

Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements

    The undersigned certifies, to the best of his or her knowledge and 
belief, that:
    (1) No Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid, 
by or on behalf of the undersigned, to any person for influencing or 
attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member 
of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a 
Member of Congress in connection with the awarding of any Federal 
contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of any Federal 
loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement, and the 
extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any 
Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.
    (2) If any funds other than Federal appropriated funds have been 
paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to 
influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, 
an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of 
Congress in connection with this Federal contract, grant, loan or 
cooperative agreement, the undersigned shall complete and submit 
Standard Form-LLL, ``Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,'' in 
accordance with its instructions.
    (3) The undersigned shall require that the language of this 
certification be included in the award documents for all subawards at 
all tiers (including subcontracts, subgrants, and contracts under 
grants, loans, and cooperative agreements) and that all subrecipients 
shall certify and disclose accordingly.
    This certification is a material representation of fact upon which 
reliance was placed when this transaction was made or entered into. 
Submission of this certification is a prerequisite for making or 
entering into this transaction imposed by section 1352, title 31, U.S. 
Code. Any person who fails to file the required certification shall be 
subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than 
$100,000 for each such failure.

State for Loan Guarantee and Loan Insurance

    The undersigned states, to the best of his or her knowledge and 
belief, that:
    If any funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for 
influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any 
agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an 
employee of a Member of Congress in connection with this commitment 
providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, the 
undersigned shall complete and submit Standard Form-LLL ``Disclosure 
Form to Report Lobbying,'' in accordance with its instructions.
    Submission of this statement is a prerequisite for making or 
entering into this transaction imposed by section 1352, title 31, U.S. 
Code. Any person who fails to file the required statement shall be 
subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than 
$100,000 for each such failure.
Signature
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Title
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Organization
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Date
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BILLING CODE 4184-01-C
[[Page 14570]]

Certification Regarding Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Public Law 103-227, Part C--Environmental Tobacco Smoke, also known 
as the Pro-Children Act of 1994 (Act), requires that smoking not be 
permitted in any portion of any indoor facility owned or leased or 
contracted for by an entity and used routinely or regularly for the 
provision of health, day care, education, or library services to 
children under the age of 18, if the services are funded by Federal 
programs either directly or through State or local governments, by 
Federal grant, contract, loan, or loan guarantee. The law does not 
apply to children's services provided in private residences, facilities 
funded solely by Medicare or Medicaid funds, and portions of facilities 
used for inpatient drug or alcohol treatment. Failure to comply with 
the provisions of the law may result in the imposition of a civil 
monetary penalty of up to $1000 per day and/or the imposition of an 
administrative compliance order on the responsible entity.
    By signing and submitting this application the applicant/grantee 
certifies that it will comply with the requirements of the Act. The 
applicant/grantee further agrees that it will require the language of 
this certification be included in any subawards which contain 
provisions for children's services and that all subgrantees shall 
certify accordingly.

Appendix B

Executive Order 12372--State Single Points of Contact

Arizona

Mrs. Janice Dunn, ATTN: Arizona State Clearinghouse, 3800 N. Central 
Avenue, 14th Floor, Phoenix, Arizona 85012, Telephone (602) 280-1315

Arkansas

Tracie L. Copeland, Manager, State Clearinghouse, Office of 
Intergovernmental Services, Department of Finance and 
Administration, PO Box 3278, Little Rock, Arkansas 72203, Telephone 
(501) 682-1074

California

Glenn Stober, Grants Coordinator, Office of Planning and Research, 
1400 Tenth Street, Sacramento, California 95814, Telephone (916) 
323-7480

Delaware

Ms. Francine Booth, State Single Point of Contact, Executive 
Department, Thomas Collins Building, Dover, Delaware 19903, 
Telephone (302) 736-3326

District of Columbia

Rodney T. Hallman, State Single Point of Contact, Office of Grants 
Management and Development, 717 14th Street NW., Suite 500, 
Washington, DC 20005, Telephone (202) 727-6551

Florida

Florida State Clearinghouse, Intergovernmental Affairs Policy Unit, 
Executive Office of the Governor, Office of Planning and Budgeting, 
The Capitol, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0001, Telephone (904) 488-
8441

Georgia

Mr. Charles H. Badger, Administrator, Georgia State Clearinghouse, 
254 Washington Street SW, Atlanta, Georgia 30334, Telephone (404) 
656-3855

Illinois

Steve Klokkenga, State Single Point of Contact, Office of the 
Governor, 107 Stratton Building, Springfield, Illinois 62706, 
Telephone (217) 782-1671

Indiana

Jean S. Blackwell, Budget Director, State Budget Agency, 212 State 
House, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204, Telephone (317) 232-5610

Iowa

Mr. Steven R. McCann, Division of Community Progress, Iowa 
Department of Economic Development, 200 East Grand Avenue, Des 
Moines, Iowa 50309, Telephone (515) 281-3725

Kentucky

Ronald W. Cook, Office of the Governor, Department of Local 
Government, 1024 Capitol Center Drive, Frankfort, Kentucky 40601, 
Telephone (502) 564-2382

Maine

Ms. Joyce Benson, State Planning Office, State House Station #38, 
Augusta, Maine 04333, Telephone (207) 289-3261

Maryland

Ms. Mary Abrams, Chief, Maryland State Clearinghouse, Department of 
State Planning, 301 West Preston Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-
2365, Telephone (301) 225-4490

Massachusetts

Karen Arone, State Clearinghouse, Executive Office of Communities 
and Development, 100 Cambridge Street, room 1803, Boston, 
Massachusetts 02202, Telephone (617) 727-7001

Michigan

Richard S. Pastula, Director, Michigan Department of Commerce, 
Lansing, Michigan 48909, Telephone (517) 373-7356

Mississippi

Ms. Cathy Mallette, Clearinghouse Officer, Office of Federal Grant 
Management and Reporting, 301 West Pearl Street, Jackson, 
Mississippi 39203, Telephone (601) 960-2174

