[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 209 (Tuesday, October 29, 2013)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 64839-64871]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-25397]



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Vol. 78

Tuesday,

No. 209

October 29, 2013

Part VI





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 
Vandenberg Monkeyflower; Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 209 / Tuesday, October 29, 2013 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2013-0078; 4500030113]
RIN 1018-AY27


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status 
for Vandenberg Monkeyflower

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list 
Vandenberg monkeyflower as an endangered species under the Endangered 
Species Act. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the 
Endangered Species Act's protections to this plant. The effect of this 
regulation will be to add Vandenberg monkeyflower to the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Plants under the Endangered Species Act.

DATES: We will accept all comments received or postmarked on or before 
December 30, 2013. Comments submitted electronically using the Federal 
eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES section below) must be received by 
11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the closing date. We must receive requests 
for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown in FOR FURTHER 
INFORMATION CONTACT by December 13, 2013.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
    (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov and search for FWS-R8-ES-2013-0078, which is the 
docket number for this rulemaking. Then, in the Search panel on the 
left side of the screen, under the Document Type heading, click on the 
Proposed Rules link to locate this document. You may submit a comment 
by clicking on ``Comment Now!''
    (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public 
Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-R8-ES-2013-0078; Division of Policy and 
Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax 
Drive, MS 2042-PDM; Arlington, VA 22203.
    We request that you send comments only by the methods described 
above. We will post all information received on http://www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we will post any 
personal information you provide us (see the Information Requested 
section below for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen P. Henry, Acting Field 
Supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Fish and Wildlife 
Office, 2493 Portola Road, Suite B, Ventura, CA 93003; telephone 805-
644-1766; facsimile 805-644-3958. If you use a telecommunications 
device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service 
(FIRS) at 800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Executive Summary

    Why we need to publish a rule. Under the Endangered Species Act of 
1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531, et seq.) (Act), if a species is 
determined to be an endangered or threatened species throughout all or 
a significant portion of its range, we are required to promptly publish 
a proposal in the Federal Register and make a determination on our 
proposal within 1 year. Critical habitat shall be designated, to the 
maximum extent prudent and determinable, for any species determined to 
be an endangered or threatened species under the Act. Listing a species 
as an endangered or threatened species and designations and revisions 
of critical habitat can only be completed by issuing a rule.
    This rule consists of a proposed rule to list Vandenberg 
monkeyflower (previously identified as a candidate for listing by the 
name Mimulus fremontii var. vandenbergensis, currently known as 
Diplacus vandenbergensis, and hereafter referred to as Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, with the exception of the Description and Taxonomy 
section below) as an endangered species. This plant occurs in nine 
locations exclusively on Burton Mesa, a distinct geographic region in 
Santa Barbara County, California.
    The basis for our action. Under the Act, we can determine that a 
species is an endangered or threatened species based on any of five 
factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or 
curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) Overutilization for 
commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) 
Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of existing regulatory 
mechanisms; or (E) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its 
continued existence.
    We have determined Vandenberg monkeyflower faces threats under 
Factors A, D, and E. The greatest threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower is 
the presence and expansion of invasive, nonnative plants that are 
abundant on Burton Mesa, particularly occurring within or adjacent to 
all known occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower. Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat includes sandy openings (canopy gaps) within the 
dominant vegetation. Ground-disturbing activities (including wildfires) 
create additional open areas that are invaded by nonnative plants, 
which precludes establishment of Vandenberg monkeyflower. Furthermore, 
the availability of habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower and its small 
overall population size may be affected by a suite of threats 
(including stochastic events such as wildfire and a changing climate) 
acting synergistically on the species. Based on the best available 
scientific and commercial information, we find that the species has a 
restricted range, faces ongoing and future threats across its range, 
and is in danger of extinction throughout all of its range.
    We will seek peer review. We are seeking comments from 
knowledgeable individuals with scientific expertise to review our 
analysis of the best available science and application of that science 
and to provide any additional scientific information to improve this 
proposed rule. Because we will consider all comments and information 
received during the comment period, our final determination may differ 
from this proposal.

Information Requested

    We intend that any final action resulting from this proposed rule 
will be based on the best scientific and commercial data available and 
be as accurate and as effective as possible. Therefore, we request 
comments or information from the public, other concerned governmental 
agencies, Native American tribes, the scientific community, industry, 
or any other interested parties concerning this proposed rule. We 
particularly seek comments concerning:
    (1) The species' biology, range, and population trends, including:
    (a) Habitat requirements for establishment, growth, and 
reproduction;
    (b) Genetics and taxonomy;
    (c) Historical and current range including distribution patterns;
    (d) Historical and current population levels, and current and 
projected trends; and
    (e) Past and ongoing conservation measures for the species, its 
habitat, or both.
    (2) The factors that are the basis for making a listing 
determination for a species under section 4(a) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 
1533(a)), which are:

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    (a) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or 
curtailment of its habitat or range;
    (b) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes;
    (c) Disease or predation;
    (d) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or
    (e) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued 
existence.
    (3) Biological, commercial trade, or other relevant data concerning 
any threats (or lack thereof) to Vandenberg monkeyflower and 
regulations that may be addressing those threats.
    (4) Additional information concerning the historical and current 
status, range, distribution, and population size of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, including the locations of any additional occurrences of 
this species.
    (5) Current or planned activities in the areas occupied by 
Vandenberg monkeyflower and possible impacts of these activities on 
this species and its habitat.
    (6) Information on the projected and reasonably likely impacts of 
climate change on Vandenberg monkeyflower and its habitat.
    (7) Information related to our interpretation and analysis of the 
best scientific and commercial data and our proposed status 
determination for the species.
    Please include sufficient information with your submission (such as 
scientific journal articles or other publications) to allow us to 
verify any scientific or commercial information you include.
    Please note that submissions merely stating support for or 
opposition to the action under consideration without providing 
supporting information may not meet the standard of information 
required by section 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act, which requires that 
determinations as to whether any species is an endangered or threatened 
species must be made ``solely on the basis of the best scientific and 
commercial data available.''
    You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed 
rule by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. We request that you 
send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES.
    If you submit information via http://www.regulations.gov, your 
entire submission--including any personal identifying information--will 
be posted on the Web site. If your submission is made via a hardcopy 
that includes personal identifying information, you may request at the 
top of your document that we withhold this information from public 
review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We 
will post all hardcopy submissions on http://www.regulations.gov. 
Please include sufficient information with your comments to allow us to 
verify any scientific or commercial information you include.
    Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting 
documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be 
available for public inspection at http://www.regulations.gov, or by 
appointment during normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Ventura Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

Previous Federal Actions

    We first identified Vandenberg monkeyflower as a candidate species 
in a notice of review published in the Federal Register on November 10, 
2010 (75 FR 69222). Vandenberg monkeyflower was given a listing 
priority number of 3, which denotes a subspecies [or variety] facing an 
imminent threat of high magnitude. Notices of review reconfirming its 
candidate status were also published in the Federal Register on October 
26, 2011 (76 FR 66370), and November 21, 2012 (77 FR 69994). Candidate 
taxa are plants and animals for which the Service has sufficient 
information on their biological status and threats to propose them as 
endangered or threatened under the Act, but for which development of a 
proposed listing regulation is precluded by other higher priority 
listing activities. We may identify a taxon as a candidate for listing 
after we conduct an evaluation of its status on our own initiative, or 
after we make a positive finding on a petition to list a species. No 
petitions seeking the listing of Vandenberg monkeyflower have been 
submitted nor have other Federal reviews been conducted for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower.
    On May 10, 2011, we filed a multiyear work plan as part of a 
proposed settlement agreement with Wild Earth Guardians and others in a 
consolidated case in the U.S. District Court for the District of 
Columbia. On September 9, 2011, the court accepted our agreement with 
plaintiffs in Endangered Species Act Section 4 Deadline Litig., Misc. 
Action No. 10-377 (EGS), MDL Docket No. 2165 (D. DC) (known as the 
``MDL case'') on a schedule to publish proposed rules or not-warranted 
findings for the 251 species designated as candidates in 2010 no later 
than September 30, 2016. We are submitting this proposed rule in 
compliance with the MDL settlement agreement.
    Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we propose to designate 
critical habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower under the Act.

Status Assessment for Vandenberg Monkeyflower

Background

    It is our intent to discuss below only those topics directly 
relevant to the listing of Vandenberg monkeyflower as endangered in 
this section of the proposed rule.

Description and Taxonomy

    Vandenberg monkeyflower is a small, annual herbaceous plant that 
grows from 0.5 to 10 inches (in) (1.2 to 25.4 centimeters (cm)) tall. 
The stems are glandular and usually green with purplish tinting. Leaves 
are obovate (narrowly elliptic) and reach 1.2 in (3 cm) in length. 
Plants produce a single flower or plants are branched producing 
multiple flowers. The tubular yellow flowers are bilaterally 
symmetrical, with the distal ends of the petals forming a unique 
structure that is likened to a face; hence the common name 
monkeyflower. Seed capsules are ovoid and reach 0.5 in (1.3 cm) in 
length. The capsule splits open longitudinally from the tip to release 
approximately 20 to 100 seeds.
    Vandenberg monkeyflower was first described as Mimulus fremontii 
(Benth.) A. Gray var. vandenbergensis D.M. Thompson (Thompson 2005, p. 
134) as a member of the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family). This is the 
name and family placement we have previously followed. Molecular 
systematics studies examining members of the Scrophulariaceae, 
including Mimulus, determined that this genus and a few others 
constituted a separate monophyletic group warranting recognition at the 
family rank as Phrymaceae (Beardsley and Olmstead 2002, pp. 1193-1101; 
Olmstead 2002, p. 18). Placement of Mimulus in the family Phrymaceae is 
recognized by species experts, is used in the recent flora of 
California (Thompson 2012, pp. 988-998), and will be treated as such in 
the upcoming volume of the Flora of North America.
    In 2012, Barker et al. (2012) recognized a redefined genus Diplacus 
that includes 46 taxa previously segregated as Mimulus, including 
Vandenberg monkeyflower as Diplacus vandenbergensis (D.M. Thompson) 
Nesom (Barker et al. 2012, p. 29). The citation in Barker et al. (2012, 
p. 29) attributes the nomenclatural combination at the species rank to 
Nesom in Phytoneuron 2012-47: 2, which was published electronically on 
the same day as Barker et al. (2012). The

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current citation for Vandenberg monkeyflower is at the species rank as 
Diplacus vandenbergensis (D.M. Thompson) G.L. Nesom. This combination 
is accepted by species and genus experts and will be used in the 
upcoming treatment in the Flora of North America. Accordingly, we will 
use the correct name (Diplacus vandenbergensis) and family attribution 
(Phrymaceae) throughout this and subsequent documents.

Life History

    The life history of Vandenberg monkeyflower has not been thoroughly 
studied, but certain characteristics appear similar to other small 
annual herbs. Vandenberg monkeyflower is shallow-rooted (Thompson 2005, 
p.131; Consortium of California Herbaria (Consortium 2010)) and has 
seeds that germinate during winter rains, typically between November 
and February (Thompson 2005, p. 23), which is similar to other small 
annual species that grow in sandy openings in chaparral and are adapted 
to the Mediterranean climate zone of California. For instance, 
Lessingia glandulifera (lessingia) is an annual herb that grows in 
sandy openings in chaparral, is shallow-rooted, and is commonly 
associated with Vandenberg monkeyflower (Davis and Mooney 1985, p. 
528). Rooting depth is positively related to above-ground size, with 
annuals having the smallest above-ground size and rooting depth in the 
soil (Schenk and Jackson 2002, pp. 484-485).
    Vandenberg monkeyflower is sensitive to annual levels of rainfall 
(Thompson 2005, p. 23), and, therefore, germination of resident seed 
banks may be low or nonexistent in unfavorable years, with little or no 
visible aboveground expression of the species. Many annual monkeyflower 
species, including Vandenberg monkeyflower, need early rainfall along 
with continued rains in late winter or early spring for a substantial 
number of seeds to germinate, and do not respond well when only later 
rainfall is available (Thompson 2005, p. 23; Fraga in litt. 2012). 
Vandenberg monkeyflower flowers mostly from late March through June 
with fruits maturing from late April through July (Thompson 2005, p. 
130).
    Seed banks develop when a plant produces more viable seeds than 
germinate in any given year. Seed banks contribute to the long-term 
persistence of a species by sustaining them through periods when 
conditions are not conducive to adequately germinate, reproduce, and 
replenish the seed bank (such as when there is not sufficient rainfall 
for plants to germinate, grow, and produce enough seeds to maintain the 
population at the same size from year to year) (Rees and Long 1992, 
entire; Adams et al. 2005, pp. 432-434; Satterthwaite et al. 2007, 
entire). The annual differences in the numbers and location of 
aboveground plants indicate the presence of a seed bank.
    The reproductive biology of Vandenberg monkeyflower has not been 
specifically studied; however, it is likely similar to closely related 
Diplacus species that occur in similar habitats. In general, annual 
species of Diplacus are self-compatible (able to be fertilized by its 
own pollen) but are also visited by a wide array of pollinators, which 
results in a mixed mating system that utilizes both self-fertilization 
and cross-fertilization (Sutherland and Vickery 1988, p. 334; Leclerc-
Potvin and Ritland 1994, pp. 201-204; Fraga in litt. 2012). The large 
size of the flower relative to the size of the plant suggests that 
Vandenberg monkeyflower is allocating significant resources into 
attracting pollinators; therefore, this species is thought to typically 
breed through outcrossing, and is dependent on pollinators to achieve 
seed production (Fraga in litt. 2012).
    Species of Diplacus are predominantly bee-pollinated, although the 
genus also includes species that are pollinated by hummingbirds, hawk 
moths (Sphingidae), beeflies (Bombyliidae), and other flies (order 
Diptera) (Wu et al. 2008, p. 224). Species of bees that have been 
observed to visit flowers of Vandenberg monkeyflower include sweat bees 
(Dufourea versatilis rubriventris), miner bees (Perdita nitens, 
Caliopsis [Nomadopsis] fracta and C. Nomadopsis trifolii), mason bees 
(Hoplitis product bernardina), and leaf-cutter bees (Anthidium 
collectum, Chelostoma cockerelli, C. minutum, C. phaceliae, 
Chelostomopsis rubifloris, and Ashmeadiella timberlakei timberlakei) 
(Krombein et al. 1979, pp. 1863-2030; Bugguide 2012; The Xerces Society 
2012). Additionally, Inouye (in litt. 2012) observed that small 
solitary bees were the most common pollinators on three other species 
of small annual monkeyflower species from dry and mesic habitats (D. 
androsaceus, D. angustatus, and D. douglasii); and Fraga (in litt. 
2012) has observed halictid bees (Halictidae) on other small 
monkeyflower species.
    Seeds of Vandenberg monkeyflower are small and light in weight, 
dispersing primarily by gravity and also by water and wind over 
relatively short distances (Thompson 2005, p. 130; Fraga in litt. 
2012). The small size of the seed makes it likely that short-distance 
dispersal could also be facilitated by ants, as has been noted for 
other small-seeded plant taxa (Cain et al. 1998, pp. 328-330). Given 
that the Burton Mesa area is subject to occasional high winds (see 
discussion in Climate section below), long-distance dispersal likely 
occurs during these wind events. Wind dispersal results in a random 
dispersal of seeds, some of which fall into suitable habitat and some 
do not.

Geographic Setting

    Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs only at low elevations and close to 
the coast in a distinct region in western Santa Barbara County known as 
Burton Mesa (Wilken and Wardlaw 2010, p. 2). Burton Mesa is a 
physiographic region situated between the Purisima Hills to the north 
and the Santa Ynez River to the south. The topography of Burton Mesa 
comprises a low, flat-topped series of hills averaging 400 feet (ft) 
(133 meters (m)) in elevation (Ferren et al. 1984, p. 3; Dibblee 1988). 
Level upland expanses from 328 to 394 ft (100 to 120 m) above sea level 
are dissected by streams that have formed wide valleys with short steep 
slopes (Davis 1987, p. 318). Underlying this region is the Burton Mesa 
dune sheet, which extends from Shuman Canyon on Vandenberg Air Force 
Base (AFB) in the north, roughly southeast along the southern slopes of 
the Purisima Hills and eastward to a point approximately 22 mi (35 km) 
from the present shoreline in the Santa Ynez River Valley (Cooper 1967, 
pp. 89-91; Hunt 1993, pp. 8-9).

Climate

    Burton Mesa experiences a Mediterranean climate, with mild, moist 
winters and moderately warm, rainless summers. The region is strongly 
influenced by the prevailing westerly transoceanic air currents. Late 
afternoon and early evening are often characterized by onshore breezes 
or winds during most of the year, but winds are strongest and 
persistent in late spring and early summer. A marine layer or fog 
characterizes this coastal region and is heaviest during late spring 
and early summer mornings. Frost is also a regular occurrence in 
winter, especially in low-lying areas (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 39).

Habitat

    Burton Mesa supports a mosaic of several native vegetation types, 
including maritime chaparral, maritime chaparral mixed with coastal 
scrub, oak woodland, and small patches of native grasslands (Wilken and 
Wardlaw 2010,

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p. 2). The maritime chaparral on Burton Mesa is referred to as Burton 
Mesa chaparral (Odion et al. 1992, pp. 5-6; Sawyer et al. 2009, p. 
376), and is dominated by evergreen shrubs and scattered multi-trunked 
Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) that form open stands to almost 
impenetrable thickets over large areas of Burton Mesa, with heights 
reaching up to 13 ft (4 m) (Gevirtz et al. 2007, pp. 95-96). The 
dominant endemic species of Burton Mesa chaparral include Ceanothus 
(Ceanothus impressus var. impressus (Santa Barbara ceanothus) and C. 
cuneatus var. fascicularis (Lompoc ceanothus)) and Arctostaphylos 
(Arctostaphylos purissima (Purisima manzanita) and A. rudis (shagbark 
manzanita)), along with the more widespread Adenostoma fasciculatum 
(chamise), Heteromeles arbutifolia (toyon), Cercocarpus betuloides 
(birchleaf mountain mahogany), Salvia mellifera (black sage), and 
Rhamnus californica (California coffeeberry).
    Coast live oak is an important dominant in many places on Burton 
Mesa, attaining 40 to 70 percent crown cover in older undisturbed 
patches of habitat. Ericameria ericoides (mock heather), with its wind-
dispersed seeds, is most often observed at trail edges in dense 
chaparral, but appears in greater numbers in large open areas and 
coastal scrub (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 96). Annual grassland and 
coastal sage scrub characterized by mock heather, Artemisia californica 
(California sagebrush), and Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) occur on 
formerly cleared sites and on xeric (dry) slopes. Some poorly drained 
upland sites in the central and western portions of Burton Mesa form 
seasonal wetlands characterized by native perennial grasses such as 
Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye) and vernal pool species including 
Eryngium armatum (coastal button-celery) (Davis et al. 1988, p. 172). 
The vegetation transitions to coastal sage scrub habitat as it nears 
the ocean and into other terrestrial habitats east of Purisima Canyon 
on the eastern side of La Purisima Mission State Historic Park (SHP) 
(Gevirtz et al. 2005, p. 86). The edaphic (soil) variable with the 
greatest effect on vegetation composition is the depth of soil 
overlying the bedrock or subsoil pan (Davis et al. 1988, p. 188). Soils 
on Burton Mesa become very shallow toward the north and west, and 
chaparral shrubs decrease in height and density with decreasing soil 
depth (Odion et al. 1992, p. 6).
    Vandenberg monkeyflower does not grow beneath the canopy of shrubs 
or oaks, but rather in the sandy openings (canopy gaps) that occur in-
between shrubs. Sandy openings have been noted for their high abundance 
and diversity of annual and perennial herbaceous species, compared to 
those found in the understory of the shrub canopy (Hickson 1987, Davis 
et al. 1989; Keeley et al. 1981; Horton and Kraebel 1955). Vandenberg 
monkeyflower is currently known to occur within sandy openings at nine 
extant locations; one additional location is potentially extirpated 
(see Distribution of Vandenberg Monkeyflower below). Because portions 
of Burton Mesa are inaccessible and difficult to survey, Vandenberg 
monkeyflower has the potential to occur in areas where it has not yet 
been observed within sandy openings. However, not all sandy openings 
within the shrub canopy appear to be currently suitable for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower because some of the sandy openings consist of sands that 
structurally seem more consolidated and currently do not support this 
species (Rutherford in litt. 2012). To date, all of the extant 
occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower are within sandy openings where 
the structure of the sands appears loose (Rutherford in litt. 2012).
    The amount of Vandenberg monkeyflower suitable habitat currently 
available has changed over time. Prior to 1938, approximately 23,550 ac 
(9,350 ha) of maritime chaparral was present on Burton Mesa (Hickson 
1987, p. 34). For the purposes of this analysis, we determined in 2012 
that approximately 10,057 ac (4,070 ha) of maritime chaparral habitat 
remain on Burton Mesa, which represents a loss of 53 percent of the 
original upland habitat (Figure 1; Service 2012a, unpublished data). We 
then estimated the amount of Burton Mesa considered as sandy openings 
where Vandenberg monkeyflower could potentially occur. Based on 
inspection of color imagery (National Agriculture Imagery Program 
(NAIP) 2009) of areas within Burton Mesa where this species occurs, we 
used the range of image pixel values among 20 point locations to define 
bare ground while all other pixel values defined vegetated areas. We 
calculated the total area encompassed by bare ground and vegetation by 
multiplying the number of bare ground and vegetated pixels by 1 square 
meter (the ground resolution of a pixel in the NAIP data). Roads, 
buried pipeline rights-of-way, and building footprints were removed to 
estimate the percent of Burton Mesa that currently comprise sandy 
openings.
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP29OC13.003

    Results indicate up to approximately 20 percent of the total area 
of remaining Burton Mesa chaparral comprises sandy openings, which is a 
high estimate because this may include areas of bare ground that are 
not sandy openings suitable for Vandenberg monkeyflower, such as 
walking trails (Service 2012b, unpublished data). The percentage

[[Page 64845]]

would likely change over time depending on whether chaparral stands 
continue to age and increase in canopy cover, or are burned to 
temporarily increase the amount of sandy openings. Additionally, the 
location of sandy openings on Burton Mesa would likely shift over time 
because individual shrubs continue to mature and increase in cover or 
die, creating temporary gaps in the shrub canopy.
    The structure of Burton Mesa chaparral comprises a mosaic of 
vegetation patches interspersed with sandy openings that varies from 
place to place. Within a given substrate, the chaparral composition is 
a reflection of stand age or shrub canopy cover, disturbance history 
(whether the area was cleared in the past or nonnative species were 
planted), history of wildfire, and distance from the coast (Davis et 
al. 1988, p. 188; Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 97). Although the sandy 
openings that Vandenberg monkeyflower occupies are only a small percent 
of the total amount of Burton Mesa chaparral habitat, because the sandy 
openings and vegetation form a mosaic vegetation community that 
structurally may vary over time, it is impossible to separate out the 
sandy openings from the rest of the Burton Mesa chaparral vegetation. 
Therefore, for the purposes of this rule, we consider suitable 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat to consist of Burton Mesa chaparral, 
which would include the sandy openings and the dominant vegetation that 
characterize this vegetation community.
    Other low-growing native annual species that often co-occur with 
Vandenberg monkeyflower in sandy openings include: Mucronea californica 
(California spineflower); Castillleja exserta (purple owl's clover); 
Logfia filaginoides (California filago); Lessingia glandulifera 
(lessingia); Layia glandulosa (white tidy tips); Chaenactis 
glabriuscula (pincushion); and Plantago erecta (plantain). Frequently 
co-occurring herbaceous native perennial species include Horkelia 
cuneata (horkelia) and Croton californicus (croton) (Meyer in litt. 
2010a). Nonnative annual and perennial species are also known to occur 
in Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. Nonnative annual species include 
(but are not limited to) Bromus diandrus (ripgut brome) and Hypochaeris 
glabra (smooth cat's-ear) (Meyer in litt. 2010a). Nonnative perennial 
species include: Ehrharta calycina (South African perennial veldt grass 
(veldt grass)), Carpobrotus edulis (iceplant), Brassica tournefortii 
(Sahara mustard), and Cortaderia jubata (pampas grass).

