[Federal Register Volume 66, Number 210 (Tuesday, October 30, 2001)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 54807-54832]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 01-26982]



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Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service



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50 CFR Part 17



Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Plant and 
Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as 
Endangered or Threatened, Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled 
Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 
Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 66 , No. 210 / Tuesday, October 30, 2001 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Plant 
and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as 
Endangered or Threatened, Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled 
Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of review of species which are candidates or proposed 
for listing, findings on recycled petitions, and progress on listing 
actions.

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SUMMARY: In this notice of review, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species 
native to the United States that we regard as candidates or have 
proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended. Identification of candidate species can assist environmental 
planning efforts by providing advance notice of potential listings, 
allowing resource managers to alleviate threats and thereby possibly 
remove the need to list species as endangered or threatened. Even if we 
subsequently list a candidate species, the early notice provided here 
could result in fewer restrictions on activities by prompting candidate 
conservation measures to alleviate threats to the species.
    We request additional status information that may be available for 
the identified candidate species and information on species that we 
should include as candidates in future updates of this list. We will 
consider this information in preparing listing documents and future 
revisions to the notice of review. This information will help us in 
monitoring changes in the status of candidate species and in conserving 
candidate species.
    We announce the availability of listing priority assignment forms 
for candidate species. These documents describe the status and threats 
that we evaluated in order to assign a listing priority number to each 
species. We also announce our findings on recycled petitions and 
describe our progress in revising the Lists of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife and Plants during the period January 8, 2001, to 
October 17, 2001.

DATES: We will accept comments on the candidate notice of review at any 
time.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments regarding a particular species to the 
Regional Director of the Region identified in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION 
as having the lead responsibility for that species. You may submit 
comments of a more general nature to the Chief, Division of 
Conservation and Classification, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 
N. Fairfax Drive, Room 420, Arlington, VA 22203 (703/358-2171). Written 
comments and materials received in response to this notice of review 
will be available for public inspection by appointment at the 
appropriate Regional Office listed in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION.
    Information regarding the range, status, and habitat needs of and 
listing priority assignment for a particular species is available for 
review at the appropriate Regional Office listed below in SUPPLEMENTARY 
INFORMATION, at the Division of Conservation and Classification, 
Arlington, Virginia (see address above), or on our Web site (http://www.fws.gov).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Endangered Species Coordinator(s) 
in the appropriate Regional Office(s) or Chris Nolin, Chief, Division 
of Conservation and Classification (703/358-2171).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Candidate Notice of Review

Background

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et 
seq.) (Act), requires that we identify species of wildlife and plants 
that are endangered or threatened, based on the best available 
scientific and commercial information. Through the Federal rulemaking 
process, we add these species to the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife at 50 CFR 17.11 or the List of Endangered or Threatened Plants 
at 50 CFR 17.12. As part of this program, we maintain a list of species 
that we regard as candidates for listing. A candidate is one for which 
we have on file sufficient information on biological vulnerability and 
threats to support a proposal to list as endangered or threatened but 
for which preparation and publication of a proposal is precluded by 
higher-priority listing actions. We maintain this list for a variety of 
reasons, including: to notify the public that these species are facing 
threat to their survival; to provide advance knowledge of potential 
listings that could affect decisions of environmental planners and 
developers; to solicit input from interested parties to identify those 
candidate species that may not require protection under the Act or 
additional species that may require the Act's protections; and to 
solicit information needed to prioritize the order in which we will 
propose species for listing.
    Table 1 of this notice includes 252 species that we regard as 
candidates for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants (Lists), as well as 35 species for which we have 
published proposed rules to list as threatened or endangered species, 
most of which we identified as candidates in the October 25, 1999, 
Candidate Notice of Review (64 FR 57534). We encourage consideration of 
these species in environmental planning, such as in environmental 
impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 
(implemented at 40 CFR parts 1500-1508) and in local and statewide land 
use planning. Table 2 of this notice contains 74 species we identified 
as candidates or as proposed species in the October 25, 1999, Candidate 
Notice of Review that we now no longer consider candidates. This 
includes 21 species that we removed from candidate status (including 8 
species we are removing from candidate status through this notice) and 
53 species we listed as threatened or endangered since October 25, 
1999. The Regional Offices identified as having lead responsibility for 
the particular species will continually revise and update the 
information on candidate species. We intend to publish an updated 
combined notice of review for animals and plants, that will include our 
findings on recycled petitions and a description of our progress on 
listing actions, annually in the Federal Register.

Previous Notices of Review

    The Act directed the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution to 
prepare a report on endangered and threatened plant species, which was 
published as House Document No. 94-51. We published a notice in the 
Federal Register on July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27823), in which we announced 
that we would review more than 3,000 native plant species named in the 
Smithsonian's report and other species added by the 1975 notice for 
possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. A 
new comprehensive notice of review for native plants, which took into 
account the earlier Smithsonian report and other accumulated 
information, superseded the 1975 notice on December 15, 1980 (45 FR 
82479). On November 28, 1983 (48 FR 53640), a supplemental plant notice 
of review

[[Page 54809]]

noted changes in the status of various species. We published complete 
updates of the plant notice on September 27, 1985 (50 FR 39526), 
February 21, 1990 (55 FR 6184), September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51144), and, 
as part of combined animal and plant notices, on February 28, 1996 (61 
FR 7596), September 19, 1997 (62 FR 49398), and October 25, 1999 (64 FR 
57534). On January 8, 2001 (66 FR 1295), we published our recycled 
petition finding for one plant species that had outstanding warranted 
but precluded findings.
    Previous animal notices of review included a number of the animal 
species in the accompanying Table 1. We published earlier comprehensive 
reviews for vertebrate animals in the Federal Register on December 30, 
1982 (47 FR 58454), and on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37958). We 
published an initial comprehensive review for invertebrate animals on 
May 22, 1984 (49 FR 21664). We published a combined animal notice of 
review on January 6, 1989 (54 FR 554), and with minor corrections on 
August 10, 1989 (54 FR 32833). We again published comprehensive animal 
notices on November 21, 1991 (56 FR 58804), November 15, 1994 (59 FR 
58982), and, as part of combined animal and plant notices, on February 
28, 1996 (61 FR 7596), September 19, 1997 (62 FR 49398), and October 
25, 1999 (64 FR 57534). On January 8, 2001 (66 FR 1295), we published 
our recycled petition findings for 25 animal species that had 
outstanding warranted but precluded findings as well as notice of 1 
candidate removal. This revised notice supersedes all previous animal, 
plant, and combined notices of review.

Current Notice of Review

    We gather data on plants and animals native to the United States 
that appear to merit consideration for addition to the Lists of 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. This notice identifies 
those species (including, by definition, biological species; subspecies 
of fish, wildlife, or plants; and distinct population segments (DPS) of 
vertebrate animals) that we currently regard as candidates for addition 
to the Lists. In issuing this compilation, we rely on information from 
status surveys conducted for candidate assessment and on information 
from State Natural Heritage Programs, other State and Federal agencies 
(such as the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management), 
knowledgeable scientists, public and private natural resource 
interests, and comments received in response to previous notices of 
review.
    Tables 1 and 2 are arranged alphabetically by names of genera, 
species, and relevant subspecies and varieties under the major group 
headings for animals first, then plants. Animals are grouped by class 
or order. Plants are subdivided into three groups: flowering plants, 
conifers and cycads, and ferns and their allies. Useful synonyms and 
subgeneric scientific names appear in parentheses (the synonyms 
preceded by an equals sign). Several species that have not yet been 
formally described in the scientific literature are included; such 
species are identified by a generic or specific name (in italics) 
followed by ``sp.'' or ``ssp.'' We incorporate standardized common 
names in these notices as they become available. We sorted plants by 
scientific name due to the inconsistencies in common names, the 
inclusion of vernacular and composite subspecific names, and the fact 
that many plants still lack a standardized name.
    Table 1 lists all species that we regard as candidates for listing 
and all species proposed for listing under the Act. Candidate species 
are those species for which we have on file sufficient information on 
biological vulnerability and threats to support issuance of a proposed 
rule to list, but issuance of the proposed rule is precluded by other 
higher priority listing actions. We emphasize that we are not proposing 
these candidate species for listing by this notice, but we anticipate 
developing and publishing proposed listing rules for these species in 
the future. We encourage State agencies, other Federal agencies, and 
other parties to give consideration to these species in environmental 
planning. Proposed species are those species for which we have 
published a proposed rule to list as endangered or threatened in the 
Federal Register (exclusive of species for which we have withdrawn or 
finalized the proposed rule).
    Species in Table 1 of this notice are assigned to several status 
categories, noted in the ``Category'' column at the left side of the 
table. We explain the codes for the category status column of species 
in Table 1 below:

    PE--Species proposed for listing as endangered.
    PT--Species proposed for listing as threatened.
    C--Candidates: Species for which we have on file sufficient 
information on biological vulnerability and threats to support 
proposals to list them as endangered or threatened. Issuance of 
proposed rules for these species is precluded at present by other 
higher priority listing actions. This category includes species for 
which we made a ``warranted but precluded'' 12-month finding on a 
petition to list. We made new findings on all petitions for which we 
previously made ``warranted but precluded'' findings. We identify 
the species for which we made a continued ``warranted but 
precluded'' finding on a recycled petition by the code ``C*'' in the 
category column (see Findings on Recycled Petitions section for 
additional information). We anticipate developing and publishing 
proposed rules for candidate species in the future. We encourage 
State and other Federal agencies as well as other parties to give 
consideration to these species in environmental planning.

    The column labeled ``Priority'' indicates the listing priority 
number for each candidate species that we use to determine the most 
appropriate use of our available resources. We assign this number based 
on the immediacy and magnitude of threats as well as on taxonomic 
status. We published a complete description of our listing priority 
system in the Federal Register on September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098).
    The third column identifies the Regional Office to which you should 
direct comments or questions (see ADDRESSES section). We provided the 
comments received in response to the 1999 notice of review to the 
Region having lead responsibility for each candidate species mentioned 
in the comment. We will likewise consider all information provided in 
response to this notice of review in deciding whether to propose 
species for listing and when to undertake necessary listing actions. 
Comments received will become part of the administrative record for the 
species.
    Following the common name (fourth column) is the scientific name 
(fifth column) and the family designation (sixth column). The seventh 
column provides the known historical range for the species or 
vertebrate population, indicated by postal code abbreviations for 
States and U.S. territories (many species no longer occur in all of the 
areas listed).
    Species in Table 2 of this notice are species we included either as 
proposed species or as candidates in the 1999 notice of review but have 
since removed from such status for a variety of reasons. We added many 
of the species identified as proposed in the last notice of review to 
the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Table 2 
also includes species that became candidates or were proposed for 
listing since the 1999 notice of review and are no longer classified as 
either candidates or proposed species (for example candidates or 
proposed species that we listed or withdrew since the 1999 notice of 
review). The first column indicates the present status of the species, 
using the following codes:


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    E--Species we listed as endangered.
    T--Species we listed as threatened.
    Rc--Species we removed from the candidate list because currently 
available information does not support issuance of a proposed 
listing.
    Rp--Species we removed from the candidate list because we have 
withdrawn the proposed listing.

    The second column provides a coded explanation of why we no longer 
regard the species as a candidate or proposed species. Descriptions of 
the codes are as follows:

    A--Species that are more abundant or widespread than previously 
believed and species that are not subject to the degree of threats 
sufficient to warrant continuance of candidate status, issuance of a 
proposed listing, or a final listing. The reduction in threats could 
be due, in part, or all, to actions taken under a conservation 
agreement.
    F--Species whose range is no longer a U.S. Territory.
    I--Species for which we have insufficient information on 
biological vulnerability and threats to support issuance of a 
proposed rule to list.
    L--Species we added to the Lists of Endangered or Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants.
    M--Species we mistakenly included as candidates or proposed 
species in the last notice of review.
    N--Species that are not a listable entity (do not meet the Act's 
definition of ``species'') based on current taxonomic understanding.
    X--Species we believe to be extinct.

    The columns describing lead region, scientific name, family, common 
name, and historic range include information as previously described 
for Table 1.

Summary

    Since publication of the 1999 notice of review, we reviewed the 
available information on candidate species to ensure that issuance of a 
proposed listing is justified for each species and to reevaluate the 
relative listing priority assignment of each species. We undertook this 
effort to ensure we focus conservation efforts on those species at 
greatest risk. As of October 17, 2001, 9 plants and 19 animals are 
proposed for endangered status; 2 plants and 5 animals are proposed for 
threatened status; and 139 plant and 113 animal candidates are awaiting 
preparation of proposed rules (see Table 1). Table 2 includes 74 
species that we classified as either proposed for listing or candidates 
that we no longer classify in those categories.

Summary of New Candidates

    Below we present brief summaries of new candidates. Complete 
information, including references, are found in the candidate forms. 
You may obtain a copy of these forms from the Regional office that has 
the lead for the species or from our Website (http://endangered.fws.gov).

Mammals

    Island fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae, U. l. santacruzae, U. l. 
littoralis, and U. l. santarosae)--The Santa Catalina Island fox, Santa 
Cruz Island fox, San Miguel Island fox, and Santa Rosa Island fox 
numbers have declined drastically in the last 4 years. Total island fox 
numbers have fallen from approximately 6,000 individuals to less than 
2,000 in the last 4 years. Island fox populations on San Miguel and 
Santa Cruz islands declined by an estimated 80 to 90 percent, and, 
based on studies conducted as recently as 1999, the island fox has a 50 
percent chance of extinction over the next 5 to 10 years. Long-term 
island fox population monitoring has not been undertaken on Santa Rosa 
Island; however, anecdotal observations and limited trapping efforts 
strongly suggest that a similar decline has occurred for this 
population as well. The primary causes of the decline of these island 
fox subspecies are the degradation of habitat by introduced herbivores, 
the increased predation by golden eagles, the rapid transmission of 
canine distemper through the Santa Catalina subspecies, and the lack of 
regulation to address the threats. Based on imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned these island fox subspecies a listing priority 
number of 3.
    Mazama pocket gopher (Thomomys mazama--all subspecies)--The Mazama 
pocket gopher is strongly associated with glacial outwash prairies in 
western Washington. The prairie of South Puget Sound is one of the 
rarest habitats in the United States. We assessed the current 
distribution of the Mazama pocket gopher and found that many of the 
historic populations have disappeared or diminished substantially 
enough in size that their presence was not obvious. Because the 
remaining populations tend to be small and isolated and the pocket 
gophers have a limited ability to disperse, further isolation could 
cause their eventual extinction. Threats include urbanization, loss of 
basic ecological processes such as fire, nonnative vegetation, domestic 
cat predation, and lack of regulation to protect the habitat. Because 
these threats are high but non-imminent, we assigned a listing priority 
number of 6 to this subspecies.
    Southern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus endemicus)--
During the past 30 years, a dramatic population decline of the southern 
Idaho ground squirrel has occurred. We now believe that the southern 
Idaho ground squirrel occupies approximately 44 percent of its 
historical range. Surveys indicate a precipitous decline in squirrel 
population since the mid-1980s. A 1999 survey of 145 of the 180 known 
historical population sites indicated that only 53 sites (37 percent) 
were still occupied. Furthermore, 52 of the 53 occupied sites had what 
biologists characterized as ``remarkably low levels of activity''. 
Scientists attribute the decline to the following factors: invasive 
nonnative plants associated with a change in fire frequency, and lack 
of reclamation or restoration of habitat by various land management 
agencies and private landowners; and an increase in the risk of 
extinction due to a reduced distribution. Based on our evaluation that 
these threats pose an imminent risk of a high magnitude, this 
subspecies warrants a listing priority number of 3.
Birds
    Yellow-billed cuckoo, western continental U.S. DPS (Coccyzus 
americanus)--While the cuckoo is still relatively common east of the 
crest of the Rocky Mountains, biologists estimate that more than 90 
percent of the bird's riparian (streamside) habitat in the West has 
been lost or degraded. These modifications, and the resulting decline 
in the distribution and abundance of yellow-billed cuckoos throughout 
the western states, is believed to be due to conversion to agriculture; 
grazing; competition from nonnative plants, such as tamarisk; river 
management, including altered flow and sediment regime; and flood 
control practices, such as channelization and bank protection. Based on 
non-imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a listing 
priority number of 6 to this DPS of yellow-billed cuckoo.
    Streaked horned lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata)--The streaked 
horned lark is considered rare. Currently, we estimate that fewer than 
200 breeding pairs remain in Oregon. In Washington, it has been 
extirpated from north Puget Sound and the San Juan Islands, and less 
than 100 pairs remain in south Puget Sound and along the coast. The 
greatest threat to the streaked horned lark is loss of habitat. 
Biologists estimate that less than 1 percent of native grassland and 
savanna remains. Conversion of grassland to other uses, such as 
agriculture and homes, and the encroachment of nonnative plants have 
been the primary factors contributing to the species' decline. Because 
these threats are of a high magnitude but are non-imminent, we assigned 
a listing priority number of 6 to this subspecies.