Missouri

Ms. Lois Pohl, Federal Assistance Clearinghouse, Office of 
Administration, P.O. Box 809, room 430, Truman Building, Jefferson 
City, Missouri 65102, Telephone (314) 751-4834

Nevada

Department of Administration, State Clearinghouse, Capitol Complex, 
Carson City, Nevada 89710, Telephone (702) 687-4065, Attention: Ron 
Sparks, Clearinghouse Coordinator

New Hampshire

Mr. Jeffrey H. Taylor, Director, New Hampshire Office of State 
Planning, Attn: Intergovernmental Review, Process/James E. Bieber, 
2\1/2\ Beacon Street, Concord, New Hampshire 03301, Telephone (603) 
271-2155

New Jersey

Gregory W. Adkins, Acting Director, Division of Community Resources, 
N.J. Department of Community Affairs, Trenton, New Jersey 08625-
0803, Telephone (609) 292-6613

Please direct correspondence and questions to: Andrew J. Jaskolka, 
State Review Process, Division of Community Resources, CN 814, room 
609, Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0803, Telephone (609) 292-9025

New Mexico

George Elliott, Deputy Director, State Budget Division, room 190, 
Bataan Memorial Building, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87503, Telephone 
(505) 827-3640, FAX (505) 827-3006

New York

New York State Clearinghouse, Division of the Budget, State Capitol, 
Albany, New York 12224, Telephone (518) 474-1605

North Carolina

Mrs. Chrys Baggett, Director, Office of the Secretary of Admin., 
N.C. State Clearinghouse, 116 W. Jones Street, Raleigh, North 
Carolina 27603-8003, Telephone (919) 733-7232

North Dakota

N.D. Single Point of Contact, Office of Intergovernmental 
Assistance, Office of Management and Budget, 600 East Boulevard 
Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58505-0170, Telephone (701) 224-2094

Ohio

Larry Weaver, State Single Point of Contact, State/Federal Funds 
Coordinator, State Clearinghouse, Office of Budget and Management, 
30 East Broad Street, 34th Floor, Columbus, Ohio 43266-0411, 
Telephone (614) 466-0698

Rhode Island

Mr. Daniel W. Varin, Associate Director, Statewide Planning Program, 
Department of Administration, Division of Planning, 265 Melrose 
Street, Providence, Rhode Island 02907, Telephone (401) 277-2656

Please direct correspondence and questions to: Review Coordinator, 
Office of Strategic Planning.

South Carolina

Omeagia Burgess, State Single Point of Contact, Grant Services, 
Office of the Governor, 1205 Pendleton Street, room 477, Columbia, 
South Carolina 29201, Telephone (803) 734-0494 [[Page 14571]] 

Tennessee

Mr. Charles Brown, State Single Point of Contact, State Planning 
Office, 500 Charlotte Avenue, 309 John Sevier Building, Nashville, 
Tennessee 37219, Telephone (615) 741-1676

Texas

Mr. Thomas Adams, Governor's Office of Budget and Planning, P.O. Box 
12428, Austin, Texas 78711, Telephone (512) 463-1778

Utah

Utah State Clearinghouse, Office of Planning and Budget, ATTN: 
Carolyn Wright, room 116 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114, 
Telephone (801) 538-1535

Vermont

Mr. Bernard D. Johnson, Assistant Director, Office of Policy 
Research & Coordination, Pavilion Office Building, 109 State Street, 
Montpelier, Vermont 05602, Telephone (802) 828-3326

West Virginia

Mr. Fred Cutlip, Director, Community Development Division, West 
Virginia Development Office, Building #6, room 553, Charleston, West 
Virginia 25305, Telephone (304) 348-4010

Wisconsin

Mr. William C. Carey, Federal/State Relations, Wisconsin Department 
of Administration, 101 South Webster Street, P.O. Box 7864, Madison, 
Wisconsin 53707, Telephone (608) 266-0267

Wyoming

Sheryl Jeffries, State Single Point of Contact, Herschler Building, 
4th floor, East Wing, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002, Telephone (307) 777-
7574

Guam

Mr. Michael J. Reidy, Director, Bureau of Budget and Management 
Research, Office of the Governor, P.O. Box 2950, Agana, Guam 96910, 
Telephone (671) 472-2285

Northern Mariana Islands

State Single Point of Contact, Planning and Budget Office, Office of 
the Governor, Saipan, CM, Northern Mariana Islands 96950

Puerto Rico

Norma Burgos/Jose H. Caro, Chairman/Director, Puerto Rico Planning 
Board, Minillas Government Center, P.O. Box 41119, San Juan, Puerto 
Rico 00940-9985, Telephone (809) 727-4444

Virgin Islands

Jose L. George, Director, Office of Management and Budget, #41 
Norregade Emancipation Garden Station, Second Floor, Saint Thomas, 
Virgin Islands 00802

    Please direct correspondence to: Linda Clarke, Telephone (809) 774-
0750.

Appendix C--The Statement of the Advisory Committee on Services for 
Families With Infants and Toddlers

Table of Contents

Overview
Background, Vision, and Goals
Research Rationale
Program Principles
Program Cornerstones
Federal Commitment
Conclusion
References

Overview

    All children from birth to age three need early child development 
experiences that honor their unique characteristics and provide love, 
warmth, and positive learning experiences; and all families need 
encouragement and support from their community so they can achieve 
their own goals and provide a safe and nurturing environment for their 
very young children. This recognition is guiding the design of the new 
Early Head Start program.
    Early Head Start marks a turning point in America's commitment to 
our youngest children and their families. By focusing on child 
development, family development, community building, and staff 
development a new era of support to very young children and their 
families is born, building on the experiences and lessons learned from 
existing Head Start programs.
    Early Head Start puts resources into a constellation of high 
quality supports and services that will promote healthy child and 
family development, and backs them with a Federal commitment to 
training, standards and monitoring for high quality, research and 
evaluation, and services coordination at the national level. It enables 
families and communities to design flexible and responsive programs but 
requires that, at a minimum, programs provide child development, family 
support, health services for young children and pregnant women, and 
home visits to families with newborns. This would include child care 
services that respond to the needs of families. When services are 
provided through referral, it requires that the Early Head Start 
program assures the services to which families are referred are of 
highest quality, available and accessible, and that needed followup 
occurs. And although service delivery mechanisms may vary, a common 
characteristic will be that each Early Head Start program will 
establish a place which is recognized as a source of support for very 
young children, families, and caregiving staff. Programs will be 
encouraged to give this Early Head Start place visibility and identity.
    With this design, the Early Head Start program will be suited to 
last well into the next century, always reshaping itself to provide 
high quality, responsive, and respectful services to America's youngest 
children and their families.