Land Ownership

    The western portion of Burton Mesa is Federal land within 
Vandenberg AFB (Davis et al. 1988, p. 170). Vandenberg AFB contains 
approximately 99,000 acres (ac) (40,064 hectares (ha)); approximately 
8,114 ac (3,284 ha) is maritime chaparral mixed with coastal sage 
scrub, veldt grass, pampas grass, herbs, and coast live oak on Burton 
Mesa within Base boundaries (Air Force 2011c, Appendix A--Figure 5-3; 
Lum in litt. 2012d). Vandenberg AFB is managed by the U.S. Air Force.
    To the east of Vandenberg AFB, the State of California received 
5,078 ac (2,055 ha) from Union Oil Company in 1990 as part of a 
settlement of two antitrust lawsuits (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 2). The 
land acquired by the State formed the Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve 
(Reserve) and encompasses most of the maritime chaparral that occurs to 
the east of Vandenberg AFB (Odion et al. 1992, p. 6). The western 
boundary of the Reserve abuts the eastern boundary of Vandenberg AFB 
and is delineated by a 100-ft (30-m) wide fuel break (a gap in 
vegetation designed to act as a barrier to slow progress of a potential 
wildfire). Additional lands have since been added to the Reserve since 
1990, bringing its total acreage to 5,186 ac (2,099 ha) (Gevirtz et al. 
2007, p. 3). The Reserve contains five management units (Vandenberg, 
Santa Lucia, Purisima Hills, Encina, and La Purisima) and is situated 
on the eastern Burton Mesa and foothills of the Purisima Hills (Gevirtz 
et al. 2007, p. 7). The Reserve is managed by the California Department 
of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). CDFW was formerly California Department of 
Fish and Game (CDFG), and because historic documents prior to 2013 use 
this old name, the abbreviations CDFG and CDFW will both be used 
interchangeably for references cited throughout the remainder of this 
document.
    Residential communities such as Vandenberg Village, Clubhouse 
Estates, Mesa Oaks, and Mission Hills fragment (divide into small 
noncontiguous pieces) the Reserve and other non-Federal lands on Burton 
Mesa. The southern portion of the mesa and beyond the southern boundary 
of the Reserve comprises agricultural lands as well as land owned by 
the Department of Justice (which houses the U.S. Bureau of Prisons 
Federal Penitentiary Complex at Lompoc (Lompoc Penitentiary)). The 
jagged northern perimeter of Burton Mesa is adjacent to an active oil 
field operated by Plains Exploration and Production Company (PXP).
    To the east of the Reserve, La Purisima Mission State Historic Park 
(SHP) contains 980 ac (397 ha) (California State Parks 1991, p. 9) and 
is separated from the Reserve by the residential communities of Mesa 
Oaks and Mission Hills. La Purisima Mission SHP also abuts the southern 
boundary of the La Purisima Management Unit of the Reserve. California 
State Parks manages La Purisima Mission SHP.

Distribution of Vandenberg Monkeyflower

    For the purposes of this rule, we define the following terms to 
refer to individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower and where they occur. 
We use the term ``occurrence'' (consistent with the definition for 
``element occurrence'' used by the California Natural Diversity Data 
Base (CNDDB)) to be a grouping of plants (individuals) within 0.25 mi 
(0.4 km) proximity (CNDDB 2010). There may be one or more discrete 
groupings of plants (individuals) within a single occurrence. We use 
the term ``location'' to refer only to a particular site, area, or 
region, as in ``at that location,'' with no relation to an assemblage 
of plants (e.g., polygon, occurrence, population).
    We generally describe the area on Burton Mesa where Vandenberg 
monkeyflower currently occurs as a crescent-shaped area approximately 7 
mi (10.7 km) long by 2 mi (3.0 km) wide. All extant individuals of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower are located within this area (Consortium) 
2010), almost exclusively occurring on thin layers of aeolian- (wind-) 
deposited sands between approximately 100 and 400 ft (30 to 122 m) in 
elevation (Wilken and Wardlaw 2010, p. 2). We based the description of 
suitable habitat on viewing U.S. Geological Survey maps and Google 
Earth(copyright), and looking at how the occurrences of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower were spread across the landscape. We did not 
analyze biological factors such as vegetation or soil type when 
describing this general area where the species occurs. A discussion of 
where Vandenberg monkeyflower has been historically observed and where 
it is currently known to occur follows below. Additionally, Figure 2 
includes the known distribution of Vandenberg monkeyflower across its 
range based on the most recent survey data; Table 1 lists the names of 
the occurrences, land ownership, and status of each known and 
historical occurrence.

[[Page 64846]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP29OC13.004

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Historical Locations
    We are aware of historical herbarium collections of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower from two locations; one of these (Santa Rita Valley) no 
longer supports habitat for this species (Consortium 2010), and we 
consider it to be extirpated. The second collection was made from Lower 
Pine Canyon; although plants have not been relocated at lower Pine 
Canyon, we consider this collection to be a part of the Pine Canyon 
occurrence, which is extant. In addition to these two collections, an

[[Page 64847]]

historical occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower was observed, but not 
collected, from Lower Santa Lucia Canyon; we consider it to be 
potentially extirpated. Additional detail on the occurrence of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower at these three historical locations is provided 
below.
    The first historical collection of Vandenberg monkeyflower was made 
in 1931 from the Santa Ynez Valley approximately 5 mi (8 km) west of 
Buellton along State Highway 246 and east of La Purisima (Consortium 
2010; Santa Barbara Botanic Garden (SBBG) 2005). This site was surveyed 
multiple times in 2006 (Wilken and Wardlaw 2010, Appendix 2); however, 
no Vandenberg monkeyflower were seen. At some point prior to 1931, seed 
from Burton Mesa may have blown downwind to this location, but it 
appears that Vandenberg monkeyflower has been extirpated at this 
location because no suitable habitat remains due to agricultural 
conversion (including vineyards and berries (Elvin 2009, pers. obs.) 
and heavily grazed pastureland (Wilken and Wardlaw 2010, Appendix 2). 
Therefore, we consider the occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower to be 
extirpated from this location.
    The second historical collection of Vandenberg monkeyflower was 
made in 1960 near lower Pine Canyon (part of the existing Pine Canyon 
occurrence) on the eastern edge of Vandenberg AFB (Jepson Herbarium 
2006; Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 2006). Vandenberg monkeyflower 
had not been documented since it was collected there in 1960; however, 
it was observed in 2010 and 2012 up-canyon from this historical 
location (Lum in litt. 2012a, Rutherford in litt. 2012) where suitable 
habitat remains. (See further discussion of Pine Canyon in Current 
Locations section below). The description of the location of this 
historical occurrence is not precise enough to determine that the 
location is distinct from, and not part of, the location where an 
extant occurrence was observed in 2010 and 2012 in upper Pine Canyon 
(See Occurrences Located on Vandenberg AFB section below). Therefore, 
we consider the historical occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower to be 
part of the extant Pine Canyon occurrence.
    The third historical location of Vandenberg monkeyflower was 
observed, but not collected, in 1985 in the southwestern portion of the 
Vandenberg Management Unit on the Reserve (Hickson in litt. 2007). 
Although no collection was made, we have a high confidence in the 
accuracy of the observation (known as the Lower Santa Lucia Canyon 
occurrence; Figure 2) because it was made during the course of a 
vegetation study for a master's thesis (Hickson in litt. 2007). The 
location had not been searched for the species between 1985 and 2011; 
in 2012 (a low rainfall year), CDFW staff (Meyer) conducted a cursory 
survey and was unable to relocate the species (Meyer in litt. 2012c). 
Because it has been approximately 30 years (albeit with little survey 
effort between 1985 and 2011) since it was last observed, and suitable 
habitat remains but is overcrowded with invasive, nonnative plants (see 
Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants), we consider the occurrence of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower at this historical location to be potentially 
extirpated.
Current Status of Vandenberg Monkeyflower
    Because we do not have a wealth of survey data over multiple years 
to analyze a trend in the long-term persistence of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, we consider it most appropriate to use suitable habitat 
trends as a surrogate for the species' trend. Thus, an increase or 
decrease in the amount of suitable habitat likely results in a 
respective increase or decrease in the Vandenberg monkeyflower 
population.
    Surveys for Vandenberg monkeyflower have occurred across this 
species' range on Burton Mesa during recent years, although the level 
of effort and precision of the surveys varied between the different 
biologists who conducted surveys. In 2006, the first year that a 
concerted effort was made to survey most of the known locations, 
approximately 2,700 individuals were observed during surveys throughout 
the known range of the species (Ballard 2006; Wilken and Wardlaw 2010, 
pp. 2-3, Appendices 1, 2). In 2010, the Air Force observed 
approximately 5,200 individuals during surveys conducted on 376 ac (152 
ha) within Vandenberg AFB (Air Force 2012).
    In other years, individuals and agencies (including Air Force, 
CDFW, and our biologists) have conducted opportunistic surveys of 
specific sites where this species occurs, but rangewide surveys have 
not been conducted since 2006. Ballard (in litt. 2009) searched for 
Vandenberg monkeyflower in areas between extant occurrences and on the 
periphery of the plant's known distribution but found no plants. 
Additionally, the species has not been observed in some areas with 
sandy openings that appear to be suitable habitat (Ballard in litt. 
2009). These areas: (1) Appear slightly degraded, even though many 
species commonly associated with Vandenberg monkeyflower were often 
abundant; (2) contain small pockets of sandy openings, but the sands 
did not appear to contain a loose enough structure to support 
Vandenberg monkeyflower; or (3) harbor a dominant amount of invasive, 
nonnative plants within sandy openings. The ability for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower to grow in sandy openings may depend upon the stand age 
and disturbance history of the location, as well as edaphic factors 
(Davis et al. 1988, p. 188), along with the amount of rainfall, size of 
the seed bank, and competition with invasive, nonnative plants.
    The following sections provide a description of nine specific 
locations (which contain all extant occurrences identified in Figure 2) 
where Vandenberg monkeyflower is known to occur, hereby referred to as 
nine occurrences. All known occurrences are on the following lands: 
Vandenberg AFB (four occurrences), Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve 
(three occurrences), and La Purisima Mission SHP (two occurrences) (See 
Figure 2; Table 1).

 Table 1--Vandenberg Monkeyflower Locations, Land Ownership, and Current
                                 Status
------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Vandenberg monkeyflower
            locations               Land ownership      Current status
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Current Locations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Oak Canyon...................  Vandenberg AFB....  Extant.
2. Pine Canyon (includes          Vandenberg AFB....  Extant.
 historical location in lower
 Pine Canyon).
3. Lake Canyon..................  Vandenberg AFB....  Extant.
4. Santa Lucia Canyon...........  Vandenberg AFB....  Extant.
5. Volans Avenue................  Burton Mesa         Extant.
                                   Ecological
                                   Reserve.

[[Page 64848]]

 
6. Clubhouse Estates............  Burton Mesa         Extant.
                                   Ecological
                                   Reserve and
                                   Private lands.
7. Davis Creek..................  Burton Mesa         Extant.
                                   Ecological
                                   Reserve.
8. La Purisima West.............  La Purisima         Extant.
                                   Mission State
                                   Historic Park.
9. La Purisima East.............  La Purisima         Extant.
                                   Mission State
                                   Historic Park.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Historical Locations
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Santa Rita Valley...............  Private lands.....  Extirpated.
Lower Santa Lucia Canyon........  Burton Mesa         Potentially
                                   Ecological          Extirpated.
                                   Reserve.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Occurrences Located on Vandenberg AFB

    There are four locations on Vandenberg AFB that are known to 
support occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower. We refer to these four 
locations as the Oak, Pine, Lake, and Santa Lucia Canyons occurrences.
    (1) Oak Canyon. Vandenberg monkeyflower was reported as common in 
the late 1980s or early 1990s (Odion in litt. 2006) at the mouth of Oak 
Canyon on the eastern edge of the Base. Four individuals were found in 
2006 (Ventura Fish and Wildlife Herbarium (VFWO) 2013). Although no 
plants were found in 2010 or 2012 (Air Force 2012, p. 1; Lum in litt. 
2012b; Rutherford in litt. 2012), as discussed above in the 
Background--Life History section, we consider the species to be extant 
at this location because it has only been 7 years since individuals 
were last seen, and it is likely that a residual seed bank is still 
present.
    (2) Pine Canyon. Approximately 365 individuals were present in 
multiple scattered occurrences in upper Pine Canyon in 2010 (Lum in 
litt. 2012b), and approximately 100 individuals were observed in 2012 
(Rutherford in litt. 2012).
    (3) Lake Canyon. This occurrence contains the greatest number of 
individuals throughout this species' range and accounts for most of the 
individuals on Vandenberg AFB. Approximately 1,500 individuals were 
observed in 2006 and 1,000 individuals in 2007 (Elvin in litt. 2009; 
VFWO 2013). The most recent surveys in Lake Canyon occurred in 2010 and 
documented approximately 4,817 individuals (Lum in litt. 2012b), 
although these surveys likely included a larger portion of the canyon 
than surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. Even though surveys have not 
occurred at this location since 2010, plants were also observed at 
several sites in Lake Canyon in 2012. Therefore, we consider the 
species to be extant at this location (Rutherford in litt. 2012). A 
seed bank is likely present.
    (4) Santa Lucia Canyon. This canyon is located on the eastern edge 
of Vandenberg AFB at the junction of Santa Lucia and Lakes Canyons and 
abuts the Reserve that lies to the east. Approximately 25 individuals 
were observed in 2006 (Ballard 2006), and 1 individual was observed in 
2010 (Lum in litt. 2012b). Although surveys have not occurred at this 
location since 2010, we consider the species to be extant at this 
location because it has only been 3 years since the species was last 
seen, and it is likely that a residual seed bank is still present.

Occurrences Located on Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve

    Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs or partially occurs (i.e., part of 
the occurrence is on the Reserve and part of the occurrence is off the 
Reserve) at three locations within the Reserve. We refer to these 
locations as the Volans Avenue, Clubhouse Estates, and Davis Creek 
occurrences.
    (5) Volans Avenue. Individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower have been 
observed in the Santa Lucia Management Unit of the Reserve immediately 
west of Volans Avenue, between a portion of Vandenberg Village and 
California State Highway 1. The Santa Lucia Management Unit abuts the 
eastern boundary of Vandenberg AFB. Five plants were observed in 2003, 
and one plant was observed in 2007 (Meyer in litt. 2007). In the other 
years between 2004 and 2006, and in 2009, no plants were found (Meyer 
in litt. 2007; Ballard in litt. 2007; Meyer in litt. 2009a). Although 
no surveys have occurred since 2009, we consider the species to be 
extant at this location because it has only been 6 years since 
individuals were last seen, and it is likely that a residual seed bank 
is still present.
    (6) Clubhouse Estates. Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs east of 
Vandenberg Village on both the privately owned Clubhouse Estates 
residential development project site, which has ongoing but differing 
levels of development since 2006, and an adjacent portion of the Encina 
Management Unit of the Reserve. Prior to 2006, most of the plants 
occurred on private property at the Clubhouse Estates project site 
(Scientific Applications International Corporation (SAIC) 2005b, Figure 
4.3-2). Approximately 100-285 individuals were observed in 2006 (Wilken 
and Wardlaw 2010, Appendices 1, 2), and approximately 350-400 
individuals were observed in 2009 (McGowan in litt. 2009). Although no 
surveys have occurred since 2009, we consider the species to be extant 
at this location because it has only been 4 years since individuals 
were last seen, and it is likely that both plants and a residual seed 
bank are present.
    (7) Davis Creek. Vandenberg monkeyflower is located along the 
western border of the Encina Management Unit of the Reserve and a 
right-of-way (ROW) for California State Highway 1 managed by the 
California Department of Transportation. Davis Creek is east of 
Vandenberg Village and less than 1 mi (1.6 km) south of the Vandenberg 
monkeyflower individuals at Clubhouse Estates.
    The Davis Creek occurrence comprises four locations where 
Vandenberg monkeyflower has been observed. At ``west of Highway 1,'' 
researchers reported 3 individuals in 2006 (Ballard 2006), 
approximately 100 in 2009 (Rutherford and Ballard in litt. 2009), and 
60 in 2010 (Meyer in litt. 2010a). At ``north of Burton Mesa 
Boulevard,'' four individuals were observed in 2006 (Ballard 2006), and 
seven individuals were observed in 2010 (Meyer in litt. 2010a). 
Subsequently, 180 individuals were observed in 2010 at a third location 
east of the Vandenberg Village Community Services District Pump Station 
and between Highway 1 and Burton Mesa Boulevard (Meyer in litt. 2010a). 
Similarly, approximately 500

[[Page 64849]]

individuals were observed in 2010 at a fourth location northwest of the 
location where 180 individuals were observed in 2010, and to the west 
of the 7 individuals observed in 2010 that were located north of the 
Burton Mesa Boulevard. Individuals were also observed at several of 
these locations in 2012 and 2013. We consider the species to be extant 
at this location because individuals have been seen as recently as 2013 
(Meyer in litt. 2013).

Occurrences Located on La Purisima Mission SHP

    Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs at two separate locations within La 
Purisima Mission SHP. We refer to these locations of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower as the La Purisima West and La Purisima East occurrences.
    (8) La Purisima West. Vandenberg monkeyflower that occur on the 
west side of the park are located in a discrete location. Approximately 
300 individuals were observed in 2006 (Ballard 2006), and approximately 
1,500 individuals were observed in 2009 (Rutherford and Ballard in 
litt. 2009). Subsequently, individuals were observed here in 2010 and 
2011 but not counted (Rutherford in litt. 2012). Although no 
observations have occurred since 2011, we consider the species to be 
extant at this location because it has been only 2 years since 
individuals were last observed (although not counted), and it is likely 
that both plants and a residual seed bank are present.
    (9) La Purisima East. Vandenberg monkeyflower that occur on the 
east side of the park are made up of hundreds of scattered individuals. 
Approximately 850 individuals were observed in 2006 (Ballard 2006) and 
approximately 400 individuals were observed in 2009 (Rutherford and 
Ballard in litt. 2009). Although no surveys have occurred since 2009, 
we consider the species to be extant at this location because it has 
been only 4 years since individuals were last seen, and it is likely 
that both plants and a residual seed bank are present.
Summary--Distribution and Status of Vandenberg Monkeyflower
    In summary, we identified one extirpated location where Vandenberg 
monkeyflower no longer exists, one location that is considered 
potentially extirpated, and nine locations where Vandenberg 
monkeyflower is currently considered extant on Burton Mesa. Most of 
these extant locations contain multiple scattered individuals, and thus 
we refer to these areas as nine occurrences, as defined above. We 
generally characterized the size of Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences 
based on multiple observations over a period of years. Two of the nine 
occurrences (22 percent; Lake Canyon and La Purisima West) each 
contained over 1,000 individuals in multiple years and are the two 
largest known occurrences of this species. These largest occurrences 
include a high of approximately 1,500 individuals at Lake Canyon in 
2006 (Elvin in litt. 2009; VFWO 2013) and 1,500 individuals at La 
Purisima West in 2009 (Rutherford and Ballard in litt. 2009). Four 
occurrences (44 percent; Pine Canyon, Clubhouse Estates, Davis Creek, 
and La Purisima East) each contained hundreds of plants ranging between 
100 and 850 individuals in multiple years. Finally, three occurrences 
(33 percent; Oak Canyon, Santa Lucia Canyon, and Volans Avenue) are the 
smallest, with a range of no individuals observed in most years 
surveyed (Volans Avenue) to a high of 25 individuals observed in 2006 
(Santa Lucia Canyon). Although trend data are not available, these data 
indicate that the aboveground expression of Vandenberg monkeyflower for 
7 of the 9 occurrences (78 percent) harbor 850 or fewer individuals.
    Because we have only one rangewide survey for this species, and 
because based on our current data and the likelihood that Vandenberg 
monkeyflower forms a seed bank and expresses variable numbers of 
aboveground individuals from year to year (see Background--Life History 
section above), we are unable to determine a trend in the Vandenberg 
monkeyflower population. Therefore, we will use trends in the amount of 
suitable habitat as a surrogate for the species' trend.