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    Western sage grouse, Washington DPS (Centrocercus urophasianus 
phaios)--The Washington DPS (Columbia basin) of the western sage grouse 
currently occupies approximately 10 percent of its historic 
distribution in the state in two relatively small areas in central 
Washington. The abundance of this DPS has declined between 66 percent 
and 99 percent from historic levels (using low and high estimates). 
Primary threats to this population include conversion or degradation of 
native shrub-steppe habitats and small population size, which makes 
this population more susceptible to inbreeding depression (reduced 
reproductive vigor) and extirpation from stochastic events (inclement 
weather, population demographics, altered predation patterns, etc.). 
Because these threats are low to moderate in magnitude but imminent, we 
assigned this DPS of western sage grouse a listing priority number of 
9.
Reptiles
    Sand dune lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus)--The sand dune lizard is 
endemic to a small area in New Mexico and Texas. The primary threats to 
this species are herbicides used to remove shinnery oak, various 
activities that destroy and fragment shinnery oak habitat, and 
overcollection. Currently no Federal or State regulations in New Mexico 
or Texas protect against take of individuals or their habitat. Due to 
imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a listing priority 
number of 2 to this species.
Amphibians
    Georgetown salamander (Eurycea naufragia)--The Georgetown 
salamander is an entirely aquatic salamander approximately 5.1 
centimeters (cm) (2.0 inches (in)) long. It is known to occur in 
springs along five tributaries of the San Gabriel River and one cave in 
the city of Georgetown, Texas. Primary threats include degradation of 
water quality and reduced available water quantity due to urbanization. 
Currently no State or Federal regulations provide protection for this 
salamander. Due to imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 2 to this species.
    Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi)--The Ozark 
hellbender is a large, aquatic salamander native to streams of the 
Ozark Plateau in Arkansas and Missouri. Records indicate that much of 
the habitat for the species has been lost or fragmented due to habitat 
alteration from gravel mining, construction of impoundments, timber 
harvest and associated erosion, and contamination from pesticides and 
historic lead and zinc mining. Currently, State regulations make it 
illegal to take the Ozark Hellbender, but little or no regulation 
protects the habitat. As a result, most known populations have 
experienced significant declines and there is little documentation of 
reproduction. We believe that the current combination of population 
fragmentation and habitat degradation may prohibit this species from 
recovering without the intervention of protection and conservation 
measures afforded under the Act. Due to non-imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 6 to this 
subspecies.
Fish
    Yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei)--The yellowcheek darter is 
an endemic species of the Little Red River in Arkansas. Construction of 
Greers Ferry Lake destroyed most of the species' preferred habitat and 
isolated the species in four tributaries. Factors affecting the 
remaining populations include loss of suitable breeding habitat, 
habitat degradation, population isolation, and severe population 
declines. Recent studies have documented significant declines in the 
numbers of this fish in the remaining populations. Due to imminent 
threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 2 
to this species.
    Zuni bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus yarrowi)--The Zuni 
bluehead sucker is a 20.3-cm (8.0-in) freshwater fish found only in 
Arizona and New Mexico. The primary threats to this subspecies are road 
construction, logging, over-grazing, reservoir construction, irrigation 
withdrawals, and stocking of exotic fishes. Once common in the Little 
Colorado and Zuni River drainages, it is now thought to be reduced to 
about 10 percent of historical range. Although considered endangered by 
the State of New Mexico and a species of special concern by the State 
of Arizona and the U.S. Forest Service, these designations lack habitat 
protections needed for long-term conservation. Due to imminent threats 
of a high magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 to this 
subspecies.
Clams
    Neosho mucket (Lampsilis rafinesqueana)--The Neosho mucket is a 
freshwater mussel native to Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. 
The species has declined throughout much of its historic range due to 
habitat degradation attributed to impoundments, sedimentation, and 
agricultural pollutants. Currently, it is believed that only one viable 
population exists; a few remnant populations may remain. Although State 
regulations limit harvest of this species, there is little protection 
for habitat. Due to non-imminent threats of a high magnitude, we 
assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Texas hornshell (Popenaias popei)--The Texas hornshell is a 
freshwater mussel that is found in New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico. The 
primary threats are habitat alterations such as impoundments and 
diversions for agriculture and flood control, contamination of water 
from the oil and gas industry, and increased sedimentation from 
prolonged overgrazing and loss of native vegetation. Currently, no 
Federal or State regulations protect the Texas hornshell from these 
threats. Due to imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 2 to this species.
Snails
    Phantom Cave snail (Cochliopa texana) and Phantom springsnail 
(Tryonia cheatumi)--Both of these aquatic snails occur in only three 
spring systems and associated outflows in Texas. The primary threat to 
both species is the loss of surface flows due to declining groundwater 
levels from drought and pumping for agricultural production. Although 
the land surrounding their habitat is owned and managed by The Nature 
Conservancy, Bureau of Reclamation, and Balmorhea State Park, the water 
needed to maintain their habitat has declined due to a reduction in the 
spring flows, primarily as result of private groundwater pumping in 
areas beyond that controlled by these landowners. Currently, there is 
no protection for either of these aquatic cave snails by either State 
or Federal law. Due to imminent threats of a high magnitude, we 
assigned a listing priority number of 2 to these species.
Insects
    Nine cave beetles (Pseudanophthalmus caecus, P. cataryctos, P. 
frigidus, P. inexpectatus, P. inquistor, P. major, P. pholeter, P. 
parvus, and P. troglodytes)--Seven of these nine cave beetles 
(Pseudanophthalmus caecus, P. cataryctos, P. frigidus, P. major, P. 
pholeter, P. parvus, and P. troglodytes) are currently known to occur 
in one cave each in Kentucky. Psuedanophthalmus inexpectatus, is known 
to occur in more than one cave

[[Page 54812]]

in Kentucky and P. inquistor only occurs in Tennessee. Historically, P. 
inexpectatus occurred in three caves; however, it is now considered 
extirpated from one of these caves and is declining in numbers in one 
of the remaining two sites. The primary threats to these cave beetles 
include toxic chemical spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted 
water, closure or alterations of cave entrances, and disruption of cave 
energy processes by industrial, residential, commercial, or highway 
construction. There is currently little or no protection for these 
species by either the State or Federal regulations. Due to non-imminent 
threats of a high magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 5 
to these species.
    Whulge checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha taylori)--
Historically, the subspecies was known from more than 50 locations in 
British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The current range is believed 
to have declined significantly to less than 15 populations. Threats 
include changes in vegetation structure and composition of native 
grassland-dominated prairies due to agricultural conversion, 
urbanization, and invasion by nonnative woody shrubs; the use of 
pesticides to control Asian gypsy moths; and inadequacy of regulatory 
protection against these threats. We have determined that, although the 
threats are of high magnitude, they are non-imminent; therefore, we are 
assigning a listing priority number of 6 to this subspecies.
Ferns and Allies
    Botrychium lineare (slender moonwort)--Botrychium lineare is a 
small perennial fern that is currently known from a total of nine 
populations in Colorado, Oregon, Montana, and Washington. In addition 
to these currently known populations, there are four historic 
population sites in California, Colorado, Idaho, and Montana and two in 
Canada. These historic populations have not been seen for at least 20 
years and may be extirpated. Identifiable threats to various 
populations of this species include road maintenance, herbicide 
spraying, recreation, timber harvest, trampling and grazing by wildlife 
and livestock, exotic species, and development. Because we concluded 
that the overall magnitude of threats to Botrychium lineare throughout 
its range is moderate and the overall immediacy of these threats is 
non-imminent, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 11.

Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates

Mammals
    Coachella Valley round-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus 
tereticaudus chlorus)--In the 1999 CNOR, we mistakenly assigned the 
Coachella Valley round-tailed squirrel a listing priority number of 5. 
This was an incorrect number under the listing priority system for a 
subspecies, like the Coachella Vally round-tailed ground squirrel. In 
this notice, we have corrected the listing priority number to a 6.
    Washington ground squirrel (Spermophilus washingtoni)--Since the 
designation of the species as a candidate on October 25, 1999, more 
information has become available regarding the types of soils used by 
Washington ground squirrels, the effects of agriculture on Washington 
ground squirrel colonies, the status of the species throughout its 
range, and the significance of the Oregon population to the species as 
a whole. The soil types used by the squirrels are distributed 
sporadically within the species' range, and have been seriously 
fragmented by human development in the Columbia Basin, particularly 
conversion to agricultural use. Where agriculture occurs, little 
evidence of ground squirrel use has been documented, and reports 
indicate that ongoing agricultural conversion permanently eliminates 
Washington ground squirrel habitat. The most contiguous, least-
disturbed expanse of suitable Washington ground squirrel habitat, and 
likely the densest distribution of colonies within the range of the 
species, occurs on the Boeing site and Boardman Bombing Range in 
Oregon. Substantial threats to the species occur throughout its range, 
including the remaining populations in Oregon. Even on State-owned 
lands in Oregon, the loss of known sites is likely. The City of Ione 
and Morrow County have proposed the construction of a highway through 
the largest area of suitable and occupied habitat in the range of the 
species. The loss of significant numbers of colonies in Oregon would be 
detrimental to the continued existence of the Washington ground 
squirrel. In Washington, recent declines have been precipitous and for 
unknown reasons. In 2001, entire colonies of ground squirrels have been 
lost on the Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and Seeps Lake Management 
Area near Othello, Washington, despite the protected status of the 
species in the area. Biologists observed significant declines in body 
mass, and many adult squirrels experienced a complete failure to 
reproduce in 2001, likely as a result of starvation. Individuals that 
lacked sufficient body weight are not likely to survive the seven to 
eight month hibernation period this species experiences. All of these 
threats have been observed in the past year, are likely to continue, 
and appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival of many Washington 
ground squirrel colonies across the range of the species. Based on this 
evaluation, we changed the listing priority number from a 5 to a 2 due 
to the imminent threats of a high magnitude.
Birds
    Rota bridled white-eye (Zosterops rotensis)--Recent authorities on 
the taxonomy of Micronesian white-eyes agree that the Rota population 
is distinct from others in the Marianas and should be recognized as a 
separate species. Therefore, we refer to this bird as the Rota bridled 
white-eye (Z. rotensis). Recent genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA 
sequences showed that two distinct lineages occur within the Marianas, 
one on Guam, Saipan, Tinian, and Aguijan, and the other on Rota. 
Threats include introduced birds, rats, habitat destruction, alien 
plants and habitat alteration, and typhoons. Although the relative 
importance of the threats to the Rota bridled white-eye are not 
completely understood, based on the large (89%) and rapid decline in 
population size that has occurred since 1982 and appears to be 
continuing, these threats must be imminent and of high magnitude. In 
addition, since we now recognize the Rota bridled white-eye as a 
separate species, we changed the listing priority from a 6 to a 2. 
Based, in part, on this change in priority, on October 3, 2001 (66 FR 
50383) we published a proposed rule to list this species as endangered.
Clams
    Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera marrianae)--We changed the 
listing priority number from a 5 to a 2 since the threats are now 
imminent for this species based on the apparent loss of one of the 
three known extant populations in 1999 and drought stress to the 
surviving populations in 2000.
Snails
    Diamond Y springsnail (Tryonia adamantina) and Gonzales springsnail 
(Tryonia circumstriata (= stocktonensis))--We changed the listing 
priority number from a 5 to a 2 for both of these species due to new 
imminent threats from the recent introduction of a nonnative snail 
(Melanoides sp.) into the native snails'

[[Page 54813]]

habitat. The nonnative snail is likely competing with the native snails 
for space and resources.
    Tumbling Creek cavesnail (Antrobia culveri)--We changed the listing 
priority number from a 7 to a 1 due to new data obtained in 2000 and 
2001 that indicate the threat to this species is much greater than 
originally estimated. The continued downward trend, including the 
documentation of no snails in study plots on January 11, 2001, provides 
a strong indication that whatever threats are causing the decline, they 
are imminent and of a high magnitude. It is likely that this species, 
the only known representative of its genus, will become extinct within 
the foreseeable future without appropriate conservation measures.
Insects
    Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus)--We are 
changing the listing priority number from a 12 to a 3 because threats 
we previously considered to be ameliorated now appear imminent. A 
Cooperative Agreement was signed by the Service, Nevada Department of 
Transportation, Federal Highways Administration, and Bureau of Land 
Management in October 1999. This agreement was developed to outline the 
actions necessary for the conservation and management of Carson 
wandering skipper. A draft conservation plan for the Carson wandering 
skipper was prepared in 2000 to address potential conservation measures 
which could be implemented at occupied sites. However, implementation 
of this agreement and a final conservation plan now appear unlikely in 
the foreseeable future due to the unwillingness of the private and 
public landowners to support conservation efforts. We are also 
concerned about proposed water development plans near the Pyramid Lake 
site and the spread of whitetop, a nonnative plant species, on private 
property at the Honey Lake site, as this invasive species could 
eliminate habitat for the Carson wandering skipper. Since Carson 
wandering skipper became a candidate species, further evidence supports 
the likely extirpation of the subspecies from the Carson Hot Springs 
site. Therefore, based on the high magnitude of imminent threats, we 
assigned this subspecies a listing priority number of 3. See additional 
information on this species below under Petition of a Candidate Species 
section.
    Highlands tiger beetle (Cicindela highlandensis)--We changed the 
listing priority number for the Highlands tiger beetle from a 2 to a 5 
because the immediacy of the threats to its scrub habitats on the Lake 
Wales Ridge in central Florida have decreased. In particular, the State 
of Florida and conservation groups have acquired and are actively 
acquiring occupied and unoccupied scrub habitats for the species such 
that most quality habitats for the species have been acquired. There 
has also been an increase in prescribed burning on the Lake Wales Ridge 
that resulted in improved habitat conditions for the species. 
Therefore, based on a high magnitude of non-imminent threats, we 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 5.
    Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana)--We 
changed the listing priority number from a 6 to a 3 because the 
immediacy of the threats to the isolated wetlands where the beetle 
occurs continues to increase due to the planned widening of the 
interstate highway, construction of a new interchange, and the 
anticipated developments that will occur along the highway corridor. In 
addition, the apparent reduction in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
jurisdiction over isolated wetlands may hamper the State's ability to 
protect the wetland habitats essential to the beetle's survival since 
the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality will not have a nexus 
to implement review under the State section 401 water quality 
certification program. Therefore, based on a high magnitude of now 
imminent threats, we assigned this subspecies a listing priority number 
of 3.
Arachnids
    Warton Cave meshweaver (Cicurina wartoni)--We changed the listing 
priority number from an 8 to a 2 due to continued, imminent threats of 
a high magnitude from nearby development and fire ants. In two previous 
CNORs, we assigned a listing priority number of 2 to this species, but 
based on the development of a conservation agreement to protect this 
cave, we changed the listing priority number to an 8 in the 1999 CNOR. 
Since this conservation agreement is still under development and 
recommended management actions (including fire ant control and complete 
fencing) are not yet in place to adequately protect the only known 
location of the species, we are now assigning a listing priority number 
of 2 to this species.
Plants
    Astragalus tortipes (Milk-vetch, Sleeping Ute)--We changed the 
listing priority number for Astragalus tortipes from a 2 to an 8 
because Spring 2000 surveys indicated an increase in the number of 
individual plants from the original estimate of 2,000-3,000 individual 
plants to 3,744 plants, and there has been an increase in range. In 
addition, we believe the threats, although not entirely eliminated, 
have been reduced; oil and gas development may occur in the future, but 
only a few plant locations are on terrain that would be affected. 
Consequently, A. tortipes should be retained on the candidate list, but 
with a reduced listing priority, based on reduced threats to a plant 
with a limited range.
    Bidens conjuncta (Kookoolau)--We changed the listing priority 
number for Bidens conjuncta from 5 to 8 because the number of 
individuals has increased from 300 to 2,200 individuals. While the 
original threats remain imminent and rats are also now known to be a 
threat, the overall magnitude of the threat is somewhat reduced with 
the large increase in numbers.
    Cyanea calycina (HaHa)--Due to taxonomic changes, Cyanea calycina 
is now considered a separate species; therefore, we are changing the 
listing priority number to a 5 (previously we designated it a 6).
    Cyanea lanceolata (formerly Cyanea lanceolata ssp. lanceolata, and 
prior to that Rollandia lanceolata)--Originally treated as a subspecies 
of C. lanceolata, this entity has been elevated to full species status. 
As such, we are changing the listing priority number to a 5 (previously 
we designated it a 6).
    Cyclosorus boydiae var. boydiae (formerly Thelypteris boydiae)--
This plant species has been moved from the genus Thelypteris to the 
genus Cyclosorus, and is also now considered a subspecies. As a result, 
we changed the listing priority number to a 6 (previously we designated 
it a 5).
    Cyclosorus boydiae var. kipahuluensis (formerly Thelypteris 
boydiae)--This plant species has been moved from the genus Thelypteris 
to the genus Cyclosorus, and is also now considered a subspecies. As a 
result, we changed the listing priority to 6 (previously it was 
designated 5).
    Erigeron basalticus (Basalt daisy)--Erigeron basalticus is of 
extremely limited distribution, and is found only in a very narrow 
habitat type. Although several smaller subpopulations of the species 
have declined precipitously in the past decade, the major portion of 
the population appears to have remained stable during this same period. 
Currently, the cause of the decline is unknown, as is the risk to the 
larger subpopulations. While we identified various potential threats to 
the species, these threats do not appear to be imminent and are of a 
moderate to low magnitude. Therefore, we are assigning