Background, Vision, and Goals

    The reauthorization of the Head Start Act in 1994 made it possible 
to formally open a new chapter of Federal support for families with 
infants and toddlers by establishing a special initiative within the 
context of the Head Start program. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1995, the 
Secretary of Health and Human Services will award grants to Early Head 
Start programs which will provide early, continuous, intensive, and 
comprehensive child development and family support services to low-
income families with children under age three. This initiative will 
bring together under one umbrella Head Start's existing programs for 
families with infants and toddlers, the Comprehensive Child Development 
Program and the Parent and Child Centers; strengthen the Migrant Head 
Start Program; and add new resources to model high quality child 
development and family development services for very young children and 
their families.
    To help with the design of the new initiative, the Secretary formed 
the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and 
Toddlers. The Committee was charged with advising the Secretary and 
Assistant Secretary for Children and Families on the development of 
program approaches for the initiative that would address the parenting 
and child development needs of low-income parents and their infants and 
toddlers. We were to pay particular attention to the key principles and 
array of models of effective culturally and developmentally appropriate 
service delivery. To fulfill this commitment, we met three times during 
the summer of 1994 to engage in discussions about our vision for a 
national approach to high quality, responsive services for very young 
children and their families. We outlined the Federal role for carrying 
forth this vision, ensuring such programs can flourish.
    We are excited about the fruits of these deliberative efforts and 
confident that the resulting initiative will advance Head Start 
leadership in realizing a national vision of communities where:
     children, from birth, receive support through their 
family and their community to achieve optimal growth and development 
and build a foundation of security, self-confidence, [[Page 14572]] and 
character strength which will in turn enable them to build successful 
social relationships for learning and continued development through 
later childhood and adulthood;
     families receive support to meet their personal goals, 
and resources and guidance to prepare for their child's birth and 
provide a warm, caring, responsive environment for their very young 
child;
     communities embrace and support all families, 
celebrating the birth of their children and creating an environment 
where support and resources are mobilized to ensure a comprehensive, 
integrated array of services are available and accessible for all very 
young children and their families; and
     staff receive the professional education and personal 
support they need to provide high quality environments and experiences 
and engage in responsive relationships that promote the healthy 
development of infants, toddlers, and their families.
    In keeping with this vision, the goals set forth by the Advisory 
Committee for Early Head Start will be:
     To provide safe and developmentally enriching 
caregiving and environments which promote the physical, cognitive, 
social and emotional growth of infants and toddlers and prepare them 
for future growth and development;
     To support parents, both mothers and fathers, in their 
role as primary caregivers and educators of their children, and 
families in meeting personal goals and achieving self-sufficiency 
across a wide variety of domains;
     To mobilize communities to provide the resources and 
environment necessary to ensure a comprehensive, integrated array of 
services and support for families, and to foster the systems change 
necessary to summon forth the guiding vision of this initiative; and
     To ensure the provision of high quality responsive 
services to families with infants and toddlers through the development 
of highly-trained, caring and adequately compensated program staff.
    The Advisory Committee recognizes that the vision and goals 
outlined above have also been shaped by the lessons learned from the 
Comprehensive Child Development Program, Parent and Child Centers, 
Migrant Head Start Programs, locally designed Head Start programs, and 
other early child development and family support efforts serving 
families with very young children. As part of the overall consultation 
for the development of this initiative, Federal staff conducted over 30 
focus groups with parents, practitioners, researchers, advocates, and 
representatives of professional organizations. Focus groups were 
designed to address topical areas such as child care, family services, 
health care, support and services for children with disabilities and 
their families, community mobilization, parent involvement and parent 
advocacy. In addition, Federal staff met with or received materials and 
recommendations from a number of other experts and practitioners in the 
field. The suggestions, guidance, and information received through this 
process have been invaluable to both the Advisory Committee and the 
Administration on Children, Youth and Families.

Research Rationale

    Findings from more than three decades of research in child and 
family development support the vision and goals set forth for support 
to families with infants and toddlers. We know that the time from 
conception to age three is a critical period of human development, as 
change occurs more rapidly than in any other period of the life span. 
Growth in these early years establishes the basic foundation for future 
development. For infants and toddlers to develop optimally, they must 
have healthy beginnings and the continuity of responsive and caring 
relationships. Together, these supports help promote optimal cognitive, 
social, emotional, physical, and language development. When these 
supports are missing, the immediate and future development of the child 
may be compromised. Fortunately, recent research identifies 
characteristics of effective programs that enhance both child and 
family development. This growing body of knowledge provides a solid 
base upon which the Early Head Start program can be founded.

Maternal and Infant Health

    Maternal and infant health are essential for ensuring normal pre- 
and post-natal development of very young children. Late or inadequate 
prenatal care, malnutrition, stress and exposure to harmful substances 
are associated with shortened gestation, reduced birthweight, birth 
defects and underdeveloped brain growth (Osofsky, 1975; U.S. Department 
of Health and Human Services, 1989; Carnegie Corporation, 1994). These, 
in turn, have been associated with higher probabilities for infant 
mortality, illness, disabilities, child abuse, difficulty in 
relationships (Glasgow and Overall, 1979) and subsequent learning 
disorders (Drillien, Thomson and Bargoyne, 1980). During the early 
years of life, proper nutrition, routine well-child health care, timely 
immunizations, safe environments and health-promoting behaviors are 
necessary to support physical growth and development.
    Given the paramount importance of health for very young children, a 
major focus of the Early Head Start program must be to ensure women 
receive the health services needed to promote a healthy pregnancy and 
birth, and very young children receive early and ongoing well-baby 
care, immunizations, and other essential health services to support 
their development.