Summary of Factors Affecting the Species

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533), and its implementing 
regulations at 50 CFR part 424, set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. Under section 4(a)(1) of the Act, we may list a species based 
on any of the following five factors: (A) The present or threatened 
destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade 
factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may be 
warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination. Each of these factors is discussed below.

Factor A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or 
Curtailment of Its Habitat or Range

    Factor A threats to Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat include 
development (military, State lands, and residential), utility 
maintenance and miscellaneous activities, invasive, nonnative plants, 
anthropogenic (influenced by human-caused activity) fire, recreation, 
and climate change. These impact categories overlap or act in concert 
with each other to adversely affect Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat.
Development--Military
    Development of Vandenberg AFB military facilities within the last 
century directly removed approximately 6,104 ac (2,470 ha) of Burton 
Mesa chaparral habitat. Approximately 40 percent of the chaparral that 
historically occurred on Vandenberg AFB remains, mostly south and east 
of the primary developed area on Vandenberg AFB (Odion et al. 1992, p. 
12). West of the developed area has been impacted by numerous trails, 
roads, and other ground disturbances. Much of the chaparral habitat 
that once existed to the north of the primary developed area was 
cultivated or type-converted (disturbance resulting in a new dominant 
plant community) to rangeland prior to military use. Areas that 
historically consisted of chaparral vegetation have regenerated to 
nonnative grassland, usually with shrubs, and are no longer considered 
suitable habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower. This nonnative grassland 
is dominated by veldt grass and several species of nonnative annual 
grasses including Bromus spp. (bromes), Avena spp. (oatgrass), and 
Vulpia spp. (silvergrass) (Odion et al. 1992, p. 11).
    The Air Force maintains multiple launch facilities at Vandenberg 
AFB to accomplish their mission (Air Force 2011c, p. 7). There are no 
launch facilities in suitable habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower, and 
the Air Force is not likely to construct new launch facilities within 
suitable habitat because potential construction would likely occur near 
the coastline and away from more inland, human-populated areas (Air 
Force 2009a, p. 16). Additionally, the siting of future facilities is 
expected to capitalize on existing infrastructure; therefore, 
disturbance in undeveloped areas would be minimized (Air Force 2009a, 
p. 32).

[[Page 64850]]

Development--State Lands
    Prior to the State Lands Commission acquisition of the Reserve 
lands in 1990, four land uses were identified in the Reserve area, 
including agricultural operations, military operations, extractive 
industries, and urban development (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 54). The 
Reserve encompasses 5,186 ac (2,099 ha) and there has been no threat 
from new development. However, local governmental agencies and public 
utility companies maintain existing utilities and easements throughout 
the Reserve (see Factor A--Utility Maintenance and Miscellaneous 
Activities below).
    La Purisima Mission SHP has operated as a State Park since 1937 
(California State Parks 1991, p. 107). The current park boundaries 
encompass a total of 1,900 ac (769 ha). The park unit consists of the 
historical area, natural area with riding and hiking trails, 
agriculture, and the maintenance/service and residential area. The 
total amount of native vegetation is approximately 1,770 ac (716 ha) 
(Service 2013, unpublished data). There is no current or future threat 
of habitat destruction from development at La Purisima Mission SHP 
because the park was established to preserve cultural and natural 
features of the area.
Development--Private Lands
    Three residential communities exist on Burton Mesa east of 
Vandenberg AFB's boundary including Vandenberg Village, Mission Hills, 
and Mesa Oaks. These communities harbor associated infrastructure 
(including major roads such as California State Highway 1, Harris Grade 
Road, Rucker Road, and Burton Mesa Boulevard), all of which fragment 
the Burton Mesa chaparral. Vandenberg Village and associated golf 
course comprise approximately 720 ac (291 ha). Thus, at least 2,000 ac 
(809 ha) of Burton Mesa chaparral habitat were removed as a result of 
past development of these three residential communities and their 
associated infrastructure.
    Presented below are three currently approved or proposed projects 
on private lands that harbor suitable Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. 
Data are not available on the specific acreage of sandy openings 
expected to be lost as a result of these projects, but data are 
provided on the loss of Burton Mesa chaparral and the number of 
individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower observed at, or adjacent to, 
these project sites.
    (1) Clubhouse Estates is a private development located east of 
Vandenberg Village (LFR, Inc. 2006, p. 1). Santa Barbara County 
approved the Clubhouse Estates housing development in August 2005 
(County of Santa Barbara Planning Commission 2005, p. 4). Approximately 
33 ac (13 ha) were proposed to be developed into residential lots; the 
remaining 120 ac (49 ha) was proposed as open space (LFR, Inc. 2006, p. 
1). Most of the Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals known to occur at 
this location were inside or within 10 ft (3 m) of the approved 
development footprint that was graded (SAIC 2005b, Figure 4.3-2). 
Additionally, the ground disturbance increased the extent of invasive, 
nonnative species at this location, particularly Sahara mustard and 
veldt grass (Meyer in litt. 2010b).
    (2) The Burton Ranch Specific Plan site (Burton Ranch) is located 
south of the Encina Management Unit of the Reserve. The project was 
approved in 2006 (City of Lompoc 2012) and totals 149 ac (60 ha). 
Approximately 83 ac (34 ha) of Vandenberg monkeyflower suitable habitat 
would be removed (SAIC 2005a, p. 175). Vandenberg monkeyflower has not 
been observed at this site, although the habitat contains many species 
commonly associated with Vandenberg monkeyflower (SAIC 2005a, p. 174), 
and veldt grass is present within the project site. Ground disturbance 
expected as a result of this approved project would remove native 
vegetation and may create open areas where veldt grass could invade 
(see Factor A--Invasive Nonnnative Species below).
    A 100-ft (30-m) buffer at the northern boundary of the project site 
and 8 ac (3 ha) of onsite open space were proposed as part of the 
Burton Ranch project (SAIC 2005a). Preserving chaparral may reduce the 
potential of nonnative plants to invade the intact Burton Mesa 
chaparral in the Reserve directly to the north of this project site. 
Additionally, the project proponent completed a conservation agreement 
with the Land Trust for Santa Barbara County (Land Trust) to mitigate 
for the removal of native vegetation (Feeney in litt. 2012). The 
conservation area is known as the Burton Ranch Chaparral Preserve and 
encompasses 95 ac (38 ha) of Burton Mesa chaparral near Vandenberg 
Village.
    (3) Allan Hancock College proposed to develop a public safety 
complex adjacent to their existing facilities and south of the Davis 
Creek corridor (Allan Hancock College 2009, p. 28). The project site 
would remove approximately 59 ac (16 ha) of Burton Mesa chaparral 
(Allan Hancock College 2009, pp. 134-135). Vandenberg monkeyflower has 
not been observed within this project site, although a few individuals 
were observed in 2009 within the chaparral vegetation (Allan Hancock 
College 2009, p. 113). Therefore, ground disturbance would remove 
suitable Burton Mesa chaparral and may create open areas for veldt 
grass to invade. As part of this project, Allan Hancock College 
proposed to preserve approximately 65 ac (26 ha) of Burton Mesa 
chaparral near the Davis Creek drainage that is contiguous with the 
northern portion of the project site (Allan Hancock College 2009, pp. 
9, 135). Preserving chaparral in this area may reduce the potential of 
nonnative plants to invade the intact Burton Mesa chaparral in the 
Reserve to the north of this project site.
    In summary, the majority of development on Vandenberg AFB and the 
residential communities of Vandenberg Village, Mission Hills, and Mesa 
Oaks, and the existing infrastructure at La Purisima Mission SHP have 
existed for decades. Most of Burton Mesa is either State or Federal 
land on which future development is unlikely; therefore, most of the 
remaining habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower would not be directly 
impacted by future development. However, three recent private 
developments on the periphery of the State or Federal land either have 
resulted in or will result in the direct loss of Burton Mesa chaparral. 
Development within or adjacent to suitable chaparral habitat increases 
the likelihood of introducing invasive, nonnative species to spread, 
which is the most significant threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower (see 
Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants). Available conservation measures 
to minimize the threat of development are discussed below, see Factor 
A--Conservation Measures Undertaken.
Utility and Pipeline Maintenance
    Utility and pipeline structures occur within the Reserve on Burton 
Mesa. These existing facilities or structures at times require 
maintenance to ensure proper operation. As a result, vehicles and foot 
traffic could occur at or adjacent to these structures and potentially 
result in trampling of habitat and other soil surface disturbance, 
which in turn could result in ground disturbance that removes Burton 
Mesa chaparral and creates open areas in the vegetation that act as 
pathways for nonnative plants to expand or invade.
    Plains Exploration and Production Company (PXP) owns an oil 
processing plant surrounded by the La Purisima Management Unit of the 
Reserve (see Land Ownership section above), and requires access to 
their operation across Reserve lands north of the La Purisima

[[Page 64851]]

and Santa Lucia Management Units. Eighteen separate easements and 5 
connector easements are used to maintain, repair, replace, and install 
roads and access power lines, utility lines, and pipelines (Gevirtz et 
al. 2007, p. 12). These easements are generally 50 ft (15 m) wide and 
vary in length. Additionally, PXP operates a triplet pipeline that is 
located within the 100-ft- (30-m-) wide fuel break between the 
Vandenberg AFB boundary and the western edge of the Reserve. Plains 
Exploration & Production routinely conducts maintenance of this 
pipeline that includes excavating trenches alongside the pipeline to 
perform the necessary inspections and repairs. The Oak Canyon 
occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower on Vandenberg AFB is partially 
located within the pipeline's footprint. No monkeyflower individuals 
have been observed in Oak Canyon recently, and veldt grass has filled 
almost every opening in the scrub in Oak Canyon (Rutherford in litt. 
2012) (see Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Species). The Santa Lucia 
Canyon occurrence is adjacent to, but not within the pipeline corridor. 
Actions within PXP's pipeline footprint may result in ground 
disturbances that create openings for nonnative plants to invade and 
outcompete native vegetation. However, there is no indication that 
maintenance of PXP's pipeline in this area has affected Vandenberg 
monkeyflower or its habitat.
    The Reserve contains a limited number of existing structures, most 
of which are remnants of previous land uses. Local land use agencies 
and public works agencies retain utilities and pipelines, and easements 
for access; routine maintenance of the utilities is conducted as 
needed. The Vandenberg Village Community Services District (VVCSD) has 
several structures (including water tanks, a water processing plant, 
wells, and water lines and sewer lines) located within the Reserve 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 63). The occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower 
at Volans Avenue is adjacent to a sewer line easement held by the 
VVCSD. A portion of the Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrence located at 
Davis Creek is within a water line easement, also held by the VVCSD. 
There is no indication that maintenance of VVCSD infrastructure has 
affected Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat at either of these 
locations.
    The VVCSD filed a request with the State Lands Commission in May 
2010 to acquire 27 ac (11 ha) of land within the Reserve east of their 
existing water tanks for the construction of a replacement water well 
(VVCSD 2010). The 27-ac (11-ha) site is within the Burton Mesa 
Ecological Reserve and is currently leased to the CDFW. Approximately 
180 Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals (see the Davis Creek occurrence 
discussion under the Occurrences Located on Burton Mesa Ecological 
Reserve section above) were observed in 2010 within the 27-ac (11-ha) 
parcel of land where the VVCSD proposes to construct wells in the 
future. Therefore, if development occurs at this parcel, habitat 
associated with approximately 25 percent of the known individuals of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower that were observed in 2010 within the Davis 
Creek occurrence could be impacted (Meyer in litt. 2010a) (see Factor 
E--Utility and Pipeline Maintenance section below). Additionally, 
removing vegetation would create open space for nonnative plants to 
invade this area.
    In summary, there is no indication that ongoing maintenance 
activities of existing pipelines and utilities have directly impacted 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. However, utility maintenance actions 
could result in ground disturbance that removes Burton Mesa chaparral, 
creating open areas in the vegetation that act as pathways for 
nonnative plants to invade.
Invasive, Nonnative Species
    Invasive, nonnative plants occur throughout Burton Mesa and 
represent the greatest threat to the remaining individuals of, and 
suitable habitat for, Vandenberg monkeyflower. Invasive, nonnative 
plants occur across Vandenberg monkeyflower's range, including within 
and adjacent to occupied habitat at all nine extant locations, as well 
as at the potentially extirpated location (Lower Santa Lucia Canyon). 
The presence of invasive, nonnative plants can alter all components of 
an ecosystem, from directly altering habitat and displacing individuals 
(the latter of which is described under Factor E), to negatively 
affecting the abundance and diversity of small mammals and insects that 
disperse seeds or pollinate the native vegetation.
    Disturbance is one of the primary factors that promote invasion of 
nonnative species (Rejmanek 1996; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992; Hobbs 
and Huenneke 1992; Brooks et al. 2004; Keeley et al. 2005). Broad 
disturbances such as urban development, and disturbances along 
corridors, such as roadsides and trails, provide opportunities for 
nonnative plants to invade and gain a foothold in Burton Mesa (Keil and 
Holland 1998, p. 23). The primary fragmenting (disturbance) event can 
be the construction of a road, with or without associated housing 
development; later the habitat remnants are subdivided by additional 
development, or trails and smaller disturbances that occur within the 
habitat remnants (Soule et al. 1992, p. 43). It is well known that 
roadside edges tend to be highly invaded habitats (Gelbard and Belnap 
2003, p. 422). Paved roads tend to have larger verges and more adjacent 
invasive plants present than unpaved roads because of the ongoing 
maintenance and improvements of paved roads (Gelbard and Belnap 2003, 
pp. 422-430). Additionally, wheeled vehicles effectively disperse seed 
and seed-bearing plant parts along travel routes and trails, helping to 
spread invasive, nonnative plants (Gelbard and Belnap 2003; Gevirtz et 
al. 2005, p. 225). Several native mammals also disperse seeds of 
nonnative plants (D'Antonio 1990, pp. 697-698), including deer 
(Odocoileus spp.) and rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.), which effectively 
disperse the seeds in feces (Odion et al. 1992, pp. 1, 27). 
Furthermore, the prevailing onshore winds contribute to the rapid 
spread of nonnative plants across Burton Mesa.
    The expansion of nonnative plants represents a substantial problem 
as it displaces native vegetation on Burton Mesa. Keil and Holland 
(1998, p. 27) documented 220 nonnative plant species on Vandenberg AFB, 
the majority of which are native to the Mediterranean region and a 
smaller number native to Eurasia, South America, Australia, South 
Africa, or other regions. A total of 124 nonnative plant species were 
observed on the Reserve, 17 of which are recognized as high concern 
because of their severe ecological impacts on native ecosystems 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 181). Ferren et al. (1984, p. 75) documented 
90 species of nonnative plants in La Purisima Mission SHP, comprising 
approximately 25 percent of the total flora at the park. The list of 
species observed by Ferren et al. (1984) is not comprehensive but 
includes nearly all species occurring on unplowed uplands of Burton 
Mesa where Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat occurs (Hickson 1987, p. 
21).
    Several invasive plant species that are present within Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat and of particular concern with regard to altering 
habitat of Vandenberg monkeyflower on Burton Mesa include veldt grass, 
pampas grass, bromes, Sahara mustard, Centaurea solstitialis (star 
thistle), iceplant, Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle), and 
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle). The first five of these species have a 
ranking of ``A'' by the California Invasive Plants

[[Page 64852]]

Council (Cal-IPC), denoting the highest level of impact on native 
habitats; iceplant, Italian thistle, and bull thistle have a ranking of 
``B'', denoting a moderate level of impact on native habitats (Cal-IPC 
2012).
    The following paragraphs include a brief discussion of four 
prolific invasive, nonnative plants (veldt grass, iceplant, Sahara 
mustard, and pampas grass) that are having the greatest impact to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occupied and suitable habitat across its range. 
We describe general biological impacts these four invasive plants have 
on native vegetation, including known impacts to Burton Mesa chaparral, 
and thus, suitable habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower. We then discuss 
the specific presence and known impacts of these invasive plants on 
Burton Mesa chaparral at each of the nine extant Vandenberg 
monkeyflower locations and one potentially extirpated location. We 
describe the biological impacts using the best available information, 
which includes personal observations of many scientists who are local 
experts concerning Burton Mesa or Vandenberg monkeyflower and its 
habitat. Available conservation measures to minimize the threat of 
invasive, nonnative plants are discussed below under Factor A--
Conservation Measures Undertaken.
    (1) Veldt Grass. Veldt grass may be the most pervasive of the 
nonnative species in Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat because it can 
produce an abundance of seeds year-round, and grows under a wide 
variety of light, temperature, moisture, and substrate conditions (Keil 
and Holland 1998, p. 23; The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 2005, pp. 6-7). 
Additionally, it is extremely difficult to eradicate once established. 
Note that, while several species of veldt grass occur in this region, 
the most prevalent, and the one we are focusing on in this rule, is 
South African perennial veldt grass. As a sprawling perennial, veldt 
grass substantially changes the plant community composition in invaded 
habitats, altering fire potential by buildup of dense thatch during the 
summer months (see Factor A--Anthropogenic Fire), and increasing the 
rate of organic matter accumulation (TNC 2005, p. 6; Cal-IPC 2012). 
Veldt grass tends to crowd out native species and prevents the 
reestablishment of native herbs and shrubs; larger shrubs are not 
replaced after they die (Keil and Holland 1998, p. 23; Bossard et al. 
2000 pp. 164-170; Earth Tech et al. 1996, p. 314). Veldt grass also 
readily spreads into roadsides and from there into openings between 
shrubs (Bossard et al. 2000, p. 168). In the absence of veldt grass, 
open areas that occur in native vegetative communities on the mesa tend 
to be occupied by a variety of native annual herbs and short-lived 
perennials (Earth Tech et al. 1996, p. 314). These open areas may 
provide habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower.
    Veldt grass is spreading rapidly across Vandenberg AFB and the 
Burton Mesa and represents a significant problem (Gevirtz et at. 2007, 
p. 181). It was established on Vandenberg AFB in the late 1950s to 
stabilize sand dunes in the Purisima Point area approximately 5 mi (8 
km) south of San Antonio Terrace (Peters and Sciandrone 1964, pp. 98, 
101); the San Antonio Terrace dune sheet overlies the western edges of 
Burton Mesa and is upwind of Burton Mesa (Hunt 1993, p. 8). In a study 
of the vegetation of San Antonio Terrace, photos from 1979 and the 
early 1990s were compared, noting that veldt grass had expanded from a 
few localized areas (generally around existing roads and buildings) to 
become a dominant component of the vegetation and had expanded to new 
areas (Earth Tech et al. 1996). Veldt grass initially invades roadway 
corridors or other disturbed areas, and then spreads into the more open 
herbaceous or unvegetated areas between shrubs (Earth Tech et al. 1996, 
p. 314). Grasses like veldt grass that are prolific seeders can build 
up a large seed bank in the soil, increasing their capacity to respond 
to disturbances; however, D'Antonio and Vitousek (1992, p. 66) noted 
that veldt grass is also a threat in the absence of habitat disturbance 
because it can invade undisturbed coastal habitats in California. Sandy 
habitats appear to be particularly susceptible to invasion in 
California (TNC 2005, p. 6). Human (1990, p. 34) identified veldt grass 
as the most devastating of the nonnative invaders on San Antonio 
Terrace (which is upwind of Burton Mesa and thus Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat) because it forms solid stands and excludes native 
plant species.
    Currently, veldt grass occurs in more areas on Vandenberg AFB than 
where it was initially introduced. On Vandenberg AFB, veldt grass 
occurs both within and adjacent to occupied Vandenberg monkeyflower 
habitat and is expanding at Santa Lucia, Lake, and Pine Canyons, and 
has become the dominant vegetation cover in portions of lower Oak 
Canyon. Additionally, veldt grass is present and expanding at certain 
locations on the Reserve, including at the Volans Avenue, Clubhouse 
Estates, and Davis Creek occurrences. Veldt grass is also present at La 
Purisima Mission SHP. See section below entitled Review of Invasive, 
Nonnative Species Present by Occurrence regarding the presence and 
known impacts of veldt grass at each of the Vandenberg monkeyflower 
occurrences.
    (2) Iceplant. Iceplant is a succulent, mat-forming perennial 
(D'Antonio 1990, p. 694). A single iceplant individual can form dense, 
circular mats up to 33 ft (10 m) in diameter and approximately 20 in 
(40 cm) thick (D'Antonio and Mahall 1991, p. 886). It overcrowds native 
plants and has an exceptional ability to spread to sandy soils along 
the coast (Jacks et al. 1984, p. 12; Zedler and Scheid 1988, p. 196).
    The reproductive potential of iceplant is very high (Schmalzer and 
Hinkle 1987, p. 18). It propagates by seed and vegetatively; even small 
stem fragments can regenerate into a new plant (Cal-IPC 2012). Iceplant 
is a successful invader because seeds are dispersed before or during 
the time of year when they are most likely to germinate, which allows 
little time for post-dispersal predation to occur; and the seeds are 
dispersed by a diversity of mammals (D'Antonio 1990, p. 700). 
Additionally, Vivrette and Muller (1977, pp. 315-317) showed that the 
salt leached from iceplant individuals was the limiting factor in the 
growth and establishment of native grassland species. Salt retained in 
aerial parts of dried iceplant individuals is transported into the soil 
through leaching by fog in the summer and rain in the fall (Vivrette 
and Muller 1977, pp. 311, 316; Kloot 1983, pp. 304-305). On sandy 
soils, salt deposited in the summer is washed through the soil and 
replaced by the remaining lower levels of salt leaching out of the 
plant with the first rains in the fall (Vivrette and Muller 1977, p. 
316).
    Iceplant is an invasive species of great concern on Vandenberg AFB 
(Keil and Holland 1998, p. 22). It was originally planted on Base along 
roads and about buildings to prevent wind erosion (Human 1990, pp. 32, 
42). By the mid-1990s, iceplant occupied hundreds of acres on the San 
Antonio Terrace, having spread into adjacent habitats from plantings 
along roadsides, the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks, and around 
missile testing facilities (Earth Tech 1996, p. 264). It is especially 
prevalent west of the main developed area on Vandenberg AFB because 
there is extensive iceplant in the adjacent dune habitat and former 
chaparral habitat, and because of extensive past mechanical disturbance 
(i.e., land disturbed by mechanical equipment) within the chaparral 
west of the primary developed area (Odion et al. 1992, p. 13).
    Iceplant recruits abundantly within openings in the chaparral 
canopy such

