[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 167 (Wednesday, August 28, 2013)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 53051-53054]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-21019]



40 CFR Part 180

[EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-1018; FRL-9396-8]

Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the 
Requirement of a Tolerance

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement 
of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide ethyl-2E,4Z-
decadienoate (pear ester) in or on all food commodities. This 
regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level 
for residues of ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester).

DATES: This regulation is effective August 28, 2013. Objections and 
requests for hearings must be received on or before October 28, 2013, 
and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 
CFR part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).

ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket 
identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-1018, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory 
Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency 
Docket Center (EPA/DC), EPA West Bldg., Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution 
Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public Reading Room is open 
from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal 
holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 
566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305-
5805. Please review

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the visitor instructions and additional information about the docket 
available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gina Burnett, Biopesticides and 
Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, 
Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., 
Washington, DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 605-0513; email 
address: [email protected].


I. General Information

A. Does this action apply to me?

    You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an 
agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. 
The following list of North American Industrial Classification System 
(NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a 
guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. 
Potentially affected entities may include:
     Crop production (NAICS code 111).
     Animal production (NAICS code 112).
     Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311).
     Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532).

B. How can I get electronic access to other related information?

    You may access a frequently updated electronic version of 40 CFR 
part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl.

C. How can I file an objection or hearing request?

    Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a, any person may file an 
objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a 
hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a 
hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided 
in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify 
docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-1018 in the subject line on the first 
page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must 
be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before 
October 28, 2013. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections 
and hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b).
    In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the 
Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of 
the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for 
inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential 
pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without 
prior notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing 
request, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-1018, by one of 
the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 
Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit 
electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other 
information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
     Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket 
Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 
     Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand 
delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the 
instructions at http://www.epa.gov/dockets/contacts.htm.

Additional instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along 
with more information about dockets generally, is available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

II. Background and Statutory Findings

    In the Federal Register of March 14, 2012 (77 FR 15012) (FRL-9335-
9), EPA issued a notice pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 U.S.C. 
346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide tolerance petition (PP 
1F7901) by Wagner Regulatory Associates, Inc. (the Petitioner), on 
behalf of Bedoukian Research, Inc., 21 Finance Drive, Danbury, CT 
06810. The petition requested that 40 CFR part 180 be amended by 
establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for 
residues of ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester). The notice 
referenced a summary of the petition prepared by the Petitioner, which 
is available in the docket, http://www.regulations.gov. No relevant 
comments were received on this notice of filing.
    Section 408(c)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish an 
exemption from the requirement of a tolerance (the legal limit for a 
pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that 
the exemption is ``safe.'' Section 408(c)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines 
``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm 
will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, 
including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for 
which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through 
drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include 
occupational exposure. Pursuant to FFDCA section 408(c)(2)(B), in 
establishing or maintaining in effect an exemption from the requirement 
of a tolerance, EPA must take into account the factors set forth in 
FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(C), which require EPA to give special 
consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide 
chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there 
is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and 
children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue . . 
. . '' Additionally, FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D) requires that the 
Agency consider ``available information concerning the cumulative 
effects of a particular pesticide's residues'' and ``other substances 
that have a common mechanism of toxicity.''
    EPA performs a number of analyses to determine the risks from 
aggregate exposure to pesticide residues. First, EPA determines the 
toxicity of pesticides. Second, EPA examines exposure to the pesticide 
through food, drinking water, and through other exposures that occur as 
a result of pesticide use in residential settings.

III. Toxicological Profile

    Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the 
available scientific data and other relevant information in support of 
this action and considered its validity, completeness and reliability, 
and the relationship of this information to human risk. EPA has also 
considered available information concerning the variability of the 
sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers, including 
infants and children.

A. Overview of Pear Ester

    Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester) is a naturally occurring, 
volatile substance emitted from mature, ripening fruit, that is 
attractive to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, a major 
agricultural pest of pome fruit worldwide. Male and female moths are 
attracted to pear ester and fly to the ripening fruit, where they mate 
and lay their eggs. Synthetic pear ester is structurally and 
functionally identical to the natural compound, and its intended 
pesticidal use is to disrupt CM mating behavior by attracting the moths 
away from the fruit, reducing their chances of finding mates and laying 
eggs in fruit orchards.

B. Biochemical Pesticide Toxicology Data Requirements

    All applicable mammalian toxicology data requirements supporting 

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petition to exempt residues of pear ester from the requirement of a 
tolerance in or on all food commodities have been fulfilled. No toxic 
endpoints were identified in studies conducted and data obtained from 
open technical literature. Moreover, pear ester is not likely a mutagen 
or developmental toxicant. There are no known effects on endocrine 
systems via oral, dermal, or inhalation routes of exposure. For a more 
in-depth synopses of the data upon which EPA relied and its human 
health risk assessment based on that data can be found in the document 
entitled, ``Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) Considerations 
for Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester),'' available in the docket 
for this action as described under ADDRESSES.

IV. Aggregate Exposures

    In examining aggregate exposure, FFDCA section 408 directs EPA to 
consider available information concerning exposures from the pesticide 
residue in food and all other non-occupational exposures, including 
drinking water from ground water or surface water and exposure through 
pesticide use in gardens, lawns, or buildings (residential and other 
indoor uses).

