[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 194 (Friday, October 5, 2012)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 60883-60887]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-24676]

Rules and Regulations
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Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 194 / Friday, October 5, 2012 / Rules 
and Regulations

[[Page 60883]]


Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 29

[Docket No. SW022; Special Conditions No. 29-022A-SC]

Special Conditions: Eurocopter France (ECF) Model EC225LP 
Helicopter, Installation of a Search and Rescue (SAR) Automatic Flight 
Control System (AFCS)

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Amended final special conditions.


SUMMARY: These special conditions amend and supersede those final 
special conditions No. 29-022-SC, for the ECF model EC225LP helicopter, 
which were published in the Federal Register on November 6, 2008 (73 FR 
65968). A notice proposing this amendment was published December 20, 
2010 (75 FR 79312). This amendment modifies the original final special 
conditions to address comments received and to clarify the intent of 
some of the requirements. This helicopter, as modified by ECF, will 
have novel or unusual design features associated with installing an 
optional SAR AFCS. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not 
contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design 
features. These special conditions contain the additional safety 
standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a 
level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing 
airworthiness standards.

DATES: Effective Date: The effective date of these special conditions 
is November 5, 2012.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: FAA, Aircraft Certification Service, 
Rotorcraft Directorate, Regulations and Policy Group (ASW-111), Attn: 
Stephen Barbini, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; telephone 
(817) 222-5196; facsimile (817) 222-5961.


Background and Discussion

    On March 27, 2006, ECF applied for a change to Type Certificate 
(TC) No. H4EU to install an optional SAR AFCS in the model EC225LP 
helicopter. The model EC225LP is a transport category helicopter 
certificated to Category A requirements when configured for more than 
nine passengers and Category A or B requirements when configured for 
nine or less passengers. This helicopter is also certificated for 
instrument flight under the requirements of Appendix B to 14 CFR part 
29, Amendment 29-47.
    The use of dedicated AFCS upper modes, in which a fully coupled 
autopilot provides operational SAR profiles, is needed for SAR 
operations conducted over water in offshore areas clear of 
obstructions. The SAR modes enable the helicopter pilot to fly fully 
coupled maneuvers, to include predefined search patterns during cruise 
flight, and to transition from cruise flight to a stabilized hover and 
departure (transition from hover to cruise flight). The SAR AFCS also 
includes an auxiliary crew control that allows another crewmember (such 
as a hoist operator) to have limited authority to control the 
helicopter's longitudinal and lateral position during hover operations.
    Flight operations conducted over water at night may have an 
extremely limited visual horizon with little visual reference to the 
surface even when conducted under Visual Meteorological Conditions 
(VMC). Consequently, the certification requirements for SAR modes must 
meet Appendix B to 14 CFR part 29. While Appendix B to 14 CFR part 29 
prescribes airworthiness criteria for instrument flight, it does not 
consider operations below instrument flight minimum speed 
(VMINI), whereas the SAR modes allow for coupled operations 
at low speed, all-azimuth flight to zero airspeed (hover).
    Since SAR operations have traditionally been a public use mission, 
the use of SAR modes in civil operations requires special airworthiness 
standards (special conditions) to ensure that a level of safety 
consistent with Category A and Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) 
certification is maintained. In this regard, 14 CFR part 29 lacks 
adequate airworthiness standards for AFCS SAR mode certification to 
include flight characteristics, performance, and installed equipment 
and systems.