Child-Caregiver Relationships

    The child-caregiver relationships with the mother, father, 
grandparent and other caregivers are critical for providing infants and 
toddlers support, engagement, continuity and emotional nourishment 
necessary for healthy development, and the development of healthy 
attachments (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall, 1978). Within the 
context of caregiving relationships, the infant builds a sense of what 
is expected, what feels right in the world, as well as skills and 
incentives for social turn-taking, reciprocity and cooperation (Emde, 
Biringen, Clyman and Oppenheim, 1991; Isabella and Belsky, 1991). The 
infant's activities are nourished and channeled in appropriate ways so 
as to encourage a sense of initiative and self-directedness. During the 
toddler period, the child, through repeated interactions with 
emotionally-available caregivers, also begins to learn basic skills of 
self-control, emotional regulation and negotiation (Kochanska, 1991; 
Kopp, 1989; Suess, Grossman and Sroufe, 1992). Empathy for others and 
prosocial tendencies for caring and helping also develop during 
toddlerhood as well as the emotions of pride and shame; experiencing 
and learning about these capacities require responsive caregiving 
relationships in the midst of life's inevitable stresses and challenges 
(Zahn-Waxler and Radke-Yarrow, 1990).
    A sense of pleasure, interest in exploration, early imaginative 
capacities, and the sharing of positive emotions also begin in 
infancy--all of which require repeated and consistent caregiver 
relationship experiences and form a basis for social competence that 
carries through toddlerhood and the preschool period (Emde, 1989; Dix, 
1991). The opportunities for play for both infant and caregiver, as 
well as the skills that develop from play, are often under-appreciated 
aspects of healthy development (Bruner, 1986; Elicker, Englund and 
Sroufe, 1992). [[Page 14573]] 
    Finally, the importance of promoting a network of healthy 
caregiving relationships for the very young child cannot be overstated 
(Crockenberg, 1981; Egeland, Jacobvitz and Sroufe, 1988; Sameroff and 
Emde, 1989; Tronick, Winn and Morelli, 1985). The network of caring 
relationships provides an ever-expanding circle of support for both 
child and family. Factors that undermine optimal child-caregiver 
relationships include isolation, lack of support and maternal 
depression (Crnic, Greenberg, Robinson and Ragozin, 1984), the latter 
reported to be as high as 56% in some samples of low-income new mothers 
(Hall, Gurley, Sachs and Kryscio, 1991). In child care settings, high 
staff turnover, low staff wages, low quality programming and lack of 
adequate staff training for substitute caregivers negatively affects 
the quality of child-caregiver relationships (Zigler and Lang, 1991; 
Whitebook, Howes and Phillips, 1989). This in turn further compromises 
the nature and quality of the child's overall development.
    Thus, it follows that a major focus for Early Head Start services 
should be the development of healthy and skillful relationship building 
between very young children and their parents and caregivers that 
encourages interactions and promotes attention and activity in infants. 
Hence, opportunities for sustained relationship-building over extended 
periods of times will be an explicit goal throughout the program.

Characteristics of Successful Programs Serving Families with Infants 
and Toddlers

    The goal of many early child development programs is to enable the 
child, with the support of the parents as primary caregivers and other 
caregivers, to establish a developmental path that will prepare him or 
her for long-term success. Hundreds of programs with a variety of 
specific emphases have sought to achieve this goal. From these many 
interventions, a picture of the critical ingredients for successful 
programs has emerged. In short, we know effective programs often are 
characterized by: early prenatal services to the expectant woman (Olds, 
Henderson, Tatelbaum and Chamberlin, 1986); a two-generational focus 
(Zuckerman and Brazelton, 1994; Administration on Children, Youth and 
Families, 1994; Ramey and Campbell, 1984; Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov, Liaw, 
Spiker, 1993); family-centered services that address self-sufficiency 
through the provision of social services and parent education (Booth, 
Barnard, Mitchell and Spieker, 1987; Olds, Henderson, Tatebaum and 
Chamberlin, 1986; Olds, Henderson, Tatebaum and Chamberlin, 1988); 
quality child development services that are coupled with family 
services (Lally, Mangione and Honig, 1987; Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov, Liaw 
and Spiker, 1993); continuity of service delivery for the child and 
family that ensures the availability of support over a number of years 
with smooth transitions to other service delivery systems (Campbell and 
Ramey, 1994); continuity of caregivers (Howes and Hamilton, 1992); 
intensity of service delivery in terms of availability, accessibility, 
and usage of services (Booth, Barnard, Mitchell and Spieker, 1987; 
Ramey, Bryant, Wasik, Sparling, Fendt and LaVange, 1992); and 
consolidation or integration of service delivery systems. Further, 
research tells us that communities have been found to become more 
responsive to the needs of low-income families as a result of program 
activities (Kirschner, 1970).
    Clearly, research over the past three decades has shown that when 
programs focus on both child development and family development through 
early, high quality, comprehensive, continuous, intensive services, 
opportunities for optimal child and family development can be realized, 
even for the most vulnerable families and very young children. The 
challenge for the Administration on Children, Youth and Families and 
the programs which will receive funds through this initiative is to 
translate these research findings into the design and operation of high 
quality programs so all families with young children served by Early 
Head Start will be able to grow and prosper. The following principles 
and cornerstones establish the framework for this to occur.

