[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 224 (Thursday, November 20, 2014)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 69191-69310]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-27109]



[[Page 69191]]

Vol. 79

Thursday,

No. 224

November 20, 2014

Part II





 Department of the Interior





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 Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for 
Gunnison Sage-Grouse; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 79 , No. 224 / Thursday, November 20, 2014 / 
Rules and Regulations

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R6-ES-2012-0108; 4500030114]
RIN 1018-AZ20


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status 
for Gunnison Sage-Grouse

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine 
threatened species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended (Act), for the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus), a 
bird species from southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah. The 
effect of this regulation will be to add the Gunnison sage-grouse to 
the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife.

DATES: This rule is effective December 22, 2014.

ADDRESSES: This final rule is available on the internet at http://www.regulations.gov and http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/birds/gunnisonsagegrouse. Comments and materials we received, as well 
as supporting documentation we used in preparing this rule, are 
available for public inspection at http://www.regulations.gov. All of 
the comments, materials, and documentation that we considered in this 
rulemaking are available by appointment, during normal business hours 
at: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Colorado Field Office, 445 
West Gunnison Avenue, Suite 240, Grand Junction, CO 81501-5720; 
telephone 970-243-2778.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Linner, Field Supervisor, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Colorado Ecological Services Office, 134 
Union Blvd., Suite 670, P.O. Box 25486 DFC, Denver, CO 80225; telephone 
303-236-4774. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf 
(TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-
8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Executive Summary

    Why we need to publish a rule. Under the Endangered Species Act a 
species may warrant protection through listing if it is endangered or 
threatened as those terms are defined in the Act. Listing a species as 
an endangered or threatened species can only be completed by issuing a 
rule. In this case, we are required by a judicially approved settlement 
agreement to make a final determination regarding the Gunnison sage-
grouse by no later than November 12, 2014. Elsewhere in today's Federal 
Register we finalize the designation of critical habitat for the 
species.
    This rule will finalize the listing of the Gunnison sage-grouse 
(Centrocercus minimus) as a threatened species.
    The basis for our action. Under the Endangered Species Act, we can 
determine that a species is an endangered or threatened species based 
on any of five factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, 
modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) Other natural or manmade factors 
affecting its continued existence.
    As described in detail below, we have determined that the most 
substantial threats to Gunnison sage-grouse currently and in the future 
include habitat decline due to human disturbance (Factor A), small 
population size and structure (Factor E), drought (Factor E), climate 
change (Factor A), and disease (Factor C). Other threats that are 
impacting Gunnison sage-grouse to a lesser degree or in localized areas 
include grazing practices inconsistent with local ecological 
conditions, fences, invasive plants, fire, mineral development, 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment, large-scale water development 
(Factor A); predation (Factor C), primarily in association with 
anthropogenic disturbance and habitat decline due to human disturbance 
(Factor A); and recreation (Factor E). As described in Factor D below, 
some existing regulatory mechanisms are in place to conserve Gunnison 
sage-grouse, but individually or collectively they do not fully address 
the substantial threats faced by the species, particularly habitat 
decline, small population size and structure, drought, climate change, 
and disease. The threats listed above are also acting cumulatively, 
contributing to the challenges faced by Gunnison sage-grouse now and 
into the future.
    Multiple partners, including private citizens, nongovernmental 
organizations, and Tribal, State, and Federal agencies, are engaged in 
conservation efforts across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Numerous 
conservation actions have been implemented or are planned for Gunnison 
sage-grouse, and these efforts have provided and will continue to 
provide conservation benefit to the species. The Candidate Conservation 
Agreement with Assurances for Gunnison sage-grouse (CCAA), Gunnison 
Basin Candidate Conservation Agreement (CCA), conservation plans, 
multi-county commitments, habitat improvement projects, and similar 
non-regulatory conservation actions that address habitat-related 
impacts and issues are described and evaluated under Factor A in this 
rule. Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, conservation 
easements, and other regulatory mechanisms are evaluated under Factor 
D. Scientific research activities are described under Factor B and 
throughout this rule where applicable. Also, conservation efforts are 
described and evaluated as appropriate under relevant threat sections 
throughout this rule.
    Peer review and public comment. We sought comments on the proposed 
rule from independent and qualified specialists to ensure that our 
determination is based on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and 
analyses. We invited these peer reviewers to comment on our listing 
proposal. We also considered all comments and information received 
during each public comment period.

Previous Federal Actions

    Please refer to the proposed listing rule for the Gunnison sage-
grouse (78 FR 2486, January 11, 2013) for a detailed description of 
previous Federal actions concerning this species. Federal actions that 
have occurred since that publication are described below.
    On January 11, 2013, we published a rule proposing to list the 
Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered throughout its range (78 FR 2486), 
and a proposed rule to designate 1.7 million acres of critical habitat 
for the species (78 FR 2540). We opened a public comment period until 
March 12, 2013, that was subsequently extended until April 2, 2013 (78 
FR 15925, March 13, 2013).
    On July 19, 2013, we announced that we were extending the final 
rule deadline by 6 months, from September 30, 2013, to March 31, 2014; 
and reopened the comment period until September 3, 2013 (78 FR 43123). 
This extension served to solicit additional scientific information due 
to scientific disagreement regarding the sufficiency and accuracy of 
the available data relevant to our listing determinations for Gunnison 
sage-grouse.
    On September 19, 2013, we announced the availability of a draft 
economic analysis and draft environmental assessment for our proposal 
to designate critical habitat for

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Gunnison sage-grouse, and reopened the public comment period on those 
subjects and the proposed listing and critical habitat rules until 
October 19, 2013. We also announced two planned public informational 
sessions and public hearings for the proposed rules (78 FR 57604).
    On November 4, 2013, we reopened the public comment period on the 
proposed rules until December 2, 2013, and announced the rescheduling 
of three public information sessions and public hearings that were 
postponed due to the lapse in government appropriations in October 2013 
(78 FR 65936).
    Public information sessions and public hearings were held in 
Gunnison, Colorado, on November 19, 2013; Montrose, Colorado, on 
November 20, 2013; and Monticello, Utah, on November 21, 2013.
    In a press release on February 12, 2014, available on our Web page 
at http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/birds/gunnisonsagegrouse/, we announced a 6-week extension, to May 12, 2014, 
for our final decision on our proposed listing and critical habitat 
rules. This extension was granted by the Court due to delays caused by 
the lapse in government appropriations in October 2013, and the 
resulting need to reopen a public comment period and reschedule public 
hearings.
    In a press release on May 6, 2014, available on our Web page at 
http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/birds/gunnisonsagegrouse/, 
we announced a 6-month extension, to November 12, 2014, for our final 
decision to list Gunnison sage-grouse under the Act. This extension was 
granted by the Court to provide the Service with additional time to 
complete a final listing determination for the Gunnison sage-grouse, 
and if listed, a final critical habitat designation. In the event the 
Service decided to list the species as threatened, the court order also 
allowed for the Service to publish a proposed rule under section 4(d) 
of the Act (which are only available for threatened species) and 
finalize it with the final listing determination on November 12, if 
appropriate. We decided not to propose and finalize a 4(d) rule for the 
Gunnison sage-grouse at this time, but continue to evaluate the 
potential for issuing a section 4(d) rule in the future to tailor the 
take prohibitions of the Act to those necessary and advisable to 
provide for the conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we finalize the designation 
of critical habitat for the species.

Background

    Gunnison sage-grouse and greater sage-grouse (a similar, closely 
related species) have similar life histories and habitat requirements 
(Young 1994, p. 44). In this final rule, we use scientific information 
specific to the Gunnison sage-grouse where available but apply 
scientific management principles and scientific information for greater 
sage-grouse that are relevant to Gunnison sage-grouse threats, 
conservation needs, and strategies--a practice followed by the wildlife 
and land management agencies that have responsibility for management of 
both species and their habitat. Throughout this rule, we use sage-
grouse in reference to both Gunnison and greater sage-grouse whenever 
the scientific data and information is relevant to both species.

