[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 168 (Friday, August 29, 2014)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 51657-51710]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-20059]



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Vol. 79

Friday,

No. 168

August 29, 2014

Part II





 Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for 
Oregon Spotted Frog; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 79 , No. 168 / Friday, August 29, 2014 / 
Rules and Regulations

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2013-0013; 4500030113]
RIN 1018-AZ04


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status 
for Oregon Spotted Frog

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine 
threatened species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 
(Act), as amended, for Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa), an 
amphibian species from British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and 
California. The effect of this regulation will be to add this species 
to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife.

DATES: This rule is effective September 29, 2014.

ADDRESSES: This final rule is available on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov and http://www.fws.gov/wafwo/osf.html. Comments and 
materials we received, as well as some of the supporting documentation 
we used in preparing this rule, are available for public inspection at 
http://www.regulations.gov. All of the comments, materials, and 
documentation that we considered in this rulemaking are available by 
appointment, during normal business hours at: U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, 510 Desmond Drive SE., 
Suite 102, Lacey, WA 98503; by telephone at 360-753-9440; or by 
facsimile at 360-753-9445.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ken Berg, Manager, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, 510 Desmond 
Drive SE., Suite 102, Lacey, WA 98503; telephone 360-753-9440; 
facsimile 360-753-9445. Persons who use a telecommunications device for 
the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 
800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Executive Summary

    Why we need to publish a rule. Under the Endangered Species Act, a 
species may warrant protection through listing if it is endangered or 
threatened throughout all or a significant portion of its range. 
Listing a species as an endangered or threatened species can only be 
completed by issuing a rule.
    This rule will finalize the listing of the Oregon spotted frog 
(Rana pretiosa) as a threatened species.
    The basis for our action. Under the Endangered Species Act, we can 
determine that a species is an endangered or threatened species based 
on any of five factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, 
modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors 
affecting its continued existence. We have determined that the Oregon 
spotted frog is impacted by one or more of the following factors:
     Habitat necessary to support all life stages continues to 
be impacted or destroyed by human activities that result in the loss of 
wetlands to land conversions; hydrologic changes resulting from 
operation of existing water diversions/manipulation structures, new and 
existing residential and road developments, drought, and removal of 
beavers; changes in water temperature and vegetation structure 
resulting from reed canarygrass invasions, plant succession, and 
restoration plantings; and increased sedimentation, increased water 
temperatures, reduced water quality, and vegetation changes resulting 
from the timing and intensity of livestock grazing (or in some 
instances, removal of livestock grazing at locations where it maintains 
early seral stage habitat essential for breeding).
     Predation by nonnative species, including nonnative trout 
and bullfrogs.
     Inadequate existing regulatory mechanisms that result in 
significant negative impacts, such as habitat loss and modification.
     Other natural or manmade factors including small and 
isolated breeding locations, low connectivity, low genetic diversity 
within occupied sub-basins, and genetic differentiation between sub-
basins.
    Peer review and public comment. We sought comments from independent 
specialists to ensure that our designation is based on scientifically 
sound data, assumptions, and analyses. We invited these peer reviewers 
to comment on our listing proposal. We also considered all comments and 
information we received during the comment period.

Previous Federal Actions

    On August 29, 2013, we published a proposed rule (78 FR 53582) to 
list the Oregon spotted frog as a threatened species under the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Please refer to that proposed rule for a detailed 
description of Federal actions concerning this species. Also on August 
29, 2013, we proposed to designate critical habitat for the Oregon 
spotted frog (78 FR 53538). On September 26, 2013, we published a 
document (78 FR 59334) extending the comment period of both proposed 
rules and announcing a public hearing on the proposals to list and 
designate critical habitat for this species.
    This rule concerns only the listing of the Oregon spotted frog; we 
will make a final determination concerning critical habitat for the 
Oregon spotted frog in the near future.

Background

    The Oregon spotted frog is named for the characteristic black spots 
covering the head, back, sides, and legs. The dark spots have ragged 
edges and light centers, usually associated with a tubercle or raised 
area of skin. The coloration patterns on Oregon spotted frogs all 
develop with age; the spots become larger and darker and the edges 
become more ragged as the individual gets older (Hayes 1994, p. 14). 
Overall body color also varies with age. Juveniles are usually brown 
or, occasionally, olive green on the back and white, cream, or flesh-
colored with reddish pigments on the underlegs and abdomen developing 
with age (McAllister and Leonard 1997, pp. 1-2). Adults range from 
brown to reddish brown but tend to become redder with age. Large, 
presumably older, individuals may be brick red over most of the dorsal 
(back) surfaces (McAllister and Leonard 1997, pp. 1-2). Red surface 
pigments on the adult abdomen also expand with age, and the underlegs 
of adults become a vivid orange red. Tan to orange folds along the 
sides of the back (dorsolateral folds) extend from behind the eye to 
midway along the back (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 1). The eyes are 
upturned; there is a faint mask, and a light jaw stripe extends to the 
shoulder. Small bumps and tubercles usually cover the back and sides 
(Leonard et al. 1993, p. 130). The hind legs are short relative to body 
length, and the hind feet are fully webbed (Leonard et al. 1993, p. 
130).
    The Oregon spotted frog is a medium-sized frog that ranges from 
about 1.7 to 4.1 inches (in) (44 to 105 millimeters (mm)) in body 
length (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 1; Rombough et al.

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2006, p. 210). Females are typically larger than males; females reach 
up to 105 mm (4 in) (Rombough et al. 2006, p. 210) and males to 75 mm 
(3 in) (Leonard et al. 1993, p. 130).
    Morphological characters can be used to distinguish Oregon spotted 
frogs from other closely related spotted frogs. Mottling with dark 
pigments and fragmentation of the superficial red or orange-red wash on 
the abdomen can distinguish the Oregon spotted frog from some Columbia 
spotted frog populations (Hayes 1997, p. 3; Hayes et al. 1997, p. 1). 
Other characteristics, such as coloration of the underlegs and abdomen, 
size and shapes of spots, groin mottling, eye positions, relative 
length of hind legs to body size, degree of webbing, and behaviors can 
be used to distinguish Oregon spotted frogs from adults of closely 
related species. Tadpoles are more difficult to differentiate from 
other species (Corkran and Thoms 1996, p. 150; McAllister and Leonard 
1997, p. 6).
    The Oregon spotted frog has a weak call consisting of a rapid 
series of six to nine low clucking notes described as sounding like a 
distant woodpecker's tapping. Males will call at any time, both day and 
night (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 12). Males have been documented 
to call from submerged sites that are physically distant (tens to 
hundreds of meters) from oviposition (egg-laying) sites (Bowerman 2010, 
p. 85). These submerged calls are inaudible at the surface and begin 
several days prior to breeding. Submerged calling is more frequent at 
night, although daytime calling has been recorded during overcast days 
(Bowerman 2010, pp. 85-86). It is unclear if mate selection takes place 
during this period of calling remotely from the breeding site, but it 
seems likely (Bowerman 2010, p. 86). This species rarely vocalizes 
except during the breeding season (Leonard et al. 1993, p. 132); 
however, vocalizations have been heard during the fall (Leonard et al. 
1997, pp. 73-74; Pearl 2010, pers. comm.).

Taxonomy

    The scientific name Rana pretiosa (order Anura; family Ranidae) was 
first applied to a series of five specimens collected in 1841 from the 
vicinity of Puget Sound (Baird and Girard 1853, p. 378). Two of these 
specimens were later determined to be northern red-legged frogs (Rana 
aurora) (Hayes 1994, p. 4; Green et al. 1997, p. 4). Dunlap (1955) 
demonstrated the morphological differences between northern red-legged 
frogs, Cascades frogs, and spotted frogs. Subsequently, the ``spotted 
frog'' was separated into two species, Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted 
frog) and Rana luteiventris (Columbia spotted frog) based on genetic 
analyses (Green et al. 1996, 1997).
    In 2008, phylogenetic analyses were conducted on samples of Oregon 
spotted frogs collected from 3 locations in Washington and 13 locations 
in Oregon (Funk et al. 2008). Results indicate two well-supported 
clades (a group of biological taxa (as species) that includes all 
descendants of one common ancestor) nested within the Oregon spotted 
frog: The Columbia clade (Trout Lake Natural Area Preserve (NAP) and 
Camas Prairie) and the southern Oregon clade (Wood River and Buck Lake 
in the Klamath Basin). The two sites that comprise the Columbia clade 
occur on opposite sides of the Columbia River in Washington (Trout Lake 
NAP) and in Oregon (Camas Prairie). Haplotype and nucleotide diversity 
was low for Oregon spotted frogs in general and was very low for each 
of the two nested clades, respectively (Funk et al. 2008, p. 203). Only 
six haplotypes were found across the entire range of the Oregon spotted 
frog, indicating low genetic variation (Funk et al. 2008, p. 205). 
Recent genetic work conducted by Robertson and Funk (2012, p. 6) in the 
Deschutes and Klamath basins indicate the sampled Oregon spotted frog 
sites are characterized by very small effective population sizes and 
little genetic variation (i.e., measured as low heterozygosity and low 
allelic richness).
    Blouin et al. (2010) performed genetic analyses on Oregon spotted 
frogs from 23 of the known sites in British Columbia, Washington, and 
Oregon for variation at 13 microsatellite loci and 298 base pairs of 
mitochondrial DNA. Their results indicate that Rana pretiosa comprised 
six major genetic groups: (1) British Columbia; (2) the Chehalis 
drainage in Washington, (3) the Columbia drainage in Washington, (4) 
Camas Prairie in northern Oregon, (5) the central Cascades of Oregon, 
and (6) the Klamath basin (Blouin et al. 2010, pp. 2184-2185). Within 
the northern genetic groups, the British Columbia (Lower Fraser River) 
and Chehalis (Black River) populations form the next natural grouping 
(Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2189). Recently discovered locales in the 
Sumas, South Fork Nooksack, and Samish Rivers occur in-between these 
two groups. While no genetic testing has been done on these newly found 
populations, it is reasonable to assume that they are likely to be 
closely related to either the British Columbia or Chehalis group, or 
both, given their proximity and use of similar lowland marsh habitats.
    Levels of genetic variation in the Oregon spotted frog groups are 
low compared to other ranid frogs, suggesting these populations are 
very small and/or very isolated (Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2184). Blouin 
et al. (2010) found a high frequency of private alleles in the 
mitochondrial DNA (i.e., an allele found in only one population or 
geographic location) in the central Cascades and Klamath Basin groups. 
This finding suggests an historical (rather than recent) isolation 
between individual groups (Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2189). This finding 
also reinforces microsatellite-based conclusions that gene flow among 
sites has been very low, even on small geographic scales (Blouin et al. 
2010, p. 2188). Recent work by Robertson and Funk (2012) in the 
Deschutes and Klamath basins reinforces the Blouin et al. (2010) 
findings. Due to Oregon spotted frogs' highly aquatic habits, 
connectivity between Oregon spotted frog sites depends on the 
connectivity of streams, rivers, and lakes. Gene flow (based on both 
microsatellite and mitochondrial analyses) is extremely low beyond 6 
miles (mi) (10 kilometers (km)) (Blouin et al. 2010, pp. 2186, 2188), 
and most Oregon spotted frog populations are separated by more than 6.2 
mi (10 km). Therefore, Blouin et al. (2010, p. 2189) and Robertson and 
Funk (2012, p. 5) hypothesize that low aquatic connectivity and small 
isolated populations are important causes of the low genetic diversity 
within sites and the high genetic differentiation among sites.

Life History

    Male Oregon spotted frogs are not territorial and often gather in 
large groups of 25 or more individuals at specific locations (Leonard 
et al. 1993, p. 132). Breeding occurs in February or March at lower 
elevations and between early April and early June at higher elevations 
(Leonard et al. 1993, p. 132). Males and females separate soon after 
egg-laying, with females returning to fairly solitary lives. Males 
often stay at the breeding site, possibly for several weeks, until egg-
laying is completed (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 13). (The terms 
``egg-laying site'' or ``egg-laying habitat'' are used interchangeably 
with ``breeding site,'' ``breeding area,'' or ``breeding habitat'' 
throughout this rule). Breeding site, breeding area, and breeding 
location terminology refer to geographic areas where concentrated 
breeding has been observed.
    Oregon spotted frogs' eggs are extremely vulnerable to desiccation 
and

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freezing as a result of the species' laying habits. Females may deposit 
their egg masses at the same locations in successive years, indicating 
the sites may have unique characteristics. For example, some marked 
males and females at Sunriver (Upper Deschutes River, Oregon) returned 
to the same breeding site for 3 or more years (Bowerman 2006, pers. 
comm.). Further, at several sites in Oregon and Washington, the same 
egg-laying locations have been used for more than a decade (Hayes 2008, 
pers. comm.; Hallock 2012, pp. 24-27). Although egg masses are 
occasionally laid singly, the majority of egg masses are laid 
communally in groups of a few to several hundred (Licht 1971, p. 119; 
Nussbaum et al. 1983, p. 186; Cook 1984, p. 87; Hayes et al. 1997 p. 3; 
Engler and Friesz 1998, p. 3). They are laid in shallow, often 
temporary, pools of water; on gradually receding shorelines; on benches 
of seasonal lakes and marshes; and in wet meadows. These sites are 
usually associated with the previous year's emergent vegetation and are 
generally no more than 14 in. (35 centimeters (cm.)) deep (Pearl and 
Hayes 2004, pp. 19-20). Most of these sites dry up later in the season 
(Engler 1999, pers. comm.), but are connected via surface water to 
permanently wetted areas, such as creeks, wetlands, and springs. 
Shallow water is easily warmed by the sun, and warmth hastens egg 
development (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 8). However, laying eggs 
in shallow water can result in high mortality rates for eggs and 
hatchling larvae due to desiccation or freezing.
    Licht (1974, pp. 617-625) documented the highly variable mortality 
rates for spotted frog life-history stages in marsh areas in the lower 
Fraser Valley, British Columbia, embryos (30 percent), tadpoles (99 
percent), and post-metamorphic (after the change from tadpole to adult, 
or ``metamorphosis'') frogs (95 percent). Licht (1974, p. 625) 
estimated mortality of each life stage and predicted only a 1 percent 
chance of survival of eggs to metamorphosis, a 67 percent chance of 
juvenile survival for the first year, and a 64 percent adult annual 
survival with males having a higher mortality rate than females. An 
average adult between-year survival of 37 percent was estimated by a 
mark-recapture study at Dempsey Creek in Washington between 1997 and 
1999 (Watson et al. 2000, p. 19).
    Adult Oregon spotted frogs begin to breed by 1 to 3 years of age, 
depending on sex, elevation, and latitude. Males may breed at 1 year at 
lower elevations and latitudes but generally breed at 2 years of age. 
Females breed by 2 or 3 years of age, depending on elevation and 
latitude. Longevity of the species is not well understood; however, 
there are multiple examples of Oregon spotted frogs living beyond 7 
years of age (Watson et al. 2000, p. 21; McAllister 2008, pers. comm.; 
Oertley 2005, pers. comm.; Pearl 2005, pers. comm.).
    Egg-laying can begin as early as February in lowland areas of 
British Columbia and Washington and as late as early June in the higher 
elevations. Tadpoles metamorphose into froglets (tiny frogs) (about 
0.6-1.75 in. (16-43 mm.) in length) during their first summer (Leonard 
et al. 1993, p. 132; Pearl and Bowerman 2005, pers. comm.). Tadpoles 
are grazers, having rough tooth rows for scraping plant surfaces and 
ingesting plant tissue and bacteria. They also consume algae, detritus, 
and probably carrion (Licht 1974, p. 624; McAllister and Leonard 1997, 
p. 13).
    Post-metamorphic Oregon spotted frogs are opportunistic predators 
that prey on live animals, primarily insects, found in or near the 
water. Prey groups of adult frogs include leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), 
ground beetles (Carabidae), spiders (Arachnida), rove beetles 
(Staphylinidae), syrphid flies (Syrphidae), long-legged flies 
(Dolichopodidae), ants (Formicidae), water striders (Gerridae), 
spittlebugs (Cercopidae), leaf hoppers (Cicadellidae), aphids 
(Aphididae), dragonflies and damsel flies (Odonates), and yellowjackets 
(Vespidae) (Licht 1986a, pp. 27-28). Oregon spotted frogs also eat 
adult Pacific tree frogs (Pseudacris regilla), small red-legged frogs, 
and newly metamorphosed red-legged frogs and western toad (Anaxyrus 
boreas) juveniles (Licht 1986a, p. 28; Pearl and Hayes 2002, pp. 145-
147; Pearl et al. 2005a, p. 37).
    Similar to many North American pond-breeding anurans (belonging to 
the Order Anura, which contains all frogs), predators can strongly 
affect the abundance of larval and post-metamorphic Oregon spotted 
frogs. The heaviest losses to predation are thought to occur shortly 
after tadpoles emerge from eggs, when they are relatively exposed and 
poor swimmers (Licht 1974, p. 624). However, the odds of survival 
appear to increase as tadpoles grow in size and aquatic vegetation 
matures, thus affording cover (Licht 1974, p. 624). Adult Oregon 
spotted frogs have a number of documented and potential natural 
predators, including garter snakes (Thamnophis species (spp.)), great 
blue herons (Ardea herodias), green herons (Butorides virescens), 
American bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus), belted kingfishers (Ceryle 
alcyon), sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), 
coyotes (Canis latrans), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), mink 
(Neovison vison), river otters (Lontra canadensis), and feral cats 
(Felis domesticus) (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 13; Hayes et al. 
2005, p. 307; Hayes et al. 2006, p. 209). Tadpoles may be preyed upon 
by numerous vertebrate predators including belted kingfishers, hooded 
mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus), common garter snakes (Thamnophis 
sirtalis), western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans), 
larval and adult roughskin newts (Taricha granulosa), larval 
northwestern salamanders (Ambystoma gracile), cutthroat trout 
(Oncorhynchus clarki), Olympic mudminnows (Novumbra hubbsi), and three-
spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) (McAllister and Leonard 
1997, p. 14).
    Subadult Oregon spotted frogs have been observed within dense 
aggregations of recently hatched Oregon spotted frog tadpoles, and 
stomach flushing verified that these subadult Oregon spotted frogs had 
consumed (cannibalized) recently hatched conspecific (belonging to the 
same species) tadpoles (McAllister 2008, pers. comm.). Invertebrate 
predators include dytiscid beetles (Dytiscus spp.), giant water bugs 
(Lethocerus americanus), backswimmers (Notonecta undulata and N. 
kirbyi), water scorpions (Ranatra sp.), dragonfly nymphs (Odonata), and 
worm-leeches (Arhynchobdellida) (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 14). 
Leeches and other invertebrates, roughskin newts, and northwestern 
salamanders are likely Oregon spotted frog egg predators (Licht 1974, 
p. 622).
    The introduction of nonnative species into the historical range of 
the Oregon spotted frog is believed to have contributed to the decline 
of this and other species of frogs (Hayes and Jennings 1986, pp. 491-
492, 494-496; Hayes 1994, p. 5; 61 FR 25813; McAllister and Leonard 
1997, pp. 25-26; Pearl et al. 2004, pp. 17-18). American bullfrogs 
(Lithobates catesbeianus) are known predators of Oregon spotted frogs 
(R. Haycock and R.A. Woods, unpubl. data, 2001 cited in COSFRT 2012, p. 
19), and introduced fish such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 
and centrarchids (Micropterus and Lepomis spp.) are also likely 
predators (Pearl et al. 2009a, p. 140).

Habitat

    Watson et al. (2003, p. 298) summarized the conditions required for 
completion of the Oregon spotted frog's

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life cycle as shallow water areas for egg and tadpole survival; 
perennially deep, moderately vegetated pools for adult and juvenile 
survival in the dry season; and perennial water for protecting all age 
classes during cold wet weather.
    The Oregon spotted frog inhabits emergent wetland habitats in 
forested landscapes, although it is not typically found under forest 
canopy. Historically, this species was also associated with lakes in 
the prairie landscape of the Puget lowlands (McAllister and Leonard 
1997, p. 16). This is the most aquatic native frog species in the 
Pacific Northwest (PNW), as all other species have a terrestrial life 
stage. It is found in or near a perennial body of water, such as a 
spring, pond, lake, sluggish stream, irrigation canal, or roadside 
ditch (Engler 1999, pers. comm.). The observation that extant Oregon 
spotted frog populations tend to occur in larger wetlands led Hayes 
(1994, Part II pp. 5, 7) to hypothesize that a minimum size of 9 acres 
(ac) (4 hectares (ha)) may be necessary to reach suitably warm 
temperatures and support a large enough population to persist despite 
high predation rates. However, Oregon spotted frogs also occupy smaller 
sites and are known to occur at sites as small as 2.5 ac (1 ha) and as 
large as 4,915 ac (1,989 ha) (Pearl and Hayes 2004, p. 11). Oregon 
spotted frogs have been found at elevations ranging from near sea level 
in the Puget Trough lowlands in Washington to approximately 5,000 feet 
(ft) (1,500 meters (m)) in the Oregon Cascades in western Oregon 
(Dunlap 1955, p. 316; Hayes 1997, p. 16; McAllister and Leonard 1997, 
pp. 8-10).
    Oregon spotted frogs can make use of a variety of pond types as 
long as there is sufficient vegetation and seasonal habitat available 
for egg-laying, tadpole rearing, summer feeding, and overwintering 
(Pearl et. al. 2009a, p. 144). Oregon spotted frogs at Dempsey Creek in 
Washington selected areas of relatively shallow water with less 
emergent vegetation but more submergent vegetation than adjacent 
habitats. They avoided dry, upland areas of pasture grass (Watson et 
al. 1998, p. 10; 2000, pp. 54-57; 2003, p. 297). Radio telemetry data 
indicate Oregon spotted frogs at Dempsey Creek also make extensive use 
of scrub-shrub wetland habitats adjacent to forested uplands during the 
winter (moving between the creek and egg-laying areas) (Risenhoover et 
al. 2001a, p. 13).
    Oregon spotted frogs breed in shallow pools (<=14 in (35 cm) deep) 
that are near flowing water, or which are connected to larger bodies of 
water during seasonally high water or at flood stage. Characteristic 
vegetation includes grasses, sedges, and rushes, although eggs are laid 
where the vegetation is low or sparse, such that vegetation structure 
does not shade the eggs (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 17). While 
native vegetation is the preferred substrate, the frog also uses short, 
manipulated, reed canarygrass/native vegetation mix (Engler 1999, pers. 
comm.). Full solar exposure seems to be a significant factor in egg-
laying habitat selection (McAllister and White 2001, p. 12; Pearl and 
Hayes 2004, p. 18). The availability of the unique characteristics of 
traditional egg-laying sites is limited, and adults may have limited 
flexibility to switch sites (Hayes 1994, p. 19). This may make the 
Oregon spotted frog particularly vulnerable to modification of egg-
laying sites (Hayes 1994, p. 19).
    After breeding, during the dry season, Oregon spotted frogs move to 
deeper, permanent pools or creeks (Watson et al. 2003, p. 295). They 
are often observed near the water's surface basking and feeding in beds 
of floating and submerged vegetation (Watson et al. 2003, pp. 292-298; 
Pearl et al. 2005a, pp. 36-37).
    Known overwintering sites are associated with flowing systems, such 
as springs and creeks, that provide well-oxygenated water (Hallock and 
Pearson 2001, p. 15; Hayes et al. 2001, pp. 20-23; Tattersall and 
Ultsch 2008, pp. 123, 129, 136) and sheltering locations protected from 
predators and freezing (Risenhoover et al. 2001b; Watson et al. 2003, 
p. 295). Oregon spotted frogs apparently burrow in mud, silty 
substrate; clumps of emergent vegetation; woody accumulations within 
the creek; and holes in creek banks when inactive during periods of 
prolonged or severe cold (Watson et al. 2003, p. 295; Hallock and 
Pearson 2001, p. 16; McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 17). They are, 
however, intolerant of anoxic (absence of dissolved oxygen) conditions 
and are unlikely to burrow into the mud for more than a day or two 
(Tattersall and Ultsch 2008, p. 136) because survival under anoxic 
conditions is only a matter of 4 to 7 days (Tattersall and Ultsch 2008, 
p. 126). This species remains active during the winter and selects 
microhabitats that can support aerobic metabolism and minimize exposure 
to predators (Hallock and Pearson 2001, p. 15; Hayes et al. 2001, pp. 
20-23; Tattersall and Ultsch 2008, p. 136). In central Oregon, where 
winters generally result in ice cover over ponds, Oregon spotted frogs 
follow a fairly reliable routine of considerable activity and movement 
beneath the ice during the first month following freeze-up. Little 
movement is observed under the ice in January and February, but 
activity steadily increases in mid-March, even when ice cover persists 
(Bowerman 2006, pers. comm.). Radio-tracked frogs remained active all 
winter, even under the ice at Trout Lake NAP (Hallock and Pearson 2001, 
pp. 12, 14, 15) and Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) (Hayes 
et al. 2001, pp. 16-19).
    Results of a habitat utilization and movement study at Dempsey 
Creek in Washington indicate that adult frogs made infrequent movements 
between widely separated pools and more frequent movements between 
pools in closer proximity (Watson et al. 2003, p. 294), but remained 
within the study area throughout the year. Home ranges averaged 5.4 ac 
(2.2 ha), and daily movement was 16-23 ft (5-7 m) throughout the year 
(Watson et al. 2003, p. 295). During the breeding season (February-
May), frogs used about half the area used during the rest of the year. 
During the dry season (June-August), frogs moved to deeper, permanent 
pools, and occupied the smallest range of any season, then moved back 
toward their former breeding range during the wet season (September-
January) (Watson et al. 2003, p. 295). Individuals equipped with radio 
transmitters stayed within 2,600 ft (800 m) of capture locations at the 
Dempsey Creek site (Watson et al. 1998, p. 10) and within about 1,312 
ft (400 m) at the Trout Lake NAP (Hallock and Pearson 2001, p. 16).
    Recaptures of Oregon spotted frogs at breeding locations in the 
Buck Lake population in Oregon indicated that adults often move less 
than 300 ft (100 m) between years (Hayes 1998a, p. 9). However, longer 
travel distances, while infrequent, have been observed between years 
and within a single year between seasons. Three adult Oregon spotted 
frogs (one male and two females) marked in a study at Dempsey Creek and 
the Black River in Washington moved a distance of 1.5 mi (2.4 km) 
between seasons along lower Dempsey Creek to the creek's mouth from the 
point where they were marked (McAllister and Walker 2003, p. 6). An 
adult female Oregon spotted frog traveled 1,434 ft (437 m) between 
seasons from its original capture location at the Trout Lake Wetland 
NAP (Hallock and Pearson 2001, p. 8). Two juvenile frogs at the Jack 
Creek site in Oregon were recaptured the next summer 4,084 ft (1,245 m) 
and 4,511 ft (1,375 m) downstream from where they were initially 
marked, and one adult female moved 9,183 ft (2,799 m) downstream 
(Cushman and Pearl 2007, p. 13). Oregon spotted frogs at the Sunriver 
site routinely make annual migrations of 1,640 to 4,265 ft (500 to

[[Page 51662]]

1,300 m) between the major breeding complex and an overwintering site 
(Bowerman 2006, pers. comm.).
    While these movement studies are specific to Oregon spotted frogs, 
the number of studies and size of the study areas are limited and have 
not been conducted over multiple seasons or years. In addition, the 
ability to detect frogs is challenging because of the difficult terrain 
and the need for the receiver and transmitter to be in close proximity. 
Hammerson (2005) recommends that a 3.1-mile (5-km) dispersal distance 
be applied to all ranid frog species, because the movement data for 
ranids are consistent. The preponderance of data indicates that a 
separation distance of several kilometers may be appropriate and 
practical for delineation of occupancy, despite occasional movements 
that are longer or that may allow some genetic interchange between 
distant populations (for example, the 6.2-mi (10-km) distance noted by 
Blouin et al. 2010, pp. 2186, 2188). Accordingly, based on the best 
available scientific information, we presume that Oregon spotted frog 
habitats are connected for purposes of genetic exchange when occupied/
suitable habitats fall within a maximum movement distance of 3.1 mi (5 
km).

Historical Range/Distribution

    Historically, the Oregon spotted frog ranged from British Columbia 
to the Pit River basin in northeastern California (Hayes 1997, p. 40; 
McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 7). Oregon spotted frogs have been 
documented at 61 historical localities in 48 watersheds (3 in British 
Columbia, 13 in Washington, 29 in Oregon, and 3 in California) in 31 
sub-basins (McAllister et al. 1993, pp. 11-12; Hayes 1997, p. 41; 
McAllister and Leonard 1997, pp. 18-20; COSEWIC 2011, pp. 12-13) (see 
Table 1). We are assuming the watersheds that have recently been 
documented to be occupied were also occupied historically based on 
their complete disconnect from known-occupied watersheds and the 
limited dispersal ability of the Oregon spotted frog. In our analysis 
of the status and threats to the Oregon spotted frog, we first assessed 
conditions by breeding location and occupied watersheds, and then 
summarized the conditions by occupied sub-basin (see Summary of Factors 
Affecting the Species for more information). Our Threats Synthesis 
Rangewide Analysis, which includes this finer scale analysis of 
distribution, is available at http://www.regulations.gov and http://www.fws.gov/wafwo. However, for the rest of the document, we will 
describe historical and current range or distribution based on river 
sub-basins/watersheds. A river sub-basin is equivalent to a 4th field 
watershed and a hydrologic unit code (HUC) of 8. A watershed is 
equivalent to a 5th field watershed and a HUC 10.

     Table 1--Oregon Spotted Frog Historical and Extant Distribution
                            Throughout Range
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Location                     Sub-basins*: Watersheds
------------------------------------------------------------------------
British Columbia.........................   Lower Fraser River
                                            sub-basin near Sumas Prairie
                                            in Abbotsford, Nicomen
                                            Island in Matsqui, and in
                                            Langley Township. Recently
                                            (1996/1997 and 2008)
                                            discovered at MD Aldergrove,
                                            Maria Slough, Mountain
                                            Slough, and Morris Valley
Washington Counties: Clark, King,           Fraser River sub-
 Klickitat, Pierce, Skagit, Snohomish,      basin: Recently discovered
 Thurston, and Whatcom.                     (2012) in the Sumas River, a
                                            tributary to the Lower
                                            Chilliwack River watershed;
                                            Nooksack River sub-
                                            basin: South Fork Nooksack
                                            River (recently discovered
                                            (2011 and 2012) in the Black
                                            Slough);
                                            Straits of Georgia
                                            sub-basin: Recently
                                            discovered (2011 and 2012)
                                            along the mainstem of the
                                            Samish River;
                                            Lower Skagit River
                                            sub-basin: Skagit River-
                                            Frontal Skagit Bay and
                                            Finney Creek-Skagit River;
                                            Skykomish River sub-
                                            basin: Woods Creek-Skykomish
                                            River at Monroe;
                                            Duwamish River sub-
                                            basin: Lower Green River at
                                            Kent;
                                            Lake Washington sub-
                                            basin: Lake Washington at
                                            Seattle;
                                            Puget Sound (no sub-
                                            basin): Chambers Creek-
                                            Frontal Puget Sound
                                            (Spanaway Lake) and McLane
                                            Creek-Frontal Puget Sound
                                            (Patterson/Pattison Lake);
                                            Nisqually River sub-
                                            basin: Lower Nisqually River-
                                            Frontal Puget Sound
                                            (Kapowsin);
                                            Upper Chehalis River
                                            sub-basin: Black River
                                            (Dempsey Creek, Beaver
                                            Creek, Blooms Ditch, and
                                            recently discovered in
                                            Salmon and Fish Pond
                                            Creeks);
                                            Lower Willamette
                                            River sub-basin: Salmon
                                            Creek-Frontal Columbia River
                                            at Brush Prairie, Vancouver,
                                            and possibly Burnt Bridge
                                            Creek at Orchards;
                                            Middle Columbia-Hood
                                            River sub-basin: White
                                            Salmon River (Trout Lake
                                            Creek at Gular and Trout
                                            Lake);
                                            Klickitat River sub-
                                            basin: Middle Klickitat
                                            River (Conboy Lake on
                                            Outlet, Frazier, and Chapman
                                            Creeks)
Oregon Counties: Multnomah, Clackamas,      Lower Willamette
 Marion, Linn, Benton, Jackson, Lane,       River sub-basin: Johnson
 Wasco, Deschutes, and Klamath.             Creek;
                                            Lower Deschutes
                                            River sub-basin: Tygh Creek
                                            and White River;
                                            Clackamas River sub-
                                            basin: Oak Grove Fork
                                            Clackamas River;
                                            Middle Willamette
                                            River sub-basin: Mill Creek-
                                            Willamette River and Oak
                                            Creek;
                                            South Santiam River
                                            sub-basin: South Santiam
                                            River-Hamilton Creek;
                                            Upper Willamette
                                            River sub-basin: Muddy
                                            Creek;
                                            McKenzie River sub-
                                            basin: Upper McKenzie River
                                            and South Fork McKenzie
                                            River;
                                            Middle Fork
                                            Willamette River sub-basin:
                                            Salt Creek-Willamette River;
                                            Upper Deschutes
                                            River sub-basin: Deschutes
                                            River-McKenzie Canyon,
                                            Deschutes River-Pilot Butte,
                                            Deschutes River-Fall River,
                                            and Deschutes River-Browns
                                            Creek;
                                            Little Deschutes
                                            River sub-basin: Upper
                                            Little Deschutes River,
                                            Middle Little Deschutes
                                            River, Lower Little
                                            Deschutes River, Long
                                            Prairie, and Crescent Creek;
                                            Williamson River sub-
                                            basin: Klamath Marsh-Jack
                                            Creek, West of Klamath
                                            Marsh, and Williamson River
                                            above Klamath Marsh
                                            Sprague River sub-
                                            basin: North Fork Sprague
                                            River and Sprague River
                                            above Williamson;
                                            Upper Klamath Lake
                                            sub-basin: Wood River and
                                            Klamath Lake watersheds;
                                            Upper Klamath sub-
                                            basin: Spencer Creek and
                                            Jenny Creek;
                                            Lost River sub-
                                            basin: Lake Ewauna-Upper
                                            Klamath River

[[Page 51663]]

 
California Counties: Modoc, Shasta, and     Lost River sub-
 Siskiyou.                                  basin: Lower Klamath Lake
                                            Upper Pit River sub-
                                            basin: Pine Creek-South Pit
                                            River (near Alturas)
                                            Lower Pit River sub-
                                            basin: Town of Pittville-Pit
                                            River (near Fall River
                                            Mills)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Bolded sub-basins represent the sub-basins with extant locales. Oregon
  spotted frogs may not be extant in all of the historic watersheds
  within these sub-basins.

Current Range/Distribution

    Currently, the Oregon spotted frog is found from extreme 
southwestern British Columbia south through the Puget Trough and in the 
Cascades Range from south-central Washington at least to the Klamath 
Basin in southern Oregon. Oregon spotted frogs occur in lower 
elevations in British Columbia and Washington and are restricted to 
high elevations in Oregon (Pearl et al. 2010, p. 7). In addition, 
Oregon spotted frogs currently have a very limited distribution west of 
the Cascade crest in Oregon, are considered to be extirpated from the 
Willamette Valley in Oregon (Cushman et al. 2007, p. 14), and may be 
extirpated in the Klamath and Pit River basins of California (Hayes 
1997, p. 1). Currently occupied, or extant, sub-basins are those in 
which Oregon spotted frogs have been found in since 2000.
    In British Columbia, Oregon spotted frogs no longer occupy the 
locations documented historically, but they currently are known to 
occupy four disjunct locations in a single sub-basin, the Lower Fraser 
River (Canadian Oregon Spotted Frog Recovery Team 2012, p. 6).
    In Washington, Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur only within 
six sub-basins/watersheds: The Sumas River, a tributary to the Lower 
Chilliwack River watershed and Fraser River sub-basin; the Black Slough 
in the lower South Fork Nooksack River, a tributary of the Nooksack 
River; Samish River; Black River, a tributary of the Chehalis River; 
Outlet Creek (Conboy Lake), a tributary to the Middle Klickitat River; 
and Trout Lake Creek, a tributary of the White Salmon River. The 
Klickitat and White Salmon Rivers are tributaries to the Columbia 
River. The Oregon spotted frogs in each of these sub-basins/watersheds 
are isolated from frogs in other sub-basins.
    A reintroduction project was initiated in 2008, at Dailman Lake in 
Pierce County on Joint Base Lewis-McChord Military Reservation. This 
sub-basin (Nisqually River) was historically occupied by Oregon spotted 
frogs with a documented occurrence at Kapowsin (McAllister and Leonard 
1997, pp. 18-19). Eggs were collected from the Black River and the 
Conboy Lake Oregon spotted frog egg-laying locations, captive reared 
until metamorphosis, and released in the fall or subsequent spring. 
Through 2011, researchers collected 7,870 eggs and released 3,355 frogs 
(Tirhi and Schmidt 2011, pp. 51-53). Surveys in April 2011 found 3 
verified Oregon spotted frog egg masses and 11 suspected egg masses. 
However, egg masses were not detected in 2012. This effort is ongoing, 
and the efficacy and viability of a breeding Oregon spotted frog 
population being established in this area is undetermined; therefore, 
this location will not be discussed further. However, should a 
population be established, it would be considered to be a part of the 
listed entity.
    In Oregon, Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur only within 
eight sub-basins: Lower Deschutes River, Upper Deschutes River, Little 
Deschutes River, McKenzie River, Middle Fork Willamette, Upper Klamath, 
Upper Klamath Lake, and the Williamson River. The Oregon spotted frogs 
in most of these sub-basins are isolated from frogs in other sub-
basins, although Oregon spotted frogs in the lower Little Deschutes 
River are aquatically connected with those below Wickiup Reservoir in 
the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin. Oregon spotted frog distribution 
west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon is restricted to a few lakes in 
the upper watersheds of the McKenzie River and Middle Fork Willamette 
River sub-basins, which represent the remaining 2 out of 12 
historically occupied sub-basins.
    In California, this species has not been detected since 1918 
(California Academy of Science Museum Record 44291) at historical sites 
and may be extirpated (Hayes 1997, pp. 1, 35). However, there has been 
limited survey effort of potential habitat and this species may still 
occur in California.