[[Page 64853]]

as those created by burning or mechanical disturbance (Odion et al. 
1992, p. 1), and there is no area of Burton Mesa chaparral on Base 
where iceplant will not invade (Odion et al. 1992, p. 13). In one 
instance after a prescribed burn, iceplant was discovered in the burned 
plot after the fire, which was unexpected because succulent plants 
(such as iceplant) are not known to have the capacity to recover 
rapidly from fire (Jacks et al. 1984, pp. 11-12). Iceplant was not 
known to occur in the burn plot prior to fire; however, within 3 years 
of the prescribed burn, iceplant was the second most prevalent post-
fire perennial plant observed (Zedler and Schied 1988, p. 198). Because 
iceplant distribution is extensive on Vandenberg AFB (Air Force 2011a) 
and is common within most chaparral on the Base (Odion et al. 1992, p. 
13), little effort has been made to map individuals of iceplant that 
are mixed within many habitats on the Base, including Burton Mesa 
chaparral.
    Iceplant has also been observed in the Reserve (Junak 2011; Meyer 
2012, pers. comm.) and at La Purisima Mission SHP (Gevirtz et al. 2005, 
Appendix 5), although it is not as common as it is on Vandenberg AFB. 
Please see the Review of Invasive, Nonnative Species Present by 
Occurrence section below regarding the presence and known impacts of 
iceplant at each of the Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences.
    (3) Sahara Mustard. Dense stands of Sahara mustard have the 
potential to dominate native ecosystems, especially in dry sandy soils 
(County of Santa Barbara Agricultural Commissioner's Office (Santa 
Barbara Ag. Comm.) 2012). Sahara mustard is especially common in areas 
with wind-blown sand deposits and in disturbed sites, such as 
roadsides. Additionally, it is invading nonnative annual grassland and 
coastal sage scrub on the coastal slope of southern California and is 
well-established in all counties of southern California (Cal-IPC 2012). 
In coastal southern California, it locally dominates nonnative 
grasslands in dry, open sites, especially disturbed areas, and can 
expand over larger areas replacing other nonnative annuals during 
drought conditions (Cal-IPC 2012). Its early-season growth and large 
size allow it to monopolize early-season moisture, expand its canopy, 
and set seed before other plants have emerged (Cal-IPC 2012; Santa 
Barbara Ag. Comm. 2012; Barrows et al. 2009).
    Barrows et al. (2009, pp. 677-683) conducted a study in the 
Coachella Valley (Imperial County, California) from 2002 to 2008, to 
determine whether native annual plants were negatively affected by the 
presence of Sahara mustard by comparing plots with Sahara mustard to 
plots where Sahara mustard had been manually removed. Sahara mustard 
formed a canopy 1 to 3 ft (0.3 to 1.0 m) from the ground and native 
annuals under the canopy were often weakened by loss of sunlight, 
resulting in natives that grew taller; however, the increased plant 
height was at the expense of producing branches, flowers, and fruits 
(Barrows et al. 2009, p. 683). Flower and seed production of annuals 
growing under the Sahara mustard canopy decreased 80 to 90 percent 
compared to annuals free from mustard competition (Barrows et al. 2009, 
p. 683). Additionally, species richness, density, and total percent 
cover of natives were higher in the plots where Sahara mustard was 
removed (Barrows et al. 2009, p. 679). The strongest effect was on the 
percent cover of natives, with nearly double the native annual plant 
cover on plots where Sahara mustard had been manually removed.
    Sahara mustard was collected at three locations on Vandenberg AFB 
in the late 1990s and is likely to be more common (Keil in litt. 2013). 
One of these collections was from Lake Canyon (which is the location 
for one of the nine extant Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences). A 
second collection of Sahara mustard was located on North Base, upwind 
of Burton Mesa and thus Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. The third 
collection was from near Point Arguello on South Base and not near or 
upwind of Burton Mesa.
    More recently, Sahara mustard has been observed on Department of 
Justice lands at the Lompoc Penitentiary that is near the southern 
terminus of Santa Lucia Canyon Road and Oak Canyon, and borders the 
southwestern corner of the Vandenberg Management Unit of the Reserve 
(Meyer in litt. 2012a; Lum in litt. 2012c). It is spreading rapidly 
across the Reserve, notably in the La Purisima, Santa Lucia, 
Vandenberg, and Encina Management Units (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 241, 
Junak 2011; Meyer in litt. 2012a). Specifically, Sahara mustard is 
known to occur adjacent to the Clubhouse Estates occurrence of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower (Meyer in litt. 2012a). Additionally, a small-
scale infestation occurs by the eastern edge of La Purisima Mission SHP 
(California State Parks 2011, p. 4; Santa Barbara Ag. Comm. 2012). See 
the section below titled Review of Invasive, Nonnative Species Present 
by Occurrence regarding the presence and known impacts of Sahara 
mustard at each of the Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences.
    (4) Pampas Grass. The invasion of pampas grass has altered the 
landscape of Burton Mesa because it has the ability to convert 
shrubland into nonnative perennial grassland and prevent native plants 
from reestablishing (Permberton 1985, p. 4; Lambrinos 2000, pp. 224-
225). Once pampas grass is established, it is extremely difficult to 
eradicate (McClintock 1985, p. 5). Individual plants already present in 
the landscape may greatly accelerate the conversion of native 
vegetation into pampas grass-dominated grasslands (Lambrinos 2002, p. 
527). Therefore, the ability of pampas grass to persist for long 
periods of time poses a serious threat to the native diversity of this 
ecosystem (Lambrinos 2000, p. 217). Large individuals can produce 
billions of seeds over the course of their reproductive lives 
(Lambrinos 2000, p. 225), and because the grass seeds are wind-
dispersed (Keil and Holland 1998, p. 23), pampas grass is able to 
spread into adjacent vegetation, particularly chaparral, in which there 
are openings and bare soil (Schmalzer and Hinkle 1987, pp. 30-31). 
Additionally, it creates a fire hazard with excessive buildup of dry 
leaves, leaf bases, and flowering stalks (Cal-IPC 2012) (see Factor A--
Anthropogenic Fire).
    Lambrinos (2000, p. 225) studied the effects of pampas grass 
invasion at Vandenberg AFB. Plots with pampas grass were compared to 
adjacent plots of pristine maritime chaparral. The pampas grass-invaded 
portions of the plots were associated with adjacent, relatively small-
scale disturbances, such as dirt roads, water runoff channels, and a 
paved road. The only disturbance within the plots was narrow trails 
used by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that crossed both invaded and 
noninvaded plots (Lambrinos 2000, pp. 219, 225). The cover of dead 
shrubs was significantly greater in invaded plots, indicating shrub 
cover was higher in the invaded plots at the time of invasion. 
Additionally, shrub recruitment into stands of pampas grass was low, 
and pampas grass individuals exhibited high recruitment rates in both 
invaded and pristine maritime chaparral stands (Lambrinos 2000, p. 
225).
    Populations of pampas grass have been well-established on 
Vandenberg AFB since 1975 (Coulombe and Cooper 1976, pp. 93-94). It was 
introduced along the railroad tracks (Odion et al. 1992, p. 14), and 
major populations occur around the airfield extending from the railroad 
tracks south along both sides of the runway and in adjacent areas 
(Schmalzer and Hinkle 1987, p. 30; Keil and Holland 1998, p. 23). 
Nearly all mechanically disturbed areas

[[Page 64854]]

on Base downwind of established pampas grass are now invaded (Odion et 
al. 1992, p. 14). From the ruderal populations, pampas grass has also 
expanded into the surrounding, relatively undisturbed chaparral where 
there are openings and bare soil (Lambrinos 2000, p. 218; Schmalzer and 
Hinkle 1987, pp. 30-31). Therefore, over extended periods of time 
pampas grass can reduce native plant diversity, even in the absence of 
large-scale disturbances (Lambrinos 2000, p. 227). The most affected 
habitat is Burton Mesa chaparral because the natural integrity of the 
community was lost due to previous disturbances (Keil and Holland 1998, 
p. 23; Lambrinos 2002, p. 519). Thus, any activities that remove native 
vegetation and leave bare soil create an opportunity for pampas grass 
invasion (Schmalzer and Hinkle 1987, pp. 30-31).
    Pampas grass has also been observed in the Reserve (Junak 2011) and 
at La Purisima Mission SHP (Gevirtz et al. 2005, Appendix 5), although 
it is not as widespread as it is on Vandenberg AFB. See the section 
below titled Review of Invasive, Nonnative Species Present by 
Occurrence regarding the presence and known impacts of pampas grass at 
each of the Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences.

Review of Invasive, Nonnative Species Present by Occurrence

    In the paragraphs below we discuss the presence of invasive plants 
that occur within or adjacent to Vandenberg monkeyflower and its 
habitat at each of the nine extant locations and one potentially 
extirpated location. The Pine, Lake, and Santa Lucia Canyon locations 
are grouped based on the information available.
    (1) Vandenberg AFB--Oak Canyon. Oak Canyon is a location where 
Vandenberg monkeyflower was reported as common in the 1980s (see 
Current Locations--Occurrences Located on Vandenberg AFB section for 
additional site-specific information). In 2004, a 12-ac (4.86-ha) fire 
burned the northeast-facing slope of lower Oak Canyon (Lum in litt. 
2012e); a detailed description of the vegetation at this site prior to 
the fire is not available. Since then, however, veldt grass has filled 
almost every opening in the scrub in Oak Canyon and in 2012, it was the 
dominant species in this area (Rutherford in litt. 2012). Four 
individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower were found in 2006 (VFWO 2013), 
and none were observed in 2010 or 2012 (Air Force 2012, p. 1; Lum in 
litt. 2012b; Rutherford in litt. 2012).
    (2), (3), and (4) Vandenberg AFB--Pine, Lake, and Santa Lucia 
Canyons. Veldt grass occurs within and near each of the occurrences of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower at Pine, Lake, and Santa Lucia Canyons, and the 
area occupied by veldt grass is expanding at each site (SAIC 2012, p. 
5; Air Force 2012). Additionally, the Highway Incident wildfire in 2009 
(see Factor A--Anthropogenic Fire) that burned in upper Lake Canyon 
fostered expansion of invasive, nonnative plants already present in the 
area, such as veldt grass, pampas grass, iceplant, and bull thistle 
(Air Force 2009b, Appendix E).
    (5) Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve--Volans Avenue. Veldt grass and 
iceplant occur within Vandenberg monkeyflower suitable habitat and near 
the known occurrences at this location, and both species are likely 
directly affecting the availability of sandy openings at this location 
(Meyer in litt. 2013). The last time Vandenberg monkeyflower was 
observed at this location was in 2007 (Meyer in litt. 2007), although 
we still consider this occurrence extant.
    (6) Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve--Clubhouse Estates. As of the 
most recent survey in 2009, the Clubhouse Estates occurrence supported 
350-400 Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals (McGowen in litt. 2009). 
Since a portion of the vegetation was cleared from this project site in 
2006 and later graded in 2007, veldt grass and Sahara mustard have 
expanded within Vandenberg monkeyflower suitable habitat and near 
individual plants (Meyer in litt. 2010b) (see also Current Locations--
Occurrences Located on Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve; and Factor A--
Development sections above). In particular, veldt grass has moved into 
the Clubhouse Estates location and is expanding into undisturbed areas 
where veldt grass did not previously occur (Meyer in litt. 2010b). 
Prior to the 2006 ground disturbance, iceplant and pampas grass were 
present on the project site (SAIC 2005b, pp. 13-14). Iceplant typically 
occurred in scattered patches adjacent to areas disturbed by roadways 
and existing infrastructure (SAIC 2005b, pp. 13-14; LFR, Inc. 2006, p. 
23), and pampas grass occurred throughout the project site, especially 
in moister places adjacent to wetlands, along both branches of Davis 
Creek that run through the site, and along roadways (SAIC 2005b, pp. 
13-14; LFR, Inc. 2006, p. 23). Following the ground disturbance, veldt 
grass, pampas grass, and iceplant continue to expand in the undisturbed 
parcel that is designated as open space as part of the development 
project. It was previously controlled around 2008, but the required 3 
years of weeding (LFR, Inc 2006, pp. 48-50, 75 (Table 10)) have not 
occurred (Meyer in litt. 2013).
    (7) Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve--Davis Creek. Veldt grass and 
iceplant have been observed within sandy openings at the Davis Creek 
occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower. The CDFW observed veldt grass 
within the southern portion of the area occupied by Vandenberg 
monkeyflower in addition to the area approximately 100 ft (30 m) to the 
north of the plants (Meyer 2012, pers. comm.). Additionally, patches of 
iceplant were observed at the northern portion of the Davis Creek 
occurrence (Meyer 2012, pers. comm.).
    Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve--Potentially Extirpated Occurrence 
at Lower Santa Lucia Canyon. An historical observation of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower was made in 1985 (Hickson in litt. 2007). However, this 
species has not been recently observed at this location and is 
considered potentially extirpated (see Figure 2 and Table 1) because it 
has been approximately 30 years since individuals were observed (with 
little survey effort between 1985 and 2011); suitable habitat remains 
but it is overcrowded with invasive, nonnative plants. Currently, veldt 
grass is dominant within the sandy openings in the Burton Mesa 
chaparral, and herbs commonly associated with Vandenberg monkeyflower 
are absent (Meyer in litt. 2012c). Sahara mustard is expanding into the 
Vandenberg Management Unit at the southwestern corner of the Reserve 
from the adjacent Lompoc Penitentiary (Meyer in litt. 2012a).
    (8) and (9) La Purisima Mission State Historic Park--La Purisima 
Mission SHP East and West. Veldt grass occurs at both the western and 
eastern occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower in the park. 
Specifically, veldt grass is encroaching into intact Burton Mesa 
chaparral and into open sandy areas where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows 
(Ballard 2006; California State Parks 2011, p. 4).

Summary--Invasive, Nonnative Species

    Invasive, nonnative plants occur and are expanding throughout the 
Burton Mesa. More specifically, at least one of the four most 
problematic invasive plants occurs within or adjacent to suitable 
habitat at each of the nine extant occurrences of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower and at one potentially extirpated location. Invasive 
plants have demonstrated the ability to reduce the diversity of native 
vegetation and convert the native shrublands into nonnative-dominated 
vegetation. In some areas, particularly on Vandenberg

[[Page 64855]]

AFB, veldt grass, iceplant, and pampas grass when first introduced were 
only minor components of the vegetation; today, these nonnatives are 
dominant components of the vegetation at the locations where they were 
introduced, and they have expanded to new areas. The expansion of 
invasive, nonnative plants is also prevalent on the Reserve and at La 
Purisima Mission SHP. Native shrub recruitment and growth of native 
annuals into open areas is substantially decreased where these 
invasive, nonnative plants become established. Thus, it is likely that 
invasive, nonnative plants will become more dominant where they already 
occur and will continue to expand to new areas due to the human 
activities on Burton Mesa, the competitive fitness of these invasive 
plants, the direction of the prevailing wind, and the potential for 
small- and large-scale disturbances (see Factor A--Development and 
Anthropogenic Fire), all of which could create open areas that promote 
invasive, nonnative species invasion and expansion.
    With regard to site-specific impacts to Vandenberg monkeyflower 
habitat, veldt grass has been observed occurring within suitable 
habitat at each of the nine extant occurrences and at one potentially 
extirpated location. Recent observations of the habitat at all nine 
extant occurrences indicate that veldt grass is expanding and becoming 
dominant in the sandy openings where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows. 
Because veldt grass will outcompete native vegetation (including 
overcrowding the sandy openings where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows) 
and is very difficult to eradicate once it is established, the presence 
and expansion of veldt grass within known occurrences of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower is a continuous threat because it reduces the amount and 
quality of this species' habitat. We also discussed above three other 
invasive, nonnative species (iceplant, Sahara mustard, and pampas 
grass) that have substantial impacts to Vandenberg monkeyflower and its 
habitat. These species, along with numerous other nonnative plant 
species, are present throughout Burton Mesa and at all extant 
occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower. Similar to veldt grass, the 
other invasive, nonnative plants reduce the amount and quality of 
habitat for Vandenberg monkeyflower by outcompeting Burton Mesa 
chaparral vegetation and decreasing the amount and availability of the 
sandy openings where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows. Nevertheless, no 
invasive plant is as prevalent and represents as much of a threat to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat as veldt grass.
Anthropogenic Fire
    The disturbance to maritime chaparral that anthropogenic fires 
cause may exceed the tolerance thresholds (ability to tolerate 
naturally occurring fire regimes and regenerate post-fire) of many 
shrub species, resulting in an open canopy, the demise of shrublands, 
and persistence of nonnative plants (Haidinger and Keeley 1993, pp. 
143-147). The common pattern after chaparral fires is for native and 
nonnative annual herbs to dominate for the first year and then 
gradually decline as the cover of shrub and subshrubs increases (Zedler 
et al. 1983, p. 816). A high cover of annual and perennial herbs the 
first few years following the fire decreases as the shrub canopy 
closes, and there is little herbaceous cover once the canopy closes, 
although senescence (aging) in some shrubs may allow the recruitment of 
opportunistic herb or shrub species into gaps in the chaparral (Hickson 
1987, p. 5). Patterns of post-fire vegetation vary depending on 
chaparral habitat composition, fire timing and intensity, and the 
physical attributes and disturbance history of the site (Davis et al. 
1988, p. 169).
    At historical fire frequencies, chaparral species are generally 
resilient to fire because they are well known to regenerate from either 
resprouting of perennial root crowns or germination of seeds in the 
soil when heated or exposed to smoke (obligate and sprouter seeders) 
(Lambert et al. 2010, p. 31). However, increased fire frequencies in 
chaparral have led to the loss of native species that rely on seed 
regeneration because there is insufficient time between fires for shrub 
species to reach reproductive age and replenish the soil seed bank 
(Lambert et al. 2010, p. 31). Zedler et al. (1983, pp. 815-816) noted 
that high fire frequency has devastating impacts on shrub species that 
require a period of recovery before being resilient to further 
disturbance. On the other hand, long-term absence of fire may lead to a 
gradual transition from chaparral to oak woodland (Van Dyke et al. 
2001, p. 2), although this transition is also dependent upon soil 
differences (Davis et al. 1988, pp.187-188). Given sufficient time 
without fire, successional changes in shrublands may result in a closed 
canopy that is capable of excluding most nonnative species (Keeley et 
al. 2005, p. 2110).
    The long-term fire history for Santa Barbara County indicates that 
large fires (more than 49,400 ac (20,000 ha) and typically driven by 
Santa Ana wind conditions) are part of the historical fire regime in 
this region. The average time between these large fires has remained 
relatively consistent over the last 500 years, regardless of changes in 
land use, from the Chumash who purposely set fires along the coast 
(1425-1770), to Spanish and American settlers (1770-1900) who practiced 
fire suppression but with little enforcement, to the more recent period 
(1900-1985) of active fire suppression (Mensing et al. 1999, pp. 301-
304). The average interval between these large fires ranges between 20 
and 30 years and is strongly controlled by precipitation patterns, with 
fires generally occurring at the end of wet phases and the beginning of 
droughts (Mensing et al. 1999, p. 304). The range between large fire 
events is 5 to 75 years (Mensing et al. 1999, p. 304).
    The historical fire regime on Burton Mesa is unknown (Hickson 1987, 
p. 25), but it is likely that naturally occurring fires were less 
frequent as compared to inland areas because the mesa is at low 
elevation and the few lightning strikes recorded in the region have 
been in the distant mountains farther inland (Hickson 1988, p. 20). 
Additionally, because fog, cool temperatures, and cool winds blowing 
off the ocean are typical, the weather conditions conducive to 
naturally occurring fires are rare on Burton Mesa (Hickson 1988, p. 22; 
Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 58). Therefore, the natural fire interval for 
Burton Mesa, similar to coastal chaparral environments north of the 
Transverse Ranges of southern California, may be on the order of 100 
years (Greenlee and Langenheim 1990, pp. 242-250; Odion and Tyler 2002, 
p. 9; Moritz et al. 1997, p. 1258).
    The present fire regime on Burton Mesa is likely anthropogenic 
(Davis et al. 1988, p. 185; Davis and Borchert 2006, p. 338), 
especially given the historical densities of Native American and 
European settlers in coastal areas supporting maritime chaparral (Davis 
and Borchert 2006, p. 328; Mensing et al. 1999, p. 301) along with the 
related infrastructure that currently exists. Today, human-caused 
ignitions are more frequent in maritime chaparral, but wildfires are 
quickly suppressed or extinguished at roads and fuel breaks (Davis et 
al. 1988, p. 177; Davis and Borchert 2006, p. 338). Additionally, 
modern land use has fragmented the Burton Mesa chaparral into isolated 
patches (see Habitat section above), so that while fires may be more 
frequent now than in the past, fire size is probably reduced and the 
average time between fires on certain sites increased (Hickson 1987, p. 
20).