Species Information

    A detailed summary of Gunnison sage-grouse taxonomy, the species 
description, historical distribution, habitat, and life-history 
characteristics can be found in the 12-month finding published 
September 28, 2010 (75 FR 59804). More recent scientific information 
relevant to the species and our evaluation of the species is included 
throughout this final rule.

Current Distribution and Population Estimates and Trends

    Gunnison sage-grouse currently occur in seven populations in 
Colorado and Utah, occupying 3,795 square kilometers (km\2\) (1,511 
square miles [mi\2\]) (Gunnison Sage-grouse Rangewide Steering 
Committee) [GSRSC] 2005, pp. 36-37; CDOW 2009a, p. 1). The seven 
populations are Gunnison Basin, San Miguel Basin, Monticello-Dove 
Creek, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, Crawford, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, 
and Poncha Pass (Figure 1). A summary of land ownership and recent 
population estimates among these seven populations is presented in 
Table 1, and Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The following information 
and Figures 2 and 3 are based on lek count data (systematic counts of 
male sage-grouse attendance at traditional breeding sites) and 
associated population estimates from Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) 
and the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) for the period 1996-
2014 (CDOW 2010a, p. 2; CPW 2012a, pp. 1-4; CPW 2013a, p. 1; CPW 2014d, 
p. 1).

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                                     Table 1--Percent Surface Ownership of Gunnison Sage-Grouse Occupied \a\ Habitat
                                      [GSRSC \b\ 2005, pp. D-3-D-6; CDOW \c\ 2009a, p. 1; CPW 2013e, spatial data]
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                                                                                       Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat management and ownership
                                                                                   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                     BLM \d\   NPS \e\  USFS \f\     CPW     CO SLB   State of   Private
                        Population                           Hectares      Acres   ----------------------------------------    \g\       UT    ---------
                                                                                                                           --------------------
                                                                                        %         %         %         %         %         %         %
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison Basin............................................     239,641     592,168        51         2        14         2        <1         0    \i\ 30
San Miguel Basin..........................................      41,177     101,750    \g\ 35         0         1        11     \g\ 3         0    \h\ 49
Monticello-Dove Creek (Combined)..........................      45,544     112,543         7         0         0         3         0        <1        90
    Dove Creek............................................      16,949      41,881        13         0         0         6         0         0        82
    Monticello............................................      28,595      70,661         5         0         0         0         0         1        94
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa.........................................      18,080      44,678        28         0         2         0         0         0        70
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa...........................      15,039      37,161        13        <1         0        11         0         0        76
Crawford..................................................      14,170      35,015        63        12         0         0         0         0        24
Poncha Pass...............................................      11,229      27,747        48         0        20         0         4         0        28
Rangewide.................................................     384,880     951,061        42         2        10         3        <1        <1        43
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat is defined as areas of suitable habitat known to be used by Gunnison sage-grouse within the last 10 years from
  the date of mapping, and areas of suitable habitat contiguous with areas of known use, which have no barriers to grouse movement from known use areas
  (GSRSC 2005, p. 54; CPW 2013e, spatial data).
\b\ Gunnison Sage-grouse Rangewide Steering Committee.
\c\ Colorado Parks and Wildlife.
\d\ Bureau of Land Management.
\e\ National Park Service.
\f\ United States Forest Service.
\g\ State Land Board.
\h\ Estimates reported in San Miguel Basin Gunnison Sage-grouse Conservation Plan (San Miguel Basin Gunnison Sage-grouse Working Group (SMBGSWG) 2009,
  p. 28) vary by 2 percent in these categories from those reported here. We consider these differences insignificant.
\i\ Includes approximately 12,000 ac of land on Pinecrest Ranch, west of Gunnison, Colorado. This is restricted fee status land held in private
  ownership by the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe.


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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR20NO14.002


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    Lek count data are the primary means of estimating and monitoring 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations. However, sage-grouse populations can 
fluctuate widely on an annual basis, and there are concerns about the 
statistical reliability of population estimates based on lek counts 
(CDOW 2009b, pp. 1-3). Stiver et al. (2008, p. 474) concluded that lek 
counts likely underestimate population size. Another study (Davis 2012, 
p. 136) indicated that, based on demographic data, lek count indices 
overestimate population size. Although lek count data are available 
from as early as the 1950s for some populations, lek count protocols 
were first standardized and implemented in 1996 (GSRSC 2005, p. 46). 
Prior to 1996, lek count data are highly variable and uncertain, and 
are not directly comparable to recent population data (Braun 1998, p. 
3; Davis 2012, pp. 139, 143). Therefore, for the purposes of evaluating 
current population sizes and trends, the analysis in this rule is 
focused on lek count data from 1996 to 2014. We also consider other 
available scientific information such as demographic data and 
population viability analyses (see Factor E). Historical distribution 
and population information is discussed under Factor A below.
    The Gunnison Basin is the largest population (approximately 3,978 
birds) and, while showing variation over the period of record, 
including drought cycles and harsh winters, has been relatively stable, 
based on lek count estimates (but see further discussion below and in 
the Factor E analysis). The Gunnison Basin population is the primary 
influence on the rangewide population size of Gunnison sage-grouse (see 
Figure 2); thus, the significance of this population to the species' 
survival and persistence is evident. The Gunnison Basin population area 
includes approximately 239,600 ha (592,053 ac) of occupied habitat.
    In contrast, the remaining six populations, or satellite 
populations, are much smaller than the Gunnison Basin. All satellite 
populations were generally in decline until 2010; however, increases in 
several populations have been observed recently (Figure 3) and could be 
a product of numerous factors including but not limited to population 
cycles, translocation efforts, and increased access to leks. San Miguel 
and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa are currently the largest of the satellite 
populations, with 206 and 182 birds, respectively, in 2014. The 
Monticello-Dove Creek populations currently have less than 100 birds 
combined (74 and 24, respectively). The current (2014) population 
estimates for the two smallest populations, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims 
Mesa and Poncha Pass, are 74 and 16, respectively (CPW 2014d, p. 1). A 
count of zero birds at Poncha Pass in 2013 suggests that extirpation of 
this population may have occurred, although 17 birds were translocated 
there later that fall, and ten more in spring of 2014, with 16 known to 
survive into summer 2014 (see Factor B, Scientific Research and Related 
Conservation Efforts). The satellite population areas are much smaller 
than the Gunnison Basin population area, all with less than 40,500 
hectares (ha) (100,000 acres [ac]) of occupied habitat (Table 1) and, 
with the exception of the San Miguel population, fewer than 40 males 
counted on leks (CDOW 2009b, p. 5; CPW 2012a, p. 3; CPW 2013a, p. 1; 
CPW 2014d, p. 1).
    Lek count-based population estimates suggest some satellite 
populations have increased slightly over the last several years. 
However, lek count data spanning the last 19 years (1996 to 2014) as a 
whole indicate that all the satellite populations were generally in 
decline until 2010 (Figure 3). Several of the satellite populations 
remain in decline and all remain at population size estimates that 
indicate concern for their viability, ranging from 206 to 10 birds 
(Figure 3). Furthermore, some of the recent increases in population 
sizes can be attributed to translocation and survey efforts, rather 
than an actual increase in the population. For example, the 2014 
estimated population for Pi[ntilde]on Mesa was 182 birds (CPW 2014d, p. 
1), much greater than the 2012 estimate of 54 birds. The population in 
Crawford increased from 20 birds in 2010 to 157 in 2014. These 
increases may be due in part to the translocation of 93 birds to the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population between the spring of 2010 and spring of 
2013 and 73 birds to Crawford over the same period. (CPW 2014c, 
entire), and two new leks found in 2012 on Pi[ntilde]on Mesa (CPW 
2012a, pp. 2-3). The potential historical range of Gunnison sage-grouse 
is discussed briefly below by population, and loss of historical range 
is discussed under Factor A.
    Gunnison Basin Population--The Gunnison Basin is an intermontane 
(located between mountain ranges) basin that includes parts of Gunnison 
and Saguache Counties, Colorado. The current Gunnison Basin population 
is distributed across approximately 239,640 ha (592,168 ac) (Table 1), 
surrounding the City of Gunnison. This population comprises 
approximately 84 percent of the rangewide population and 62 percent of 
occupied habitat for the species rangewide. Elevations in the area 
occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse range from 2,300 to 2,900 meters (m) 
(7,500 to 9,500 feet [ft]). Approximately 69 percent of the land area 
occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse in this population is managed by 
Federal agencies (67 percent) and CPW (2 percent), and the remaining 30 
percent is primarily private lands, including approximately 12,000 ac 
on Pinecrest Ranch owned by the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe under restricted 
fee status. Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. 
wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) dominate 
the upland vegetation, with highly variable growth form depending on 
local site conditions.
    In 1964, Gunnison County was one of five counties containing the 
majority of all sage-grouse in Colorado. This was likely the case 
before Euro-American settlement, around the turn of the century, as 
well (Rogers 1964, pp. 13, 20). The 2014 population estimate for the 
Gunnison Basin was 3,978 birds (CPW 2014d, p. 1). Population estimates 
from 1996 to 2014 meet or exceed the population target of 3,000 
breeding birds (based on a 10-year average) for the Gunnison Basin, as 
set forth by the Gunnison Sage-grouse Rangewide Conservation Plan (RCP) 
(CPW 2013a, p. 10; GSRSC 2005, p. 270). Based on available habitat and 
other considerations, the RCP identified population targets as 
attainable population sizes sufficient to conserve Gunnison sage-grouse 
in each population (GSRSC 2005, p. 255). Approximately 45 percent of 
leks in the Gunnison Basin occur on private land; and 55 percent are on 
public land administered primarily by the BLM (GSRSC 2005, p. 75). Five 
physiographic zones or divisions are recognized in the Gunnison Basin 
population area for the purposes of monitoring and management actions 
(CSGWG 1997, pp. 6-7).
    San Miguel Basin Population-- The San Miguel Basin population 
estimate in 2014 was 206 individuals (CPW 2014d, p. 1). Population 
estimates from 1996 to 2014 are less than 50 percent of the population 
target of 450 Gunnison sage-grouse (based on a 10-year average) for the 
San Miguel Basin, as set forth by the RCP (CPW 2013a, p. 12; GSRSC 
2005, p. 296). This population occurs in Montrose and San Miguel 
Counties in Colorado, and comprises six small subpopulations (Dry Creek 
Basin, Hamilton Mesa, Miramonte Reservoir, Gurley Reservoir, Beaver 
Mesa, and Iron Springs) occupying approximately 41,177 ha (101,750 ac). 
Gunnison sage-grouse use some of these areas year-round, while others 
are used seasonally. Gunnison sage-grouse in the San Miguel Basin move 
widely between the six

