[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 201 (Friday, October 17, 2014)]
[Presidential Documents]
[Pages 62303-62322]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-24849]

                        Presidential Documents 

Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 201 / Friday, October 17, 2014 / 
Presidential Documents

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                Proclamation 9194 of October 10, 2014

Establishment of the San Gabriel Mountains 
                National Monument

                By the President of the United States of America

                A Proclamation

                Known as the crown to the Valley of Angels, the peaks 
                of the San Gabriel Mountains frame the Los Angeles 
                skyline. Over 15 million people live within 90 minutes 
                of this island of green, which provides 70 percent of 
                the open space for Angelenos and 30 percent of their 
                drinking water. Millions recreate and rejuvenate in the 
                San Gabriels each year, seeking out their cool streams 
                and canyons during the hot summer months, their 
                snowcapped mountains in the winter, and their trail 
                system and historic sites throughout the year.

                The San Gabriels are some of the steepest and most 
                rugged mountains in the United States. Situated 
                adjacent to the mighty San Andreas Fault, the mountains 
                are geologically active, migrating northwest at an 
                average of 2 inches each year. Deep canyons, many with 
                precious perennial streams, score the mountain peaks--
                north toward the arid Mojave Desert and south to the 
                temperate San Gabriel Valley.

                The rich cultural history of these mountains echoes 
                their striking geologic features and ecological 
                diversity. Cultural resources represent successive 
                layers of history, including that of Native Americans, 
                Spanish missionaries and colonialists, Mexican 
                rancheros, and Euro-American settlers and prospectors. 
                Native American history runs deep, at least 8,000 
                years, exemplified by the Aliso-Arrastre Special 
                Interest Area known for its heritage resource values, 
                including several rock art and cupules features, the 
                concentration of which is unique to southern 
                California. Due to urban development and natural 
                processes, this area also contains the best preserved 
                example of a Gabrielino pictograph that characterizes 
                the California Tradition of rock painting.

                Early European explorers' use of the area consisted 
                mainly of early explorers traveling through the area. 
                Over time, land grants, Spanish missions, and townsites 
                surrounded the mountains, relying heavily on them for 
                water, building supplies, and game.

                By the 1840s, gold prospectors poured into the 
                mountains. Large placer and lode mining operations were 
                established in the San Gabriels, with mixed success. 
                The historic mining town of Eldoradoville, located 
                along the East Fork of the San Gabriel River, had at 
                its peak in 1861 a population of over 500 miners, with 
                general stores, saloons, and dance halls along with 
                numerous mining camps of tents, wooden shacks, and 
                stone cabins along the river.

                In the early 20th century, responding to the burgeoning 
                interest of urban dwellers in backcountry hiking and 
                weekend rambling, a number of trails, lodges, and 
                camps--many of which were accessible only by horseback 
                or on foot--were constructed throughout the mountains. 
                Remnants of these historic resorts, which attracted 
                local residents and Hollywood stars alike, can still be 
                seen and are important aspects of the region's social 
                and cultural history.

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                Enthusiasm for recreating in the mountains continues 
                today. The San Gabriels offer hundreds of miles of 
                hiking, motorized, and equestrian trails, including 
                several National Recreational Trails and 87 miles of 
                the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. In the 
                footprint of the resorts of the Great Hiking Era, many 
                visitors partake of Forest Service campgrounds built on 
                the foundations of early 20th-century lodges and 
                resorts. In a region with limited open space, the 
                mountains are the backyard for many highly urbanized 
                and culturally diverse populations within Los Angeles, 
                underscoring the need for strong partnerships between 
                this urban forest and neighboring communities.

                The mountains have hosted world-class scientists, 
                studying the terra firma at their feet as well as the 
                distant galactic stars. Astronomer Edwin Hubble 
                performed critical calculations from his work at the 
                Mt. Wilson Observatory, including his discovery that 
                some nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own 
                Milky Way. Assisted by Milton Humason, he also 
                discovered the presence of the astronomical phenomenon 
                of redshift that proved the universe is expanding. Also 
                on Mt. Wilson, Albert Michelson, America's first Nobel 
                Prize winner in a science field, conducted an 
                experiment that provided the first modern and truly 
                accurate measurement of the speed of light. Closer to 
                earth, the San Dimas Experimental Forest, established 
                in 1933 as a hydrologic laboratory, continues the study 
                of some of our earliest and most comprehensively 
                monitored research watersheds, providing crucial 
                scientific insights.

                Although proximate to one of America's most urban 
                areas, the region has untrammeled wilderness lands of 
                the highest quality, including four designated 
                wilderness areas: San Gabriel, Sheep Mountain, Pleasant 
                View Ridge, and Magic Mountain. These lands provide 
                invaluable backcountry opportunities for the rapidly 
                expanding nearby communities and also provide habitat 
                for iconic species including the endangered California 
                condor and least Bells' vireo, and the Forest Service 
                Sensitive Nelson's bighorn sheep, bald eagle, and 
                California spotted owl. Inventoried roadless areas and 
                lands recommended for designation as Wilderness also 
                provide important habitat, including a connectivity 
                corridor important for wide ranging species, such as 
                the mountain lion.