Program Principles

    In recognition that each child is an individual who is supported by 
a family and that families are supported by neighborhoods and 
communities, the Advisory Committee recommends that programs funded 
under the new initiative be encouraged to develop a range of strategies 
for supporting the growth of the very young child within the family and 
the growth of the family within the community. Thus, each Early Head 
Start program should be family-centered and community-based. We 
recommend that the following principles serve as the conceptual 
foundation for Early Head Start:
     High Quality: Commitment to excellence will enable the 
new programs to be models for services to families with infants and 
toddlers from all socioeconomic strata of society. High quality will be 
assured in the direct services provided, and in the services provided 
through referral. To this end, each program will acknowledge and 
utilize the bodies of knowledge, skills and professional ethics 
surrounding the fields of child development, family development and 
community building. In particular, programs will recognize that the 
conception-to-three age period is unique in both the rate of 
development and in the way young children's physical and mental growth 
reflects and absorbs experiences with caregivers and the surroundings. 
Thus, high quality caregiving practices will spring from the healthy 
awareness that the unique nature of infant and toddler development not 
only carries with it major opportunities for intervention, but also 
leaves children especially vulnerable to negative inputs. The Federal 
government will share in the commitment to high quality by providing 
thorough and ongoing monitoring to assure program adherence to 
performance standards; technical assistance that addresses each 
program's individual needs and amplifies innovation and development 
across all programs; evaluation which measures program success against 
meaningful outcomes for young children and families; and research which 
contributes to the state of the art on child development, family 
development and community building.
     Prevention and promotion: Recognizing that windows of 
opportunity open and close quickly for families and young children, 
programs will seek and pursue opportunities to play a positive role in 
promoting the physical, social, emotional, cognitive and language 
development of young children and families before conception, 
prenatally, upon birth, and during the early years. By supporting the 
promotion of their health and well-being, program staff will be able to 
prevent and detect problems at their earliest stages, rallying the 
services needed to help the child and family anticipate and overcome 
problems before they interfere with healthy development. While early 
and proactive promotion of healthy development and healthy behaviors 
will be emphasized, programs will also need to be able to understand 
and respond to family crises that may occur while the family is 
enrolled in the program.
     Positive Relationships and Continuity: The success of 
each program will rest on its ability to support and enhance strong, 
caring, continuous relationships which nurture the child, parents, 
family, and caregiving staff. Programs will support the mother-child, 
father-child bond by recognizing each [[Page 14574]] parent as his or 
her child's first and primary source of love, nurturance and guidance. 
Caregiving will be provided to families who need it in ways that 
support infant and toddler attachment to a limited number of skilled 
and caring individuals, thus maintaining relationships with caregivers 
over time and avoiding the trauma of loss experienced with frequent 
turnover of key people in the child's life. These relationships will 
aim to respectfully enhance child interest, curiosity, play and 
imagination, which, in turn, will develop a shared sense of trust, 
confidence and esteem for both caregiver and child. In addition, 
programs will model strong, mutually respectful relationships between 
staff and families, among staff, and with other community organizations 
and service providers. To do so, programs will be receptive to 
individual strengths, perspectives and contributions; affirm the value 
of the child and family's home culture; and support an environment 
where very young children, parents and staff can teach and learn from 
each other.
     Parent Involvement: As in all Head Start efforts, a 
hallmark of the new initiative will be the creation and sustenance of 
an environment that supports the highest level of partnership with 
parents, both mothers and fathers. As such, programs will support 
parents as primary nurturers, educators, and advocates for their 
children; assure that each parent has an opportunity for an experience 
that supports his or her own growth and goals, including that of 
parenting; and provide a policy- and decision-making role for parents.
Furthermore, opportunities for parent involvement will encourage 
independence and self-sufficiency for parents. Special efforts will be 
made to welcome and support fathers as parenting partners.
     Inclusion: Program will seek to build communities that 
respect each child and adult as an individual while at the same time 
reinforcing a sense of belonging to the group. Programs will support 
participation in community life by young children with disabilities and 
their families; families of very young children with significant 
disabilities will be fully included in all program services.
     Culture: Children and their families will come to the 
new programs rooted in a culture which gives them meaning and 
direction. Programs will demonstrate an understanding of, respect for, 
and responsiveness to the home culture and home language of every 
child, thus affirming the values of each family's culture and providing 
the context for healthy identity development in the early years of 
life. Program staff will become aware of their own core beliefs and 
values and be attuned to the role culture and language play in child 
development, family development and the surrounding community values 
and attitudes. Programs will pursue opportunities to support home 
culture and language, while also recognizing the significance of a 
common culture shared by all. In building a more harmonious and 
peaceful community for children to grow in and for families to share, 
programs will encourage and provide opportunities for families and 
community members to engage in dialogue about culture, language, 
cultural diversity and multiculturalism.
     Comprehensiveness, Flexibility, Responsiveness, and 
Intensity: Programs will honor and build upon the unique strengths and 
abilities of the children, families and communities they serve and 
continually adapt to meet emerging needs. Developmental opportunities 
provided to each infant and toddler will address the whole child and be 
continually adapted to keep pace with his or her developmental growth. 
And just as programs need to be responsive and attentive to the special 
needs of very young children with disabilities, they also need to be 
responsive to parents with disabilities. Family development planning 
and service provision will be grounded in the belief that families, 
including those whose problems seem overwhelming, can identify their 
own goals, strengths and needs, and are capable of growth and change. 
Once these are identified, program resources of varied intensity will 
be marshaled to support the whole family in an individualized and 
responsive manner. Barriers which prevent families from accessing 
needed supports will be overcome through the location, coordination, 
and assurance by program staff that services are provided and received. 
Attention will also be given to ensure programs meet the needs and 
schedules of working parents. Ultimately, each parent's sense of 
empowerment and ability to identify and address his or her family's 
needs will be fostered by responsive and caring relationships with 
program staff.
     Transition: Programs will be responsible for ensuring 
the smooth transition of children and their families into Head Start or 
other preschool programs which are of high quality and provide 
consistent and responsive caregiving. The Federal government must 
support both Early Head Start and Head Start programs in carrying out 
this responsibility. Transition is important for ensuring continued 
accessibility to enriching early child development experiences and for 
providing ongoing family support services that promote healthy family 
development. To facilitate this transition, parents and caregivers 
should jointly develop a family and child transition plan, identifying 
services which will continue and new services and programs which will 
be accessed. Caregivers from both Early Head Start and the new service 
programs will share responsibility for coordinating and implementing 
the plan.
     Collaboration: Recognizing that no one program will be 
able to meet all of a child's and family's needs, programs will 
initiate or become embedded in an integrated community system of 
service providers and strength building organizations such as churches 
and other religious institutions, schools and civic groups. These 
efforts will foster a caring, comprehensive and integrated community-
wide response to families with young children, thus maximizing scarce 
financial resources and avoiding duplication of agency effort. 
Likewise, the Federal Government will promote systems change and the 
efficient use of resources through the active pursuit of local, State 
and Federal partnerships which enhance the capacity of local programs 
to collaborate and combine financial resources.