Type Certification Basis

    Under 14 CFR 21.101, ECF must show the EC225LP, as changed, 
continues to meet the applicable provisions of the rules incorporated 
by reference in TC No. H4EU or the applicable regulations in effect on 
the date of application for the change. The regulations incorporated by 
reference in the TC are commonly referred to as the ``original type 
certification basis.'' The regulations incorporated by reference in 
H4EU are as follows:
    a. 14 CFR 21.29.
    b. 14 CFR part 29 Amendments 29-1 to 29-25; plus Sec.  29.785 
through Amendment 29-28; plus Sec. Sec.  29.963, 29.967, 29.973, 29.975 
through Amendment 29-34; plus Sec. Sec.  29.25, 29.865 through 
Amendment 29-42; plus Sec. Sec.  29.1, 29.2, 29.49, 29.51, 29.53, 
29.55, 29.59, 29.60, 29.61, 29.62, 29.64, 29.65, 29.67, 29.73, 29.75, 
29.77, 29.79, 29.81, 29.83, 29.85, 29.87, 29.307, 29.337, 29.351, 
29.361, 29.391, 29.395, 29.397, 29.401, 29.403, 29.413, 29.427, 29.501, 
29.519, 29.547, 29.549, 29.561(c), 29.561(d), 29.563, 29.602, 29.610, 
29.613, 29.621, 29.625, 29.629, 29.631, 29.663, 29.674, 29.727, 29.755, 
29.775, 29.783, 29.787, 29.803, 29.805, 29.807, 29.809, 29.811, 29.855, 
29.861, 29.901, 29.903, 29.908, 29.917, 29.923, 29.927, 29.954, 29.961, 
29.965, 29.969, 29.971, 29.991, 29.997, 29.999, 29.1001, 29.1011, 
29.1019, 29.1027, 29.1041, 29.1043, 29.1045, 29.1047, 29.1093, 29.1125, 
29.1141, 29.1143, 29.1163, 29.1181, 29.1189, 29.1193, 29.1305, 29.1309, 
29.1323, 29.1329, 29.1337, 29.1351, 29.1359, 29.1415, 29.1521, 29.1549, 
29.1557, 29.1587, A29, B29, C29, D29 through Amendment 29-47; plus 
29.1317 through Amendment 29-49.
    c. 14 CFR part 36 Amendment 21 (ICAO Annex 16, Volume 1, Chapter 
    d. Equivalent Safety Findings:
    (1) TC2899RD-R-F-01; Sec.  29.1303(j), Vne aural 
    (2) TC2899RD-R-F-02; Sec.  29.1545(b)(4), Airspeed indicators 
    (3) TC2899RD-R-F-03; Sec.  29.1549(b), Powerplant instruments 

[[Page 60884]]

    (4) TC2899RD-R-F-05; Sec. Sec.  29.173, 29.175, Static Longitudinal 
    (5) TC2899RD-R-F-06; 14 CFR part 29, Appendix B, paragraph IV; IFR 
Static Longitudinal Stability--Airspeed stability.
    (6) TC2899RD-R-A-01; Sec.  29.807(d)(2), Ditching emergency exits 
for passengers.
    (7) TC2899RD-R-P-01; Sec.  29.923(a)(2), Rotor drive system and 
control mechanism tests.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness standards and special 
conditions, the ECF model EC225LP must comply with the noise 
certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.

Regulatory Basis for Special Conditions

    If the Administrator finds the applicable airworthiness standards 
(that is, 14 CFR part 29) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety 
standards for the ECF model EC225LP helicopter because of a novel or 
unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under Sec.  
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in Sec.  11.19, under 
Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under 
Sec.  21.101.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the TC for that model be amended later to 
include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual 
design feature, or should any other model already included on the same 
TC be modified to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, 
these special conditions would also apply to the other model.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The ECF model EC225LP helicopter will incorporate the following 
novel or unusual design features:
    The SAR system is composed of a navigation computer with SAR modes, 
an AFCS that provides coupled SAR functions, hoist operator control, a 
hover speed reference system, and two radio altimeters. The AFCS 
coupled SAR functions include:
    (a) Hover hold at selected height above the surface.
    (b) Ground speed hold.
    (c) Transition down and hover to a waypoint under guidance from the 
navigation computer.
    (d) SAR pattern, transition down, and hover near a target over 
which the helicopter has flown.
    (e) Transition up, climb, and capture a cruise height.
    (f) Capture and track SAR search patterns generated by the 
navigation computer.
    (g) Monitor the preselected hover height with automatic increase in 
collective if the aircraft height drops below the safe minimum height.
    These SAR modes are intended to be used over large bodies of water 
in areas clear of obstructions. Further, use of the SAR modes that 
transition down from cruise to hover will include operation at 
airspeeds below VMINI.
    The SAR system only entails navigation, flight control, and coupled 
AFCS operation of the helicopter. The system does not include the extra 
equipment that may be required for over water flight or external loads 
to meet other operational requirements.