[[Page 64856]]

    Approximately 34 fires have occurred within or adjacent to Burton 
Mesa chaparral since 1940 on Vandenberg AFB, east of the main developed 
area, and from San Antonio Creek south to the Santa Ynez River (Lum in 
litt. 2012f). Odion et al. 1992 (pp. 12-14) stated that 44 fires have 
occurred within or adjacent to chaparral on Burton Mesa; however, this 
calculation also included fires that occurred west of the main 
developed area on Vandenberg AFB, and, therefore, a larger area than 
what the Air Force used. Some of the areas burned more than once 
because the perimeter of different fires overlapped (Odion et al. 1992, 
p. 12; Lum in litt. 2012f). A portion of the fires were prescribed 
burns (Lum in litt. 2012f; Odion et al. 1992, pp. 12-14). In total, at 
least 2,500 ac (1,012 ha) have burned on Vandenberg AFB since 1957 
(Odion et al. 1992, p. 13). In recent years fires have accidentally 
ignited on Vandenberg AFB (see discussion of Highway Incident in 
paragraph below).
    Twenty-eight wildfires occurred on the Reserve and adjacent La 
Purisima Mission SHP in the period 1950-2003; the most recent wildfire 
(Harris Grade Fire) occurred in 2000 and was caused by a power line 
that may have sparked in high winds (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 60). This 
fire consumed 11,000 ac (4,451 ha) and was the largest fire in the area 
since 1977 (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 60). All of the fires on the 
Reserve and at La Purisima Mission SHP since 1950 have been a result of 
human activity (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 60). Based on an analysis of 
the fire history, approximately 3,440 ac (1,392 ha) of the 5,186-ac 
(2,099-ha) Reserve has not burned since 1938 (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 
60), indicating an absence of fire for at least 70 years on 66 percent 
of the Reserve's property. Similarly, the majority of vegetation at La 
Purisima Mission SHP has not been burned since before 1938, and most of 
the native habitat in the park is also more than 70 years old (Gevirtz 
et al. 2005, p. 77).
    Although the fire interval in maritime chaparral is an important 
factor in determining species composition, on Burton Mesa, and for 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat specifically, the frequency of fire is 
secondary to the primary threat, which is the post-fire expansion of 
invasive, nonnative plants. California's chaparral habitats, like 
Burton Mesa, are most vulnerable to invasion by nonnative plants in the 
first few years after fire because fires open large areas of bare, 
nutrient-rich ground and remove toxins from the soil, chaparral 
recolonizes much more slowly because of limited seed dispersal, and 
some seedlings are poor competitors against nonnative annual species 
(Keeley et al. 2003, pp. 1362-1363; Alberts et al. 1993, p. 107; Davis 
and Mooney 1985, p. 528).
    Because sites favorable for invasion by nonnative plants tend to be 
relatively open areas where existing plant cover is minimal (see Factor 
A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants), and wildfires occurring on Burton Mesa 
create such open areas, fires within Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat 
tend to increase the expansion of invasive plants that are already 
established. For example, an accidental wildfire (Highway Incident) 
occurred in September 2009 on Vandenberg AFB when sparks from a power 
line started a wildfire that burned approximately 617 ac (250 ha) (Air 
Force 2009b, p. 1) in upper Lake Canyon. The southern boundary of this 
wildfire burned to within 0.25 mi (0.4 km) of the known Vandenberg 
monkeyflower occurrence down-slope in Lake Canyon. The Burned Area 
Emergency Response (BAER) Plan noted that invasive, nonnative species 
already present in the area, including veldt grass, pampas grass, 
iceplant, and bull thistle, were confirmed or discovered in the burn 
area within 2 weeks of the fire (Air Force 2009b, Appendix E). Veldt 
grass initially colonizes disturbed areas, such as open areas created 
by wildfires, and can become a dominant component of the vegetation and 
expand to new areas (see Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants). Another 
example in Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat includes a 12-ac (5-ha) fire 
that occurred in Oak Canyon on Vandenberg AFB in 2004; as a result, 
veldt grass is the dominant vegetation on a hillside sloping toward the 
canyon (Google Earth 2012).
    In addition to displacing native vegetation, the presence of 
nonnative plants (in particular nonnative grasses) has increased the 
supply of readily ignitable fuel and increased the seasonal duration 
when fuels are susceptible to ignition, both because of their earlier 
seasonal drying compared to shrubs and their high surface-to-volume 
ratio (Lambert et al. 2010, p. 31). Mediterranean grasses such as 
bromes and Avena barbata (slender wild oat) are particularly implicated 
since they act as wicks, spreading fast-moving fire into the canopies 
of larger shrub vegetation (Lambert et al. 2010, p. 31). Thus, the 
abundance of nonnative vegetation initiates a positive feedback cycle 
based on increased biomass, changes in the distribution of flammable 
biomass, and increased flammability (Lambert et al. 2010, p. 29). 
Bromus rubens (red brome) occurs on Burton Mesa and is known to rapidly 
colonize disturbed sites with open canopies and exposed bare ground 
(Brown and Minnich 1986, pp. 414, 418; Bossard et al. 2000, pp. 72-80). 
The prevalence of veldt grass and pampas grass also increases the fire 
potential on Burton Mesa (see Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants 
section).

Fire Prevention and Suppression Activities

    The Air Force, CDFW, and California State Parks have developed 
wildfire prevention and suppression practices not only to minimize the 
potential for wildfire, but also to minimize the impacts to the 
biological resources during suppression activities. As part of wildfire 
management practices, landowners and agencies may create fuel breaks (a 
permanent area of low volume fuel) to limit the spread of wildfire and 
to provide access for fire suppression activities (Gevirtz et al. 2007, 
p. 261). Merriam et al. (2006, pp. 525-526) observed that nonnative 
species represented an increasing proportion of total plant cover on 
fuel breaks with fuel-break age, suggesting that nonnative species can 
displace native species on fuel breaks, and become increasingly 
dominant over time (for example, bromes were four of the five most 
observed nonnative plants on fuel breaks (Merriam et al. 2006, p. 
519)). Additionally, wildland areas adjacent to fuel breaks were more 
likely to be invaded by nonnative species when these areas had been 
subject to recurrent fires (Merriam et al. 2006, p. 526).
    Fire suppression activities that impact suitable Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat include bulldozed and hand-cut fire lines and the 
application of fire retardants. During the Highway Incident wildfire, 
the Air Force cut fire lines that resulted in a loss of Burton Mesa 
chaparral (Air Force 2009b, p. 28). Additionally, approximately 65,000 
gallons (246,052 liters) of fire retardant (which is known to act as a 
fertilizer enhancing the growth of nonnative grasses (Avery 2001, pp. 
17-18)) were spread over this site (Air Force 2009b, p. 28). Therefore, 
by burning the existing vegetation, fire creates open areas where 
invasive, nonnative plants can expand. Additionally, fire prevention 
and suppression activities (e.g., fire breaks and application of fire 
retardant) can exacerbate the resulting post-fire expansion of 
nonnative plants by creating open fire lines and if fire retardants add 
chemicals to the soil that stimulate growth of nonnative vegetation.
    The Air Force, CDFW, and California State Parks are studying the 
feasibility

[[Page 64857]]

of a prescribed burning program to restore fire to its natural role in 
the environment and help restore the native vegetation of Burton Mesa 
(California State Parks 1991, p. 110; Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 258; 
California State Parks 2010, p. 3; Air Force 2012, p. 2). However, many 
local communities are concerned about the safety of conducting 
prescribed burns on wildlands when they occur within or near urban 
areas, thus complicating the ability of agencies to carry out such 
burns.
    In summary, because of the human presence and infrastructure on the 
mesa, the frequency of human-caused wildfires is likely greater than 
the frequency of the historical fires in the past on Burton Mesa. An 
increased fire frequency in Burton Mesa chaparral would tend to favor 
the establishment of nonnative vegetation in open areas at the expense 
of native vegetation. However, the primary threat to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower and its habitat from fire is the post-fire expansion of 
invasive, nonnative plants, regardless of the fire frequency. Because 
an abundance of nonnative plants already occurs on the mesa and 
invasive plants rapidly invade open areas, any fire that occurs within 
or adjacent to Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat is likely to result in 
an increase of invasive, nonnative vegetation. Likewise, fire 
suppression activities that include clearing vegetation in fuel breaks 
or spreading retardant would increase the likelihood of nonnative 
species invading suitable Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat, as well as 
enhance the habitat conditions for invasive species expansion. 
Additionally, because the presence of invasive, nonnative plants 
creates a positive feedback mechanism, the greater the percent cover of 
nonnative vegetation, the more likely fires will occur on Burton Mesa. 
Based on the information presented in this section, the current threat 
from anthropogenic fire and associated fire suppression activities to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat described above is expected to continue 
into the future. Available conservation measures to minimize the threat 
of anthropogenic wildfire are discussed below (see Factor A--
Conservation Measures Undertaken).
Recreation and Other Human Activities
    Recreational activities that occur throughout Burton Mesa include 
authorized uses such as hunting, hiking, biking, wildlife observation, 
and leashed-dog walking. Additionally, off-road vehicle (ORV) use is 
authorized on Vandenberg AFB (Air Force 2011b, p. 6), but it is not 
permitted on the Reserve (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 70) or La Purisima 
Mission SHP (California State Parks 1991, p. 109).

Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB)

    On the west end of Burton Mesa on Vandenberg AFB, recreational 
activities include OHV use and other casual-use activities, such as 
hunting, picnicking, and horseback riding. There is also an existing 
237-ac (96-ha) golf course.
    Prior to 1974, Vandenberg AFB was subject to uncontrolled use by 
ORVs. In April 1974, efforts to establish a program to control ORV use 
was prompted by dune damage and the complaints of recreational users, 
along with consideration of soil, water, air, noise, aesthetics, 
recreational users, wildlife, vegetation, suitability of other public 
lands, archaeological sites, threatened and endangered species, and the 
accessibility for users (Air Force 2011b, p. 6). Thus, Vandenberg AFB 
environmental staff and the Base's motorcycle club designated an ORV 
area (Air Force 2011b, p. 6). Currently, ORV use occurs within a 600-ac 
(243-ha) site that is west of the primary developed area on Base and an 
additional site referred to as Northstar that is located in the 
northeast portion of the Base (Air Force 2011b, p. 6), both of which 
are not within Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. The ORVs use existing 
trails and roads, and are managed to prevent damage to sensitive areas 
such as wetlands and highly erodible soils (Air Force 2011b, p. 6). 
Therefore, ORV use on Vandenberg AFB is not within the vicinity of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences on the Base and is not a direct 
threat to this species and its habitat.
    The west end of Burton Mesa on Vandenberg AFB (west of the primary 
developed area) is heavily disturbed by existing trails and service 
roads, which may be used by recreationists. Although vehicles using 
these roads and trails (including wheeled vehicles for recreational 
activities) likely contribute to the spread of invasive, nonnative 
plant species on Burton Mesa (see Invasive, Nonnative Species section 
above), no information is available to assess the extent and degree to 
which this may be occurring on Vandenberg AFB. Moreover, the best 
available information does not indicate that these recreational 
activities on the west end of Burton Mesa on Base are a direct threat 
to Vandenberg monkeyflower and its habitat.
    To the east of the developed area where higher-quality Burton Mesa 
chaparral still remains and where Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs on 
Base, recreational activities that may impact the habitat of this 
species include hunting and picnicking. Hunting occurs over much of the 
Base and is subject to restrictions at any time based on human safety 
and security concerns, as well as wildlife management goals (Air Force 
2011b, p. 7). Lake Canyon Lakes picnic area is within a few hundred 
feet of Vandenberg monkeyflower plants that are located in lower Lake 
Canyon, but the picnic facilities are located on concrete or asphalt 
and thus not in Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. Overall, the best 
available information does not indicate that recreational activities on 
Base, including hunting and picnicking, are directly impacting 
Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat. However, these activities pose 
an indirect threat to the habitat quality because they contribute to 
the spread of nonnative plants within suitable habitat.

Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve

    There are no formal recreational or public facilities currently 
within the Reserve, including no designated parking or restroom 
facilities (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 69). Authorized uses include 
hiking, wildlife observation, and leashed-dog walking. Wheeled 
recreational activities such as OHV use and bicycles are not allowed in 
the Reserve (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 70). The management plan for the 
Reserve identifies approximately 28 mi (45 km) of trails (Gevirtz et 
al. 2007, p. 71). The existing trails are a combination of oil and 
utility service roads and an informal network of pathways from the 
surrounding residential areas (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 69). Impacts to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat from authorized recreational uses are 
likely negligible because visitors walk into the Reserve and the CDFW 
has posted signs at the most highly used access points to direct 
recreational users to low-impact trails so as to reduce disturbances to 
the native vegetation.
    The Volans Avenue occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower is located 
adjacent to Vandenberg Village and a VVCSD pipeline easement that is 
used by local residents for hiking, jogging, dog walking, and other 
casual recreational activities. Running events have previously occurred 
in this area of the Reserve, and the running route was likely in close 
vicinity to the Volans Avenue occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower 
(Ballard in litt. 2012). Vandenberg monkeyflower was last observed in 
2007 at this location (Meyer in litt. 2007; Ballard in litt. 2007), 
although habitat is still present. In the other years from 2004 to 
2006, and in

[[Page 64858]]

2009, no plants were found (Meyer in litt. 2007; Ballard in litt. 2007; 
Meyer in litt. 2009a).
    It is unknown whether disturbance created by casual human use has 
played a role in the absence of Vandenberg monkeyflower's aboveground 
expression at this location since 2007. The best available information 
indicates that recreational activities involving casual human use on 
the Reserve are having minimal to no direct effect on Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat on Burton Mesa. However, veldt grass, which 
produces an abundance of seeds and tends to crowd out native species 
and prevent their reestablishment, is likely reducing the amount of 
available Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat at this location (see the 
specific Volans Avenue discussion above under the Review of Invasive, 
Nonnative Species Present by Occurrence section). Additionally, because 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat is fragmented by recreational trails, 
the introduction of additional invasive, nonnative plants into this 
area is likely because spreading of nonnative vegetation is known to 
occur through visitors' shoes (Gevirtz et al. 2005, p. 225). Therefore, 
recreational activities may indirectly affect this species by spreading 
invasive, nonnative plants into the habitat (i.e., sandy openings) 
where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows.
    Unauthorized ORV use has been reported on the western portions of 
the Reserve (Santa Lucia Management Unit) from adjacent lands on 
Vandenberg AFB. It is likely that the trespass is originating from the 
general public (nonmilitary) because public roadways (such as Santa 
Lucia Canyon Road) cross Vandenberg AFB lands on this portion of the 
Base and the Air Force controls the use of ORVs by military staff on 
the Base. As a result of unauthorized use on the Reserve, CDFW 
installed a gate in 2009 to control access along Santa Lucia Canyon 
Road (Meyer in litt 2009b). Unauthorized ORV activity has also been 
reported at another location of the Reserve that supports Vandenberg 
monkeyflower occurrences and suitable habitat (i.e., east of, and 
adjacent to, the Clubhouse Estates project site) (Meyer in litt 2010c). 
Additionally, bicycles are prohibited in Burton Mesa (14 California 
Code of Regulations (CCR) 630 (b)(22)(B)). However, unauthorized 
mountain biking has been observed in the Reserve within Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat (Meyer in litt. 2013). The available information 
does not indicate the extent and degree to which ORV and mountain 
biking may be directly impacting Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat on the 
Reserve. However, wheeled recreational activities likely contribute to 
the spread of invasive, nonnative plant species within the Reserve 
along the travel routes, some of which occur within Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat.
    The Santa Barbara County Sheriff and Fire Departments maintain 
facilities on a county-owned inholding within the Reserve. They have 
been leasing an adjacent 3-ac (1.2-ha) parcel from the State Lands 
Commission (SLC) for the last 15 years to maintain their equestrian 
training facility, and the use of horses has expanded onto the Reserve. 
The lease has since expired, and the SLC is evaluating whether to renew 
the lease or modify its terms (Meyer in litt. 2012b). The Santa Barbara 
County Sheriff Department desires to keep horses in the stalls behind 
the facility; however, horse use is not allowed on Burton Mesa 
Ecological Reserve (14 CCR Section 630(b)(22(B)), and CDFW wants to 
keep the area of impact to a few acres near the stalls (Meyer in litt. 
2012b). Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences and suitable habitat do not 
occur near this facility and, therefore, no direct impacts to the 
habitat would occur.
    The Lompoc Valley Flyers Club (Flyers Club) operated a dirt take-
off and landing strip for model airplanes, a race track for model cars, 
and several picnic tables in the Vandenberg Management Unit of the 
Reserve (just south of California State Highway 1) from 1988 to 2000 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 63). The Flyers Club routinely graded the 
landing strip and access road; this surface scar is still evident in 
aerial photographs and erosion is a continuing problem at this site 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 63). The activities occurred in Burton Mesa 
chaparral but not near known occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower. 
However, these activities have reduced suitable habitat for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower through removal and degradation of Burton Mesa chaparral 
and creation of open areas that allow nonnative plants to establish.

La Purisima Mission State Historic Park

    La Purisima Mission SHP contains roads and trails authorized for 
use by local residents for hiking, dog walking, and horseback riding, 
and employs park rangers and staff to maintain the grounds and conduct 
patrols. Twelve miles (19 km) of riding and hiking trails wind through 
the park, including 3.7 mi (6 km) of historical trails near the mission 
and 8.8 mi (14 km) in the surrounding hills (California State Parks 
1991, pp. 9, 107). Bicycles are permitted on approximately 5 mi (8 km) 
of these trails (which are also designated fire roads), and the 
remainder, with a few exceptions, are open to horses (California State 
Parks 1991, pp. 9, 107). Vehicle movement and pedestrian and equestrian 
use do not directly impact Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat at La 
Purisima Mission SHP because the roads and trails do not overlap where 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs. However, indirect impacts to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat may occur due to nonnative plant invasions 
introduced through visitors' shoes, horse hoofs, vehicle tires, and 
tractor treads (Gevirtz et al. 2005, p. 225). The best available 
information indicates that recreational activities involving casual 
human use at La Purisima Mission SHP are having minimal to no direct 
effect on Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat on Burton Mesa.

Summary--Recreation and Other Human Activities

    Off-road vehicle use and other casual recreational activities may 
contribute to soil disturbance and increase the potential for invasive, 
nonnative plants to be introduced and further spread across Burton 
Mesa, including into locations where Vandenberg monkeyflower and its 
suitable habitat occurs. At this time, the best available information 
does not indicate that recreational activities pose a substantial 
direct threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat, although these 
activities would indirectly affect the habitat by contributing to the 
spread of invasive, nonnative plants within the habitat and reducing 
the habitat quality. Available conservation measures to minimize the 
threat of recreation are discussed below under Factor A--Conservation 
Measures Undertaken.
Climate Change
    Our analyses under the Act include consideration of ongoing and 
projected changes in climate. The terms ``climate'' and ``climate 
change'' are defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 
(IPCC). The term ``climate'' refers to the mean and variability of 
different types of weather conditions over time, with 30 years being a 
typical period for such measurements, although shorter or longer 
periods also may be used (IPCC 2007a, p. 78). The term ``climate 
change'' thus refers to a change in the mean or variability of one or 
more measures of climate (for example, temperature or precipitation) 
that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer, 
whether the change is due to natural variability,