Program Cornerstones

    The principles outlined above establish the foundation for Early 
Head Start, a program that meets child development, family development, 
and health related goals while striving to provide high quality, 
comprehensive, and individualized support and services. In order to 
accomplish this, the Advisory Committee recommends that the Secretary 
of Health and Human Services adopt these key elements as the four 
cornerstones for Early Head Start: child development, family 
development, community building, and staff development.

Child Development

    Programs will seek to enhance and advance each child's development 
by providing individualized support that honors the unique 
characteristics and pace of infant/toddler physical, social, emotional, 
cognitive and language development, including early education and 
health care. Critical to this development is the promotion of positive 
parent-child interactions and the enhancement of each parent's 
knowledge about the development of their child within healthy, safe 
environments. An early step for [[Page 14575]] providing this support 
to parents will be the provision of home visits to families with 
newborns to offer early encouragement and support and build bridges for 
families to other resources in the community. Also critical to the 
child's development is access to and delivery of comprehensive health 
and mental health services for children, including regular child health 
care; screening for health problems such as hearing, anemia, lead 
poisoning, metabolic problems; immunizations; nutritional assessment; 
developmental surveillance and anticipatory guidance. All children 
deserve a medical home that provides these and other prevention and 
treatment services. To help facilitate this, Early Head Start programs 
will collaborate with a variety of organizations and disciplines to 
ensure health supervision for children and their families.
    It is particularly important that Early Head Start ensure 
coordination and continuity of services for infants and toddlers with 
or at risk of a disability, who are eligible for services through Early 
Head Start and Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
Act. These two service systems should be coordinated and integrated so 
that families and their children experience a seamless system of 
services, as identified in their family development plan or 
individualized service plan.
    As programs provide child development services, they must ensure 
that infants and toddlers who need child care receive high quality 
part- and full-day services. Such child care can be provided directly 
or in collaboration with other community providers as long as the Early 
Head Start program assumes responsibility for ensuring that all 
settings meet the Early Head Start performance standards.
    In general, the setting where these services are delivered is left 
to local option and the preferences of families as identified through 
their individual family development plan. Settings can represent a 
range of options including home visiting; family support centers; 
family child care homes; child care centers; centers where families are 
engaged in education, training, or employment; community health 
centers; and others.

Family Development

    Programs must recognize that the key to optimal child development 
and family development is the empowerment of parents in goal setting 
for themselves and their children. Therefore, families and staff will 
collaboratively design and update individualized family development 
plans which ensure that service delivery strategies are rooted in the 
foundation principles and are responsive to the goals and ideals of the 
families. When families are served by additional programs which also 
require an individualized family service plan, such as Part H of the 
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and family employability 
plans, then a single coordinated plan should be developed so families 
experience a seamless system of services. Based on the plan, programs 
will ensure the provision of a full range of family services which 
consider the different support and educational opportunities needed by 
new parents, pregnant women and expectant fathers, and potential 
parents, as well as by siblings and extended family members who 
influence the development of the family and very young child.
    It is particularly important that parental health is linked to 
children's health and development. As such, health services for parents 
need to be included as part of a two-generational model of health care. 
Health services must be accessible for parents with a special emphasis 
on women's health that occurs prior to, during, and after pregnancy.
    Services which programs must provide directly or through referral, 
and which local Early Head Start programs must actively ensure are of 
high quality and appropriately followed up include: child development 
information; health services, including services for women prior to, 
during, and after pregnancy; mental health services; services to 
improve health behavior such as smoking cessation and substance abuse 
treatment; services to adults to support self-sufficiency, including 
adult education and basic literacy skills, job training, assistance in 
obtaining income support, food, and decent, safe housing, and emergency 
cash or in-kind assistance; and transportation to program services. 
Programs must provide direct opportunities for parent involvement in 
the program so that parents can be involved as decisionmakers, 
volunteers, and/or employees. Additional services not listed above, but 
identified by families through community needs assessments and 
mappings, may be provided either directly or through referral at local 
option.

Community Building

    The commitment of programs to high quality care for very young 
children and their families serves as a catalyst for creating a 
community environment that shares responsibility for the healthy 
development of its children. A program approach that exemplifies 
openness and caring is the start of community building. Programs should 
function in communities in a way that mirrors the principles that are 
the foundation of the program itself: parents become a vital resources 
for each other and the community at large; staff nurture networks of 
support; and programs develop relationships of trust with other 
community institutions, businesses, and with community leaders. By 
becoming a key actor in the life of the community, programs can serve 
to mobilize community resources and energies on behalf of children and 
families.
    Essential to community building is ensuring a comprehensive network 
of services and supports for very young children and their families 
which are culturally responsive. Programs will be expected to establish 
collaborative relationships with other community providers and 
strength-building organizations such as churches and other religious 
institutions, schools and civic groups. The goal of these relationships 
will be threefold: increased access to high quality services for 
program families; assurance that the program's approach to serving 
families with infants and toddlers fits into the existing constellation 
of services in the community so that there is a coherent, integrated 
approach to supporting families with very young children; and systems 
change which will spark community caring and responsive service 
delivery for all the families with young children who live there. Thus, 
all programs will be required to conduct an in-depth assessment of 
existing community resources and needs and engage in an ongoing 
collaborative planning process with a range of stakeholders, including 
parents and residents of the community.