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subpopulation areas (Apa 2004, p. 29; Stiver and Gibson 2005, p. 12). 
The area encompassed by this population is thought to have once served 
as critical migration corridors between populations to the north 
(Pi[ntilde]on Mesa) and northeast (Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa) and 
to the west (Monticello-Dove Creek) (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, pp. 
635-636; SMBGSWG 2009, p. 9), but gene flow among these populations is 
currently very low (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, p. 635). Historically, 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied the majority of available big sagebrush 
(Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in San Miguel and Montrose 
Counties (Rogers 1964, pp. 22, 115).
    Habitat conditions vary among the six subpopulation areas of the 
San Miguel Basin population areas. The following discussion addresses 
conditions among the subpopulations beginning in the west and moving 
east. The majority of occupied acres in the San Miguel Basin population 
(approximately 25,130 ha (62,100 ac) or 62 percent of the total 
population area) occur in the Dry Creek Basin subpopulation (SMBGSWG 
2009, p. 28). However, the Dry Creek Basin contains some of the poorest 
quality habitat and the fewest individual Gunnison sage grouse numbers 
in the San Miguel population (SMBGSWG 2009, pp. 28, 36). Sagebrush 
habitat in the Dry Creek Basin area is patchily distributed. Where 
irrigation is possible, private lands in the southeastern portion of 
Dry Creek Basin are cultivated. Sagebrush habitat on private land has 
been heavily thinned or removed entirely (GSRSC 2005, p. 96). 
Elevations in the Hamilton Mesa subpopulation are approximately 610 m 
(2,000 ft.) higher than in the Dry Creek Basin, resulting in more mesic 
(moist) conditions. Agriculture is very limited on Hamilton Mesa, and 
the majority of the vegetation consists of oakbrush (Quercus gambelii) 
and sagebrush. Gunnison sage-grouse use the Hamilton Mesa area (1,940 
ha (4,800 ac)) in the summer, but use of Hamilton Mesa during other 
seasons is unknown.
    Gunnison sage-grouse occupy approximately 4,700 ha (11,600 ac) 
around Miramonte Reservoir (GSRSC 2005, p. 96). Sagebrush stands there 
are generally contiguous with a mixed-grass and forb understory. 
Occupied habitat at the Gurley Reservoir area (3,305 ha (7,500 ac)) is 
negatively affected by human development. Farming attempts in the 
Gurley Reservoir area in the early 20th century led to the removal of 
much of the sagebrush, although agricultural activities are now 
restricted primarily to the seasonally irrigated crops (hay meadows), 
and sagebrush has reestablished in most of the failed pastures. 
However, grazing pressure and competition from introduced grasses have 
limited overall sagebrush representation (GSRSC 2005, pp. 96-97). 
Sagebrush stands in the Iron Springs and Beaver Mesa areas (2,590 ha 
and 3,560 ha (6,400 ac and 8,800 ac respectively)) are contiguous with 
a mixed-grass understory. The Beaver Mesa area has numerous scattered 
patches of oakbrush.
    Monticello-Dove Creek Population--This population includes two 
separate subpopulations of Gunnison sage-grouse, the Monticello and 
Dove Creek subpopulations. Genetic data suggest these two 
subpopulations could be considered one population (GSRSC 2005, p. 37), 
though we are unaware of any current connectivity between the two. The 
larger subpopulation is near the town of Monticello in San Juan County, 
Utah. Gunnison sage-grouse in this subpopulation inhabit a broad 
plateau on the northeastern side of the Abajo Mountains, with 
fragmented patches of sagebrush interspersed with large grass pastures 
and agricultural fields. In 1972, the estimated population size ranged 
from 583 to 1,050 individuals; by 2002, the population size had 
decreased, estimated at 178 to 308 individuals (UDWR 2011, p. 1). The 
2013 and 2014 population estimates are 74 individuals (CPW 2013a, p. 1; 
CPW 2014d, p. 1)). Gunnison sage-grouse currently occupy an estimated 
28,595 ha (70,661 ac) in the Monticello area (GSRSC 2005, p. 81).
    The Dove Creek subpopulation is located primarily in western 
Dolores County, Colorado, north and west of Dove Creek, although a 
small portion of occupied habitat extends north into San Miguel County. 
The majority of sagebrush plant communities in Dolores and Montezuma 
Counties within Colorado were historically used by Gunnison sage-grouse 
(Rogers 1964, pp. 22, 112). Habitat north of Dove Creek is 
characterized as mountain shrub habitat, dominated by oakbrush 
interspersed with sagebrush. The area west of Dove Creek is dominated 
by sagebrush, but the habitat is highly fragmented by agricultural 
fields. Lek counts in the Dove Creek area were more than 50 males in 
1999, suggesting a population of about 245 birds (C = High male count; 
C/0.53 + (C/0.53 x 1.6)), but declined to 2 males in 2009 (CDOW 2009b, 
p. 71), suggesting a population of 10 birds at that time. Low sagebrush 
canopy cover, as well as low grass height, exacerbated by drought, may 
have led to nest failure and subsequent population declines (Connelly 
et al. 2000a, p. 974; Apa 2004, p. 30). The 2014 population estimate 
was 24 individuals (CPW 2014d, p. 1).
    Combined, the Monticello-Dove Creek estimated population size in 
2014 was 98 individuals (CPW 2014d, p. 1). Most population estimates 
from 1996 to 2014 are well below the population target of 500 breeding 
birds (based on a 10-year average) for the Monticello-Dove Creek 
population, as set forth by the RCP (CPW 2013a, p. 12; GSRSC 2005, p. 
278). Likewise, most population estimates from 1996 to the present time 
are well below the population target of 250 birds for each 
subpopulation alone (CPW 2013a, p. 12).
    Pi[ntilde]on Mesa Population--The Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population 
occurs on the northwestern end of the Uncompahgre Plateau in Mesa 
County, about 35 km (22 mi) southwest of Grand Junction, Colorado. 
Gunnison sage-grouse likely occurred historically in all suitable 
sagebrush habitat in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa area, including the 
Dominguez Canyon area of the Uncompahgre Plateau, southeast of 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa proper (Rogers 1964, pp. 22, 114). Their current 
distribution is approximately 18,080 ha (44,678 ac) (GSRSC 2005, p. 87) 
which, based on a comparison of potential presettlement distribution, 
is approximately 6 percent of presettlement habitat on the northern 
portion of the Uncompahgre Plateau in Mesa County, Colorado, and Grand 
County, Utah. The 2014 estimated population was 182 birds (CPW 2014d, 
p. 1), much greater than the 2012 estimate of 54 birds. Over the last 4 
years, CPW has translocated 93 sage-grouse to this area, which may have 
contributed to the increase observed over the past 2 to 4 years (CPW 
2014c, entire), in addition to the discovery of two formerly unknown 
leks in 2012 (CPW 2012a, pp. 2-3). Population estimates from 1996 to 
2014 are below the population target of 200 breeding birds (based on a 
10-year average) for the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population, as set forth by 
the RCP (CPW 2013a, p. 11; GSRSC 2005, p. 285). Of 12 known leks, only 
4 were active in 2012 (CPW 2012a, pp. 2-3). The Pi[ntilde]on Mesa area 
may have other leks as well, but the high percentage of private land, a 
lack of roads, and heavy snow cover during spring make locating new 
leks difficult (CDOW 2009b, p. 109).
    Crawford Population--The Crawford population of Gunnison sage-
grouse includes approximately 14,170 ha (35,015 ac) of occupied habitat 
in Montrose County, Colorado, about 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the town 
of Crawford and north of the Gunnison River. Basin big sagebrush (A. t. 
ssp. tridentata) and black sagebrush (A.