Discussion of Comments

    In response to the final special conditions with request for 
comments, No. 29-022-SC, published in the Federal Register on November 
6, 2008 (73 FR 65968), we received multiple comments from one 
commenter, AgustaWestland (AW). We responded to the comments and 
recommendations in the notice of proposed special conditions No. 29-
022A-SC for the ECF model EC225LP helicopter installation of a SAR 
AFCS, published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2010 (75 FR 
79312). Because we agreed with some of AW's comments, the notice 
proposed to revise the special conditions and clarify the intent of 
some of the requirements.
    We gave the public the opportunity to comment on the amendments to 
the special conditions, but no additional comments were received in 
response to the notice of special conditions. Therefore, the amended 
special conditions are being adopted as proposed.
    A summary of the amendments and clarification from the original 
special conditions published in No. 29-022-SC follows:
    Referring to subparagraph (a)(3), which deals with a Go-Around 
mode, we disagree with AW's interpretation of the requirement, however 
we recognize the wording may be unclear. We made a change to 
subparagraph (a)(3) to reflect that the required Go-Around mode is 
pilot-selectable and the purpose is to interrupt any other coupled 
mode. We also clarified in subparagraph (a)(2) that this requirement 
pertains to normal SAR mode sequencing.
    With respect to subparagraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4) of the SAR Mode 
System Architecture, we concurred with AW's recommendations, which is 
consistent with the requirement of subparagraph (b)(2). Therefore, 
subparagraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4) are revised to additionally require the 
actual groundspeed and actual heading to be displayed to the pilot.
    In AW's reference to subparagraph (c)(3), we made non-substantive 
changes to improve the intent of the requirement.
    Additional wording was added to subparagraph (f)(1)(i)(C) that 
provides linkage to the minimum use height (MUH) determination made in 
subparagraph (c)(3). This change was made for clarification purposes 
only and is not intended to increase or alleviate the current 
requirements. We have also defined MUH in subparagraph (c)(3). We do 
not intend for the SAR AFCS to decouple automatically if the helicopter 
descends below MUH.
    We made some other minor changes to improve and clarify wording, 
with no substantive increase or decrease to the current requirements, 
as follows:
    In subparagraph (a)(1) we added ``(within the maximum demonstrated 
wind envelope)'' to highlight that safe and controlled flight is 
required throughout the wind envelope. Adding this phrase does not 
change our intent of SAR envelope definition.
    We added, ``Pilot-commanded descent below the safe minimum height 
is acceptable provided the alerting requirements in (b)(7)(i) are 
sufficient to alert the pilot of this encroachment'' to subparagraph 
(a)(4). This clarifies that the SAR AFCS is permitted to descend below 
the stored or pilot-selected safe minimum height only when commanded by 
the pilot, provided the alerting requirements are sufficient to alert 
the pilot of the descent.
    We modified subparagraph (b)(6) to indicate that the AFCS system 
must monitor for all deviations and failures, not just those that 
create a hazard, which was our original intent. The alerting 
requirement does not change; a pilot alert is still required for all 
deviations and all failures that require pilot-corrective action.
    Clarified subparagraph (b)(7) by adding subparagraph (iii) for 
normal transitions. This makes the requirement more specific.
    We clarified in subparagraph (b)(8) that the hoist operator control 
has limited authority.
    Subparagraph (b)(8)(iii) of the current special condition contains 
two requirements. We have separated them, so subparagraph (b)(8)(iii) 
only contains the hoist operator control noninterference requirement 
and subparagraph (b)(8)(iv) contains the pilot override criteria for 
the hoist control.
    We modified subparagraph (d)(2) by deleting ``danger of'' from the 
first sentence. This change does not alter the intent of this 

[[Page 60885]]

    Subparagraph (d)(3)(iii)(B) was modified to incorporate more 
general terms to clarify the requirement.
    We changed subparagraph (b)(10) to state a functional hazard 
assessment must address all failure conditions, not just those that 
represent catastrophic failure conditions. This change makes this SAR 
special condition requirement consistent with the requirements of Sec.  
    We changed the second paragraph in subparagraph (e)(1)(ii) to a 
note. This ``note'' provides information only and is better 
characterized as a ``note.'' The original wording was always intended 
to stand as a note, but it was not previously marked as one.
    We removed the parenthetical from subparagraph (g)(4) as it is not 
needed. The intent of this requirement has not changed.
    Finally, we clarified subparagraphs (g)(4)(i) and (g)(4)(ii), by 
changing ``transition,'' ``hover,'' and ``cruise'' to ``transition 
modes,'' ``hover modes,'' and ``cruise modes,'' respectively. This 
general wording allows an applicant more flexibility in the use of SAR 
mode terminology.