[[Page 54814]]

this plant species a listing priority of 11 (previously we assigned the 
species a listing priority of 8).
    Leavenworthia texana (Texas golden gladecress)--We changed the 
listing priority number from a 5 to a 2 based on recent survey 
information that shows the known sites are now restricted to two. A 
third site is currently closed to visitors, and its status is unknown. 
Of the two known sites, a significant reduction in the number of plants 
has occurred, probably due to the extreme drought in the area.
    Pleomele forbesii (Hala pepe)--Additional surveys have increased 
the known number of individuals in the 16 populations from 80-180 to 
500. Based on this new information, we now believe the threat is non-
imminent. Because of this, we are changing the listing priority number 
from a 2 to a 5.
    Schiedea pubescens (formerly Schiedea pubescens var. pubescens)--
Schiedea pubescens was originally treated as a subspecies. Recently, 
however, it has been elevated to full species status. Therefore, we 
changed the priority number from a 3 to a 2.
    Solanum nelsonii (Popolo)--There has been a rapid decline of the 
populations of Solanum nelsonii on the islands within the remote 
Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. The number of individuals 
has decreased from 3,000 to 300 individuals. Therefore, we changed the 
priority number from an 11 to a 5.

Candidate Removals

Snails
    Wet Canyon talussnail (Sonorella macrophallus)--We removed this 
species from candidate status since the greatest threat to the species, 
impact from recreation, was eliminated through a 1999 Conservation 
Agreement with the Coronado National Forest, Arizona. The National 
Forest closed a trail that traversed the species' habitat and prohibits 
campfires in the Wet Canyon picnic area during periods of fire closure. 
National Forest staff are also implementing a monitoring program to 
ensure the trail closure remains in place and to evaluate its 
effectiveness.
Plants
    Cyanea pseudofauriei (Haha)--Originally thought to be a newly 
discovered species, known from one population totaling a few hundred 
individuals, this population is now considered part of a more 
widespread species (Cyanea fauriei) that is considered relatively 
stable.
    Melicope macropus (Alani)--This now extinct species was thought to 
be rediscovered in 1990. However, this ``rediscovered'' population is 
now known to be misidentified and is actually Melicope kauaiensis, 
which is a more common species.
    Opuntia whipplei var. multigeniculata (Blue diamond cholla)--Active 
management of lands supporting the blue diamond cholla and its habitat 
and the execution of the conservation agreement has led to our decision 
to remove the species from the candidate list. This agreement includes 
conservation actions that specifically address and diminish or 
eliminate threats to the species. Therefore, we are removing this 
species from the candidate list.
    Phyllostegia helleri (no common name)--This population was 
originally thought to be Phyllostegia helleri, but was actually a 
misidentification of Phyllostegia electra. Phyllostegia helleri has not 
been seen since 1916, and therefore, we believe it to be extinct.
    Phyllostegia imminuta (no common name)--Historically known from 
Maui and Lanai and thought to be extinct since 1920, this species was 
thought to be rediscovered in 1 population totaling approximately 10 
individuals in Waikamoi, Maui. However, further study revealed that the 
plants were misidentified and are actually Phyllostegia macrophylla. 
Therefore, we believe this species to be extinct.
    Cyperus odoratus (formally Torulinium odoratum ssp. auriculatum) 
(pu`uka`a (= kili`o`opu, kiolohia, mau`u pu`u, puko`a))--This 
subspecies is no longer recognized, and the species has been 
incorporated into the more widespread species Cyperus odoratus.
    Lysimachia venosa (no common name)--The historic range of this 
species was throughout the island of Kauai. While there are no historic 
records of numbers of populations or individuals, qualitative accounts 
indicate that the species was relatively widespread and abundant on 
Kauai. The last known population of only a few individuals could not be 
relocated in 1999. Therefore, we believe this species to be extinct.

Petition for a Candidate Species

    The Act provides two mechanisms for considering species for 
listing. First, the Act requires us to identify and propose for listing 
those species that require listing under the standards of section 
4(a)(1). We implement this through the candidate program, discussed 
above. Second, the Act provides a mechanism for the public to petition 
us to add a species to the Lists. Under section 4(b)(3)(A), when we 
receive such a petition, we must determine within 90 days, to the 
maximum extent practicable, whether the petition presents substantial 
information that listing is warranted (a ``90-day finding''). If we 
make a positive 90-day finding, under section 4(b)(3)(B) we must make 
one of three possible findings within 12 months of the receipt of the 
petition (a ``12-month finding'').
    The first possible 12-month finding is that listing is not 
warranted, in which case we need take no further action on the 
petition. Second, we may find that listing is warranted, in which case 
we must promptly publish a proposed rule to list the species. Once we 
publish a proposed rule for a species, section 4(b)(5) and (6) govern 
further procedures, regardless of whether or not we issued the proposal 
in response to a petition. Third, we may find that listing is 
``warranted but precluded.'' Such a finding means that immediate 
publication of a proposed rule to list the species is precluded by 
higher priority listing proposals, and that we are making expeditious 
progress to add and remove species from the Lists, as appropriate.
    The standard for making a 12-month warranted but precluded finding 
on a petition to list a species is identical to our standard for making 
a species a candidate for listing. Therefore, we add all petitioned 
species subject to such a finding to the candidate list. Similarly, we 
can treat all candidates as having been subject to both a positive 90-
day finding and a warranted but precluded 12-month finding. This notice 
constitutes publication of such findings pursuant to section 4(b)(3) 
for each candidate species listed in Table 1 that is the subject of a 
subsequent petition to list as threatened or endangered. Under our 
Petition Management Guidance, made available on July 9, 1996 (61 FR 
36075), we consider a petition to list a species already on the 
candidate list to be a second petition and, therefore, redundant. We do 
not interpret the petition provisions of the Act to require us to make 
a duplicative finding. Therefore, we are not making additional 90-day 
findings or initial 12-month findings on petitions to list species that 
are already candidates.
    Pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(i) of the Act, when, in response to 
a petition, we find that listing a species is warranted but precluded, 
we must make a new 12-month finding each year until we publish a 
proposed rule or make a determination that listing is not warranted. 
These subsequent 12-month findings are referred to as recycled petition 
findings. As discussed below, we will make recycled petition findings 
for petitions on such species via our

[[Page 54815]]

Candidate Notices of Review such as this one.
    On June 20, 2001, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth 
Circuit held that the 1999 CNOR (64 FR 57534 (Oct. 25, 1999)) did not 
constitute valid warranted but precluded 12-month petition findings for 
the Gila chub and Chiracahua leopard frog. Center for Biological 
Diversity v. Norton, 2001 U.S. App. LEXIS 13736 (9th Cir. 2001). In 
particular, the Court found that inclusion of these species as one line 
each on the table of candidates in the 1999 CNOR, with no further 
explanation, did not satisfy the section 4(b)(3)(B)(iii)'s requirement 
that the Service publish ``a description and evaluation of reasons and 
data on which the finding was based'' in the Federal Register. The 
Court found that this one-line statement of candidate status also 
precluded meaningful judicial review. Moreover, the Court found that 
candidate status did not guarantee that annual reviews of warranted but 
precluded petitioned species would take place pursuant to section 
4(b)(3)(C)(i). Finally, the Court suggested, but did not decide, that 
the 1999 CNOR met the Act's requirements for positive 90-day petition 
findings.
    Although we do not agree with the conclusions of the Ninth Circuit, 
we have revised this CNOR to address the Court's concerns. We have 
included below a description of why the listing of every petitioned 
candidate species is both warranted and precluded at this time. 
Pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(ii), any party with standing may 
challenge the merits of one of the our petition findings incorporated 
in this CNOR. The analysis included herein, together with the 
administrative record for the decision at issue, will provide an 
adequate basis for a court to review the petition finding. Finally, 
nothing in this document or any of our policies should be construed as 
in any way modifying the Act's requirement that we make a new 12-month 
petition finding for each petitioned candidate within one year of the 
date of publication of this CNOR. If we fail to make any such finding 
on a timely basis, whether through publication of a new CNOR or some 
other form of notice, we may be subject to a deadline law suit pursuant 
to section 11(g)(1)(C), as it would be with respect to any other 
failure to comply with a section 4 deadline.
    We reviewed the current status of and threats to the 37 species 
regarding which we have found petitioned action to be warranted but 
precluded. As a result of this review, we made continued warranted but 
precluded findings on the petitions for all 37 species. For the 32 of 
these species that are candidates, we maintain them as candidates and 
identify them by the code ``C*'' in the category column on the left 
side of Table 1. As discussed above, this finding means that the 
immediate publication of a proposed rule to list these species is 
precluded by the following higher priority listing actions: Court 
ordered or settlement agreements to complete the critical habitat 
determinations for San Bernardino kangaroo rat, Monterey and robust 
spineflowers, Quino checkerspot butterfly, 57 Hawaii Island plants, 
Otay tarplant, Oahu elepaio, Blackburn sphinx moth, Newcomb's snail, 2 
Kauai invertebrates, 81 Kauai and Niihau plants, yellow and Baker's 
larkspurs, 3 Southern California coastal plants, Keck's checkermallow, 
purple amole, 69 Maui and Kahoolawe plants, Santa Cruz tarplant, 37 
Lanai plants, 49 Molokai plants, 6 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 
plants, 101 Oahu plants, 4 fairy shrimp, Carolina heelsplitter and 
Appalachian elktoe, and a final determination for the Sacramento 
splittail. In addition, the following are higher priority statutory 
deadlines: final listing for Mississippi gopher frog, golden sedge, 
mountain plover, and desert yellowhead.
    In addition to identifying these species in Table 1, we also 
present brief summaries of why these candidates warrant listing. More 
complete information, including references, are found in the candidate 
forms. You may obtain a copy of these forms from the Regional office 
that has the lead for the species or from the Fish and Wildlife 
Service's Web site: http://endangered.fws.gov/.
    We find that the immediate issuance of a proposed rule and timely 
promulgation of a final rule for each of these actions has for the 
preceding year been and will over the next year be precluded by higher 
priority listing actions. During the preceding year, almost all of our 
limited listing budget has been needed to take various listing actions 
to comply with court orders and court-approved settlement agreements. 
For a list of the listing actions taken over the last year, see the 
discussion of ``Expeditious Progress,'' below.
    Regarding the following year, although we do not yet have a final 
budget, the majority of that budget will again likely be needed to take 
listing actions to comply with court orders and court-approved 
settlement agreements. Currently, we will need to work on or complete 
the following actions: proposed critical habitat designations--4 fairy 
shrimp (and 11 plants), 6 plants from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 
reproposal for plants from Kauai and Niihau, reproposal for plants from 
Maui and Kahoolawe, reproposal for plants from Lanai, reproposal for 
plants from Molokai, 57 plants from Hawaii, 5 carbonate plants from 
California, 103 Oahu plants, 6 Guam species (following prudency re-
determinations), Keck's checkermallow, yellow and Baker's larkspur, 
Ventura Marsh milk-vetch, Rio Grande silvery minnow, 4 invertebrates 
from New Mexico, 9 invertebrates from Bexar County, Texas, Gila chub, 
Topeka shiner, gulf sturgeon, and Prebles meadow jumping mouse; final 
critical habitat designations--quino checkerspot butterfly, Monterey 
spineflower, robust spineflower, Oahu elepaio, San Bernardino kangaroo 
rat, 3 southern California plants, Kneeland Prairie pennycress, purple 
amole, Santa Cruz tarplant, Otay tarplant, 81 plants from Kauai and 
Niihau, 2 Kauai invertebrates, Blackburn's sphinx moth, Newcomb's 
snail, 4 fairy shrimp (and 11 plants), 69 plants from Maui and 
Kahoolawe, 37 plants from Lanai, 5 carbonate plants from California, 49 
plants from Molokai, 6 plants from northwest Hawaiian Islands, 57 
plants from Hawaii, Keck's checkermallow, yellow and Bakers larskspurs, 
and 101 plants from Oahu, Rio Grande silvery minnow, 9 invertebrates 
from Bexar County, Texas; Carolina heelsplitter, gulf sturgeon, 
Appalachian elktoe, and Great Plains breeding population of piping 
plover; 90-day petition findings--Miami blue butterfly; 12-month 
petition findings--Big Cypress fox squirrel, and Columbia spotted frog; 
proposed listing rules--island fox; final listing determinations--flat-
tailed horned lizard, showy stickseed, San Diego ambrosia, southern 
California DPS of mountain yellow-legged frog, coastal cutthroat trout, 
Chiricahua leopard frog, vermilion darter, Mississippi gopher frog, and 
golden sedge; emergency listings--pygmy rabbit, Carson's wandering 
skipper, and Tumbling Creek cavesnail.
    Issuance of proposed listing rules for most of the candidates even 
with the highest listing priority numbers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3) will 
continue to be precluded next year due to the need to take actions to 
comply with court orders and court-approved settlement agreements, as 
well as the need to comply (or end non-compliance) with the unqualified 
statutory deadlines for making 12-month petition findings and final 
listing determinations on proposed rules. Currently, in addition to 
those final determinations required by court orders and settlement 
agreements, we will also need to work in the next year on final 
determinations for at least 23 species:

[[Page 54816]]