Staff Development

    Programs are only as good as the individuals who staff them. This 
is particularly true of programs which serve young children, since the 
potential to do harm during the vulnerable years of infancy and 
toddlerhood is so great. Thus, staff development has been included as a 
key element in order to underscore its centrality to the success of the 
initiative.
    Programs will be required to select staff who, together, cover the 
spectrum of skills, knowledge and professional competencies necessary 
to provide high quality, comprehensive, culturally appropriate, and 
family-centered services to young children and families. Equally 
critical will be each program's ability to recognize individuals 
capable [[Page 14576]] of entering into one-to-one caregiving 
relationships with infants and toddlers which support the positive 
formation of their identities. Likewise, programs will need to identify 
the capacity of potential staff members to develop caring, respectful 
and empowering relationships with families and other coworkers. Such 
individuals will demonstrate characteristics such as high self-esteem, 
personal strength, and the capacity for being emotionally available. 
The program directors who make these selections will, themselves, need 
to possess these characteristics in addition to being highly skilled 
administrators who exemplify leadership qualities such as integrity, 
warmth, intuition and holistic thinking.
    Ongoing staff training, supervision and mentoring of both line 
staff and supervisors will be an integral part of staff development. 
Such training, supervision, and mentoring will reflect an 
interdisciplinary approach and emphasis on relationship building. Staff 
training programs will ensure that staff are ``cross-trained'' in the 
areas of child development, family development and community building. 
Particular emphasis will be placed on building skills in the areas of 
home visiting; caregiving relationships; effective communication with 
parents; family literacy; healthy/safe environments and caregiving 
practices; early identification of unhealthy behaviors or health 
problems; service coordination; and the provision of services and 
support to diverse populations, including families and children with 
disabilities and developmental delays. In addition, training efforts 
and supervision will be designed to develop each staff person's 
capacity to function as a member of a well-integrated, diverse and 
mutually supportive team comprised of families and other staff. To this 
end, training and supervision will support opportunities for practice, 
feedback and reflection. Another strategy for training is the 
development of multi-disciplinary teams of caregivers who can engage in 
team teaching, sharing concerns and problems, exploring different 
approaches, and learning practical skills for working with participants 
of the program and service providers from other relevant delivery 
systems. As such, training will model and reinforce the foundation 
principles of this initiative.
    And finally, staff selection, training and supervision will be 
grounded in the knowledge that high quality performance and development 
occurs when they are linked to rewards such as salary, compensation, 
and career advancement; provided in environments that spark curiosity, 
excitement and openness to new ideas; and grounded in best practices 
revealed by ongoing research, evaluation and monitoring.

Federal Commitment

    Both individual programs and the Federal government must work hand 
in hand to realize the vision, principles, and program concept outlined 
above the Early Head Start program. The Advisory Committee believes 
that a Federal commitment to training, monitoring, research and 
evaluation, and partnership building which respects and supports local 
program responsibility, initiative, and flexibility is paramount for 
the programs' success. In addition, Federal commitment is also needed 
to support and learn from existing Federal programs serving families 
with infants and toddlers so that they will have the opportunity to 
achieve excellence and meet the standards that will be set forth for 
this initiative. With this commitment, we feel the initiative for 
families with infants and toddlers will be able to serve as a national 
laboratory both testing and exemplifying quality child development and 
family development programs.

Training

    Clearly the quality of programs is contingent upon the ongoing 
support and development of program staff who are trained in the various 
disciplines which support the principles of family-centered services. 
As described earlier, program staff need to be able to facilitate both 
the development of very young children and the development of families. 
But in too many communities, staff who can play this dual role are few 
or nonexistent.
    The Advisory Committee urges the Secretary to engage in public-
private partnerships aimed at establishing a cadre of highly trained 
practitioners and trainers who will be able to support the development 
of very young children and their families. Such an effort should extend 
beyond the scope of the new initiative for families with infants and 
toddlers, so that children cared for in a variety of settings will 
benefit from this commitment to enhancing the quality and quantity of 
caregivers. An example of such a partnership would be a commitment on 
the part of the Federal government to work with institutions of higher 
learning to ensure multi-disciplinary pre-service education and field 
work experience is available for students who wish to work in family-
focused programs serving very young children and their families. 
Another example would be partnering with the foundation or 
philanthropic community to develop scholarship programs for low-income 
students desiring but unable to enter the field. A further example is 
coordinating with organizations of professional trainers to ensure they 
have the skills, resources and supports needed to work with programs 
providing early, continuous, intensive and comprehensive services and 
support to very young children and their families.
    When designing the specific training and technical assistance plan 
for Early Head Start, the Federal government must focus on the whole 
spectrum of support and services that are needed for developing and 
advancing high quality staff, from pre-service and in-service training 
to supervision and monitoring. These supports and services must be 
provided in a continuous, holistic, responsive manner with the goal of 
building and nurturing the highest quality caregiving in all programs.
    In addition to the focus on training, the Federal government also 
needs to take the lead in modeling a commitment to and respect for the 
importance of the caregiving profession. Given this, the Advisory 
Committee urges the Secretary to implement the Early Head Start program 
so that it models appropriate competencies, institutionalization of 
career ladders for staff working within the programs, and provision of 
staff salaries that are comparable to the importance of the job.