[[Page 69200]]

nova) dominate the mid-elevation uplands (GSRSC 2005, p. 62). The 2014 
estimated population was 157 individuals (CPW 2014a, p. 1), much 
greater than the 2010 estimate of 20 birds, and 2011 estimate of 44 
birds. This observed increase could be, in part, the product of the 
translocation of 72 birds to the Crawford population from 2011 to the 
spring of 2013 (CPW 2014c, entire), although natural increases or other 
reasons not understood could also be contributing. Furthermore, new lek 
count techniques for this population were implemented in 2012 (Gunnison 
County 2013a, p. 190), and increased survey efforts may be partly 
responsible for observed increases in high male counts and population 
estimates (Figure 3). Population estimates from 1996 to 2014 are well 
below the population target of 275 breeding birds (based on a 10-year 
average) for the Crawford population, as set forth by the RCP (CPW 
2013a, p. 11; GSRSC 2005, p. 264). Three leks are currently active in 
the Crawford population (CPW 2012a, p. 1), all on BLM lands near an 11-
km (7-mi) stretch of road. This area represents the largest contiguous 
sagebrush plant community within the occupied area of the Crawford 
population (GSRSC 2005, p. 64).
    Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa Population--This population is 
divided into two geographically separate subpopulations, both in 
Montrose County, Colorado: The Cerro Summit-Cimarron and Sims Mesa 
subpopulations. It is unknown whether sage-grouse currently move 
between these subpopulations.
    The Cerro Summit-Cimarron subpopulation is centered about 24 km (15 
mi) east of the City of Montrose. Rogers (1964, p. 115) noted a small 
population of sage-grouse in the Cimarron River drainage, but did not 
report population numbers. The same publication also reported that four 
individual birds were observed during lek counts at Cerro Summit in 
1959. Habitat in this subpopulation area includes 15,039 ha (37,161 ac) 
of patchy sagebrush habitat fragmented by oakbrush and irrigated 
pastures. Four leks are currently known in the Cerro Summit-Cimarron 
group, although only two have been active in recent years (GSRSC 2005, 
p. 257; CPW 2012a, entire).
    The Sims Mesa area, about 11 km (7 mi) south of Montrose, consists 
of small patches of sagebrush fragmented by pi[ntilde]on-juniper, 
residential and recreational development, and agriculture (CDOW 2009b, 
p. 43). Rogers (1964, p. 95) recorded eight males from lek counts at 
Sims Mesa in 1960. In 2000, the CPW translocated six Gunnison sage-
grouse from the Gunnison Basin to Sims Mesa (Nehring and Apa 2000, p. 
12). There is only one currently known lek in the Sims Mesa and, since 
2003, it has not been attended by Gunnison sage-grouse. However, lek 
counts on Sims Mesa did not occur in 2011. A lek is designated historic 
when it is inactive for at least 10 consecutive years, according to CPW 
standards. Therefore, the current status of the Sims Mesa lek is 
unknown (CDOW 2009b, p. 7; CPW 2012a, p. 1).
    The Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population estimate in 2014 was 
74 individuals (CPW 2014a, p. 1), with all birds in the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron areas. Population estimates from 1996 to 2014 are below the 
population target of 100 breeding birds (based on a 10-year average) 
for this population, as set forth by the RCP (CPW 2013a, p. 11; GSRSC 
2005, p. 258).
    Available information indicates that some birds translocated to the 
Crawford area between 2011 and 2013 went to the Cerro Summit-Cimarron 
area, then moved back to Crawford (Crawford Area Gunnison Sage-grouse 
Working Group 2014, p. 3). Translocated birds also returned to the 
Gunnison Basin permanently (Crawford Area Gunnison Sage-grouse Working 
Group 2014, p. 3). Genetic information (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, pp. 
635-636; SMBGSWG 2009, p. 9) indicates that there was past gene flow 
between the Cerro Summit-Cimarron population and the San Miguel 
population. Therefore, we consider the Cerro Summit-Cimarron population 
to be an important linkage area, providing connectivity between the two 
largest populations, the Gunnison Basin and the San Miguel populations, 
as well as the Crawford population.
    Poncha Pass Population--The Poncha Pass Gunnison sage-grouse 
population is located in Saguache County, approximately 16 km (10 mi) 
northwest of Villa Grove, Colorado. The known population distribution 
includes 11,229 ha (27,747 ac) of sagebrush habitat from the summit of 
Poncha Pass extending south for about 13 km (8 mi) on either side of 
U.S. Highway 285. Sagebrush in this area is generally intact with 
little fragmentation, and habitat quality throughout the area appears 
adequate to support a population of the species (Nehring and Apa 2000, 
p. 25). Despite this, the area has struggled to sustain a viable 
population. San Luis Creek runs through the area, providing a perennial 
water source and wet meadow riparian habitat for brood-rearing. Decker 
and Rock Creeks also provide water most of the year. However, water 
flows in the area have been much lower and less dependable in recent 
years due to drought conditions (Nehring 2013a, pers. comm.).
    The Poncha Pass population was reintroduced in the 1970s in a 
portion of the San Luis Valley where Gunnison sage-grouse were thought 
to have been extirpated by the 1950s (Rogers 1964, pp. 22, 27, 116). 
Reestablishment of this population began with 30 birds translocated 
from the Gunnison Basin in 1971 and 1972 (GSRSC 2005, p. 94). In 1992, 
a CPW effort to simplify hunting restrictions inadvertently opened the 
Poncha Pass area to sage-grouse hunting, and at least 30 grouse were 
harvested from this population. Due to declining population numbers 
since the 1992 hunt, CPW translocated 24 additional birds from the 
Gunnison Basin in the spring of 2000 (Nehring and Apa 2000, p. 11). In 
2001 and 2002, an additional 20 and 7 birds, respectively, were moved 
to Poncha Pass by the CPW (GSRSC 2005, p. 94).
    Translocated females have bred successfully (Apa 2004, pers. 
comm.), and male display activity resumed on the historical lek in the 
spring of 2001. The only known lek is located on BLM-administered land 
(CDOW 2011a, p. 1; CPW 2012a, p. 3). A high male count of 3 males 
occurred in 2012, resulting in an estimated population size of 15 for 
the Poncha Pass population. In 2013, no birds were counted at leks or 
in surrounding habitat despite considerable survey efforts, suggesting 
a population estimate of zero birds. In the fall of 2013, CPW 
translocated 17 birds to the Poncha Pass population from the Gunnison 
Basin. As of January 2014, 10 of these birds were known to be surviving 
(Nehring 2014, pers. comm.). In 2014, CPW translocated 10 more birds to 
the area. Sixteen birds were known to survive into summer of 2014 (all 
translocated birds had telemetry transmitters). Poncha Pass current and 
past population estimates from 1996 to 2013 are well below the 
population target of 75 birds, as set forth by the RCP (CPW 2013a, p. 
12; GSRSC 2005, p. 291). We note that given the history of this 
population, lack of unique genetics (all sage-grouse were introduced 
from the Gunnison Basin), and concerns about translocation success, we 
do not consider this population necessary to the recovery of the 
species.