Cowhead Lake tui chub, meadowfoam, lomatium, 3 Mariana Islands plants, 
12 pomace flies, Mariana fruit bat, Dolly Varden trout, desert 
yellowhead, and mountain plover. Again, in addition to those 12-month 
findings required by court orders and settlement agreements, we must 
make initial 12-month findings for at least 7 species: Yosemite toad, 
California spotted owl, mountain yellow-legged frog (entire 
population), Henderson's horkelia, Mt. Ashland lupine, and 2 Puerto 
Rican plants. If over the next year we can devote any resources to 
issuing proposed rules for the highest priority candidates without 
jeopardizing our ability to comply with court orders, court-approved 
settlement agreements, or unqualified statutory deadlines, we will do 
so.
    Finally, with respect to those candidates with lower priority 
(i.e., those that have listing priority numbers of 4-12), work on 
proposed rules for those species is also precluded by the need to issue 
proposed rules for those species that are higher priorities, 
particularly those facing high magnitude, imminent threats (i.e., 
listing priority numbers of 1, 2, or 3). Table 1 lists the listing 
priority number for each candidate species.
Mammals
    Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)--As described in 
our February 4, 2000, 12-month finding (65 FR 5476), black-tailed 
prairie dog populations have been significantly reduced and are subject 
to many persistent threats. We believe that various threats (especially 
plague and pest control efforts via chemical agents) continue to cause 
local extirpations that could lead to the species becoming vulnerable 
in a significant portion of its range. Additionally, the species may 
have difficulty coping with challenges without the advantage of its 
historic abundance and wide distribution. Accordingly, the 
vulnerability of the species to population reductions may be related 
less to its absolute numbers than to the number of colonies in which it 
exists, their size, their geospatial relationship, existing barriers to 
immigration and emigration, and the number and nature of the direct 
threats to the species. While positive first steps to conserve and 
manage black-tailed prairie dogs have been made by some States and 
Tribes, more conservation work will be needed by all States, Tribes, 
and Federal agencies to sufficiently reduce threats to the species. The 
overall magnitude and immediacy of threats to this species remain 
unchanged since the 12-month finding was published with a listing 
priority number of 8.
    Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)--See above summary of new species 
for discussion on why this species warrants listing. The above summary 
is based on information contained in our files, including information 
from the petition received on June 6, 2000. Although work on court-
ordered section 4 actions have precluded us from issuing a proposed 
rule to date, despite the fact this species has a listing priority of 
2, we recently entered into a settlement agreement on October 2, 2001, 
(Center for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Norton, Civ. No. 01-2063 
(JR) (D.D.C.)) that will require us to deliver by November 30, 2001, a 
proposed rule to the Federal Register for publication.
    Sea otter, Aleutian Islands DPS (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on October 26, 2000. 
The worldwide population of sea otters in the early 1700s has been 
estimated at 150,000 to 300,000. Extensive commercial hunting of sea 
otters in Alaska began following the arrival of Russian explorers in 
1741 and continued during the 18th and 19th centuries. By the time sea 
otters were afforded protection from commercial harvests by 
international treaty in 1911, the species was nearly extinct throughout 
its range, and may have numbered only 1,000 to 2,000 individuals. Today 
three subspecies of sea otter have been identified. The northern sea 
otter contains two subspecies: Enhydra lutris kenyoni, which occurs 
from the Aleutian Islands to Oregon, and Enhydra lutris lutris, which 
occurs in the Kuril Islands, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Commander Islands 
in Russia. The third subspecies, Enhydra lutris nereis, occurs in 
California and is known as the southern sea otter. Until recently, 
southwest Alaska had been considered a stronghold for sea otters. In 
the mid-1980s, biologists believed that 80% of the world population of 
sea otters occurred in southwest Alaska. Recent aerial surveys document 
drastic population declines (up to 90%) have occurred throughout this 
area during the past 10-15 years. Today as few as 9,000 sea otters may 
remain in the Aleutian Islands. Potential threats include both natural 
fluctuations and human activities, which may have caused changes in the 
Bering Sea ecosystem. Subsistence hunting occurs at very low levels and 
does not appear to be a factor in the decline. While disease, 
starvation, and contaminants have not been implicated at this time, 
additional evaluation of these factors is warranted. The hypothesis 
that predation by killer whales is causing the sea otter decline should 
also be further studied. Due to the precipitous and rapid nature of the 
ongoing population decline, we have assigned the Aleutian Islands DPS 
of Enhydra lutris kenyoni a listing a priority of 3 under our listing 
priority system. Additionally, we have no indication that the decline 
has reached an endpoint, and therefore immediate action is needed.
    Sheath-tailed bat, American Samoa and Aguijan DPS (Emballonura 
semicaudata)--The following summary is based on information contained 
in our files, including information from the petition received on March 
3, 1986. Historically the sheath-tailed bat was known from the southern 
Mariana Islands, Palau, and Western and American Samoa. Populations on 
the Mariana Islands of Guam and Rota have been extirpated and the 
Mariana population on Aguijan has been reduced to approximately 10 
individuals. A similar drastic decline has occurred in American Samoa 
where populations of this bat were estimated at over 10,000 in 1976. In 
1993, only four bats were recorded. This species resides in caves and 
is very susceptible to disturbance. The populations in American Samoa 
and the Mariana Islands are at the extreme limits of the species' 
range. Roost sites have been rendered unsuitable for bats by human 
intrusion into caves and the use of some caves as garbage dumps. 
Typhoons have also damaged some caves by blocking entrances or by 
flooding coastal caves. The loss of roost sites has severely restricted 
population size, especially in American Samoa, where few caves exist. 
In addition, small populations and limited numbers of populations place 
this distinct population segment at great risk of extinction from 
inbreeding, stochastic events, and storms. Based on immediate threats 
of a high magnitude, we assigned the American Samoa and Aguijan DPS of 
the sheath-tailed bat a listing priority number of 3.
    Southern Idaho ground Squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus endemicus)--
See above summary of listing priority changes for discussion on why 
this species warrants listing. The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files, including information from the 
petition received on January 29, 2001.
    Washington ground squirrel (Spermophilus washingtoni)--See above 
summary of new species for discussion on why this species warrants 
listing. The above summary is based on information contained in our 
files,

[[Page 54817]]

including information from the petition received on March 2, 2000.
Birds
    Band-rumped storm-petrel, Hawaii DPS (Oceanodroma castro)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on May 8, 1989. 
Breeding season surveys on Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, as well as reports 
of fledglings picked up on Hawaii and Kauai, confirm that small 
populations still exist on these Hawaiian islands. Estimates of the 
total State-wide population could exceed 100 pairs if viable breeding 
populations exist on Maui and Hawaii. Although small populations do 
occur on Maui and Hawaii, we have been unable to determine if they are 
viable; certainly they are not large and they represent a fraction of 
pre-historic distribution. Predation by introduced species is believed 
to have played a significant role in reducing storm-petrel numbers and 
in exterminating colonies in the Pacific and other locations worldwide. 
Additionally, artificial lights have had a significant negative effect 
on fledgling young and, to a lesser degree, adults. Artificial lighting 
of roadways, resorts, ballparks, residences, and other development in 
lower elevation areas attracts and confuses night-flying, storm-petrel 
fledglings, resulting in ``fall-out'' and collisions with buildings and 
other objects. Currently, the species is not known to be taken or used 
for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 
During surveys on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in 1992, several caches of 
Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel carcasses associated with feral cat 
predation were recorded in areas where band-rumped storm-petrel 
vocalizations were recorded. Based on imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned this Hawaii DPS of the band-rumped storm-petrel 
a listing priority number of 3.
    Gunnison sage grouse (Centrocercus minimus)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files, including information 
from the petition received on January 25, 2000. The range of the 
Gunnison sage grouse has been reduced to less than 25 percent of its 
historic range. Size of the range and quality of its habitat have been 
reduced by direct habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation from 
building development, road and utility corridors, fences, energy 
development, conversion of native habitat to hay or other crop fields, 
alteration or destruction of wetland and riparian areas, inappropriate 
livestock management, competition for winter range by big game, and 
creation of large reservoirs. Other factors affecting the Gunnison sage 
grouse include fire suppression, overgrazing by elk (Cervus elaphus) 
and deer (Odocoileus hemionus), drought, disturbance or death by off-
highway vehicles, harassment from people and pets, noise that impairs 
acoustical quality of leks, genetic depression, pesticides, pollution, 
and competition for habitat from other species. For greater detail as 
to why listing is warranted, see 65 FR 82310. We consider all of these 
threats to be of high magnitude but non-imminent; therefore, we 
assigned the Gunnison sage grouse a listing priority of 5.
    Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on October 5, 1995. Biologists 
estimate that the occupied range has declined at least 78% since 1963 
and 92% since the 1800s. The most serious threats to the lesser 
prairie-chicken are loss of habitat from conversion of native 
rangelands to introduced forages and cultivation, and cumulative 
habitat degradation caused by severe grazing, fire suppression, 
herbicides, and structural developments. Many of these threats may 
exacerbate the normal effects of periodic drought on lesser prairie-
chicken populations. In many cases, the remaining suitable habitat has 
become fragmented by the spatial arrangement of properties affected by 
these individual threats. We view current and continued habitat 
fragmentation to be a serious ongoing threat that facilitates the 
extinction process through several mechanisms: remaining habitat 
patches may become smaller than necessary to meet the yearlong 
requirements of individuals and populations; necessary habitat 
heterogeneity may be lost to large areas of monoculture vegetation and/
or homogenous habitat structure; areas between habitat patches may 
harbor high levels of predators or brood parasites; and the probability 
of recolonization decreases as the distance between suitable habitat 
patches expands. Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms to 
protect lesser prairie-chicken habitat was cited as a potential threat 
to the species in the Service's 12-month finding. Most occupied lesser 
prairie-chicken habitat throughout its current range occurs on private 
land, where States continue to have little authority to protect the 
species or its habitat, with the exception of setting harvest 
regulations. Although some federal lands within occupied range have 
voluntarily accommodated some needs of the lesser prairie-chicken, we 
believe that the prairie-chicken cannot be sufficiently conserved only 
on Federal lands to prevent extinction. Concern exists that 
recreational hunting and harassment are also potential threats to the 
species. While we do not believe that overutilization through 
recreational hunting is a primary cause of lesser prairie-chicken 
decline, we are concerned that small and fragmented populations may be 
vulnerable to local extirpations caused by repeated harvest pressure, 
especially near leks. Therefore, we suggest conservative harvest limits 
and careful oversight of harvest pressure on small and fragmented 
populations. Similarly, the effect of recreational viewing at leks is 
unknown, although likely to be minimal if disturbance is avoided by 
observers remaining in vehicles or blinds until birds disperse 
naturally from the lek, and observations are limited to robust leks in 
close proximity to other active leks. Based on all currently available 
information, we find that ongoing threats to the lesser prairie-
chicken, as outlined in the 12-month finding, remain unchanged and 
lesser prairie-chickens continue to warrant federal listing as 
threatened. We have determined that the overall magnitude of threats to 
the lesser prairie-chicken throughout its range are moderate, and that 
the threats are ongoing, thus they are considered imminent. 
Consequently, a listing priority of 8 remains appropriate for the 
species. The magnitude of threats to lesser prairie-chickens rest 
primarily on the quality of existing habitat. At present, all States 
within occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken are committing 
significant resources via personnel, outreach, and habitat improvement 
incentives to landowners to recover the species. We recognize that 
measurable increases in populations often come years after certain 
habitat improvements occur. We believe that barring prolonged drought, 
the species' status is improving overall and should continue to improve 
in future years. Therefore, we cannot at this time justify elevating 
the listing priority of the lesser prairie-chicken based on magnitude 
of threats. Finally, we maintain that remaining populations are 
becoming increasingly fragmented, and therefore vulnerable to local 
extinctions. This is particularly true for isolated populations of 
lesser prairie-chickens in the Permian Basin/western panhandle of Texas 
and areas south of highway 380 in southeastern New Mexico. The 
impending loss of

[[Page 54818]]

these populations is of major concern to us and efforts to address this 
are ongoing. However, we believe that, given all currently available 
information, the net benefits of ongoing conservation activities by the 
States, Federal agencies, and private groups, combined with the recent 
increase in both range and numbers in Kansas, exceed the latest 
negative trends of local populations in the southern periphery of 
occupied range. However, should the current conservation momentum fail 
to stabilize and increase existing populations throughout significant 
portions of the remaining range, we will consider elevating the listing 
priority of the species.
    Yellow-billed cuckoo, western continental U.S. DPS (Coccyzus 
americanus)--See above summary of new candidate species for discussion 
on why this DPS of the yellow-billed cuckoo warrants listing. The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on February 9, 1998. Also see 
our 12-month finding (66 FR 38611) published on July 25, 2001.
Reptiles
    Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on July 19, 2000. The Louisiana pine snake 
historically occurred in portions of west-central Louisiana and extreme 
east-central Texas. Louisiana pine snakes have not been documented in 
over a decade in some of the best remaining habitat within their 
historical range. Surveys and results of Louisiana pine snake trapping 
and radio-telemetry suggest that extensive population declines and 
local extirpations have occurred during the last 50 to 80 years. The 
quality of remaining Louisiana pine snake habitat has been degraded due 
to logging, fire suppression, short-rotation silviculture, and 
conversion of habitat to other uses such as grazing. Other factors 
affecting Louisiana pine snakes include low fecundity (reproductive 
output), which magnifies other threats and increases the likelihood of 
local extinctions, and vehicle mortality, which may cause significant 
impacts to the Louisiana pine snake's population numbers and community 
structure. Due to non-imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned 
a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Cagle's map turtle (Graptemys caglei)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on April 26, 1991. Cagle's map turtle occurs in 
scattered sites in seven counties in Texas on the Guadalupe, San 
Marcos, and Blanco Rivers. Loss and degradation of riverine habitat 
from large and/or small impoundments (dams or reservoirs) is the 
primary threat to Cagle's map turtle. One detrimental effect of 
impoundment is the loss of riffle and riffle/pool transition areas used 
by males for foraging. Depending on its size, a dam itself may be a 
partial or complete barrier to Cagle's map turtle movements and could 
fragment a population. Construction of smaller impoundments and human 
activities on the river have likely eliminated or reduced foraging and 
basking habitats. Cagle's map turtle is also vulnerable to over-
collecting and target shooting, and current regulations are inadequate 
to protect this species. Due to non-imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
Amphibians
    Columbia spotted frog, Great Basin DPS (Rana luteiventris)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on May 1, 1989. Recent 
work by researchers in Idaho and Nevada has documented the loss of 
historically known sites, reduced numbers of individuals within local 
populations, and declines in the reproduction of those individuals. 
Since 1996, extensive surveys throughout southern Idaho and eastern 
Oregon have led to increases in the number of known spotted frog sites. 
Although efforts to survey for spotted frogs have increased the 
available information regarding known species locations, most of these 
sites support only small numbers of frogs. Extensive monitoring at 10 
of the 46 occupied sites since 1997 indicates a decline in the number 
of adult spotted frogs encountered. All known populations in southern 
Idaho and in eastern Oregon appear to be functionally isolated. Spotted 
frog habitat degradation and fragmentation is probably a combined 
result of past and current influences of heavy livestock grazing, 
spring alterations, agricultural development, urbanization, and mining 
activities. Based on imminent threats of high magnitude, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 3 to this DPS of the Columbia spotted frog.
    Oregon spotted frog, West Coast DPS (Rana pretiosa)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on May 4, 1989. Based on surveys 
of historic sites, this DPS of the Oregon spotted frog is now absent 
from at least 76 percent of its former range. The west coast DPS may be 
absent from as much as 90 percent of its former range because the 
collections of historic specimens did not adequately reflect its actual 
geographic and elevational range. Threats to the species' habitat 
include development, livestock grazing, introduction of nonnative plant 
species, changes in hydrology due to construction of dams and 
alterations to seasonal flooding, poor water quality, and water 
contamination. Additional threats to the species are predation by 
nonnative fish and introduced bullfrogs. Based on these threats, we 
assigned this DPS of Oregon spotted frog a listing priority number of 
3.
    California tiger salamander (entire population except where listed) 
(Ambystoma californiense)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files, including information from the 
petition received on February 26, 1992. The California tiger salamander 
has been eliminated from 54 percent of its historic breeding sites, and 
has lost an estimated 65 percent of its habitat. The distribution of 
the species is now discontinuous and fragmented throughout its range. 
All of the estimated seven genetic populations of this species have 
declined significantly because of urban and agricultural development, 
and other human-caused factors in breeding and upland habitat used for 
estivation and migration. Existing regulatory mechanisms are inadequate 
to protect California tiger salamander habitat. Based on non-imminent 
threats of a high magnitude, we assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 5.
    Boreal toad, Southern Rocky Mountains DPS (Bufo boreas boreas)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on September 30, 1993. 
Boreal toads of the Southern Rocky Mountain DPS were once common 
throughout much of the high elevations in Colorado, in the Snowy and 
Sierra Madre Ranges of southeast Wyoming, and at three breeding 
localities at the southern periphery of their range in the San Juan 
Mountains of New Mexico. In the late 1980s boreal toads were found to 
be absent from 83 percent of breeding localities in Colorado and 94 
percent of breeding localities in Wyoming previously known to contain 
toads. In 1999, the number of known breeding localities increased to 
50, with 1 in Wyoming, none in New Mexico, and the remaining sites in 
Colorado. This