Monitoring

    All programs need support and guidance to engage in continuous 
improvement. As directed by the legislation, the Secretary of the 
Department of Health and Human Services must provide this support and 
guidance through ongoing monitoring of the operation of these programs, 
evaluating their effectiveness, and providing training and technical 
assistance tailored to the particular needs of such programs.
    The Advisory Committee reminds the Secretary that performance 
standards must be developed and issued in order to set forth the 
expectation of high quality services and environments for programs 
serving families with infants and toddlers. It is recommended that 
there be consistency in the principles and framework of the Early Head 
Start and Head Start performance standards, with the goal being a 
seamless approach to Federal performance standards for children from 
birth to age five. While the goal should be a seamless approach, 
clearly the content of the standards will vary to reflect the 
differences in development of children during this age span. Once these 
are issued, monitoring [[Page 14577]] should become a tool for both 
measuring progress toward these high quality standards and for engaging 
in continuous improvement.

Research and Evaluation

    Evaluation of Early Head Start is essential for determining the 
effectiveness of the initiative and for advancing our understanding 
about which services work best for different families under different 
circumstances. Evaluation data and information collected at the local 
level as part of management information systems and ethnographic 
research are helpful to provide ongoing feedback to programs and 
support staff in packaging and delivering a comprehensive array of 
services which are responsive to and reflective of the individual needs 
of very young children and their families.
    The Advisory Committee believes that the Secretary must approach 
evaluation not just as a mechanism for producing summary statistics and 
reports about the changes in child and family development as a result 
of these new efforts, but as a tool for individual programs so that 
they can continuously refine their practices based on feedback from 
their own program evaluation. This feedback is essential to identify 
the particular conditions and activities that enable parents and other 
caregivers to most successfully support children's development. It is 
also essential to test and refine as appropriate the quality of 
planning, training, staff selection, supervision and program management 
that is crucial to program success. These lessons learned will benefit 
local Early Head Start programs, add new knowledge to the fields of 
child and family development, and will help shape future efforts at the 
Federal level for very young children and their families.
    In keeping with the Head Start national laboratory role, we 
encourage research that examines variations in Early Head Start 
experiences on child development to learn more about the effectiveness 
of different interventions for very young children and their families. 
Accordingly, we encourage the testing of new models which might focus 
on linkages between this initiative and welfare reform, special 
coordination with Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education 
Act, or efforts to support teen parents who are either in school or 
training. Equally important will be research that identifies features 
of intervention which optimize relationship building, and research that 
examines variations in caregiving experiences as they influence child 
development.
    We also recommend that research and evaluation for this initiative 
be part of an overall research agenda for Head Start which places Head 
Start in the broader context of research on young children, families, 
and communities; ensures a commitment to ongoing themes; and has the 
flexibility to respond to new and emerging developments in the broader 
early childhood and family development fields.

Partnership Building

    Just as local programs will be required to coordinate services in 
the State and community to ensure a comprehensive array of services, 
the Federal government must also build partnerships across programs, 
agencies and departments to facilitate effective integration and 
coordination of resources and services.
    The Advisory Committee points out that it is especially important 
that the Head Start Bureau work with the U.S. Maternal and Child Health 
Bureau and the Medicaid program to enhance the availability of and 
access to comprehensive health services for pregnant women, and very 
young children and their families. The Advisory Committee particularly 
recommends Federal leadership in the development of services that are 
scarce in communities, such as mental health services that meet the 
needs of families with infants and toddlers. It is equally important 
that linkages be made with the U.S. Department of Education, Office of 
Special Education and Rehabilitative Services and the Federal 
Interagency Coordination Council so that there is a clear message from 
the Federal government about the importance of partnership around early 
intervention at the Federal, State and community levels, especially 
between this initiative and Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities 
Education Act. The formation of a single Federal Interagency 
Coordination Council to address services for families with infants and 
toddlers who are served by Head Start and/or by Part H is recommended. 
Further, the Head Start Bureau is advised to develop partnerships with 
the National Institute of Child Health and Development and the National 
Institute of Mental Health so that programmatic and research activities 
can be coordinated and the results benefit and influence the work of 
all institutions.
    Beyond coordination and partnership building among the many 
programs, agencies, and departments of the Federal government, the 
Advisory Committee advises the Head Start Bureau to continue 
consultation with professional organizations from relevant child and 
family development disciplines. Such consultation will help staff of 
the Head Start Bureau learn about emerging knowledge and apply this to 
the planning, implementation, and evaluation of this and other 
programs.
    Finally, it is equally important that the Head Start Bureau re-
evaluate its own regulations and procedures to support local creativity 
and responsiveness to the needs of very young children and their 
families. As a first step, the Advisory Committee recommends that the 
Secretary explore opportunities for Early Head Start programs to 
combine these resources with other public and private funding sources 
in order to serve more very young children and their families who might 
benefit from Early Head Start services and support. This is especially 
important as many Advisory Committee members feel that all children 
within a very low income community should be afforded access to these 
services. By allowing and encouraging Early Head Start communities to 
partner with other funding streams, it may be possible in some 
communities to provide access to most or all families with very young 
children.

Funding

    All of the above issues--from the principles to the program concept 
and Federal commitments--are moot when there are not adequate resources 
to develop and sustain high quality in each program. Advisory Committee 
members see the role of Early Head Start as a national laboratory and 
catalyst for change. The members point out that a Federal commitment is 
needed to ensure that resources are available in the short- and long-
term to support the provision of high quality, well-integrated 
services.

Conclusion

    Early Head Start represents a new era of support for America's 
youngest children and their families. It sets forth a vision that 
honors the unique strengths of very young children, their families and 
communities, and the staff who work with them. It calls for programs to 
provide family-centered and community-based services and supports that 
are individualized, of highest quality, and that promote positive 
health and development. And it commands significant attention at the 
Federal level for training, technical assistance, monitoring, and 
research and evaluation to ensure these programs can 
flourish. [[Page 14578]] 
    The members of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with 
Infants and Toddlers are proud to set forth this vision and 
implementation design for Early Head Start. We call on the Secretary 
and the nation to move ahead rapidly with a series of steps to make 
this vision a reality. So much is at stake for our youngest children 
and their families.

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[FR Doc. 95-6545 Filed 3-16-95; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4184-01-M