Additional Special Status Information

    The Gunnison sage-grouse has an International Union for 
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Category of ``endangered'' 
(Birdlife International 2009). NatureServe currently ranks the Gunnison 
sage-grouse as G1-Critically

[[Page 69201]]

Imperiled (Nature Serve 2010, entire). The Gunnison sage-grouse is on 
the National Audubon Society's Watch List 2007 Red Category, which is 
``for species that are declining rapidly or have very small populations 
or limited ranges, and face major conservation threats.'' This 
information is provided here for background only; these assessments 
were not factored into our analysis or listing determination in this 
rule.

Summary of Changes From the Proposed Rule

    Based upon our review of the public comments, comments from other 
Federal and State agencies, peer review comments, issues raised at the 
public hearing, and new relevant information that has become available 
since the publication of the proposal, we have reevaluated our proposed 
listing rule and made changes as appropriate. Other than minor 
clarifications and incorporation of additional information on the 
species' biology and populations, this determination differs from the 
proposal in the following ways:
    (1) Based on our analyses of the potential threats to the species, 
we have determined that Gunnison sage-grouse does not meet the 
definition of an endangered species, contrary to our proposed rule 
published on January 11, 2013 (78 FR 2486).
    (2) Based on our analyses, we have determined that the species 
meets the definition of a threatened species. Subsequently, pursuant to 
this final rule, the species will be added to the list of threatened 
species set forth in 50 CFR Part 17.
    (3) We have expanded the discussion of Ongoing and Future 
Conservation Efforts, in Factor A below.
    (4) We have found that the threat from current residential 
development in the Gunnison Basin is not as high as we previously 
concluded. See Factor A analysis and discussion.

Summary of Peer Review and Public Comments

    In our January 11, 2013, proposed rules for Gunnison sage-grouse 
(proposed listing, 78 FR 2486; proposed critical habitat designation, 
78 FR 2540), we requested written public comments on the proposal from 
all interested parties. At various times, public comment periods were 
extended or reopened (see Previous Federal Actions), with a final 
comment period on both proposals ending on December 2, 2013. We 
contacted appropriate State and Federal agencies, county governments, 
elected officials, scientific organizations, and other interested 
parties and invited them to comment. We also published notices inviting 
general public comment in local newspapers throughout the species' 
range.
    Between January 11, 2013, and December 2, 2013, we received a total 
of 36,171 comment letters on the listing and critical habitat 
proposals. Of those letters, we determined that approximately 445 were 
substantive comment letters; 35,535 were substantive form letters; and 
191 were non-substantive comment letters. Substantive letters generally 
contained comments pertinent to both proposed rules, although the vast 
majority of comments were related to the proposed listing rule. 
Responses to comments related to critical habitat are provided in the 
final rule to designate critical habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse, 
published elsewhere in today's Federal Register. Also, we held three 
public hearings between November 19 and 21, 2013, in response to 
requests from local and State agencies and governments; we received 
oral comments during that time (see Previous Federal Actions). All 
substantive information provided during all comment periods and 
hearings that pertains to the listing of the species has been 
incorporated directly into this final rule or addressed below. For the 
readers' convenience, we combined similar comments and responses.

Comments From Peer Reviewers

    In accordance with our peer review policy published in the Federal 
Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited expert opinion 
from five independent and qualified individuals with scientific 
expertise on Gunnison sage-grouse biology and conservation. The purpose 
of the peer review was to ensure that our decisions are based on 
scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analyses, based on the 
input of appropriate experts and specialists. We received written 
responses from all five peer reviewers. We reviewed all comments 
received from the peer reviewers for substantive issues and new 
information regarding the listing of the Gunnison sage-grouse. One peer 
reviewer concluded that our proposals included a thorough and accurate 
review of the available scientific and commercial data on Gunnison 
sage-grouse, but did not provide substantive comments. The remaining 
four letters provided additional relevant information on biology, 
threats, and scientific research for the species. Two peer review 
letters were opposed to the proposed listing and questioned our 
rationale and determinations. All substantive comments from peer 
reviewers are incorporated directly into this final rule or addressed 
in the summary of comments below.
    (1) Comment: One peer reviewer noted that population growth models 
of greater sage-grouse (C. urophasianus) indicate adult annual survival 
is the most sensitive vital rate. However, in the proposed rule, we 
said that limitations in the quality and quantity of nesting and early 
brood-rearing habitats, in particular, are especially important because 
Gunnison sage-grouse population dynamics are most sensitive during 
these life-history stages (GSRSC 2005, p. G-15).
    Our Response: Juvenile recruitment has been identified as the most 
important demographic factor influencing or limiting greater and 
Gunnison sage-grouse population growth rates and viability (Connelly et 
al. 2004, p. 3-11, GSRSC 2005, p. 173). In a recent demographic and 
population viability study of Gunnison sage-grouse (Davis 2012), 
juvenile survival was found to be the most influential vital rate in 
the Gunnison Basin population, a relatively stable population. However, 
adult survival was more influential in the San Miguel population, a 
smaller and steeply declining population where no juvenile recruitment 
occurred (Davis 2012, pp. 89, 93). Therefore, both juvenile survival 
and adult survival rates appear to be important to the species' 
viability. This topic is discussed further under Factor E in this final 
rule.
    (2) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that the methods and 
rationale regarding the proposed rule's evaluation of residential 
development and estimated housing development in the Gunnison Basin are 
not clear for the following reasons: It was unclear how the potential 
spatial configuration of new housing units was estimated; thus 
calculations for habitat lost directly or indirectly are not 
transparent. The reviewer stated that the conclusion that the species 
should be listed as endangered relies heavily on the analysis of 
potential threats of additional anthropogenic infrastructure given 
increasing human populations. The peer reviewer commented that there 
are potential flaws in the estimated impacts of residential impact in 
the Gunnison Basin, which relied primarily on Aldridge et al. (2012, 
entire). The peer reviewer noted that to establish the scientific 
credibility of these conclusions, additional information is required 
describing the methodology and data used in the analysis as well as 
reporting the results; for example, citing the spatial data sources, 
specifically