[[Page 54819]]

increase in known breeding localities, however, was likely due to 
survey efforts rather than expansion of the population. Land use in 
boreal toad habitat includes recreation, timber harvesting, livestock 
grazing, and watershed alteration activities. Though declines in toad 
numbers have not been directly linked to habitat alteration, activities 
that destroy, modify, or curtail habitat likely contribute to the 
continued decline in toad numbers. The current and future use of water 
rights in the Southern Rocky Mountains may impact boreal toads. 
Increased demands on limited water resources can result in water level 
drops in reservoirs that toads are using. Transferring rights from one 
user group to another (e.g., agricultural to municipal) also could 
reduce toad habitat, particularly if dewatering of reservoir sites 
resulted from these transfers. Additional threats to the boreal toad 
include a chytrid fungus, which likely caused the boreal toad to 
decline in the 1970s and continues to cause declines. Based on these 
threats, we assigned this DPS of boreal toad a listing priority number 
of 3.
Fishes
    Gila chub (Gila intermedia)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files, including information from the 
petition received on June 10, 1998. The Gila chub has been extirpated 
or reduced in numbers and distribution in the majority of its 
historical range. Over 70 percent of the Gila chub's habitat has been 
degraded or destroyed, and much of it is unrecoverable. Of the 15 
remaining populations, most are small, isolated, and threatened, and 
only one population is considered secure. Wetland habitat degradation 
and loss is a major threat to the Gila chub. Human activities such as 
groundwater pumping, surface water diversions, impoundments, 
channelization, improper livestock grazing, vegetation manipulation, 
agriculture, mining, road building, nonnative species introductions, 
urbanization, and recreation all contribute to riparian loss and 
degradation in southern Arizona, thereby, threatening this species. 
Based on imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned this species 
a listing priority number of 2. Although work on court-ordered section 
4 actions have precluded us from issuing a proposed rule to date, 
despite the fact that this species has a listing priority number of 2, 
we recently entered into a settlement agreement on October 2, 2001 
(Center for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Norton, Civ. No. 01-2063 
(JR) (D.D.C.)) that will require us to deliver by July 31, 2002, a 
proposed rule to the Federal Register for publication.
    Arctic grayling, upper Missouri River DPS (Thymallus arcticus)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on October 2, 1992. 
Presently, the only self-sustaining remnant of the indigenous fluvial 
Arctic grayling population exists in the Big Hole River, estimated to 
represent 5 percent or less of the historic range for this species in 
Montana and Wyoming. Reestablishment efforts are underway in four 
streams within the historic range. The grayling faces threats primarily 
from a decrease in available habitat as a result of dewatering of 
streams for irrigation and stock water, ongoing drought conditions, and 
habitat degradation from dams and reservoirs. Landowners and other 
interests are implementing actions to ensure adequate water conditions 
in the Big Hole River. Additionally, predation on or competition with 
Arctic grayling by nonnative trout are thought to be factors limiting 
grayling populations. Due to imminent threats of a low to moderate 
magnitude, we assigned this DPS of Arctic grayling a listing priority 
number of 9.
Snails
    Koster's tryonia snail (Tryonia kosteri)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on November 20, 1985. Koster's tryonia snail is 
an aquatic species known only from North Spring (private land) and four 
spring/seepage areas on Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Chaves 
County, New Mexico. This snail was found at several other springs in 
the Roswell area, but these habitats are no longer suitable due to 
groundwater pumping. Koster's tryonia snail is imperilled by local and 
regional ground water depletion, habitat destruction, direct 
manipulation of lotic habitat (moving water), surface and ground water 
pollution such as sewage, pesticides, and oil and gas industry 
operations. The geographically restricted distribution of Koster's 
tryonia snail makes the species vulnerable to human-caused or natural 
events that could destroy a significant portion of the species' 
remaining populations and habitat. Because of these threats, we 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 2. Although work on 
court-ordered section 4 actions have precluded us from issuing a 
proposed rule to date, despite the fact that this species has a listing 
priority number of 2, we recently entered into a settlement agreement 
on October 2, 2001 (Center for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Norton, 
Civ. No. 01-2063 (JR) (D.D.C.)), that will require us to deliver by 
February 6, 2002, a proposed rule to the Federal Register for 
publication.
    Pecos assiminea snail (Assiminea pecos)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on November 20, 1985. The Pecos assiminea snail 
is a semiaquatic mollusc known from two spring/seepage areas on Bitter 
Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Chaves County, New Mexico; Diamond Y 
Springs complex in Pecos County, Texas; and East Sandia Spring in 
Reeves County, Texas. This snail was found at other springs in the 
Roswell, New Mexico, area, but these habitats are no longer suitable 
due to groundwater pumping. The Pecos assiminea snail is imperilled by 
habitat destruction, local and regional ground water depletion, direct 
manipulation of lotic habitat, and surface and ground water pollution, 
such as sewage, pesticides, and oil and gas industry operations. Steps 
are needed to protect and maintain the vegetative cover in which the 
snail lives. Based on imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned 
this species a listing priority of 2. Although work on court-ordered 
section 4 actions have precluded us from issuing a proposed rule to 
date, despite the fact that this species has a listing priority number 
of 2, we recently entered into a settlement agreement on October 2, 
2001 (Center for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Norton, Civ. No. 01-
2063 (JR) (D.D.C.)), that will require us to deliver by February 6, 
2002, a proposed rule to the Federal Register for publication.
    Chupadera springsnail (Pyrgulopsis chupaderae)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on November 20, 1985. This 
aquatic species is endemic to Willow Spring on the Willow Spring Ranch 
(formerly Cienega Ranch) at the south end of the Chupadera Mountains in 
Socorro County, New Mexico. The Chupadera springsnail has been 
documented from two hillside groundwater discharges that flow through 
grazed areas among rhyolitic gravels containing sand, mud, and 
hydrophytic plants. Regional and local groundwater depletion, springrun 
dewatering, and riparian habitat degradation represent the principal 
threats. The survival and recovery of the Chupadera springsnail is 
contingent upon protection of the riparian corridor immediately 
adjacent to Willow Spring,

[[Page 54820]]

and the availability of perennial, oxygenated flowing water within the 
species' thermal range. Existing regulatory mechanisms are not 
sufficient to protect this species. New Mexico State law provides 
limited protection to the Chupadera springsnail, but this law does not 
provide for habitat protection. Because these threats are imminent but 
of a low to moderate magnitude, we assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 8.
    Gila springsnail (Pyrgulopsis gilae)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on November 20, 1985. The Gila springsnail is an 
aquatic species known from 13 populations in New Mexico. The long-term 
persistence of the Gila springsnail is contingent upon protection of 
the riparian corridor immediately adjacent to springhead and springrun 
habitats, thereby ensuring the maintenance of perennial, oxygenated 
flowing water within the species' required thermal range. Sites on both 
private and Federal lands are subject to uncontrolled recreational use 
and livestock grazing (Mehlhop 1993), thus rendering the long-term 
survival of the Gila springsnail questionable. Natural events such as 
drought, forest fire, sedimentation, and flooding; wetland habitat 
degradation by recreational bathing in thermal springs; and poor 
watershed management practices such as overgrazing and inappropriate 
silviculture, represent the primary threats to the Gila springsnail. 
Fire suppression and retardant chemicals have potentially deleterious 
effects on this species. Existing regulatory mechanisms are not 
sufficient to protect the Gila springsnail. New Mexico State law 
provides limited protection to the Gila springsnail, but this law does 
not provide for habitat protection. Based on these non-imminent threats 
of a low magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 11 to this 
species.
    New Mexico springsnail (Pyrgulopsis thermalis)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on November 20, 1985. The New 
Mexico springsnail is an aquatic species known from only two separate 
populations associated with a series of spring-brook systems along the 
Gila River in the Gila National Forest in Grant County, New Mexico. The 
long-term persistence of the New Mexico springsnail is contingent upon 
protection of the riparian corridor immediately adjacent to springhead 
and springrun habitats, thereby ensuring the maintenance of perennial, 
oxygenated flowing water within the species' required thermal range. 
While the New Mexico springsnail populations may be stable, the sites 
inhabited by the species are subject to uncontrolled recreational use 
and livestock grazing. Wetland habitat degradation via recreational use 
and overgrazing in or near the thermal springs and/or poor watershed 
management practices represent the primary threats to the New Mexico 
springsnail. Natural events such as drought, forest fire, 
sedimentation, and flooding may further imperil populations. 
Additionally, fire suppression and retardant chemicals have potentially 
deleterious effects on this species. Existing regulatory mechanisms are 
also not sufficient to protect the New Mexico springsnail. New Mexico 
State law provides limited protection to the New Mexico springsnail, 
but this law does not provide for habitat protection. Based on these 
non-imminent threats of a low magnitude, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 11.
    Roswell springsnail (Pyrgulopsis roswellensis)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on November 20, 1985. The 
Roswell springsnail is an aquatic species only known from North Spring 
(private land) and three spring/seepage areas on Bitter Lake National 
Wildlife Refuge in Chaves County, New Mexico. This snail was found at 
several other springs in the Roswell area, but these habitats have 
become unsuitable due to groundwater pumping. The Roswell springsnail 
is imperilled by local and regional ground water depletion, habitat 
destruction, direct manipulation of lotic habitat (moving water), 
surface and ground water pollution (such as sewage), pesticides, and 
oil and gas industry operations. Existing regulatory mechanisms are not 
sufficient to protect the Roswell springsnail. New Mexico State law 
provides limited protection to the Roswell springsnail, but this law 
does not provide for habitat protection. Due to imminent threats of a 
high magnitude, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 
2. Although work on court-ordered section 4 actions have precluded us 
from issuing a proposed rule to date, despite the fact that this 
species has a listing priority number of 2, we recently entered into a 
settlement agreement on October 2, 2001 (Center for Biological 
Diversity, et al. v. Norton, Civ. No. 01-2063 (JR) (D.D.C.)), that will 
require us to deliver by February 6, 2002, a proposed rule to the 
Federal Register for publication.
Insects
    Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on November 14, 2000. 
We believe that this skipper has been extirpated from the Carson Hot 
Springs site. As a result, this subspecies currently occurs at three 
locations in two areas: Pyramid and Honey Lakes. Threats at the Pyramid 
Lake site include grazing and potential future water development. At 
the two Honey Lake sites, the invasion of nonnative plant species such 
as whitetop (Lepidium latifolium), which outcompetes native nectar 
plants, threatens the skipper. Grazing in this area may also pose a 
threat to the skipper's habitat. Additional potential future threats 
include exportation of water from Honey Lake to other locations. Due to 
imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned this subspecies a 
listing priority number of 3. Although work on court-ordered section 4 
actions have precluded us from issuing a proposed rule to date, despite 
the fact that this species has a listing priority number of 3, we 
recently entered into a settlement agreement on October 2, 2001 (Center 
for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Norton, Civ. No. 01-2063 (JR) 
(D.D.C.)), that will require us to deliver by November 23, 2001, a 
decision on whether to emergency list to the Federal Register for 
publication.
    Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle (Cicindela limbata albinssima)--
The following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on April 21, 1994. The 
Coral Pink Sand Dunes (CPSD) tiger beetle is known to occur only at 
CPSD, about 7 miles west of Kanab, Kane County, in south-central Utah. 
It is restricted mostly to a small part of the approximately 13-
kilometer (8-mile) long dune field, situated at an elevation of about 
1,820 meters (6,000 feet). The subspecies' habitat is being adversely 
impacted by ongoing recreational off-road vehicle (ORV) use. The ORV 
activity is destroying and degrading the species' habitat, especially 
the inter-dunal swales used by the larval population. Having the 
greatest abundance of suitable prey species, the inter-dunal swales are 
the most biologically productive areas in the CPSD ecosystem. The 
continued survival of the species depends on the preservation of the 
species and its habitat at its only breeding reproductive site and the 
probable need to establish

[[Page 54821]]

or reestablish additional reproductive subpopulations in other suitable 
habitat sites within CPSD. The species population is also vulnerable to 
overcollecting by professional and hobby tiger beetle collectors, 
although quantification of this threat is difficult without continuous 
monitoring of the species population. Based on imminent threats of a 
low to moderate magnitude, we assigned this subspecies a listing 
priority number of 9.
Flowering plants
    Christ's paintbrush (Castilleja christii)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on January 2, 2001. Castilleja christii is 
endemic to subalpine meadow and sagebrush habitats in the upper 
elevations of the Albion Mountains, Cassia County, Idaho. The single 
population of this species, which covers only 81 hectares (ha) (200 
acres (ac)), is restricted to the summit of Mount Harrison. The 
population appears to be stable, although the species is threatened by 
a variety of activities including frequent unauthorized off-road 
vehicle use that results in erosion of the plant's habitat and 
mortality of individual plants. Livestock grazing can adversely affect 
C. christii by trampling and/or consuming plants, which results in 
reduced reproductive success; grazing occurred in the area where C. 
christii exists during 1999, but not in 2000. In addition, road 
maintenance activities and trampling by hikers potentially impact this 
species. Because the threats are of a low to moderate magnitude and 
non-imminent, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 11.
    San Fernando Valley spineflower (Chorizanthe parryi fernandina)--
The following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on December 14, 1999. 
Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina was thought to be extinct, but its 
rediscovery was disclosed in the late spring of 1999. The plant 
currently is known from two disjunct localities. The first locality is 
in the southeastern portion of Ventura County, on a site approved for 
development, where it was found and identified by consultants employed 
by the developer. The second is located in southwestern Los Angeles 
County on a site with approved development plans. As currently planned, 
it is likely that construction of proposed development will extirpate 
the first population in Ventura County. It is unclear how the 
development in Los Angeles will affect that population. The majority of 
the historical collections of this plant, from the greater Los Angeles 
metropolitan area, were made from areas where urban, agricultural, and 
industrial development have replaced native habitats. During the last 
few decades, numerous field botanists have been unable to locate the 
species, even where historically recorded, largely due to the 
alteration and loss of suitable habitat. San Fernando Valley 
spineflower is also threatened by invasive nonnative plants, including 
grasses, that potentially fragment suitable habitat; displace it from 
available habitat; compete for light, water, and nutrients; and reduce 
survival and establishment. This plant is particularly vulnerable to 
extinction due to its two isolated populations. Species with few 
populations and disjunct distributions are vulnerable to naturally 
occurring, random events. Because of imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 to this plant.
    Slick spot peppergrass (Lepidium papilliferum)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files, including 
information from the petition received on April 9, 2001. Lepidium 
papilliferum is an annual or biennial that occurs in sagebrush-steppe 
habitats at approximately 670 meters (m) (2,200 feet (ft)) to 1,615 m 
(5,300 ft) elevation in southwestern Idaho. The total amount of 
currently occupied L. papilliferum habitat is less than 31.8 ha (78.4 
ac), and the amount of high-quality occupied habitat for this species 
is less than 1.3 ha (3.3 ac). The documented extirpation rate for this 
taxon is the highest known of any Idaho rare plant species. This 
species is threatened by a variety of activities including 
urbanization, gravel mining, irrigated agriculture, habitat degradation 
due to cattle and sheep grazing, fire and fire rehabilitation 
activities, and continued invasion of habitat by nonnative plant 
species. Because the majority of populations are extremely small and 
existing habitat is fragmented by agricultural conversion, fire, 
grazing, roads, and urbanization, local extirpation is a threat to this 
species. Based on immediate threats of a high magnitude, we assigned 
this species a listing priority number of 2.
    White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus albifluvis)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on October 27, 1983. 
The White River beardtongue is restricted to calcareous soils derived 
from oil shale barrens of the Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin 
of northeastern Utah and adjacent Colorado. Most of the occupied 
habitat of the White River beardtongue is within developed and 
expanding oil and gas fields. Several wells and access roads are within 
the species' occupied habitat. The location of the species' habitat 
exposes it to destruction from off-road vehicle use, and road, 
pipeline, and well-site construction in connection with oil and gas 
development. With such a small population and limited occupied habitat, 
any destruction, modification, or curtailment of the habitat would have 
a highly negative impact on the species. Additionally, the species is 
heavily grazed by wildlife and livestock and is vulnerable to livestock 
trampling. Currently, no Federal or State laws specifically protect the 
White River beardtongue. Based on non-imminent threats of a high 
magnitude, we assigned this subspecies a listing priority number of 6.
    Tahoe yellow cress (Rorippa subumbellata)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received on December 27, 2000. Tahoe yellow cress is a 
small, perennial herb known only from the shores of Lake Tahoe in 
California and Nevada. Based on presence/absence information, it has 
been determined that the Tahoe yellow cress has been extirpated from 10 
of 52 historic locations. Tahoe yellow cress occurs in a dynamic 
environment affected by both natural processes and human activities. 
Under natural conditions, Tahoe yellow cress is apparently tolerant of 
the dynamic nature of its habitat and is adapted for survival in a 
disturbance regime. However, due to the combination of unnatural lake 
level fluctuation due to dam operations and other human activities, 
habitat conditions are no longer considered natural. Heavy recreational 
use of the beaches may result in the direct loss of individual plants 
as well as the degradation of habitat through compaction and mixing of 
sandy substrates. Based on imminent threats of a high magnitude, we 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.