[[Page 64859]]

human activity, or both (IPCC 2007a, p. 78).
    Scientific measurements spanning several decades demonstrate that 
changes in climate are occurring, and that the rate of change has 
increased since the 1950s. Examples include warming of the global 
climate system, and substantial increases in precipitation in some 
regions of the world and decreases in others (For these and other 
examples, see IPCC 2007a, p. 30; and Solomon et al. 2007, pp. 35-54, 
82-85). Results of scientific analyses presented by the IPCC show that 
most of the observed increase in global average temperature since the 
mid-20th century cannot be explained by natural variability in climate, 
and is ``very likely'' (defined by the IPCC as 90 percent or higher 
probability) due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) 
concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of human activities, 
particularly carbon dioxide emissions from use of fossil fuels (IPCC 
2007a, pp. 5-6 and figures SPM.3 and SPM.4; Solomon et al. 2007, pp. 
21-35). Further confirmation of the role of GHGs comes from analyses by 
Huber and Knutti (2011, p. 4), who concluded that it is extremely 
likely that approximately 75 percent of global warming since 1950 has 
been caused by human activities.
    Scientists use a variety of climate models, which include 
consideration of natural processes and variability, as well as various 
scenarios of potential levels and timing of GHG emissions, to evaluate 
the causes of changes already observed and to project future changes in 
temperature and other climate conditions (for example, Meehl et al. 
2007, entire; Ganguly et al. 2009, pp. 11555, 15558; Prinn et al. 2011, 
pp. 527, 529). All combinations of models and emissions scenarios yield 
very similar projections of increases in the most common measure of 
climate change, average global surface temperature (commonly known as 
global warming), until about 2030. Although projections of the 
magnitude and rate of warming differ after about 2030, the overall 
trajectory of all the projections is one of increased global warming 
through the end of this century, even for the projections based on 
scenarios that assume that GHG emissions will stabilize or decline. 
Thus, there is strong scientific support for projections that warming 
will continue through the 21st century, and that the magnitude and rate 
of change will be influenced substantially by the extent of GHG 
emissions (IPCC 2007a, pp. 44-45; Meehl et al. 2007, pp. 760-764, 797-
811; Ganguly et al. 2009, pp. 15555-15558; Prinn et al. 2011, pp. 527, 
529). (See IPCC 2007b, p. 8, for a summary of other global projections 
of climate-related changes, such as frequency of heat waves and changes 
in precipitation. Also see IPCC 2011 (entire) for a summary of 
observations and projections of extreme climate events.)
    Various changes in climate may have direct or indirect effects on 
species. These effects may be positive, neutral, or negative, and they 
may change over time, depending on the species and other relevant 
considerations, such as interactions of climate with other variables 
(for example, habitat fragmentation) (IPCC 2007, pp. 8-14, 18-19). 
Identifying likely effects often involves aspects of climate change 
vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a 
species (or system) is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse 
effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. 
Vulnerability is a function of the type, magnitude, and rate of climate 
change and variation to which a species is exposed, its sensitivity, 
and its adaptive capacity (IPCC 2007a, p. 89; see also Glick et al. 
2011, pp. 19-22). No single method for conducting such analyses applies 
to all situations (Glick et al. 2011, p. 3). We use our expert judgment 
and appropriate analytical approaches to weigh relevant information, 
including uncertainty, in our consideration of various aspects of 
climate change.
    As is the case with all stressors that we assess, even if we 
conclude that a species is currently affected or is likely to be 
affected in a negative way by one or more climate-related impacts, it 
does not necessarily follow that the species meets the definition of an 
``endangered species'' or a ``threatened species'' under the Act. If a 
species is listed as endangered or threatened, knowledge regarding the 
vulnerability of the species to, and known or anticipated impacts from, 
climate-associated changes in environmental conditions can be used to 
help devise appropriate strategies for its recovery.
    Global climate projections are informative and, in some cases, the 
only or the best scientific information available for us to use. 
However, projected changes in climate and related impacts can vary 
substantially across and within different regions of the world (for 
example, IPCC 2007a, pp. 8-12). Therefore, we use ``downscaled'' 
climate projections when they are available and have been developed 
through appropriate scientific procedures, because such projections 
provide higher resolution information that is more relevant to spatial 
scales used for analyses of a given species (see Glick et al. 2011, pp. 
58-61, for a discussion of downscaling). With regard to our analysis 
for Vandenberg monkeyflower, downscaled climate projections are 
available.
    Within central-western California (i.e., counties along the 
California coast from the San Francisco Bay area south to Santa Barbara 
County), regional climate models project a mean annual temperature 
increase of 1.6 to 1.9 degrees Celsius ([deg]C) (2.9-3.4 degrees 
Fahrenheit ([deg]F)) and a mean diurnal temperature range increase of 
0.1 to 0.2 [deg]C (0.2-0.4[emsp14][deg]F) by 2070 (Point Reyes Bird 
Observatory (PRBO) Conservation Science 2011, p. 35). The projected 
impacts of climate change are warmer winter temperatures, earlier 
warming in the spring, and increased summer temperatures (PRBO 
Conservation Science 2011, p. 35). Additionally, regional climate 
models project a decrease in mean annual rainfall of 2.4 to 7.4 in (6.1 
to 18.8 cm) (PRBO Conservation Science 2011, p. 35). The large range of 
possible precipitation change (-11 percent to -32 percent) is due to 
different model projections and sensitivity. This sensitivity indicates 
substantial uncertainty in precipitation projections (PRBO Conservation 
Science 2011, p. 35). Other scientific sources (Snyder et al. 2004, pp. 
594-595) project similar temperature increases and precipitation 
decreases along the central California coast.
    Of the three major vegetation types within central-western 
California, decreases in cover are projected for chaparral-coastal 
scrub habitat (-19 to -43 percent) and blue oak woodland-foothill pine 
habitat (-44 to -55 percent), and an increase in cover projected for 
grassland habitat (85 to 140 percent) to 2070 (PRBO Conservation 
Science 2011, p. 38). Lenihan et al. (2008) also projects decreases in 
cover for conifer forests and shrublands, and increases in cover for 
grasslands in central-western California by the 2070-2099 period. 
Additionally, changes in vegetation communities could also be hastened 
by more and larger wildfires, as well as effective wildfire suppression 
(PRBO Conservation Science 2011, pp. 37-38) (see Factor A--
Anthropogenic Fire section).
    To estimate what changes in rainfall and temperature, if any, would 
occur in the Burton Mesa area over the next 50 years, we used both 
local weather data and an available projection tool called 
ClimateWizard (2012). Temperature and precipitation data have been 
recorded in the City of Lompoc, approximately 4 mi (6.4 km) to the 
south of Burton Mesa

[[Page 64860]]

Ecological Reserve. Between 1950 and 2006, the average annual 
temperature was approximately 58 [deg]F (14 [deg]C); the average annual 
precipitation was approximately 15 in (38 cm) (Western Regional Climate 
Center 2012). We then used ClimateWizard (2012) to project future 
climate conditions and compare to baseline values (the latter of which 
is defined as the average temperature or precipitation between 1961 and 
1990 (ClimateWizard 2012)). ClimateWizard (2012) projects that rainfall 
would decrease an average of 8 to 12 percent from baseline and 
temperature would rise approximately 2.5 [deg]F (1.4 [deg]C) by the 
2050s. A comparison between the Burton Mesa area and the eastern 
portion of Santa Barbara County (for example, 30 mi (48 km) east of the 
Burton Mesa area, which is projected to rise approximately 5 [deg]F 
(2.8 [deg]C)), indicates that the change in temperature is expected to 
be less in the Burton Mesa area. This is likely due to the moderating 
influence of ocean temperatures in coastal areas.
    In a changing climate, conditions could change in a way that would 
allow both native and nonnative plants to invade the habitat where 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs. A growing body of literature discusses 
the specific mechanisms by which climate change could affect the 
abundance, distribution, and long-term viability of plant species, as 
well as current habitat configuration over time, including (but not 
limited to): Root et al. (2003), Parmesan and Yohe (2003), and Visser 
and Both (2005). While studies on response to climate change have not 
been conducted for Vandenberg monkeyflower, responses may be similar to 
other plant species with a similar life history. Some of the responses 
by plants to climate change presented by Root et al. (2003), Parmesan 
and Yohe (2003), Visser and Both (2005), and others include the 
following:
    (1) Drier conditions may result in less suitable habitat, or a 
lower germination success and smaller population sizes.
    (2) Higher temperatures may inhibit germination, dry out soil, or 
affect pollinator services.
    (3) The timing of pollinator life cycles may become out-of-sync 
with timing of flowering.
    (4) A shift in the timing and nature of annual precipitation may 
favor expansion in abundance and distribution of nonnative species.
    (5) Drier conditions may result in increased fire frequency, making 
the ecosystems in which a species currently grows more vulnerable to 
threats of nonnative plant invasion.
    We recognize that climate change is an important issue with 
potential impacts to species and their habitats, including Vandenberg 
monkeyflower. Regional climate projections indicate that a warming and 
drying trend is likely in central-western California, which would 
likely make habitat less favorable for Vandenberg monkeyflower. 
However, as stated above, these warming and drying effects may be 
moderated by the marine influence. Therefore, climate change may not 
affect Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat as quickly or as 
extensively as may be projected. We will continue to seek additional 
information concerning how climate change may affect the Burton Mesa 
area (see Information Received section above).
Conservation Measures Undertaken
    The Air Force has an approved Integrated Natural Resources 
Management Plan (INRMP) on Vandenberg AFB, and the CDFW and California 
State Parks have established natural resources management plans for the 
Reserve and La Purisima Mission SHP, respectively. Herein, we discuss 
specific conservation measures as they apply to each threat described 
above (see Factor A--Development, Utility Maintenance and Miscellaneous 
Activities, Invasive, Nonnative Plants, Anthropogenic Fire, and 
Recreation sections above); however, not all landowners implement 
conservation measures that address each threat.

Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB)

    The Air Force developed an INRMP in 2011 (Air Force 2011c) pursuant 
to the Sikes Act Improvement Act of 1997 (Sikes Act). The Sikes Act 
requires the Department of Defense to develop and implement INRMPs for 
military installations in the United States. INRMPs direct the 
management and use of the lands on a military installation and are 
prepared in cooperation with the Service and State fish and wildlife 
agencies to ensure proper consideration of fish, wildlife, and habitat 
needs. This Vandenberg AFB INRMP was prepared to provide strategic 
direction to ecosystem and natural resources management on Base. The 
long-term goal of the INRMP is to integrate all management activities 
in a manner that sustains, promotes, and restores the health and 
integrity of ecosystems using an adaptive management approach. The 
INRMP was designed to: (1) Summarize existing management plans and 
natural resources literature pertaining to Vandenberg AFB; (2) identify 
and analyze management goals in existing plans; (3) integrate the 
management goals and objectives of individual plans; (4) support Base 
compliance with applicable regulatory requirements; (5) support the 
integration of natural resource stewardship with the Air Force mission; 
and (6) provide direction for monitoring strategies. The INRMP includes 
a chapter that identifies step-down goals for the management of 
threatened and endangered species on Base; however, since Vandenberg 
monkeyflower was not a listed species at that time, specific goals for 
it were not included. In 2012, the Air Force approved an addendum that 
addresses specific goals for Vandenberg monkeyflower (Air Force 2012). 
The INRMP and addendum provide for measures that would conserve 
Vandenberg monkeyflower, as follows:
    (1) Development. The Air Force is not likely to construct new 
launch facilities within suitable habitat near human-populated areas, 
and the future siting of community facilities is expected to occur in a 
manner that capitalizes on existing infrastructure and circulation 
systems (Air Force 2009a, p. 32). Thus, no specific conservation 
measures have been proposed to minimize the threat of development to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat on Base.
    (2) Utility Maintenance and Miscellaneous Activities. Construction 
of new facilities is not likely to occur within Vandenberg monkeyflower 
habitat; however, existing utilities will require periodic maintenance. 
No specific conservation measures were proposed in the addendum to the 
INRMP (Air Force 2012). The main objective is to avoid any impacts to 
habitat, when possible, by either confining the work to existing 
disturbed areas or rerouting the work to avoid suitable habitat 
completely, and minimize the impact as much as possible (Air Force 
2012, p. 2). For Vandenberg monkeyflower, the Air Force would avoid 
impacting Burton Mesa chaparral as much as possible if utility 
maintenance is required in suitable habitat.
    (3) Invasive, Nonnative Plants. The INRMP (Air Force 2011a) 
includes an Invasive Plant Species Management Plan that identifies the 
threat of invasive, nonnative plants on Base, and proposes removal 
methods to limit further spread and assist in restoration of habitat 
degraded by invasive species. In most cases, the Air Force would 
utilize chemical application to manage for invasive plants (Air Force 
2011a, p. 43). Although the INRMP identified invasive, nonnative plants 
as a threat and calls for their removal, it did not identify which 
nonnative species, and

[[Page 64861]]

which areas on Base, were a priority for treatment.
    In the 2012 addendum to their INRMP, the Air Force identifies veldt 
grass as the most problematic invasive, nonnative plant on Base for 
Vandenberg monkeyflower. As part of this addendum, the Air Force also 
identified their 10-year funding program, which included more than 
$500,000 to treat veldt grass, starting in 2009 and continuing through 
2019 (Air Force 2012). While the Air Force does not specify precisely 
where, when, or how much veldt grass will be treated or removed in 
specific years, they state that a substantial portion of this effort 
will focus on areas within the range of Vandenberg monkeyflower (Air 
Force 2012, p. 1). Through 2012, the Air Force has chemically treated 
approximately 141 acres (57 ha) of invasive, nonnative plants, mostly 
treating pampas grass within Burton Mesa chaparral but not near extant 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences (treatment was to benefit 
Eriodictyon capitatum (Lompoc yerba santa)). Other invasive, nonnative 
plants treated included veldt grass, iceplant, Eucalyptus spp. 
(Eucalyptus), and Pinus spp. (Pine)). Only a small proportion of this 
chemical removal occurred within Burton Mesa chaparral at two locations 
where Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs (Lake and Pine Canyons) (Lum in 
litt. 2013).
    (4) Fire. For fires that would affect Vandenberg monkeyflower and 
its habitat, the Air Force developed a GIS layer incorporating all 
potential suitable habitat areas, which has been made available to fire 
response crews for use during actual fire events. Multiple conservation 
measures that address the potential threat of fire are included in the 
addendum (Air Force 2012, p. 2), including the following:
    (a) Established roads, both paved and unpaved, would be used to the 
greatest extent possible as fire lines unless an emergency dictates 
otherwise.
    (b) Burned areas would be assessed after a fire for rehabilitation 
options within 10 days of the area being declared safe for entry.
    (c) Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat affected by wildfire and 
rehabilitation projects will be monitored, which would include 
recommendations for nonnative species control.
    (d) Following any significant wildfire event within the range of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower on Base, a Burn Area Emergency Response (BAER) 
project will be initiated. This generally includes implementation of 
erosion control, native vegetation restoration, firebreak 
rehabilitation, and invasive species management.
    Additionally, the addendum proposes to incorporate portions of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat in a controlled burn program (Air Force 
2012, p. 2).
    (5) Recreation. No conservation measures have been proposed to 
address the threat of recreation to Vandenberg monkeyflower.

Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve (Reserve)

    Ecological Reserves are established under California State law to 
provide protection for rare, threatened, or endangered native plants, 
wildlife, aquatic organisms, and specialized terrestrial or aquatic 
habitat types. According to the California Code of Regulations (14 CCR 
Section 630), public entry and use of ecological reserves shall be 
compatible with the primary purposes of such reserves, and subject to 
general rules and regulations. The State Lands Commission signed a 49-
year lease of the Burton Mesa Ecological Reserve on January 20, 2000. 
The purpose of the lease is to manage, operate, and maintain these 
sovereign lands for the sensitive species and habitats they support 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 3). The CDFW developed a management plan for 
the Reserve that guides management of habitats, species, and programs 
to achieve the mission of CDFW to protect and enhance wildlife values 
(Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 1).
    Conservation measures are proposed in the management plan, as 
outlined below. However, implementation of the management goals is 
contingent upon available funding and staffing. Currently, no funding 
is dedicated for the management of the Reserve and it is staffed by 10 
percent of one biologist position. Some grant funding has been used for 
specific management needs.
    (1) Development. Because new development would not occur on the 
Reserve, there are no conservation measures to implement that would 
minimize this threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower.
    (2) Utility Maintenance and Miscellaneous Activities. Several 
public utilities and local governmental agencies provide services to 
the local community and use the Reserve to accomplish their roles. 
Within the Reserve, agencies responsible for conducting maintenance 
activities submit maintenance plans for all scheduled activities to 
CDFW, who in turn may request conservation measures (such as modifying 
the size and frequency of actions) to minimize impacts on natural 
resources (Gevirtz et al. 2007, pp. 230-236). We are not aware of 
specific projects in which the CDFW has requested conservation measures 
to minimize the impacts to Vandenberg monkeyflower and its habitat. 
However, the goal is to minimize damage to sensitive biological and 
cultural resources (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 230), which would include 
minimizing impacts to Burton Mesa chaparral.
    (3) Invasive, Nonnative Species. The Reserve's management plan 
encourages minimizing the impact and presence of invasive, nonnative 
plants, including monitoring and removing nonnative plants; preventing 
new introductions by working with public utilities, local governmental 
agencies, and recreationists that use the Reserve; and restoring 
disturbed and degraded areas with native species (Gevirtz et al. 2007, 
pp. 241-242, 249-253). Additionally, during spring of 2011, the Santa 
Barbara Botanic Garden conducted a 2-day educational workshop at the 
Reserve to discuss Burton Mesa chaparral and identify the local plants, 
learn more about the distribution and habitat requirements of some of 
the County's rare plants, and document populations of rapidly spreading 
weeds, such as Sahara mustard, that are threatening rare species (Junak 
2011). Furthermore, volunteers, CDFW, and our staff have occasionally 
mapped, removed, or chemically treated a few populations of invasive, 
nonnative plants on the Reserve, including Sahara mustard, veldt grass, 
iceplant, and pampas grass (Junak 2011; Meyer 2012, pers. comm.). We 
recently provided funding ($60,000) to CDFW to compare various removal 
methods for invasive species, in which part of the funding would be 
used to enhance suitable Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat on the Reserve 
and monitor the results; work will commence in 2013 (CDFG 2011, 
entire).
    (4) Fire. The CDFW management plan for the Reserve calls for 
coordination among the Santa Barbara County Fire Department, 
enforcement agencies, local governmental agencies, and adjacent small 
and large landowners to ensure that fire risk is reduced, that new 
development projects adjacent to the Reserve are reviewed by CDFW staff 
and address fuel reduction needs and requirements, and that appropriate 
and efficient post-fire remediation takes place, where needed (Gevirtz 
et al. 2007, pp. 255-262). Reducing the risk of fire would limit the 
potential for wildfire to occur within Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat, 
and thus reduce the impact of fire suppression activities and the 
impact of invasive, nonnative plants invading the habitat post-fire 
(see Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants and Anthropogenic Fire 
sections above). Additionally, the plan suggests

[[Page 64862]]

prohibiting the use of prescribed fire for the purposes of reducing 
fuel load, but allowing use of controlled burns for small-scale 
restoration projects (such as suppression of annual grasses or 
stimulation of chaparral seed bank for restoration projects) (Gevirtz 
et al. 2007, p. 258). No controlled burns within Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat have occurred to date.
    (5) Recreation. CDFW developed a trails plan that shows existing 
trails within the Reserve as well as proposed new trail construction; 
seasonal trail closures or restrictions may occur to protect sensitive 
resources such as wildlife breeding locations or rare plant assemblages 
that vary from year to year (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 70). This system 
of trails would reduce the risk of authorized recreational uses 
directly impacting suitable Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. The 
management plan calls for maintaining public access to the Reserve 
through pedestrian hiking trails by providing a network of trails, 
including loop trails, linking interesting areas while protecting 
resources, and preventing unauthorized uses (Gevirtz et al. 2007, p. 
231).

La Purisima Mission State Historic Park

    General plans for State Parks are prepared to guide future 
management and development of State Park System units. The goal of the 
State Parks natural resource management program is to protect, restore, 
and maintain the natural resources in the State Park System. A general 
plan is the primary management document for each unit of the California 
State Park System, defining a park's primary purpose, and establishing 
a management direction for its future. The General Plan must satisfy 
certain requirements of the Public Resources Code and be approved by 
the California State Park and Recreation Commission before the 
Department undertakes any development in the park that would constitute 
a permanent commitment of natural or cultural resources. Further, broad 
resource management policies concerning State Historic Parks are stated 
in the Public Resources Code, the California Code of Regulations, and 
the Department's Resource Management Directives (California State Parks 
1991, p. 54). A general management plan for La Purisima Mission SHP was 
completed in 1991 (California State Parks 1991, entire), and an 
ecosystem characterization of La Purisima Mission SHP was completed in 
2005 (Gevirtz et al. 2005, entire). Directives specific to La Purisima 
Mission SHP that concern the habitat where Vandenberg monkeyflower 
occurs include preserving Burton Mesa chaparral, protecting and 
managing rare and endangered plants in perpetuity, controlling 
nonnative plants that have become established, and developing a 
prescribed-burn plan (California State Parks 1991, p. 54).
    Conservation measures are proposed in the general management plan, 
as outlined below. However, implementation of the management goals is 
contingent upon available funding and staffing. State Parks often rely 
upon the dedicated work of volunteers. Additionally, while the 
management plan contains biological resource conservation measures, the 
primary goal of the plan for La Purisima Mission SHP is to preserve the 
historical setting and maintain the historical ``sense of place''--
visitors' sense of stepping back in history (California State Parks 
1991, p. 3).
    (1) Development. The significance of the historical setting at La 
Purisima Mission SHP has always been given a high priority, as has 
management of the existing facilities (California State Parks 1991, p. 
120). There are multiple existing structures within the park, and any 
new structures must provide for visitors' needs without competing for 
attention with historical buildings or the natural setting. All new 
development must be sensitive to that purpose of providing appropriate 
visitor facilities without detracting from the historical and natural 
setting of La Purisima Mission (California State Parks 1991, p. 121). 
Additionally, Burton Mesa chaparral habitat areas are designated as 
low-intensity use areas (California State Parks 1991, p. 66). 
Therefore, any new development is unlikely to impact Vandenberg 
monkeyflower or its habitat in the park.
    (2) Utility Maintenance and Miscellaneous Activities. No 
conservation measures are proposed for the threat of utility 
maintenance actions within the park; however, there is no indication 
that the maintenance activities for existing utilities have affected 
Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat.
    (3) Invasive, Nonnative Species. California State Parks' resource 
management programs try to remove or control invasive, nonnative 
species and reestablish indigenous native species (California State 
Parks 2013). Stands of veldt grass and pampas grass within Burton Mesa 
chaparral were chemically treated in 2009 and 2010 (California State 
Parks 2010, p. 3). Veldt grass removal efforts have focused on hand 
removal in areas where it is encroaching into intact native habitat and 
into sparsely vegetated areas where native annual herbs grow, including 
Vandenberg monkeyflower. California State Parks received funding from 
the Service's Coastal Program in August 2012 and anticipates commencing 
veldt grass eradication efforts in 2013 to enhance Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat (Service 2012c, pp. 5-6). Specifically, California 
State Parks will enhance 91 ac (37 ha) of upland habitat surrounding 
extant occurrences of Vandenberg monkeyflower by removing veldt grass 
(Service 2012c, entire).
    (4) Fire. California State Parks requires that a wildfire 
management plan be developed for every State Park. They developed a 
general management plan in 1991 and stated their intent to continue to 
work with the Santa Barbara County Fire Department, the California 
Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, local fire districts, and 
other appropriate agencies to implement and keep this plan current 
(California State Parks 1991, p. 57). In 2007, California State Parks 
initiated development of a wildfire management plan that would include 
management strategies to protect the existing infrastructure 
(buildings) and protect cultural resources and biological resources of 
the park (which would include Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat), as well 
as informing fire suppression agencies of the areas with high-value 
resources and the limits of fire suppression activities in those areas. 
No prescribed burns currently occur within the park (Cox 2013, pers. 
comm).
    (5) Recreation. As part of the general management plan, California 
State Parks developed a trail management plan to reduce conflicts 
between recreational use and historical values of the park (California 
State Parks 1991, pp. 5, 109). Consideration will be given to 
designating trails for specific types of uses and constructing new 
trail segments to avoid conflicts (California State Parks 1991, p. 65). 
The trail system requires continual brush and erosion control, in which 
California State Parks often relies on numerous volunteers such as 
scouts and environmental groups to assist the park each year in various 
projects, from litter pickup to trail construction (California State 
Parks 1991, p. 109). A designated trail system would reduce the risk of 
authorized recreational uses directly impacting Vandenberg monkeyflower 
habitat. However, as described above in the Recreation and Other Human 
Impacts section, the best available information indicates that 
recreational activities are currently having minimal to no effect on 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat at La Purisima Mission SHP.