A. Dietary Exposure

    The proposed use patterns may result in dietary exposure to pear 
ester, although its residues are not expected to be any greater than 
that of current exposure due to use of pear ester as a flavoring agent. 
No significant exposure via drinking water is expected when pear ester 
is used according to the product label directions. The reason for this 
conclusion is that pear ester is applied at low rates, degrades 
rapidly, and is not directly applied to water. Should exposure occur, 
however, minimal to no risk is expected for the general population, 
including infants and children, due to the low toxicity of pear ester 
as demonstrated in the data submitted and evaluated by the Agency.

B. Other Non-Occupational Exposure

    Non-occupational exposure is not expected because pear ester will 
be applied as a codling moth mating disruptor for agricultural purposes 

V. Cumulative Effects From Substances With a Common Mechanism of 

    Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA requires that, when considering 
whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the Agency 
consider ``available information'' concerning the cumulative effects of 
a particular pesticide's residues and ``other substances that have a 
common mechanism of toxicity.''
    EPA has determined pear ester to have a non-toxic mode of action, 
and does not appear to produce any toxic metabolites; therefore, 
408(b)(2)(D)(v) does not apply. For information regarding EPA's efforts 
to determine which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to 
evaluate the cumulative effects of such chemicals, see EPA's Web site 
at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/cumulative.

VI. Determination of Safety for U.S. Population, Infants and Children

    FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(C) provides that, in considering the 
establishment of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for a pesticide 
chemical residue, EPA shall assess the available information about 
consumption patterns among infants and children, special susceptibility 
of infants and children to pesticide chemical residues, and the 
cumulative effects on infants and children of the residues and other 
substances with a common mechanism of toxicity. In addition, FFDCA 
section 408(b)(2)(C) provides that EPA shall apply an additional 
tenfold (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the case of 
threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and 
the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure, unless EPA 
determines that a different margin of safety will be safe for infants 
and children. This additional margin of safety is commonly referred to 
as the Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. In applying this 
provision, EPA either retains the default value of 10X, or uses a 
different additional or no safety factor when reliable data are 
available to support a different additional or no safety factor. As 
part of its qualitative assessment, EPA evaluated the available 
toxicity and exposure data on pear ester and considered its validity, 
completeness, and reliability, as well as the relationship of this 
information to human risk. EPA considers the toxicity database to be 
complete and has identified no residual uncertainty with regard to 
prenatal and postnatal toxicity or exposure. No hazard was identified 
based on the available studies. Based upon its evaluation, EPA 
concludes that there are no threshold effects of concern to infants, 
children, or adults when pear ester is applied as a mating disruptor of 
codling moth and used in accordance with label directions and good 
agricultural practices. As a result, EPA concludes that no additional 
margin of exposure (safety) is necessary.

VII. Other Considerations

A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

    An analytical method is not required for enforcement purposes 
because EPA is establishing an exemption from the requirement of a 
tolerance without any numerical limitation.

B. International Residue Limits

    In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to harmonize U.S. 
tolerances with international standards whenever possible, consistent 
with U.S. food safety standards and agricultural practices. EPA 
considers the international maximum residue limits (MRLs) established 
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA 
section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations 
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food 
standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety 
standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United 
States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from 
a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA section 408(b)(4) requires that EPA explain 
the reasons for departing from the Codex level.
    The Codex has not established a MRL for ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate 
(pear ester).

VIII. Conclusion

    EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm 
will result to the U.S. population, including infants and children, 
from aggregate exposure to residues of ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear 
ester). EPA is therefore establishing an exemption from the requirement 
of a tolerance for residues of ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester) in 
or on all food commodities when applied as a codling moth mating 
disruptor and used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

IX. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    This final rule establishes an exemption from the requirement of a 
tolerance under FFDCA section 408(d) in response to a petition 
submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has 
exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 
12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, 
October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from review 
under Executive Order 12866, this final rule is not subject to 
Executive Order 13211, entitled ``Actions

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Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, 
Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 
13045, entitled ``Protection of Children from Environmental Health 
Risks and Safety Risks'' (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997). This final rule 
does not contain any information collections subject to OMB approval 
under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., nor 
does it require any special considerations under Executive Order 12898, 
entitled ``Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority 
Populations and Low-Income Populations'' (59 FR 7629, February 16, 
    Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis 
of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the exemption in this 
final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the 
requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq.), do not apply.
    This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food 
handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this 
action alter the relationships or distribution of power and 
responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions 
of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, the Agency has determined that 
this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or 
tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government 
and the States or tribal governments, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between 
the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, the Agency has 
determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 
43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled 
``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 
67249, November 9, 2000) do not apply to this final rule. In addition, 
this final rule does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any 
unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates 
Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.).
    This action does not involve any technical standards that would 
require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant 
to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement 
Act of 1995 (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

X. Congressional Review Act

    Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), 
EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required 
information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and 
the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of 
the rule in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' 
as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: August 22, 2013.
Steven Bradbury,
Director, Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:


1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.

2. Add Sec.  180.1323 to subpart D to read as follows:

Sec.  180.1323  Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption from 
the requirement of a tolerance.

    An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for 
residues of the biochemical pesticide, ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear 
ester), in or on all food commodities, when used in accordance with 
label directions and good agricultural practices.

[FR Doc. 2013-21019 Filed 8-27-13; 8:45 am]