    These special conditions apply to the ECF model EC225LP 
helicopters. Should ECF apply at a later date for a change to the TC to 
include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design 
feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well 
under the provisions of Sec.  21.101(d).


    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model of helicopter. It is not a rule of general applicability.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 29

    Aircraft, Aviation safety.

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority:  49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701-44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the type certification basis for Eurocopter France model 
EC225LP helicopter, Type Certificate No. H4EU, is amended by removing 
Special Condition No. 29-022-SC from Docket No. SW022 (published in 73 
FR 65968, November 6, 2088) and adding the following special conditions 
(No. 29-022A-SC) to the type certification basis when the optional 
Search and Rescue (SAR) Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is 
    In addition to the part 29 certification requirements for Category 
A and helicopter instrument flight (Appendix B), the following 
additional requirements must be met for certification of the SAR AFCS:
    (a) SAR Flight Modes. The coupled SAR flight modes must provide:
    (1) Safe and controlled flight in three axes (lateral and 
longitudinal position/speed and height/vertical speed) at all airspeeds 
from instrument flight minimum speed (VMINI) to a hover 
(within the maximum demonstrated wind envelope).
    (2) Automatic transition to the helicopter instrument flight 
(Appendix B) envelope as part of the normal SAR mode sequencing.
    (3) A pilot-selectable Go-Around mode that safely interrupts any 
other coupled mode and automatically transitions to the helicopter 
instrument flight (Appendix B) envelope.
    (4) A means to prevent unintended flight below a safe minimum 
height. Pilot-commanded descent below the safe minimum height is 
acceptable provided the alerting requirements in (b)(7)(i) are 
sufficient to alert the pilot of this descent below safe minimum 
    (b) SAR Mode System Architecture. To support the integrity of the 
SAR modes, the following system architecture is required:
    (1) A system for limiting the engine power demanded by the AFCS 
when any of the automatic piloting modes are engaged, so full authority 
digital engine control (FADEC) power limitations, such as torque and 
temperature, are not exceeded.
    (2) A system providing the aircraft height above the surface and 
final pilot-selected height at a location on the instrument panel in a 
position acceptable to the FAA that will make it plainly visible to and 
usable by any pilot at their station.
    (3) A system providing the aircraft heading and the pilot-selected 
heading at a location on the instrument panel in a position acceptable 
to the FAA that will make it plainly visible to and usable by any pilot 
at their station.
    (4) A system providing the aircraft longitudinal and lateral ground 
speeds and the pilot-selected longitudinal and lateral ground speeds 
when used by the AFCS in the flight envelope where airspeed indications 
become unreliable. This information must be presented at a location on 
the instrument panel in a position acceptable to the FAA that is 
plainly visible to and usable by any pilot at their station.
    (5) A system providing wind speed and wind direction when automatic 
piloting modes are engaged or transitioning from one mode to another.
    (6) A system that monitors for flight guidance deviations and 
failures with an appropriate alerting function that enables the flight 
crew to take appropriate corrective action.
    (7) An alerting system must provide visual or aural alerts, or 
both, to the flight crew under any of the following conditions:
    (i) When the stored or pilot-selected safe minimum height is 
    (ii) When a SAR mode system malfunction occurs.
    (iii) When the AFCS changes modes automatically from one SAR mode 
to another.

    Note: For normal transitions from one SAR mode to another, a 
single visual or aural alert may suffice. For a SAR mode malfunction 
or a mode having a time-critical component, the flight crew alerting 
system must activate early enough to allow the flight crew to take 
timely and appropriate action. The alerting system means must be 
designed to alert the flight crew in order to minimize crew errors 
that could create an additional hazard.