[[Page 64863]]

Summary of Conservation Measures Undertaken for Vandenberg AFB, the 
Reserve, and La Purisima Mission SHP

    Management goals for the Air Force, CDFW, and California State 
Parks in these plans include, but are not limited to, minimizing the 
spread and impact of invasive, nonnative species; working with local 
agencies to recognize the importance of, and resource protections 
afforded to, sensitive species like Vandenberg monkeyflower and its 
habitat; and maintaining the natural resources of Burton Mesa, 
especially Burton Mesa chaparral habitat. The Air Force, CDFW, and 
California State Parks have attempted to address the greatest threat to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower by removing or chemically treating invasive, 
nonnative plants on their lands, respectively. Working collaboratively 
in some instances, the Service has funded and volunteered manpower to 
help reduce the spread and impact of invasive, nonnative plants. 
Overall, because implementation of the management plans is dependent 
upon available funding and staffing, because of the quantity of 
invasive, nonnative species that threaten Vandenberg monkeyflower 
habitat (Burton Mesa chaparral), and because of the difficulty 
eradicating invasive, nonnative species once they become established on 
Burton Mesa, the implementation of the management plans as currently 
constituted would not eliminate the threats described in Factor A.
Summary of Factor A
    Most of the historical loss of Burton Mesa chaparral is due to 
military, residential, and commercial development that occurred in the 
past and resulted in many developed areas that have existed for 
decades, although historical loss of chaparral is also due to the 
presence and expansion of invasive, nonnative plants. Prior to 1938, 
there were approximately 23,550 ac (9,350 ha) of Burton Mesa chaparral 
(Hickson 1987, p. 34). In 2012, approximately 10,057 ac (4,070 ha) of 
Burton Mesa chaparral remained, which represents a loss of 53 percent 
of the original upland habitat (Service 2012a, unpublished data). Based 
on the habitat characteristics of Burton Mesa chaparral, it is probable 
that an equivalent percent loss of sandy openings that occur in-between 
shrubs may have occurred over this timeframe (see Background--Habitat 
section above).
    The majority of remaining Burton Mesa chaparral where Vandenberg 
monkeyflower occurs is within Federal or State-owned lands and is 
protected from development. Therefore, large-scale future development 
of remaining Burton Mesa chaparral is not likely to occur and thus is 
not a significant threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower. However, smaller 
scale private property development; access to easements; maintenance of 
utility, oil, and gas pipelines; fire and fire suppression; and 
authorized and unauthorized recreational activities may continue to 
take place throughout Burton Mesa. Some of these activities may occur 
within Burton Mesa chaparral or adjacent to occurrences of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, resulting in the destruction and possible removal of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat and creating open areas for nonnative 
plants to invade. Therefore, the direct destruction and alteration of 
chaparral habitat could continue to occur on a relatively small scale 
and is thus considered a threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower both 
currently and in the future.
    The presence and proliferation of invasive, nonnative plants is a 
threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat that has the most significant 
impact to the species because nonnatives are spreading rapidly across 
Burton Mesa. The Air Force, CDFW, and California State Parks are 
implementing conservation measures to address the threat of nonnative 
plants within Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat. Nevertheless, invasive, 
nonnative plants are present at all locations where Vandenberg 
monkeyflower occurs, are known to alter native habitat, including that 
of Vandenberg monkeyflower, and are reducing the abundance and 
diversity of native plant species. Many of the nonnative species that 
occur on Burton Mesa are species deemed to pose significant ecological 
concerns because they displace native vegetation and occupy sandy 
openings where Vandenberg monkeyflower grows. Additionally, development 
that has fragmented the mesa, ground disturbances along easements, and 
authorized and unauthorized recreational activities increase the 
pathways for nonnative plants to establish and spread. Moreover, fire 
increases the potential for the invasion of nonnative plants by 
creating bare ground that facilitates the spread of nonnative 
vegetation. Therefore, with the prevailing onshore wind, an abundant 
upwind source of nonnative plants and seed, and continued ground 
disturbances, we conclude that the presence and expansion of invasive, 
nonnative plants is a threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat both 
currently and in the future.
    Climate change may have potential impacts on Vandenberg 
monkeyflower and its habitat, such as increased temperatures and 
decreased precipitation that would likely reduce suitable habitat. 
However, because of the moderating influence of the ocean, the effect 
of climate change on Burton Mesa flora may be moderated.

Factor B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    No available information indicates any impacts to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower related to overutilization for commercial, recreational, 
scientific, or educational purposes or that these activities would 
increase in the future. Therefore, we do not consider this factor to be 
a threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower, nor do we expect it to be in the 
future.

Factor C. Disease or Predation

    There is no available information indicating any impacts to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower related to disease or predation, or that 
disease or predation may become a concern in the future. Therefore, we 
do not consider disease or predation to be threats to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, nor do we expect them to become threats in the future.

Factor D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

    Under this factor, we examine whether existing regulatory 
mechanisms are inadequate to address the threats to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower discussed under other factors. We give strongest weight to 
statutes and their implementing regulations, and management direction 
that stems from those laws and regulations. They are nondiscretionary 
and enforceable, and are considered a regulatory mechanism under this 
analysis. Examples include State governmental actions enforced under a 
State statute or constitution, or Federal action under statute.
    Some other programs are more voluntary in nature or dependent on 
available funding (see Conservation Measures Undertaken section above); 
in those cases, we analyze the specific facts for that effort to 
ascertain its effectiveness at mitigating the threat and the extent to 
which it can be relied on in the future. Having evaluated the 
significance of the threat as mitigated by any such conservation 
efforts, we analyze under Factor D the extent to which existing 
regulatory mechanisms adequately address the specific threats to the 
species. Regulatory mechanisms,

[[Page 64864]]

if they exist, may preclude the need for listing if we determine that 
such mechanisms adequately address the threats to the species such that 
listing is not warranted.
    Vandenberg monkeyflower is not federally or State-listed as 
endangered or threatened. The Service added this species to the Federal 
list of candidate species on November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69222; see 
Previous Federal Actions section above); however, candidate species are 
afforded no protections under the Act. The California Native Plant 
Society (CNPS) classifies this species as 1B.1, which denotes that a 
taxon is seriously endangered in California (CNPS 2012).
State Regulations
    The California Endangered Species Act (CESA) allows the Fish and 
Game Commission to designate species, including plants, as threatened 
or endangered. The CESA makes it illegal to import, export, ``take,'' 
possess, purchase, sell, or attempt to do any of those actions to 
species that are designated as threatened, endangered, or candidates 
for listing, unless permitted by CDFW. Vandenberg monkeyflower is not 
listed as threatened or endangered under the CESA (CDFW 2012).
    The Native Plant Protection Act (NPPA) was enacted in 1977 and 
allows the Fish and Game Commission to designate plants as rare or 
endangered. The NPPA prohibits take of endangered or rare native 
plants, but includes some exceptions for agricultural and nursery 
operations, emergencies, and (after properly notifying CDFW) vegetation 
removal from canals, roads, and other sites, changes in land use, and 
certain other situations. Vandenberg monkeyflower is not designated as 
rare or endangered under the NPPA (CDFW 2012).
    Ecological Reserves are established under California State law to 
provide protection for rare, threatened, or endangered native plants, 
wildlife, aquatic organisms, and specialized terrestrial or aquatic 
habitat types. Likewise, the goal of the State Parks resource 
management program is to protect, restore and maintain the natural 
resources in the State Park System (see Conservation Measures 
Undertaken section above).
    The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) requires a full 
disclosure of the potential impacts that proposed projects on non-
Federal lands will have on the environment, including sensitive 
resources. CEQA does not confer any protection to sensitive species, 
but merely requires disclosure of potential impacts. Lead CEQA agencies 
are also required to disclose potential impacts to CNPS list 1B.1 
species, including Vandenberg monkeyflower. The lead agency for CEQA 
analysis is the public agency with primary authority or jurisdiction 
over the project, and is responsible for conducting a review of the 
project and consulting with other agencies responsible for resources 
affected by the project; this agency is typically a county, city, or 
special district agency. Three proposed projects have undergone CEQA 
analysis on Burton Mesa in recent years, and the CEQA process 
adequately disclosed impacts of these projects (see County or Local 
Regulations below for a discussion of the CEQA process for these three 
proposed projects).
County and Local Regulations
    (1) The County of Santa Barbara, which is the lead agency 
responsible for CEQA review for projects on non-Federal lands where 
Vandenberg monkeyflower occurs, approved the Clubhouse Estates 
residential development in August 2005 (County of Santa Barbara 
Planning Commission 2005) (see Factor A--Development for a description 
of the project).
    While the CEQA review disclosed impacts to Vandenberg monkeyflower 
and its habitat at the Clubhouse Estates project site, the CEQA review 
does not afford protection to this species or its habitat. Therefore, 
the County of Santa Barbara included conditions to their approval of 
the Clubhouse Estates development project. County stipulations to the 
Clubhouse Estates approval that would benefit Vandenberg monkeyflower 
and its habitat included: onsite habitat restoration and preservation 
plan, an open space management plan, onsite habitat restoration, and 
native plant propagation. Thus, the project proponent (LFR, Inc.) 
developed a restoration, construction monitoring, and resource 
protection plan to address the mitigation of native ecological 
resources impacted by the development project, to provide for 
restoration of disturbed habitat within the designated open space (Lot 
54), and to describe ecological resource protection measures that would 
be implemented during construction (LFR, Inc. 2006, p. 1, pp. 34-60). 
The restoration plan was developed (LFR, Inc. 2006) but has not been 
fully implemented, possibly due to the development project falling into 
foreclosure in December 2009 (VVCSD 2011). Additionally, LFR, Inc. 
conducted actions to further preserve Vandenberg monkeyflower by 
collecting seeds and storing them at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 
salvaging topsoil from where Vandenberg monkeyflower previously 
occurred on the project site (which likely contained a seed bank), and 
depositing the topsoil outside of the project site and within suitable 
habitat, and transplanting three individual plants (McGowan in litt. 
2007).
    The County is also responsible for permitting other activities, 
such as grading, according to Santa Barbara County Grading Code, 
Chapter 14. A grading permit would have associated erosion and sediment 
controls, including best management practices and other conditions of 
approval that would minimize impacts to sensitive biological resources 
(County of Santa Barbara Planning and Development 2013; LFR, Inc. 2006, 
entire). Our records indicate that the Clubhouse Estates project site 
was cleared prior to the developer's acquisition of a grading permit 
from the County (Mooney in litt 2006; Meyer in litt. 2006). Thus, in 
this case, County regulations concerning grading were inadequate to 
ensure proper implementation of the permitting process, which would 
have included implementing the conditions of approval that serve to 
minimize impacts to sensitive biological resources. As a result, 
clearing the Clubhouse Estates project site destroyed Burton Mesa 
chaparral that was occupied by Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals and 
removed adjacent habitat that likely harbored a seed bank (Meyer in 
litt. 2010b; see Development--Private Lands under Factor A). 
Additionally, this unpermitted ground disturbance created open areas 
where veldt grass and Sahara mustard have expanded to areas where they 
did not occur prior to the vegetation being cleared from the project 
site (Meyer in litt. 2010b; see Invasive, Nonnative Species section 
above).
    (2) The City of Lompoc conducted a CEQA review for the Burton Ranch 
(see Factor A--Development for a description of the project). 
Approximately 141 of 149 ac (57 of 60 ha) of the project site would be 
developed, including removal of 83 ac (34 ha) of chaparral habitat on 
Burton Mesa. No Vandenberg monkeyflower has been observed within this 
project site. A 100-ft (30-ha) buffer between the development and the 
Reserve boundary to the north of the project site and 10 ac (4 ha) of 
onsite open space were proposed as part of the project (SAIC 2005a). 
Additionally, to mitigate for the removal of native vegetation at the 
Burton Ranch project site, the project proponent completed a 
conservation easement with the Land Trust for Santa

[[Page 64865]]

Barbara County (Land Trust) that will protect 95 ac (38 ha) of land 
featuring unique Burton Mesa chaparral, coastal scrub and oak savannah 
habitat near Vandenberg Village, an area that is known as the Burton 
Ranch Chaparral Preserve (Feeney in litt. 2012). The Land Trust 
received this 95 ac (38 ha) and will monitor the property and work with 
CDFW to protect and enhance the ecological resources of the site (Land 
Trust 2013). This area straddles adjacent portions of the Burton Mesa 
Ecological Reserve and is connected to the Reserve via walking trails 
(Land Trust in litt. 2011).
    (3) The Allan Hancock College District conducted the CEQA analysis 
for a proposal to construct a public safety complex at Allan Hancock 
College (see Factor A--Development section for a description of the 
project). The proposal includes removal of at least 40 ac (16 ha) of 
chaparral habitat on Burton Mesa along the northern project boundary 
that is contiguous with the Davis Creek drainage. Vandenberg 
monkeyflower has not been observed within this project site. 
Approximately 105 of the 200 ac (42 of 81 ha) of the site is covered 
with chaparral habitat and, minus the 40 ac (16 ha) of chaparral within 
the project footprint, approximately 65 ac (26 ha) of chaparral habitat 
that is contiguous would be preserved (Allan Hancock College 2009, pp. 
9, 135). Preserving chaparral in this area may reduce the potential for 
nonnative plants to invade the intact Burton Mesa chaparral that is 
contiguous with the Reserve to the north of this project site.
    Despite implementation of the CEQA process and disclosure of the 
impacts to this species or its habitat, these projects illustrate that 
development can constitute a direct threat (removal of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower individuals) to Vandenberg monkeyflower and/or suitable 
habitat, and this threat is present and is expected to continue into 
the future (see Development--Private Lands section under Factor A 
above) within Burton Mesa chaparral (Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat) 
on non-Federal lands. Threats to the habitat are exacerbated because 
ground-disturbing projects further fragment chaparral habitat and 
create open areas (i.e., vectors) for invasive, nonnative plants to 
establish and further expand into Burton Mesa (see the Invasive, 
Nonnative Species section above).
Federal Regulations
    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires full 
disclosure of potential impacts that proposed projects on Federal lands 
or with Federal involvement will have on the environment, including 
sensitive resources. The NEPA process would apply to projects proposed 
on Vandenberg AFB and projects on non-Federal lands that include a 
Federal nexus, such as funding or permitting by a Federal agency. The 
NEPA analysis, like CEQA, does not confer any protection to sensitive 
species, but merely discloses potential impacts. Although Federal 
agencies may include conservation measures for Vandenberg monkeyflower 
as a result of the NEPA process, any such measures are typically 
voluntary in nature and are not required by statute.
    For example, although the Vandenberg monkeyflower is not yet a 
federally threatened or endangered species, it is recognized by 
Vandenberg AFB as a species deserving of conservation measures as 
demonstrated by the Air Force's recent submittal of a proposal to 
include Vandenberg monkeyflower in their INRMP (Air Force 2012). The 
Air Force could include conservation measures for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower and its habitat as a result of the NEPA process. The NEPA 
would not itself regulate activities that might affect Vandenberg 
monkeyflower, but it would require full evaluation and disclosure of 
information regarding the effects of contemplated Federal actions on 
sensitive species and their habitats.
    The Sikes Act requires the Department of Defense to develop and 
implement INRMPs for military installations in the United States. 
INRMPs direct the management and use of the lands on a military 
installation and are prepared in cooperation with the Service and State 
fish and wildlife agencies (i.e., CDFW) to ensure proper consideration 
of fish, wildlife, and habitat needs (see Conservation Measures 
Undertaken section above for more discussion of Vandenberg AFB's 
INRMP).
Summary of Factor D
    The existing regulatory mechanisms at the Federal and State levels 
require evaluation of potential actions that may impact Vandenberg 
monkeyflower and its habitat on Burton Mesa. At the Federal level, the 
NEPA only requires evaluation of impacts to the human environment. The 
Sikes Act requires military installations to develop INRMPs to ensure 
proper consideration of fish, wildlife, and habitat needs on their 
lands. However, no protections are in place at the local, State, and 
Federal levels that are intended to protect a plant species that is not 
Federally or State-listed, although Vandenberg AFB has proposed to 
include this species in their INRMP. Additionally, at least one 
incident of unauthorized grading occurred without following the 
required local permit process; loss of Vandenberg monkeyflower 
individuals and habitat was documented.
    Federal and State ownership of much of the occupied Vandenberg 
monkeyflower habitat and the regulatory purposes that define the use of 
those Federal and State lands protect the species from direct losses of 
habitat and provide further protection from many of the forms of 
disturbance described above. However, the current regulatory regime 
does not address the majority of impacts associated with loss of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat (i.e., development of private lands 
that result in habitat loss, fire and fire suppression efforts, 
authorized and unauthorized recreation activities, and the invasion and 
expansion of invasive, nonnative species). As described above under 
Factor A, the primary threat with the greatest severity and magnitude 
of impact to Vandenberg monkeyflower is invasive, nonnative species 
invasion and expansion. The existing regulatory mechanisms currently in 
place at the local, State, and national levels are inadequate to 
address this threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower and its habitat.

Factor E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued 
Existence

Competition for Resources With Invasive, Nonnative Species
    In Factor A, we discussed how invasive, nonnative plants alter the 
habitat that supports Vandenberg monkeyflower. In this section, we 
discuss how invasive, nonnative plants compete with individuals of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower for light, water, and soil nutrients.
    Invasion of nonnative plants and in particular nonnative grasses 
are a threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower because small annuals such as 
this species most likely cannot compete with fast-growing nonnative 
plants for light, water, and soil nutrients (refer to Barrows et al. 
2009; Lambrinos 2000; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992). Grasses have long 
been recognized as effective competitors with herbaceous and woody 
species (Davis and Mooney 1985; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992).
    (1) Sunlight. Rapidly growing nonnative grasses can reduce light at 
the soil surface and thereby reduce the photosynthetic ability of 
competitors (Thompson 1991, pp. 394-395). Like certain other annual 
Diplacus taxa,

[[Page 64866]]

Vandenberg monkeyflower only grows in habitats with little to no 
competition from invasive, nonnative plants (VFWO 2013). As described 
in Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants, high densities of veldt grass 
would easily overtop Vandenberg monkeyflower because of monkeyflower's 
small stature, which in turn creates shaded conditions that are not 
suitable for germination and growth of Vandenberg monkeyflower. 
Additionally, Sahara mustard is able to form a canopy up to 3 ft (1 m) 
aboveground; this forces the native plants growing under the canopy to 
put more energy into growing taller at the expense of producing 
branches, flowers, and fruits (Barrows et al. 2009, p. 683). Therefore, 
because veldt grass and Sahara mustard grow taller in stature and more 
quickly than Vandenberg monkeyflower, these invading nonnative plants 
would likely shade and reduce the productivity and survival of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower where these species occur in close proximity to 
one another. Veldt grass in particular is of immediate concern given 
its presence at: (1) All of the Vandenberg monkeyflower extant 
occurrences; and (2) one potentially extirpated occurrence (i.e., Lower 
Santa Lucia Canyon (Meyer in litt. 2012c)), where veldt grass is a 
dominant species within the sandy openings and where herbs that are 
commonly associated with Vandenberg monkeyflower are absent.
    (2) Water and Soil Nutrients. Nonnative grasses compete effectively 
with native species for water and soil nutrients (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 70). The effective uptake of water and nutrients by 
grasses is the result of their dense shallow root systems. The root 
systems of most woody species are deeper and less dense than those of 
grasses; once woody species become large, they are generally thought to 
have access to moisture and nutrients from portions of the soil profile 
below grass roots (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 70). Shallow-rooted 
herbs that occur in open areas were found to deplete soil moisture to a 
maximum depth of 1.6 ft (0.5 m); grassland plants had roots active to 
2.5 ft (0.75 m); and chaparral had roots extending below 6.6 ft (2.0 m) 
(Davis and Mooney 1985, p. 525). Therefore, grasses are most effective 
as competitors against seedlings and shallow-rooted annuals rather than 
saplings or adults of woody species (Davis and Mooney 1985, p. 528; 
D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 70). However, Knoop and Walker (1985, 
p. 249) demonstrated that grasses can reduce water availability in the 
subsoil at a depth of 1 to 4.25 ft (0.3 to 1.3 m) where shrub roots are 
common.
    Many examples exist of invasive, nonnative plants outcompeting 
native herbs and shrubs for water and soil nutrients, some of which 
include the following:
    (1) Davis and Mooney (1985, p. 528) demonstrated across a 
grassland-chaparral ecotone in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve 
(approximately 7.5 mi (12 km) west of Palo Alto, California) that bare-
zone annual herbs, such as Navarretia heterodoxa (Calistoga 
pincushionplant) and Lessingia germanorum var. glandulifera (valley 
lessingia), would be poor competitors against grassland species, in 
part, because these annual plants are shallow rooted and nonnative 
annual grasses are able to deplete the water in shallow soil.
    (2) Eliason and Allen (1997, p. 252) conducted a study in the Santa 
Margarita Ecological Reserve (near Temecula, California) and determined 
that the growth and survival of transplanted Artemisia californica 
(California sagebrush) seedlings was significantly reduced in the 
presence of Mediterranean annual grasses from germination through the 
first growing season. This effect was due to the depletion of soil 
water because young California sagebrush and nonnative annual grasses 
are both shallow rooted.
    (3) Melgoza et al. (1990, pp. 11-12) conducted a study in Belle 
Flats (approximately 22 mi (35 km) north of Reno, Nevada) and 
demonstrated that competition with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) 
negatively affected the productivity and water status of native 
perennial species. Melgoza et al. (1990, pp. 7, 11-12) found cheatgrass 
suppressed productivity of native species for an extended period of 
time (12 years after a fire) once it was established in open areas 
around native species, thus enhancing its capability after a fire to 
exploit soil resources and enhance its status in the community.
    Because individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower are small in stature 
(growing up to 10 in (25.4 cm) tall), invasive, nonnative plants that 
grow taller in stature and quicker than this species (such as veldt 
grass and Sahara mustard; see Factor A--Invasive, Nonnative Plants and 
Anthropogenic Fire section) may inhibit the growth and production of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower attempting to grow nearby. Moreover, because 
Vandenberg monkeyflower likely is shallow rooted like other small 
annual plants that grow in sandy openings within chaparral, invasive, 
nonnative grasses that occur within and near the species are likely 
outcompeting it by depleting the water at shallow depths and soil 
nutrients that it requires. Veldt grass is of particular concern 
because: (1) It is present at nine (100 percent) of the Vandenberg 
monkeyflower extant occurrences and one potentially extirpated 
occurrence (i.e., Lower Santa Lucia Canyon); and (2) it has deep-
reaching roots that are able to tolerate Mediterranean climates 
(Tothill 1962, pp 132-161). Thus, veldt grass could deplete the water 
and soil nutrients that would otherwise be available for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower.
Small Population Size and Restricted Range
    According to the criteria put forth by the World Conservation 
Union, as modified for plants, a species that has life history, 
population, and distribution attributes similar to those of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower is considered to have a high risk of extinction in the 
wild in the immediate future (Keith 1998, pp. 1085-1087). Species with 
few populations and individuals are vulnerable to the threat of 
naturally occurring events, which can cause extinction through 
mechanisms operating either at the genetic, population, or landscape 
level (Shaffer 1981, pp. 131-134; Primack 1998, pp. 279-308). 
Environmental stochasticity is annual variation in reproduction and 
death rates in response to weather, disease, competition, predation, or 
other factors external to the population (Shaffer 1981, p. 131). 
Natural catastrophes or prolonged drought could also result in the 
extirpation of a small population (Shaffer 1981, p. 131).
    The genetic characteristics of Vandenberg monkeyflower have not 
been investigated; therefore, the degree to which genetic 
characteristics contribute to the likelihood of this species being 
vulnerable to extinction is unknown. However, random events operating 
at the population and landscape levels may increase the chance of 
extinction for Vandenberg monkeyflower. Although data are not available 
to determine population trends for this species, the best available 
information gained from multiple survey years between 2003 and 2012 
indicate that 3 occurrences (33 percent) have fewer than 100 
individuals. Six occurrences (67 percent) were recently shown to harbor 
more than 100 individuals, and 2 of those 6 occurrences (22 percent) 
contained more than 1,000 individuals (see Current Status of Vandenberg 
Monkeyflower section above). Numbers of plants observed during the most 
recent surveys are low for the three occurrences that have historically 
had