Population Estimates and Status

    Of the 61 historical localities where the species' previous 
existence can be verified (e.g., museum specimens, photographs, 
reliable published records), only 13 were confirmed as being occupied 
in studies conducted in the 1990s (Hayes 1997, p. 1; McAllister and 
Leonard 1997, p. 20). Hayes visited historical localities one to four 
times, with a minimum of 2 hours devoted to site visits where precise 
localities could be identified. For sites where the precise location 
was not known, he searched three to six points in the area that 
possessed favorable habitat, for 20 minutes to 3 hours, depending on 
site size. Hayes also visited sites that were judged to have a high 
likelihood of having Oregon spotted frogs (i.e., within the historical 
range, consistent with elevations documented for verifiable specimens, 
and within suitable habitat) (Hayes 1997, p. 6). Based on those 
studies, Hayes (1997, p. 1) estimated the species may no longer occur 
in 76 to 90 percent of its historical range. Although this estimated 
loss of historical localities did not account for potential range 
expansion or shifts, Oregon spotted frogs have not been subsequently 
relocated in these areas. The estimated loss in historical range does 
not take into account the localities found since 2000. However, the 
current range of the Oregon spotted frog is significantly smaller than 
the historical range, based on the best available scientific and 
commercial information.
    Egg mass counts are believed to be a good metric of adult 
population size and are the most time-efficient way to estimate 
population size (Phillipsen et al. 2010, p. 743). Adult females are 
believed to lay one egg mass per year (Phillipsen et al. 2010, p. 743), 
and the breeding period occurs within a reliable and predictable 
timeframe each year (McAllister 2006, pers. comm.). If egg mass numbers 
are collected in a single survey timed to coincide with the end of the 
breeding season, when egg laying should be complete, then the egg mass 
count should represent a reliable estimate of total egg masses. Because 
one egg mass is approximately equivalent to one breeding female plus 
one to two adult males, a rough estimate of adult population size can 
be made if a thorough egg mass census is completed (Phillipsen et al. 
2010, p. 743). However, using egg mass counts to estimate population 
size has some weaknesses. For example, researchers have uncertainties 
about whether adult females breed every year, only lay one

[[Page 51664]]

egg mass per year, and find difficulty in distinguishing individual egg 
masses in large communal clusters. However, a minimum population 
estimate can be derived from the total egg mass count multiplied by two 
(one egg mass equals two adult frogs). While there are weaknesses in 
these estimates, as discussed above, they are the best estimates 
available for Oregon spotted frog numbers.
    Egg mass counts, as currently conducted at most sites, do not allow 
for evaluation of trends within a site nor between sites because 
surveys are not standardized. Survey effort, area coverage, and timing 
can differ between years at individual sites. In addition, method of 
survey can differ between years at individual sites and differ between 
sites. Because of the weaknesses associated with the egg mass counts, 
site estimates derived from egg mass counts are considered to be a 
minimum estimate and generally should not be compared across years or 
with other sites. However, some breeding locations have been surveyed 
in a consistent manner (in some cases by the same researcher) and for 
enough years that trend data are available and considered to be 
reliable. Trend information is provided in the following sub-basin 
summaries for the locations where the information is available.
    For the purposes of this document, the terms `location' and `site' 
simply refer to the general locations where egg-laying has been 
observed. In some cases, a site may be equivalent to an Oregon spotted 
frog population (for example, Hosmer Lake). In other cases, a site may 
include multiple egg-laying locations within wetland complexes where 
hydrological connections may facilitate movement between egg-laying 
areas, but where movement patterns and genetic conditions are 
undetermined within the complexes (for example, Klamath Marsh NWR). 
Accordingly, a site should not be interpreted to be a population. 
Because of the lack of complete information between occurrence 
locations, populations were not specifically identified for this status 
review, and the focus of our analysis regarding the status of Oregon 
spotted frogs was within the individual river sub-basins.
    The following summarizes the best available scientific and 
commercial information available regarding populations within the 
currently occupied river sub-basins in British Columbia, Washington, 
and Oregon. We used multiple data sources, including various 
unpublished reports, databases, and spreadsheets provided by our 
partner agencies. These sources are identified in the following 
sections as ``multiple data sources'' and are included in our 
literature cited list, which is included as supplementary information 
on http://www.regulations.gov for this final rule. These sources are 
available upon request from the Washington Fish and Wildlife Office 
(see ADDRESSES). In most sub-basins, trend information regarding the 
collective status of the populations within the sub-basin is limited or 
not available; trend information that was available is presented below. 
The status of a sub-basin may be undetermined because the Oregon 
spotted frog presence has only recently been identified, the trend 
information is uncertain, or sufficient survey information is not 
available to indicate a trend. However, when viewed at the rangewide 
scale, the Oregon spotted frog has been extirpated from most of its 
historical range, and the threat of current and future impacts to the 
Oregon spotted frog occurs over the entire range of the species. 
Ongoing threats have significantly reduced the overall extent and 
distribution of suitable habitat for the Oregon spotted frog, as 
discussed below in Summary of Factors Affecting the Species.
British Columbia
    Currently, Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur only within four 
sites in the Lower Fraser River Basin. Of the four sites, Maintenance 
Detachment Aldergrove (MD Aldergrove) is nearing, or may have reached 
extirpation, as no egg masses have been discovered at the site since 
2006; Mountain Slough appears to be stable; Maria Slough may be 
declining; and there are limited data for the recently discovered 
Morris Valley site (COSEWIC 2011, p. v). Estimates from the well-
studied populations at MD Aldergrove, Maria Slough, and Mountain Slough 
indicate a population decline of 35 percent during the period 2000-2010 
(COSEWIC 2011, p. 32), and the most recent egg mass counts indicate the 
minimum population size for all of British Columbia is fewer than 350 
adults (COSEWIC 2011, pp. 27-30). One extant population is near 
extinction, and the remaining populations are small and vulnerable to 
disturbance and stochastic events. Extirpation of the MD Aldergrove 
population would result in a reduction of 76 percent of the extent of 
Oregon spotted frog in the Lower Fraser River (COSEWIC 2011, pp. vii-
ix). Therefore, populations of Oregon spotted frogs in the Lower Fraser 
River are declining.
Washington
    In Washington, the Oregon spotted frog was historically found in 
the Puget Trough from the Canadian border to the Columbia River, and 
east to the Washington Cascades (McAllister et al. 1997, p. vii). 
Current distribution is limited to four watersheds in the Puget Trough, 
three that drain to Puget Sound and one that drains to the Pacific 
Ocean, and two watersheds in the southeast Cascades that drain to the 
Columbia River. In 1997, the locations for 11 historical populations in 
Washington were verified using museum specimen and published records, 
and only 1 historically known population and 2 recently discovered 
populations were known to remain in Washington in 1997 (McAllister et 
al. 1997, p. vii). The authors also stated that past populations of the 
Oregon spotted frog in Washington are largely undocumented (McAllister 
et al. 1997, p. 18). Current population estimates are based on the 2012 
census of egg masses at all known extant breeding areas. Based on these 
estimates, the minimum population in Washington was at least 7,368 
breeding adults in 2012.
    Trend data are limited; however, the Oregon spotted frog population 
in the Middle Klickitat River (Conboy Lake) appears to be declining 
(see below for further information). The population trend within the 
rest of the occupied sub-basins is unknown. More detailed discussions 
of Washington's occupied sub-basins/watersheds are provided below.
    Lower Chilliwack River (Sumas River)--In 2012, one Oregon spotted 
frog breeding area was found on a privately owned dairy farm on a small 
tributary to the Sumas River (Bohannon et al. 2012). The Sumas River is 
eventually a tributary to the Lower Fraser River, along which the 
British Columbia breeding areas occur. However, the breeding area on 
the Sumas River is more than 20 mi (35 km) upstream of the confluence 
with the Fraser River, and separated by unsuitable aquatic habitat. 
Therefore, an aquatic connection to the British Columbia breeding areas 
is not likely (COSEWIC 2011, p. 12). Fewer than 50 egg masses (<100 
adults) were found during the 2012 surveys; however, suitable habitat 
within the Sumas River has not been surveyed extensively (Bohannon et 
al. 2012) and the full extent of Oregon spotted frog distribution and 
abundance has not been determined.
    South Fork Nooksack River--In 2011 and 2012, Oregon spotted frog 
breeding areas were found on privately owned

[[Page 51665]]

parcels in the Black Slough, a tributary of the South Fork Nooksack 
River. On one parcel, the breeding habitat was in off-channel wetlands 
dominated by reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and recent shrub 
plantings. Breeding areas on other parcels were located within former 
pasture lands that had been planted with trees and fenced within the 
last 2 or 3 years under the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program 
(CREP) to eliminate grazing and improve water quality (Bohannon et al. 
2012). At least 230 adults (based on 2012 surveys) are associated with 
the known breeding areas along the Black Slough; however, this area has 
not been surveyed extensively (Bohannon et al. 2012), and the full 
extent of Oregon spotted frog distribution and abundance has not been 
determined.
    Samish River--In 2011 and 2012, Oregon spotted frog breeding areas 
were found on privately owned parcels along the upper reaches of the 
Samish River. All of the breeding areas are seasonally flooded grazed 
or formerly grazed pasture lands that are predominantly reed 
canarygrass (Bohannon et al. 2012). At least 1,220 adults (based on 
2012 surveys) are associated with the known breeding areas along the 
Samish River; however, this area has not been surveyed extensively, and 
the full extent of Oregon spotted frog distribution and abundance has 
not been determined.
    Black River--Oregon spotted frogs occupy wetlands in the floodplain 
and tributaries of the upper Black River drainage between Black Lake 
and the town of Littlerock. They are currently known to occur at three 
locations within the Black River floodplain (Blooms Ditch near 110th 
Avenue Bridge, near 123rd Avenue, and the confluence with Mima Creek) 
and in four tributaries: Dempsey Creek, Salmon Creek, Allen Creek, and 
Beaver Creek (Hallock 2013; WDFW and USFWS multiple data sources). In 
2012 and 2013, new breeding locations were detected along Fish Pond 
Creek system, which flows directly into Black Lake, not Black River. 
Oregon spotted frog breeding areas in the Black River may be isolated 
from each other and the frogs associated with the Fish Pond Creek may 
not be hydrologically connected to frogs in the Black River due to the 
human alteration of the Black Lake drainage pattern. Further 
investigation of this recently discovered area is needed.
    The full extent of the population's distribution, abundance, and 
status in the Black River has not been determined. The Black River 
adult breeding population was comprised of at least 1,748 breeding 
adults in 2012 (Hallock 2013, p. 27) and 3,330 breeding adults in 2013 
(WDFW multiple data sources). Oregon spotted frogs in Dempsey Creek 
have been monitored relatively consistently since the late 1990s. Other 
breeding areas in the Black River have been monitored inconsistently or 
were recently found, and surveys to identify additional breeding 
locations continue. The Dempsey Creek breeding area may be declining, 
but the trend for the remainder of the occupied areas is undetermined.
    White Salmon River (Trout Lake Creek)--Oregon spotted frogs occupy 
approximately 1,285 ac (520 ha) of the lower Trout Lake Creek 
watershed, ranging in elevation 1,960-2,080 ft (597-633 m). In total, 
as of 2012, a minimum population estimate of 2,124 breeding adults 
(Hallock 2012) associated with 12 breeding areas have been identified. 
Two of the breeding areas have been monitored since they were found by 
Leonard (1997). The other locations have been monitored sporadically 
since they were discovered. Monitoring of egg mass numbers at two 
breeding areas within the Trout Lake NAP revealed considerable 
population volatility and a general pattern of decline from 2001 
through 2007 (Hallock 2011, p. 8). During the period of egg mass 
declines, three events of note occurred that could have influenced 
frogs at the NAP: Annual precipitation was unusually low, cattle 
grazing was reduced and then eliminated, and frogs infected with 
chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)) were present 
(Pearl et al. 2009b, Hayes et al. 2009). While the 2009 through 2012 
egg mass counts indicate that Oregon spotted frog numbers may be 
rebounding within the eastern portions of the NAP, the numbers in the 
western portion continue to be less than half of the estimates from the 
1990s (Hallock 2012, entire).
    Middle Klickitat River (Conboy Lake)--The extent of Conboy Lake 
wetland complex habitat occupied by Oregon spotted frogs at high water 
is approximately 7,462 ac (3,020 ha), ranging in elevation from 1,804-
1,896 ft (550-576 m). This wetland complex comprises two lakebeds that 
are entirely seasonal (except in wet years) and are joined by Camas 
Ditch, which flows into Outlet Creek, the main drainage for the system 
that flows northeast into the Klickitat River. There were a minimum of 
1,954 breeding adults in the Conboy Lake wetland complex in 2012 
(Hallock 2013, p. 27) and 2,714 breeding adults in 2013 (Wilson, in 
lit. 2013). This used to be the largest Oregon spotted frog population 
throughout the entire range (highest egg mass count 7,018 in year 
1998). However, Oregon spotted frog egg mass surveys suggest a 
continued long-term decline (approximately 86 percent) since 1998 
(Hayes and Hicks 2011, unnumbered pp. 5-6; Hallock 2013, p. 36). This 
area is subject to similar levels of precipitation as Trout Lake NAP 
and frogs infected with Bd were also present (Pearl et al. 2009b, Hayes 
et al. 2009); however, unlike Trout Lake NAP, Oregon spotted frog 
numbers in this sub-basin are not rebounding. At present, the 
population trend of Oregon spotted frogs in the Middle Klickitat River 
is considered to be declining.
Oregon
    Population estimates of Oregon spotted frogs in Oregon are 
primarily based on egg mass surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 at known 
extant sites, and newly discovered occupied areas that had been 
unsurveyed prior to 2012. Population estimates for the Middle Fork 
Willamette River sub-basin are based on mark-recapture studies 
conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2011, rather than egg 
mass surveys. Based on these survey data, the minimum population 
estimate in Oregon consists of approximately 12,847 breeding adults. 
More detailed discussions of Oregon's occupied sub-basins are provided 
below and are available in our files.
    Lower Deschutes River--Within the Lower Deschutes River sub-basin, 
a single extant population of Oregon spotted frog occurs at Camas 
Prairie, an 82-ac (33-ha) marsh located along Camas Creek in the White 
River watershed. The Camas Prairie Oregon spotted frogs are the most 
geographically isolated, carry several alleles that are absent or rare 
in other sites, and have the lowest genetic diversity of Oregon spotted 
frogs rangewide (Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2185). The frogs at this 
location appear to be the only remaining representatives of a major 
genetic group that is now almost extinct (Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2190). 
Since 2004, egg mass surveys have been conducted annually, and the 
population trend has been positive. Based on the 2012 egg mass count, 
the minimum population size of breeding adults is 152 (Corkran 2012, 
pers. comm.). Although the population trend has been positive at the 
single known location, the number of individuals in the population 
remains low.
    Upper Deschutes River--Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper Deschutes 
River sub-basin occur in high-elevation lakes up to 5,000 ft (1,524 m), 
wetland ponds, and riverine wetlands and oxbows along the Deschutes 
River.

[[Page 51666]]

There are fewer than 20 known breeding locations within four watersheds 
(HUC 10) in the sub-basin: Charleton Creek, Browns Creek, Fall River, 
and North Unit Diversion Dam. Most of the known breeding locations are 
on the Deschutes National Forest in lakes, ponds, and riverine wetlands 
that drain to the Crane Prairie and Wickiup Reservoir complex, 
including the use of the wetland margins of the reservoirs. There are 
at least five known breeding locations downstream of Wickiup Reservoir 
in riverine wetlands along the Deschutes River, extending to Bend, 
Oregon: Dead Slough, La Pine SP, Sunriver, Slough Camp, and the Old 
Mill casting pond, including Les Schwab Amphitheater (LSA) Marsh. 
Dilman Meadow drains into the Deschutes River below Wickiup Dam via an 
unnamed tributary.
    The consistency of population surveys varies by breeding site, and 
population trend information is limited. Only two sites within the sub-
basin have been monitored consistently since the early 2000s and show 
an increasing population trend: Dilman Meadow and Sunriver (USGS and J. 
Bowerman 2000 through 2012 datasets). Trend data are not available for 
the remainder of populations within the Upper Deschutes River sub-
basin. Sunriver, located downstream of Wickiup Reservoir, is the 
largest population of Oregon spotted frogs within the Upper Deschutes 
River sub-basin with a population of at least 1,454 breeding adults 
based on 2012 egg mass surveys (J. Bowerman dataset 2012). A minimum 
population estimate for the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin (including 
Sunriver) is approximately 3,530 breeding adults based on surveys since 
2006 (USGS 2006 to 2012 and J. Bowerman 2012 datasets).
    Little Deschutes River--Oregon spotted frogs are distributed 
throughout wetland, pond, and riverine habitats in the Little Deschutes 
River sub-basin, which drains an area of approximately 1,020 square 
miles (2,600 square km) and flows north from its headwaters in northern 
Klamath County to its convergence with the Deschutes River 1 mi (1.2 
km) south of Sunriver and approximately 20 mi (32 km) south of Bend, 
Oregon. The Little Deschutes River is approximately 92 mi (148 km) 
long. Approximately 23 known breeding locations (as of 2012) are within 
five watersheds in the sub-basin: Upper, Middle, and Lower Little 
Deschutes River; Crescent Creek; and Long Prairie. Big Marsh, a 2,000-
ac (809 ha) wetland located within headwaters at 4,760 ft (1,451 m) 
elevation on the Deschutes National Forest, has the largest monitored 
population of Oregon spotted frogs in the Little Deschutes River sub-
basin and possibly rangewide. The estimated population size of Big 
Marsh based on a 2012 U.S. Forest Service (USFS) egg mass survey is 
5,324 breeding adults (male and female) (USFS data 2012).
    Because 70 percent of the sub-basin is privately owned and mostly 
unsurveyed, a population estimate for the entire Little Deschutes River 
sub-basin is difficult to determine. A minimum population estimate of 
Oregon spotted frogs based on limited survey data from public and 
private lands in 2012 is approximately 6,628 breeding adults (including 
Big Marsh above). However, the vast acreage of wetland complexes and 
suitable habitat for Oregon spotted frogs along the mainstem Little 
Deschutes River and Crescent Creek indicate that the frog population 
within the unsurveyed areas may be well above this estimate. Although 
the trend of the frog population at Big Marsh appears to be increasing 
based on USFS surveys from 2002 to 2012 (USFS 2002-2012), the 
population trend of the remainder of frogs within the sub-basin is 
undetermined.
    McKenzie River--Oregon spotted frogs in the McKenzie River sub-
basin are located within the South Fork McKenzie River watershed in an 
area referred to as the Mink Lake Basin in the wilderness of the 
Willamette National Forest. There are two known breeding populations: 
One at Penn Lake and one at an unnamed marsh 0.28 mi (0.45 km) north of 
Mink Lake. The Penn Lake and Unnamed Marsh populations are about 0.93 
mi (1.5 km) apart and are not hydrologically connected via surface 
water. Mark-recapture monitoring of these populations has been 
conducted by USGS from 2007 through 2011 (Adams et al. 2007; 2008, p. 
13; 2009, p. 14; 2010, p. 14; and 2011, p. 14). A population estimate 
for breeding adults in the McKenzie River sub-basin, based on mark-
recapture efforts by USGS in 2011 is 217 (i.e., 179 at Penn Lake and 38 
at Unnamed Marsh) (Adams et al. 2011). However, trend has not been 
estimated for these populations.
    Middle Fork Willamette River--Oregon spotted frogs in the Middle 
Fork Willamette River sub-basin are limited to a single population at 
Gold Lake and bog, located in the 465-ac (188-ha) Gold Lake Bog 
Research Natural Area on the Willamette National Forest within the Salt 
Creek watershed. This population is one of three remaining populations 
of Oregon spotted frogs west of the Cascade mountain crest in Oregon. 
The Gold Lake Bog site consists of three small ponds over an area of 
approximately 3.7 ac (1.5 ha) within a larger bog where three major 
streams converge. Breeding surveys are periodically conducted by USGS 
and the Willamette National Forest. However, long-term trend data are 
lacking for this site. Based on USGS egg mass surveys in 2007, the 
estimated population size is approximately 1,458 breeding adults (USGS 
datasets).
    Williamson River--Oregon spotted frogs in the Williamson River sub-
basin occur in two watersheds: Klamath Marsh/Jack Creek and Williamson 
River above Klamath Marsh and consist of three populations: Jack Creek, 
Klamath Marsh NWR, and the Upper Williamson River. Data from 1996 
through the present suggest the Jack Creek population is declining, and 
the survey data from 2000 through the present suggest that the Klamath 
Marsh population is stable. Additional data collected in 2013 
documented a downstream extension of occupied habitat in Jack Creek 
(Pearl 2014, pers. comm.). These watersheds are a mixture of both 
private and public (U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), USFS, and 
NWR) lands and consist of both wetland and riverine potential habitats 
from 4,500 to 5,200 ft (1,371 to 1,585 m) in elevation. As of 2011, the 
minimum population estimate for the sub-basin is approximately 376 
breeding individuals (male and female) (KMNWR 2011, USFS 2012, USGS 
multiple datasets). Permission to survey adjacent private lands has not 
been obtained; however, the private lands surrounding the public lands 
appear to have suitable habitat and likely contain additional breeding 
complexes and individuals.
    Upper Klamath Lake--Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper Klamath Lake 
sub-basin occupy two watersheds that flow into Upper Klamath Lake: 
Klamath Lake and Wood River. There are four populations in this sub-
basin: Crane Creek, Fourmile Creek, Sevenmile Creek, and the Wood River 
channel and the adjacent but separate BLM Wood River canal. Additional 
surveys completed in 2013 revealed occupied habitat in Sun Creek, Annie 
Creek, and more locations of Crane Creek and Sevenmile Creek (Hering 
2014, pers. comm.; Pearl 2013, pers. comm.). These populations occur in 
both riverine and wetland habitats. Historically, these two watersheds 
were hydrologically connected. Survey efforts on Fourmile Creek, 
Sevenmile Creek, and the Wood River channel have been sporadic while 
Crane Creek and the BLM Wood River canal have been surveyed annually. 
These data suggest that there is still insufficient information to 
obtain population trends for all but the BLM Wood River canal 
population, which is

[[Page 51667]]

declining. As of 2011, the minimum population estimate for the sub-
basin is approximately 374 breeding individuals (male and female) (USGS 
multiple datasets, BLM multiple datasets). Permission to survey 
adjacent private lands has not been obtained; however, the private 
lands surrounding the known populations appear to have suitable habitat 
and likely contain additional breeding complexes and individuals. Trend 
data are lacking for three out of four populations in the Upper Klamath 
Lake.
    Upper Klamath--Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper Klamath sub-basin 
occupy two lacustrine habitats: Parsnip Lakes in Jackson County and 
Buck Lake in Klamath County. Both of these sites are isolated 
hydrologically by great distances (>20 mi (32 km)) and hydrological 
barriers (inhospitable habitat and dams) to other sites in the Klamath 
Basin. Historical surveys in this sub-basin resulted in a population 
estimate of about 1,170 adults (range of <0 to 2,379, 95 percent 
confidence interval) (Hayes 1998a, p. 10; Parker 2009, p. 4). Due to 
insufficient survey data, population trend information is not available 
for the Parsnip Lakes population. The most recent surveys found 18 egg 
masses or 36 breeding individuals (male and female) at Parsnips Lakes 
(Parker 2009). Surveys conducted at Buck Lake suggest a population 
decline and have documented most recently small numbers of egg masses 
(38 masses in 2010), or the equivalent of 76 breeding individual (male 
and female) (BLM 2012). Additional information indicates that suitable 
habitat occurs downstream of Buck Lake within Spencer Creek (Smith 
2014, pers. comm.). The minimum population estimate for this sub-basin 
is currently estimated to be 112 breeding individuals suggesting 
drastic population declines since 1998.
Summary of Current Population Range and Trend
    Oregon spotted frogs may no longer occur in as much as 90 percent 
of their historically documented range, including all of the historical 
localities in California (i.e., 90 percent of the historical areas are 
no longer occupied). Currently, the Oregon spotted frog is found in 15 
sub-basins ranging from extreme southwestern British Columbia south 
through the Puget Trough, and in the Cascades Range from south-central 
Washington at least to the Klamath Basin in Oregon. Oregon spotted 
frogs occur in lower elevations in British Columbia and Washington and 
are restricted to higher elevations (i.e., 3,160 to 5,200 ft (963 to 
1,585 m) in Oregon. In addition, Oregon spotted frogs currently have a 
very limited distribution west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and are 
considered to be extirpated from the Willamette Valley.
    In most sub-basins, trend information regarding the collective 
status of the populations within the sub-basin is limited or not 
available. The best scientific and commercial information available 
indicates the trend is undetermined for Oregon spotted frog populations 
in 13 of the sub-basins and is declining in the Lower Fraser River and 
Middle Klickitat sub-basins. Threats to the remaining populations are 
ongoing or increasing, however, as described below.

Summary of Factors Affecting the Species

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533), and its implementing 
regulations at 50 CFR part 424, set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. Under section 4(a)(1) of the Act, we may list a species based 
on any of the following five factors: (A) The present or threatened 
destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade 
factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may be 
warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination. Each of these threats/factors is discussed below.
    Threats for the Oregon spotted frog were assessed by breeding 
locations and occupied watersheds, then summarized by occupied sub-
basin in this final rule. Each of the five threat categories were 
summarized by sub-basin using the unified threats classification system 
(loosely based on the IUCN-CMP (World Conservation Union-Conservation 
Measures Partnership)), best available data, and best professional 
judgment. We summarized threats in each occupied sub-basin for scope, 
severity, impact, timing, and stress, to ensure our determination would 
be based on the best scientific and commercial data available, as 
required under section 4(b)(1)(A). Scope is the proportion of the 
occupied area within the sub-basin that can reasonably be expected to 
be affected. Severity is the level of damage to the species from the 
threat that can reasonably be expected. Impact summarizes the degree to 
which a species is observed, inferred, or suspected to be directly or 
indirectly affected and is based on the combination of the severity and 
scope rating (for example, if the severity and scope ratings were both 
high, then the impact rating was high). Timing is the immediacy of the 
threat (i.e., is the threat ongoing, could happen in the short term, or 
is only in the past). Stress is the key ecological, demographic, or 
individual attribute that may be impaired or reduced by a threat. The 
completed analysis (Threats Synthesis Rangewide Analysis) is available 
at http://www.regulations.gov and http://www.fws.gov/wafwo. The 
syntheses by threat categories are included in the following threat 
factor discussions.
    Large historical losses of wetland habitat have occurred across the 
range of the Oregon spotted frog. Wetland losses are estimated from 
between 30 to 85 percent across the species' range with the greatest 
percentage lost having occurred in British Columbia. These wetland 
losses have directly influenced the current fragmentation and isolation 
of remaining Oregon spotted frog populations.
    Loss of natural wetland and riverine disturbance processes as a 
result of human activities has and continues to result in degradation 
of Oregon spotted frog habitat. Historically, a number of disturbance 
processes created emergent wetlands favorable to Oregon spotted frogs 
throughout the PNW: (1) Rivers freely meandered over their floodplains, 
removing trees and shrubs and baring patches of mineral soil; (2) 
beavers created a complex mosaic of aquatic habitat types for year-
round use; and (3) summer fires burned areas that would be shallow 
water wetlands during the Oregon spotted frog breeding season the 
following spring. Today, all of these natural processes are greatly 
reduced, are impaired, or have been permanently altered as a result of 
human activities, including stream bank, channel, and wetland 
modifications; operation of water control structures (e.g., dams and 
diversions); beaver removal; and fire suppression.
    The historical loss of Oregon spotted frog habitats and lasting 
anthropogenic changes in natural disturbance processes are exacerbated 
by the introduction of reed canarygrass, nonnative predators, and 
potentially climate change. In addition, current regulatory mechanisms 
and voluntary incentive programs designed to benefit fish species have 
inadvertently led to the continuing decline in quality of Oregon 
spotted frog habitats in some locations. The current wetland and stream 
vegetation management paradigm is generally a no-management or 
restoration approach that often results in succession to a tree- and

[[Page 51668]]

shrub-dominated community that unintentionally degrades or eliminates 
remaining or potential suitable habitat for Oregon spotted frog 
breeding. Furthermore, incremental wetland loss or degradation 
continues under the current regulatory mechanisms. If left unmanaged, 
these factors are anticipated to result in the eventual elimination of 
remaining suitable Oregon spotted frog habitats or populations. The 
persistence of habitats required by the species is now largely 
management-dependent.

Factor A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or 
Curtailment of Its Habitat or Range

    Threats to the species' habitat include changes in hydrology due to 
construction of dams and human-related alterations to seasonal 
flooding, introduction of nonnative plant and animal species, 
vegetation succession and encroachment, poor water quality, livestock 
grazing (in some circumstances), and residential and commercial 
development.
    Habitat losses and alterations affect amphibian species in a 
variety of ways, including reducing or eliminating immigration through 
losses of adjacent populations (see ``Factor E'') and effects on 
critical aspects of the habitat (Hayes and Jennings 1986, pp. 492-494). 
These critical aspects include suitable egg-laying and nursery sites, 
refuges from predation or unfavorable environmental conditions, and 
suitable temperatures necessary for egg laying, growth, and development 
(Hayes and Jennings 1986, pp. 492-494).
    Because Oregon spotted frogs have specific habitat requirements, 
they are particularly vulnerable to habitat alterations: (1) A 
restricted number of communal egg-laying locations are used year after 
year; (2) the species' warm water microhabitat requirement results in 
habitat overlap with introduced warm water fish species and other warm 
water fauna that prey on Oregon spotted frogs (for example, bullfrogs); 
(3) the availability of suitable warm water habitat, a requirement in 
the active season, is generally limited in the cool climate of the PNW; 
(4) the species is vulnerable to the loss or alteration of springs used 
for overwintering; and (5) their habitat requirements (for example, 
spatial structure) for overwintering, active season, and breeding 
habitats are more complex than for other frog species (Hayes et al. 
1997, p. 4). In addition, breeding habitat is arguably the single most 
important habitat component for many aquatic-breeding amphibians 
because amphibian embryos and larvae depend on aquatic habitats for 
survival (Leonard 1997, p. 1).
Loss of Wetlands
    British Columbia--Extensive diking of river ways and draining of 
Sumas Lake for conversion to agriculture significantly modified 
drainage patterns and resulted in loss of associated wetlands in the 
Fraser River lowlands of British Columbia (COSEWIC 2011, p. 20). Boyle 
et al. (1997, p. 190) estimated an 85 percent loss of habitat types 
preferred by Oregon spotted frogs (fen, swamp/bog/marsh) between 1820 
and 1990. Moore et al. (2003 cited in COSEWIC 2011) found wetland loss 
continued between 1989 and 1999 as a result of urban and agricultural 
encroachment. Agricultural land use changes, such as the conversion of 
field habitat to blueberry and cranberry production, has led to impacts 
through drain tile installation and riparian area encroachment/erosion. 
Sediment deposition into streams and wetlands by runoff from adjacent 
agricultural fields can impact Oregon spotted frog breeding habitat by 
changing the channel/wetland shape and depth (Lynch and Corbett 1990). 
Land conversion for agriculture is ongoing at Mountain Slough and to 
some extent at Maria Slough and Morris Valley (COSFRT 2012, p. 24), 
within Oregon spotted frog habitat.
    Washington--Estimates for Washington indicate that over 33 percent 
of wetlands were drained, diked, and filled between pre-settlement 
times and the 1980s (Canning and Stevens 1990, p. 23); losses in the 
historical range of the Oregon spotted frog are even higher because of 
the high degree of development in the low elevations of the Puget 
Trough (McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 22).
    Major alterations to Conboy Lake wetland complex in Washington 
began when settlers started moving to Glenwood Valley in the late 
1800s. Wet meadows were drained through a series of canals, ditches, 
and dikes largely developed between 1911 and 1914, and remain today. 
The five creeks that flow into this wetland complex and the Cold 
Springs ditch are entirely channelized within the wetland complex. 
Ditching, filling, and other habitat alterations have resulted in 
little or no retention of surface water in the late-season lakebeds 
(Conboy Lake and Camas Prairie), reducing the amount of aquatic habitat 
available for the Oregon spotted frog. The historical Conboy lakebed is 
believed to have retained water for 10 to 12 months in most years. 
Currently, it retains water only during wet years and is purposefully 
drained annually to control bullfrogs (Ludwig 2012, pers. comm.). The 
Camas Prairie portion of Glenwood Valley retains water year-round over 
a small area and only in wet years. Typically, aquatic habitat is 
reduced to about 1,000 ac (400 ha) during the late summer and early 
fall (Hayes et al. 2000), and once the seasonal lakebeds dry, the 
network of ditches and channels provide the only aquatic habitat for 
Oregon spotted frogs. In order to maintain sufficient flow through the 
system, a small area of Bird Creek must be excavated every 2 to 3 years 
to remove the high level of sand and gravel that is deposited annually 
from upstream. Most of the other ditches have been cleaned on a much 
less frequent basis (intervals of up to 20 years), although in the 
future, the Conboy Lake NWR plans to clean select reaches on a 5-10 
year cycle (Ludwig 2012, pers. comm.).
    Oregon--Historical losses of wetland in Oregon are estimated at 38 
percent between pre-settlement times and the 1980s with 57 and 91 
percent of these losses concentrated in the Willamette Valley and 
Klamath Basin, respectively (Dahl 1990). Wetland loss continues in the 
Willamette Valley (Daggett et al. 1998; Morlan et al. 2005). Between 
1982 and 1994, a net loss of 6,877 ac (2,783 ha) of wetlands (2.5 
percent of the 1982 wetland area) occurred, primarily due to conversion 
to agriculture (Daggett et al. 1998 p. 23), and between 1994 and 2005, 
an estimated additional net loss of 3,932 ac (1,591 ha) (1.25 percent 
of the 1994 wetland area) took place, primarily due to development 
(Morlan et al. 2010. pp. 26-27). Oregon spotted frogs are believed to 
be extirpated from the Willamette Valley.
    Human alteration of wetlands in the central Oregon Cascades has had 
less severe effects since many of the sites inhabited by the Oregon 
spotted frog are located at high elevation and within lakes and 
wetlands located on Federal lands managed by the USFS. However, damming 
and diverting water for irrigation needs has resulted in the loss of 
wetlands within the Upper Deschutes sub-basin beginning in the early 
1900s (see hydrology section below). Wetland loss is also an ongoing 
threat to Oregon spotted frogs within the Little Deschutes River sub-
basin in south Deschutes County, where land development has increased 
since the 1960s.
    A substantial amount of wetland habitat in the Klamath Basin has 
been drained and converted to other uses, primarily for grazing and 
row-crop production, although the extent of this loss is difficult to 
estimate due to a lack of accurate historical data (Larson and Brush 
2010). The majority of wetland

[[Page 51669]]

degradation and alteration took place in the southern part of the upper 
basin, where extensive drainage occurred at Tule and Lower Klamath 
Lakes in the early 20th century (Larson and Brush 2010, p. 4). Wetlands 
at the north end of the basin, including Sycan Marsh, Klamath Marsh, 
Upper Klamath Lake, and in the Wood River Valley, have also suffered 
extensive hydrologic alteration. Ongoing losses are currently minimized 
due to strict regulations governing wetlands, and there are no known 
ongoing losses of wetlands in the Klamath Basin. In addition, 
restoration efforts are under way in the Klamath Basin (see 
``Conservation Efforts to Reduce Habitat Destruction, Modification, or 
Curtailment of Its Range''), reversing wetland losses to some degree. 
However, because of subsidence, reconnection of former wetlands to 
Upper Klamath Lake resulted in these areas being too deep to support 
marsh vegetation, and many of these areas do not support the variety of 
wildlife that they did formerly when they were marshes. Therefore, 
these wetlands are unlikely to provide all of their former functions.
    Loss of Wetlands Conclusion--Historical loss of wetlands has been 
extensive throughout the range of the species, and is the primary 
reason for the absence of the species from as much as, or more than, 90 
percent of its former range (also see Historical Range/Distribution). 
Land conversions that result in loss of wetlands are continuing 
throughout the range. Wetlands continue to be lost or degraded in at 
least 10 of the 15 occupied sub-basins. Even though these losses are 
occurring at much lower rates than in the past because of Federal and 
State regulations that pertain to wetlands (see Factor D), the ongoing 
loss of wetlands continues to pose a threat to the Oregon spotted frog.
Hydrological Changes
    Changing water levels at critical periods in the Oregon spotted 
frog's life cycle, whether natural or human-induced, has negatively 
affected the species. Lowered water levels have exposed individuals to 
predation by reducing cover and confining them to smaller areas where 
they are more vulnerable to predators (see also Factor C). Water level 
reduction during the breeding season, due to both natural and 
anthropogenic causes, has resulted in the loss of the entire 
reproductive effort for the year due to stranding and desiccation of 
the egg masses in British Columbia (Licht 1971, p. 122; COSFRT 2012, p. 
18), Washington (Lewis et al. 2001, p. 8; Hayes et al. 2000, pp. 6-7), 
and Oregon (Pearl and Hayes 2004, p. 24). Excessive seasonal flooding 
at critical periods has also resulted in the loss of shallow wetlands 
needed for egg-laying and development.
    Most of the currently occupied Oregon spotted frog sites face 
threats from changes in hydrology. Twenty-one of twenty-eight (75 
percent) sites surveyed in Washington and Oregon have had some human-
related hydrological alterations, ranging from minor changes (for 
example, local ditching around springs) to substantial changes, 
including major modifications of historical flow patterns (Hayes 1997, 
p. 43; Hayes et al.1997, p. 6). Oregon spotted frogs in four of the 
occupied sub-basins (Lower Fraser River, Middle Klickitat River, Little 
Deschutes River, and Upper Klamath) are experiencing high to very high 
impacts due to ongoing hydrological changes based on the unified 
threats classification system ranking, described above. The altered 
hydrology has affected both breeding and wintering habitat, as 
discussed below.
    Water Diversions/Manipulations--Dams in the upper watersheds of the 
Puget Trough, Willamette Valley, and the Deschutes River have 
significantly reduced the amount of shallow overflow wetland habitat 
that was historically created by natural flooding (Cushman and Pearl 
2007, pp. 16-17). The inundation of large marsh complexes, and habitat 
fragmentation by the construction of reservoirs in the Cascades, has 
also eliminated and degraded Oregon spotted frog habitat. We are not 
aware of proposals for construction of new dams or reservoirs that 
would pose a threat to the existing Oregon spotted frog populations in 
British Columbia, Washington, or Oregon. However, the operation of 
existing dams/diversions/water control structures in Washington and 
Oregon continues to affect populations of Oregon spotted frogs due to 
extreme water fluctuations between and within years. These operations 
inundate and desiccate Oregon spotted frog habitat, while creating and 
maintaining habitat suitable for nonnative predaceous species.
    Water management in the Glenwood Valley, Washington (Middle 
Klickitat River sub-basin), appears to be playing a significant role in 
the decline of the Oregon spotted frog in this sub-basin. Water 
management in this area is complex due to the juxtaposition of private, 
county, and federal lands, and the location and ownership of water 
diversion structures. The need to retain water on the Conboy Lake NWR 
for resources, including the Oregon spotted frog, conflicts with needs 
of the intermingled and adjacent private landowners who want water 
drawn down in order to grow reed canarygrass for haying or to graze 
cattle. In addition, water management on the NWR is constrained by 
failing dikes, plugged ditches, undersized culverts, and lack of water 
control structures (USFWS 2012, p. 27). Dewatering by Conboy Lake NWR 
generally begins June 1, but begins as early as April on privately held 
lands, which also results in the dewatering of some refuge lands (USFWS 
2012, p. 28). The Camas Prairie area of the valley is drained annually 
to facilitate production of hay and grazing opportunities (USFWS 2012, 
p. 28).
    Dewatering breeding areas during the egg stage results in 
desiccation of Oregon spotted frog egg masses. Dewatering during the 
rearing stage results in tadpole mortality if water is not retained 
through metamorphosis. Physical barriers created by the dike system 
hinder young frogs (recently metamorphosed) from moving into permanent 
waters, especially when water is drawn down too quickly or a surface 
water connection to permanent water is not retained. Disconnection from 
permanent water occurs in some places in the valley, which results in 
young frogs becoming stranded and dying. In the areas where a 
connection to permanent water is retained and frogs are able to move 
with the water, the frogs become concentrated in smaller areas with 
predators such as fish and bullfrogs or become easy targets for 
terrestrial predators (Engler 2006, pers. comm.). This issue is 
complex, because the nonnative bullfrog is fairly common on the refuge, 
and studies indicate they can prey heavily on native frog species, 
including Oregon spotted frog.
    Water management can be used as a method to reduce bullfrog tadpole 
survival by drying up seasonal wetlands completely by early fall. 
However, widespread drawdowns for bullfrog tadpole control can conflict 
with the need to provide rearing, movement, and summertime water for 
Oregon spotted frogs (USFWS 2010b, pp. 36, 63, 67). Surveys since 1998 
have documented extensive annual declines in Oregon spotted frog egg 
mass numbers due to early water drawdowns and perennially low water; 
therefore, inadequate water or poorly timed water management activities 
continue to be a threat to Oregon spotted frog that has a significant 
negative impact on recruitment (the addition of young individuals to 
the adult population) and survival in the Middle Klickitat River sub-
basin.