                The importance of the San Gabriels' watershed values 
                was recognized early. As early as the late 1800s, local 
                communities petitioned to protect the mountains for 
                their watershed values. As a result, President Benjamin 
                Harrison established the San Gabriel Timberland Reserve 
                in 1892, the precursor to the Angeles National Forest.

                Reflecting the needs of the nearby population centers, 
                the San Gabriels host an array of flood control and 
                water storage, delivery, and diversion infrastructure, 
                including six large retention dams as well as numerous 
                telecommunications and utility towers.

                The San Gabriels' rivers not only provide drinking 
                water but are also areas of high ecological 
                significance supporting rare populations of native 
                fish, including the threatened Santa Ana sucker. The 
                San Gabriel River supports rare arroyo chub and Santa 
                Ana speckled dace, a species found only in the Los 
                Angeles Basin. Little Rock Creek tumbles down from the 
                northern escarpment to the Mojave Desert below and 
                supports important populations of the endangered 
                mountain yellow-legged frog and arroyo toad, as well as 
                the threatened California red-legged frog. On the 
                slopes of Mt. San Antonio, San Antonio Creek rushes 
                through an alpine canyon studded with stalwart bigcone 
                Douglas fir, and the magnificent 75-foot San Antonio 
                Falls draw thousands of visitors every year.

                In addition to rivers, the San Gabriels contain two 
                scenic lakes, both formed by the area's remarkable 
                geologic forces. The alpine Crystal Lake, found high in 
                the mountains, was formed from one of the largest 
                landslides on record in southern California. Jackson 
                Lake is a natural sag pond, a type of pond formed 
                between the strands of an active fault line--in this 
                case, the San Andreas.

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                Climatic contrasts in the San Gabriels range from the 
                northern slope desert region, home to Joshua trees and 
                pinyon pines, to high-elevation white fir and a notable 
                stand of 1,000-year-old limber pines. Vegetation 
                communities, including chaparral and oak woodland, 
                represent a portion of the rare Mediterranean ecosystem 
                found in only 3 percent of the world. Mediterranean 
                climate zones have high numbers of species for their 

                The San Gabriels also provide suitable habitat for 52 
                Forest Service Sensitive Plants and as many as 300 
                California-endemic species, including Pierson's lupine 
                and San Gabriel bedstraw, that occur only in the San 
                Gabriel range.

                The mountains harbor several of California's signature 
                natural vegetation communities, including the drought-
                tolerant and fire-adapted chaparral shrubland, which is 
                the dominant community and includes scrub oaks, 
                chamise, manzanita, wild lilac, and western mountain-
                mahogany. Mixed conifer forest is an associated 
                vegetation community comprising Jeffrey pine, sugar 
                pine, white fir, and riparian woodlands including white 
                alder, sycamore, and willow. These communities provide 
                habitat for numerous native wildlife and insect 
                species, including agriculturally important 
                pollinators, the San Gabriel Mountains slender 
                salamander, San Bernardino Mountain kingsnake, song 
                sparrow, Peregrine falcon, mule deer, and Pallid bat.

                WHEREAS section 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 
                225, 16 U.S.C. 431) (the ``Antiquities Act''), 
                authorizes the President, in his discretion, to declare 
                by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and 
                prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic 
                or scientific interest situated upon the lands owned or 
                controlled by the Government of the United States to be 
                national monuments, and to reserve as a part thereof 
                parcels of land, the limits of which in all cases shall 
                be confined to the smallest area compatible with the 
                proper care and management of the objects to be 
                protected; and

                WHEREAS it is in the public interest to preserve and 
                protect the objects of scientific and historic interest 
                at the San Gabriel Mountains;

                NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the 
                United States of America, by the authority vested in me 
                by section 2 of the Antiquities Act, hereby proclaim 
                the objects identified above that are situated upon 
                lands and interests in lands owned or controlled by the 
                Government of the United States to be the San Gabriel 
                Mountains National Monument (monument) and, for the 
                purpose of preserving those objects, reserve as a part 
                thereof all lands and interests in lands owned or 
                controlled by the Government of the United States 
                within the boundaries described on the accompanying map 
                entitled, ``San Gabriel Mountains National Monument'' 
                and the accompanying legal description, which are 
                attached to and form a part of this proclamation.

                These reserved Federal lands and interests in lands 
                encompass approximately 346,177 acres, which is the 
                smallest area compatible with the proper care and 
                management of the objects to be protected.

                All Federal lands and interests in lands within the 
                boundaries of the monument are hereby appropriated and 
                withdrawn from all forms of entry, location, selection, 
                sale, leasing, or other disposition under the public 
                land or other Federal laws, including location, entry, 
                and patent under the mining laws, and from disposition 
                under all laws relating to mineral and geothermal 
                leasing, other than by exchange that furthers the 
                protective purposes of the monument, or disposition of 
                materials under the Materials Act of 1947 in a manner 
                that is consistent with the proper care and management 
                of the objects protected by this proclamation.