[[Page 69202]]

establishing the methods used to come to the level of potential impact 
(spatially and temporally), providing results specific to each 
analysis, and specifically establishing the assumptions made. The peer 
reviewer also stated that an analysis of residential development in the 
satellite populations is lacking.
    Our Response: In Factor A of this final rule, we reevaluate the 
threat of residential development in the Gunnison Basin and in the six 
satellite populations, and explain the framework for our assessment. In 
that revised analysis, based on new information regarding the location 
and magnitude of past development patterns in Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat in the Gunnison Basin, we avoid the use of spatial zones of 
influence to estimate or extrapolate potential impacts of current and 
future development, focusing instead on human population growth rates 
and available developable private lands in occupied habitat.
    (3) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that the proposed rule analysis 
indicated that approximately 85 percent of occupied habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin has an increased likelihood of current or future road-
related disturbance. This conclusion would suggest that the vast 
majority of sagebrush habitats in the Gunnison Basin are within 700 m 
of a road, an exceptionally dense road network--as a comparison, Knick 
et al. 2011 (chapter 12 in Studies in Avian Biology No. 38 page 215) 
estimated that 89 percent of sage-grouse habitats were within 2.5 km of 
a road in Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Management 
Zone 7 (Colorado Plateau), road densities less than those reported 
here. The reviewer suggested that we provide more specificity on how we 
analyzed roads. The reviewer noted that, given that this analysis is 
specific to the spatial scale of the potential spread of invasive weeds 
associated with roads in general, it may benefit the discussion to 
include the amount of habitat within 700 m of improved surface roads as 
well as all roads (assuming two-tracks are included as roads in this 
analysis).
    Our Response: Our analysis included all road types (primary, 
secondary, etc.) in occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin, hence the 
relatively high density of road networks. We did not differentiate by 
road type, as our primary intent was to estimate exposure of occupied 
habitat to road networks in general. We revised this final rule to 
clarify that the extent and severity of weed invasion would vary by 
road type. See further discussion under ``Roads'' in Factor A.
    (4) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that the proposed rule 
discusses the short-lived benefits of fire in sage-grouse habitats, 
including a flush of understory vegetation and forbs. The peer reviewer 
noted that the proposed rule states that beneficial effects of fire 
were found by studies in mesic habitats and that, therefore, some 
benefits may be expected from fire in those habitat types (but this is 
contradictory to the previous statement). The reviewer stated that 
effects in Wyoming sagebrush, where most studies have taken place, may 
be different from those in mountain sagebrush types (such as in 
Gunnison sage-grouse range).
    Our Response: As presented in this final rule, effects of fire in 
sagebrush habitat and to sage-grouse are highly variable. A clear 
positive response of Gunnison or greater sage-grouse to fire has not 
been demonstrated (Braun 1998, p. 9). The few studies that have 
suggested fire may be beneficial for greater sage-grouse were primarily 
conducted in mesic areas used for brood-rearing (Klebenow 1970, p. 399; 
Pyle and Crawford 1996, p. 323; Gates 1983, in Connelly et al. 2000c, 
p. 90; Sime 1991, in Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 972). In mesic habitat, 
small fires may maintain a suitable habitat mosaic by reducing shrub 
encroachment and encouraging understory, herbaceous growth. However, 
without available nearby sagebrush cover, the utility of these sites is 
questionable, especially within the six small Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations where fire could further degrade the remaining habitat. 
More recent research related to Gunnison sage-grouse indicated that due 
to the fragmented nature of remaining sagebrush habitat across the 
species' range, prescribed fire may be inappropriate if the goal is to 
improve sagebrush and overall habitat conditions for the species (Baker 
2013, p. 8). This topic is discussed further under Factor A in this 
final rule.
    (5) Comment: A peer reviewer recommended that our analysis include 
more discussion on the role of water developments in the proliferation 
of West Nile virus. The reviewer cited a study by Walker and Naugle 
(2011), arguing that West Nile outbreaks in small, isolated sage-grouse 
populations--similar to all except perhaps the Gunnison Basin 
population of Gunnison sage-grouse--may result in extirpation. Given 
the potential impact to populations from West Nile virus and the 
predicted spread of this disease associated with climate change, the 
reviewer stated that the effect of anthropogenic water sources that 
harbor mosquitoes should be analyzed.
    Our Response: In this rule, we reevaluated West Nile virus as a 
threat to Gunnison sage-grouse and included several new citations. We 
did not conduct a landscape analysis on the precise quantity or 
distribution of water developments, but instead focused our analysis on 
the known distribution of West Nile virus across Gunnison sage-grouse 
range. In this final rule we find that, due to the known and potential 
presence and distribution of West Nile virus across the majority of 
Gunnison sage-grouse range, the high risk of mortality and population-
level impacts based on the biology of the species, and the immediacy of 
those potential impacts, West Nile virus is a potential future threat 
to Gunnison sage-grouse throughout its range. The threat of West Nile 
virus is currently lower in the high-elevation areas, such as the 
Gunnison Basin and most of the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations, but we 
expect it to increase in the near term due to increased drought and the 
predicted effects of climate change. This topic is discussed in detail 
under Factor C of this rule.
    (6) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that limited evidence is 
provided to establish predation as a substantial threat to Gunnison 
sage-grouse.
    Our Response: We agree that research and data linking predation and 
Gunnison sage-grouse abundance and viability are limited. However, 
available scientific information (primarily for greater sage-grouse) 
presented in this rule indicates that, particularly in areas of 
intensive habitat alteration and fragmentation, and in smaller less 
resilient populations, sage-grouse productivity and, potentially, 
population persistence could be negatively affected by predation. 
Because the Gunnison and greater sage-grouse have similar behavior and 
life-history traits, it is reasonable to assume that predator impacts 
on Gunnison sage-grouse are similar to those observed in greater sage-
grouse. The best available information indicates that predation is 
having an impact on Gunnison sage-grouse, particularly in the satellite 
populations, where there is some evidence that predation is affecting 
chick and juvenile survival, especially in smaller populations. Based 
on the greater sage-grouse data and the limited data available for 
Gunnison sage-grouse, we conclude that predation is a threat. While 
predation likely acts as a threat in localized areas across the range 
of the species, the stability of the Gunnison Basin population over the 
last 19 years indicates that predation is not having a significant 
impact on that population.