    (8) The SAR system hoist operator control is considered a flight 
control with limited authority and must comply with the following:
    (i) The hoist operator control must be designed and located to 
provide for convenient operation and to prevent confusion and 
inadvertent operation.
    (ii) The helicopter must be safely controllable by the hoist 
operator control throughout the range of that control.
    (iii) The hoist operator control may not interfere with the safe 
operation of the helicopter.
    (iv) Pilot and copilot flight controls must be able to smoothly 
override the control authority of the hoist operator control, without 
exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength, and without the 
danger of exceeding any other limitation because of the override.
    (9) The reliability of the AFCS must be related to the effects of 
its failure. The occurrence of any failure condition that would prevent 
continued safe flight and landing must be extremely improbable. For any 
failure condition of the AFCS which is not shown to be extremely 
    (i) The helicopter must be safely controllable and capable of 
continued safe flight without exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or 
strength. Additional unrelated probable failures affecting the control 
system must be evaluated.
    (ii) The AFCS must be designed so that it cannot create a hazardous 
deviation in the flight path or produce hazardous loads on the 
helicopter during normal operation or in the event

[[Page 60886]]

of a malfunction or failure, assuming corrective action begins within 
an appropriate period of time. Where multiple systems are installed, 
subsequent malfunction conditions must be evaluated in sequence unless 
their occurrence is shown to be improbable.
    (10) A functional hazard assessment (FHA) and a system safety 
assessment must be provided to address the failure conditions 
associated with SAR operations. For SAR catastrophic failure 
conditions, changes may be required to the following:
    (i) System architecture.
    (ii) Software and complex electronic hardware design assurance 
    (iii) High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) test levels.
    (iv) Instructions for continued airworthiness.
    The assessments must consider all the systems required for SAR 
operations to include the AFCS, all associated AFCS sensors (for 
example, radio altimeter), and primary flight displays. Electrical and 
electronic systems with SAR catastrophic failure conditions (for 
example, AFCS) must comply with the Sec.  29.1317(a)(4) HIRF 
    (c) SAR Mode Performance Requirements.
    (1) The SAR modes must be demonstrated in the requested flight 
envelope for the following minimum sea-state and wind conditions:
    (i) Sea State: Wave height of 2.5 meters (8.2 feet), considering 
both short and long swells.
    (ii) Wind: 25 knots headwind; 17 knots for all other azimuths.
    (2) The selected hover height and hover velocity must be captured 
(to include the transition from one captured mode to another captured 
mode) accurately and smoothly and not exhibit any significant overshoot 
or oscillation.
    (3) For any single failure or any combination of failures of the 
AFCS that is not shown to be extremely improbable, the recovery must 
not result in a loss of height greater than half of the minimum use 
height (MUH) with a minimum margin of 15 feet above the surface. MUH is 
the minimum height at which any SAR AFCS mode can be engaged.
    (4) The SAR mode system must be usable up to the maximum certified 
gross weight of the aircraft or to the lower of the following weights:
    (i) Maximum emergency flotation weight.
    (ii) Maximum hover Out-of-Ground Effect (OGE) weight.
    (iii) Maximum demonstrated weight.
    (d) Flight Characteristics.
    (1) The basic aircraft must meet all the part 29 airworthiness 
criteria for helicopter instrument flight (Appendix B).
    (2) For SAR mode coupled flight below VMINI, at the 
maximum demonstrated winds, the helicopter must be able to maintain any 
required flight condition and make a smooth transition from any flight 
condition to any other flight condition without requiring exceptional 
piloting skill, alertness, or strength, and without exceeding the limit 
load factor. This requirement also includes aircraft control through 
the hoist operator's control.
    (3) For SAR modes at airspeeds below VMINI, the 
following requirements of Appendix B to part 29 must be met and will be 
used as an extension to the IFR certification envelope of the basic 
    (i) Static Longitudinal Stability: The requirements of paragraph IV 
of Appendix B are not applicable.
    (ii) Static Lateral-Directional Stability: The requirements of 
paragraph V of Appendix B are not applicable.
    (iii) Dynamic Stability: The requirements of paragraph VI of 
Appendix B are replaced with the following two paragraphs:
    (A) Any oscillation must be damped and any aperiodic response must 
not double in amplitude in less than 10 seconds. This requirement must 
also be met with degraded upper mode(s) of the AFCS. An ``upper mode'' 
is a mode that utilizes a fully coupled autopilot to provide an 
operational SAR profile.
    (B) After any upset, the AFCS must return the aircraft to the last 
commanded position within 10 seconds or less.
    (4) With any of the upper mode(s) of the AFCS engaged, the pilot 
must be able to manually recover the aircraft and transition to the 
normal (Appendix B) IFR flight profile envelope without exceptional 
skill, alertness, or strength.
    (e) One-Engine Inoperative (OEI) Performance Information.
    (1) The following performance information must be provided in the 
Rotorcraft Flight Manual Supplement (RFMS):
    (i) OEI performance information and emergency procedures, providing 
the maximum weight that will provide a minimum clearance of 15 feet 
above the surface, following failure of the critical engine in a hover. 
The maximum weight must be presented as a function of the hover height 
for the temperature and pressure altitude range requested for 
certification. The effects of wind must be reflected in the hover 
performance information.
    (ii) Hover OGE performance with the critical engine inoperative for 
OEI continuous and time-limited power ratings for those weights, 
altitudes, and temperatures for which certification is requested.