                The establishment of this monument is subject to valid 
                existing rights. Lands and interests in lands within 
                the monument's boundaries not owned or controlled by 
                the United States shall be reserved as part of the 
                monument upon acquisition of ownership or control by 
                the United States. To the extent allowed by applicable 
                law, the Secretaries of Agriculture and the

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                Interior shall manage valid Federal mineral rights 
                existing within the monument as of the date of this 
                proclamation in a manner consistent with the proper 
                care and management of the objects protected by this 

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to 
                alter the valid existing water rights of any party, 
                including the United States.

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to 
                interfere with the operation or maintenance, nor with 
                the replacement or modification within the existing 
                authorization boundary, of existing water resource, 
                flood control, utility, pipeline, or telecommunications 
                facilities that are located within the monument, 
                subject to the Secretary of Agriculture's special uses 
                authorities and other applicable laws. Existing water 
                resource, flood control, utility, pipeline, or 
                telecommunications facilities located within the 
                monument may be expanded, and new facilities may be 
                constructed within the monument, to the extent 
                consistent with the proper care and management of the 
                objects protected by this proclamation, subject to the 
                Secretary of Agriculture's special uses authorities and 
                other applicable law.

                The Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) shall manage 
                the monument through the Forest Service, pursuant to 
                applicable legal authorities, consistent with the 
                purposes and provisions of this proclamation. The 
                Secretary shall prepare, within 3 years of the date of 
                this proclamation and in consultation with the 
                Secretary of the Interior, a management plan for the 
                monument and shall promulgate such regulations for its 
                management as deemed appropriate. The Secretary shall 
                provide for maximum public involvement in the 
                development of that plan, including, but not limited 
                to, consultation with tribal, State, and local 
                government, as well as community environmental 
                conservation, health, and justice organizations. The 
                plan shall provide for protection and interpretation of 
                the scientific and historic objects identified above 
                and for continued public access to those objects, 
                consistent with their protection. To the maximum extent 
                permitted by other applicable law and consistent with 
                the purposes of the monument, the plan shall protect 
                and preserve Indian sacred sites, as defined in section 
                1(b) of Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996, and 
                access by Indian tribal members for traditional 
                cultural, spiritual, and tree and forest product-, 
                food-, and medicine-gathering purposes.

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to 
                enlarge or diminish the rights of any Indian tribe as 
                defined in section 1(b) of Executive Order 13007.

                The Secretary shall prepare a transportation plan that 
                specifies and implements such actions necessary to 
                protect the objects identified in this proclamation, 
                including road closures and travel restrictions. For 
                the purpose of protecting the objects identified above, 
                except for emergency or authorized administrative 
                purposes, the Secretary shall limit all motor vehicle 
                use to designated roads, trails, and, in the 
                Secretary's discretion, those authorized off-highway 
                vehicular use areas existing as of the date of this 

                The Secretary shall, in developing any management plans 
                and any management rules and regulations governing the 
                monument, consult with the Secretary of the Interior. 
                The final decision to issue any management plans and 
                any management rules and regulations rests with the 
                Secretary of Agriculture. Management plans or rules and 
                regulations developed by the Secretary of the Interior 
                governing uses within national parks or other national 
                monuments administered by the Secretary of the Interior 
                shall not apply within the monument.

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to 
                enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction of the State of 
                California with respect to fish and wildlife 

                Laws, regulations, and policies followed by the United 
                States Forest Service in issuing and administering 
                grazing permits or leases on all lands under its 
                jurisdiction shall continue to apply with regard to the 
                lands in the

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                monument in a manner consistent with the proper care 
                and management of the objects protected by this 

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to 
                alter the authority or responsibility of any party with 
                respect to emergency response activities within the 
                monument, including wildland fire response. The 
                Secretary may carry out vegetative management 
                treatments within the monument, except that timber 
                harvest and prescribed fire may only be used when the 
                Secretary determines it appropriate to address the risk 
                of wildfire, insect infestation, or disease that would 
                endanger the objects identified above or imperil public 

                Recognizing the proximity of the monument to Class B 
                airspace and that a military training route is over the 
                monument, nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed 
                to restrict general aviation, commercial, or military 
                aircraft operations, nor the designation of new units 
                of special use airspace or the establishment of 
                military flight training routes, over the monument.

                Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to revoke 
                any existing withdrawal, reservation, or appropriation; 
                however, the monument shall be the dominant 

                Warning is hereby given to all unauthorized persons not 
                to appropriate, injure, destroy, or remove any feature 
                of the monument and not to locate or settle upon any of 
                the lands thereof.

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 
                tenth day of October, in the year of our Lord two 
                thousand fourteen, and of the Independence of the 
                United States of America the two hundred and thirty-
                    (Presidential Sig.)

Billing code 3295-F5-P

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[FR Doc. 2014-24849
Filed 10-16-14; 8:45 am]
Billing code 3410-10-C