[[Page 69203]]

We believe, however, that the effects of predation are more pronounced 
in the satellite populations. Given the stability of the Gunnison Basin 
population, we do not believe that the magnitude of this threat is 
significant at the rangewide level. This topic is discussed in detail 
in Factor C of the rule.
    (7) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that the proposed rule's 
analysis on non-renewable energy development is lacking.
    Our Response: This final rule includes a revised and expanded 
evaluation of mineral and energy development (Factor A).
    (8) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that there are no data to 
support the conclusion that habitat conditions with respect to grazing 
are better on public lands than private lands, due in part to land 
health standards and more regulation.
    Our Response: We agree and have revised our statement in the final 
rule to more accurately reflect that in our analysis of grazing under 
Factor A.
    (9) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that the proposed rule states, 
with respect to fences, that ``we anticipate that the effect on sage-
grouse populations through the creation of new raptor perches and 
predator corridors into sagebrush habitats is similar to that of 
powerlines.'' The reviewer did not think this assumption was correct. 
The commenter noted that differences in height between a fence post and 
a utility pole would theoretically result in different spatial scales 
of functional habitat loss due to differences in the distance from the 
perch a predator could see while perched.
    Our Response: The final rule has been revised to state that fence 
posts create perching places for raptors and corvids, which may 
increase their ability to prey on sage-grouse (Braun 1998, p. 145; 
Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 330; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 13-12). 
This topic is discussed in detail in Factor A of this rule.
    (10) Comment: A peer reviewer suggested that we review a recent 
article by Blomberg et al. 2012, related to climate change and invasive 
plants. This article suggests that characteristics of climate and 
landscape disturbance influence the dynamics of greater sage-grouse 
populations.
    Our Response: We reviewed this article and cited it in Factor A 
(Invasive Plants) and Factor E (Drought and Extreme Weather) of this 
rule.
    (11) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that the Utah population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse was at its highest in the 1970s and 1980s (San 
Juan County Working Group (SJCWG) 2000, Lupis 2005, Prather 2010). 
During this period, the peer reviewer stated, the primary agricultural 
crops in the county were winter wheat (Triticum spp.) and dryland 
alfalfa (Medicago spp.). Many growers did not use herbicides or 
insecticides at this time because of the slim profit margin in growing 
these crops. The peer reviewer suggested that these practices may have 
resulted in a greater arthropod abundance as a result of increased 
green vegetation and forb availability, providing more food resources 
for Gunnison sage-grouse. The reviewer also reported that during this 
period landowners frequently reported observing flocks of sage-grouse 
in their fields during harvest and post-harvest periods.
    Our Response: While sage-grouse may forage on agricultural 
croplands (Commons 1997, pp. 28-35), when possible, they tend to avoid 
landscapes dominated by agriculture (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 991). 
Influences resulting from agricultural activities extend into adjoining 
sagebrush, and include increased predation and reduced nest success due 
to predators associated with agriculture (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-
23). Agricultural lands provide some benefits for sage-grouse as some 
crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa), winter wheat (Triticum 
aestivum), and pinto bean sprouts (Phaseolus spp.) are eaten or used 
seasonally for cover by Gunnison sage-grouse (Braun 1998, pers. comm., 
Lupis et al. 2006, entire). Agricultural fields and their management 
may provide a surplus of arthropods and forbs for Gunnison sage-grouse, 
and for hens with broods, in particular. Despite these seasonal 
benefits, crop monocultures do not provide adequate year-round food or 
sagebrush cover (GSRSC 2005, pp. 22-30). This topic is discussed in 
Factor A of this rule (Conversion to Agriculture).
    (12) Comment: One peer reviewer felt that the proposed rule 
neglected to discuss the importance of Conservation Reserve Program 
(CRP) lands in Utah to Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: Lands within the occupied range of Gunnison sage-
grouse enrolled into the CRP occur within Dolores and San Miguel 
counties in Colorado, and San Juan County in Utah (USDA FSA 2010, 
entire). A significant portion of the agricultural lands in the 
Monticello subpopulation are enrolled in the CRP program, and some CRP 
lands are sometimes used by Gunnison sage-grouse as early-brood-rearing 
and summer-late fall habitat when they are part of a landscape that 
otherwise encompasses the species' seasonal habitats (Lupis et al. 
2006, pp. 959-960; Ward 2007, p. 15). We therefore acknowledge the 
benefits of CRP lands to Gunnison sage-grouse, as habitat provided 
under this program is generally more beneficial to the species than 
lands under more intensive agricultural uses such as crop production. 
However, CRP lands are generally lacking in the sagebrush and shrub 
components typically critical to the survival and reproduction of 
Gunnison sage-grouse and vary greatly in plant diversity and forb 
abundance (Lupis et al. 2006, pp. 959-960; Prather 2010, p. 32). As 
such, these CRP lands are generally of lower value or quality than 
native sagebrush habitats. This topic is discussed further in Factor A 
(Conversion to Agriculture).
    (13) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that adult survival and nesting 
success in San Juan County was higher (Lupis 2005, Ward 2007) than that 
reported for other populations (Young 1994, Commons 1997, Apa 2004). 
The reviewer hypothesized that this difference may be due to the effort 
in San Juan County to reduce mammalian and corvid depredation (Lupis 
2005, Ward 2007).
    Our Response: While we acknowledge that predator control may be 
effective under certain circumstances, the cited studies did not 
evaluate the effect of predator control, nor was that their objective. 
They only speculated regarding the potential positive effects of 
predator control on the Monticello (San Juan County) population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. This topic is discussed further in Factor C 
(Predation) of this rule.
    (14) Comment: A peer reviewer reported that the Gunnison sage-
grouse population in San Juan County may be stable or increasing based 
on increases in brood sizes and hatch success between 1974 and 2005 
(UDWR 1974; Lupis 2005). This reviewer noted that this hypothesis was 
not supported by lek count indices, which indicated that the population 
was declining.
    Our Response: Lek count data from 1996 through 2014 indicate a 
decline in the Monticello-Dove Creek population (located in the 
adjacent counties of San Juan, UT, and Dolores, CO, respectively) 
collectively and in both of these populations individually. Further, 
current population estimates are well below the Rangewide Conservation 
Plan (RCP) population target of 250 birds for each population alone 
(CPW 2013, p. 12). Sample size for the aforementioned study was limited 
to three nests, and predator control at the time may have contributed 
to relatively high nesting success (Lupis 2005, entire); the inference 
to be drawn from the study is, therefore, limited. The best available

[[Page 69204]]