[[Page 51670]]

    In the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin in Oregon, regulated water 
releases from Crane Prairie and Wickiup Reservoirs result in extreme 
seasonal fluctuations in stream flows that have affected the amount of 
overwintering and breeding habitat available for Oregon spotted frogs. 
Prior to the construction of Wickiup Dam in 1947, the Deschutes River 
below the current dam site exhibited stable flows averaging 
approximately 730 cubic feet per second (cfs) (20.7 cubic meters per 
second (cms)) and 660 cfs (18.7 cms) during summer and winter, 
respectively (Hardin-Davis 1991). Water storage in the reservoirs 
during winter, water releases in the spring, and water diversions for 
irrigation result in extremely low winter flows (October through March) 
in the Deschutes River below Wickiup Dam of approximately 20-30 cfs 
(0.6-0.8 cms) and high summer flows (July and August) of approximately 
1,400 cfs (39.6 cms). Because water releases from Wickiup Reservoir 
typically occur in early to mid-April, potential breeding habitats 
downstream of Wickiup Dam on the mainstem Deschutes River may not have 
sufficient water during the breeding season to facilitate frog movement 
and breeding unless supported by springs.
    Currently, Oregon spotted frog breeding is known to occur in five 
areas downstream of Wickiup Reservoir along the Deschutes River: Dead 
Slough, La Pine State Park, Sunriver, Slough Camp, and Old Mill casting 
pond (including adjacent LSA marsh). Oregon spotted frog habitat at 
Sunriver Resort has been managed and maintained by Sunriver Nature 
Center by using weirs to stabilize the water levels from the beginning 
of the breeding season through metamorphosis, which has resulted in a 
large and fairly stable population of Oregon spotted frogs, despite the 
low river flows during the breeding season. Breeding and dispersal of 
metamorphosing frogs at the Slough Camp site is likely affected by the 
seasonal timing of storage and release of water from the reservoir each 
year. Adults have been observed at the inlet to Slough Camp (east side) 
prior to the flow releases from the reservoir in early April (Higgins 
2012, pers. comm.), indicating that frogs may be staging to access 
breeding habitat that becomes accessible when flows are released for 
the irrigation season. At the onset of the storage season in October, 
the east side of Slough Camp drains rapidly of water, which could 
result in stranding of frogs that have bred and reared in this 
location. In 2012, Oregon spotted frogs were discovered in a water 
retention pond at The Old Mill District shops and in a riverine marsh 
(LSA marsh) across from the pond in downtown Bend, Oregon. The shallow 
pond, located within 20 ft (6 m) of the Deschutes River, is managed to 
provide year-round water that supports overwintering frogs. However, 
the impacts of regulated river flows to Oregon spotted frogs within the 
LSA marsh remain to be evaluated.
    Oregon spotted frog habitat in the Little Deschutes River sub-basin 
in Oregon are affected by regulated water management downstream of 
Crescent Lake Dam in Crescent Creek and the Little Deschutes River 
below the confluence with Crescent Creek. Regulated water releases from 
Crescent Lake typically occur in June, just after the breeding season. 
Egg mass stranding has been observed on three separate occasions along 
the Little Deschutes River, downstream of the confluence with Crescent 
Creek, prior to the release of irrigation water (Demmer 2012, pers. 
comm.). Overwintering habitats may be limited when flows from Crescent 
Lake typically cease in October at the onset of the storage season. 
Groundwater may be ameliorating the impacts from the regulated water 
management in Crescent Creek in locations where groundwater discharges 
to the stream (Gannett et al. 2001), but a full analysis has not yet 
been conducted.
    In the Klamath Basin, the Upper Klamath sub-basin populations may 
be affected by water diversion at Hyatt and Keene Creek dams. Hyatt and 
Keene Creek dams may divert up to 136 cfs of flow from Keene Creek, in 
the Klamath Basin, for agricultural, municipal and industrial, and 
hydroelectric power generation in the Rogue basin (OWRD 2002, 2008). 
While there is no known surface or subsurface connection between the 
operation of these facilities and Oregon spotted frog populations in 
the Parsnip Lakes, these dams may affect flows in Keene Creek, where 
isolated juvenile Oregon spotted frogs have been observed (Parker 2009, 
p. 5). The precise effect of water diversion at these facilities on 
habitat conditions is unknown and has been complicated by grazing 
practices and the loss of beaver dams in the area (Parker 2009, p. 5). 
While these facilities reduce Keene Creek flows during the winter and 
spring, groundwater contributions from Keene Creek reservoir may 
contribute to wetland conditions during dry summer conditions.
    Development--Other hydrological changes result from the development 
of homes and roads adjacent to wetlands with Oregon spotted frogs. 
Development introduces new impervious surfaces, which increase the 
amplitude and frequencies of peak highs and lows in water levels, a 
hydrologic characteristic that has been implicated in reduced amphibian 
species diversity in wetlands in King County, Washington (Richter and 
Azous 1995, p. 308). (See ``Development'' section below for further 
discussion.) Manmade barriers (e.g., culverts) on roads that intersect 
streams, rivers, and/or wetlands that disconnect or increase the 
amplitude of flow may prevent or impede Oregon spotted frog movements 
between breeding areas and other habitats. However, the extent or 
severity of this threat is not determinable at this time.
    Drought--Changes in water levels due to drought, and exacerbated by 
human modification, have caused seasonal loss of habitat and 
degradation of essential shoreline vegetation that has resulted in 
reduced recruitment regionally (Licht 1971, p. 122; Licht 1974, p. 
623). In 1997, Hayes identified 14 of 24 (58 percent) Oregon spotted 
frog breeding locations across the extant range as having a moderate to 
high risk from drought (1997, pp. 43-45). Drought risk was based on the 
potential for a drop in water level that could reduce or eliminate the 
species' habitat. Sites with the greatest risk included those sites 
with low precipitation levels and sites dependent upon surface flow 
rather than flow from springs. Sites with the greatest risk from 
drought are in the Klamath and Deschutes River basins of Oregon (Hayes 
1997, p. 44; Hayes et al. 1997, p. 6). The impact of a drought on an 
Oregon spotted frog population depends on the amount of complex marsh 
habitat at a site, the availability of alternative breeding and rearing 
areas, and the abundance of aquatic predators (Pearl 1999, p. 15).
    Low water levels resulting from drought may reduce populations of 
nonnative predators (fish and bullfrogs); however, both Hayes (1997, p. 
43) and Pearl (1999, pp. 17-18) hypothesized that low water conditions 
will increase the overlap between Oregon spotted frogs and nonnative 
predators, such as brook trout and bullfrogs, by concentrating tadpoles 
and froglets in the only available habitat. Such increased overlap is 
expected to increase predation losses of Oregon spotted frogs (Pearl et 
al. 2004, pp. 17-18). Several seasons of low water are expected to 
cause local population extirpations of Oregon spotted frogs, 
particularly where a small isolated population occupies a limited marsh 
habitat that has a high abundance of aquatic predators (Pearl 1999, p. 
15). Low water in breeding habitat will also expose eggs to increased 
ultraviolet radiation and higher mortality

[[Page 51671]]

associated with pathogens (Kiesecker et al. 2001a, p. 682) (see 
``Disease'' under Factor C section). Since 1960, the Klamath Basin has 
had 8 of the 10 lowest inflows for Upper Klamath Lake between 1991 and 
2009 (USFWS 2011a, p. 25). This has resulted in poor water quality and 
reduced Oregon spotted frog reproduction due to desiccation of egg 
masses (BLM and USFS multiple data sources). In addition, 5 of the 10 
sites in the Klamath Basin are vulnerable to water management practices 
that are timed such that the seasonal life-history needs of the Oregon 
spotted frog are not met.
    Although the Chemult Ranger District, Fremont-Winema National 
Forest, in Klamath County, Oregon, documented high numbers of egg 
masses at Jack Creek in 1999 and 2000 (335 and 320 respectively) 
(Forbes and Peterson 1999, p. 6), drought conditions impacted the 
Oregon spotted frog populations in subsequent years. The drought 
occurred during the time period in which the Oregon spotted frog 
population dramatically declined at Jack Creek (Gervais 2011, p. 15). 
In 2001, those conditions restricted Oregon spotted frog breeding to 
three small, disjunct areas representing less than 25 percent of their 
typical habitat. Although there were sufficient water depths in the 
breeding pools in 2002, only 17 percent of historical egg mass numbers 
were detected, and 50 percent of the eggs did not hatch compared to the 
68 to 74 percent hatch rates documented by Licht (1974, p. 618). The 
impacts of the drought were further complicated when Oregon spotted 
frog habitat was impacted by algal blooms, poor water quality, loss of 
protective habitat, and alteration of the bank condition (USDA 2009a, 
pp. 31, 33-34). By 2011, only 1 percent of historical egg mass numbers 
were documented at this site.
    Loss of Beaver--The American beaver (Castor canadensis) creates a 
complex mosaic of aquatic habitat types that provides the seasonal 
habitat needs of the Oregon spotted frog. Water impoundments created 
and engineered by beavers result in a water storage reservoir that 
raises the water table, reduces downstream erosion, lessens flood 
events (unless the dam is breached), holds water year round, and 
maintains stream flow during dry periods. Specifically, silt-filled 
abandoned ponds become shallow wetlands and beaver meadows, which have 
characteristics ideal for egg-laying. Beaver-maintained ponds retain 
deeper waters important for summer foraging and growth of metamorphosed 
frogs, and these ponds also provide overwintering habitat. When hypoxic 
conditions occur in the wetlands and ponds, the frogs can move to the 
more oxygenated waters of the associated creek, where they use 
microhabitat features created by beavers such as large woody debris and 
bank tunnels (Hallock and Pearson 2001, pp. 9-12; Shovlain 2005, p. 
10).
    Comparisons of beaver-occupied and not occupied watersheds in 
Montana in relation to Columbia spotted frog populations found: (a) 
Beaver watersheds had four times as many lentic and breeding sites as 
non-beaver watersheds; (b) frog breeding sites were dispersed within 
beaver drainages, while non-beaver watersheds often had only one frog 
breeding site; (c) frog breeding sites were evenly distributed across 
the elevational gradient in beaver watersheds, while they were centered 
above the watershed midpoint in non-beaver watersheds; (d) frog 
breeding sites were more dispersed within drainages with evidence of 
beaver presence than would be expected given the configuration of the 
underlying lentic habitat and have persisted despite being separated by 
distances larger than the frog's dispersal ability; (e) beaver 
watersheds with an average distance of less than 3.1 mi (5 km) between 
breeding sites showed higher levels of connectivity than did non-beaver 
watersheds with an average distance of more than 3.1 mi (5 km) between 
breeding sites; and (f) short beaver watersheds had lower levels of 
genetic divergence between breeding sites than those in long non-beaver 
watersheds separated by the same distance, even when distances were 
within the commonly observed dispersal ability of the frogs (Amish 
2006, entire). Columbia and Oregon spotted frogs were separated into 
two separate species (Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog) and Rana 
luteiventris (Columbia spotted frog)), based on genetic analysis (Green 
et al. 1996, 1997). They are closely related species and likely evolved 
in a similar way, with beavers playing a vital role in how frogs are 
distributed within a watershed.
    By 1900, beavers had been nearly extirpated in the continental 
United States (Baker and Hill 2003, p. 288). Beavers have made a 
remarkable comeback in many areas through natural recolonization and 
relocation efforts (ODFW 2012, p. 1); however, their role as ecological 
engineers is still severely curtailed region-wide, particularly within 
human-populated areas, because they are often considered a pest species 
because they can flood roads and property and destroy trees that are 
valued by landowners (Baker and Hill 2003, p. 301). In at least one 
site, a significant Oregon spotted frog decline was attributed to the 
removal of a series of beaver dams that resulted in water loss within 
some of the breeding areas leading to high embryo mortality attributed 
to stranding (Hayes et al. 2000, p. 2). In Trout Lake Creek in 
Washington, the loss of a beaver dam to a natural flood event resulted 
in a significant decline (117 egg masses in 2001 to 0 in 2012) in 
Oregon spotted frog reproduction (Hallock 2012, p. 33). Lack of beavers 
within a watershed has been determined by USFS and BLM to be a threat 
to maintenance of Oregon spotted frog habitat, and these agencies have 
identified the Williamson, Upper Klamath Lake, and Upper Klamath sub-
basins for reintroduction of beaver to aid Oregon spotted frogs.
    The States of Washington and Oregon allow lethal removal of beavers 
and their dams. Under Washington State law, the beaver is classified as 
a furbearer (WAC 232-12-007). The owner, the owner's immediate family, 
an employee, or a tenant of property may shoot or trap a beaver on that 
property if a threat to crops exists (RCW 77.36.030). In such cases, no 
special trapping permit is necessary for the use of live traps. 
However, a special trapping permit is required for the use of all traps 
other than live traps (RCW 77.15.192, 77.15.194; WAC 232-12-142). It is 
unlawful to release a beaver anywhere within Washington, other than on 
the property where it was legally trapped, without a permit to do so 
(RCW 77.15.250; WAC 232-12-271). To remove or modify a beaver dam, one 
must have a Hydraulic Project Approval--a permit issued by Washington 
Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) for work that will use, 
obstruct, change, or divert the bed or flow of State waters (RCW 
77.55). Beavers are present to a varying degree within all Oregon 
spotted frog occupied sub-basins in Washington and are maintaining 
breeding habitats in some areas within the South Fork Nooksack River, 
Black River, White Salmon River, and Middle Klickitat River sub-basins. 
Active removal of beavers or their dams is occurring in at least the 
South Fork Nooksack River, Black River, and Middle Klickitat River sub-
basins and may be occurring in the other occupied sub-basins in 
Washington.
    Beavers on public lands in Oregon are classified as Protected 
Furbearers by Oregon Revised Statute (ORS) 496.004 and Oregon 
Administrative Rule (OAR) 635-050-0050. A trapping license and open 
season are required to trap beavers on public lands. Beavers on private 
lands are defined as a Predatory Animal (ORS 610.002) and private 
landowners

[[Page 51672]]

or their agents may lethally remove beavers without a permit from the 
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Currently, the presence 
of beavers results in active maintenance of Oregon spotted frog habitat 
in the Little Deschutes River, Upper Deschutes River, Middle Fork 
Willamette River, Williamson River, and Upper Klamath Lake sub-basins. 
Active removal of beavers and their dams can occur in the Oregon 
spotted frog habitat in all of these occupied sub-basins in Oregon. 
Under State laws in both Washington and Oregon, it is lawful to kill 
beavers or to remove or modify beaver dams, and those lawful actions 
reduce or degrade wetland habitats used by all life stages of Oregon 
spotted frogs.
    Hydrologic Changes Conclusion--A variety of factors affecting the 
hydrology of wetlands and riverine systems cause the loss or 
detrimental modification of habitats necessary for the survival and 
reproduction of Oregon spotted frogs. Within 11 of the 15 sub-basins 
occupied by the species, water diversions/manipulations, development, 
drought, and loss of beavers are resulting in hydrological changes that 
pose a threat to all life stages of the Oregon spotted frog, including 
loss of or disconnections between breeding, rearing, and overwintering 
habitat, as well as desiccation or flooding of egg masses. The impact 
to Oregon spotted frogs of these hydrological changes has been 
determined--based on our unified threats classification system (Threats 
Synthesis Rangewide Analysis)--to be moderate to very high in five of 
the occupied sub-basins: Middle Klickitat River, Upper Deschutes River, 
Little Deschutes River, Williamson River, and Upper Klamath.
Changes in Vegetation
    Oregon spotted frog egg-laying sites are generally characterized by 
low vegetation canopy coverage and a substrate at least partially 
covered with the previous year's emergent herbaceous vegetation 
(Leonard 1997, p. 3; Hayes et al. 2000, p. 8; Pearl and Bury 2000, p. 
6; Pearl 1999, p. 15). Egg masses are generally found in shallow water 
over vegetation and are rarely found above open soil or rocky 
substrates (Hayes et al. 2000, p. 8, Pearl and Bury 2000, p. 8). Watson 
et al. (2003, p. 296) found that habitat selection by Oregon spotted 
frogs during the breeding season was strongly correlated with sedge 
habitat in Washington. In Oregon, Pearl et al. (2009a, p.141) found the 
dominant vegetation at egg-laying areas to be sedge-rush habitat.
    Loss of natural wetland and riverine disturbance processes as a 
result of human activities has caused, and continues to cause, 
degradation of Oregon spotted frog habitat. Historically, a number of 
natural forces created emergent wetlands favorable to Oregon spotted 
frogs. These forces included rivers meandering over their floodplains, 
removing trees and shrubs and baring patches of mineral soil; beavers 
felling trees and woody shrubs, trampling vegetation, and dragging 
limbs and logs through shallows; and summer fires burning areas that 
would be shallow water wetlands during the Oregon spotted frog breeding 
season the following spring. Today, all of these forces are greatly 
reduced, impaired, or have been permanently altered as a result of 
human activities. In addition, the current wetland management paradigm 
is generally a no-management approach that often results in continued 
invasion by invasive plants or succession to a tree- and shrub-
dominated community, both of which are unsuitable for Oregon spotted 
frog breeding.
    Invasive plants such as reed canarygrass may completely change the 
structure of wetland environments, and can create dense areas of 
vegetation unsuitable as Oregon spotted frog habitat (McAllister and 
Leonard 1997, p. 23). Reed canarygrass competitively excludes other 
native plant species and limits the biological and habitat diversity of 
host wetland and riparian habitats (Antieau 1998, p. 2). Reed 
canarygrass also removes large quantities of water through 
evapotranspiration, potentially affecting shallow groundwater 
hydrologic characteristics (Antieau 1998, p. 2). Reed canarygrass 
dominates large areas of Oregon spotted frog habitat at lower 
elevations (Hayes 1997, p. 44; Hayes et al. 1997, p. 6) and is 
broadening its range to high-elevation (i.e., above 4,500 feet (>1,371 
m)) Oregon spotted frog habitat in the Little Deschutes and Upper 
Deschutes River sub-basins in Oregon (USDA 2008, USDA 2009b, USDA 
2009c, and USDA 2011b). Watson et al. (2003, p. 296) compared the types 
and amount of habitat used by Oregon spotted frogs and found the frogs 
used areas of reed canarygrass less frequently than other habitats 
based on availability. Given this apparent avoidance of reed 
canarygrass, vegetation shifts to reed canarygrass dominance in 
wetlands occupied by Oregon spotted frogs are likely affecting Oregon 
spotted frog breeding behavior.
    Studies conducted in Washington (White 2002, pp. 45-46; Pearl and 
Hayes 2004, pp. 22-23) demonstrated that the quality of breeding 
habitats for Oregon spotted frogs is improved by reducing the height of 
the previous years' emergent vegetation (i.e., reed canarygrass in 
these cases). However, improvement in breeding habitat for Oregon 
spotted frogs was retained only if vegetation management was 
maintained. For example, in all occupied sub-basins in Washington and 
in the Klamath sub-basin in Oregon, an indirect effect of the removal 
of cattle grazing has been the reduction in the amount and quality of 
breeding and rearing habitat due to encroachment by vegetation, such as 
reed canarygrass and shrubs. The effects of grazing vary among sites 
and likely depend on a suite of factors including, but not limited to, 
timing, intensity, duration, and how these factors interact with 
seasonal habitat use patterns of Oregon spotted frog.
    Reed canarygrass is present at three of the British Columbia 
breeding areas and is the dominant vegetation at most of the breeding 
areas in Washington. In Oregon, reed canarygrass is colonizing portions 
of Big Marsh and Little Lava Lake, both of which are headwaters to the 
Little Deschutes and Upper Deschutes River sub-basins, respectively. 
Reed canarygrass also is present in Oregon spotted frog habitat at Lava 
Lake, Davis Lake, Wickiup Reservoir, multiple sites along the Little 
Deschutes River (i.e., 7 out of 13 surveyed sites), Slough Camp, Wood 
River Wetland, the Klamath Marsh NWR, Fourmile Creek, and the 
Williamson River. The impact to Oregon spotted frogs due to habitat 
loss from reed canarygrass invasion has been determined through our 
threat analyses to be high to very high in seven sub-basins: Lower 
Fraser River in British Columbia and all sub-basins in Washington. The 
effects of reed canarygrass to Oregon spotted frog habitat are 
considered to be moderate in two sub-basins in Oregon: Little Deschutes 
River and Upper Deschutes River.
    Vegetation succession was indicated as a negative factor at almost 
all remaining Oregon spotted frog sites analyzed by Hayes, who noted 
that some sites were particularly vulnerable to habitat loss where 
marsh-to-meadow changes were occurring (Hayes 1997, p. 45). Pearl 
(1999, p. 15) suggested that the aquatic habitat types necessary for 
Oregon spotted frog reproductive sites in lake basins exist only within 
a narrow successional window. As marsh size decreases due to plant 
succession, shallow warm water sites required by Oregon spotted frogs 
are lost to increased shading by woody vegetation (Pearl 1999, pp. 15-
16). Investigations by Hayes (1997, p. 45) and Pearl (1999,

[[Page 51673]]

p. 16) ranked 22 of 28 Oregon spotted frog sites as having a moderate 
or high threat from vegetation succession. Encroachment around and into 
marshes by lodgepole pine and other woody vegetation is occurring at 
Conboy Lake in Washington (Ludwig 2011, p. 3) and at multiple breeding 
locations in Oregon, and is likely facilitated by ditching and draining 
of wetter sites to improve grazing (Cushman and Pearl 2007, p. 17). The 
highest impact to Oregon spotted frogs resulting from lodgepole pine 
encroachment is taking place in the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin and 
in the upper elevations of the Little Deschutes River sub-basin in 
Oregon, where these breeding habitats (i.e., those within the riparian 
lodgepole plant association group), evolved with fire as a natural 
disturbance process. The loss of natural fire cycles in forests of the 
eastern Cascade Mountains due to suppression on National Forest land 
since 1910 (Agee 1993, p. 58) has allowed succession to continue 
without disturbance. Plot data suggest that historical fire return 
intervals for riparian lodgepole pine vegetation types in central 
Oregon ranged from 12 to 36 years and averaged 24 years (Simpson 2007, 
p. 9-6), indicating that this disturbance process was more frequent 
historically in this forest type.
    The United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources 
Conservation Service (NRCS) and Farm Service Agency have several 
voluntary programs, including the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), CREP, 
and Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program. The WRP and CREP are voluntary 
programs designed to help landowners address concerns regarding the use 
of natural resources and promote landowner conservation. Under the WRP, 
landowners enter into a voluntary agreement with NRCS to protect, 
restore, and enhance wetlands on their property. Various enrollment 
options are available to landowners, including Permanent Easements, 30-
Year Easements, Restoration Cost-Share Agreements, or 30-Year Contracts 
(USDA NRCS 2013). Under the CREP, the Farm Service Agency provides 
payments to landowners who sign a contract committing to keeping lands 
out of agricultural production for a period of 10 to 15 years. NRCS 
produces technical guidelines generally aimed at improving soil 
conditions, agricultural productivity, and water quality, which 
generally do not result in specific conservation measures for the 
protection of the Oregon spotted frog. Rather, restoration actions 
funded or carried out by NRCS include planting trees and shrubs in 
riparian areas.
    These activities have had unforeseen consequences to Oregon spotted 
frog habitat by degrading breeding habitat because, as discussed above, 
tree- and shrub-dominated communities are unsuitable for Oregon spotted 
frog breeding. This is known to have occurred within the last 10 years 
at breeding locations in Black, Samish, and South Fork Nooksack Rivers 
in Washington (Nisqually NWR; Bohannon et al. 2012) and may be 
happening elsewhere. Currently, one known occupied private land parcel 
has entered into a WRP agreement in the Klamath Basin in Oregon. The 
WRP agreement for this particular parcel allows no grazing in 
perpetuity, which, in the long term, may result in reduced quality of 
Oregon spotted frog habitat. We are aware of at least one CREP contract 
in the South Fork Nooksack River sub-basin that resulted in conifer 
tree plantings in Oregon spotted frog breeding locations, which 
resulted in the wetted areas becoming drier and mostly shaded. The 
Service has had preliminary discussions with NRCS and is working with 
the agency to address this management issue.
    Changes in vegetation conclusion--Expansion of reed canarygrass 
into Oregon spotted frog habitat poses a threat to the continued 
existence of these habitats given the invasive nature of the plant and 
its ability to outcompete native vegetation in wetland habitats. 
Shallow water wetlands inhabited by Oregon spotted frog are threatened 
through rapid encroachment of the grass and increased 
evapotranspiration of water. Loss of habitat at breeding sites due to 
reed canarygrass is high to very high in seven occupied sub-basins in 
British Columbia and Washington. Reed canarygrass poses a threat in the 
Little Deschutes and Upper Deschutes River sub-basins in Oregon, and is 
present at varying abundances in many locations occupied by Oregon 
spotted frog.
    Vegetation succession, particularly where natural disturbance 
processes are lacking, is a negative factor at almost all Oregon 
spotted frog sites. Structural changes to vegetation that occur through 
succession, whether from native or nonnative grasses, shrubs, or trees, 
results in decreased wetland size and amount of open water area 
available to frogs. Furthermore, shrub and tree encroachment increases 
shading of shallow warm water sites required by Oregon spotted frogs 
for breeding and rearing. Encroachment by lodgepole pine and other 
woody vegetation is occurring at multiple breeding locations in 
Washington and Oregon and is considered a threat in at least seven sub-
basins: Lower Deschutes River, Upper Deschutes River, McKenzie River, 
Middle Fork Willamette River, Williamson River, Upper Klamath Lake, and 
Upper Klamath. Unintended loss of habitat is taking place as a result 
of riparian restoration activities that remove grazing and plant shrubs 
and trees within sub-basins occupied by Oregon spotted frogs in 
Washington and Oregon. Therefore, based on the best scientific 
information available, changes in vegetation pose a threat to Oregon 
spotted frogs due to habitat loss and modification throughout the range 
of the species.
Development
    Removal or alteration of natural riparian vegetation around 
watercourses or wetlands for urban or agricultural development 
compromises aquatic ecosystem function via reductions in biodiversity 
and water quality and quantity. Residential and commercial encroachment 
often destroys or disturbs natural vegetation, alters water flows and 
seasonal flooding, or results in the loss of entire wetland complexes. 
Agricultural practices, including grazing, can result in the rapid 
removal of water across the landscape for stimulation of early grass 
production. All of these factors have been shown to reduce the survival 
and reproductive capacity of Oregon spotted frogs, as discussed 
previously.
    Although the historical impact of development has significantly 
reduced the abundance and geographic distributions of Oregon spotted 
frogs (for example, the Fraser River Valley in British Columbia, Puget 
Trough in Washington, and Willamette Valley in Oregon), development is 
currently an ongoing threat at only a few specific locations. In 
British Columbia, housing and residential developments continue to 
remove or alter habitat at Mountain and Maria Sloughs, and there are 
new commercial developments at Mountain Slough (COSFRT 2012, p. 26).
    In Washington, some counties prohibit draining of wetlands and some 
counties require setbacks from wetlands (see Factor D for further 
information), but this is not consistent, nor consistently implemented. 
In addition, a large proportion of the breeding areas for Oregon 
spotted frogs in Washington is not technically classified as a wetland 
under the county definitions because these areas are seasonally flooded 
pastures. The private lands surrounding breeding areas for the Oregon 
spotted frog in most of the occupied sub-basins are presently zoned as 
rural or rural

[[Page 51674]]

residential, which is designed only to allow low-density housing and 
maintain the rural and agricultural uses. However, the human 
populations of all counties in the Puget Sound area are growing and 
Thurston, Whatcom, and Skagit Counties have the 6th, 9th, and 10th 
largest populations, respectively, among Washington State's 39 counties 
(U.S. Census Bureau data downloaded August 29, 2012). Between 1990 and 
2011, the populations in these three counties have doubled. This 
population increase is expected to continue, resulting in new 
residential and commercial developments that are likely to alter 
vegetation, water flow, and the seasonal flooding that creates and 
maintains habitat for Oregon spotted frogs.
    Development of land along the Little Deschutes River and its 
tributaries in Oregon is a continued threat to the Oregon spotted frog 
due to loss or modification of its habitat. The rural character of the 
Little Deschutes River watershed, the attractive location of private 
property on the Little Deschutes River, and relatively inexpensive land 
prices have contributed to a rapidly growing population (UDWC 2002, p. 
12). In the 1960s and 1970s before Oregon Statewide planning regulated 
growth and development, 15,000 one- and two-acre lots were created in 
subdivisions in the vicinity of the Little Deschutes River. Since 1989, 
Deschutes County has been the fastest growing county in Oregon on a 
percentage basis. The unincorporated areas of Deschutes County, 
including the lower portions of the Little Deschutes River, are 
projected to increase in population size by as much as 56 percent above 
the 2000 level over the next 20 years (UDWC 2002, p. 12). This rapid 
population growth rate is expected to continue into the future (UDWC 
2002, p. 12), thereby increasing risks to wetland habitats that support 
Oregon spotted frogs in the vicinity of the Little Deschutes River.
    Development in the Klamath Basin is also increasing in Oregon. The 
population of Klamath County increased 10.5 percent from 1990 to 2000 
(U.S. Census Bureau 2008) and annual housing starts have increased by 
13 percent since 2000 (Portland State University 2011 Web site). Much 
of the growth is outside of city boundaries, and several large 
residential developments are within or adjacent to wetlands that 
historically had the ability to support Oregon spotted frog habitat. In 
addition, agricultural practices, including grazing, occur extensively 
within all three occupied sub-basins. This has the potential to result 
in the desiccation or inundation of Oregon spotted frog habitat (see 
the ``Oregon'' discussion under ``Livestock Grazing,'' below). While it 
is unknown to what extent urban development has impacted Oregon spotted 
frog habitat, agricultural development is ongoing and continues to 
impact Oregon spotted frog habitat.
    Development conclusion--Development of residential, commercial, and 
agricultural properties is continuing in at least 10 of the sub-basins 
occupied by the Oregon spotted frog. In some areas, the human 
population is expected to continue to grow. Development activities 
directly and indirectly have removed or altered habitat necessary to 
support all life stages of Oregon spotted frogs. Therefore, we consider 
development--both at the present time and in the future--to be a threat 
to the Oregon spotted frog due to loss or modification of its habitat.
Livestock Grazing
    In several riparian zones and wetland complexes in British 
Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, livestock grazing occurs within 
Oregon spotted frog habitat, although its effects vary with the site 
conditions, livestock numbers, timing, and intensity. Livestock 
(primarily horses and cows) can cause direct mortality by trampling 
adult frogs (Ross et al. 1999, p. 163) and egg masses when livestock 
are allowed in shallow water habitat when frogs are present. Livestock 
graze and trample emergent and riparian vegetation, compact soil in 
riparian and upland areas, and reduce bank stability, which results in 
increased sedimentation and water pollution via urine and feces (Hayes 
1997, p. 44; Hayes 1998b, p. 8; 61 FR 25813). The resulting increases 
in temperature and sediment production, alterations to stream 
morphology, effects on prey organisms, and changes in water quality 
negatively affect Oregon spotted frog habitat. Livestock trampling 
compacts affected soils and decreases soil porosity, which results in 
reduced water holding capacity (Kauffman and Krueger 1984, p. 434). 
Livestock also act as vectors for the introduction of weed seeds that 
alter riparian vegetation characteristics (Belsky and Gelbard 2000, p. 
9), and they are a source of introduced parasites and pathogens (see 
Factor C discussion).
    Fourteen of twenty-eight (50 percent) sites surveyed in British 
Columbia, Washington, and Oregon were directly or indirectly influenced 
(negatively and positively) by livestock grazing (Hayes 1997, p. 44; 
Hayes et al. 1997, p. 6; Pearl 1999, p. 16). Severe habitat 
modification has been caused by cattle at several Oregon spotted frog 
localities in Oregon. Large numbers of cattle at a site negatively 
affect habitat for Oregon spotted frogs, particularly at springs used 
by frogs as overwintering sites (Hayes 1997, p. 44). However, in recent 
work monitoring the effects of livestock grazing on Oregon spotted 
frogs in grazed and ungrazed treatments at Jack Creek on the Fremont 
Winema National Forests in Oregon, Shovlain (2009, entire) suggested 
that Oregon spotted frogs did not modify their habitat use in response 
to increased grazing pressure in summer-time habitats. However, 
Shovlain's analyses may have been affected by a relatively low sample 
size and unbalanced data, the inability to account for frog habitat use 
outside of the plots, as well as the possibility that the frog's 
habitat use was related to the availability of water rather than 
vegetation density or livestock effects (Shovlain 2009, pp. 11-12). In 
summer-time habitat, livestock, in particular cattle, may increase 
Oregon spotted frog's susceptibility to desiccation and trampling if 
both frogs and livestock are using the same remnant pools. In addition, 
cattle can impact the quantity of available water. A cow can drink 15 
to 20 gallons of water per day (Engle 2002, cited in USDA 2004, p. 31). 
For example, Jack Creek and its tributaries provide the only sustained 
water to cow-calf pairs within the Jack Creek grazing allotment, and 
the cows are on the allotment for about 100 days per year (USDA 2004, 
p. 31). During drought years, such as 2000 through 2004 (see 
``Drought'' discussion, above), the remnant pools, with the added 
pressure of livestock, may dry up, resulting in frogs being stranded 
and desiccating.
    Moderate livestock grazing can, in some instances (for example, 
Dempsey Creek in Washington), benefit Oregon spotted frogs by 
maintaining openings in the vegetation in highly altered wetland 
communities (Hayes 1997, p. 44; Hayes et al. 1997, p. 6; McAllister and 
Leonard 1997, p. 25). Watson et al. (2003, p. 299) found that habitat 
at 78 percent of the Oregon spotted frog locations surveyed at the 
Dempsey Creek site had signs of grazing, which created penetrable, open 
habitat that was otherwise too dense for frog use.
    British Columbia--Only one known breeding location (Morris Valley) 
in the Lower Fraser River sub-basin is grazed (by horses) (COSEWIC 
2011, p. 33), and grazing is identified as a specific concern for 
Oregon spotted frogs at this location because of the potential for 
trampling of egg masses, bank erosion, and input of feces (COSEWIC 
2011, p. 33).
    Washington--In the recent past, it appears that grazing was 
beneficial to

[[Page 51675]]

Oregon spotted frogs at all remaining breeding areas in Washington; 
however, grazing no longer occurs in the breeding areas in four of the 
six sub-basins due to land manager preferences and/or water quality 
regulations that prohibit grazing within certain distances from rivers 
and wetlands. Active management is required to maintain the Oregon 
spotted frog habitat at these locations due to heavy reed canarygrass 
infestations, but funding is limited and grazing had been the least 
expensive and easiest management option. In the Black River, grazing 
ceased along Dempsey Creek when the privately owned dairy operation was 
sold. Cows were reintroduced to the Port Blakely Tree Farm and Musgrove 
(Nisqually NWR) parcels in 2008 (USFWS 2011b), as part of a reed 
canarygrass control experiment; however, Oregon spotted frog egg mass 
numbers have not increased as was expected (WDFW 2011 database; USFWS 
2011b). Grazing occurs at the only known breeding location in the Lower 
Chilliwack River sub-basin. This site has likely persisted as a result 
of dairy cows maintaining the site in a state of early seral habitat 
(Bohannon et al. 2012, p. 17).
    Oregon--Overgrazing of the Camas Prairie in Oregon was considered a 
threat to Oregon spotted frog prior to 2008, after which grazing was 
restricted (Corkran 2012). Overgrazing by cattle reduced the vegetative 
hiding cover for frogs, making them more susceptible to predation. 
Livestock-induced fertilization resulted in an increased density of the 
aquatic vegetation, which inhibited the ability of frogs to drop below 
the water's surface when threatened by predation while basking (Corkran 
2012, pers. comm). However, grazing may be considered as a management 
tool to maintain early seral habitat for Oregon spotted frogs in the 
future if necessary (Corkran 2012, pers. comm).
    None of the central Oregon Cascade breeding locations within the 
Deschutes and Willamette National Forests is within grazing allotments. 
Known breeding locations occur within allotments on the BLM Prineville 
District lands along Crescent Creek, Long Prairie Creek, and the Little 
Deschutes River. Currently, only the Crescent Creek area is affected by 
active grazing on BLM lands, although there is potential for grazing to 
occur on BLM lands along the Little Deschutes River. Grazing has been 
cited as an impact to riparian and wetland habitats on private lands 
along the Little Deschutes River (The Wetlands Conservancy, 2004, p. 
22). Wetland habitats in the Little Deschutes River sub-basin have been 
negatively impacted by grazing through removal of riparian vegetation, 
which destabilizes banks and increases channel incision, resulting in 
less water retention in riparian wetlands and conifer encroachment 
(UDWC 2002, pp. 21 and 53).
    Six sites in the Klamath Basin are associated with grazing: Jack 
Creek, Buck Lake, Parsnip Lakes, and on private lands on the Wood 
River, Williamson River, and adjacent to Klamath Marsh NWR. These sites 
are potentially vulnerable to both the direct impacts of grazing 
sedimentation, trampling, as well as the indirect effect of egg mass 
desiccation resulting from water management techniques that drain water 
early in frog breeding season to stimulate grass production. Livestock 
grazing is cited as a specific concern for Oregon spotted frogs at Jack 
Creek, Fremont-Winema National Forest, Chemult Ranger District, in 
Oregon (USDA 2004, pp. 56-57). Since 1999, the population has reduced 
from 670 breeding adults (335 egg masses) to 34 breeding adults (17 egg 
masses) in 2011. The two primary breeding sites in Jack Creek occur on 
private land that is heavily grazed in combination with USFS 
allotments. This intensity of grazing is expected to have degraded the 
quality of the Oregon spotted frog breeding habitat and reduced 
reproduction (Shovlain 2005).
    Since 2008, current USFS management at the Jack Creek site has not 
permitted cattle grazing on lands occupied by Oregon spotted frogs 
(Markus 2012, pers. comm.). However, 419 cow/calf pairs specifically 
permitted for grazing have access to 61 ac (25 ha) of potential, but 
not currently supporting, Oregon spotted frog habitat on this 68,349-ac 
(27,660-ha) combination of USFS and private pasture. Within this 
pasture, however, there are several riparian areas accessible to 
grazing cattle as well as one offsite watering source installed on 
adjacent private land. The permittee for this pasture has grazed their 
private lands where Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur, although 
the number of cattle and timing are not known. However, the permittee 
has also partnered with the Service to complete multiple conservation 
actions to benefit Oregon spotted frogs and their habitats on their 
private lands including--but not limited to--the installation of 2 to 3 
offsite watering sources, protection of frog ponds, thinning of 
encroaching lodgepole pine trees, and installation of a wattle for 
water retention (Markus 2012, pers. comm.).
    Conflicts between cattle and frogs increase when stream flows are 
limited, especially when cattle are using the creek for drinking 
(Gervais 2011, p. 15). Between 2001 and 2005, and again in 2007, 
drought conditions affected habitat for Oregon spotted frogs in the 
Chemult Ranger District, Fremont-Winema National Forest in Oregon. 
However, until 2008, when grazing was restricted, 419 cow/calf pairs 
had access to the habitat areas associated with Oregon spotted frogs 
(Gervais 2011, p. 11). Cattle were observed congregating in Oregon 
spotted frog habitat because nearly every other water source in the 
allotment went dry (Simpson 2002, pers. comm.). Trampling of frogs by 
cattle and alterations in water quality, bank structure, and loss of 
protective vegetation compounded the impacts of the reduction of 
available habitat due to drought conditions on Oregon spotted frog 
reproduction (USDA 2009a, pp. 31, 33-34).
    Livestock Grazing Conclusion--Where livestock grazing coincides 
with Oregon spotted frog habitat, impacts to the species include 
trampling of frogs and changes in habitat quality due to increased 
sedimentation, increased water temperatures, water management 
techniques, and reduced water quality. The effects of livestock grazing 
vary with site conditions, livestock numbers, and timing and intensity 
of grazing. In Washington, all of the known occupied areas have been 
grazed in the recent past, but where grazing has been removed, heavy 
infestations by invasive reed canarygrass have reduced or eliminated 
habitat for Oregon spotted frogs unless other management techniques 
were applied. In controlled circumstances, moderate grazing can be 
beneficial if it is the only practical method for controlling invasive, 
nonnative vegetation and sustaining short vegetation characteristics 
needed for egg laying. Grazing is ongoing in 10 of the occupied sub-
basins and is considered to be a threat to Oregon spotted frogs at 
these locations.
Conservation Efforts To Reduce Habitat Destruction, Modification, or 
Curtailment of Its Range
    British Columbia--Past and ongoing habitat conservation activities 
in British Columbia include habitat creation at MD Aldergrove, Maria 
Slough, and Mountain Slough; habitat rehabilitation at Maria and 
Mountain Sloughs; and invasive grass species management at MD 
Aldergrove, Maria Slough, and Mountain Slough. There also is a 
landowner stewardship contact program that encourages stewardship 
activities at Mountain Slough. However, the Service concluded that 
these measures are not sufficient to ameliorate threats to

[[Page 51676]]