[[Page 64867]]

fewer than 100 individuals observed (but a seed bank may still exist):
    (1) Four individuals were found in 2006 at Oak Canyon, although no 
individuals were found during the most recent surveys in 2010 and 2012 
(VFWO 2013; Air Force 2012, p. 1; Lum in litt. 2012b; Rutherford in 
litt. 2012).
    (2) Twenty-five individuals were found in 2006 at the Santa Lucia 
Canyon occurrence, and one individual was found during the most recent 
survey in 2010 (Ballard 2006; Lum in litt. 2012b).
    (3) Five individuals were found in 2003 at the Volans Avenue 
occurrence, one in 2007, and no plants were found in other years 
surveyed between 2004 and 2009 (Meyer in litt. 2007; Ballard in litt. 
2007).
    Vandenberg monkeyflower fits the profile of a species that is 
considered to have small population numbers for an annual plant and is 
vulnerable to extinction because it has a restricted geographic range, 
and less than 10 known occurrences with less than 10,000 mature 
individuals (Keith 1998, pp. 1085-1087) (see Distribution of Vandenberg 
Monkeyflower--Current Status section above). Additionally, the 
potential further fragmentation of habitat and resulting increased 
isolation of Vandenberg monkeyflower occurrences affect the species 
rangewide by increasing the risk of population loss and potentially 
subsequent loss of genetic characteristics.
    Species with few populations or those with low numbers may be 
subject to forces at the population level that affect their ability to 
complete their life cycles successfully. The number and density of 
flowering plants in a population can be important determinants of 
pollinator abundance and behavior (Jennersten 1988, pp. 361-363; 
Bernhardt et al. 2008, p. 948). Reduced numbers of individuals of 
flowering plants may lead to a reduction in abundance of pollinators 
and subsequent seed set and fitness of seed progeny (Menges 1991, p. 
162). Specific information is not available for Vandenberg 
monkeyflower; however, these studies on other plant-pollinator 
relationships point out the importance of pollinators that is likely 
applicable to Vandenberg monkeyflower.
    The invasion of nonnative plants has the ability to reduce the 
abundance of pollinators, which can have deleterious effects on 
reproduction of native plants. Jennersten (1988, p. 363) found that 
insect diversity, insect visitation rates to Dianthus deltoides (maiden 
pink), and number of seeds produced were significantly reduced where 
maiden pink was in a more fragmented habitat compared to continuous 
habitat. Lambrinos (2000, pp. 228) found that invasion of nonnative 
plants such as pampas grass can reduce the abundance of pollinators 
because pampas grass replaces nectar- and pollen-rich flowers of native 
shrubs and reduces the diversity of feeding sites provided by woody 
perennials. Lambrinos (2000, p. 227) also noted that arthropod (spiders 
and insects) abundance is lower overall, and known to be absent in 
areas dominated by pampas grass. In contrast, Bernhardt et al. (2008, 
p. 948) found that pollination of a native species such as Lupinus 
perennis (sundial lupine) increased with both population size and 
population density, which significantly affected insect visitation 
rates. Therefore, because Vandenberg monkeyflower has less than 10 
occurrences, consists of low numbers of individuals, and invasive, 
nonnative plants are replacing native vegetation of Burton Mesa, this 
species may experience reduced reproduction because of reduced 
visitation by insect pollinators. However, we are unaware of specific 
information concerning the extent to which this may be a threat for 
Vandenberg monkeyflower.
    Annual plants that are subject to wide fluctuations in population 
numbers from year to year, such as Vandenberg monkeyflower, may have 
difficulty maintaining a viable population size after a series of poor 
seed-production years. Additionally, if the host plants (plants being 
visited by pollinators) are partially self-incompatible, reduction in 
population size may lead to increased self-pollination and may reduce 
the level of genetic variability. At the landscape level, random 
natural events, such as storms, drought, or fire, could destroy a 
significant percentage of individuals or entire populations. Because 
Vandenberg monkeyflower comprises a small number of locations and 
individuals, and is restricted to a small geographic area on Burton 
Mesa, this species' risk of extinction increases from such naturally 
occurring events. No empirical information is available to estimate 
trends for Vandenberg monkeyflower populations; however, the continued 
decrease in habitat (especially from nonnative plant invasions) is 
contributing to habitat fragmentation and impacting the species' 
ability to persist.
Recreation
    Recreational use occurs on Burton Mesa within Vandenberg AFB, the 
Reserve, and La Purisima Mission SHP. We discussed the effects to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower habitat resulting from recreational use (see 
Factor A--Recreation); however, recreational activities may also result 
in trampling individuals of Vandenberg monkeyflower. The Volans Avenue 
occurrence of Vandenberg monkeyflower is adjacent to a sewer line 
easement that is also used for hiking and dog walking. Recreational 
users are encouraged to stay within existing and designated trails (see 
Factor A--Recreation). No other location where this species occurs is 
adjacent to designated trails. Therefore, the best available 
information indicates that recreational activities involving casual 
human use are having minimal effect on individuals of Vandenberg 
monkeyflower. Unauthorized recreational activities such as mountain 
biking and ORV use have resulted in damaged native vegetation, and 
squashed and sometimes broken plant parts (Meyer in litt. 2010c; Meyer 
in litt. 2013). Determining where the unauthorized ORV activity 
originates on the Reserve is difficult because of the historical 
network of trails and roads. Available information does not indicate 
the extent and degree to which ORV activity and mountain biking may be 
impacting Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals.
Summary of Factor E
    Competition for light, water, and soil nutrients from invasive, 
nonnative vegetation, particularly nonnative grasses, is a threat to 
Vandenberg monkeyflower. Because this species has a restricted range 
and small population numbers, it is vulnerable to naturally occurring 
events such as a wildfire, storms, and drought that could negatively 
affect its growth and productivity. Additionally, because of the 
restricted range, small number of individuals at each occurrence, and 
the spread of invasive, nonnative plants adjacent to each occurrence, 
this species is vulnerable to a reduction of visits by pollinating 
insects. The best available information indicates that casual 
recreational use has a minimal impact to individuals. Unauthorized 
recreational uses (ORVs and mountain biking) have the potential to 
result in damage to the native vegetation; however, the best 
information available does not indicate a direct threat to individuals 
of Vandenberg monkeyflower. Indirect effects of potential ground 
disturbance could create openings in the vegetation and assist the seed 
spread and establishment of nonnative vegetation. Therefore, we 
conclude that competition for resources with invasive, nonnative 
species and small population size and restricted range are threats to

[[Page 64868]]

Vandenberg monkeyflower currently and in the future.

Combination of Factors

    Many of the threats discussed above act in concert, and the 
resulting effects to Vandenberg monkeyflower are amplified. For 
example, some land uses and development or maintenance activities 
(Factor A) create ground disturbance and subsequent openings in the 
vegetation where nonnative plants (Factor A) can invade, expand, and 
outcompete native vegetation (Factor E). Fires on Burton Mesa (Factor 
A) result in an increase in nonnative vegetation (Factor A). Similarly, 
an abundance of nonnative vegetation, particularly grasses (Factor A 
and E), may result in an increase in fire frequency (Factor A). The 
availability of habitat and small overall population size (Factor E) 
may be affected in a changing climate and by events such as wildfire 
(Factor A). Thus, Vandenberg monkeyflower's productivity may be reduced 
because of these threats, either singularly or in combination. Existing 
regulatory mechanisms have not proven effective at protecting 
Vandenberg monkeyflower or its habitat from these threats (Factor D).
    The presence of invasive plants is the most significant threat to 
this species, both alone and in combination with other Factors (e.g., 
anthropogenic fire, recreation). The combination of factors would 
likely create a cumulative or synergistic threat to the existence of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower. Given these circumstances, the combined 
effects of current threats to the population put the species at risk 
rangewide, although the magnitude or extent of such threats to the 
viability of the species is not at this time determinable from 
available information.

Proposed Determination

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding the past, present, and future threats 
to Vandenberg monkeyflower. We have identified threats to Vandenberg 
monkeyflower attributable to Factors A, D, and E.
    In the summary of the threats described in detail above, we found 
that Vandenberg monkeyflower suitable habitat on Burton Mesa has been 
displaced by military, residential, and commercial development, 
although the most significant ongoing threat to Vandenberg monkeyflower 
is the loss of habitat due to the presence and continual spread of 
invasive, nonnative plants (Factor A). Approximately 53 percent of 
Burton Mesa chaparral habitat has been lost, with only 10,057 ac (4,070 
ha) of the 23,550 ac (9,350 ha) that existed before 1938 remaining.
    Additionally, invasive, nonnative plants, in particular veldt 
grass, are present and continuing to expand at all nine extant 
locations. No Vandenberg monkeyflower individuals have been observed at 
the three smallest extant locations (in the last 3 years at one 
location and the last 6 years at the other two locations) even though a 
residual seed bank is likely present. Burton Mesa chaparral is also 
subject to an anthropogenic fire regime that can increase the presence 
of invasive plants (Factor A). Casual human recreational use and 
utility maintenance activities can contribute to habitat disturbance 
that facilitates pathways for nonnative species to invade Burton Mesa 
chaparral habitat (Factor A).
    Furthermore, invasive, nonnative plants are likely competing with 
Vandenberg monkeyflower for sunlight, water, and soil resources, and 
the species' restricted range and small population size makes it 
vulnerable to changing environmental conditions due to climate change 
and other random, naturally occurring events (Factor E). Small 
population size is a highlighted concern in part due to the low number 
of individuals found to exist at the 3 smallest extant occurrences, in 
particular 3 of the 9 occurrences that have a range of 0 to 25 
individuals documented between 2003 and 2012. The threats described 
above for Vandenberg monkeyflower occur across its entire range, 
resulting in a negative impact on the species' distribution, abundance, 
and probability of long-term persistence. Existing regulatory 
mechanisms are not adequate to protect the species or its habitat from 
these identified threats (Factor D).
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species ``that is likely to 
become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range 
within the foreseeable future.'' We find that Vandenberg monkeyflower 
has a restricted range and is facing ongoing and projected threats 
across its range. We conclude that it meets the definition of an 
endangered species throughout its entire range due primarily to: (1) 
The invasion, spread, and competition of invasive, nonnative species at 
all nine extant locations; and (2) small population size that makes it 
vulnerable to stochastic events. These impacts are heightened due to 
anthropogenic fire conditions that promote further invasion of 
nonnative species; recreation and other human activities that 
contribute to the spread of invasive, nonnative species; and continued 
development on private lands that further reduces and fragments the 
remaining suitable habitat. The threats to its continued existence are 
not commencing in the foreseeable future (which would result in a 
status determination of a threatened species), but are immediate and 
ongoing. We base this determination on the immediacy, severity, and 
scope of the threats described above. Therefore, on the basis of the 
best available scientific and commercial information, we propose 
listing Vandenberg monkeyflower as an endangered species in accordance 
with sections 3(6) and 4(a)(1) of the Act.
    Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may 
warrant listing if it meets the definition of an endangered or 
threatened species throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range. The Vandenberg monkeyflower that is proposed for listing in this 
rule is highly restricted in its range and the threats occur throughout 
its range. Therefore, we assessed the status of Vandenberg monkeyflower 
throughout its entire range. The threats to the survival of the species 
occur throughout the species range and are not restricted to any 
particular significant portion of that range. Accordingly, our 
assessment and proposed determination applies to the species throughout 
its entire range.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
practices. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies, private 
organizations, and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection required by Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species. The recovery planning process involves the

[[Page 64869]]

identification of actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the 
species' decline by addressing the threats to its survival and 
recovery. The goal of this process is to restore listed species to a 
point where they are secure, self-sustaining, and functioning 
components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline 
shortly after a species is listed, preparation of a draft and final 
recovery plan, and revisions to the plan as significant new information 
becomes available. The recovery outline guides the immediate 
implementation of urgent recovery actions and describes the process to 
be used to develop a recovery plan. The recovery plan identifies site-
specific management actions that will achieve recovery of the species, 
measurable criteria that indicate when a species may be downlisted or 
delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery progress. Recovery plans 
also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate their recovery 
efforts and provide estimates of the cost of implementing recovery 
tasks. Recovery teams (comprising species experts, Federal and State 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, or stakeholders) are often 
established to develop recovery plans. If a final listing rule is 
completed for Vandenberg monkeyflower, the Service will develop and 
complete a recovery outline, draft recovery plan, and the final 
recovery plan that will be available on our Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office 
(see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, Tribal, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, 
and private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (for example, restoration of native vegetation), research, 
captive propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on 
Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-
Federal lands. To achieve recovery of these species requires 
cooperative conservation efforts on private, State, and Tribal lands.
    If this species is listed, funding for recovery actions may be 
available from a variety of sources, including Federal budgets, State 
programs, and cost share grants for non-Federal landowners, the 
academic community, and nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, 
pursuant to section 6 of the Act, the State of California would be 
eligible for Federal funds to implement management actions that promote 
the protection and recovery of Vandenberg monkeyflower. Information on 
our grant programs that are available to aid species recovery can be 
found at: http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Although Vandenberg monkeyflower is only proposed for listing under 
the Act at this time, please let us know if you are interested in 
participating in recovery efforts for this species. Additionally, we 
invite you to submit any new information on this species whenever it 
becomes available and any information you may have for recovery 
planning purposes (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Section 7(a) of the Act requires Federal agencies to evaluate their 
actions with respect to any species that is proposed or listed as 
endangered or threatened and with respect to its critical habitat, if 
any is designated. Regulations implementing this interagency 
cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR part 402. 
Section 7(a)(4) of the Act requires Federal agencies to confer with the 
Service on any action that is likely to jeopardize the continued 
existence of a species proposed for listing or result in destruction or 
adverse modification of proposed critical habitat. If a species is 
listed subsequently, section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal 
agencies to ensure that activities they authorize, fund, or carry out 
are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the species or 
destroy or adversely modify its critical habitat. If a Federal action 
may affect a listed species or its critical habitat, the responsible 
Federal agency must enter into consultation with the Service.
    Federal agencies proposing activities within the species' habitat 
that may need to conference or consult or both with the Service as 
described in the preceding paragraph include the Department of Defense, 
the Bureau of Prisons, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and 
the Federal Highway Administration. Activities potentially include 
management and any other landscape-altering activities on Federal lands 
administered by the Department of Defense or the Bureau of Prisons, 
issuance of section 404 Clean Water Act permits by the Army Corps of 
Engineers, construction and management of gas pipeline and power line 
ROWs licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and funding 
by the Federal Highway Administration for the construction and 
maintenance of roads or highways.
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to endangered plants. 
All prohibitions of section 9(a)(2) of the Act, implemented by 50 CFR 
17.61, apply. These prohibitions, in part, make it illegal for any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to import or 
export, transport in interstate or foreign commerce in the course of a 
commercial activity, sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign 
commerce, or remove and reduce the species to possession from areas 
under Federal jurisdiction. Additionally, for plants listed as 
endangered, the Act prohibits the malicious damage or destruction on 
areas under Federal jurisdiction and the removal, cutting, digging up, 
or damaging or destroying of such plants in knowing violation of any 
State law or regulation, including State criminal trespass law. Certain 
exceptions to the prohibitions apply to agents of the Service and State 
conservation agencies. Vandenberg monkeyflower is not currently 
designated as rare or endangered under the NPPA or the CESA (CDFW 
2012).
    CEQA requires a full disclosure of the potential impacts that 
proposed projects on non-Federal lands will have on the environment, 
including sensitive resources. However, CEQA does not confer any 
protection to sensitive species, but merely discloses potential 
impacts. The lead agency for CEQA analysis is the public agency with 
primary authority or jurisdiction over the project, and is responsible 
for conducting a review of the project and consulting with other 
agencies responsible for resources affected by the project. Under CEQA, 
lead agencies are required to disclose potential impacts from proposals 
to CNPS list 1B.1 species; this mechanism may indirectly provide some 
protection to Vandenberg monkeyflower.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving endangered and threatened wildlife and plant species under 
certain circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 
CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and at 17.72 for threatened 
plant species.
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. The intent of this 
policy is to increase public awareness of the effects of a proposed 
listing on proposed and ongoing activities within the range of the 
species proposed for

[[Page 64870]]

listing. The following activities could potentially result in a 
violation of section 9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    Removing and reducing to possession Vandenberg monkeyflower from 
areas under Federal jurisdiction; malicious damage or destruction of 
Vandenberg monkeyflower from areas under Federal jurisdiction; 
unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, delivering, 
carrying, or transport across State lines and import or export across 
international boundaries, except for properly documented antique 
specimens of these taxa at least 100 years old, as defined by section 
10(h)(1) of the Act.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Ventura 
Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). 
Requests for copies of the regulations concerning listed plants and 
general inquiries regarding prohibitions and permits may be addressed 
to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Permits, 
Regional Recovery Permit Coordinator, Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife 
Office, 6010 Hidden Valley Road, Suite 101, Carlsbad, California 92011; 
(telephone 760-431-9440 ext. 225; facsimile 760-930-0846).

Peer Review

    In accordance with our joint policy on peer review published in the 
Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert 
opinions of at least three appropriate and independent specialists 
regarding this proposed rule. The purpose of peer review is to ensure 
that our listing determination is based on scientifically sound data, 
assumptions, and analyses. We have invited these peer reviewers to 
comment during this public comment period.
    We will consider all comments and information received during this 
comment period on this proposed rule during our preparation of a final 
determination. Accordingly, the final decision may differ from this 
proposal.

Public Hearings

    Section 4(b)(5) of the Act provides for one or more public hearings 
on this proposal, if requested. Requests must be received within 45 
days after the date of publication of this proposed rule in the Federal 
Register. Such requests must be sent to the address shown in FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will schedule public hearings on this 
proposal, if any are requested, and announce the dates, times, and 
places of those hearings, as well as how to obtain reasonable 
accommodations, in the Federal Register and local newspapers at least 
15 days before the hearing.

Required Determinations

Clarity of the Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:
    (1) Be logically organized;
    (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (3) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (5) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. To better help us 
revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as possible. For 
example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs 
that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, 
the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc.

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)

    This rule does not contain any new collections of information that 
require approval by OMB under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). This rule will not impose recordkeeping or 
reporting requirements on State or local governments, individuals, 
businesses, or organizations. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and 
a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information 
unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.)

    We have determined that environmental assessments and environmental 
impact statements, as defined under the authority of the NEPA (42 
U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), need not be prepared in connection with listing a 
species as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. 
We published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in 
the Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244).
    It is our position that, outside the jurisdiction of the U.S. Court 
of Appeals for the 10th Circuit, we do not need to prepare 
environmental analyses pursuant to NEPA in connection with designating 
critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act. We published a 
notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the Federal 
Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244). This position was upheld by 
the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit (Douglas County v. 
Babbitt, 48 F.3d 1495 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied 516 U.S. 1042 
(1996)).]

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this rulemaking is available 
on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-ES-R8-
2013-0078 and upon request from the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office 
(see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

Authors

    The primary authors of this package are the staff members of the 
Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we propose to amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter 
I, title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 1531-1544; 4201-4245; unless 
otherwise noted.

0
2. In Sec.  17.12(h) add an entry for ``Diplacus vandenbergensis 
(Vandenberg monkeyflower) to the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Plants in alphabetical order under Flowering Plants to read as follows:


Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

[[Page 64871]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Species
--------------------------------------------------------    Historic range           Family            Status      When listed    Critical     Special
         Scientific name                Common name                                                                               habitat       rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Flowering Plants
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Diplacus vandenbergensis.........  Vandenberg            U.S.A. (CA)........  Phrymaceae.........  E               ...........  ...........           NA
                                    monkeyflower.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Dated: September 30, 2013.
Rowan W. Gould,
Acting Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 2013-25397 Filed 10-28-13; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P