    Note: These OEI performance requirements do not replace 
performance requirements that may be needed to comply with the 
airworthiness or operational standards (Sec.  29.865 or 14 CFR part 
133) for external loads or human external cargo.

    (f) RFMS.
    (1) The RFMS must contain, at a minimum:
    (i) Limitations necessary for safe operation of the SAR system to 
    (A) Minimum crew requirements.
    (B) Maximum SAR weight.
    (C) Engagement criteria for each of the SAR modes to include MUH 
(as determined in subparagraph (c)(3)).
    (ii) Normal and emergency procedures for operation of the SAR 
system (to include operation of the hoist operator control), with AFCS 
failure modes, AFCS degraded modes, and engine failures.
    (iii) Performance information:
    (A) OEI performance and height-loss.
    (B) Hover OGE performance information, utilizing OEI continuous and 
time-limited power ratings.
    (C) The maximum wind envelope demonstrated in flight test.
    (g) Flight Demonstration.
    (1) Before approval of the SAR system, an acceptable flight 
demonstration of all the coupled SAR modes is required.
    (2) The AFCS must provide fail-safe operations during coupled 
maneuvers. The demonstration of fail-safe operations must include a 
pilot workload assessment associated with manually flying the aircraft 
to an altitude greater than 200 feet above the surface and an airspeed 
of at least the best rate of climb airspeed (Vy).
    (3) For any failure condition of the SAR system not shown to be 
extremely improbable, the pilot must be able to make a smooth 
transition from one flight mode to another without exceptional piloting 
skill, alertness, or strength.
    (4) Failure conditions that are not shown to be extremely 
improbable must be demonstrated by analysis, ground testing, or flight 
testing. For failures demonstrated in flight, the following normal 
pilot recovery times are acceptable:
    (i) Transition modes (Cruise-to-Hover/Hover-to-Cruise) and Hover 
modes: Normal pilot recognition plus 1 second.
    (ii) Cruise modes: Normal pilot recognition plus 3 seconds.
    (5) All AFCS malfunctions must include evaluation at the low-speed 

[[Page 60887]]

high-power flight conditions typical of SAR operations. Additionally, 
AFCS hard-over, slow-over, and oscillatory malfunctions, particularly 
in yaw, require evaluation. AFCS malfunction testing must include a 
single or a combination of failures (for example, erroneous data from 
and loss of the radio altimeter, attitude, heading, and altitude 
sensors) which are not shown to be extremely improbable.
    (6) The flight demonstration must include the following 
environmental conditions:
    (i) Swell into wind.
    (ii) Swell and wind from different directions.
    (iii) Cross swell.
    (iv) Swell of different lengths (short and long swell).

    Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on September 25, 2012.
Kimberly K. Smith,
Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2012-24676 Filed 10-4-12; 8:45 am]