Oregon spotted frogs in the Lower Fraser River.
    Washington--In Washington, some reed canarygrass management is 
taking place at most of the breeding locations in the Black River, on 
the Trout Lake NAP, and at Conboy Lake NWR. These management techniques 
include mowing, burning, cattle grazing, and shade cloth. However, 
these management techniques are not widespread at any one location or 
adequate to prevent loss of egg-laying habitat.
    Conboy Lake NWR in Washington has completed several wetland 
restoration projects to restore natural hydrological processes to 
portions of the refuge. This enabled the NWR to maintain independent 
water management of several wetlands, regardless of the water-related 
impacts of local landowners. However, under current management, water 
is not retained throughout the year on most of the NWR and adjacent 
private wetlands, and many of these areas that had Oregon spotted frogs 
in the late 1990s no longer have Oregon spotted frogs.
    Cattle grazing ceased at Trout Lake NAP in Washington after a 
monitoring study showed no apparent positive effect on the Oregon 
spotted frog population trends (Wilderman and Hallock 2004, p. 10), 
indicating either that grazing was not an effective tool for reed 
canarygrass management at this location, or that perhaps reed 
canarygrass was not as threatening to breeding frogs at this location 
as previously thought. This may be because winter snow pack flattens 
the reed canarygrass, creating a mostly sun-exposed water surface 
available to Oregon spotted frogs during the breeding season. The 
observed negative consequences of grazing, while perhaps acceptable if 
there was clear benefit to the Oregon spotted frog populations, were 
not compatible with other site management goals and posed a limitation 
to future restoration on the site (Wilderman and Hallock 2004, p. 14). 
Instead, problematic areas of reed canarygrass are being managed using 
ground barriers and occasional fall mowing (Hallock 2012, p. 31).
    Under the Washington State Forest Practices Act, Washington 
Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) must approve certain activities 
related to growing, harvesting, or processing timber on all local 
government, State, and privately owned forest lands. WDNR's mission is 
to protect public resources while maintaining a viable timber industry. 
The primary goal of the forest practices rules is to achieve protection 
of water quality, fish and wildlife habitat, and capital improvements 
while ensuring that harvested areas are reforested. Presently, the 
Washington State Forest Practices Rules do not specifically protect 
Oregon spotted frogs; however, they do include protection measures for 
surface waters and wetlands. The intent of the protection measures, 
such as buffers on wetlands, is to limit excess coarse and fine 
sediment delivery and to maintain hydrologic regimes. Tree harvest is 
limited in wetland buffers, which may in turn facilitate vegetation 
encroachment. Landowners have the option to develop a management plan 
for the species if it resides on their property, or if landowners 
choose not to develop a management plan for the species with WDFW, 
their forest practices application will be conditioned to protect this 
public resource. While the Washington State Forest Practices Rules 
provide some protections for the Oregon spotted frog and its habitat, 
the direct and indirect consequences of limiting tree harvest within 
the wetland buffer is vegetation encroachment that is resulting in loss 
of wetlands (i.e., reduced size) and shading.
    NRCS is overseeing the restoration at two Samish River locations 
and is incorporating Oregon spotted frog breeding habitat requirements 
into its planned restoration (that originally included de-leveling and 
tree and shrub plantings in the breeding areas) (Bohannan et al. 2012, 
p. 17).
    Oregon--In Oregon, several conservation actions have been and 
continue to be implemented for Oregon spotted frogs in the Deschutes 
River Basin. Sunriver Nature Center has been monitoring the frog 
population at the Sunriver Resort since 2000. Although this area is 
affected by the fluctuating flows out of Wickiup Reservoir, Sunriver 
Nature Center has constructed weirs that allow the water level to be 
steady or rising from the time of egg-laying through hatching, thus 
assisting the persistence of this large and stable population. The 
Deschutes National Forest has closed perimeter ditches at Big Marsh, 
where past drainage and grazing had led to degradation of the marsh. 
The Mt. Hood National Forest has fenced sections of Camas Prairie and 
restricted excessive grazing of the meadow. Implementation of these 
conservation actions is expected to improve breeding success of Oregon 
spotted frogs at these locations, but data confirming this hypothesis 
are not yet available. In addition, BLM's Prineville District Office 
recently completed encroachment removal projects and repairs to 
headcuts in systems that have had historically or currently have Oregon 
spotted frogs. Headcutting is a process of active erosion in a channel 
caused by an abrupt change in slope. Turbulence in the water undercuts 
substrate material resulting in collapse of the upper level. This 
under-cut-collapse process advances up the stream channel. The results 
of BLM's efforts are unknown at this time; however, they were completed 
specifically to ameliorate threats to Oregon spotted frog habitat.
    Since 1994, in the Oregon portion of the Klamath Basin, the 
Service's Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, in collaboration with 
private landowners, has restored approximately 8,832 ac (3,568 ha) of 
wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath Lake. Several habitat restoration 
projects are underway in known occupied areas including Crane Creek, 
Sevenmile Creek, Jack Creek, and the Upper Williamson River. 
Restoration projects include re-channelizing creeks and rivers to 
provide breeding and rearing habitat, construction of breeding ponds, 
construction of riparian fences to exclude cattle, and the installation 
of alternate water sources. To date, Oregon spotted frogs have been 
detected in only one restored, previously unoccupied wetland area, 
although survey efforts in restored habitats have not yet been 
completed.
    The BLM's Klamath Falls Field Office has initiated several habitat 
restoration projects within their Wood River Wetland property, 
including installation of water control structures, construction of 
breeding ponds, and canal restructuring for additional breeding areas. 
To date, 3,000 ac (1,214 ha) of wetland habitats associated with the 
Wood River Canal have been restored. However, for reasons unknown, 
Oregon spotted frogs have not been detected in the restored wetlands, 
but rather have only been associated with the canal system (BLM 
multiple data sources). BLM actively manages the water in the canal 
during the breeding season to prevent stranding and inundating Oregon 
spotted frog egg masses.
    The Fremont-Winema National Forest, Chemult Ranger District, in the 
Oregon portion of the Klamath Basin has initiated a project to restore 
habitat along Jack Creek, which as of 2008, includes the removal of 
cattle from a portion of the lands owned by the USFS (Gervais 2011 p. 
9). In addition, encroaching lodgepole pine (Gervais 2011 pp. 11-12) 
has been thinned on both USFS and private lands as a result of this 
project. In cooperation with adjacent private landowners, the USFS 
recently released seven beavers into the

[[Page 51677]]

Jack Creek watershed (Simpson 2012, pers. comm.), which is intended to 
increase the open water and breeding habitat for Oregon spotted frogs. 
One of the private landowners has also installed log fences to protect 
three Oregon spotted frog pools, and two off-stream water sources to 
exclude cattle from riparian areas, and wattle installment (a 
fabrication of poles interwoven with slender branches) for water 
retention (Markus 2012, pers. comm.). In addition, in 2009, the USFS 
installed fences at Buck Meadow to control grazing on the USFS lands 
(Lerum 2012, p. 18). The long-term benefits of the USFS efforts are 
unknown at this time; however, these actions were completed to 
specifically ameliorate threats to the Oregon spotted frog's habitat.
    The USFS has completed and continues to work on Oregon spotted frog 
site management plans that identify threats and management actions to 
reduce threats at each of the following sites: Sevenmile, Jack Creek, 
Buck Lake, Dilman Meadow, Hosmer Lake, Lava and Little Lava Lake, Big 
Marsh, Odell/Davis Lake, Little Cultus Lake, Mink Lake Basin, and Gold 
Lake. Implementation of management actions is voluntary and dependent 
upon funding, and will likely occur at the District level.
    The comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Klamath Marsh NWR 
includes conservation actions for maintaining or improving local 
habitat conditions for the benefit of Oregon spotted frogs on NWR 
property. These include: Restoring or maintaining hydrologic regimes, 
protecting and restoring ephemeral and permanent wetlands, restoring or 
maintaining open water and early seral vegetation communities, 
reevaluating or discontinuing fish stocking practices, developing 
comprehensive grazing strategies or adaptive management plans where 
livestock occur in habitat, and working locally and cooperatively to 
maintain and restore habitat conditions and to monitor the outcomes of 
management actions for Oregon spotted frog (USFWS 2010a, p. 72). The 
CCPs detail program planning levels that are sometimes substantially 
above current budget allocations and are primarily used for strategic 
planning and priority setting; thus inclusion of a project in a CCP 
does not guarantee that the project will be implemented. However, 
implementation of the above conservation actions within the CCP could 
benefit a minimum of 338 breeding individuals. These actions are 
expected to improve the status of the Oregon spotted frog on the 
Klamath Marsh NWR if adequate budget allocations are provided and the 
projects are implemented. Existing wetland restoration activities at 
Klamath Marsh NWR have been limited to invasive weed management (Mauser 
2012, pers. comm.).
    Summary of habitat or range destruction, modification, or 
curtailment--Past human actions have destroyed, modified, and curtailed 
the range and habitat available for the Oregon spotted frog, which is 
now absent from an estimated 76 to 90 percent of its former range. The 
loss of wetlands is continuing at certain locations in at least 10 of 
the 15 remaining occupied sub-basins, particularly on private lands. 
The historical and ongoing alteration of hydrological processes 
resulting from the operation of existing water diversions/manipulation 
structures, existing and new roads, residential development, 
agricultural areas, and the removal of beavers continues to impact 
Oregon spotted frogs and their habitat. The changes in hydrology result 
in the loss of breeding through inundation or desiccation of egg 
masses, loss or degradation of habitat necessary for all Oregon spotted 
frog life stages, and the creation of habitat conditions that support 
nonnative predaceous species.
    Reed canarygrass invasions, plant succession, and restoration 
plantings continue to modify and reduce the amount and quality of 
habitat necessary for all Oregon spotted frog life stages. The timing 
and intensity of livestock grazing, or lack thereof, continues to 
change the quality of Oregon spotted frog habitat in British Columbia, 
Washington, and Oregon due to increased sedimentation, increased water 
temperatures, and reduced water quality. Oregon spotted frogs in all 
currently occupied sub-basins are subject to one or more of these 
threats to their habitat. Eleven of the 15 occupied sub-basins are 
currently experiencing a high to very high level of impact, primarily 
due to hydrological changes/manipulations, vegetation encroachment, and 
reed canarygrass invasions. These impacts are ongoing, are expected to 
continue into the future, and affect habitat that supports all life 
stages of the Oregon spotted frog.
    The benefits of the conservation actions to Oregon spotted frogs 
are site-specific, but are not sufficient to ameliorate the habitat 
threats at a sub-basin scale. Wetland restoration efforts have been 
implemented, but rarely are these specifically designed for Oregon 
spotted frogs, and may inadvertently reduce habitat quality for this 
emergent wetland-dependent species. Further, post-restoration 
monitoring has not been accomplished to evaluate whether these efforts 
are benefiting Oregon spotted frogs. Therefore, based on the best 
information available, the threats to Oregon spotted frog from habitat 
destruction, modification, or curtailment are occurring throughout the 
entire range of the species, and are expected to continue into the 
future.

Factor B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes has been documented for a wide range of 
amphibians. During the egg-laying period, Oregon spotted frogs occur in 
relatively easy-to-access locations that could make them easy to 
collect. However, we are not aware of collection of Oregon spotted 
frogs for commercial, recreational, or educational purposes.
    Oregon spotted frog populations may be negatively impacted by 
scientific studies. In all Washington breeding locations and some of 
the breeding locations in British Columbia and Oregon, surveys are 
conducted annually during the egg-laying period. While these surveys 
are conducted in a manner to avoid trampling of frogs and egg masses 
(protocol example Pearl et al. 2010), such impacts may still occur. The 
extent to which any population is impacted by these surveys is unknown, 
but expected to be low. Eggs were collected each year beginning in 2002 
from at least two of the extant locations in British Columbia for a 
headstart rearing program, which released metamorphic Oregon spotted 
frogs back into those sites (COSFRT 2012, pp. 30-31). This effort has 
ceased because it was deemed unsuccessful at bolstering the extant 
populations; however, captive husbandry for potential release into new 
locations continues.
    The WDFW has collected 7,870 eggs (through 2011) from various 
breeding locations on the Black River and Conboy Lake NWRs for their 
captive-rearing program (Tirhi and Schmidt 2011, pp. 51-55). During 
this period, the population has continued to decline at Conboy Lake, 
but the source of the decline is unclear and cannot specifically be 
attributed to the egg collection. The USGS and Colorado State 
University have been collecting eggs in the Deschutes and Klamath 
Basins for genetic studies since 2007, resulting in the collection of 
at least 3,000 eggs (Robertson and Funk 2012 pp. 8-11; Pearl 2012, 
pers. comm.). However, we have no evidence to indicate that Oregon 
spotted frogs are being overutilized for commercial,

[[Page 51678]]

recreational, scientific, or educational purposes such that this 
activity currently poses a threat to the species or is likely to in the 
future.

Factor C. Disease or Predation

Disease
    Amphibians are affected by a variety of diseases, and some diseases 
are known to negatively affect declining amphibian species. Diseases 
that are currently known to occur in Oregon spotted frogs and have the 
potential to affect populations are briefly discussed below. The 
specific effects of disease and parasitism on Oregon spotted frogs are 
not well documented.
    Red-Leg Syndrome--Red-leg syndrome has been identified in several 
declining amphibian species but is not known to be a significant 
problem for the Oregon spotted frog (Blaustein 1999, pers. comm.). Red-
leg syndrome refers to a common condition in which there is a reddening 
of the lower body, usually the legs and sometimes the abdomen, due to a 
dilation of capillaries under the skin. This disease is presumed to be 
widespread, having been reported for >100 years in many different 
species of frogs and salamanders in captivity and in the wild (Densmore 
and Green 2007, p. 236).
    Chytrid Fungus--Bd has been implicated in the decline and 
extinction of numerous amphibian species in multiple locations around 
the world (Speare and Berger 2004). In the United States, 7 families 
including 18 amphibian species have been diagnosed as infected with Bd 
(Speare and Berger 2004). Bd infection has been documented in at least 
seven ranid frog species from the PNW, including Oregon spotted frogs 
(Adams et al. 2010, p. 295; Pearl et al. 2009b, p. 212; Hayes et al. 
2009, p. 149). Chytridiomycosis is a cutaneous infection that ``results 
in a severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, 
hyperkeratosis, and variable degrees of cutaneous ulceration and 
hyperemia'' (Bradley et al. 2002, p. 206). Clinical signs can include 
lethargy, abnormal posture, loss of the righting reflex (ability to 
turn over), and death (Daszak et al. 1999, p. 737). The fungal 
organism, Bd, is likely transmitted by release of zoospores into the 
water that eventually contact a susceptible animal, penetrating the 
skin, and establishing an infection (Pessier et al. 1999, p. 198; 
Bradley et al. 2002, p. 206). Dermal infections by Bd are thought to 
cause mortality by interfering with skin functions, including 
maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis (balance), respiration, 
and the skin's role as a barrier to toxic and infectious agents 
(Pessier et al. 1999, p. 198; Bradley et al. 2002, p. 206). Unlike most 
other vertebrates, amphibians drink water and absorb important salts 
(electrolytes) through the skin rather than the mouth. In diseased 
individuals, electrolyte transport across the epidermis was inhibited 
by >50 percent, resulting in cardiac arrest and death (Voyles et al. 
2009, pp. 582, 585).
    In 2007 and 2008, the USGS sampled Oregon spotted frogs at sites 
across Washington and Oregon; Bd was confirmed at all locations sampled 
(Pearl et al. 2009b, p. 212). Even though Pearl et al. (2009b, p. 216) 
detected Bd at 100 percent of the sites sampled, they did not observe 
morbidity or mortality that could be attributed to chytridiomycosis. In 
addition to confirmation at USGS-sampled sites, Bd has been confirmed 
in Oregon spotted frogs near Sunriver in central Oregon (Bowerman 2005, 
pers. comm.) and Conboy Lake NWR (Hayes et al. 2009, p. 149) in 
Washington. Pearl et al. (2007, p. 147) detected Bd more frequently in 
highly aquatic species, such as Oregon spotted frogs, than in species 
with more terrestrial adult stages and shorter larval periods, 
suggesting that Oregon spotted frogs may be experiencing elevated 
exposure and infection due to their highly aquatic life-history. In 
addition, modeling done by Pearl et al. (2009b, p. 213) indicates that 
juvenile Oregon spotted frogs that test positive for Bd infection are 
more likely to have a poorer body condition after overwintering than 
individuals that test negative for Bd infection.
    Alone, Bd may not be a concern for some healthy amphibian 
populations; however, most of the Oregon spotted frog populations in 
Oregon and Washington are already exposed to several stressors, such as 
predation, competition from nonnative species, and water quality 
degradation, and the effects of Bd are likely to be exacerbated and 
potentially compounded by these interactions (for example, see Parris 
and Baud 2004, pp. 346-347; Parris and Cornelius 2004, pp. 3388-3390; 
Parris and Beaudoin 2004, p. 628). In addition, Bd has been found in 
nonnative species that co-occur with Oregon spotted frogs in central 
Oregon (Pearl et al. 2007, p. 147); in particular, bullfrogs may serve 
as a Bd host while experiencing limited negative effects from the 
pathogen (Daszak et al. 2004, p. 203).
    Laboratory studies have shown that infecting Oregon spotted frogs 
with Bd inhibits growth without necessarily showing any direct clinical 
signs (Padgett-Flohr and Hayes 2011). Recently metamorphosed frogs 
exposed to one of two strains of Bd tested positive for the pathogen 
within 11 days after exposure; however, no frogs died or displayed 
clinical signs of disease and most (83 percent) tested negative for the 
pathogen within 90 days of exposure. However, infected frogs gained 
significantly less weight than control animals, suggesting the 
infection carried an energetic cost. The detection of Bd at all Oregon 
spotted frog sites sampled, combined with the lack of observed 
mortality (in the wild and laboratory testing), indicates Oregon 
spotted frogs may be able to persist with Bd infections (Pearl et al. 
2009b, p. 216) but growth and presumed long-term survival (e.g., 
avoidance of predators) are inhibited. Consequently, in light of the 
numerous amphibian extinctions attributed to Bd, and in conjunction 
with the other stressors that impact Oregon spotted frogs, we conclude 
that Bd poses a risk to individual Oregon spotted frog populations, 
particularly those most susceptible to climate changes (see Factor E 
discussion), but additional studies are necessary to determine whether 
Bd is a threat rangewide to the Oregon spotted frog.
    Other pathogens, such as iridoviruses (specifically Ranavirus), 
have been documented to cause mortality in North American amphibians 
(Dasak et al. 1999, pp. 741-743). While not yet documented in wild 
Oregon spotted frog populations, iridovirus outbreaks have been 
identified as a major source of mortality in British Columbia captive-
rearing programs for Oregon spotted frogs (COSEWIC 2011, p. 35).
    Saprolegnia--The oomycete water mold Saprolegnia has been suggested 
as one of the causes of amphibian declines in the PNW (Kiesecker and 
Blaustein 1997, p. 218). Genetic analysis confirmed oomycetes of 
multiple genera on amphibian eggs in the PNW, including Oregon spotted 
frogs (Petrisko et al. 2008, pp. 174-178). McAllister and Leonard 
(1997, p. 25) reported destruction of developing Oregon spotted frog 
egg masses by this fungus, but not to the extent observed in other 
amphibian eggs. The threat of Saprolegnia to Oregon spotted frog 
populations is unclear, but this fungus has been shown to destroy 
Oregon spotted frog egg masses and could pose a threat to individual 
Oregon spotted frog breeding areas in the future.
    Ultraviolet-B Radiation--Impacts resulting from exposure to 
ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation appear to vary greatly between amphibian 
species. Ambient levels of UV-B radiation in the atmosphere have risen 
significantly over the past few decades due to decreases in 
stratospheric ozone, climate warming,

[[Page 51679]]

and lake acidification. Because amphibian eggs lack shells and adults 
and tadpoles have thin, delicate skin, they are extremely vulnerable to 
increased levels of UV-B radiation. However, the harmful effects of UV-
B radiation on amphibians depend upon a number of variables (Blaustein 
et al. 2003, pp. 123-128). Studies summarized in Blaustein et al. 
(2003) indicate UV-B exposure can result in mortality, as well as a 
variety of sublethal effects, including behavior alteration, slow 
growth and development, and developmental and physiological 
malformations. The type and severity of effect varies by life stage 
exposed and dosage of UV-B. Experimental tests conducted by Blaustein 
et al. (1999, p. 1102) found the hatching success of Oregon spotted 
frogs was unaffected by UV-B, indicating their eggs may be UV-
resistant. However, a meta-analysis of available published literature 
conducted by Bancroft et al. (2008) found that exposure to UV-B 
resulted in a 1.9-fold reduction in amphibian survival and that larvae 
(tadpoles) were more susceptible than embryos. In addition, Bancroft et 
al. (2008) determined that UV-B interacted synergistically with other 
environmental stressors, such as contaminants, resulting in greater 
than additive effects on survival. For example, Kiesecker and Blaustein 
(1997, pp. 217-218) found increased mortality associated with the 
fungus identified as Saprolegnia ferax in amphibian embryos exposed to 
UV-B; especially susceptible were amphibians that lay eggs in communal 
egg masses, like Oregon spotted frogs. At present, the extent of 
population-level impacts from UV-B exposure is unknown.
    Malformations--The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian 
Malformations (NBII 2005) documents amphibian malformations throughout 
the United States. Malformations of several Rana species, including the 
Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), red-legged frog (Rana aurora), foothill 
yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii), and bullfrog, have been reported 
within the current and historical range of the Oregon spotted frog in 
Washington, Oregon, and California. We are aware of one report from 
Thurston County, Washington, of an Oregon spotted frog with an extra 
forelimb (NBII 2005) and reports of malformations from Deschutes 
(Johnson et al. 2002a, p. 157; Bowerman and Johnson 2003, pp. 142-144), 
Douglas, and Lane (NBII 2005) Counties in Oregon. Based on research on 
numerous amphibian species, including Oregon spotted frog, growing 
evidence suggests that the high frequencies of severe limb 
malformations may be caused by a parasitic infection (Ribeiroia 
ondatrae) in amphibian larvae (Johnson et al. 2002a, p. 162). Recent 
investigations also indicate small fish and certain libellulid and 
corduliid dragonfly larvae attack developing tadpoles and can cause 
high incidences of missing-limb deformities, including complete 
amputation (Ballengee and Sessions 2009; Bowerman et al. 2010). At 
present, the extent of population-level impacts from malformations 
among Oregon spotted frogs is unknown.
    Parasitic infection--Aquatic snails (Planorbella spp.) are the 
exclusive intermediate host for the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae 
(Johnson and Chase 2004, p. 523) and are found in a diversity of 
habitats, including ephemeral ponds, montane lakes, stock ponds, 
oxbows, drainage canals, and reservoirs (Johnson et al. 2002a, p. 164). 
Trematodes are parasitic flatworms that have a thick outer cuticle and 
one or more suckers or hooks for attaching to host tissue. Johnson et 
al. (2002a, p. 165) postulate that the dramatic and widespread 
alterations of aquatic ecosystems, particularly the construction of 
small impoundments or farm ponds, may have created environments that 
facilitate high densities of Planorbella snails and the resulting 
infections from R. ondatrae. Many of the sites with high frequencies of 
malformations were impacted heavily by cattle and supported dense 
Planorbella snail populations. Malformations in multiple amphibian 
species were found in Washington ponds that had a history of grazing 
that extended back at least 50 years (Johnson et al. 2002a, p. 165).
    Johnson et al. (2002a, p. 166) found the frequency of malformations 
in larval amphibians was significantly higher than in transformed 
amphibians from the same system, suggesting that malformed larvae 
experience greater mortality prior to and during metamorphosis. 
However, sensitivity to and severity (mortality versus no malformation) 
of infection varies by amphibian species (Johnson and Hartson 2009, p. 
195) and tadpole stage exposed (Schotthoefer et al. 2003, p. 1148).
    High levels of R. ondatrae infection and the resulting 
malformations may increase mortality in wild amphibian populations and 
may represent a threat to amphibian populations already in decline. 
Johnson et al. (2002a, p. 157) and Bowerman and Johnson (2003, pp. 142-
144) have found deformities in Oregon spotted frogs caused by this 
parasite at the Sunriver Nature Center Pond, which had a high 
population of large planorbid snails. Three additional ponds within 6 
mi (10 km) were also investigated, each of which supported planorbid 
snails, but at lower infestation levels. None of these ponds yielded 
malformed Oregon spotted frogs (Bowerman et al. 2003, pp. 142-143). 
Most of the malformations found in anuran frogs were around the hind 
limbs, where they are more likely to be debilitating (hinder mobility) 
and expose the frog to increased risk of predation (reduced escape/
evade ability) (Johnson et al. 2002a, p. 162). In a study on wood frogs 
(Rana sylvatica), Michel and Burke (2011) reported malformed tadpoles 
were twice as vulnerable to predators because they could not escape or 
evade.
    Human manipulation of upland areas adjacent to amphibian breeding 
areas and direct manipulation of the breeding areas can affect the 
prevalence of Planorbella snails and the infection rate of R. ondatrae. 
Complex habitats reduce transmission rates of larval trematodes because 
these habitats provide more refugia for tadpoles. Alternatively, 
simplified habitats, such as agricultural landscapes, have been shown 
to reduce parasite prevalence by limiting access of vertebrate hosts, 
particularly in birds (King et al. 2007, p. 2074). However, when 
simplified habitats are subject to water runoff associated with 
agricultural, cattle, or urban sources and eutrophication, the 
abundance of snails can increase, thereby increasing the prevalence of 
trematodes and parasitic risks to frogs (Johnson and Chase 2004, pp. 
522-523; Johnson et al. 2007 p. 15782). While the effects of these 
parasite-induced malformations are clear at the individual scale, 
population-level effects remain largely uninvestigated. However, Biek 
et al. (2002, p. 731) found that the viabilities of pond-breeding 
amphibians were most vulnerable to reductions in juvenile or adult 
survival relative to other portions of the life cycles. Therefore, it 
is reasonable to infer that where Planorbella snails coincide with 
Oregon spotted frogs, malformations will occur resulting in mortality 
of juvenile frogs and a reduction in the viability of the Oregon 
spotted frog population at that location. At present, it is not known 
where these co-occurrences take place, or how extensive infections 
levels may be, but 11 of the occupied sub-basins have agricultural, 
cattle, or urban sources that produce runoff that can increase the 
snail populations and negative effects have been demonstrated

[[Page 51680]]

at the Sunriver Nature Center Pond population.
Predation
    Predation is a process of major importance in influencing the 
distribution, abundance, and diversity of species in ecological 
communities. Generally, predation leads to changes in both the 
population size of the predator and that of the prey. In unfavorable 
environments, prey species are stressed or living at low population 
densities such that predation is likely to have negative effects on all 
prey species, thus lowering species richness. In addition, when a 
nonnative predator is introduced to the ecosystem, negative effects on 
the prey population may be higher than those from co-evolved native 
predators. The effects of predation may be magnified when populations 
are small, and the disproportionate effect of predation on declining 
populations has been shown to drive rare species even further toward 
extinction (Woodworth 1999, pp. 74-75).
    Introduced fish species within the historical range of the Oregon 
spotted frog may have contributed to losses of populations. Oregon 
spotted frogs, which are palatable to fish, did not evolve with these 
introduced species and may not have the mechanisms to avoid the 
predatory fish that prey on the tadpoles. The microhabitat requirement 
of the Oregon spotted frog, unique among native ranids of the PNW, 
exposes it to a number of introduced fish species (Hayes 1994, p. 25), 
such as smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), largemouth bass 
(Micropterus salmoides), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), yellow perch 
(Perca flavescens), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), brown bullhead 
(Ameriurus nebulosus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), warmouth 
(Lepomis gulosus), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), rainbow trout 
(Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (Hayes and 
Jennings 1986, pp. 494-496; Hayes 1997, pp. 42-43; Hayes et al. 1997; 
McAllister and Leonard 1997, p. 14; Engler 1999, pers. comm.), and 
mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) (Wydoski and Whitney 2003, p. 163; 
Johnson 2008, p. 5).
    Surveys from 1993 to 1997 in British Columbia, Washington, and 
Oregon documented at least one introduced predator in 20 of 24 sites 
(Hayes et al. 1997, p. 5). Brook trout was the most frequently recorded 
introduced predator, which was recorded at 18 of 24 sites. Although 
differences in temperature requirements between the two species may 
limit their interactions, brook trout apparently occur with the Oregon 
spotted frog at cold-water springs, where the latter species probably 
overwinters and where cooler water is favorable to brook trout (Hayes 
et al. 1997, p. 5). During drought years, dropping water levels result 
in overlap in habitat use between these two species. As wetland refuges 
are reduced, Oregon spotted frogs become concentrated and the larval 
stages are exposed to brook trout predation (Hayes et al. 1997, p. 5; 
Hayes 1998a, p. 15), resulting in lower Oregon spotted frog recruitment 
(Pearl 1999, p. 18). In addition to effects in breeding habitat, Pearl 
et al. (2009a, p. 143) found substantial evidence for a negative effect 
on overwintering Oregon spotted frogs from nonnative fish with access 
to spring and channel habitats. In these latter situations, predation 
is believed to be more pronounced in spatially constrained 
overwintering habitats where frogs and fish may both seek flowing water 
with dissolved oxygen. Their findings suggest that these negative 
effects are mediated by habitat complexity and the seasonal use of 
microhabitats, and Oregon spotted frogs can benefit from fish-free 
overwintering sites, even if fish are present in other local habitats.
    Demographic data indicate that sites with significant numbers of 
brook trout and/or fathead minnow have a skewed ratio of older spotted 
frogs to juvenile frogs, suggesting poor reproductive success or 
juvenile recruitment (Hayes 1997, pp. 42-43, 1998a). While experimental 
data are sparse, field surveys involving other western amphibians 
(e.g., Adams 1999, p. 1168; Monello and Wright 1999, pp. 299-300; Bull 
and Marx 2002, pp. 245-247; Vredenberg 2004; Knapp 2005, pp. 275-276; 
Pearl et al. 2005b, pp. 82-83; Rowe and Garcia 2014, pp. 146-147) and 
other closely related frog species strongly suggest that introduced 
fish represent a threat to Oregon spotted frogs that has significant 
impacts (Pearl 1999, pp. 17-18). A study of the impacts of introduced 
trout on Columbia spotted frog populations in Idaho revealed that, 
although fish and adult frogs coexisted at many of the stocked lakes, 
most stocked lakes contained significantly lower densities of all 
amphibian life stages (Pilliod and Peterson 2001, p. 326). On the other 
hand, results from the Willamette Valley in Oregon suggest that 
nonnative, warm water fishes actually benefit introduced populations of 
bullfrogs because of fish predation on macroinvertebrates that would 
otherwise prey on bullfrog larvae (Adams et al. 2003, p. 347).
    The presence of these nonnative species has been shown to increase 
the time for metamorphosis and decrease the mass of native red-legged 
frogs (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1997; Lawler et al. 1999, p. 617). A 
recent study documented nonnative fish negatively influencing the 
survival and growth of Pacific tree frogs while bullfrog larvae reduced 
the growth but had no effect on survival (Preston et al. 2012, p. 
1257). In addition, the predation effects of nonnative fish and 
bullfrogs on Pacific tree frogs were additive, but those species had 
little impact on each other (Preston et al. 2012, p. 1259). Many of the 
sub-basins occupied by Oregon spotted frogs also have introduced warm- 
and/or cold-water fish, and 5 of the 15 sub-basins are subject to high 
to very high impacts due to predation of larvae and reduced winter 
survival.
    The ODFW stocks fish in most of the Cascades Lakes and two 
reservoirs in the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin occupied by Oregon 
spotted frogs (Hodgson 2012, pers. comm.). In addition to stocking, 
there is natural production of various fish species, both native and 
introduced, in the lakes and reservoirs in the Upper Deschutes River 
sub-basin and in lakes in the McKenzie River and Middle Fork Willamette 
sub-basins where spotted frogs occur (Hodgson 2012, pers. comm.; Ziller 
2013, pers. comm.; USFS 2011a). The ODFW no longer stocks fish in any 
of the moving waters associated with Oregon spotted frog locations 
within the Klamath Basin (Tinniswood 2012, pers. comm.).
    Bullfrogs introduced from eastern North America into the historical 
range of the Oregon spotted frog may have contributed to losses of 
populations. The introduction of bullfrogs may have played a role in 
the disappearance of Oregon spotted frogs from the Willamette Valley in 
Oregon and the Puget Sound area in Washington (Nussbaum et al. 1983, p. 
187). Bullfrogs share similar habitat and temperature requirements with 
the Oregon spotted frog, and the overlap in time and space between the 
two species is believed to be extensive (Hayes 1994, p. 25; Hayes et 
al. 1997, p. 5). Bullfrogs can reach high densities due to the 
production of large numbers of eggs per breeding female and 
unpalatability (and high survivorship) of tadpoles to predatory fish 
(Kruse and Francis 1977, pp. 250-251). Bullfrog tadpoles outcompete or 
displace tadpoles of native frog species from their habitat or optimal 
conditions (Kupferberg 1997, pp. 1741-1746; Kiesecker and Blaustein 
1998, pp. 783-

[[Page 51681]]

784; Kiesecker et al. 2001b, pp. 1966-1967).
    Bullfrog adults achieve larger size than native western ranids and 
even juvenile bullfrogs can consume native frogs (Hayes and Jennings 
1986, p. 492; Pearl et al. 2004, p. 16). The digestive tracts of a 
sample of 25 adult bullfrogs from Conboy Lake in Washington contained 
nine Oregon spotted frogs, including seven adults (McAllister and 
Leonard 1997, p. 13). A later examination of the stomachs of two large 
bullfrogs revealed two adult or subadult Oregon spotted frogs in one 
stomach and four in the second (Hayes 1999, pers. comm.). Bullfrogs 
were recorded consuming hatchling Oregon spotted frogs at British 
Columbia's Maintenance Detachment Aldergrove site (Haycock and Woods 
2001, unpubl. data cited in COSFRT 2012, p. 19). In addition, the USGS 
has observed Oregon spotted frogs within dissected bullfrogs at 
multiple sites throughout the Deschutes and Klamath Basins (Pearl 2012, 
pers comm.).
    Oregon spotted frogs are more susceptible to predation by bullfrogs 
than are northern red-legged frogs (Pearl et al. 2004, p. 16). Oregon 
spotted frogs and northern red-legged frogs historically coexisted in 
areas of the PNW that are now invaded by bullfrogs. However, the Oregon 
spotted frog has declined more severely than the northern red-legged 
frog. Pearl et al. (2004, p. 16) demonstrated in laboratory experiments 
that the more aquatic Oregon spotted frog juveniles are consumed by 
bullfrogs at a higher rate than are northern red-legged frog juveniles. 
Oregon spotted frogs and northern red-legged frogs also differ in their 
ability to escape bullfrogs, with Oregon spotted frogs having shorter 
mean and maximum jump distances than northern red-legged frogs of equal 
size. Bullfrogs, therefore, pose a greater threat to Oregon spotted 
frogs than to red-legged frogs. Oregon spotted frog's microhabitat use 
and escape abilities may be limiting their distributions in historical 
lowland habitats where bullfrogs are present, whereas red-legged frog 
populations are more stable (Pearl et al. 2004, pp. 17-18).
    The ability of bullfrogs and Oregon spotted frogs to coexist may be 
related to differences in seasonal and permanent wetland use. However, 
a substantial bullfrog population has likely coexisted with Oregon 
spotted frogs for nearly 50 years in Conboy Lake in Washington 
(Rombough et al. 2006, p. 210). This long-term overlap has been 
hypothesized to be the evolutionary driver for larger body size of 
Oregon spotted frogs at Conboy Lake (Rombough et al. 2006, p. 210). 
However, body size measurements have not been completed across the 
range for a complete comparison to be made. Winterkill could be a 
factor in controlling the bullfrog population at Conboy Lake and, 
hence, facilitating co-existence with Oregon spotted frogs (Engler and 
Hayes 1998, p. 2); however, the Oregon spotted frog population at 
Conboy Lake has declined over the last decade, some of which is likely 
due to bullfrog predation. Bullfrogs have been actively managed in the 
Sunriver area in Oregon for more than 40 years, and despite efforts to 
eradicate them, they have been expanding in distribution (Bowerman 
2012, pers. comm.). Bullfrogs have been documented up to 4,300 feet 
(1,311 m) elevation in the Little Deschutes River sub-basin in habitat 
occupied by Oregon spotted frog. Bullfrogs have been found in 10 of the 
15 sub-basins occupied by Oregon spotted frogs, but are relatively rare 
at most of the locations where they co-occur. However, based on our 
threats analysis, the impacts due to predation and/or competition with 
bullfrogs within the Lower Fraser River, Middle Klickitat sub-basins in 
Washington, and the Upper Klamath Lake sub-basin in Oregon are 
considered to be high to very high because of the more extensive 
overlap between these two species in these areas.
    Green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) are native to the eastern United 
States but have been introduced to the western United States and 
Canada. This introduced species occurs at a few lakes in Whatcom 
County, Washington (McAllister 1995; WDFW WSDM database), but Oregon 
spotted frogs are not known to occur in these lakes. Green frogs do co-
occur with Oregon spotted frogs at Maria and Mountain Sloughs in 
British Columbia (COSEWIC 2011, p. 36). Adult green frogs may eat young 
Oregon spotted frogs, but adult Oregon spotted frogs may reach a size 
that is too large to be prey for the species. Whether green frogs are 
significant competitors of Oregon spotted frogs is currently unknown. 
High population densities of green frogs possibly attract and maintain 
higher than normal population densities of native predators, which in 
turn increases predation pressure on Oregon spotted frogs (COSFRT 2012, 
p. 19).
Conservation Efforts To Reduce Disease or Predation
    Despite considerable knowledge about the habitat and management 
requirements for Oregon spotted frog, refuge management at the Conboy 
Lake NWR remains complex as habitat needs and the abatement of other 
stressors often conflict with the conventional intensive wetland 
management that occurs on the refuge (USFWS, 2010b, p. 64). The 
historical Conboy Lake basin in Washington likely retained water for 10 
to 12 months in most years. Currently, it retains water only during wet 
years and is drained annually by the Conboy Lake NWR to control 
bullfrogs for the benefit of Oregon spotted frogs. However, the 
draining of the lakebed forces all surviving bullfrogs, fish, and 
Oregon spotted frogs into the canal system for the fall and winter, 
increasing potential predation on Oregon spotted frogs.
    In the Upper and Little Deschutes River sub-basins in Oregon, there 
has been little effort to control invasive predators. Bullfrog 
eradication has been attempted at two sites within the Upper and Little 
Deschutes sub-basins: Sunriver and Crosswater, respectively. However, 
it appears that bullfrogs may be increasing in the Sunriver area 
(Bowerman 2012, pers. comm.).
    Current predator or disease conservation efforts in the Klamath 
Basin in Oregon are limited to bullfrog control or eradication. The 
USGS has conducted a bullfrog eradication program on Crane Creek since 
bullfrogs appeared in 2010. In addition, the BLM has been controlling 
and reducing bullfrogs and analyzing the gut contents of bullfrogs at 
all life stages on their Wood River property in Oregon for 6 years. 
Bullfrog detections and collection have decreased in different areas of 
the canal in recent years (Roninger 2012, pers. comm.). The number of 
bullfrogs removed and seen at this site has decreased, and in the last 
few years, the bulk of the bullfrog removal has been from the north 
canal and Seven-mile canal areas (outside the Oregon spotted frog 
site), which is considered to be the strongest source areas for 
movement into the Oregon spotted frog site (Roninger 2012, pers. comm). 
However, despite these efforts, bullfrogs continue to persist in these 
Oregon spotted frog habitats.
    Summary of disease and predation--Saprolegnia, Bd, and Ribeiroia 
ondatrae have been found in Oregon spotted frogs and compounded with 
other stressors, such as UV-B exposure, degradation of habitat quality, 
or increased predation pressure, may contribute to population declines. 
Bd and R. ondatrae, in particular, infect post-metamorphic frogs and 
reductions in these life stages are more likely to lead to population 
declines in pond-breeding amphibians; however, these are not currently 
known to be causing population declines in Oregon spotted frogs. 
Disease continues

[[Page 51682]]

to be a concern, but more information is needed to determine the 
severity of impact that diseases may have on Oregon spotted frogs. 
Therefore, based on the best available scientific evidence, there is no 
indication that disease is a threat to the Oregon spotted frog.
    Introduced fish species prey on tadpoles, negatively affect 
overwintering habitat, and can significantly threaten Oregon spotted 
frog populations, especially during droughts, as aquatic habitat areas 
become smaller and escape cover is reduced. Cushman et al. 2007 (p. 22) 
states that both Hayes (1997) and Pearl (1999) hypothesized that low 
water conditions have the potential to increase overlap between Oregon 
spotted frog and nonnative predators such as brook trout and bullfrogs. 
Increased overlap in habitat use between Oregon spotted frog and 
nonnative predators is likely to result in greater loss to predation. 
Bullfrogs (and likely green frogs) prey on juvenile and adult Oregon 
spotted frogs and bullfrog larvae can outcompete or displace Oregon 
spotted frog larvae, effectively reducing all Oregon spotted frog life 
stages and posing a significant threat to Oregon spotted frogs. At 
least one nonnative predaceous species occurs within each of the sub-
basins currently occupied by Oregon spotted frogs, and most sub-basins 
have multiple predators. Nine of the 15 occupied sub-basins are 
currently experiencing moderate to very high impacts due to predation, 
and threats from predators are more concentrated in summer/rearing and 
overwintering habitat. While some predator control occurs in a few sub-
basins, this work is not sufficient to ameliorate the threat from 
predators.
    Therefore, based on our review of the best information available, 
we conclude that predation is a threat to Oregon spotted frogs 
throughout the entire range of the species and is expected to continue 
into the future.