Petition To Reclassify Species Already Listed

    We have also previously made warranted but precluded findings on 
five petitions that sought to reclassify to endangered status species 
already listed as threatened. Because these species are already listed, 
they are not technically candidates for listing and are not included in 
Table 1. However, this notice also constitutes the recycled petition 
findings for these species. We find that reclassification to endangered 
status is currently warranted but

[[Page 54822]]

precluded by work identified above (see Petition of a Candidate 
Species) for the:
    (1) North Cascades ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) 
DPS (Region 6) (see 64 FR 30453 for a discussion on why 
reclassification is warranted);
    (2) Cabinet-Yaak grizzly bear DPS (Region 6) (see 64 FR 26725 for a 
discussion on why reclassification is warranted);
    (3) Selkirk grizzly bear DPS (Region 6) (see 64 FR 26725 for a 
discussion on why reclassification is warranted);
    (4) Spikedace (Meda fulgida) (Region 2) (see 59 FR 35303 for a 
discussion on why reclassification is warranted); and
    (5) Loach minnow (Tiaroga cobitis) (Region 2) (see 59 FR 35303 for 
a discussion on why reclassification is warranted).

Progress in Revising the Lists

    As described in section 4(b)(3)(B)(iii) of the Act, in order for us 
to make a warranted but precluded finding on a petitioned action, we 
must be making expeditious progress to add qualified species to the 
Lists and to remove from the Lists species for which the protections of 
the Act are no longer necessary. This notice describes our progress in 
revising the lists during the last two fiscal years since our October 
25, 1999 publication of the last CNOR. We intend to publish these 
descriptions annually.
    Our progress in listing and delisting qualified species during 
fiscal years 1999 and 2000 is represented by the publication in the 
Federal Register of final listing actions for 52 species, proposed 
listing actions for 33 species, final delisting actions for 2 species, 
and proposed delisting actions for 3 species. In addition, we proposed 
critical habitat for 174 listed species, and finalized critical habitat 
for 21 listed species. Given the Service's limited budget for 
implementing section 4, these achievements constitute expeditious 
progress.

Request for Information

    We request you submit any further information on the species named 
in this notice as soon as possible or whenever it becomes available. We 
are particularly interested in any information:
    (1) Indicating that we should add a species to the list of 
candidate species;
    (2) Indicating that we should remove a species from candidate 
status;
    (3) Recommending areas that we should designate as critical habitat 
for a species, or indicating that designation of critical habitat would 
not be prudent for a species;
    (4) Documenting threats to any of the included species;
    (5) Describing the immediacy or magnitude of threats facing 
candidate species;
    (6) Pointing out taxonomic or nomenclature changes for any of the 
species;
    (7) Suggesting appropriate common names; or
    (8) Noting any mistakes, such as errors in the indicated historical 
ranges. Submit your comments regarding a particular species to the 
Regional Director of the Region identified as having the lead 
responsibility for that species. The regional addresses follow:

Region 1. California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, 
American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Eastside 
Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232-4181 
(503/231-6158).

Region 2. Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 500 Gold 
Avenue SW., Room 4012, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102 (505/248-6920).

Region 3. Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, 
and Wisconsin.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bishop 
Henry Whipple Federal Building, One Federal Drive, Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota 55111-4056 (612/713-5334).

Region 4. Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico, 
and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1875 
Century Boulevard, Suite 200, Atlanta, Georgia 30345 (404/679-4156).

Region 5. Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 
Westgate Center Drive, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035-9589 (413/253-8615).

Region 6. Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 
25486, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225-0486 (303/236-
7400).

Region 7. Alaska.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East 
Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503-6199 (907/786-3505).

    Our practice is to make comments, including names and home 
addresses of respondents, available for public inspection. Individual 
respondents may request that we withhold their home address from the 
public record, which we will honor to the extent allowable by law. In 
some circumstances, we can also withhold from the public record a 
respondent's identity, as allowable by law. If you wish for us to 
withhold your name and/or address, you must state this request 
prominently at the beginning of your comments. However, we will not 
consider anonymous comments. We will make all submissions from 
organizations or businesses, and from individuals identifying 
themselves as representatives or officials of organizations or 
businesses, available for public inspection in their entirety.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Authority

    This notice of review is published under the authority of the 
Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

    Dated: October 17, 2001.
Marshall P. Jones, Jr.,
Acting Director, Fish and Wildlife Service.

[[Page 54823]]



                             Table 1. Candidate Notice of Review (Animal and Plant)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Status
------------------------     Lead        Common name      Scientific name         Family         Historic range
  Category     Priority     Region
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Mammals
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PT..........          3  R1           Bat, Mariana       Pteropus           Pteropodidae.....  Western Pacific
                                       fruit.             mariannus                             Ocean U.S.A.
                                                          mariannus.                            (GU, MP).
C*..........          3  R1           Bat, sheath-       Emballonura        Emballonuridae...  U.S.A. (AS, GU,
                                       tailed (American   semicaudata.                          MP), Caroline
                                       Samoa, Aguijan                                           Islands .
                                       DPS).
C*..........          3  R1           Fox, island        Urocyon            Canidae..........  U.S.A.
                                       (Santa Catalina,   littoralis                            (California).
                                       Santa Cruz, San    catalinae, U. l.
                                       Miguel, Santa      santacruzae, U.
                                       Rosa Islands).     l. littoralis,
                                                          and U. l.
                                                          santarosae.
C*..........          3  R7           Otter, northern    Enhydra lutris     Mustelidae.......  U.S.A. southwest
                                       sea (Aleutian      kenyoni.                              AK).
                                       Islands DPS).
C...........          6  R1           Pocket Gopher,     Thomomys mazama..  Geomyidae........  U.S.A.
                                       Mazama.                                                  (Washington).
C*..........          8  R6           Prairie dog,       Cynomys            Sciuridae........  U.S.A. (AZ, CO,
                                       black-tailed.      ludovicianus.                         KS, MT, NE, NM,
                                                                                                ND, OK, SD, TX,
                                                                                                WY), Canada,
                                                                                                Mexico.
PE..........          3  R1           Shrew, Buena       Sorex ornatus      Soricidae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Vista Lake.        relictus.
C...........          6  R1           Squirrel,          Spermophilus       Soricidae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Coachella Valley   tereticaudus
                                       round-tailed.      chlorus.
C*..........          3  R1           Squirrel,          Spermophilus       Sciuridae........  U.S.A. (ID).
                                       Southern Idaho     brunneus
                                       ground.            endemicus.
C*..........          2  R1           Squirrel,          Spermophilus       Sciuridae........  U.S.A. (WA, OR).
                                       Washington         washingtoni.
                                       ground.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Birds
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          6  R1           Crake, spotless..  Porzana tabuensis  Rallidae.........  U.S.A. (AS),
                                                                                                Figi, Marquesas,
                                                                                                Polynesia,
                                                                                                Philippines,
                                                                                                Australia,
                                                                                                Society Islands,
                                                                                                Tonga, Western
                                                                                                Samoa.
C...........          5  R1           Creeper, Kauai...  Oreomystis bairdi  Fringillidae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
C*..........          6  R1           Cuckoo, yellow-    Coccyzus           Cucilidae........  U.S.A. (AZ, CA,
                                       billed (Western    americanus.                           CO, ID, MT, NM,
                                       cont. U.S. DPS).                                         NV, OR, TX, UT,
                                                                                                WA, WY)
C...........          6  R1           Dove, friendly     Gallicolumba       Columbidae.......  U.S.A. (AS),
                                       ground.            stairi.                               Fiji, Tonga,
                                                                                                Western Samoa.
C...........          6  R1           Dove, many-        Ptilinopus         Columbidae.......  U.S.A. (AS).
                                       colored fruit.     perousii
                                                          perousii.
C*..........          5  R6           Grouse, Gunnison   Centrocercus       Phasianidae......  U.S.A. (AZ, CO,
                                       sage.              minimus.                              KS, OK, NM, UT).
C*..........          9  R1           Grouse, western    Centrocercus       Phasianidae......  U.S.A. (WA).
                                       sage (Washington   urophasianus
                                       DPS = Columbia     phaios.
                                       basin).
C...........          6  R1           Horned lark,       Eremophila         Alaudidae........  U.S.A. (WA, OR),
                                       streaked.          alpestris                             Canada (BC).
                                                          strigata.
PT..........          2  R6           Plover, mountain.  Charadrius         Charadriidae.....  U.S.A. (western),
                                                          montanus.                             Canada, Mexico.
C*..........          8  R2           Prairie-chicken,   Tympanuchus        Phasianidae......  U.S.A. (CO, KA,
                                       lesser.            pallidicinctus.                       NM, OK, TX).
C*..........          3  R1           Storm-petrel,      Oceanodroma        Hydrobatidae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       band-rumped        castro.
                                       (Hawaii DPS).
C...........          5  R4           Warbler, elfin     Dendroica angelae  Emberizidae......  U.S.A. (PR).
                                       woods.
PE..........          2  R1           White-eye, Rota    Zosterops          Zosteropidae.....  U.S.A. (MP).
                                       bridled.           rotensis.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Reptiles
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          2  R2           Lizard, sand dune  Sceloporus         Iguanidae........  U.S.A. (TX, NM).
                                       lizard.            arenicolus.
C...........          9  R3           Snake, eastern     Sistrurus          Viperidae U.S.A.
                                       Massasauga.        catenatus          (IA, IL, IN, MI,
                                                          catenatus..        MO, MN, NY, OH,
                                                                             PA, WI), Canada
                                                                             (Ont.)..
C...........          6  R4           Snake, black pine  Pituophis........  Colubridae         U.S.A. (AL, LA,
                                                                             melanoleucus       MS).
                                                                             ssplodingi..

[[Page 54824]]

 
C*..........          5  R4           Snake, Louisiana   Pituophis          Colubridae.......  U.S.A. (LA, TX).
                                       pine.              ruthveni.
C*..........          5  R2           Turtle, Cagle's    Graptemys caglei.  Emydidae.........  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       map.
C...........          3  R2           Turtle, Sonoyta    Kinosternon        Kinosternidae....  U.S.A. (AZ),
                                       mud.               sonoriense                            Mexico.
                                                          longifemorale.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Amphibians
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PT..........          2  R2           Frog, Chiricahua   Rana               Ranidae..........  U.S.A. (AZ, NM),
                                       leopard.           chiricahuensis.                       Mexico.
C*..........          3  R1           Frog, Columbia     Rana luteiventris  Ranidae..........  U.S.A. (ID, NV,
                                       spotted (Great                                           OR).
                                       Basin DPS).
PE..........          2  R4           Frog, Mississippi  Rana capito        Ranidae..........  U.S.A. (AL, LA,
                                       gopher (wherever   sevosa.                               MS).
                                       found west of
                                       Mobile and
                                       Tombigbee Rivers
                                       in AL, MS, and
                                       LA.
PE..........        N/A  R1           Frog, mountain     Rana muscosa.....  Ranidae..........  U.S.A. (CA, NV)
                                       yellow-legged                                            including San
                                       (southern                                                Diego, Orange,
                                       California DPS).                                         Riverside, San
                                                                                                Bernardino, and
                                                                                                Los Angeles
                                                                                                Counties.
C*..........          3  R1           Frog, Oregon       Rana pretiosa....  Ranidae..........  U.S.A (CA, OR,
                                       spotted (West                                            WA), Canada
                                       Coast DPS).                                              (BC).
C...........          6  R4           Hellbender, Ozark  Cryptobranchus     Crytobranchidae..  U.S.A. (AR, MO).
                                                          alleganiensis
                                                          bishopi.
C*..........          5  R1           Salamander tiger   Ambystoma          Ambystomatidae...  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       California         californiense.
                                       (entire except
                                       where listed).
C...........          2  R2           Salamander,        Eurycea naufragia  Plethodontidae...  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Georgetown.
C*..........          3  R6           Toad, boreau       Bufo boreas        Bufonidae........  U.S.A. (CO, NM,
                                       (Southern Rocky    boreas.                               WY).
                                       Mountains DPS).
C...........          5  R4           Waterdog, black    Necturus           Proteidae........  U.S.A. (AL).
                                       warrior.           alabamensis.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Fishes
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PE..........          3  R1           Chub, Cowhead      Gila bicolor       Cyprinidae.......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Lake tui.          vaccaceps.
C*..........          2  R2           Chub, Gila.......  Gila intermedia..  Cyprinidae.......  U.S.A. (AZ, NM),
                                                                                                Mexico.
C...........          5  R6           Darter, Arkansas.  Etheostoma         Percidae.........  U.S.A. (AR, CO,
                                                          cragini.                              KS, MO, OK).
C...........          6  R4           Darter,            Etheostoma nigrum  Percidae.........  U.S.A. (KY, TN).
                                       Cumberland         susanae.
                                       johnny.
PE..........        N/A  R4           Darter. Vermilion  Etheostoma         Percidae.........  U.S.A. (AL).
                                                          chermocki.
C...........          2  R4           Darter,            Etheostoma moorei  Percidae.........  U.S.A. (AK).
                                       yellowcheek.
C...........          5  R4           Darter. Pearl....  Percina aurora...  Percidae.........  U.S.A. (LA, MS)
C*..........          9  R6           Grayling, Arctic   Thymallus          Salmonidae.......  U.S.A. (MT, WY)
                                       (upper Missouri    arcticus.
                                       River DPS).
C...........          3  R2           Sucker, Zuni       Catostomus         Catostomidae.....  U.S.A. (AZ, NM)
                                       bluehead.          discobolus
                                                          yarrowi.
PT..........          6  R1           Trout, coastal     Oncorhynchus       Salmonidae.......  U.S.A. (AK, CA,
                                       cutthroat          clarki clarki.                        OR, WA), Canada.
                                       (southwestern WA/
                                       Columbia River
                                       DPS).
PT..........        N/A  R1           Trout, Dolly       Salvelinus malma.  Salmonidae.......  U.S.A. (AK, OR,
                                       Varden.                                                  WA), Canada,
                                                                                                East Asia.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Clams
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          5  R4           Clubshell,         Pleurobema         Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                       Alabama.           troshelianum.                         TN).
C...........          5  R4           Clubshell,         Pleurobema         Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                       painted.           chattanoogaense.                      TN).
C...........          2  R2           Hornshell, Texas.  Popenaias popei..  Unionidae........  U.S.A. (NM, TX),
                                                                                                Mexico.
C...........          5  R4           Kidneyshell,       Ptychobranchus     Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AL, KY,
                                       fluted.            subtentum.                            TN, VA.
C...........          5  R4           Mucket, Neosho...  Lampsilis          Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AR, KS,
                                                          rafinesqueana.                        MO, OK).
C...........          2  R4           Pearlshell,        Margaritifera      Margaritiferidae.  U.S.A. (AL).
                                       Alabama.           marrianae.
C...........          5  R4           Pearlymussel,      Lexingtonia        Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AL, KY,
                                       slabside.          dolabelloides.                        TN, VA).