Factor D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

    Under this factor, we examine whether existing regulatory 
mechanisms are inadequate to address the threats to the species 
discussed under the other factors. Section 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act 
requires the Service to take into account ``those efforts, if any, 
being made by any State or foreign nation, or any political subdivision 
of a State or foreign nation, to protect such specie. . . .'' In 
relation to Factor D under the Act, we interpret this language to 
require the Service to consider relevant Federal, State, and tribal 
laws, regulations, and other such mechanisms that may minimize any of 
the threats we describe in threat analyses under the other four 
factors, or otherwise enhance conservation of the species. We give 
strongest weight to statutes and their implementing regulations and to 
management direction that stems from those laws and regulations. An 
example would be State governmental actions enforced under a State 
statute or constitution, or Federal action under statute.
    Having evaluated the significance of the threat as mitigated by any 
such conservation efforts, we analyze under Factor D the extent to 
which existing regulatory mechanisms are inadequate to address the 
specific threats to the species. Regulatory mechanisms, if they exist, 
may reduce or eliminate the impacts from one or more identified 
threats. In this section, we review existing State and Federal 
regulatory mechanisms to determine whether they effectively reduce or 
remove threats to the Oregon spotted frog.
Canadian Laws and Regulations
    In Canada, few regulatory mechanisms protect or conserve Oregon 
spotted frogs. In British Columbia, Oregon spotted frogs are on the 
Conservation Data Centre's Red List. The Red List includes ecological 
communities, indigenous species and subspecies that are extirpated, 
endangered, or threatened in British Columbia; placing taxa on the Red 
List flags them as being at risk and requiring investigation, but does 
not confer any protection (British Columbia Ministry of Environment 
2012, p. 1).
    The Oregon spotted frog was determined to be endangered by the 
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada in 1999, with 
status reexamined and confirmed in 2000 and 2011, and it received an 
endangered determination under the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) 
in 2003 (COSFRT 2012, p. 1). SARA makes it an offense to kill, harm, 
harass, capture or take an individual of a listed species that is 
extirpated, endangered or threatened; or to possess, collect, buy, sell 
or trade an individual of a listed species that is extirpated, 
endangered or threatened, or any part or derivative of such an 
individual (S.C. ch. 29 section 32); or damage or destroy the residence 
of one or more individuals of a listed endangered or threatened species 
or of a listed extirpated species if a recovery strategy has 
recommended its reintroduction (S.C. ch, 29 sections 33, 58). For 
species other than birds, the prohibitions on harm to individuals and 
destruction of residences are limited to Federal lands. Three of the 
four breeding locations in Canada occur wholly or partially on private 
lands, which are not subject to SARA prohibitions (COSEWIC 2011, p. 
38).
    Habitat protection in British Columbia is limited to the Federal 
Fisheries Act, British Columbia Water Act, and the provincial Riparian 
Areas Regulation (COSEWIC 2011, p. 38). The Federal Fisheries Act 
limits activities that can cause harmful alteration, disruption, or 
destruction of fish habitat, with the primary goal being no net loss of 
fish habitat. The British Columbia Water Act is the principal law for 
managing the diversion and use of provincial water resources. License 
holders are entitled to divert and use water; store water; construct, 
maintain, and operate anything capable of or used for the proper 
diversion, storage, carriage, distribution, and use of the water or the 
power produced from it; alter or improve a stream or channel for any 
purpose; and construct fences, screens, and fish or game guards across 
streams for the purpose of conserving fish and wildlife (British 
Columbia Water Act Part 2, section 5). The Riparian Areas Regulation 
was enacted under Section 12 of the Fish Protection Act and calls on 
local governments to protect riparian fish habitat during residential, 
commercial, and industrial development. The habitat protections under 
these Canadian Acts are designed to benefit fish species. As discussed 
under Factor A, riparian protection and restoration actions designed 
specifically to benefit fish can be detrimental to Oregon spotted frogs 
and their habitat.
U.S. Federal Laws and Regulations
    No Federal laws specifically protect the Oregon spotted frog. 
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) is the 
primary Federal law that is relevant to the Oregon spotted frog's 
aquatic habitat. Through a permit process under section 404, the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) regulates the discharge of dredged or 
fill material into waters of the United States, including navigable 
waters and wetlands that may contain Oregon spotted frogs. However, 
many actions highly detrimental to Oregon spotted frogs and their 
habitats, such as irrigation diversion structure construction and 
maintenance and other activities associated with ongoing farming 
operations in existing cropped wetlands, are exempt from Clean Water 
Act requirements.
    In Washington and Oregon, current section 404 regulations provide 
for the issuance of nationwide permits for at least 15 of the 52 
categories of activities identified under the nationwide permit program 
(USACOE 2012a, pp. 1-46),

[[Page 51683]]

which, for example, could result in the permanent loss of up to 500 ft 
(150 m) of streambank and 1 ac (0.4 ha) of wetlands (USACOE 2012a, 
2012b, 2012c). Projects authorized under a nationwide permit receive 
minimal public and agency review, and in many cases, agency 
notification is not required. Individual permits are subject to a more 
rigorous review, and may be required for nationwide permit activities 
with more than minimal impacts. Under both the individual and 
nationwide permit programs, no activities can be authorized if they are 
likely to directly or indirectly (1) jeopardize the continued existence 
of a threatened or endangered species, or a species proposed for 
designation, or (2) destroy or adversely modify the critical habitat of 
such species, unless section 7 consultation addressing the effects of 
the proposed activity has been completed. During section 7 
consultation, effects to the species itself and aquatic habitat/
wetlands would be considered.
    For nationwide permits, Corps notification may not be required 
depending upon the project type and the amount of wetland to be 
impacted. Impacts to wetlands may be authorized with no compensatory 
mitigation in some cases. In other cases, wetland impacts may be 
authorized if the permittee demonstrates the project footprint has been 
designed to avoid most wetland impacts and unavoidable impacts can be 
adequately mitigated through wetland creation, restoration, or 
enhancement. For example, nationwide permits authorize the discharge of 
fill material into 0.25 ac (0.1 ha) of wetlands with no requirement for 
compensatory mitigation. In situations where compensatory wetland 
mitigation is required, in kind mitigation is preferred but not 
required.
    A Washington State wetland mitigation evaluation study (Johnson et 
al. 2002b, entire) found a resulting net loss of wetlands with or 
without compensatory mitigation, because wetland creation and 
enhancement projects were minimally successful or not successful in 
implementation, nor did they achieve their ecologically relevant 
measures. In general, most riparian habitat restoration in Washington 
is targeted toward salmon species and does not include floodplain 
depression wetlands. In Washington, mitigation sites within the South 
Fork Nooksack, Samish, and Black River sub-basins have been designed to 
improve water quality by planting trees and shrubs. Some of these 
activities have been conducted in Oregon spotted frog breeding habitat. 
Therefore, an activity that fills Oregon spotted frog habitat could be 
mitigated by restoring and or creating riparian habitat suitable for 
fish, but which is not suitable for frogs.
State Laws and Regulations
    Washington--Although there is no State Endangered Species Act in 
Washington, the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission has the 
authority to list species (RCW 77.12.020). State-listed species are 
protected from direct take, but their habitat is not protected (RCW 
77.15.120). The Oregon spotted frog was listed as a State endangered 
species in Washington in August 1997 (Watson et al. 1998, p. 1; 2003, 
p. 292; WAC 232-12-014). State listings generally consider only the 
status of the species within the State's borders, and do not depend 
upon the same considerations as a potential Federal listing. Unoccupied 
or unsurveyed habitat is not protected unless by County ordinances or 
other similar rules or laws.
    Oregon spotted frogs are a Priority Species under WDFW's Priority 
Habitats and Species Program (WDFW 2008, pp. 68). As a Priority 
Species, the Oregon spotted frog may receive some protection of its 
habitat under environmental reviews of applications for county or 
municipal development permits and through implementation of priority 
habitats and species management recommendations. Priority habitat and 
species management recommendations for this species include maintaining 
stable water levels and natural flow rates; maintaining vegetation 
along stream banks or pond edges; avoidance of introducing nonnative 
amphibians, reptiles, or fish; avoidance of removing algae from rearing 
areas; avoiding alteration of muddy substrates; controlling stormwater 
runoff away from frog habitat; avoiding application of pesticides in or 
adjacent to waterbodies used by Oregon spotted frogs; and surveying 
within the historical range of the species (Nordstrom and Milner 1997, 
pp. 6-5--6-6).
    The Clean Water Act requires States to set water quality standards 
to protect beneficial uses, identify sources of pollution in waters 
that fail to meet State water quality standards (Section 303(d)), and 
to develop water quality plans to address those pollutants. Although 
the Clean Water Act is a Federal law, authority for implementing this 
law has been delegated to the State. Washington State adopted revised 
water quality standards for temperature and intergravel dissolved 
oxygen in December 2006, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 
approved these revised standards in February 2008 (EPA 2008). Although 
candidate species were not the focus, proponents believed that the 
proposed standards would likely protect native aquatic species. The 
temperature standards are intended to restore thermal regimes to 
protect sensitive native salmonids, and, if temperature is not a 
limiting factor in sustaining viable salmonid populations, other native 
species would likely be protected (EPA 2007, p. 14).
    The State has developed water quality plans for the Lower Nooksack, 
Samish, and Upper Chehalis Rivers; however, as of 2008 (most recent 
freshwater listing), portions of the Sumas River; Black Slough in the 
South Fork Nooksack River sub-basin; portions of the Samish River; 
segments of the Black River; segments of Dempsey, Allen, and Beaver 
Creeks in the Black River drainage; and a segment in the upper portion 
of Trout Lake Creek were listed by the Washington Department of Ecology 
(WDOE) as not meeting water quality standards for a variety of 
parameters, including temperature, fecal coliform, pH, and dissolved 
oxygen (see Factor E discussion). In addition, for the streams/rivers 
where the temperature or fecal coliform standard is exceeded, the water 
quality plans call for planting trees and shrubs and excluding cattle, 
which would not be conducive to the creation and maintenance of 
emergent vegetation stage conditions necessary for Oregon spotted frog 
egg-laying habitat (see Factor A discussion).
    Oregon--Oregon has a State Endangered Species Act, but the Oregon 
spotted frog is not State listed. Although this species is on the 
Oregon sensitive species list and is considered critically sensitive, 
this designation provides little protection (ODFW 1996, OAR 635-100-
0040). A Federal listing does not guarantee a listing under the Oregon 
State Endangered Species Act; rather a State listing requires a 
separate rulemaking process and findings made by the Oregon Fish and 
Wildlife Commission (OAR 635-100-0105 and 635-100-0110).
    Although the Clean Water Act is a Federal law, authority for 
implementing this law has been delegated to the State. Oregon adopted 
revised water quality standards for temperature, intergravel dissolved 
oxygen, and anti-degradation in December 2003, and EPA approved these 
revised standards in March 2004 (EPA 2004). Although candidate species 
were not the focus, it was believed that the proposed standards would 
likely protect native aquatic species. The proposed temperature 
standards are intended to restore thermal regimes to protect sensitive 
native salmonids and,

[[Page 51684]]

if temperature is not a limiting factor in sustaining viable salmonid 
populations, other native species would likely be protected (EPA 2004). 
In December 2012, EPA approved additions to Oregon's 303(d) list, which 
includes waterbodies that do not meet water quality standards for 
multiple parameters (ODEQ 2012). Many of the streams associated with 
Oregon spotted frog habitat are 303(d) listed by the Oregon Department 
of Environmental Quality (see Factor E).
    Oregon's Removal-Fill Law (ORS 196.795-990) requires people who 
plan to remove or fill material in waters of the State to obtain a 
permit from the Department of State Lands. Wetlands and waterways in 
Oregon are protected by both State and Federal laws. Projects impacting 
waters often require both a State removal-fill permit, issued by the 
Department of State Lands (DSL), and a Federal permit issued by the 
Corps. A permit is required only if 50 cubic yards (cy) or more of fill 
or removal will occur. The removal fill law does not regulate the 
draining of wetlands (see ``Local Laws and Regulations,'' below).
Local Laws and Regulations
    Washington--The Washington Shoreline Management Act's purpose is 
``to prevent the inherent harm in an uncoordinated and piecemeal 
development of the State's shorelines.'' Shorelines are defined as: All 
marine waters; streams and rivers with greater than 20 cfs (0.6 cms) 
mean annual flow; lakes 20 ac or larger; upland areas called shorelands 
that extend 200 ft (61 m) landward from the edge of these waters; and 
the following areas when they are associated with one of the previous 
shorelines: Biological wetlands and river deltas, and some or all of 
the 100-year floodplain, including all wetlands within the 100-year 
floodplain. Each city and county with ``shorelines of the state'' must 
prepare and adopt a Shoreline Master Program (SMP) that is based on 
State laws and rules but is tailored to the specific geographic, 
economic, and environmental needs of the community. The local SMP is 
essentially a shoreline-specific combined comprehensive plan, zoning 
ordinance, and development permit system.
    The Washington State Growth Management Act of 1990 requires all 
jurisdictions in the State to designate and protect critical areas. The 
State defines five broad categories of critical areas, including (a) 
wetlands; (b) areas with a critical recharging effect on aquifers used 
for potable water; (c) fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas; 
(d) frequently flooded areas; and (e) geologically hazardous areas. The 
County Area Ordinance (CAO) is the county regulation that most directly 
addresses protection of the critical areas mapped by each county.
    Frequently, local government will have adopted zoning regulations 
and comprehensive land use plans that apply both within and outside 
shoreline areas. When these codes are applied within the shoreline 
area, there may be differences in the zoning regulations and the plan 
policies as compared with the regulations and policies of the SMP. 
Because the SMP is technically a State law (i.e., WAC), the 
requirements of the SMP will prevail in the event of a conflict with 
the local zoning or plan. Generally, however, a conflict will not exist 
if the zoning or plan requirements are more protective of the shoreline 
environment than the SMP. For example, if the zoning district allows a 
density of one unit per acre, and the SMP allows a density of two units 
per, the requirements of the more restrictive code would prevail.
    Within each county in Washington, the SMP and CAO are the 
regulations that most directly address protection of Oregon spotted 
frog habitat. A brief discussion of the current SMPs and CAOs for the 
five counties where Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur follows.
    Whatcom County: Whatcom County updated its Shoreline Management 
Program (known as a Shoreline Master Program in the Growth Management 
Act) in 2008 (Whatcom County Shoreline Management Program 2008). Based 
on interpretation of the 2008 Shoreline Management Program, the known 
Oregon spotted frog occupied locations in the Lower Chilliwack or South 
Fork Nooksack River sub-basins are not ``shorelines.'' Samish River 
within Whatcom County is designated as Conservancy Shoreline that 
provides specific allowed uses and setbacks. Presently, the two primary 
uses of this area are agricultural and residential, both of which are 
allowed under the Shoreline Management Program, with some restrictions. 
Restrictions include shoreline setbacks of 15-20 ft (4.5-6.1 m) and 
allowance of no more than 10 percent impervious surface (although it is 
uncertain whether this is applicable on a per-project, per-acre, or 
per-basin basis). One of the allowed uses is restoration, which is 
focused on recovery of salmon and bull trout. Many of the restoration 
actions targeting salmon and bull trout recovery are not conducive to 
maintaining emergent wetland vegetation stages necessary to maintain 
Oregon spotted frog egg-laying habitat. Some activities would require a 
permit that must be reviewed and approved by Whatcom County and the 
WDOE for consistency.
    The Whatcom County CAO that is the most relevant to Oregon spotted 
frogs applies to wetland areas, which are present in the three sub-
basins where Oregon spotted frogs occur in this county. Activities in 
all wetlands are regulated unless the wetland is 1/10 ac or smaller in 
size; however, activities that can destroy or modify Oregon spotted 
frog habitat can still occur under the existing CAO. Activities that 
are conditionally allowed include surface water discharge; storm water 
management facilities; storm water conveyance or discharge facilities; 
public roads, bridges, and trails; single-family developments; and 
onsite sewage disposal systems. Buffers and mitigation are required, 
but can be adjusted by the county. In general, wetlands and the 
associated wetland buffer CAOs target an avoidance strategy, which may 
not be beneficial to the maintenance of Oregon spotted frog emergent 
wetland habitat on a long-term basis in areas where reed canarygrass is 
present. Within the areas occupied by Oregon spotted frogs in the three 
sub-basins, all breeding habitat is within seasonally flooded areas, 
which may or may not be defined as wetlands. Rather than an avoidance 
strategy, these areas may require management actions to remove reed 
canarygrass in order to maintain breeding habitat and provide for 
Oregon spotted frog persistence. Within Whatcom County, protective 
measures for Oregon spotted frogs are afforded under both the SMP and 
the CAOs, although no measures are specifically directed toward this 
species.
    Skagit County: Skagit County's revisions to its SMP are under 
review (http://www.skagitcounty.net). Until the revised SMP is approved 
by WDOE, the 1976 SMP remains in effect (Skagit County SMP 1976). The 
portion of the Samish River in Skagit County is designated as Rural 
Shoreline Area, and typified by low overall structural density, and low 
to moderate intensity of agriculture, residential development, outdoor 
recreation, and forestry operations uses. This designation is intended 
to maintain open spaces and opportunities for recreational activities 
and a variety of uses compatible with agriculture and the shoreline 
environment. Presently, the two primary uses of the Samish River where 
Oregon spotted frogs occur are agricultural and residential. With some 
restrictions, almost all activities are allowed within this 
designation, and the draining of wetlands is not prohibited. 
Agricultural users are encouraged to retain

[[Page 51685]]

vegetation along stream banks. Developments and sand and gravel 
extractions are allowed provided they are compatible with agricultural 
uses. These types of activities can be detrimental to Oregon spotted 
frog breeding habitat.
    The Skagit County CAO designates lands adjacent to the Samish River 
where Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur as Rural Resource or 
Agricultural. These land designations and the associated allowed 
activities are intended to provide some protection of hydrological 
functions, but they are primarily designed to retain a rural setting 
(low residential density) or to ensure the stability and productivity 
of agriculture and forestry in the county, which has some benefits to 
the Oregon spotted frog.
    Thurston County: Thurston County's revision of its SMP is currently 
under way, and until the revised SMP is completed and approved, the 
1990 SMP remains in effect (Thurston County SMP 1990). The majority of 
the areas within the Black River that are known to be occupied by 
Oregon spotted frogs are either undesignated (primarily the 
tributaries) or designated as Natural or Conservancy Environments. Two 
small areas are designated as Urban at the town of Littlerock and along 
Beaver Creek. Fish Pond Creek, a known Oregon spotted frog breeding 
location, is within the designated Tumwater Urban Growth Area. Within 
the Natural Environment designation areas, most activity types are 
prohibited, although livestock grazing, low-intensity recreation, low-
density (1 domicile per 10 ac) residences, and conditional shoreline 
alterations are allowed. Within Conservancy Environments, most 
activities are conditionally allowed, and would require a permit that 
must be reviewed and approved by Thurston County and WDOE for 
consistency with the SMP.
    Thurston County approved a revision to the CAO in July 2012. The 
Thurston County CAO that is the most relevant to Oregon spotted frogs 
addresses wetlands, although the Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation 
Areas chapter and the 100-year floodplain and Channel Migration Zone 
designations are also applicable. Activities in most wetlands are 
regulated, other than those less than or equal to 1,000 square feet 
(ft\2\) in size (although the county can waive this size threshold if a 
priority species is known to occur). However, due to State law, the 
2012 CAO update did not address agricultural activities, and the 
jurisdictional wetland size for these activities is 22,000 ft\2\ in the 
rural county, 11,000 ft\2\ in Urban Growth Areas, or 2,500 ft\2\ if 
adjacent to a stream or its floodplain. As a result, activities that 
can destroy or modify Oregon spotted frog habitat may still occur, such 
as asphalt batch plant construction, new agricultural uses, boat ramps, 
docks, piers, floats, bridge or culvert projects, clearing-grading-
excavation activities, and dredging/removal operations. Buffers and 
mitigation are required, but can be adjusted by the county. In general, 
wetlands and the associated wetland buffer CAOs strive toward a no-
management approach, which may not be beneficial to the maintenance of 
Oregon spotted frog emergent wetland habitat on a long-term basis. 
Within the areas occupied by Oregon spotted frogs in the Black River, 
all breeding habitat is within seasonally flooded areas, which may or 
may not be defined as wetlands or high ground water hazard areas (both 
designations would require set-backs). Rather than an avoidance 
strategy, these areas may require management actions to remove reed 
canarygrass in order to maintain egg-laying habitat. Seasonally flooded 
areas where agricultural uses are existing and ongoing are exempt from 
review under the CAO; however, expansion of activities may trigger 
additional review. Within Thurston County, protective measures for 
Oregon spotted frogs are afforded under both the SMP and CAOs, although 
no measures are specifically directed toward this species.
    Skamania County: Skamania County's revision to its SMP is under 
way, and until revised, the 1980 SMP is in effect (Skamania County SMP 
1980). According to the 1980 SMP, Trout Lake Creek is not a shoreline 
of Skamania County. The portions of Trout Lake Creek that are in 
Skamania County have no designated critical areas. Therefore, the SMP 
and CAO are not applicable to Oregon spotted frog habitat in Skamania 
County.
    Klickitat County: Klickitat County's SMP was adopted in 1998, and 
revised in 2007 (Klickitat County SMP 2007). Based on the 2007 SMP, 
only Trout Lake Creek is considered a ``shoreline,'' and within the 
area occupied by Oregon spotted frogs, regulations for both Natural and 
Conservancy Environments apply. Within the Natural Environments, most 
activity types are prohibited, except for nonintensive pasturing or 
grazing, recreation (access trails/passive uses), bulkheads 
(conditional uses), and shoreline alterations (conditional). Within 
Conservancy Environments, most activities are conditionally allowed, 
and require a permit that must be reviewed and approved by Klickitat 
County and WDOE for consistency.
    Klickitat County's CAO was adopted in 2001, and amended in 2004. 
Mapping of critical areas was not available, so our analysis includes 
only wetlands provisions. Activities in all wetlands greater than 2,500 
ft\2\ (232 m\2\) in size are regulated; however, some activities are 
exempted, including agricultural uses and maintenance of surface water 
systems (for example, irrigation and drainage ditches). These types of 
activities can destroy or modify Oregon spotted frog habitat. Buffers 
and mitigation are required, but can be adjusted by the county. In 
general, wetlands and the associated wetland buffer CAOs strive toward 
a no-management approach, which may result in the loss of Oregon 
spotted frog emergent wetland habitat on a long-term basis. Within the 
areas occupied by Oregon spotted frogs in Klickitat County, all 
breeding habitat is within seasonally flooded areas, which may or may 
not be defined as wetlands. Rather than an avoidance strategy, these 
areas may require management actions to remove reed canarygrass in 
order to maintain egg-laying habitat. Within Klickitat County, 
protective measures for Oregon spotted frogs are afforded under both 
the SMP and CAOs, although no measures are specifically directed toward 
this species.
    Oregon--In Oregon, the Land Conservation and Development Commission 
in 1974 adopted Goal 5 as a broad, Statewide planning goal that covers 
more than a dozen resources, including wildlife habitats and natural 
areas. Goal 5 and related Oregon Administrative Rules (Chapter 660, 
Divisions 16 and 23) describe how cities and counties are to plan and 
zone land to conserve resources listed in the goal. Goal 5 is a 
required planning process that allows local governments to make 
decisions about land use regulations and whether to protect the 
individual resources based upon potential conflicts involving economic, 
social, environmental, and energy consequences. It does not require 
minimum levels of protections for natural resources, but does require 
weighing the various impacts to resources from land use.
    Counties in Oregon within the range of Oregon spotted frog may have 
zoning ordinances that reflect protections set forth during the Goal 5 
planning process. The following will briefly discuss these within each 
county where Oregon spotted frogs are currently known to occur.
    Deschutes County: In accordance with the Statewide planning process

[[Page 51686]]

discussed above, Deschutes County completed a comprehensive plan in 
1979, which was updated in 2011, although Oregon spotted frog habitat 
is not included within the comprehensive plan as a Goal 5 resource 
site. The comprehensive plan is implemented primarily through zoning. 
Deschutes County zoning ordinances that regulate the removal and fill 
of wetlands (18.128.270), development within the floodplain 
(18.96.100), and siting of structures within 100 ft (30 m) of streams 
may provide indirect protections to Oregon spotted frog habitat on 
private lands along the Upper and Little Deschutes Rivers. The 
Deschutes County zoning regulations do not regulate the draining of 
wetlands or hydrologic modifications, and the Oregon Division of State 
Lands (DSL) regulates only actions that involve more than 50 cy (38 
m\3\) of wetland removal. Therefore, development associated with small 
wetland removals is neither regulated under the Deschutes County 
comprehensive plan nor Oregon DSL, which could negatively impact Oregon 
spotted frog habitat.
    Klamath County: Article 57 of the Klamath County Comprehensive Plan 
Policy (KCCPP) and associated Klamath County Development Code (KCDC) 
mandates provisions to preserve significant natural and cultural 
resources; address the economic, social, environmental, and energy 
consequences of conflicting uses upon significant natural and cultural 
resources; and permit development in a manner that does not adversely 
impact identified resource values (KCDC 2005, p. 197). This plan 
identifies significant wetlands, riparian areas, Class I streams, and 
fish habitat as a significant resource and identifies potentially 
conflicting uses including shoreline development or alteration, removal 
of riparian vegetation, filling or removing material, in-stream 
modification, introduction of pollutants, water impoundments, and 
drainage or channelization (KCCPP 2005, pp. 33-34, KCDC 2005, p. 199). 
All land uses that represent these conflicting uses are reviewed and 
applicants must clearly demonstrate that the proposed use will not 
negatively impact the resource (KCDC 2005, p. 200; KCCPP 2005, p. 25). 
However, all accepted farm practices or forest practices are exempt 
from this provision (KCDC 2005, p. 198), including (but not limited to) 
buildings, wineries, mineral exploration, and, under certain 
circumstances, the establishment of golf courses and agricultural and 
commercial industries (KCDC 2005, pp. 160-163, 176-177). If any of 
these practices disturb less than 50 cy (38.2 m\3\) of wetlands, they 
are not regulated by either KCCPP or Oregon DSL. Therefore, the 
development associated with small wetland removals could negatively 
impact Oregon spotted frog habitat.
    Jackson County: No specific county regulations pertain to wetlands 
within Jackson County ordinances. This county relies on the Oregon DSL 
to regulate the development and protection of wetlands (Skyles 2012, 
pers. comm.).
Summary of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms
    The existing regulatory mechanisms described above are not 
sufficient to reduce or remove threats to the Oregon spotted frog 
habitat, particularly habitat loss and degradation. The lack of 
essential habitat protection under Federal, State, Provincial, and 
local laws leaves this species at continued risk of habitat loss and 
degradation in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The review of 
impacts to wetlands under the Clean Water Act is minimal, and several 
occupied sub-basins in Washington and Oregon do not meet water quality 
standards. In many cases, laws and regulations that pertain to 
retention and restoration of wetland and riverine areas are designed to 
be beneficial to fish species, specifically salmonids, resulting in the 
unintentional elimination or degradation of Oregon spotted frog 
habitat. For example, CAOs in some Washington counties prohibit grazing 
within the riparian corridor, which is an active management technique 
that, properly applied, can be used to control invasive reed 
canarygrass.
    Additional regulatory flexibility would be desirable for actively 
maintaining habitat in those areas essential for the conservation of 
Oregon spotted frog. We note that the area where these potential 
incompatibilities apply are limited in scope (i.e., approximately 5,000 
ac (2,000 ha) and 20 mi (33 km) along the Black Slough and Sumas, 
Samish, and Black Rivers in Washington), because the area inhabited by 
Oregon spotted frogs is quite small relative to the extensive range of 
salmonids. In other cases, no regulations address threats related to 
the draining or development of wetlands or hydrologic modifications, 
which can eliminate or degrade Oregon spotted frog habitat. In summary, 
degradation of habitat for the Oregon spotted frog is ongoing despite 
existing regulatory mechanisms. These regulatory mechanisms have been 
insufficient to significantly reduce or remove the threats to the 
Oregon spotted frog. Therefore, based upon our review of the best 
information available, we conclude that the existing regulatory 
mechanisms are inadequate to reduce the threats to the Oregon spotted 
frog.

Factor E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued 
Existence

Site Size and Isolation/Population Turnover Rates/Breeding Effort 
Concentrations and Site Fidelity
    Most species' populations fluctuate naturally in response to 
weather events, disease, predation, or other factors. These factors, 
however, have less impact on a species with a wide and continuous 
distribution. In addition, smaller, isolated populations are generally 
more likely to be extirpated by stochastic events and genetic drift 
(Lande 1988, pp. 1456-1458). Many of the Oregon spotted frog breeding 
locations comprise fewer than 50 adult frogs, are isolated from other 
breeding locations, and may already be stressed by other factors, such 
as drought or predation, and are then more vulnerable to random, 
naturally occurring events. Where Oregon spotted frog locations have 
small population sizes and are isolated, their vulnerability to 
extirpation from factors such as fluctuating water levels, disease, and 
predation increases.
    Funk et al. (2008, p. 205) found low genetic variation in Oregon 
spotted frogs, which likely reflects small effective population sizes, 
historical or current genetic bottlenecks, and/or low gene flow among 
populations. Genetic work by Blouin et al. (2010) indicates low genetic 
diversity within and high genetic differentiation among each of the six 
Oregon spotted frog groups (British Columbia, Chehalis and Columbia 
drainages, Camas Prairie, central Oregon Cascades, and the Klamath 
Basin). This pattern of genetic fragmentation is likely caused by low 
connectivity between sites and naturally small populations sizes. Gene 
flow is very limited between locations, especially if separated by 6 mi 
(10 km) or more, and at the larger scale, genetic groups have the 
signature of complete isolation (Blouin et al. 2010, p. 2187). At least 
two of the locations sampled by Blouin et al. (2010) (Camas Prairie and 
Trout Lake) show indications of recent genetic drift.
    Modeling across a variety of amphibian taxa suggests that pond-
breeding frogs have high temporal variances of population abundances 
and high local extinction rates relative to other groups of amphibians, 
with smaller frog populations undergoing disproportionately large 
fluctuations in

[[Page 51687]]

abundance (Green 2003, pp. 339-341). The vulnerability of Oregon 
spotted frog egg masses to fluctuating water levels (Hayes et al. 2000, 
pp. 10-12; Pearl and Bury 2000, p. 10), the vulnerability of post-
metamorphic stages to predation (Hayes 1994, p. 25), and low 
overwintering survival (Hallock and Pearson 2001, p. 8) can contribute 
to relatively rapid population turnovers, suggesting Oregon spotted 
frogs are particularly vulnerable to local extirpations from stochastic 
events and chronic sources of mortality (Pearl and Hayes 2004, p. 11). 
The term ``rapid population turnovers'' refers to disproportionately 
large fluctuations in abundance.
    Oregon spotted frogs concentrate their breeding efforts in 
relatively few locations (Hayes et al. 2000, pp. 5-6; McAllister and 
White 2001, p. 11). For example, Hayes et al. (2000, pp. 5-6) found 
that 2 percent of breeding sites accounted for 19 percent of the egg 
masses at the Conboy Lake NWR. Similar breeding concentrations have 
been found elsewhere in Washington and in Oregon. Moreover, Oregon 
spotted frogs exhibit relatively high fidelity to breeding locations, 
using the same seasonal pools every year and often using the same egg-
laying sites. In years of extremely high or low water, the frogs may 
use alternative sites. For example, the Trout Lake Creek and Conboy 
Lake frogs return to traditional breeding areas every year, but the 
egg-laying sites change based on water depth at the time of breeding. A 
stochastic event that impacts any one of these breeding locations could 
significantly reduce the Oregon spotted frog population associated with 
that sub-basin.
    Egg mass count data suggest a positive correlation and significant 
link between site size and Oregon spotted frog breeding population size 
(Pearl and Hayes 2004, p. 12). Larger sites are more likely to provide 
the seasonal microhabitats required by Oregon spotted frogs, have a 
more reliable prey base, and include overwintering habitat. The minimum 
amount of habitat thought to be required to maintain an Oregon spotted 
frog population is about 10 ac (4 ha) (Hayes 1994, Part II pp. 5 and 
7). Smaller sites generally have a small number of frogs and, as 
described above, are more vulnerable to extirpation. Some sites in 
Oregon are at or below the 10-ac (4-ha) threshold; however, Pearl and 
Hayes (2004, p. 14) believe that these sites were historically 
subpopulations within a larger breeding complex and Oregon spotted 
frogs may only be persisting in these small sites because the sites 
exchange migrants or seasonal habitat needs are provided nearby.
    Movement studies suggest Oregon spotted frogs are limited in their 
overland dispersal and potential to recolonize sites. Oregon spotted 
frog movements are associated with aquatic connections (Watson et al. 
2003, p. 295; Pearl and Hayes 2004, p. 15). However, within 10 of the 
15 occupied sub-basins, one or more of the known breeding locations are 
isolated and separated by at least 3.1 mi (5 km) (see Life History, 
above), and within 9 of the 15 sub-basins, one or more of the known 
breeding locations are isolated and separated by at least 6 mi (10 km), 
the distance over which gene flow is extremely low (see Taxonomy, 
above). In many instances the intervening habitat lacks the substantial 
hydrological connections that would allow Oregon spotted frog movement. 
In addition, widespread predaceous fish introductions within these 
corridors pose a very high risk to frogs that do try to move between 
known locations. Therefore, should a stochastic event occur that 
results in the extirpation of an area, natural recolonization is 
unlikely unless another known location is hydrologically connected and 
within 3.1 mi (5 km).
    In British Columbia, the distance between the Morris Valley, 
Mountain Slough, and Maria Slough locations is about 8 km and each of 
these locations is 50-60 km from Maintenance Detachment Aldergrove, 
making all of the known populations isolated from one another (COSFRT 
2012, p. 15). In addition, suitable wetland habitat between any two of 
these locations is highly fragmented, and movement between populations 
is unlikely to occur. Based on this information and the small number of 
breeding individuals (fewer than 350), the Canadian Oregon spotted frog 
recovery team found that the risk from demographic and environmental 
stochastic events is high and could result in further local 
extirpations (COSFRT 2012, p. v).
    In five of the six extant sub-basins in Washington, Oregon spotted 
frogs are restricted to one watershed within the sub-basin. Within four 
of these sub-basins (South Fork Nooksack, Samish, White Salmon, and 
Middle Klickitat Rivers), the known breeding locations are aquatically 
connected, such that movements could occur and facilitate genetic 
exchange. In the Lower Chilliwack, Oregon spotted frogs are currently 
known to occur from only one breeding location in one watershed (Sumas 
River). There may be additional locations within 3.1 mi (5 km) that are 
aquatically connected, but further surveys would be needed in order to 
make this determination. In the Black River, known breeding locations 
occur along the mainstem, as well as in six tributaries. Oregon spotted 
frogs in Fish Pond Creek are likely isolated from Oregon spotted frogs 
in the rest of the Black River system due to changes in the outflow of 
Black Lake. Black Lake Ditch was constructed in 1922, and a pipeline at 
the outlet of the Black Lake to Black River was constructed in the 
1960s; both of these structures changed the flow such that Black Lake 
drains to the north, except during high flows rather than down the 
Black River as it did historically (Foster Wheeler Environmental 
Corporation 2003, pp. 2, 3, 5, 24). Oregon spotted frogs in the other 
five tributaries may also be isolated from each other because there is 
little evidence that the frogs use the Black River to move between 
tributaries, although breeding locations in these tributaries are 
aquatically connected via the Black River.
    In Oregon, two of the eight extant sub-basins contain single, 
isolated populations of Oregon spotted frogs: Lower Deschutes River 
(i.e., Camas Prairie) and Middle Fork Willamette River (i.e., Gold 
Lake). The McKenzie River sub-basin contains two populations of Oregon 
spotted frogs that are in close proximity but have no apparent 
hydrologic connection to each other or to populations in other sub-
basins. In the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon spotted frog breeding 
sites are found throughout two sub-basins: The Upper Deschutes River 
and the Little Deschutes River. These two sub-basins are aquatically 
connected at the confluence of the Little Deschutes River and the 
mainstem Deschutes River below Wickiup Reservoir. Genetic exchange 
likely occurs between Oregon spotted frogs on the lower reach of the 
Little Deschutes River and those along the Deschutes River at Sunriver 
where breeding occurs within 3.1 mi (5 km). The Wickiup dam and 
regulated flows out of the reservoir limit connectivity for Oregon 
spotted frogs to move within the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin, such 
that connectivity between the populations above and below the dam are 
unlikely. There are at least five breeding locations below Wickiup 
Reservoir, two of which are within 6 mi (10 km) but separated by a 
waterfall along the Deschutes River. Above Wickiup Reservoir, there are 
approximately six clusters of breeding sites that may be isolated from 
each other by lack of hydrologic connectivity

[[Page 51688]]

(i.e., lakes without outlets) or distances greater than 6 mi (10 km).
    In the Little Deschutes River sub-basin, approximately 23 known 
breeding locations are within five watersheds: Upper, Middle and Lower 
Little Deschutes River; Crescent Creek; and Long Prairie. Most breeding 
locations throughout the Little Deschutes River sub-basin are within 6 
mi (10 km) of each other, and, given that much of the private land is 
unsurveyed, the distance between breeding areas is likely smaller. In 
the lower reach of the Little Deschutes River near the confluence with 
the Deschutes River where more extensive surveys have been conducted, 
breeding sites are within 3.1 mi (5 km). Wetland complexes are 
extensive and continuous along the Little Deschutes River and its 
tributaries, which likely provides connectivity between breeding areas. 
Regulated flows out of Crescent Lake may affect the aquatic 
connectivity between breeding locations, although the impacts to Oregon 
spotted frog connectivity are not fully understood. The Long Prairie 
watershed also has been hydrologically altered by the historical 
draining of wetlands and ditching to supply irrigation water. 
Connectivity between three known breeding locations within this 
watershed is likely affected by the timing and duration of regulated 
flows, and historic ditching for irrigation.
    Oregon spotted frogs are found in six watersheds within three sub-
basins of the Klamath River Basin in Oregon (Williamson River, Upper 
Klamath Lake, and Upper Klamath). Within the Williamson River sub-
basin, individuals in the Jack Creek watershed are isolated from other 
populations due to lack of hydrologic connectivity. The Klamath Marsh 
and Upper Williamson populations are aquatically connected such that 
movements could occur and facilitate genetic exchange, although this 
presumed gene flow has not been demonstrated by recent genetic work 
(Robertson and Funk 2012, p. 10).
    The Upper Klamath Lake sub-basin populations are found in two 
watersheds: Wood River and Klamath Lake. Populations within and 
adjacent to the Wood River are aquatically connected and genetically 
similar (Robertson and Funk 2012, p. 10). However, while the Wood River 
populations and the Klamath Lake populations have genetic similarities 
(Robertson and Funk 2012, pp. 10, 11), altered hydrologic connections, 
distances (>6 mi (terrestrial) (10 km)), and invasive species have 
created inhospitable habitat. These conditions make it unlikely that 
individual frogs are able to move between watersheds or establish 
additional breeding complexes along the current hydrologic system. The 
only potential for hydrologic connectivity and movement between 
populations in the Klamath Lake populations is between Sevenmile Creek 
and Crane Creek, and between the individual breeding complexes on the 
Wood River in the Wood River watershed. The Upper Klamath sub-basin's 
Parsnip Lakes and Buck Lake populations are isolated from each other 
and the other Klamath Basin populations (Robertson and Funk 2012, p. 5) 
due to great hydrological distances (>20 mi (32 km)) and barriers 
(inhospitable habitat and dams).
    Site size and isolation/population turnover rates/breeding effort 
concentrations and site fidelity conclusion--Historically, Oregon 
spotted frogs were likely distributed throughout a watershed, occurred 
in multiple watersheds within a sub-basin, and adjusted their breeding 
areas as natural disturbances, such as flood events and beaver 
activity, shifted the location and amount of appropriate habitat. 
Currently, Oregon spotted frogs are restricted in their range within 
most occupied sub-basins (in some cases only occurring in one 
watershed), and breeding areas are isolated (greater than dispersal 
distance apart). Many of the Oregon spotted frog breeding locations 
across the range comprise fewer than 50 adult frogs and are isolated 
from other breeding locations. Genetic work indicates low genetic 
diversity within and high genetic differentiation among the six Oregon 
spotted frog groups. Each of these groups have the signature of 
complete isolation, and two show indications of recent genetic drift (a 
change in the gene pool of a small population that takes place strictly 
by chance). Oregon spotted frogs can experience rapid population 
turnovers because of their breeding location fidelity and vulnerability 
to fluctuating water levels, predation, and low overwinter survival. A 
stochastic event at any one of these small, isolated breeding locations 
could significantly reduce the Oregon spotted frog population 
associated with that sub-basin. Therefore, based on the best 
information available, we consider small site size and isolation and 
small population sizes to be a threat to the Oregon spotted frog.
Water Quality and Contamination
    Poor water quality and water contamination are playing a role in 
the decline of Oregon spotted frogs, and water quality concerns have 
been specifically noted within six of the occupied sub-basins (see 
Table 2 under Cumulative Effects from Factors A through E, below, and 
Factor D discussion, above), although data specific to this species are 
limited. Because of this limitation, we have examined responses by 
similar amphibians as a surrogate for impacts on Oregon spotted frogs. 
Studies comparing responses of amphibians to other aquatic species have 
demonstrated that amphibians are as sensitive as, and often more 
sensitive than, other species when exposed to aquatic contaminants 
(Boyer and Grue 1995, p. 353). Immature amphibians absorb contaminants 
during respiration through the skin and gills. They may also ingest 
contaminated prey. Pesticides, heavy metals, nitrates and nitrites, and 
other contaminants introduced into the aquatic environment from urban 
and agricultural areas are known to negatively affect various life 
stages of a wide range of amphibian species, including ranid frogs 
(Hayes and Jennings 1986, p. 497; Boyer and Grue 1995, pp. 353-354; 
Hecnar 1995, pp. 2133-2135; Materna et al. 1995, pp. 616-618; NBII 
2005; Mann et al. 2009, p. 2904). Exposure to pesticides can lower an 
individual's immune function, which increases the risk of disease or 
possible malformation (Stark 2005, p. 21; Mann et al. 2009, pp. 2905, 
2909). In addition, it has been demonstrated that some chemicals reduce 
growth and delay development.
    A reduction of growth or development would prolong an individual's 
larval period, thus making it more susceptible to predators for a 
longer period of time or resulting in immobility during periods of time 
when movement between habitats may be necessary (Mann et al. 2009, p. 
2906). Many of the described effects from pesticides are sublethal but 
ultimately may result in the mortality of the exposed individuals as 
described above. Furthermore, the results of several studies have 
suggested that, while the impacts of individual chemicals on amphibians 
are sublethal, a combination or cocktail of a variety of chemicals may 
be lethal (Mann et al. 2009, p. 2913; Bishop et al. 2010, p. 1602). The 
use of pesticides may be occurring throughout the range of the Oregon 
spotted frog due to the species' overlap with agricultural and urban 
environments; however, information regarding the extent, methods of 
application, and amounts applied is not available. Therefore, we are 
unable to make an affirmative determination at this time that 
pesticides are a threat.
    There are two agents commonly used for mosquito abatement within 
the range of Oregon spotted frog: Bacillus

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thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and methoprene. Bti is a bacterial 
agent that has no record of adverse direct effects on amphibians, but 
methoprene has been historically linked to abnormalities in southern 
leopard frogs (Lithobates utricularia), including completely or 
partially missing hind limbs, discoloration, and missing eyes. Missing 
eyes and delayed development in northern cricket frogs (Acris 
crepitans) have also been linked to methoprene (Stark 2005, p. 20). 
However, a recent scientific literature review suggests that methoprene 
is not ultimately responsible for frog malformations (Mann et al. 2009, 
pp. 2906-2907). The findings of this review suggest that, in order for 
malformations to occur, the concentration of methoprene in the water 
would induce mortality (Mann et al. 2009, p. 2906).
    We also evaluated the indirect effect that Bti and methoprene may 
have on Oregon spotted frogs by reducing their insect prey species. 
When used for mosquito abatement, both Bti and methoprene most strongly 
affect flies belonging to the suborder Nematocera (the thread-horned 
flies), which includes mosquitos, but may also other chironomid flies 
such as non-biting midges (Chironomidae) (Hershey et al. 1998, p. 42; 
Lawler et al. 2000, p. 177; Rochlin et al. 2011, pp. 11-13). We 
compiled information on the number of insect orders recorded as present 
during stomach content studies (Licht 1986a, p. 28; Pearl and Hayes 
2002, pp. 145-147; Pearl et al. 2005a, p. 37) and then examined the 
proportion of the order (diptera; flies) primarily affected by Bti and 
methoprene in relation to the rest of the recorded diet of the Oregon 
spotted frog. While there are not many data to consider, the kinds of 
flies most commonly affected compose a small portion of the overall 
diet of the Oregon spotted frogs that were included in the stomach 
content studies. We conclude that Bti and methoprene, applied as 
recommended for mosquito control, are likely to have a negligible 
effect on Oregon spotted frogs due to the diversity of the species' 
diet. This is our conclusion for this species only. We do not assume 
that these agents could not present a threat to other species of frogs 
that are more dependent on the nematoceran diptera that Bti and 
methoprene do negatively affect. Therefore, based on the best available 
information, we do not consider Bti or methoprene to be a threat to 
Oregon spotted frogs.
    Although the effects on amphibians of rotenone, which is used to 
remove undesirable fish from lakes, are poorly understood, mortality 
likely occurs at treatment levels used on fish (McAllister et al. 1999, 
p. 21). The role of rotenone treatments in the disappearance of Oregon 
spotted frogs from historical sites is unknown; however, some studies 
indicate that amphibians might be less sensitive than fish and might be 
capable of recovering from exposure to rotenone (Mullin et al. 2004, 
pp. 305-306; Walston and Mullin 2007, p. 65). However, these studies 
did not measure the effects on highly aquatic amphibians, like the 
Oregon spotted frog. In fall of 2011, the ODFW used rotenone to remove 
goldfish from a small pond adjacent to Crane Prairie Reservoir. In 
April 2012, approximately 40 spotted frog egg masses were located in 
the pond, where there had been no prior record of Oregon spotted frog 
occupancy in the past (Wray 2012, pers. comm.). No rotenone treatments 
in Cascade lakes occupied by Oregon spotted frog are planned in the 
near future (Hodgson 2012, pers. comm.), and to date, in the Upper 
Klamath Lake sub-basin, no fish killing agents have been applied within 
Oregon spotted frog habitat (Banish 2012, pers. comm.). Therefore, 
based on the best available information, we do not consider rotenone to 
be a threat to Oregon spotted frogs.
    Water acidity (low pH) can inhibit fertilization and embryonic 
development in amphibians, reduce their growth and survival through 
physiological alterations, and produce developmental anomalies (Hayes 
and Jennings 1986, pp. 498-499; Boyer and Grue 1995, p. 353). A low pH 
may enhance the effects of other factors, such as activating heavy 
metals in sediments. An elevated pH, acting singly or in combination 
with other factors such as low dissolved oxygen, high water 
temperatures, and elevated un-ionized ammonia levels, may have 
detrimental effects on developing frog embryos (Boyer and Grue 1995, p. 
354). Concerns about pH levels have been identified in sub-basins 
occupied by the Oregon spotted frog.
    Required dissolved oxygen levels for Oregon spotted frogs have not 
been evaluated; however, a number of studies have been conducted on 
amphibians that indicate that the amount of dissolved oxygen can affect 
all life stages. Low oxygen levels can affect the rate of egg 
development, time to hatching, and development stage at hatching. For 
example, Mills and Barnhart (1999, p. 182) found that embryos of two 
salamanders developed more slowly and hatching was delayed. In 
contrast, in two ranid frog species, low oxygen levels resulted in 
embryos hatching sooner and in a less developed stage (Mills and 
Barnhart 1999, p. 182). As dissolved oxygen levels decreased below 4.0 
to 4.25 parts per million, Wassersug and Seibert (1975, pp. 90-93), 
found tadpoles of Rana pipiens and Bufo woodhousii swam to the surface 
(not a normal behavior), and all remained at the surface at levels 
below 2.0 parts per million. Similarly, Moore and Townsend (1998, p. 
332) found that decreasing oxygen levels increased the number of times 
Rana clamitans tadpoles surfaced and the amount of time spent at the 
surface. This behavior increased the risk of predation because 
signficantly more Rana clamitans tadpoles were eaten when mean oxygen 
levels were at or below 2.7 mg/L (Moore and Townsend 1998, p. 332). 
Ranid species have been found to use overwintering microhabitat with 
well-oxygenated waters (Ultsch et al. 2000, p. 315; Lamoureux and 
Madison 1999, p. 434), although some evidence indicates that Oregon 
spotted frogs can tolerate levels at or somewhat below 2.0 mg/L during 
the winter for short periods (Hayes et al. 2001, pp. 20-22; Risenhoover 
et al. 2001b, pp. 17-18).
    Marco et al. (1999, p. 2838) demonstrated the strong sensitivity of 
Oregon spotted frog tadpoles to nitrate and nitrite ions in laboratory 
experiments, and suggested that nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers may 
have contributed to the species' decline in the lowland areas of its 
distribution. This research suggests that the recommended maximum 
levels of nitrates (10 milligrams/Liter (mg/L)) and nitrites (1 mg/L) 
in drinking water are moderately to highly toxic for Oregon spotted 
frogs, indicating that EPA water quality standards do not protect 
sensitive amphibian species (Marco et al. 1999, p. 2838). In the Marco 
et al. study, Oregon spotted frog tadpoles did not show a rapid adverse 
effect to nitrate ions, but at day 15 of exposure they reflected high 
sensitivity followed by synchronous death. Many public water supplies 
in the United States contain levels of nitrate that routinely exceed 
concentrations of 10 mg/L of nitrate; the median lethal concentrations 
for aquatic larvae of the Oregon spotted frog is less than 10 mg/L 
(Marco et al. 1999, p. 2838). Grazing is one source of nitrates and 
nitrites; according to the EPA, the major sources of nitrates in 
drinking water are runoff from fertilizer use, leaking from septic 
tanks and sewage, and erosion of natural deposits. Most currently known 
occupied sites for Oregon spotted frog are located in areas where 
residential septic tanks are used and farming practices include 
fertilizer application and grazing.

[[Page 51690]]

    Elevated sources of nutrient inputs into river and wetland systems 
can result in eutrophic (nutrient-rich) conditions, characterized by 
increased productivity, such as blooms of algae, that can produce a 
high pH and low dissolved oxygen. Increased eutrophic conditions in the 
Upper Klamath Lake sub-basin may have contributed to the absence of 
Oregon spotted frogs. Beginning in 2002, algal blooms, poor water 
quality, and low dissolved oxygen were documented in Jack Creek, during 
which a decline in Oregon spotted frog reproduction was also documented 
(Oertley 2005, pers. comm.).
    Water quality concerns have been documented in several waterbodies 
occupied by the Oregon spotted frog. In Washington, portions of the 
Sumas River; Black Slough in the South Fork Nooksack sub-basin; 
portions of the Samish River; segments of the Black River; segments of 
Dempsey, Allen, and Beaver Creeks in the Black River sub-basin; and a 
segment in the upper portion of Trout Lake Creek are listed by the WDOE 
as not meeting water quality standards for a variety of parameters, 
including temperature, fecal coliform, pH, and dissolved oxygen. In 
Oregon, many of the streams associated with Oregon spotted frog habitat 
are listed by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality as not 
meeting water quality standards for multiple parameters: (1) Little 
Deschutes River--temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll A, pH, 
aquatic weeds or algae; (2) Deschutes River--temperature, dissolved 
oxygen, turbidity, sedimentation; (3) Middle Fork Willamette River--
sedimentation; (4) Upper Klamath--temperature; and (5) Williamson 
River--sedimentation.
    In British Columbia, Oregon spotted frogs at Morris Valley, 
Mountain Slough, and Maria Slough are in largely agricultural areas. 
Agricultural runoff includes fertilizers (including manure); runoff or 
percolation into the groundwater from manure piles (Rouse et al. 1999); 
and spraying of agricultural chemicals such as pesticides or 
insecticides (including Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium) or fungicides 
(used by blueberry producers), including wind-borne chemicals. Water-
borne sewage and non-point source runoff from housing and urban areas 
that include nutrients, toxic chemicals, and/or sediments may also be 
increasing in intensity. Additional sources of contaminants may include 
chemical spraying during forestry activities, maintenance of power line 
corridors, or disruption of normal movements of nutrients by forestry 
activities (Canadian Recovery Strategy (COSFRT) 2012, p. 21). The 
COSFRT (2012, p. 17) identifies pollution associated with agricultural 
and forestry effluents as being (1) high impact; (2) large in scope; 
(3) serious in severity; (4) high in timing; and (5) a stress that has 
direct and indirect mortality results. One of the recovery objectives 
is to coordinate with the Minister of Agriculture to implement 
supporting farming practices and environmental farm plans options to 
decrease agrochemical and nutrient pollution into Oregon spotted frog 
habitat and work with all levels of government, land managers, and 
private landowners to inform and encourage best practices and ensure 
compliance in relation to water quality, hydrology, and land use 
practice (COSFRS 2012, p. 34).
    Although more research is needed, Johnson et al. (2002a; Johnson 
and Chase 2004) state that eutrophication associated with elevated 
nitrogen (and phosphorus) has been linked with increased snail 
populations. Johnson and Chase (2004, p. 522) point to elevated levels 
of nutrients (particularly phosphorus) from agricultural fertilizers 
and cattle grazing in freshwater ecosystems as causing shifts in the 
composition of aquatic snails from small species to larger species. 
These larger species serve as intermediate hosts for a parasite 
(Ribeiroia ondatrae), which causes malformations in amphibians (see 
``Disease'' under Factor C discussion, above).
    Water quality and contamination conclusion--Although pesticides are 
known to affect various life stages of the Oregon spotted frog, the 
impact of this potential threat is undetermined at this time. We do not 
consider rotenone or methoprene to be threats to the species.
    Oregon spotted frogs are highly aquatic throughout their life 
cycle, and are thus likely to experience extended exposure to any 
waterborne contaminants. Poor water quality parameters and contaminants 
may act singly or in combination with other factors to result in 
inhibited fertilization and embryonic development, developmental 
anomalies, or reduced growth and survival. More work on the species' 
ecotoxicology is warranted. However, reduced water quality is 
documented in a number of occupied sub-basins, and where this overlap 
occurs we consider poor water quality and contaminants to be threats to 
the Oregon spotted frog.
Hybridization
    Hybridization between Oregon spotted frogs and closely related frog 
species is unlikely to affect the survival of the Oregon spotted frog. 
Natural hybridization between Oregon spotted frogs and Cascade frogs 
has been demonstrated experimentally and verified in nature (Haertel 
and Storm 1970, pp. 436-444; Green 1985, p. 263). However, the 
offspring are infertile, and the two species seldom occur together. 
Hybridization between Oregon spotted frogs and red-legged frogs has 
also been confirmed (I.C. Phillipsen and K. McAllister cited in Hallock 
2013, p. 7), but it is unknown if the hybrids are fertile. Because 
Oregon spotted frog and Columbia spotted frog populations are not known 
to occur together, based on the best available information, we do not 
consider hybridization to be a threat to Oregon spotted frogs.
Climate Change
    Our analyses under the Act include consideration of ongoing and 
projected changes in climate. The terms ``climate'' and ``climate 
change'' are defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 
(IPCC). The term ``climate'' refers to the mean and variability of 
different types of weather conditions over time, with 30 years being a 
typical period for such measurements, although shorter or longer 
periods also may be used (IPCC 2007a, p. 78). The term ``climate 
change'' thus refers to a change in the mean or variability of one or 
more measures of climate (e.g., temperature or precipitation) that 
persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer, whether 
the change is due to natural variability, human activity, or both (IPCC 
2007a, p. 78).
    Scientific measurements spanning several decades demonstrate that 
changes in climate are occurring, and that the rate of change has been 
faster since the 1950s. Examples include warming of the global climate 
system, and substantial increases in precipitation in some regions of 
the world and decreases in other regions. (For these and other 
examples, see IPCC 2007a, p. 30; Solomon et al. 2007, pp. 35-54, 82-
85). Results of scientific analyses presented by the IPCC show that 
most of the observed increase in global average temperature since the 
mid-20th century cannot be explained by natural variability in climate, 
and is ``very likely'' (defined by the IPCC as 90 percent or higher 
probability) due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) 
concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of human activities, 
particularly carbon dioxide emissions from use of fossil fuels (IPCC 
2007a, pp. 5-6 and figures SPM.3 and SPM.4; Solomon et al. 2007, pp. 
21-35). Further confirmation of the role of GHGs comes from analyses by 
Huber and Knutti (2011, p. 4), who concluded it is extremely likely 
that approximately 75

[[Page 51691]]

percent of global warming since 1950 has been caused by human 
activities.
    Scientists use a variety of climate models, which include 
consideration of natural processes and variability, as well as various 
scenarios of potential levels and timing of GHG emissions, to evaluate 
the causes of changes already observed and to project future changes in 
temperature and other climate conditions (e.g., Meehl et al. 2007, 
entire; Ganguly et al. 2009, pp. 11555, 15558; Prinn et al. 2011, pp. 
527, 529). All combinations of models and emissions scenarios yield 
very similar projections of increases in the most common measure of 
climate change, average global surface temperature (commonly known as 
global warming), until about 2030. Although projections of the 
magnitude and rate of warming differ after about 2030, the overall 
trajectory of all the projections is one of increased global warming 
through the end of this century, even for the projections based on 
scenarios that assume that GHG emissions will stabilize or decline. 
Thus, strong scientific data support projections that warming will 
continue through the 21st century, and that the magnitude and rate of 
change will be influenced substantially by the extent of GHG emissions 
(IPCC 2007a, pp. 44-45; Meehl et al. 2007, pp. 760-764, 797-811; 
Ganguly et al. 2009, pp. 15555-15558; Prinn et al. 2011, pp. 527, 529). 
(See IPCC 2007b, p. 8, for a summary of other global projections of 
climate-related changes, such as frequency of heat waves and changes in 
precipitation. Also see IPCC 2012 (entire) for a summary of 
observations and projections of extreme climate events.)
    Various changes in climate may have direct or indirect effects on 
species. These effects may be positive, neutral, or negative, and they 
may change over time, depending on the species and other relevant 
considerations, such as interactions of climate with other variables 
(e.g., habitat fragmentation) (IPCC 2007, pp. 8-14, 18-19). Identifying 
likely effects often involves aspects of climate change vulnerability 
analysis. Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a species (or 
system) is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of 
climate change, including climate variability and extremes. 
Vulnerability is a function of the type, magnitude, and rate of climate 
change and variation to which a species is exposed, its sensitivity, 
and its adaptive capacity (IPCC 2007a, p. 89; see also Glick et al. 
2011, pp. 19-22). No single method for conducting such analyses applies 
to all situations (Glick et al. 2011, p. 3). We use our expert judgment 
and appropriate analytical approaches to weigh relevant information, 
including uncertainty, in our consideration of various aspects of 
climate change.
    As is the case with all stressors that we assess, even if we 
conclude that a species is currently affected or is likely to be 
affected in a negative way by one or more climate-related impacts, the 
species does not necessarily meet the definition of an ``endangered 
species'' or a ``threatened species'' under the Act. If a species is 
listed as an endangered or threatened species, knowledge regarding the 
vulnerability of the species to, and known or anticipated impacts from, 
climate-associated changes in environmental conditions can be used to 
help devise appropriate strategies for its recovery.
    Global climate projections are informative, and, in some cases, the 
only or the best scientific information available for us to use. 
However, projected changes in climate and related impacts can vary 
substantially across and within different regions of the world (e.g., 
IPCC 2007a, pp. 8-12). Therefore, we use ``downscaled'' projections 
when they are available and have been developed through appropriate 
scientific procedures, because such projections provide higher 
resolution information that is more relevant to spatial scales used for 
analyses of a given species (see Glick et al. 2011, pp. 58-61, for a 
discussion of downscaling). With regard to our analysis for the Oregon 
spotted frog, downscaled projections are available.
    The climate in the PNW has already experienced a warming of 0.8 
degrees Celsius (C) (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (F)) during the 20th 
century (Mote et al. 2008, p. 3). Using output from eight climate 
models, the PNW is projected to warm further by 0.6 to 1.9 degrees C 
(1.1 to 3.4 degrees F) by the 2020s, and 0.9 to 2.9 degrees C (1.6 to 
5.2 degrees F) by the 2040s (Mote et al. 2008, pp. 5-6). Additionally, 
the majority of models project wetter winters and drier summers (Mote 
et al. 2008, p. 7), and of greatest consequence, a reduction in 
regional snowpack, which supplies water for ecosystems during the dry 
summer (Mote et al. 2003). The small summertime precipitation increases 
projected by a minority of models do not change the fundamentally dry 
summers of the PNW and do not lessen the increased drying of the soil 
column brought by higher temperatures (Mote et al. 2003, p. 8).
    Watersheds that are rain dominated (such as the Fraser River in 
British Columbia and the Black River in Washington) will likely 
experience higher winter streamflow because of increases in average 
winter precipitation, but overall will experience relatively little 
change with respect to streamflow timing (Elsner et al. 2010, p. 248). 
Water temperatures for western Washington are generally cooler than 
those in the interior Columbia basin; however, climate change 
predictions indicate the summertime stream temperatures exceeding 19.5 
degrees C (67.1 degrees F) will increase, although by a smaller 
fraction than the increases in the interior Columbia basin (Mantua et 
al. 2010, p. 199).
    Transient basins (mixed rain- and snowmelt-dominant usually in mid 
elevations, such as Lower Chilliwack, SF Nooksack, White Salmon, and 
Middle Klickitat Rivers sub-basins in Washington) will likely 
experience significant shifts in streamflow and water temperature, 
becoming rain dominant as winter precipitation falls more as rain and 
less as snow, and undergo more severe summer low-flow periods and more 
frequent days with intense winter flooding (Elsner et al. 2010, pp. 
248, 252, 255; Mantua et al. 2010, entire).
    Snowmelt-dominated watersheds, such as White Salmon in Washington 
and the Upper Deschutes, Little Deschutes, and Klamath River sub-basins 
in Oregon, will likely become transient, resulting in reduced peak 
spring streamflow, increased winter streamflow, and reduced late summer 
flow (Littell et al. 2009, p. 8). In snowmelt-dominated watersheds that 
prevail in the higher altitude catchments and in much of the interior 
Columbia Basin, flood risk will likely decrease and summer low flows 
will decrease in most rivers under most scenarios (Littell et al. 2009, 
p. 13).
    In Washington, the snow water equivalent measured on April 1 is 
projected to decrease by 28 to 30 percent across the State by the 
2020s, 38 to 46 percent by the 2040s, and 56 to 70 percent by the 
2080s, and the areas with elevations below 3,280 ft (1,000 m) will 
experience the largest decreases in snowpack, with reductions of 68 to 
80 percent by the 2080s (Elsner et al. 2010, p. 244). In the Puget 
Trough sub-basins, summertime soil moisture will decrease as a result 
of the warming climate and reduced snowpack. While annual precipitation 
is projected to slightly increase across the State, by 3.4 percent by 
the 2080s, the seasonality of the precipitation will change more 
dramatically with increased winter and decreased summer precipitation, 
with most of the precipitation falling between

[[Page 51692]]

October and March (Elsner et al. 2010, p. 247).
    Climate change models predict that water temperatures will rise 
throughout Oregon as air temperatures increase into the 21st century. A 
decline in summer stream flow may exacerbate water temperature 
increases as the lower volume of water absorbs solar radiation (Chang 
and Jones 2010, p. 134).
    Analyses of the hydrologic responses of the upper Deschutes basin 
(including the Upper and Little Deschutes River sub-basins) and the 
Klamath Basin to climate change scenarios indicates that the form of 
precipitation will shift from predominately snow to rain and cause 
decreasing spring recharge and runoff and increasing winter recharge 
and runoff (Waibel 2011, pp. 57-60; Mayer and Naman 2011, p. 3). 
However, there is spatial variation within the Deschutes sub-basins as 
to where the greatest increases in recharge and runoff will occur 
(Waibel 2011, pp. 57-60). Changes in seasonality of stream flows may be 
less affected by climate change along the crest of the Cascades in the 
upper watersheds of the Deschutes, Klamath, and Willamette River basins 
in Oregon, where many rivers receive groundwater recharge from 
subterranean aquifers and springs (Chang and Jones 2010, p. 107). 
Summer stream flows may thus be sustained in high Cascade basins that 
are groundwater fed (Chang and Jones 2010, p. 134). Conversely, Mayer 
and Naman (2011, p. 1) indicate that streamflow into Upper Klamath Lake 
will display absolute decreases in July-September base flows in 
groundwater basins as compared to surface-dominated basins. This 
earlier discharge of water in the spring will result in less streamflow 
in the summer (Mayer and Naman 2011, p. 12).
    Although predictions of climate change impacts do not specifically 
address Oregon spotted frogs, short- and long-term changes in 
precipitation patterns and temperature regimes will likely affect wet 
periods, winter snow pack, and flooding events (Chang and Jones 2010). 
These changes are likely to affect amphibians through a variety of 
direct and indirect pathways, such as range shifts, breeding success, 
survival, dispersal, breeding phenology, availability and quality of 
aquatic habitats, food webs, competition, spread of diseases, and the 
interplay among these factors (Blaustein et al. 2010, entire; Hixon et 
al. 2010, p. 274; Corn 2003, entire). Amphibians have species-specific 
temperature tolerances, and exceeding these thermal thresholds is 
expected to reduce survival (Blaustein et al. 2010, pp. 286-287). 
Earlier spring thaws and warmer ambient temperatures may result in 
earlier breeding, especially at lower elevations in the mountains where 
breeding phenology is driven more by snow pack than by air temperature 
(Corn 2003, p. 624). Shifts in breeding phenology may also result in 
sharing breeding habitat with species not previously encountered and/or 
new competitive interactions and predator/prey dynamics (Blaustein et 
al. 2010, pp. 288, 294). Oregon spotted frogs are highly aquatic, and 
reductions in summer flows may result in summer habitat going dry, 
potentially resulting in increased mortality or forcing frogs to seek 
shelter in lower quality wetted areas where they are more susceptible 
to predation.
    Amphibians are susceptible to many types of pathogens including 
trematodes, copepods, fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, and viruses. Changes 
in temperature and precipitation could alter host-pathogen interactions 
and/or result in range shifts resulting in either beneficial or 
detrimental impacts on the amphibian host (Blaustein et al. 2010, p. 
296). Kiesecker et al. (2001a, p. 682) indicate climate change events, 
such as El Nino/Southern Oscillation, that result in less precipitation 
and reduced water depths at egg-laying sites results in high mortality 
of embryos because their exposure to UV-B and vulnerability to 
infection (such as Saprolegnia) is increased. Warmer temperatures and 
less freezing in areas occupied by bullfrogs is likely to increase 
bullfrog winter survivorship, thereby increasing the threat from 
predation. Uncertainty about climate change impacts does not mean that 
impacts may or may not occur; it means that the risks of a given impact 
are difficult to quantify (Schneider and Kuntz-Duriseti 2002, p. 54; 
Congressional Budget Office 2005, entire; Halsnaes et al. 2007, p. 
129). Oregon spotted frogs occupy habitats at a wide range of 
elevations, and all of the occupied sub-basins are likely to experience 
precipitation regime shifts; therefore, the Oregon spotted frog's 
response to climate change is likely to vary across the range, and the 
population-level impacts are uncertain. The interplay between Oregon 
spotted frogs and their aquatic habitat will ultimately determine their 
population response to climate change. Despite the potential for future 
climate change throughout the range of the species, as discussed above, 
we have not identified, nor are we aware of any data on, an appropriate 
scale to evaluate habitat or population trends for the Oregon spotted 
frog or to make predictions about future trends and whether the species 
will be significantly impacted.
Conservation Efforts To Reduce Other Natural or Manmade Factors 
Affecting Its Continued Existence
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health 
Inspection Service (APHIS), maintains voluntary agreements with private 
landowners concerning application of pesticides within the United 
States. Based on their 2010 operational procedures, all waterbodies 
(rivers, ponds, reservoirs, streams, vernal pools, wetlands, etc.) will 
be avoided by a minimum of a 50-foot buffer for ground application of 
bait, a 200-foot buffer for aerial application of bait, and a 500-foot 
buffer for the aerial application of liquids (USDA APHIS 2010, p. 4). 
As previously described under other threat factors, conservation 
efforts may also help reduce the threat of other natural or manmade 
factors affecting the species.
Summary of Other Natural or Manmade Factors
    Many of the Oregon spotted frog breeding locations are small and 
isolated from other breeding locations. Moreover, due to their fidelity 
to breeding locations and vulnerability to fluctuating water levels, 
predation, and low overwinter survival, Oregon spotted frogs can 
experience rapid population turnovers that they may not be able to 
overcome. Genetic work indicates low genetic diversity within and high 
genetic differentiation among the six Oregon spotted frog groups 
identified by Blouin, and each of these groups has the signature of 
complete isolation with two groups showing indications of recent 
genetic drift. Poor water quality parameters and contaminants may act 
singly or in combination with other factors to result in inhibited 
fertilization and embryonic development, developmental anomalies, or 
reduced growth and survival. Oregon spotted frogs in every occupied 
sub-basin are subject to more than one stressor, such as loss or 
reduced quality of habitat and predation and, therefore, may be more 
susceptible to mortality and sublethal effects. The changing climate 
may exacerbate these stressors. Therefore, based on the best 
information available, we conclude that other natural or manmade 
factors are a threat to the Oregon spotted frog, which has significant 
population effects occurring throughout the entire (current) range of 
the species and these effects are expected to continue into the future.

Cumulative Effects From Factors A Through E

    The Oregon spotted frog faces several threats, and all occupied 
sub-basins are

[[Page 51693]]

subjected to multiple threats, which cumulatively pose a risk to 
individual populations (see Table 2, below). Many of these threats are 
intermingled, and the magnitude of the combined threats to the species 
is greater than the individual threats. For example, the small sizes 
and isolation of the majority of Oregon spotted frog breeding locations 
makes Oregon spotted frogs acutely vulnerable to fluctuating water 
levels, disease, predation, poor water quality, and extirpation from 
stochastic events. Hydrologic changes, resulting from activities such 
as water diversions and removal of beavers, increase the likelihood of 
fluctuating water levels and temperatures, and may also facilitate 
predators. Existing regulatory mechanisms facilitate hydrologic 
changes, and restoration actions are specifically designed to benefit 
salmonid species, which often results in the reduction of habitat 
quality and quantity for Oregon spotted frogs where they overlap.
    Habitat management and a warming climate may improve conditions for 
pathogens and predators. Saprolegnia, Bd, and Ribeiroia ondatrae have 
been found in Oregon spotted frogs, and compounded with other 
stressors, such as UV-B exposure, degradation of habitat quality, or 
increased predation pressure, may contribute to population declines. Bd 
and R. ondatrae, in particular, infect post-metamorphic frogs and 
reductions in these life stages are more likely to lead to population 
declines. Sub-basins projected to transition from snow-dominant or 
transient to rain-dominant will be less susceptible to freezing 
temperatures with the expectation of reduced mortality of bullfrogs 
during winter and increased predation risk to Oregon spotted frogs.
    Amphibian declines may frequently be associated with multiple 
correlated factors (Adams 1999, pp. 1167-1169). Two of the greatest 
threats to freshwater systems in western North America, exotic species 
and hydrological changes, are often correlated. In addition, occurrence 
and abundance of bullfrogs may be linked with invasions by nonnative 
fish (Adams et al. 2003, p. 349; Rowe and Garcia 2014, p. 147). Adams 
(1999) examined the relationships among introduced species, habitat, 
and the distribution and abundance of red-legged frogs in western 
Washington. Red-legged frog occurrence in the Puget lowlands was more 
closely associated with habitat structure and exotic fish than with the 
presence of bullfrogs (Adams 1999, pp. 1167-1168), and similar 
associations were found in a recent study in Oregon's Willamette Valley 
(Pearl et al. 2005b, p. 16). Rowe and Garcia (2014, p. 147) found 
native anuran counts were consistently lower in wetlands with nonnative 
fish, whereas bullfrog counts were higher. The spread of exotic species 
is correlated with a shift toward greater permanence in wetland 
habitats regionally (for example, Kentula et al. 1992, p. 115). For 
example, exotic fish and bullfrogs are associated with permanent 
wetlands. Conservation of more ephemeral wetland habitats, which 
directly benefit native amphibians such as Oregon spotted frogs, would 
be expected to reduce predation and competition threats posed by exotic 
fish and bullfrogs (Adams 1999, pp. 1169-1170; Rowe and Garcia 2014, p. 
150). However, bullfrogs may be adapting because they have recently 
been found successfully breeding in ephemeral wetlands in the 
Willamette Valley, Oregon (Cook 2013, p. 656).
    Amphibians are affected by complex interactions of abiotic and 
biotic factors, and are subjected simultaneously to numerous 
interacting stressors. For example, contaminants and UV-B radiation may 
result in mortality or induce sublethal effects on their own, but they 
may have synergistic, interaction effects that exceed the additive 
effects when combined. Some stressors, such as contaminants, may hamper 
the immune system, making amphibians more susceptible to pathogenic 
infections (Kiesecker 2002, p. 9902). Predator presence can alter the 
behavior of amphibians, resulting in more or less exposure to UV-B 
radiation (Michel and Burke 2011), thereby altering the rate of 
malformations. Climate-driven dry events that result in lower water 
levels may concentrate contaminants, as well as increase the amount of 
exposure to UV-B radiation. While any one of these individual stressors 
may not be a concern, a contaminant added to increased UV-B radiation 
exposure and a normally healthy population level of Ribeiroia ondatrae 
may lead to a higher mortality rate or an increased number of malformed 
frogs that exceeds the rate caused by any one factor alone (Blaustein 
et al. 2003, entire; Szurocksi and Richardson 2009 p. 382). Oregon 
spotted frogs in every occupied sub-basin are subject to more than one 
stressor and, therefore, may be more susceptible to mortality and 
sublethal effects.
    The historical loss of Oregon spotted frog habitats and lasting 
anthropogenic changes in natural disturbance processes are exacerbated 
by the introduction of reed canarygrass, nonnative predators, and 
potentially climate change. In addition, current regulatory mechanisms 
and voluntary incentive programs designed to benefit fish species have 
inadvertently led to the continuing decline in quality of Oregon 
spotted frog habitats in some locations. The current wetland and stream 
vegetation management paradigm is generally a no-management or 
restoration approach that often results in succession to a tree- and 
shrub-dominated community that unintentionally degrades or eliminates 
remaining or potential suitable habitat for Oregon spotted frog 
breeding. Furthermore, incremental wetland loss or degradation 
continues under the current regulatory mechanisms. If left unmanaged, 
these factors are anticipated to result in the eventual elimination of 
remaining suitable Oregon spotted frog habitats or populations. The 
persistence of habitats required by the species is now largely 
management dependent.
    Conservation efforts to ameliorate impacts from habitat degradation 
and predators are currently under way; however, the benefits of these 
conservation actions to Oregon spotted frogs are site-specific and do 
not counteract the impacts at a sub-basin scale. The cumulative effects 
of these threats are more than additive, and removing one threat does 
not ameliorate the others and may actually result in an increase in 
another threat. For example, removing livestock grazing to improve 
water quality--without continuing to manage the vegetation--can allow 
invasive reed canarygrass, trees, and shrubs to grow and effectively 
eliminate egg-laying habitat.
    Therefore, based on the best scientific information available, we 
conclude that the cumulative effects from factors discussed in Factors 
A, C, and E, combined with the inadequacy of existing regulatory 
mechanisms discussed under Factor D, are a threat to the Oregon spotted 
frog, and these threats are significantly affecting populations 
throughout the entire range of the species. Moreover, these threats are 
expected to continue into the future.

[[Page 51694]]



                               Table 2--Threats Operating Within Each Sub-Basin *
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Sub-basin                       Factor A                  Factor C                 Factor E
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lower Fraser River..................  Wetland loss; hydrologic  Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       changes; development;     fish; bullfrogs.         breeding locations
                                       grazing, reed                                      disconnected;
                                       canarygrass; water                                 contaminants;
                                       quality.                                           cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Lower Chilliwack River..............  Grazing; reed             Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       canarygrass; water        fish.                    breeding locations
                                       quality.                                           disconnected;
                                                                                          contaminants;
                                                                                          cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
South Fork Nooksack.................  Grazing; reed             Introduced coldwater     Small population size;
                                       canarygrass; shrub        fish.                    cumulative effects of
                                       encroachment/planting;                             other threats;
                                       loss of beavers; water                             contaminants; climate
                                       quality.                                           change.
Samish River........................  Wetland loss; grazing;    Introduced warmwater     Breeding locations
                                       reed canarygrass; shrub   fish; introduced         disconnected;
                                       encroachment/planting;    coldwater fish.          contaminants;
                                       water quality.                                     cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Black River.........................  Wetland loss; reed        Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       canarygrass; shrub        fish; introduced         breeding locations
                                       encroachment/planting;    coldwater fish;          disconnected;
                                       development; loss of      bullfrogs.               contaminants;
                                       beaver; water quality.                             cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
White Salmon River..................  Wetland loss; reed        Introduced coldwater     Cumulative effects of
                                       canarygrass; water        fish.                    other threats; climate
                                       quality.                                           change.
Middle Klickitat River..............  Wetland loss; hydrologic  Introduced warmwater     Cumulative effects of
                                       changes; loss of          fish; introduced         other threats; climate
                                       beaver; development;      coldwater fish;          change.
                                       grazing; reed             bullfrogs.
                                       canarygrass; shrub
                                       encroachment; water
                                       management.
Lower Deschutes.....................  Shrub encroachment......  .......................  Small population size;
                                                                                          single occupied site
                                                                                          within sub-basin;
                                                                                          isolated from frogs in
                                                                                          other sub-basins;
                                                                                          cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Upper Deschutes.....................  Wetland loss; reed        Introduced warmwater     Breeding locations
                                       canarygrass; shrub        fish; introduced         disconnected;
                                       encroachment;             coldwater fish,          cumulative effects of
                                       hydrological changes      bullfrogs.               other threats; climate
                                       (water management).                                change.
Little Deschutes....................  Wetland loss;             Introduced coldwater     Breeding locations
                                       hydrological changes      fish; bullfrogs.         disconnected;
                                       (water management);                                cumulative effects of
                                       development; grazing;                              other threats; climate
                                       reed canarygrass; shrub                            change.
                                       encroachment.
McKenzie............................  Shrub encroachment......  Introduced coldwater     Only two breeding
                                                                 fish.                    locations in sub-
                                                                                          basin, which are
                                                                                          disconnected;
                                                                                          cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Middle Fork Willamette..............  Shrub encroachment......  Introduced coldwater     Single occupied site in
                                                                 fish.                    sub-basin;
                                                                                          disconnected from
                                                                                          other sub-basins;
                                                                                          cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Williamson..........................  Development; grazing;     Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       shrub encroachment;       fish; introduced         breeding locations
                                       loss of beaver.           coldwater fish.          disconnected;
                                                                                          cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Upper Klamath Lake..................  Water management;         Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       development; shrub and    fish; introduced         breeding locations
                                       reed canarygrass          coldwater fish;          disconnected;
                                       encroachment; grazing.    bullfrogs.               cumulative effects of
                                                                                          other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
Upper Klamath.......................  Wetland loss; water       Introduced warmwater     Small population size;
                                       management;               fish; introduced         breeding locations
                                       development; grazing;     coldwater fish.          disconnected;
                                       shrub encroachment;                                cumulative effects of
                                       loss of beaver.                                    other threats; climate
                                                                                          change.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D) have been insufficient to significantly reduce or remove the threats
  to the Oregon spotted frog. Factors A, C, and E are operative within some to several occupied sites within
  each sub-basin, to differing degrees. To clarify, these threats apply to locations within each sub-basin, and
  do not necessarily apply to the sub-basin in its entirety. Detailed information is available in a rangewide
  threats synthesis document, which is available from Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES).


[[Page 51695]]

Summary of Comments and Recommendations

    In the proposed rule published on August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53582), we 
requested that all interested parties submit written comments on the 
proposal by October 28, 2013. On September 26, 2013 (78 FR 59334), we 
extended the comment period to November 12, 2013. We also contacted 
appropriate Federal and State agencies, scientific experts and 
organizations, and other interested parties and invited them to comment 
on the proposal. Newspaper notices inviting general public comment were 
published in The Olympian, the Yakima Herald Republic, The Goldendale 
Sentinel, The Bulletin, and the Mail Tribune. As also announced in that 
September 26, 2013, document, we held a public hearing in Lacey, 
Washington, on October 21, 2013. On September 18, 2013, we held an 
Oregon spotted frog workshop in Klamath Falls, Oregon, to provide the 
public with information on the species biology and distribution, and 
the listing and critical habitat rules. Public meetings were held in 
Sunriver and La Pine, Oregon, on December 3 and 4, 2013, respectively.
    During the public comment period for the proposed rule, we received 
nearly 80 comment letters addressing the proposed listing for the 
Oregon spotted frog. During the October 21, 2013, public hearing, five 
individuals or organizations made comments on the proposed rule. All 
substantive information provided during the comment period has either 
been incorporated directly into this final determination or is 
addressed below.

Peer Review

    In accordance with our peer review policy published on July 1, 1994 
(59 FR 34270), we solicited expert opinion from nine knowledgeable 
individuals with scientific expertise that included familiarity with 
the Oregon spotted frog and its habitats, biological needs, and 
threats. We received responses from eight of the peer reviewers.
    We reviewed all comments we received from the peer reviewers for 
substantive issues and new information regarding the listing of the 
Oregon spotted frog. All peer reviewers felt that the proposed rule was 
a thorough description of the status of the Oregon spotted frog and 
commented that they considered the proposed rule well researched and 
well written. Our requests for peer review are limited to a request for 
review of the merits of the scientific information in our documents; if 
peer reviewers have volunteered their personal opinions on matters not 
directly relevant to the science of our status assessment, we do not 
respond to those comments here. The peer reviewers provided a number of 
recommended technical corrections or edits to the proposed listing of 
the Oregon spotted frog. We evaluated and incorporated this information 
into this final rule when and where appropriate to clarify this final 
listing rule. Eight peer reviewers provided substantive comments on the 
proposed listing of the Oregon spotted frog, which we address below.