[[Page 54825]]

 
C...........          5  R4           Pigtoe, Georgia..  Pleurobema         Unionidae........  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                                          hanleyanum.                           TN).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Snails
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          1  R3           Cavesnail,         Antrobia culveri.  Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (MO).
                                       Tumbling Creek.
C...........          9  R6           Mountainsnail,     Oreohelix,         Oreohelicidae....  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       Ogden Deseret.     perpherica
                                                          wasatchensis.
C...........          2  R6           Pondsnail,         Stagnicola         Lymnaeidae.......  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       Bonneville.        bonnevillensis.
C...........          5  R4           Rocksnail,         Leptoxis downei..  Pleuroceridae....  U.S.A. (GA, AL).
                                       Georgia.
C...........          2  R1           Sisi.............  Ostodes strigatus  Potaridae........  U.S.A. (AS).
C...........          2  R2           Snail, Diamond Y   Tryonia            Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Spring.            adamantina.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, fragile     Samoana fragilis.  Partulidae.......  U.S.A. (GU, MP).
                                       tree.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Guam tree.  Partula radiolata  Partulidae.......  U.S.A. (GU).
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Humped      Partula gibba....  Partulidae.......  U.S.A. (GU, MP).
                                       tree.
C*..........          2  R2           Snail, Koster's    Tryonia kosteri..  Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
                                       tryonia.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Lanai tree  Partulina          Achatinellidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          semicarinata.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Lanai tree  Partulina          Achatinellidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          variabilis.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Langford's  Partula langfordi  Partulidae.......  U.S.A. (MP).
                                       tree.
C*..........          2  R2           Snail, Pecos.....  Assiminea pecos..  Assimineidae.....  U.S.A. (NM, TX),
                                                                                                Mexico.
C...........          2  R2           Snail, Phantom     Cochliopa texana.  Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       cave.
C...........          2  R1           Snail, Tutuila     Eua zebrina......  Partulidae.......  U.S.A. (AS).
                                       tree.
C*..........          8  R2           Springsnail,       Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
                                       Chupadera.         chupaderae.
C*..........         11  R2           Springsnail, Gila  Pyrgulopsis gilae  Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
C...........          2  R2           Springsnail,       Tryonia            Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Gonzales.          circumtriata
                                                          (=stocktonensis).
C...........          5  R2           Springsnail,       Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (AZ),
                                       Huachuca.          thompsoni.                            Mexico.
C*..........         11  R2           Springsnail, New   Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
                                       Mexico.            thermalis.
C...........          2  R2           Springsnail, Page  Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                                          morrisoni.
C...........          2  R2           Springsnail,       Tryonia cheatumi.  Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Phantom.
C*..........          2  R2           Springsnail,       Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
                                       Roswell.           roswellensis.
C...........          2  R2           Springsnail,       Pyrgulopsis        Hydrobiidae......  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                       Three Forks.       trivialis.
C...........          5  R1           Tree snail,        Newcombia cumingi  Achatinellidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       Newcomb's.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Insects
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          5  R5           Beetle,            Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (VA).
                                       Holsinger's cave.  holsingeri.
C...........         11  R6           Beetle, warm       Zaitzevia thermae  Elmidae..........  U.S.A. (MT).
                                       springs
                                       zaitzevian
                                       riffle.
C...........          2  R1           Bug, Wekiu.......  Nysius wekiuicola  Lygaeidae........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          3  R1           Butterfly,         Hypolimnas         Nymphalidae......  U.S.A. (GU, MP).
                                       Mariana eight-     octucula
                                       spot.              mariannensis.
C...........          2  R1           Butterfly,         Vagrans egestina.  Nymphalidae......  U.S.A. (GU, MP).
                                       Mariana
                                       wandering.
PE..........        N/A  R2           Butterfly,         Euphydryas anicia  Nymphalidae......  U.S.A. (NM).
                                       Sacramento         cloudcrofti.
                                       Mountains
                                       checkerspot.
C...........          6  R1           Butterfly, Whulge  Euphydryas editha  Nymphalidae......  U.S.A. (OR, WA)
                                       checkerspot.       taylor.                               Canada (BC).
C...........          5  R4           Caddisfly,         Glyphopsyche       Limnephilidae....  U.S.A. (TN).
                                       Sequatchie.        sequatchie.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       beaver.            major.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       Clifton.           caecus.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       icebox.            frigidus.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle        Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       greater Adams.     pholeter.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (TN).
                                       inquirer.          inquistor.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       lesser Adams.      cataryctos.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       Louisville.        troglodytes.

[[Page 54826]]

 
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       surprising.        inexpectatus.
C...........          5  R4           Cave beetle,       Pseudanophthalmus  Carabidae........  U.S.A. (KY).
                                       Tatum.             parvus.
C...........          9  R1           Damselfly,         Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       blackline          nigrohamatum
                                       Hawaiian.          nigrolineatum.
C...........          2  R1           Damselfly,         Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       crimson Hawaiian.  leptodemus.
C...........          2  R1           Damselfly, flying  Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       earwig Hawaiian.   nesiotes.
C...........          2  R1           Damselfly,         Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       oceanic Hawaiian.  oceanicum.
C...........          8  R1           Damselfly,         Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       orangeblack        xanthomelas.
                                       Hawaiian.
C...........          2  R1           Damselfly,         Megalagrion        Coenagrionidae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       Pacific Hawaiian.  pacificum.
C...........          5  R1           Gall fly,          Phaeogramma sp...  Tephritidae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       Po'olanui.
C...........          1  R1           Moth, fabulous     Tinostoma          Sphingidae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       green sphinx.      smaragditis.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila aglaia  Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].
C...........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         attigua.
C...........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         Digressa.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         heteroneura.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         montgomeryi.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila mulli.  Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         musaphila.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         neoclavisetae.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila obatai  Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         substenoptera.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         tarphytrichia.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         hemipeza.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         ochrobasis.
PE..........          2  R1           Pomace fly,        Drosophila         Drosophilidae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         differens.
C*..........          3  R1           Skipper, Carson    Pseudocopaeodes    Hesperiidae......  U.S.A. (CA, NV).
                                       wandering.         eunus obscurus.
C...........          5  R1           Skipper, Mardon..  Polites mardon...  Hesperiidae......  U.S.A. (CA, OR,
                                                                                                WA).
C*..........          9  R6           Tiger beetle,      Cindelidae         Cicindela........  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       Coral Pink sand    limbata
                                       dunes.             albinssima.
C...........          5  R4           Tiger beetle,      Cicindela          Cicindelidae.....  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       highlands.         highlandensis.
C...........          3  R6           Tiger beetle,      Cicindela          Cicindelidae.....  U.S.A. (NE).
                                       Salt Creek.        nevadica
                                                          lincolniana.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Arachnids
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........          2  R2           Meshweaver,        Cicurina wartonia  Dictynidae.......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Warton cave.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Crustaceans
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........         11  R4           Crayfish, Camp     Fallicambarus      Cambaridae.......  U.S.A. (MS).
                                       Shelby burrowing.  gordoni.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Metabetaeus        Alpheidae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       anchialine pool.   lohena.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Antecaridina       Atyidae..........  U.S.A. (HI),
                                       anchialine pool.   lauensis.                             Mozambique,
                                                                                                Saudi Arabia,
                                                                                                Japan.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Calliasmata        Alpheidae........  U.S.A. (HI),
                                       anchialine pool.   pholidota.                            Funafuti Atol,
                                                                                                Saudi Arabia,
                                                                                                Sinai
                                                                                                Penninsula,
                                                                                                Tuvalu.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Palaemonella       Palaemonidae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       anchialine pool.   burnsi.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Procaris hawaiana  Procarididae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       anchialine pool.
C...........          2  R1           Shrimp,            Vetericaris        Procaridae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       anchialine pool.   chaceorum.

[[Page 54827]]

 
C...........          5  R4           Shrimp,            Typhlatya monae..  Atyidae..........  U.S.A. (PR),
                                       troglobitic                                              Barbuda,
                                       groundwater.                                             Dominican
                                                                                                Republic.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Flowering Plants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........         11  R1           Sand-verbena,      Abronia alpina...  Nyctaginaceae....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Ramshaw Meadows.
PE..........        N/A  R1           Ambrosia, San      Ambrosia pumila..  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (CA),
                                       Diego.                                                   Mexico.
C...........         11  R4           Rockcress,         Arabis georgiana.  Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (AL, GA).
                                       Georgia.
C...........         11  R4           Silverbrush,       Argythamnia        Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       Blodgett's.        blodgettii.
C...........          3  R1           Wormwood,          Artemisia          Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (OR, WA).
                                       Northern.          campestris
                                                          wormskioldii.
C...........          2  R1           Painiu...........  Astelia            Liliaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          waialealae.
C...........          5  R4           Aster, Georgia...  Aster georgianus.  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (AL, FL,
                                                                                                GA, NC, SC).
C...........          8  R6           Milk-vetch,        Astragalus         Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       horseshoe.         equisolensis.
C...........          8  R6           Milk-vetch,        Astragalus         Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (CO).
                                       Sleeping Ute.      tortipes.
C...........          5  R1           Ko`oko`olau......  Bidens amplectens  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          6  R1           Ko`oko`olau......  Bidens             Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          campylotheca
                                                          pentamera.
C...........          3  R1           Ko`oko`olau......  Bidens             Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          campylotheca
                                                          waihoiensis.
C...........          8  R1           Ko`oko`olau......  Bidens conjuncta.  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          6  R1           Ko`oko`olau......  Bidens micrantha   Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          ctenophylla.
C...........          5  R4           Brickell-bush,     Brickellia         Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       Florida.           mosieri.
C...........          5  R1           Reedgrass,         Calamagrostis      Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         expansa.
C...........          5  R1           Reedgrass,         Calamagrostis      Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       [unnamed].         hillebrandii.
C...........          5  R4           No common name...  Calliandra         Mimosaceae.......  U.S.A. (PR).
                                                          locoensis.
C...........          5  R4           No common name...  Calyptranthes      Myrtaceae........  U.S.A. (PR).
                                                          estremerae.
C...........          5  R1           Awikiwiki........  Canavalia          Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          napaliensis.
C...........          2  R1           Awikiwiki........  Canavalia          Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          pubescens.
PE..........          5  R4           Sedge, golden....  Carex lutea......  Cyperaceae.......  U.S.A. (NC).
C...........          8  R6           Paintbrush,        Castilleja         Scrophulariaceae.  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       Aquarius.          aquariensis.
C*..........         11  R1           Paintbrush,        Castilleja         Scrophulariaceae.  U.S.A. (ID).
                                       Christ's.          christii.
C...........          6  R4           Pea, Big Pine      Chamaecrista       Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       partridge.         lineata keyensis.
C...........          6  R4           Sandmat, pineland  Chamaesyce         Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (FL).
                                                          deltoidea
                                                          pinetorum.
C...........          6  R4           Spurge, wedge....  Chamaesyce         Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (FL).
                                                          deltoidea
                                                          serpyllum.
C...........          5  R1           Akoko............  Chamaesyce         Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          eleanoriae.
C...........          6  R1           Akoko............  Chamaesyce remyi   Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          kauaiensis.
C...........          6  R1           Akoko............  Chamaesyce remyi   Euphorbiaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          remyi.
C...........          5  R1           Papala...........  Charpentiera       Amaranthaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          densiflora.
C*..........          3  R1           Spineflower, San   Chorizanthe        Polygonaceae.....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Fernando Valley.   parryi
                                                          fernandina.
C...........          5  R4           Thoroughwort,      Chromolaena        Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       Cape Sable.        frustata.
C...........          2  R4           No common name...  Cordia rupicola..  Boraginaceae.....  U.S.A. (PR),
                                                                                                Anegada.
C...........          2  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea             Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          asplenifolia.
C...........          5  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea calycina..  Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea             Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          eleeleensis.
C...........          2  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea kuhihewa..  Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea kunthiana.  Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea lanceolata  Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea obtusa....  Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Haha.............  Cyanea             Campanulaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          tritomantha.
C...........          2  R1           Haiwale..........  Cyrtandra filipes  Gesneriaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).

[[Page 54828]]

 
C...........          5  R1           Haiiwale.........  Cyrtandra          Gesneriaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          kaulantha.
C...........          5  R1           Haiiwale.........  Cyrtandra          Gesneriaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          oenobarba.
C...........          2  R1           Haiiwale.........  Cyrtandra          Gesneriaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          oxybapha.
C...........          2  R1           Haiiwale.........  Cyrtandra          Gesneriaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          sessilis.
C...........          6  R4           Prairie-clover,    Dalea              Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       Florida.           carthagenensis
                                                          floridana.
C...........          5  R4           Crabgrass,         Digitaria          Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       Florida pineland.  pauciflora.
C...........          6  R1           Na`ena`e.........  Dubautia           Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          imbricata
                                                          imbricata.
C...........          3  R1           Na`ena`e.........  Dubautia           Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          plantaginea
                                                          magnifolia.
C...........          5  R1           Na`ena`e.........  Dubautia           Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          waialealae.
C...........          6  R2           Cacuts, acuna....  Echinomastus       Cactaceae........  U.S.A. (AZ),
                                                          erectocentrus                         Mexico.
                                                          acunensis.
C...........         11  R1           Daisy, basalt....  Erigeron           Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (WA).
                                                          basalticus.
C...........          5  R2           Fleabane, Lemmon.  Erigeron lemmonii  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (AZ).
C...........          5  R1           Desert-buckwheat,  Eriogonum codium.  Polygonaceae.....  U.S.A. (WA).
                                       Umtanum.
C...........          5  R1            Buckwheat, Red    Eriogonum          Polygonaceae.....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Mountain.          kelloggii.
C...........          5  R1           No common name...  Festuca            Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          hawaiiensis.
C...........         11  R2           Fescue, Guadalupe  Festuca ligulata.  Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (TX),
                                                                                                Mexico.
C...........          5  R1           Nanu.............  Gardenia remyi...  Rubiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Nohoanu..........  Geranium hanaense  Geraniaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          8  R1           Nohoanu..........  Geranium           Geraniaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          hillebrandii.
C...........          2  R1           Nohoanu..........  Geranium           Geraniaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          kauaiense.
C...........         11  R6           Alice-flower,      Gilia caespitosa.  Polemoniaceae....  U.S.A. (UT).
                                       wonderland.
C...........          5  R4           No common name...  Gonocalyx          Ericaceae........  U.S.A. (PR).
                                                          concolor.
PE..........        N/A  R1           Stickseed, showy.  Hackelia venusta.  Boraginaceae.....  U.S.A. (WA).
C...........          5  R1           Kampuaaa.........  Hedyotis           Rubiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          fluviatilis.
C...........          5  R4           Sunflower,         Helianthus         Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                       whorled.           verticillatus.                        TN).
C...........          5  R2           Rose-mallow,       Hibiscus           Malvaceae........  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       Neches River.      dasycalyx.
C...........          6  R4           Indigo, Florida..  Indigofera         Fabaceae.........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                                          mucronata
                                                          keyensis.
C...........          3  R1           he...............  Joinvillea         Joinvilleaceae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          ascendens ssp.
                                                          ascendens.
C...........          5  R1           Hulumoa..........  Korthalsella       Viscaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          degeneri.
C...........          5  R1           Kamakahala.......  Labordia helleri.  Loganiaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Kamakahala.......  Labordia pumila..  Loganiaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           No common name...  Lagenifera erici.  Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           No common name...  Lagenifera         Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          helenae.
C...........          5  R4           Gladecress,        Leavenworthia      Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (AL).
                                       [unnamed].         crassa.
C...........          2  R2           Gladecress, Texas  Leavenworthia      Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A (TX).
                                       golden.            texana.
C*..........          2  R1           Peppergrass,       Lepidium           Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (ID).
                                       Slick spot.        papilliferum.
C...........          5  R4           Bladderpod,        Lesquerella        Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (IN, KY,
                                       Short's.           globosa.                              TN).
C...........          5  R1           Bladderpod, White  Lesquerella        Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (WA).
                                       Bluffs.            tuplashensis.
PE..........          3  R1           Meadowfoam, large- Limnanthes         Limnanthaceae....  U.S.A. (OR).
                                       flowered wooly.    floccosa
                                                          grandiflora.
C...........          2  R4           Flax, sand.......  Linum arenicola..  Linaceae.........  U.S.A. (FL).
C...........          3  R4           Flax, Carter's     Linum carteri      Linaceae.........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       small-flowered.    carteri.
PE..........          2  R1           Lomatium Cook's..  Lomatium cookii..  Apiaceae.........  U.S.A. (OR).
C...........          5  R1           Makanoe lehua....  Lysimachia         Primulaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          daphnoides.
C...........          5  R1           Alani............  Melicope           Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          christophersenii.
C...........          2  R1           Alani............  Melicope degeneri  Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Alani............  Melicope hiiakae.  Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Alani............  Melicope makahae.  Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Alani............  Melicope           Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          paniculata.
C...........          5  R1           Alani............  Melicope puberula  Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Kolea............  Myrsine fosbergii  Myrsinaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           Kolea............  Myrsine mezii....  Myrsinaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Kolea............  Myrsine            Myrsinaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          vaccinioides.
C...........          8  R5           Asphodel, bog....  Narthecium         Liliaceae........  U.S.A. (DE, NJ,
                                                          americanum.                           NC, NY, SC).
PE..........          1  R1           No common name...  Nesogenes          Verbenaceae......  U.S.A. (MP).
                                                          rotensis.