Comments From Peer Reviewers

    (1) Comment: One peer reviewer thought the Service indicated that 
the reintroduction site at Joint Base Lewis McChord lacked suitable 
habitat and asked that we identify what features of the Oregon spotted 
frog's habitat were missing.
    Our response: Our discussion concerning the lack of suitable 
habitat is in reference to the Nisqually River sub-basin where a number 
of historically occupied locations have been affected by development; 
we were not referring to the specific location of the reintroductions 
at Joint Base Lewis-McChord military reservation, which may contain 
suitable habitat.
    (2) Comment: One peer reviewer questioned our use of the sub-basin 
scale regarding the number of extant sites, rather than using a smaller 
scale, such as a 5th-field or 6th-field watershed. The reviewer was 
concerned that this may lead the reader to presume that it is the 
Service's implicit intention to retain occupancy at the scale of 4th 
fields.
    Our response: We used the sub-basin scale to broadly summarize the 
distribution of the Oregon spotted frog. In Table 1, we have listed the 
historical and extant distribution of Oregon spotted frog throughout 
the range by sub-basin (4th field) and watershed (5th field), and in 
the Population Estimates and Status section we discussed the number of 
breeding locations found within each sub-basin. Additionally, when we 
constructed our threats matrix (Threats Synthesis Rangewide Analysis), 
we conducted our analysis at the 5th- and 6th-field scales and included 
a description of all known locations. We then summarized this 
information at the sub-basin scale in order to evaluate threats across 
the distribution of the species. The threats matrix was provided to 
peer reviewers and made available on both http://www.regulations.gov 
and the WFWO Web site.
    (3) Comment: One peer reviewer questioned the exclusive use of the 
2012 population estimates for Washington and suggested we include 2013 
population estimates along with population estimates for other years 
for each of the monitored populations in order to demonstrate the 
annual variability in Oregon spotted frog estimates.
    Our response: Annual variation in survey effort, area coverage, and 
timing at individual sites have led us to be cautious in comparing 
population estimates across years, and we have not relied upon them to 
determine trends, except where there was enough consistency between 
data sets to do so. The minimum population estimates were provided to 
give a general understanding of the number of frogs currently known in 
each sub-basin and the disparity between the 15 occupied sub-basins. 
The timing of the proposed rule and availability of data prohibited us 
from including 2013 survey data. We have updated the sub-basin 
information to include 2013 data where the new information expanded the 
distribution or significantly changed the minimum population estimate. 
In most cases, 2013 survey efforts were not as extensive as those 
conducted in 2011 and 2012, and, in some cases, the Service did not 
receive 2013 survey data. We have evaluated the 2013 data in our 
possession and determined that a change in status from the proposed 
rule is not warranted in any of the occupied sub-basins.
    (4) Comment: Two peer reviewers questioned some aspects of our 
analysis of livestock grazing as a threat. Specifically, one peer 
reviewer asked us to categorize the effects of cattle grazing on Oregon 
spotted frog habitat into mesic and arid environments, breeding and 
non-breeding habitats, season, and cattle densities. In addition, this 
peer reviewer questioned our use of the term livestock, instead of 
cattle. Another peer reviewer stated that the personal opinions and 
biases of individual researchers contribute to seemingly contradictory 
conclusions about the compatibility of grazing with the well-being of 
the Oregon spotted frog and that speculation may be given more weight 
than deserved. In addition, this peer reviewer stated that some of the 
negative effects of grazing to Oregon spotted frog and its habitat that 
we discussed are not well supported by research or casual observation. 
These negative effects include the direct effect of mortality to adult 
frogs and eggs from trampling and numerous indirect effects to habitat, 
such as water contamination from urine and feces, increases in

[[Page 51696]]

temperature and sediment production, alterations to stream morphology, 
effects on prey organisms, and changes to water quality.
    Our response: We agree that the issue of grazing is controversial 
and the impacts have been posited to be both positive and negative. 
However, grazing and the potential impacts are not consistent across 
the range of the species. The weight of the evidence for other 
amphibian species and the negative impacts of grazing in riparian areas 
are well documented (see ``Livestock Grazing'' section under Factor A 
discussion). Livestock as a whole break down banks and influence water 
quality if allowed unfettered access to waterbodies, and if livestock 
are in shallow water areas being used by frogs, trampling can occur. We 
agree that the term livestock can mean various animals domesticated so 
as to live and breed in a tame condition. We used the term livestock 
because at present we have information with specific regard to cattle 
and horses as grazers within Oregon spotted frog habitats.
    There is little indication that categorizing the effects of grazing 
on Oregon spotted frogs in mesic versus arid environments would produce 
significantly different results. The purpose and intent of the grazing 
is what drives the effects of grazing. For example, if grazing is 
employed alongside other habitat management techniques as a method to 
maintain open water areas with short vegetation that is suitable for 
egg-laying where egg-laying habitat is a limiting factor, then some 
water quality degradation, trampling, and bank breakdown may be 
acceptable. However, this should not be taken to imply that there are 
no negative consequences associated with grazing as a habitat 
management technique. In cases where the primary objective of grazing 
is cattle production, the methods used may be different than those 
techniques employed to maintain or enhance Oregon spotted frog habitat. 
The goals, methods, and impacts to Oregon spotted frogs vary on a site-
by-site basis. Our analysis considered both the possible positive and 
negative impacts of grazing but our final conclusion is that grazing 
presents a threat within the 10 occupied sub-basins where it currently 
occurs.
    (5) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that our conclusion 
regarding malformations related to Planorbella snails was not 
adequately supported by the available data, stating that while 
trematode-caused malformations in frogs have been found to result in 
higher mortality rates than non-infected frogs, causing a negative 
effect at the individual level, effects at the population level are 
poorly understood.
    Our response: We agree that the effects of these parasite-induced 
malformations on amphibians, including Oregon spotted frogs, are clear 
at the individual scale, but population-level effects remain largely 
uninvestigated. However, the viability of populations of pond-breeding 
amphibians is most vulnerable to losses of juveniles and adults when 
compared to losses of other life-history stages (Biek et al. 2002, p. 
731). As these parasite-induced malformations primarily impact the 
survival of juveniles, it is logical to infer that where these 
parasites co-occur with Oregon spotted frogs and infect juveniles, the 
viability of Oregon spotted frog populations at those locations is 
likely to be negatively affected. We have amended our text to explain 
this conclusion. However, as indicated in Summary of Factors Affecting 
the Species, we have no information indicating that population declines 
in Oregon spotted frogs are occurring as a result of trematode-caused 
malformations. Disease continues to be a concern, but more information 
is needed to determine the severity of impact that diseases may have on 
Oregon spotted frogs. Therefore, under Factor C, we concluded that the 
best scientific information indicates that disease is not a threat to 
the Oregon spotted frog.
    (6) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that our statements 
regarding water quality are using standards applied for human 
consumption and may not apply to the suitability of a waterbody to 
provide quality habitat for the Oregon spotted frog. He agreed with our 
statement that many Oregon streams do not meet the Oregon Department of 
Environmental Quality's water quality standards and believes this 
situation can be interpreted in at least two ways: That water quality 
is threatening frog populations in many Oregon streams, or that Oregon 
spotted frogs are capable of surviving and may in fact favor water 
quality conditions perceived to be poor by human standards.
    Our response: We agree that not all water quality parameters are 
equal and the standards applied for humans may or may not be 
detrimental to Oregon spotted frogs. However, many of the parameters 
that we identified in association with water quality, such as pH and 
dissolved oxygen, are applicable, as is temperature when it results in 
algal blooms and low oxygen levels. Reduced water quality is documented 
in a number of occupied sub-basins (see Factor E discussion), and where 
this overlap occurs we consider poor water quality and contaminants to 
be threats to the Oregon spotted frog.
    (7) Comment: One peer reviewer indicated the Oregon spotted frog's 
sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite, as presented by Marco et al. 
(1999), sounds alarming and recommended we revise the text. The peer 
reviewer also commented that the median lethal concentrations of 
nitrate and nitrite determined by Marco et al. (1999) was 1,000-fold 
the levels he observed in Oregon spotted frog breeding sites from 
grazing by cows at a dairy farm in Washington.
    Our response: The maximum recommended level for nitrates in 
drinking water or for water containing warm-water fishes, as set by the 
EPA, exceeds the median lethal concentration for Oregon spotted frog 
larvae in laboratory studies, as documented by Marco et al. (1999, p. 
2838), which was less than 10 mg/L. It is possible that waterways that 
do not exceed the drinking water quality standard could negatively 
impact Oregon spotted frogs; however, more field-based studies are 
needed to evaluate these impacts. Grazing is only one source of 
nitrates and nitrites; the EPA Web site lists the major sources of 
nitrates in drinking water to be runoff from fertilizer use, leaking 
from septic tanks and sewage, and erosion of natural deposits. Most 
currently known occupied sites for Oregon spotted frog are located in 
areas where residential septic tanks are used and farming practices 
include fertilizer application and grazing. We have revised the text in 
the water quality section to acknowledge the ``maximum'' levels as 
being toxic to amphibians and provided the maximum limits as set by EPA 
for human drinking water.
    (8) Comment: One peer reviewer indicated our information regarding 
the number of breeding locations below the Wickiup Reservoir was 
inaccurate; we indicated there were four breeding areas, but the peer 
reviewer stated there were at least six.
    Our response: In riverine wetlands along the Deschutes River below 
Wickiup Dam there are at least five known breeding locations, including 
a new location in La Pine State Park found in 2013. Dilman Meadow is 
within the Upper Deschutes River sub-basin but not along the Deschutes 
River below Wickiup Dam. The Crosswater population is included within 
the Little Deschutes River sub-basin, at the confluence of the 
Deschutes River. Language regarding the number and

[[Page 51697]]

distribution of the known Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper Deschutes 
River sub-basin has been revised.
    (9) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that while he agreed that 
most Oregon spotted frog populations are relatively small, isolated, 
and vulnerable to factors that may cause population extirpation, he did 
not believe that the listing proposal adequately supported climate 
change or contaminants as being significant threats.
    Our response: In our proposed rule, we concluded that because 
Oregon spotted frogs occupy habitats at a wide range of elevations, and 
all of the occupied sub-basins are likely to experience precipitation 
regime shift, the Oregon spotted frog's response to climate change is 
likely to vary across the range and the population-level impacts are 
uncertain. We currently do not have the data to determine whether the 
species will be significantly impacted by climate change, and this 
final rule reflects that position. We reviewed our analysis in the 
proposed rule pertaining to threats associated with water quality and 
have revised our conclusion about the extent of this threat. Reduced 
water quality is documented in a number of occupied sub-basins, and 
where this overlap occurs we consider poor water quality and 
contaminants to be threats to the Oregon spotted frog.
    (10) Comment: One peer reviewer indicated that we should have 
included the potential threat from manmade barriers to seasonal 
movements by Oregon spotted frogs because these barriers may prevent 
frog movement to and from breeding sites or other habitats.
    Our response: We agree with the peer reviewer that these manmade 
barriers could pose a threat to local populations. In Washington, 
impassable culverts have been identified as an issue in relation to 
migration of salmon species to or from spawning habitat. Among the 
culverts identified by Washington Department of Transportation (WSDOT) 
in relation to a lawsuit involving salmon migration, only four come 
within 500 ft (153 m) of areas identified as occupied by the Oregon 
spotted frog. Two of these occur in the Samish River sub-basin and two 
in the South Fork Nooksack River sub-basin. All four of these are on 
tributaries that are not known to be used by Oregon spotted frogs and 
that are not known to occur between potential breeding habitat and 
summer/dry season habitat. Therefore, it does not appear that the 
culverts identified under this process pose a threat to Oregon spotted 
frogs. However, outside of salmon migration areas in Washington and 
throughout Oregon, we do not have the information to evaluate the 
number and distribution of manmade barriers; thus at this time, we are 
unable to evaluate the severity of this threat. We have added text to 
the ``Hydrological Changes'' section under the Factor A discussion in 
this rule to reflect the potential of manmade barriers to hinder frog 
movement.
    (11) Comment: One peer reviewer pointed out that our statement 
regarding the potential for hydrologic connectivity and movement 
between populations in the Klamath Lake populations does not take into 
consideration the potential for Oregon spotted frogs to move during 
flood events, through the extensive ditch system within the Wood River 
Valley, or between the west side and east side breeding complexes. In 
addition, the peer reviewer pointed out that while the sample size was 
small, Robertson's and Funk's (2012) reported evidence of gene flow 
between the Wood River and Fourmile Creek indicates that there is 
movement between populations on the west and east sides of the Wood 
River Valley.
    Our response: While there is evidence of some genetic exchange 
between the west (Fourmile Creek) and east (Wood River) sides of Upper 
Klamath Lake, Robertson and Funk (2012, p. 5) indicate the sampling 
sites within the two clusters (H and I) are geographically isolated, 
indicating limited mixing among sites. Genetic exchange is extremely 
low beyond 6 mi (10 km) (Blouin et al. 2010, pp. 2186, 2188), and the 
closest distance between currently known breeding areas in Fourmile 
Creek and Wood River is greater than 4 mi. Movement by Oregon spotted 
frogs during high water events would not constitute a true hydrologic 
connection that enables regular or semi-regular dispersal across the 
Upper Klamath Lake. High water events are unlikely to frequently 
connect these areas due to roads and dikes that separate these two 
areas. Additionally, the intersecting area is mostly comprised of ranch 
land and water typically does not enter the area due to manipulation of 
water levels. Therefore, we continue to consider the sites in the Upper 
Klamath Lake sub-basin to be isolated.
    (12) Comment: One peer reviewer indicated the 2012 egg mass counts 
at Maria Slough in British Columbia increased over those conducted in 
previous years, suggesting the apparent decline in the mid-2000s may 
have been attributable to a population cycle and/or the result of 
excessive flooding in some years that reduced suitable breeding sites 
in those years. The reviewer recommended we revise the status from 
``declining'' to ``likely stable'' and suggested that the Maria Slough 
population is probably exhibiting typical high and low population 
cycles often seen in amphibian populations.
    Our response: While we agree that amphibian populations may exhibit 
typical high and low cycles, which can be attributed to a wide variety 
of factors, such as extreme flooding or low-water events that limit 
egg-laying locations, the Oregon spotted frog population at Maria 
Slough has been supplemented over many years with frogs through the 
captive rearing program and these frogs were expected to mature to 
breeding age in 2010-2011 (COSEWIC 2011, p. 32). This supplementation 
may account for the increase in egg mass numbers in 2012. We have 
determined that the recent increases in egg mass counts do not warrant 
a change in population status to that of ``stable'' given an estimated 
28 percent likelihood of Oregon spotted frogs inhabiting the site by 
2050 (COSEWIC 2011, p. 32).
    (13) Comment: One peer reviewer cautioned that inference drawn from 
many Oregon spotted frog life-history studies should not be 
extrapolated globally due to the tendency for these studies to be site-
specific and not representative of site-to-site variation.
    Our response: We agree that caution should be exercised in using 
site-specific data; to address this concern the information presented 
in the life history section describes the variation across the range 
(latitude and elevation), including British Columbia south to the 
Klamath Basin. Many of the references used in the Life History section 
of this rule represent syntheses of information, such as McAllister and 
Leonard 1997, Leonard et al. 1993, and Hayes 1994. Within the Summary 
of Factors Affecting the Species section, we used the best available 
information. In many cases the response by frogs to a stressor is not 
widely studied, and the results must be extrapolated across the range. 
While stressors will vary across the range of the species, it is 
reasonable to assume that the response will not; therefore we have 
applied our best professional judgment where it has been necessary to 
bridge the gap.
    (14) Comment: One peer reviewer suggested we acknowledge 
uncertainty around the egg mass counts representing a count of adults. 
He provided one anecdotal observation of a female caught in a spawned 
out condition that was followed and recaptured several weeks later and 
was described on the capture form as gravid and appearing to be ready 
to lay another clutch.

[[Page 51698]]

    Our response: Phillipsen et al. (2009, p. 7) found that Oregon 
spotted frogs in their study area conformed to the assumption that a 
female lays only one egg mass per season. However, we have revised the 
text to include the additional uncertainty regarding the number of 
clutches per female per year.
    (15) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that we had not made it 
clear how the assumed loss of historical range (up to 90 percent of the 
species' former range) was used in our listing determination and 
believed that multiple references to the estimated loss of the 
historical range may mislead the reader by implying that the range loss 
itself constitutes a threat.
    Our response: The estimate of historical range loss is referenced 
in several places in this rule and is presented to explain to the 
reader the extent of the loss of the species across its historical 
range. Additionally, our evaluation of the historical threats to the 
Oregon spotted frog informs our analysis of the species' response to 
current or future threats as summarized under Summary of Factors 
Affecting the Species. In the Determination section, we synthesize our 
evaluation of past, present, and future threats to the Oregon spotted 
frog in order to determine whether the species warrants listing based 
on current and future threats.
    (16) Comment: One peer reviewer asked whether recreation should be 
considered a threat and gave examples of having observed indiscriminate 
amphibian egg mass collection and random shooting of frogs by members 
of the public.
    Our response: In Washington, only one area (Trout Lake Creek) 
experiences recreational use due to nearby Federal and private 
campgrounds. Most Federal and State lands within currently known Oregon 
spotted frog areas have limited access. Most other occupied lands are 
privately owned. Oregon spotted frogs are a cryptic species, staying 
near and in the water and diving under vegetation to take cover when 
disturbed. Therefore, they are seen less often than most species, which 
reduces the likelihood for collection or killing of adults, though 
their egg masses may be vulnerable where broad public access occurs in 
conjunction with breeding sites. Recreation has not been identified as 
a threat to the frog in the Deschutes Basin; although Oregon spotted 
frogs occur within lakes and rivers that receive recreational use on 
National Forests in this basin, there is limited access to the marshes 
inhabited by the frog. In the Klamath Basin area of Oregon, recreation 
is not known to be threat. We note the peer reviewer's concerns, but 
have no other information that would lead us to determine that 
recreation may be a threat to the species.

Comments From States

    Section 4(i) of the Act states, ``the Secretary shall submit to the 
State agency a written justification for [her] failure to adopt 
regulations consistent with the agency's comments or petition.'' 
Comments we received from States regarding the proposal to list the 
Oregon spotted frog are addressed below. We received comments from 
WDFW, WDNR, WSDOT, WDOE, and Oregon State Department of Transportation 
related to biological information, threats, and the inadequacy of 
regulatory mechanisms. The agencies provided a number of 
recommendations for technical corrections or edits to the proposed 
listing of the Oregon spotted frog. We have evaluated and incorporated 
this information where appropriate to clarify this final rule. In 
instances where the Service may have disagreed with an interpretation 
of the technical information that was provided, we have responded to 
the State directly.
    (17) Comment: We received requests from several State agencies as 
well as from public commenters about the development of a rule under 
section 4(d) of the Act to provide incidental take exemptions for 
various activities. The activities for which coverage was requested 
include: Irrigation district activities; grazing; agricultural 
diversions and drainage; groundwater pumping; agricultural activities; 
road maintenance; dredging of ditches; vegetation management; 
development; stormwater management; habitat restoration; research; and 
monitoring.
    Our response: Whenever any species is listed as a threatened 
species, the Service may develop a rule under section 4(d) of the Act 
that exempts take under certain conditions. This exemption from take 
under a 4(d) rule could include provisions that are tailored to the 
specific conservation needs of the threatened species and may be more 
or less restrictive than the general prohibitive provisions detailed at 
50 CFR 17.31.
    We considered the development of a 4(d) rule that would exempt take 
of Oregon spotted frogs when that take was incidental to implementing 
State, regional, or local comprehensive Oregon spotted frog 
conservation programs. We also considered exempting all activities and 
efforts conducted by individual landowners on non-Federal lands that 
are consistent with maintaining or advancing the conservation of Oregon 
spotted frog, but fall outside of a more structured conservation plan. 
We further considered exemption from take on lands that are managed 
following technical guidelines that have been determined by the Service 
to provide a conservation benefit to the Oregon spotted frog, such as 
the mowing of reed canarygrass. We requested specific information that 
would provide us a high level of certainty that such a program would 
lead to the long-term conservation of Oregon spotted frogs (see 
Consideration of a 4(d) Special Rule in the August 29, 2013, proposed 
listing rule).
    Although we received several requests for activities to include in 
a 4(d) rule, except as noted below, we did not receive specific 
information such as technical guidelines or conservation plans that may 
have allowed us to determine that a 4(d) rule exempting take for those 
activities would be necessary and advisable to provide a conservation 
benefit to the Oregon spotted frog. Some of the activities, such as 
irrigation, grazing, agricultural diversions, groundwater pumping 
(hydrologic changes), development, and certain vegetation management 
methods, for which consideration of a 4(d) rule was requested, are 
primary threats to the continued existence of the species. We did not 
receive specific information from requesters that would allow us to 
determine that a 4(d) rule for these activities would provide a 
conservation benefit to the Oregon spotted frog; therefore, an 
exception to the prohibition of take of the species due to these 
activities is not appropriate. For many of these activities, incidental 
take is more appropriately addressed through the development of a 
habitat conservation plan (HCP) or, if a Federal nexus exists, through 
consultation with the Service under section 7 of the Act. Other 
activities, such as haying and some vegetation management methods (such 
as mowing of reed canarygrass or installation of barrier cloth), are 
not anticipated to result in take of the Oregon spotted frog if these 
activities include appropriate conservation measures and occur when 
frogs are not known to be present; therefore, consideration of a 4(d) 
rule exempting incidental take for these activities is not necessary. 
Additionally, management activities vary greatly across the range of 
the species, and without specific technical guidelines or conservation 
plans we are unable to determine the conservation value of these 
activities to the Oregon spotted frog.
    We received technical guidelines pertaining to road maintenance; 
associated roadside vegetation

[[Page 51699]]

management; and ditch, culvert, and stormwater pond maintenance 
activities in Washington. However, we are aware that because a federal 
nexus exists for some of these activities, they will be covered, as 
appropriate, under a future programmatic section 7 consultation. Also, 
in most cases, the stormwater ponds mentioned are disconnected from 
permanent water sources, and we are not aware of Oregon spotted frogs 
using these types of ponds; therefore, no take is expected. Based on 
the information provided by the WSDOT, there is very little overlap 
between their activities and Oregon spotted frogs. As described, their 
activities could be either beneficial or detrimental to Oregon spotted 
frogs, and these activities would be better addressed through other 
conservation tools, such as section 7 consultation or HCPs. We will 
continue to work with the WSDOT and counties to determine the most 
appropriate coverage for activities that will not be covered under 
section 7 consultation.
    We also received a request for a 4(d) rule from the Oregon 
Department of Transportation based on their ``Routine Road Maintenance: 
Water Quality and Habitat Guide Best Management Practices.'' The best 
management practices (BMPs) found in these guidelines for aquatic 
species are specific to Pacific salmon and steelhead. Although these 
BMPs avoid and minimize adverse effects to aquatic systems to the 
extent practicable, there are no specific criteria to protect 
amphibians. For example, the BMPs for beaver dam removal would need to 
be modified because Oregon spotted frogs can be dependent on beaver 
activity to create and maintain suitable habitat. We would like to work 
with the Oregon Department of Transportation to incorporate BMPs that 
will avoid and minimize impacts to the Oregon spotted frog.
    The Deschutes County Roads Department also submitted comments 
requesting a 4(d) rule for road maintenance and operations, including 
BMPs for facilities within or near riparian areas. We did not receive 
specific information on the County's BMPs that would allow us to 
determine that a 4(d) rule for these activities would provide a 
conservation benefit to Oregon spotted frog. Therefore, we will 
continue to work with the Deschutes County Road Department to evaluate 
these activities and determine the most appropriate tool for coverage 
under the Act.
    We also received a comment from the Deschutes Basin Board of 
Control requesting a 4(d) rule; we address their comments later, under 
Comment (50).
    Based on the information above, we have not proposed a rule under 
section 4(d) of the Act for the Oregon spotted frog, and the general 
provisions at 50 CFR 17.31 will apply. Additionally, the normal take 
provisions provided by section 17.31(b) of the Act to State 
conservation agencies operating a conservation program pursuant to the 
terms of a cooperative agreement with the Service in accordance with 
section 6(c) of the Act will apply.
    We may continue to consider developing a proposed 4(d) rule after 
this listing is finalized if we were to receive appropriate specific 
information that would provide us with a high level of certainty that 
such activities would lead to the long-term conservation of Oregon 
spotted frogs.
    (18) Comment: WDFW asserted that our statement indicating that 
there has been little survey effort in California since 1996 is 
incorrect. The commenter indicated that the USGS out of Point Reyes and 
the USFS group out of Humboldt State University have done extensive 
surveys in northeastern California, including a number which were 
conducted after 1996, and some of which overlap the historic range of 
the Oregon spotted frog.
    Our response: In response to this comment, we contacted staff at 
Humboldt State University and USGS at Point Reyes. We confirm that 
surveys have been completed in northeastern California, but neither 
group encountered Oregon spotted frogs during their survey work. 
However, extensive surveys have not been conducted, and, therefore, we 
cannot confirm that Oregon spotted frogs are extirpated in California.
    (19) Comment: WDFW suggested that more emphasis needed to be placed 
on the benefits that moderate controlled grazing can have on Oregon 
spotted frog habitat, stating that grazing is most likely to be a 
benefit and could be employed as an important tool across western 
Washington and British Columbia, Canada, where reed canarygrass 
achieves problematic densities.
    Our response: While we examined both the potential positive and 
negative effects of livestock grazing, we concluded that grazing is not 
uniformly beneficial across the range of the Oregon spotted frog. 
Please see our response to Comment (4).
    (20) Comment: WDOE suggested that text in the proposed rule appears 
to confuse the Sumas River in Whatcom County, Washington, with the 
Chilliwack River in British Columbia, Canada. The commenter asserted 
that in one part of the rule the Sumas River is described as a 
tributary to the Lower Chilliwack River watershed, which the commenter 
believed to be correct, but pointed out that elsewhere in the rule the 
Sumas River was used interchangeably with the Chilliwack River and/or 
the Lower Chilliwack River, which the commenter felt was incorrect.
    Our response: The confusion arises from the multiple geographic 
scales used in this rule. The section entitled ``Current Range/
Distribution'' summarized data at the 4th field sub-basin scale, except 
for Washington, where Oregon spotted frogs are currently distributed in 
only one 5th-field watershed within the six occupied sub-basins. The 
Sumas River is a tributary to the Lower Chilliwack River watershed (5th 
field) and to the Fraser River sub-basin (4th field). Because we are 
considering the species across its range, we attempted to use a 
consistent naming convention across the range. We have made changes to 
the text of this rule to more clearly identify the Sumas River as 
tributary to the Lower Chilliwack River watershed and the Fraser River 
sub-basin.
    (21) Comment: WDOE indicated that our statement under Factor D, 
Local Laws and Regulations, regarding shoreline setbacks and impervious 
surfaces in Whatcom County was incorrect.
    Our response: We referred to the Whatcom County SMP, Table 
23.90.13.C, which provides the setbacks for a variety of activities. 
The setbacks may be as little as 5 ft; however, in the areas where 
Oregon spotted frogs are known to occur in the county, the land 
designations are primarily rural, resource, conservancy, or natural, 
and the setbacks in these areas begin at 15 ft (Whatcom County SMP 
2008, pp. 96-99). The impervious surface allowance of 10 percent is 
also included in this table.
    (22) Comment: WDNR stated that the proposed listing of the Oregon 
spotted frog presents a potential conflict between the long-term 
Washington State Forest Practices Rules and their associated HCP, 
citing a misalignment between management strategies for wetlands and 
riparian areas and the habitat maintenance and enhancement needs for 
the Oregon spotted frog. Because the Oregon spotted frog is not a 
covered species under the Forest Practices HCP and the proposed listing 
decision does not draw a specific determination regarding the potential 
for incidental take of the species while conducting forest management 
activities covered by the Forest Practices HCP, the regulating State 
agency expressed its

[[Page 51700]]

desire to avoid a circumstance where actions approved to benefit one 
set of listed species may potentially adversely impact another listed 
species.
    Our response: Oregon spotted frog, as a species, is not generally 
dependent on a forested landscape; therefore there is a lower 
likelihood that Oregon spotted frogs or their habitat will be 
negatively affected by forest management activities. That said, Oregon 
spotted frogs may occur in areas delineated as forested wetlands (e.g., 
along Trout Lake Creek) or downstream from forest management 
activities, and management agencies should be aware of the activities 
that may negatively impact them. An example of such activity may 
include upslope management activities that alter the hydrology of 
streams, springs, or wetlands upon which Oregon spotted frogs depend. 
Activities that are currently allowed under the Forest Practices HCP 
may impact Oregon spotted frogs or their habitat. Conversely, 
disallowing management actions that could improve habitat for Oregon 
spotted frogs may be detrimental. For example, a lack of options to 
manage trees and/or shrubs that encroach into the wetlands may reduce 
the availability of suitable egg-laying habitat. We wish to highlight 
that some management of riparian areas under the Forest Practices HCP 
may or may not result in incidental take of Oregon spotted frogs, 
depending on the timing. For example, incidental take would not be 
anticipated for tree or shrub removal conducted during the dry season. 
We also note that areas of concern are limited to a very small subset 
of lands included or covered under the Forest Practices HCP. If there 
is a process for landowners to obtain a variance from WDNR in order to 
re-establish or enhance Oregon spotted frog habitat, the Service 
recommends that WDNR make that process available to willing landowners. 
Otherwise, the Service recommends WDNR consider its options for 
obtaining incidental take coverage for its Forest Practice Permit 
process.

Public Comments

    (23) Comment: One commenter expressed concern about the 
availability of unpublished reports in the development of the rule.
    Our response: The Service receives and uses information on the 
biology, ecology, distribution, abundance, status, and trends of 
species from a wide variety of sources as part of our responsibility to 
implement the Act. To assure the quality of the biological, ecological, 
and other information used by the Service in our implementation of the 
Act, it is the policy of the Service (59 FR 34271; July 1, 1994) to 
require biologists to evaluate all scientific and other information 
that will be used to support listing actions to ensure that information 
used is reliable, credible, and represents the best scientific and 
commercial data available. Supporting documentation we used in 
preparing the proposed rule was available for public inspection on 
http://www.regulations.gov, or at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT). Instructions for how to gain access to this information was 
provided in the August 29, 2013, proposed rule.
    (24) Comment: Three commenters expressed concerns that the listing 
of the Oregon spotted frog would result in changes to mosquito 
abatement, specifically along the Deschutes River. Two of the 
commenters believe that managing local water resources to increase the 
wetlands for the Oregon spotted frog would result in greater numbers of 
mosquitos and would create a potential public health risk attributable 
to mosquito-borne encephalitic disease (West Nile virus). Conversely, 
the third commenter suggested that an extinction of the Oregon spotted 
frog would increase the potential for insect overpopulation, causing 
further disruption to the ecosystem and effectively endangering other 
vulnerable species.
    Our response: Mosquito control continues to occur in the Deschutes 
River area, specifically through application of the biological control 
agent Bti. Studies indicate Bti typically does not significantly affect 
vertebrates (Siegel et al. 1987, p. 723; Merritt et al. 1989; pp. 408-
410; Hanowski et al. 1997, entire; Niemi et al. 1999, entire; Siegel 
2001, entire), including amphibians (multiple studies synthesized in 
Glare and O'Callaghan 1998, pp. 24, 28). However, indirect effects may 
occur through reduction of food (insects) (Hanowski et al. 1997; Niemi 
et al. 1999, entire; Mercer et al. 2005, p. 692). The Service considers 
these potential indirect effects on the Oregon spotted frog to be 
negligible, considering the breadth of the Oregon spotted frog's diet 
and the specificity of the mosquito abatement treatments employed, 
which primarily affects the larvae of nematoceran (``thread-horned'') 
flies (the group that includes mosquitos). At this time, we do not 
anticipate changes to the mosquito control program using Bti. Should 
more or newer information relating specifically to direct or indirect 
impacts on Oregon spotted frogs become available in the future, the 
Service will revisit this issue. We have updated the Background section 
of this rule to include a short discussion of the indirect effects of 
Bti and methoprene on the Oregon spotted frog.
    (25) Comment: Two commenters specifically requested close 
collaboration between the Service and the USFS to ensure timely 
conservation of the Oregon spotted frog on USFS lands through the 
revision of already existing projects, and development of standards, 
guidelines, or management plans.
    Our response: The Service coordinates and provides technical 
assistance to other Federal agencies, including the USFS, on a broad 
scope of work. The USFS has been proactive in developing site 
management plans specific to Oregon spotted frogs. Development of 
forest plans, land use classifications, standards and guidelines, and 
project planning remains under the purview of the Federal agencies 
developing such products. If a Federally authorized, funded, or 
conducted action could affect a listed species or its critical habitat, 
the responsible Federal agency is then required to enter into 
consultation with the Service under section 7 of the Act.
    (26) Comment: A representative of Modoc County, California, 
asserted that the Service failed to follow Federal procedures when 
publishing the proposal to list the Oregon spotted frog. The commenter 
cited case law determining that the Service is required to give actual 
notice to local government of its intent to propose a species for 
listing.
    Our response: Under 16 U.S.C. 1533(b)(5)(A)(ii), the Secretary is 
required to provide actual notice of the proposed regulation to each 
county in which the species is believed to occur. The Oregon spotted 
frog is not currently known or believed to occur in either Modoc or 
Siskiyou Counties; therefore, the Service did not provide notification 
to these counties.
    (27) Comment: One commenter suggested that more attention be given 
to the extent of the historical range of the Oregon spotted frog and 
requested an evaluation of the factors likely contributing to the 
demise of historical populations as a way to become informed about the 
factors affecting the remaining populations.
    Our response: Historical location information is presented in this 
rule to give the reader perspective on the decline of the species, but 
a listing analysis is focused on the current distribution and the 
threats to those populations. In many of the historically

[[Page 51701]]

occupied watersheds, the specific location information necessary to 
determine why Oregon spotted frogs may no longer occur there is 
unavailable, but can reliably be attributed to human development. The 
effects of towns, homes, or infrastructure for both human habitation 
and for agriculture have resulted in the loss of suitable habitat in 
many of the historically occupied watersheds (for example, the Green 
River/Lake Washington area in Washington). While we agree that 
evaluating reasons for loss in historically occupied areas may inform 
ways to recover the species, the purpose of this evaluation is to 
determine the threats facing the currently occupied areas.
    (28) Comment: Two commenters suggested that unidentified occupied 
locations may exist for Oregon spotted frog--one because a handful of 
such sites were documented as recently as 2011 and 2012, the other 
because of a 1991 document suggesting that additional surveys be 
conducted on the east side of the Cascade mountain range. In addition, 
one of the commenters asserted that the Service does not have any 
credible data regarding Oregon spotted frog populations on private 
lands adjoining the Conboy Lake NWR.
    Our response: The information provided by the Service in the 
Current Range/Distribution section includes the newly identified 
watersheds and the one reintroduction project. All of these locations 
are within the historical range (i.e., Puget Trough) of the Oregon 
spotted frog. While we continue to survey for Oregon spotted frogs in 
potentially suitable habitat, both in historically and non-historically 
occupied sub-basins, we cannot speculate as to whether additional 
populations may occur. In addition, our analysis for listing purposes 
is based on the status and threats according to the best scientific and 
commercial data available, including occurrence records.
    Subsequent to the 1991 document cited by the commenter, the Oregon 
spotted frog and Columbia spotted frog were separated into two species 
(see Taxonomy section). In Washington, frogs in the higher elevations 
near the Cascade crest (both east and west) have been identified as 
Cascades frogs and in the lower elevations on the east side of the 
Cascade Crest as Columbia spotted frogs.
    While specific survey information does not exist for the private 
lands adjoining Conboy Lake NWR, the habitat for the Oregon spotted 
frog does not stop at the boundaries of the refuge. Due to the 
contiguous nature of the known occupied habitat on the refuge with the 
habitat on the adjoining private lands, the Service considers the 
adjoining lands occupied.
    (29) Comment: One commenter believed we were inconsistent in our 
application of the status of the Oregon spotted frog occupied sub-
basins. We denoted the Lower Fraser River and Middle Klickitat sub-
basins as declining and White Salmon River sub-basin as having no 
determinable trend because numbers may be rebounding in portions of the 
Trout Lake area. The commenter believes we should not have concluded 
that the Middle Klickitat sub-basin was declining because of a 
similarity to the White Salmon River sub-basin.
    Our response: One of the challenges in developing a listing 
determination for a species that spans multiple States is that 
scientific and monitoring data are often collected according to the 
methods preferred by individual researchers, rather than under a 
standard protocol. Results from some data collection methods can be 
compared to results from other methods through bridging studies, but 
some results are not comparable. Where we have no supported way to make 
comparisons between the results from differing data collection methods, 
we may not be able to draw conclusions, even if the data look similar. 
Based on the best data available, evidence indicates there is a 
declining trend in the Middle Klickitat River sub-basin (Hayes and 
Hicks 2011, entire; Hallock 2013, p. 36). There is no equivalent 
evidence available for the Trout Lake area (Hallock 2012) that 
indicates there are areas within the Middle Klickitat River sub-basin 
that are rebounding.
    (30) Comment: One commenter asserted that the Service estimate for 
the number of Oregon spotted frogs in Upper Deschutes River and Little 
Deschutes River sub-basins (3,530 and 6,628 breeding adults, 
respectively) indicates that each population is of considerable size 
and viability and highlighted the co-existence of these populations in 
areas where human activity, such as irrigation water storage, release, 
diversion, and return, has been prevalent for more than a century.
    Our response: The Service does not consider the minimum population 
estimates in the Upper Deschutes River or Little Deschutes River sub-
basins to constitute a population of ``considerable size and 
viability.'' Franklin (1980) proposed the 50/500 rule, whereby an 
effective population size (Ne) of 50 is required to prevent 
unacceptable rates of inbreeding and an Ne of 500 is 
required to ensure overall genetic variability. Phillipsen et al. 
(2010) compared the adult Oregon spotted frog census population (N = 
428) from a breeding site near Sunriver, Oregon, to the effective 
population size (Ne = 36.7) with the result of 
Ne/N = 0.086, which fell within the general range of DNA-
based estimates for ranid frogs (Phillipsen et al. 2010, p. 742). 
Application of the 50/500 rule provides that an Oregon spotted frog 
population of greater than 581 breeding adults (N/Ne = 
50/.086) at the Sunriver breeding site would be required to prevent 
inbreeding depression and a population of 5,814 breeding adults (N/
Ne = 500/.086) would be required for a high probability of 
survival over time. Thus, the minimum population estimate for the Upper 
Deschutes River sub-basin (3,530) is considerably less than the 
population needed for only one site, Sunriver (5,814). Therefore, the 
Service does not consider the current Upper Deschutes River sub-basin's 
Oregon spotted frog populations to be of adequate size or viability.
    Within the Little Deschutes River sub-basin, most of these breeding 
adults are confined to one area, Big Marsh (5,324 out of 6,628), which 
is not subject to irrigation district activities. We stated that the 
trend at Big Marsh appears to be increasing; however, there are no 
trend data available for the remainder of the sub-basin. Therefore, our 
determination of an undetermined trend for this sub-basin is accurate.
    We agree that the Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper Deschutes River 
and the Little Deschutes River sub-basins continue to be present within 
areas of regulated flow associated with irrigation district activities 
for more than a century. However, without the irrigation district 
activities, the Oregon spotted frog populations in these sub-basins may 
be higher in number and better distributed throughout the sub-basin.
    (31) Comment: One commenter believes the Service lacks sufficient 
evidence to establish that the Oregon spotted frog should be listed as 
a threatened species. The commenter stated that while the Service 
asserts that data show the frog is disappearing from its historical 
range, the Service admits that it has not studied population trend data 
in 13 of 15 sub-basins where the frog is known to occur. Therefore, the 
commenter claims that the Service has based its proposed listing 
decision not on substantial evidence of frog decline, but on absence of 
evidence countering a presumption of decline.
    Our response: The Service is not required to show that a species is 
in decline in order to make a determination that it is threatened. A 
listing determination is an assessment of the best scientific and 
commercial

[[Page 51702]]

information available regarding the past, present, and future threats 
to the Oregon spotted frog. While the loss of Oregon spotted frog 
across the historical distribution and the status of the species within 
its current range is considered in this assessment, the majority of the 
assessment is focused on the ongoing and future threats to the species 
within the currently occupied areas. All of the known Oregon spotted 
frog occupied sub-basins are currently affected by one or more threats. 
The immediacy, severity, and scope of these threats are such that the 
Oregon spotted frog is likely to become endangered throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range within the foreseeable future.
    (32) Comment: One commenter suggested that the proposed listing 
rule should reassess the role shrubs play in support of beaver re-
establishment in each frog sub-basin, since beaver re-establishment 
will affect both tree encroachment and succession to a tree-dominated 
community. The commenter noted that if a proper hydrologic regime were 
restored and maintained, plant communities that provide frog habitat 
would not succeed to tree-dominated communities.
    Our response: We acknowledge that shrubs are an important component 
for maintaining beaver habitat, but highlight the threat posed by 
succession to a tree- and/or shrub-dominated community where natural 
disturbances processes (such as beavers, flooding, and fire) have been 
or continue to be removed. We are especially concerned about wetland 
and riparian areas that provide egg-laying habitat that is being 
actively planted with willows and other riparian shrubs in order to 
cool water temperatures for salmonids. These actions can degrade or 
eliminate the shallow open-water conditions necessary for egg laying. 
We do not advocate for shrub removal throughout areas inhabited by 
Oregon spotted frogs, especially where they support beavers, but where 
natural disturbance processes are lacking, succession to shrub- and 
then tree-dominated communities will continue to pose a threat.
    (33) Comment: Two commenters stated that the use of the term 
``early seral vegetation'' to represent egg-laying habitat was not 
supported and does not conform to seral stages of plant communities of 
riparian areas and wetlands at cited in Kovalchik (1987) and Crowe et 
al. (2004). In addition, the commenters suggested that too much 
disturbance can force wetland communities toward drier plant 
associations, which may not favor Oregon spotted frogs.
    Our response: Our use of the term ``early seral'' in the proposed 
listing rule was intended to convey the idea of non-forested areas in 
early stages of succession. Use of the term ``late seral'' to represent 
a wetland that is in a ``stable state'' where change in the vegetation 
is minimal over time is indeed accurate when applied to an intact 
wetland ecosystem, but may be confusing to those who may equate the 
term ``late seral'' to ``older forest.'' We note that Oregon spotted 
frogs do not currently occur in intact stable wetland ecosystems 
throughout the majority of their range; they occur in systems that have 
been modified by humans such that the normal disturbance processes have 
been lost and succession to trees and shrubs is occurring. We agree 
that classification of the Oregon spotted frog as an early seral-
dependent species is not entirely accurate, but note here that the 
vegetation at egg-laying areas in at least 7 of the 15 occupied sub-
basins currently consists of reed canarygrass, not native wetland 
species. Maintenance of the appropriate vegetation height and water 
depth necessary for egg laying within these areas is crucial to the 
persistence of Oregon spotted frogs in these sub-basins. In this rule, 
we have revised the language in the Background and Summary of Factors 
Affecting the Species sections, where appropriate, to remove the term 
``early seral.'' We highlight that vegetation succession or 
encroachment into breeding sites for Oregon spotted frog constitute a 
threat to the species.
    (34) Comment: One commenter asserted that the threat from grazing 
was understated in the proposed rule and suggested a more detailed 
discussion of the impacts grazing has on frog habitats is needed.
    Our response: The best information available on grazing in areas 
occupied by Oregon spotted frog indicates there are both negative and 
positive impacts. We believe we evaluated the best available scientific 
information and provided a balanced summary of both the negative and 
positive impacts under the ``Livestock Grazing'' section of the Factor 
A discussion and that the full extent of the negative impacts have been 
evaluated. For further information, please see our response to Comment 
(4).
    (35) Comment: Two commenters wrote regarding water management and 
drastic draw-downs below the Wickiup Reservoir in the Upper Deschutes 
sub-basin that have resulted in fish kills. These commenters indicated 
the Oregon Water Resources Department dewaters the Upper Deschutes 
River annually in the fall and expressed concern at the lack of Service 
involvement to protect animals under our jurisdiction.
    Our response: The Service does not have direct regulatory authority 
over the water management within the Deschutes River Basin. By law, all 
surface and ground water in Oregon belongs to the public, and the 
Oregon Water Resources Department is the public State-level agency 
charged with administration of the laws governing surface and ground 
water resources, including the protection of existing water rights. 
Much of the river water within the Deschutes River was allocated long 
ago and, as such, is subject to the laws governing water rights. If a 
Federally authorized, funded, or conducted action may affect a listed 
species or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency must 
enter into consultation with the Service under section 7 of the Act. 
However, where there is no Federal nexus, State laws govern water 
management. With this final rule, however, the Act's prohibitions will 
apply to all activities that harm Oregon spotted frogs, and we expect 
to work with landowners to develop habitat conservation plans that 
address those activities.
    (36) Comment: One commenter stated that the proposed rule suggests 
nonnative predators are transferred via the pumping of groundwater. 
Another commenter believed the proposed rule did not adequately weight 
the importance of groundwater resources to the persistence of Oregon 
spotted frog and felt the proposed rule should have included an 
assessment of the threats to groundwater, due to the contributions it 
makes to the maintenance of Oregon spotted frog habitat.
    Our response: There is no biological information that suggests 
nonnative predators are transferred via groundwater pumping, and the 
proposed rule did not state or intend to imply there was such a threat. 
The final rule remains consistent with this original position.
    The Service agrees that there is need to protect groundwater 
resources, as many wetland habitats occupied by Oregon spotted frogs 
are supported by groundwater. Pumping of groundwater can result in 
lower water levels in groundwater systems, diminished flow of springs, 
and reduced streamflow (Gannett et al. 2007, pp. 59-60, 65), but the 
extent of groundwater pumping effects to streamflow within Oregon 
spotted frog sub-basins and its impact on Oregon spotted frogs is 
currently unclear (Gannett et al. 2007, p. 65). In the Upper and Little 
Deschutes River sub-basins, the analysis of groundwater changes 
discussed in Gannett et al.

[[Page 51703]]

(2013) is difficult to correlate directly with impacts to Oregon 
spotted frog. There is a scarcity of hydrologic gauges in certain parts 
of the occupied sub-basins, and there are only five well-testing 
locations upstream of Bend, Oregon, in proximity to areas occupied by 
Oregon spotted frog. Although the Little Deschutes River sub-basin 
experienced groundwater level declines since 2000, Gannett et al. 
(2013) stated that wells in the ``La Pine sub-basin south of Bend'' 
tend to respond to climate cycles, and show no evidence of discernible 
pumping-related trends due to the distance from large pumping centers. 
Similarly, the primary increase in groundwater pumping in the upper 
Klamath Basin has not occurred within Oregon spotted frog occupied sub-
basins. The Service has little conclusive information at this time 
regarding groundwater pumping as a threat to Oregon spotted frogs.
    (37) Comment: One commenter asserted that water management 
activities in the Glenwood Valley (the Middle Klickitat River sub-
basin) may be artificially enhancing Oregon spotted frog habitat in 
that area because the landowners flood a significant portion of the 
valley to provide frost protection to the reed canarygrass they use for 
summer livestock forage and/or commercially produce. The commenter 
suggested that if water were allowed to runoff naturally, the area of 
available Oregon spotted frog habitat would be much smaller and would 
dry up sooner.
    Our response: As explained in the Background and Summary of Factors 
Affecting the Species sections, water management in the Glenwood Valley 
is a complicated issue involving multiple landowners, including both 
public and private. Retention of water in locations that attract egg-
laying behavior may create an ``ecological trap'' by trapping larvae 
and/or juvenile frogs if water is not retained until they are matured 
enough to move or if those locations are not hydrologically connected 
to permanent water via surface water along a gradual slope. These 
artificially flooded egg-laying areas may be creating population 
``sinks'' and facilitating the decline of the population by diverting 
gravid females from higher quality, natural egg-laying locations. In 
addition, the current water management drains areas that in a natural 
setting might hold water throughout the year; whereas, currently, the 
surviving frogs are restricted to the ditch system, along with their 
predators, for a majority of the summer and winter. In the absence of 
additional compelling information, the Service continues to assert that 
water management is a threat to Oregon spotted frogs in the Middle 
Klickitat River sub-basin.
    (38) Comment: One commenter asked that the Service clarify whether 
stormwater detention or retention facilities provide Oregon spotted 
frog habitat, including whether these facilities are beneficial or 
detrimental to the frog. (Oregon spotted frogs have been found within 
private storm drainage wetponds within Bend, Oregon.) The commenter 
further asked whether the State should continue to recommend that 
stormwater be directed away from frog habitat (as advised in Nordstrom 
and Miller 1997) if Oregon spotted frogs are shown to benefit from 
stormwater retention facilities.
    Our response: The only known occurrence of Oregon spotted frogs 
using a stormwater retention pond occurs at the Old Mill within the 
City of Bend, Oregon. Year-round water is purposefully held within this 
particular pond because it serves as a ``casting pond'' for learning to 
fly fish. The Service does not have information to indicate that 
seasonally wet stormwater ponds are either a benefit or detriment to 
Oregon spotted frog populations that utilize the Deschutes River within 
the City of Bend.
    In Washington State, Nordstrom and Milner (1997) remains the 
current accepted management practices guide. It clearly states, 
``stormwater runoff from urban developments should not be diverted into 
spotted frog habitats. Urban runoff often contains heavy metals and 
other pollutants that may affect frogs.'' Therefore, the information 
regarding controlling stormwater runoff away from frog habitat and the 
Washington Priority Habitat and Species Management Recommendations is 
accurate as presented.
    Brand and Snodgrass (2010) concluded anthropogenic wetlands may be 
important to amphibian conservation in suburban and urban areas, but 
cautioned about the contaminants in the stormwater ponds. In addition, 
inferences from this study should be made very judiciously because the 
amphibian species studied were primarily terrestrial and only used the 
structures during the breeding season and their ``natural'' locations 
dried up before metamorphosis, so the structures were not providing for 
the essential needs of the associated amphibians and were essentially 
acting as a breeding sink.
    The Service would not recommend that these types of facilities be 
constructed in or near Oregon spotted frog habitat because of the 
potential for creating ponds that do not remain wetted and could trap 
frogs or larvae, retain deeper water that attracts bullfrogs, or expose 
Oregon spotted frogs to contaminants.
    (39) Comment: One commenter believed that the Service's discussion 
of development under Factor A was not well supported and argued that 
wetlands receive enough protections from Federal, State, and county 
regulations to be immune from the impacts of development.
    Our response: The link between the frog's status and loss of 
wetlands is documented under both Factor A and Factor D. Ongoing loss 
of wetlands is predominantly attributable to development, including 
urban (housing and infrastructure) and agricultural. While some 
setbacks are required under existing regulations, not all ``wetlands'' 
are regulated in an equivalent manner, and not all counties or States 
have equivalent regulations. Additionally, not all Oregon spotted frog 
habitat is classified as ``wetland'' under county or State regulations, 
and thus the loss of these habitats are not accounted for under 
estimates of wetland loss. As discussed in our analysis under Factor D, 
we determined that the existing regulatory mechanisms are not 
sufficient to reduce or remove threats to Oregon spotted frog habitat, 
particularly habitat loss and degradation.
    (40) Comment: One commenter believed the summary of the disease and 
predation section appeared to contradict the first paragraph of the 
section, pointing out that the first paragraph cites documentation that 
nonnative predaceous species are found in 20 of 24 sites while the 
summary states that at least one nonnative predaceous species occurs 
within each of the sub-basins currently occupied by Oregon spotted 
frogs.
    Our response: These findings are discussed at different scales. 
Hayes et al. (1997, p. 5) documented at least one introduced predator 
in 20 of 24 individual sites surveyed from 1993-1997 in British 
Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. However, our summary is focused on 
the presence of nonnative predators at the sub-basin scale, not in 
individual sites; in other words, each occupied sub-basin has one or 
more sites with nonnative predators present. Further information on 
specific sites and sub-basins that are known to have predaceous 
nonnative species (made available within our Threats Synthesis 
Rangewide Analysis) is available online at both http://www.regulations.gov and the Washington Fish and Wildlife Service 
Office's Web site http://www.fws.gov/wafwo/osf.html.
    (41) Comment: One commenter asserted that increases in the 
population

[[Page 51704]]

of sandhill cranes in the Middle Klickitat River area and reports from 
local residents that indicate river otters have also moved back into 
the area may also be affecting the size of the Oregon spotted frog 
population.
    Our response: We have no evidence to support or disprove that 
increasing populations of native species may negatively impact Oregon 
spotted frog populations in the Middle Klickitat River area. Cranes and 
otters may be playing a beneficial role for Oregon spotted frogs by 
preying on bullfrogs. We continue to recommend actions that address the 
impacts from introduced (nonnative) species, rather than native 
species.
    (42) Comment: One commenter felt that the information provided 
under Factor C regarding Bd is inconsistent with Hayes et al. (2009), 
which posited that Bd was a contributor to the observed declines at 
Conboy Lake NWR and Trout Lake NAP. The commenter goes on to note that 
the referenced article also posited that the observed declines coupled 
with the unknown susceptibility of Oregon spotted frogs to Bd should be 
a cause for concern and then stated that this concern is heightened by 
the fact the Conboy Lake NWR is the only place where Oregon spotted 
frogs and American bullfrogs have successfully co-existed for over 60 
years. The commenter's concern stems from data demonstrating that 
bullfrogs are known to carry Bd asymptomatically (citing Daszak et al. 
2004; Garner et al. 2006); therefore the potential for Bd transmission 
within and among species at Conboy Lake NWR could be high.
    Our response: We agree that Bd may be a cause for concern; however, 
there is no direct evidence that the declines in Conboy Lake area are 
attributable to Bd, and recent studies conducted by Padgett-Flohr and 
Hayes (2011) indicate that Oregon spotted frogs are less susceptible to 
Bd than many other frog species. The lack of co-occurrence with 
bullfrogs at Trout Lake NAP could potentially explain why that 
population is able to rebound, while Conboy Lake area does not, but it 
does not explain the increasing trend in the Sunriver population which 
has coexisted with bullfrogs for more than 40 years. There are a number 
of other contributing factors in the Trout Lake NAP that may explain 
the increasing population, such as significant improvement of the 
habitat conditions. Additional studies are necessary to determine 
whether Bd is a threat rangewide.
    (43) Comment: One commenter requested clarification of which 
specific Urban Growth Area includes Fish Pond Creek because designation 
as an Urban Growth Area specifies the allowable permitted density of 
developments.
    Our response: Fish Pond Creek is a tributary that flows directly 
into Black Lake from the east. The area where the frogs have been found 
breeding is within the Tumwater Urban Growth Area. Text has been added 
to the Factor D discussion in this rule to clarify this Urban Growth 
Area.
    (44) Comment: Two commenters highlighted that shoreline, riparian, 
and wetland property owners throughout the PNW are regularly required 
through Federal, State, and local programs to improve fish habitat as 
mitigation for development and emphasized the involuntary nature of 
some of these mitigation programs. The commenters pointed out the 
apparent contradiction where the Service's proposed listing rule 
identifies such mitigation programs as having already contributed to 
the Oregon spotted frog's decline. The commenters stated his or her 
concern that a ``dueling species'' scenario between fish and frogs will 
not be resolved by listing the Oregon spotted frog as a threatened 
species, but will mean that property owners will face competing 
requirements stemming from the Act and other programs, and will be 
subject to potential liability on multiple fronts, either for refusing 
to engage in fish habitat mitigation (to avoid harming frogs), or for 
engaging in fish habitat mitigation activities that harm frogs. The 
commenters felt that a property owner's only alternative in such a 
situation may be to forgo using his or her property altogether and 
implied that the Service may be liable for a regulatory taking if 
property use restrictions resulting from enforcement of the Act deprive 
an owner of economic use.
    Our response: We agree that habitat objectives for fish, and salmon 
species in particular, may in some cases contradict those for Oregon 
spotted frogs. In many cases, laws and regulations that pertain to 
retention and restoration of wetland and riverine areas are designed to 
be beneficial to fish species, resulting in the unintentional 
elimination or degradation of Oregon spotted frog habitat. In the 
``Summary of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms'' under the Factor D 
discussion, we state that additional regulatory flexibility would be 
desirable for actively maintaining the areas essential for the 
conservation of the Oregon spotted frog. For example, grazing is an 
active management technique used to control invasive reed canarygrass, 
but CAOs in some Washington counties prohibit grazing within the 
riparian corridor. We also highlight the fact that the areas where 
these incompatibilities apply are limited in scope to four Oregon 
spotted frog-occupied sub-basins in Washington, a very small amount of 
area relative to the range of salmonids.
    The Act does not allow the Service to refrain from listing a 
species in an instance such as this, where one species' habitat needs 
are different or incompatible with those of another listed species. In 
theory, two species that co-existed in the past should be able to co-
exist in the present and future; however, due to human alteration of 
the naturally functioning ecosystem, human management of the ecosystem 
upon which these species depend now needs to accommodate the habitat 
needs of both species. As such, the incompatibilities and means to 
balance recovery objectives will be addressed in any future recovery 
plan for the Oregon spotted frog and are not relevant to a listing 
decision.
    As for the commenters' assertion that limitations on the use of 
private property might effect a regulatory taking, the Act does not 
allow such considerations to influence a listing decision. In any 
event, the provisions of section 10 of the Act, allowing landowners to 
take listed species in accordance with an approved habitat conservation 
plan, are generally an effective means of resolving such issues without 
foreclosing all use of property.
    (45) Comment: One commenter felt that our Factor D discussion 
places too much emphasis on the failures of existing regulatory 
mechanisms. The regulatory mechanisms are not as problematic as 
depicted in the text, and the whole section should be revised to better 
depict the protection provided by existing regulatory mechanisms.
    Our response: As discussed in the introductory paragraph to the 
Factor D analysis, we examine whether the existing regulatory 
mechanisms are inadequate to address the threats to the species. We 
interpret this to include relevant laws, regulations, or mechanisms 
that may minimize any of the threats we described in the threat 
analyses under the other four factors, or otherwise enhance 
conservation of the species. This section only includes those laws, 
regulations, or mechanisms that we have found to be inadequate. It does 
not contain those laws, regulations, or mechanisms that we have found 
to be adequate or which do not address the specific threats to the 
species.
    (46) Comment: One commenter stated that there is no evidence that 
water quality in the habitats occupied by Oregon spotted frogs is 
contaminated and asserts that because there is no evidence that water 
quality is affecting

[[Page 51705]]

the populations in the Conboy Lake area or the Trout Lake NAP, the 
conclusion that water quality and contamination is a threat to the 
Oregon spotted frog across its range is not supported.
    Our response: We have revised our conclusion about the extent of 
threats due to water quality. Reduced water quality is documented in a 
number of occupied sub-basins, and where this overlap occurs we 
consider poor water quality and contaminants to be threats to the 
Oregon spotted frog. Various parameters of water quality were 
identified as issues from British Columbia south to the Klamath Basin 
(see Factor E discussion). Specifically, the WDOE listed a Trout Lake 
Creek segment within known Oregon spotted frog areas as not meeting 
standards for fecal coliform, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. We 
recognize that not all water quality parameters are equal and the 
standards set for fish may or may not be detrimental to Oregon spotted 
frogs. However, many of the parameters that we identified in 
association with water quality, such as pH and dissolved oxygen, are 
applicable, as is temperature when it is resulting in algal blooms and 
low oxygen levels (see discussion under the Life History section).
    (47) Comment: One commenter felt that there was a conflict between 
the threat analysis conducted under Factor C and the cumulative threat 
analysis. The commenter requested clarification as to how the Service 
could cite Blaustein et al. (1999), which the commenter interpreted as 
concluding that Oregon spotted frogs were not affected by UV-B 
radiation exposure or contaminants, and then determine that UV-B 
radiation exposure and contaminants could negatively impact Oregon 
spotted frogs in the cumulative threats analysis.
    Our response: Our threat analysis under Factor C did not say that 
Oregon spotted frogs are not affected by UV-B radiation, only that at 
present, the extent of population-level impacts from UV-B exposure is 
unknown. We highlight here that the Blaustein et al. 1999 study was 
conducted on eggs, but more recent work indicates that larvae 
(tadpoles) are more susceptible than embryos (Bancroft et al. 2008) and 
that UV-B radiation interacts synergistically with other environmental 
stressors. We also considered climate change as potentially playing a 
role in increased exposure to UV-B radiation if water depth at egg-
laying and rearing locations is reduced. Our threat analysis also did 
not state that contaminants do not affect Oregon spotted frogs. 
Although we acknowledged that more ecotoxicology is warranted, the 
analyses provided a variety of impacts that contaminants can have on 
the species. Like UV-B radiation exposure, contaminants interact 
synergistically with other environmental stressors. Therefore, it is 
appropriate to include UV-B radiation exposure and contaminants in the 
cumulative effects analysis because of the complex interactions of 
stressors and the response Oregon spotted frogs may exhibit to varied 
combinations of these stressors.
    (48) Comment: One commenter stated that the Service failed to 
sufficiently analyze whether the populations of Oregon spotted frogs 
constitute one or more distinct population segments (DPSs), 
particularly in the Upper Deschutes and Little Deschutes sub-basins. 
The commenter asserted that the Service would have a strong basis to 
find that these populations constitute one or more DPS given the 
sizable populations in these sub-basins, and, as such, it is premature 
to list these populations as threatened.
    Our response: Congress has instructed the Secretary to exercise 
authority with regard to DPSs ``* * * sparingly and only when the 
biological evidence indicates that such action is warranted'' (Senate 
Report 151, 96th Congress, 1st Session). We evaluated whether any 
populations of the Oregon spotted frog constituted a DPS prior to our 
proposed listing rule; however, after conducting our threats analysis 
we concluded that the Oregon spotted frog is a threatened species 
across its range. Therefore, because we have determined that the Oregon 
spotted frog is threatened rangewide, there is no regulatory benefit in 
designating separate DPSs.
    (49) Comment: One commenter noted that impacts from recreational 
access are not documented in the proposed listing until the section 
where the list of examples of activities conducted, regulated, or 
funded by Federal agencies is addressed. The commenter questioned 
whether or not recreational impacts constitute a real problem. The 
commenter further questioned whether or not river restoration should be 
included in this section, as Oregon spotted frogs are not a 
``riverine'' species.
    Our response: This list of examples of activities was provided to 
draw the Federal agency's attention to the types of activities that may 
require conference or consultation under section 7(a) of the Act; 
however, we are not aware that they are occurring or planned at this 
time. If they were to occur, recreation management actions, such as 
development of campgrounds or boat launches adjacent to or in Oregon 
spotted frog habitat, may result in impacts to the species or its 
habitat or both. Additionally, river restoration activities also may 
result in impacts to the species or its habitat or both because Oregon 
spotted frogs are closely tied to creeks and rivers, such as the Samish 
and Black Rivers in Washington and the Deschutes River in Oregon.
    (50) Comment: The Deschutes Basin Board of Control (DBBC) requested 
a rule under section 4(d) of the Act that would not prohibit incidental 
take of Oregon spotted frogs during routine irrigation district 
activities, such as the storage, release, diversion, and return of 
water, if those activities are conducted in accordance with State law; 
and within ranges of storage, release, diversion, and return 
experienced since 1980, or within limits established in a HCP approved 
by the Service in accordance with section 10(a)(1)(B) of the Act. The 
DBBC also requested the 4(d) rule address the maintenance, operation, 
repair, or modification of existing district facilities if, among other 
requirements, these activities do not result in the direct physical 
modification of habitat occupied by the Oregon spotted frog or if these 
activities are addressed in an HCP. The DBBC requested that we provide 
another opportunity for public comment on our 4(d) rule determination 
before issuing a final rule.
    Our response: We appreciate the DBBC's desire to consider 
conservation of Oregon spotted frogs in carrying out their ongoing 
activities. In our proposed listing rule, we indicated we are 
considering whether it is necessary and advisable to develop a 4(d) 
rule that would not prohibit take that is incidental to implementing a 
State comprehensive Oregon spotted frog conservation program, regional 
or local Oregon spotted frog conservation programs, and activities or 
efforts conducted by individual landowners that are outside of a more 
structured program but are still consistent with maintaining or 
advancing the conservation of Oregon spotted frog. Further, we 
indicated that we would consider specific information that would 
provide us a high level of certainty that a conservation program would 
lead to the long-term conservation of Oregon spotted frogs (see 
Consideration of a 4(d) Special Rule in the August 29, 2013, proposed 
listing rule).
    Given the storage, release, and diversion of water in the Upper 
Deschutes River and the Little Deschutes River were identified in our 
proposed listing rule as sources of Oregon spotted frog habitat loss or

[[Page 51706]]

modification, the information provided by DBBC did not provide the 
information we needed to evaluate the program's potential conservation 
benefits to the Oregon spotted frog. However, we have been working with 
the DBBC, and funding has been provided, to develop a HCP. If the HCP 
is finalized and permitted by the Service, it will likely authorize 
incidental take of Oregon spotted frog resulting from routine 
irrigation district activities, such as those described in their 
comment letter, while conserving the Oregon spotted frog consistent 
with the permitting requirements of section 10 of the Act. Such a 
permit would negate the need for coverage under a 4(d) rule. We 
encourage the DBBC to continue working with us to develop and finalize 
the HCP in order to authorize incidental take associated with these 
activities. Although we are not reopening a public comment period on 
the proposed listing, as requested by the DBBC, we may continue to 
consider developing a proposed 4(d) rule after this listing is 
finalized if we were to receive appropriate specific information that 
would provide us with a high level of certainty that such activities 
would lead to the long-term conservation of Oregon spotted frogs.

Summary of Changes From the Proposed Rule

    We fully considered comments from the peer reviewers and from the 
public on the proposed rule to develop this final listing for Oregon 
spotted frog. This final rule incorporates changes to our proposed 
listing based on the comments that we received that are discussed 
above. We expanded our discussion of water quality to acknowledge 
maximum levels as being toxic to amphibians and provided maximum limits 
set by the EPA for human drinking water. We also expanded our water 
quality discussion to include information on the effects of low 
dissolved oxygen and revised our conclusion concerning the extent of 
threats due to water quality. We added text to the ``Hydrological 
Changes'' section in the Factor A discussion of this rule to reflect 
the potential of manmade barriers to hinder frog movement. We added 
language discussing the effects that soil compaction may have on water 
holding capacity and revised language in the Background and Summary of 
Factors Affecting the Species sections, where appropriate, to remove 
the term ``early seral.'' We have updated the sub-basin information to 
include 2013 data where the new information expanded the distribution 
or significantly changed the minimum population estimate. Based on 
feedback from one of our peer reviewers, language regarding the number 
and distribution of the known Oregon spotted frogs in the Upper 
Deschutes River sub-basin has been revised. We have updated the 
Background section to include a short discussion of the indirect 
effects of Bti and methoprene on Oregon spotted frogs, and we added 
some text elsewhere to further explain our conclusion about parasite-
induced malformations. We revised our discussion of reproduction to 
include additional uncertainty regarding the number of clutches of eggs 
a female may produce per year. We also added text to the Factor D 
discussion to clarify the boundaries of the Urban Growth Areas. In 
addition, we corrected several citations and made editorial corrections 
in response to comments.

Determination

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533), and its implementing 
regulations at 50 CFR part 424, set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. Under section 4(a)(1) of the Act, we may list a species based 
on (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or 
curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) overutilization for 
commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) 
disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory 
mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its 
continued existence. Listing actions may be warranted based on any of 
the above threat factors, singly or in combination.
    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding the past, present, and future threats 
to the Oregon spotted frog. Past human actions have destroyed, 
modified, and curtailed the range and habitat available for the Oregon 
spotted frog, which is now absent from 76 to 90 percent of its former 
range. The Oregon spotted frog populations within two of the sub-basins 
are declining, but the population trend in the other 13 sub-basins is 
undetermined. However, the Oregon spotted frog is extant in only 15 of 
31 sub-basins where it historically occurred. In addition, the majority 
of remaining populations are isolated both between and within sub-
basins, with minimal opportunity for natural recolonization. These 
isolated populations are, therefore, vulnerable to ongoing threats and 
extirpation, and threats are known to be ongoing or increasing across 
the range of the Oregon spotted frog, as summarized below.
    Habitat necessary to support all life stages is continuing to be 
impacted and/or destroyed by human activities that result in the loss 
of wetlands to land conversions; hydrologic changes resulting from 
operation of existing water diversions/manipulation structures, new and 
existing residential and road developments, drought, and removal of 
beavers; changes in water temperature and vegetation structure 
resulting from reed canarygrass invasions, plant succession, and 
restoration plantings; and increased sedimentation, increased water 
temperatures, reduced water quality, and vegetation changes resulting 
from the timing, intensity, and location of livestock grazing. Oregon 
spotted frogs in all currently occupied sub-basins in British Columbia, 
Washington, and Oregon are subject to one or more of these threats to 
their habitat. Eleven of the 15 sub-basins are currently experiencing a 
high to very high level of habitat impacts, and these impacts are 
expected to continue into the foreseeable future.
    Disease continues to be a concern, but our evaluation of the best 
scientific information available indicates that disease is not 
currently a threat to Oregon spotted frogs. At least one nonnative 
predaceous species occurs within each of the sub-basins currently 
occupied by Oregon spotted frogs. Introduced fish have been documented 
within each sub-basin; these introduced species prey on tadpoles, 
negatively affect overwintering habitat, and can significantly threaten 
Oregon spotted frog populations, especially during droughts. Bullfrogs 
(and likely green frogs) prey on juvenile and adult Oregon spotted 
frogs, and bullfrog tadpoles can outcompete or displace Oregon spotted 
frog tadpoles. In short, nonnative bullfrogs effectively reduce the 
abundance of all Oregon spotted frog life stages and pose an added 
threat to a species that has significant negative impacts rangewide 
from habitat degradation. Nine of the 15 occupied sub-basins are 
currently experiencing moderate to very high impacts due to predation 
by introduced species, and these impacts are expected to continue into 
the foreseeable future.
    Lack of essential habitat protection under Federal, State, 
Provincial, and local laws leaves this species at continued risk of 
habitat loss and degradation in British Columbia, Washington, and 
Oregon. In many cases, laws and regulations that pertain to retention 
and restoration of wetland and riverine areas are a no-management 
(i.e.,

[[Page 51707]]

avoidance) approach, or are designed to be beneficial to fish species 
(principally salmonids), resulting in the elimination or degradation of 
Oregon spotted frog early-seral habitat. In other cases, no regulations 
address threats related to the draining or development of wetlands or 
hydrologic modifications, which can also eliminate or degrade Oregon 
spotted frog habitat. Therefore, degradation of habitat is ongoing 
despite regulatory mechanisms, and these mechanisms have been 
insufficient to significantly reduce or remove the threats to the 
Oregon spotted frog.
    Many of the Oregon spotted frog breeding locations are small and 
isolated from other breeding locations. Due to their fidelity to 
breeding locations and vulnerability to fluctuating water levels, 
predation, and low overwinter survival, Oregon spotted frogs can 
experience rapid population turnovers that they may not be able to 
overcome. Low connectivity among occupied sub-basins and among breeding 
locations within a sub-basin, in addition to small population sizes, 
contributes to low genetic diversity within genetic groups and high 
genetic differentiation among genetic groups. Oregon spotted frogs in 
every occupied sub-basin are subject to more than one stressor, such as 
loss or reduced quality of habitat and predation. Therefore, the 
species may be more susceptible to the synergistic effects of combined 
threats, which may be exacerbated by climate change. The threat to 
Oregon spotted frogs from other natural or manmade factors is occurring 
throughout the entire range of the species, and the population-level 
impacts are expected to continue into the foreseeable future.
    All of the known Oregon spotted frog occupied sub-basins are 
currently affected by one or more of these threats, which reduce the 
amount and quality of available breeding, summer, and overwintering 
habitat. While the risk to an individual site from each of these 
factors may vary, the cumulative risk of these threats to each site is 
high. This scenario is reflected in declining and/or small populations, 
which constitute the majority the Oregon spotted frog's remaining 
distribution. We find that Oregon spotted frogs are likely to become 
endangered throughout all or a significant portion of their range 
within the foreseeable future, based on the immediacy, severity, and 
scope of the threats described above. However, the best scientific and 
commercial information does not indicate at the present time that the 
existing threats are of such a great magnitude that Oregon spotted 
frogs are in immediate danger of extinction. Threats are not 
geographically concentrated in any portions of the species' range, and 
the species is extant and redundant at a number of localities within 13 
of 15 sub-basins within British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. One 
extant population remains in each of the Lower Deschutes River and 
Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins in Oregon. Egg mass surveys continue 
to document reproducing adults in most areas, although in at least two 
locations within the current range, Oregon spotted frogs may no longer 
be extant (i.e., the Maintenance Detachment Aldergrove site in British 
Columbia and the 110th Avenue site at Nisqually NWR in Washington).
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species ``that is likely to 
become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range 
within the foreseeable future.'' We find that the Oregon spotted frog 
is likely to become endangered throughout all or a significant portion 
of its range within the foreseeable future, based on the immediacy, 
severity, and scope of the threats described above. The best scientific 
and commercial information does not indicate at the present time that 
the existing threats are of such a great magnitude that Oregon spotted 
frogs are in immediate danger of extinction, but we conclude that it is 
likely to become so in the foreseeable future. Therefore, on the basis 
of the best available scientific and commercial information, we 
determine that the Oregon spotted frog meets the definition of 
threatened in accordance with sections 3(20) and 4(a)(1) of the Act.

Significant Portion of the Range

    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species ``that is likely to 
become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range 
within the foreseeable future.'' A major part of the analysis of 
``significant portion of the range'' requires considering whether the 
threats to the species are geographically concentrated in any way. If 
the threats are essentially uniform throughout the species' range, then 
no portion is likely to warrant further consideration.
    The best available data suggest that, under current conditions, 
Oregon spotted frogs will likely continue to decline toward extinction. 
Having already determined that the Oregon spotted frog is a threatened 
species throughout its range, we considered whether threats may be so 
concentrated in some portion of its range that, if that portion were 
lost, the entire species would be in danger of extinction. We reviewed 
the entire supporting record for the status review of this species with 
respect to the geographic concentrations of threats, and the 
significance of portions of the range to the conservation of the 
species. Oregon spotted frogs currently occupy 15 sub-basins that are 
widely distributed, such that a catastrophic event in one or more of 
the sub-basins would not extirpate Oregon spotted frogs throughout 
their range. Based on our five-factor analysis of threats throughout 
the range of the Oregon spotted frog, we found that threats to the 
survival of the species occur throughout the species' range and are not 
significantly concentrated or substantially greater in any particular 
portion of their range. Therefore, we find that there is no significant 
portion of the Oregon spotted frog's range that may warrant a different 
status. Therefore, the species as a whole is not presently in danger of 
extinction, and does not meet the definition of an endangered species 
under the Act.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
practices. Recognition through listing results in public awareness, and 
conservation by Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies; private 
organizations; and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection required by Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species. The recovery planning process involves the 
identification of actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the 
species' decline by addressing the threats to its survival and 
recovery. The goal of this process is to restore listed species to a 
point where they are secure, self-

[[Page 51708]]

sustaining, and functioning components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline 
after a species is listed and preparation of a draft and final recovery 
plan. The recovery outline guides the immediate implementation of 
urgent recovery actions and describes the process to be used to develop 
a recovery plan. Revisions of the plan may be done to address 
continuing or new threats to the species, as new substantive 
information becomes available. The recovery plan identifies site-
specific management actions that set a trigger for review of the five 
factors that control whether a species remains listed or may be 
delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery progress. Recovery plans 
also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate their recovery 
efforts and provide estimates of the cost of implementing recovery 
tasks. Recovery teams (composed of species experts, Federal and State 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and stakeholders) are often 
established to develop recovery plans. When completed, the recovery 
outline, draft recovery plan, and the final recovery plan will be 
available on our Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our 
Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, Tribes, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, 
and private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (e.g., restoration of native vegetation), research, captive 
propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on 
Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-
Federal lands. To achieve recovery of these species requires 
cooperative conservation efforts on private, State, and Tribal lands.
    Following publication of this final listing rule, funding for 
recovery actions will be available from a variety of sources, including 
Federal budgets, State programs, and cost share grants for non-Federal 
landowners, the academic community, and nongovernmental organizations. 
In addition, pursuant to section 6 of the Act, the States of 
Washington, Oregon, and California will be eligible for Federal funds 
to implement management actions that promote the protection or recovery 
of the Oregon spotted frog. Information on our grant programs that are 
available to aid species recovery can be found at: http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Please let us know if you are interested in participating in 
recovery efforts for the Oregon spotted frog. Additionally, we invite 
you to submit any new information on this species whenever it becomes 
available and any information you may have for recovery planning 
purposes (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Section 7(a) of the Act requires Federal agencies to evaluate their 
actions with respect to any species that is listed as an endangered or 
threatened species and with respect to its critical habitat, if any is 
designated. Regulations implementing this interagency cooperation 
provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR part 402. If a species is 
listed subsequently, section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal 
agencies to ensure that activities they authorize, fund, or carry out 
are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the species or 
destroy or adversely modify its critical habitat. If a Federal action 
may affect a listed species or its critical habitat, the responsible 
Federal agency must enter into consultation with the Service.
    Federal agency actions within the species' habitat that may require 
conference or consultation or both as described in the preceding 
paragraph include, but are not limited to, management and any other 
landscape-altering activities on Federal lands administered by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, USFS, BLM, and Joint Base Lewis McChord; 
actions funded or carried out by NRCS, USDA Rural Development, USDA 
Farm Service Agency, and USDA APHIS; issuance of section 404 Clean 
Water Act permits by the Corps; construction and maintenance of roads 
or highways by the Federal Highway Administration; construction and 
maintenance renewable and alternative energy projects and right-of-way 
corridors under U.S. Department of Energy and Bonneville Power 
Administration; and activities and infrastructure construction and 
maintenance associated with water storage and delivery under the 
purview of Bureau of Reclamation.
    Examples of other activities conducted, regulated, or funded by 
Federal agencies that may affect listed species or their habitat 
include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Vegetation management such as planting, grazing, burning, 
mechanical treatment, and/or application of pesticides adjacent to or 
in Oregon spotted frog habitat;
    (2) Water manipulation, such as flow management, water diversions, 
or canal dredging or piping;
    (3) Recreation management actions such as development of 
campgrounds or boat launches adjacent to or in Oregon spotted frog 
habitat;
    (4) River restoration, including channel reconstruction, placement 
of large woody debris, vegetation planting, reconnecting riverine 
floodplain, or gravel placement adjacent to or in Oregon spotted frog 
habitat;
    (5) Pond construction; and
    (6) Import, export, or trade of the species.
    Under section 4(d) of the Act, the Service has discretion to issue 
regulations that we find necessary and advisable to provide for the 
conservation of threatened species. The Act and its implementing 
regulations set forth a series of general prohibitions and exceptions 
that apply to threatened wildlife. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(1) 
of the Act, as applied to threatened wildlife and codified at 50 CFR 
17.31, make it illegal for any person subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States to take (which includes harass, harm, pursue, hunt, 
shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect; or to attempt any of 
these) threatened wildlife within the United States or on the high 
seas. In addition, it is unlawful to import; export; deliver, receive, 
carry, transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce in the 
course of commercial activity; or sell or offer for sale in interstate 
or foreign commerce any listed species. It is also illegal to possess, 
sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship any such wildlife that has 
been taken illegally. Certain exceptions apply to employees of the 
Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, other Federal land 
management agencies, and State conservation agencies.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving threatened wildlife under certain circumstances. Regulations 
governing permits are codified at 50 CFR 17.32. With regard to 
threatened wildlife, a permit may be issued for the following purposes: 
For scientific purposes, to enhance the propagation or survival of the 
species, and for incidental take in connection with otherwise lawful 
activities. There are also certain statutory exemptions from the 
prohibitions, which are found in sections 9 and 10 of the Act.
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of

[[Page 51709]]

section 9 of the Act. The intent of this policy is to increase public 
awareness of the effect of a listing on proposed and ongoing activities 
within the range of listed species. At this time, we are unable to 
identify specific activities that would not be considered to result in 
a violation of section 9 of the Act because the Oregon spotted frog 
occurs in a variety of habitat conditions across its range and it is 
likely that site specific conservation measures may be needed for 
activities that may directly or indirectly affect the species. The 
following activities could potentially result in a violation of section 
9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    (1) Introduction of nonnative species that compete with or prey 
upon the Oregon spotted frog, such as bullfrogs, green frogs, or warm 
or cold water fishes to the States of Washington, Oregon, or 
California;
    (2) Modification of the wetted area or removal or destruction of 
emergent aquatic vegetation in any body of water in which the Oregon 
spotted frog is known to occur; and
    (3) Discharge of chemicals into any waters in which the Oregon 
spotted frog is known to occur.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Washington 
Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Under section 4(d) of the Act, the Secretary has discretion to 
issue such regulations as he deems necessary and advisable to provide 
for the conservation of threatened species. Our implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 17.31) for threatened wildlife generally 
incorporate the prohibitions of section 9 of the Act for endangered 
wildlife, except when a rule promulgated pursuant to section 4(d) of 
the Act has been issued with respect to a particular threatened 
species. In such a case, the general prohibitions in 50 CFR 17.31 would 
not apply to that species, and instead, the 4(d) rule would define the 
specific take prohibitions and exceptions that would apply for that 
particular threatened species, which we consider necessary and 
advisable to conserve the species. The Secretary also has the 
discretion to prohibit by regulation with respect to a threatened 
species any act prohibited by section 9(a)(1) of the Act. Exercising 
this discretion, which has been delegated to the Service by the 
Secretary, the Service has developed general prohibitions that are 
appropriate for most threatened species in 50 CFR 17.31 and exceptions 
to those prohibitions in 50 CFR 17.32.
    We have not proposed to promulgate a rule under section 4(d) of the 
Act for the Oregon spotted frog, and as a result, all of the section 9 
prohibitions, including the ``take'' prohibitions, will apply to the 
Oregon spotted frog.

Required Determinations

National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.)

    We have determined that environmental assessments and environmental 
impact statements, as defined under the authority of the National 
Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), need not be prepared 
in connection with listing a species as an endangered or threatened 
species under the Endangered Species Act. We published a notice 
outlining our reasons for this determination in the Federal Register on 
October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244).

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994 
(Government-to-Government Relations With Native American Tribal 
Governments; 59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175 (Consultation and 
Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments), and the Department of the 
Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our 
responsibility to communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal 
Tribes on a government-to-government basis. In accordance with 
Secretarial Order 3206 of June 5, 1997 (American Indian Tribal Rights, 
Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act), 
we readily acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with 
tribes in developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge 
that tribal lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal 
public lands, to remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make 
information available to tribes. Oregon spotted frogs are not known to 
occur on Tribally owned lands. However, we provided information on our 
proposed and final listing rules to Tribal governments in Oregon and 
Washington where known Oregon spotted frog occurrences overlap with 
Tribal interests.

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this rulemaking is available 
on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov and upon request from the 
Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT).

Authors

    The primary authors of this package are the staff members of the 
Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office--
Bend Field Office, and Klamath Falls Fish and Wildlife Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter I, title 50 
of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 1531-1544; and 4201-4245, unless 
otherwise noted.

0
2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h) by adding an entry for ``Frog, Oregon spotted'' 
to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in alphabetical order 
under AMPHIBIANS to read as set forth below:


Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

[[Page 51710]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Species                                                   Vertebrate
------------------------------------------------------                        population where                                    Critical     Special
                                                          Historic range       endangered or          Status       When listed    habitat       rules
           Common name              Scientific name                              threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
           Amphibians
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Frog, Oregon spotted............  Rana pretiosa......  Canada (BC); U.S.A.  Entire.............  T                         846           NA           NA
                                                        (WA, OR, CA).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *

    Dated: July 22, 2014.
Stephen Guertin,
Acting Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 2014-20059 Filed 8-28-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P