[[Page 54829]]

 
C...........          5  R1           `Aiea............  Nothocestrum       Solanaceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          latifolium.
C...........          2  R1           Holei............  Ochrosia           Apocynaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          haleakalae.
C...........          5  R4           Cactus, Florida    Opuntia            Cactaceae........  U.S.A. (FL).
                                       semaphore.         corallicola.
PE..........          2  R1           No common name...  Osmoxylon          Araliaceae.......  U.S.A. (MP).
                                                          mariannense.
C...........          5  R5           Panic grass,       Panicum hirstii..  Poaceae..........  U.S.A. (DE, GA,
                                       Hirsts'.                                                 NC, NJ).
C...........         11  R2           Whitlow-wort,      Paronychia         Caryophyllaceae..  U.S.A. (TX).
                                       bushy.             congesta.
C...........          6  R2           Cactus, Fickeisen  Pediocactus        Cactaceae........  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                       plains.            peeblesianus
                                                          fickeiseniae.
C...........          5  R6           Beardtongue,       Penstemon debilis  Scrophulariaceae.  U.S.A. (CO).
                                       Parachute.
C...........          5  R6           Beardtongue,       Penstemon          Scrophulariaceae.  U.S.A. (CO, UT).
                                       Graham.            grahamii.
C*..........          6  R6           Beardtongue,       Penstemon          Scrophulariaceae.  U.S.A. (CO, UT).
                                       White River.       scariosus
                                                          albifluvis.
C...........          2  R1           `Ala 'ala wai nui  Peperomia          Piperaceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          subpetiolata.
C...........         11  R6           Phacelia, DeBeque  Phacelia           Hydrophyllaceae..  U.S.A. (CO).
                                                          submutica.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Phyllostegia       Lamiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          bracteata.
C...........          5  R1           No common name...  Phyllostegia       Lamiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI)
                                                          floribunda.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Phyllostegia       Lamiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          hispida.
C...........          5  R1           Ho'awa...........  Pittosporum        Pittosporaceae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          napaliense.
C...........          5  R4           Orchid, white      Platanthera        Orchidaceae......  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                       fringeless.        integrilabia.                         KY, MS, NC, SC,
                                                                                                TN, VA).
C...........          6  R1           No common name...  Platydesma         Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          cornuta ssp.
                                                          cornuta.
C...........          6  R1           No common name...  Platydesma         Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          cornuta ssp.
                                                          decurrens.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Platydesma remyi.  Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Pilo kea lau li'i  Platydesma         Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          rostrata.
C...........          5  R1           Hala pepe........  Pleomele           Agavaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          fernaldii.
C...........          5  R1           Hala pepe........  Pleomele forbesii  Agavaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
PE..........          2  R1           Polygonum, Scotts  Polygonum          Polygonaceae.....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Valley.            hickmanii.
C...........          5  R1           Lo'ulu,(=Na'ena'e  Pritchardia        Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                       ).                 hardyi.
C...........          6  R1           `Ena'ena.........  Pseudognaphalium   Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          (Formerly
                                                          Gnaphalium)
                                                          sandwicensium
                                                          molokaiense.
C...........          2  R1           Kopiko...........  Psychotria         Rubiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          grandiflora.
C...........          3  R1           Kopiko...........  Psychotria         Rubiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          hexandra
                                                          oahuensis.
C...........          2  R1           Kopiko...........  Psychotria hobdyi  Rubiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          5  R1           Kaulu............  Pteralyxia         Apocynaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          macrocarpa.
C...........          5  R1           Makou............  Ranunculus         Ranunculaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          hawaiensis.
C...........          2  R1           Makou............  Ranunculus         Ranunculaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          mauiensis.
C *.........          2  R1           Cress, Tahoe       Rorippa            Brassicaceae.....  U.S.A. (CA, NV).
                                       yellow.            subumbellata.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Schiedea           Caryophyllaceae..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          attenuata.
C...........          2  R1           Ma'oli'oli.......  Schiedea           Caryophyllaceae..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          pubescens.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Schiedea           Caryophyllaceae..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          salicaria.
C...........          5  R1           Stonecrop, Red     Sedum eastwoodiae  Crassulaceae.....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Mountain.
C...........          5  R1           `Anunu...........  Sicyos             Cucurbitaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          macrophyllus.
C...........          9  R1           Checkerbloom,      Sidalcea           Malvaceae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                       Parish's.          hickmanii ssp.
                                                          parishii.
C...........          5  R1           Popolo...........  Solanum nelsonii.  Solanaceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Stenogyne          Lamiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          cranwelliae.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Stenogyne kealiae  Lamiaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
PE..........          2  R1           No common name...  Tabernaemontana    Apocynaceae......  U.S.A. (GU, MP).
                                                          rotensis.

[[Page 54830]]

 
PT..........          1  R6           Yellowhead,        Yermo              Asteraceae.......  U.S.A. (WY).
                                       desert.            xanthocephalus.
C...........          2  R1           A'e..............  Zanthoxylum        Rutaceae.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          oahuense.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Ferns and Allies
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C...........         11  R1           Moonwort, slender  Botrychium         Ophioglossaceae..  U.S.A. (CA, CO,
                                                          lineare.                              ID, MT, OR, WA),
                                                                                                Canada.
C...........          6  R1           No common name...  Cyclosorus         Thelypteridaceae.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          boydiae boydiae.
C...........          6  R1           No common name...  Cyclosorus         Thelypteridaceae.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          boydiae
                                                          kipahuluensis.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Doryopteris        Dryopteridaceae..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          takeuchii.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Dryopteris         Dryopteridaceae..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          tenebrosa.
C...........          2  R1           No common name...  Microlepia         Dennstaedtiaceae.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          mauiensis.
C...........          2  R1           Wawae'iole.......  Phlegmariurus      Lycopodiaceae....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                          stemmermanniae.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                        Table 2.--Former Candidate and Former Proposed Animals and Plants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Status
-----------------------------------------
                                 Lead        Common name     Scientific name       Family        Historic range
    Code           Expl.        region
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Mammals
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc            A               R6          Fox, swift (U.S.  Vulpes velox....  Canidae.........  U.S.A. (CO, IA,
                                           population).                                          KS, MN, MT, ND,
                                                                                                 NE, NM, OK, SD,
                                                                                                 TX, WY),
                                                                                                 Canada.
T             L               R6          Lynx, Canada....  Lynx canadensis.  Felidae.........  U.S.A. (AK, CO,
                                                                                                 ID, ME, MI, MN,
                                                                                                 MT, ND, NH, NY,
                                                                                                 OR, PA, UT, VT,
                                                                                                 WA, WI, WY),
                                                                                                 Canada,
                                                                                                 circumboreal.
E             L               R1          Rabbit, riparian  Sylvilagus        Leporidae.......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           brush.            bachmani
                                                             riparius.
E             L               R1          Sheep, bighorn..  Ovis canadensis   Bovidae.........  U.S.A. (Western
                                                             californiana.                       conterminous
                                                                                                 states), Canada
                                                                                                 (southwestern).
T             L               R1          Squirrel,         Spermophilus      Sciuridae.......  U.S.A. (ID).
                                           northern Idaho    brunneus
                                           ground.           brunneus.
E             L               R1          Woodrat,          Neotoma fuscipes  Muridae.........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           riparian.         riparia.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Birds
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R7          Albatross, short- Phoebastria       Diomedeidae.....  North Pacific
                                           tailed.           albatrus.                           Ocean and
                                                                                                 Bering Sea,
                                                                                                 Canada, China,
                                                                                                 Japan, Mexico,
                                                                                                 Russia, Taiwan,
                                                                                                 U.S.A. (AK, CA,
                                                                                                 HI, OR, WA).
E             L               R1          Elepaio, Oahu...  Chasiempis        Musicapidae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             sandwichensis
                                                             ibidus.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Amphibians
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R1          Salamander,       Ambystoma         Ambystomatidae..  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           California        californiense.
                                           tiger (Santa
                                           Barbara
                                           population).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Fishes
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc            A               R6          Chub, sicklefin.  Macrhybopsis      Cyprinidae......  U.S.A. (AR, IA,
                                                             meeki.                              IL, KS, KY, LA,
                                                                                                 MO, MS, MT, NE,
                                                                                                 ND, SD, TN).
Rc            A               R6          Chub, sturgeon..  Macrhybopsis      Cyprinidae......  U.S.A. (AR, IA,
                                                             gelida.                             IL, KY, KS, LA,
                                                                                                 MO, MS, MT, NE,
                                                                                                 ND, SD, TN,
                                                                                                 WY).
T             L               R2          Minnow, Devils    Dionda diaboli..  Cyprinidae......  U.S.A. (TX),
                                           River.                                                Mexico.

[[Page 54831]]

 
Rp            A               R2          Pupfish, Pecos..  Cyprinodon        Cyprinodontidae.  U.S.A. (NM, TX).
                                                             pecosensis.
E             L               R5          Salmon, Atlantic  Salmo salar.....  Salmonidae......  U.S.A., Canada,
                                           (Gulf of Maine                                        Greenland,
                                           population).                                          western Europe.
E             L               R4          Sturgeon,         Scaphirhynchus    Acipenseridae...  U.S.A. (AL, MS).
                                           Alabama.          suttkusi.
T             L               R1          Sucker, Santa     Catostomus        Catostoidae.....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Ana.              santaanae.
T             L               R1          Trout, bull.....  Salvelinus        Salmonidae......  U.S.A. (Pacific
                                                             confluentus.                        NW), Canada (NW
                                                                                                 Territories).
Rc            A               R1          Trout, McCloud R  Oncorhynchus      Salmonidae......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           redband.          mykiss ssp.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Clams
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R3          Mussel,           Leptodea          Unionidae.......  U.S.A. (AL, AR,
                                           scaleshell.       leptodon.                           IL, IN, IA, KY,
                                                                                                 MN, MO, OH, OK,
                                                                                                 SD, TN, WI).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Snails
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R4          Campeloma,        Campeloma         Viviparidae.....  U.S.A. (AL).
                                           slender.          decampi.
E             L               R4          Snail, armored..  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  U.S.A. (AL).
                                                             pachyta.
T             L               R1          Snail, Newcomb's  Erinna newcombi.  Lymnaeidae......  U.S.A. (HI).
Rc            A               R2          Talussnail, Wet   Sonorella         Helminthoglyptid  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                           Canyon.           macrophallus.     a.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Insects
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R1          Butterfly,        Icaricia          Lycaenidae......  U.S.A. (OR).
                                           Fender's blue.    icarioides
                                                             fenderi.
E             L               R2           Ground beetle,   Rhadine           Carabidae.......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           [unnamed].        infernalis.
E             L               R2          Ground beetle,    Rhadine exilis..  Carabidae.......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           [unnamed].
E             L               R2          Mold beetle,      Batrisodes        Pselaphidae.....  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Helotes.          venyivi.
E             L               R1          Moth,             Manduca           Sphingidae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                           Blackburn's       blackburni.
                                           sphinx.
E             L               R1          Tiger beetle,     Cicindela ohlone  Cicindelidae....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Ohlone.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Arachnids
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R2          Harvestman,       Texella           Phalangodidae...  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Robber Baron      cokendolpheri.
                                           Cave.
E             L               R2          Spider,           Neoleptoneta      Leptonetidae....  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Government        microps.
                                           Canyon cave.
E             L               R1          Spider, Kauai     Adelocosa anops.  Lycosidae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                           cave wolf or
                                           pe'e pe'e maka
                                           'ole.
E             L               R2          Spider, Madla's   Cicurina madla..  Dictynidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           cave.
E             L               R2          Spider, Robber    Cicurina baronia  Dictynidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Baron cave.
E             L               R2          Spider, Vesper    Cicurina vespera  Dictynidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           cave.
E             L               R2          Spider,           Cicurina venii..  Dictynidae......  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           [unnamed].
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Crustaceans
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E             L               R1          Amphipod, Kauai   Spelaeorchestia   Talitridae......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                           cave.             koloana.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Flowering Plants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc            A               R2          Onion,            Allium            Liliaceae.......  U.S.A. (AZ, NM).
                                           Goodding's.       gooddingii.
Rc            A               R6          Rock-cress,       Arabis pusilla..  Brassicaceae....  U.S.A. (WY).
                                           small.
E             L               R6          Milk-vetch,       Astragalus        Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (UT).
                                           Shivwitz.         ampullarioides.
T             L               R6          Milk-vetch,       Astragalus        Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (UT).
                                           Deseret.          desereticus.
E             L               R6          Milk-vetch,       Astragalus        Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (AZ, UT).
                                           Holmgren.         holmgreniorum.
E             L               R1          Milk-vetch,       Astragalus        Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Ventura Marsh.    pycnostachyus
                                                             lanosissimus.
Rc            A               R1          Lily, umpqua      Calochortus       Liliaceae.......  U.S.A. (OR).
                                           mariposa.         umpquaensis.

[[Page 54832]]

 
Rc            A               R2          Bugbane, Arizona  Cimicifuga        Ranunculaceae...  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                                             arizonica.
E             L               R1          Thistle, La       Cirsium           Aster  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Graciosa.         loncholepis.      aceae.
Rc            N               R1          Haha............  Cyanea            Campanulaceae...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             pseudofauriei.
Rc            A               R1          pu'uka'a........  Cyperus odoratus  Cyperaceae......  U.S.A. (HI).
E             L               R1          Larkspur,         Delphinium        Ranunculaceae...  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Baker's.          bakeri.
E             L               R1          Larkspur, yellow  Delphinium        Ranunculaceae...  U.S.A. (CA).
                                                             luteum.
E             L               R1          Daisy,            Erigeron          Asteraceae......  U.S.A. (OR).
                                           Willamette.       decumbens
                                                             decumbens.
E             L               R1          Yerba santa,      Eriodictyon       Hydrophyllaceae.  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Lompoc.           capitatum.
Rc            A               R1          Buckwheat,        Eriogonum         Polygonaceae....  U.S.A. (NV).
                                           Sulphur Springs.  argophyllum.
E             L               R1          Fritillary,       Fritillaria       Liliaceae.......  U.S.A. (OR).
                                           Gentner's.        gentneri.
T             L               R6          Butterfly plant,  Gaura             Onagraceae......  U.S.A. (CO, NE,
                                           Colorado.         neomexicana                         WY).
                                                             coloradensis.
T             L               R2          Sunflower, Pecos  Helianthus        Asteraceae......  U.S.A. (NM, TX).
                                                             paradoxus.
E             L               R1          Tarplant,         Hemizonia         Asteraceae......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Gaviota.          increscens
                                                             villosa.
T             L               R1          Tarplant, Santa   Holocarpha        Asteraceae......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Cruz.             macradenia.
Rc            A               R1          Lathyrus, two-    Lathyrus          Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           flowered.         biflorus.
E             L               R2          Bladderpod,       Lesquerella       Brassicaceae....  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Zapata.           thamnophila.
E             L               R1          Lupine, Nipomo    Lupinus           Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Mesa.             nipomensis.
T             L               R1          Lupine,           Lupinus           Fabaceae........  U.S.A. (OR, WA).
                                           Kincaid's.        sulphureus
                                                             kincaidii.
Rc            X               R1          ................  Lysimachia        Primulaceae.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             venosa.
Rc            X               R1          Alani...........  Melicope          Rutaceae........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             macropus.
Rc            A               R1          Cholla, Blue      Opuntia whipplei  Cactaceae.......  U.S.A. (NV).
                                           Diamond.          multigeniculata.
E             L               R1          Phlox, Yreka....  Phlox hirsuta...  Polemoniaceae...  U.S.A. (CA).
Rc            X               R1          ................  Phyllostegia      Lamiaceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             helleri.
Rc            X               R1          ................  Phyllostegia      Lamiaceae.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                             imminuta.
E             L               R1          Popcornflower,    Plagiobothrys     Boraginaceae....  U.S.A. (OR).
                                           rough.            hirtus.
E             L               R1          Checker-mallow,   Sidalcea keckii.  Malvaceae.......  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Keck's.
E             L               R1          Checkermallow,    Sidalcea oregana  Malvaceae.......  U.S.A. (WA).
                                           Wenatchee         calva.
                                           Mountains.
Rc            I               R1          Catchfly, Red     Silene            Caryophyllaceae.  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Mountain.         campanulata
                                                             campanulata.
T             L               R1          Catchfly,         Silene            Caryophyllaceae.  U.S.A. (ID, MT,
                                           Spalding's.       spaldingii.                         OR, WA).
E             L               R1          Penny-cress,      Thlaspi           Brassicaceae....  U.S.A. (CA).
                                           Kneeland          californicum.
                                           Prairie.
Rc            A               R2          Tickle-tongue,    Zanthoxylum       Rutaceae........  U.S.A. (TX).
                                           Shinner's.        parvum.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 01-26982 Filed 10-29-01; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P