scientific information indicates that the Monticello-Dove Creek 
population is neither stable nor secure. This topic is discussed 
further in this rule in the Current Distribution and Population 
Estimates and Trends section below; and in Factor E (Small Population 
Size and Structure).
    (15) Comment: A peer reviewer provided data and information from 
pertinent studies conducted in Utah and Colorado that the reviewer 
thought could improve our analysis.
    Our Response: We reviewed the provided study information and 
literature and found that most had already been considered in our 
proposed rule. In this final rule, we included all new studies, data, 
and information relevant to our evaluation.
    (16) Comment: A peer reviewer thought that the proposed rule was 
missing a description and summary of the two decades of conservation 
actions completed by local communities, landowners, public and private 
agencies, and organizations in Utah and Colorado to conserve the 
species. The reviewer indicated that stakeholders in both States 
dedicated significant resources to conservation of the species that 
have abated numerous threats. The peer reviewer recommended expanding 
discussion of the efforts of the local working groups, the State 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and counties, as well as 
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) programs, including the 
Sage-grouse Initiative Program.
    Our Response: We recognize the contributions made by multiple 
partners including private citizens, nongovernmental organizations, and 
Tribal, State, and Federal agencies that are actively engaged in 
conservation efforts across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Numerous 
conservation actions have been implemented for Gunnison sage-grouse, 
and these efforts have provided and will continue to provide 
conservation benefit to the species. The CCAA, Gunnison Basin CCA, 
conservation plans, habitat improvement projects, and similar 
conservation efforts that address habitat-related issues are described 
and evaluated under Factor A (see Conservation Programs and Efforts 
Related to Habitat Conservation) in this rule. Laws and regulations, 
conservation easements, and other regulatory mechanisms are evaluated 
under Factor D. Scientific research activities are described under 
Factor B and throughout this rule where applicable. Also, throughout 
this rule, conservation efforts are described under the relevant factor 
section.
    (17) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that the proposed rule 
provides information regarding the estimated historical occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitats, based largely on estimates of potential 
habitats. As such, these figures may overestimate the historical range 
of the species. The commenter noted that it is logical to assume that, 
if a species' habitat declines, so will the population. However, the 
peer reviewer could not find any data to support the idea that 
populations have declined over time.
    Our Response: Our listing decision is based on the current status 
of Gunnison sage-grouse and the current and future threats to the 
species and its habitat. However, the loss of historical range and 
decline in abundance, and the associated causes, are informative in 
that they can be used to help forecast how populations and the species 
may respond to current and future threats.
    The onset of Euro-American settlement in the 1800s resulted in 
significant alterations to sagebrush ecosystems throughout North 
America, primarily as a result of urbanization, agricultural 
conversion, and irrigation projects (West and Young 2000, pp. 263-265; 
Miller et al. 2011, p. 147). Areas in Colorado that supported basin big 
sagebrush were among the first sagebrush community types converted to 
agriculture because their typical soils and topography are well suited 
for agriculture (Rogers 1964, p. 13). Decreases in the abundance of 
sage-grouse paralleled the loss of range (Braun 1998, pp. 2-3), and a 
gradual but obvious decrease in sage-grouse distribution and numbers in 
Colorado had begun around 1910 (Rogers 1964, pp. 20-22).
    The best available information indicates a reduction of Gunnison 
sage-grouse distribution since Euro-American settlement in the 1800s, 
with evidence of the loss of peripheral populations (Schroeder et al. 
2004, p. 371, and references therein) and a northward and eastward 
trend of extirpation (Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 369, and references 
therein), meaning western and southern extents of the species' former 
range are now lost. Based on historical records, museum specimens, and 
potential sagebrush habitat distribution, the potential historical 
range of Gunnison sage-grouse was estimated to have been 21,376 square 
miles, or 13,680,590 ac (GSRSC 2005, pp. 32-35, as adapted from 
Schroeder et al. 2004, entire). This range included parts of central 
and southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, 
and northeastern Arizona (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 368, 370).
    Braun et al. (2014, entire) provides more detail on historical 
distribution in Colorado that largely matches Schroeder et al. (2004). 
Not all of this historical range would have been occupied at any one 
time. The species' estimated current range is 1,822 square miles, or 
1,166,075 ac, in central and southwestern Colorado, and southeastern 
Utah (Figure 1) (GSRSC 2005, pp. 32-35, as adapted from Schroeder et 
al. 2004, entire). Based on these figures, the species' current range 
represents about 8.5 percent of its historical range (GSRSC 2005, p. 
32). Similarly, Schroeder et al. (2004, p. 371) estimated the species' 
current overall range to be 10 percent of potential presettlement 
habitat (prior to European settlement in the 1800s). As estimated in 
our final rule to designate critical habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse 
(published elsewhere in today's Federal Register), the species' 
``overall range'' includes an estimated 1,621,008 ac in southwestern 
Colorado and southeastern Utah, comprising 923,314 ac (57 percent) of 
occupied habitat and 697,694 ac (43 percent) of unoccupied habitat. 
Based on these figures, the current overall range of 1,621,008 acres 
represents approximately 12 percent of the potential historical range 
of 13,680,640 ac. The estimates above indicate that approximately 88 to 
93 percent of the historical range of Gunnison sage-grouse has been 
lost. This topic is discussed further under our introduction to Factor 
A.
    (18) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that Davis (2012) suggested 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations in the Gunnison Basin declined 
slightly over the last 16 years, but that Davis concluded the Gunnison 
Basin population, which may comprise 85-90 percent of the entire 
population, is relatively stable. Population projection models based on 
Davis' 6-year study suggested that the Gunnison sage-grouse population 
in the Gunnison Basin is declining. However, the peer reviewer noted 
that lek count data extended farther back in time than the demographic 
estimates and showed that this population exhibited a considerable 
increase, so the peer reviewer indicated that inference from this study 
is limited.
    Our Response: Based on an integrated analysis of 16 years of lek 
count and demographic data (1996-2011), Davis found that the Gunnison 
Basin population may have been declining slightly through the period of 
study (Davis 2012, p. 137). That study indicated that the Gunnison 
Basin population may not be as stable as previously thought, although 
the time span of the study may not have been long enough to reveal a 
broader pattern

[[Page 69205]]

in a larger cyclical time series (Davis 2012, p. 38). A more recent 
manuscript by Davis et al. (in press) states that the Gunnison Basin 
population (1996-2012) is ``slightly declining'' (line 24), and, while 
the growth rate of this population has been variable, it is ``near 
stable'' (line 341). Consider also that the Gunnison Basin population 
may not be as large as lek count-based estimates suggest, which are 
based solely on counting males (Davis 2012, p. 136). Davis (2012, pp. 
134, 136) found that, in comparison to demographic data, lek count data 
showed population growth rates that varied wildly and should be 
interpreted with caution. This is particularly true for the lek data 
collected prior to 1996, before the lek survey methodology was 
standardized (Davis 2012, pp. 136-139). Demographic stochastic 
simulations resulted in a mean extinction time of 58 years for the 
Gunnison Basin population, without removing any birds for translocation 
efforts (removal of birds decreased the estimated mean extinction time) 
(Davis 2012, pp. 111, 137). Davis (2012, p. 92) noted, however, that if 
the study had been conducted just a few years earlier or later, a 
different trend across time could have resulted, because it was based 
on a 6-year period of time when the population was experiencing a 
slight decline. This study and other population viability analyses are 
evaluated in detail in Factor E (Small Population Size and Structure) 
of this rule.
    (19) Comment: One peer reviewer thought that it is difficult to 
assess what future conditions hold, be it vegetation responses to 
climate change or the effects of population growth and development 
resulting in fragmentation and associated effects on the species of 
conservation concern. The reviewer thought it is also difficult to 
evaluate how a species such as Gunnison sage-grouse might respond to 
projected changes, even 5 or 10 years into the future, let alone 50-100 
years. Despite these uncertainties, the peer reviewer considered the 
short- and long-term viability for six of the seven populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse to be tenuous, at best.
    Our Response: We agree with the reviewer that it is difficult to 
predict what will happen in the future. However, the Act requires us to 
determine if a species is endangered (in danger of extinction 
throughout all or a significant portion of its range) or threatened 
(likely to become and endangered species within the foreseeable future 
throughout all or a significant portion of its range). Thus, we are 
required to make assumptions or predictions into the future based on 
the best available information.
    We agree with the reviewer that the viability of the six smaller 
(``satellite'') populations is at risk (see Small Population Size and 
Structure below under Factor E).
    (20) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that, while the Gunnison basin 
population appears to have stabilized more recently within a population 
cycle, the number of current and future threats makes one question 
whether this population will remain viable into the future. The 
reviewer thought existing threats, or levels of threats, appear to 
already threaten the Gunnison basin population. This reviewer 
questioned whether the remaining Gunnison basin population will 
persist, if other smaller populations disappear, which seems likely in 
the near future without considerable management efforts, given 
projected future threats. The reviewer also questioned whether the 
localized nature of a single remaining population in the Gunnison Basin 
is enough to prevent extirpation of the species, considering potential 
stochastic events and the likely continued and increasing effects of 
habitat degradation and fragmentation.
    Our Response: Based on the best available information, we found 
that survival of the Gunnison Basin population alone would be 
insufficient to ensure the species' long-term persistence in the face 
of ongoing and future threats (see Factor E (Small Population Size and 
Structure)).
    (21) Comment: One peer reviewer questioned whether the Service had 
access to the considerable amount of telemetry data collected by 
Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) in recent years, primarily for birds 
located in the Gunnison Basin. This reviewer fully supported the use of 
existing information and models, in lieu of restricted access to other 
important data. The reviewer thought that the Service had done a 
realistic job of proceeding with existing information, whether it be 
from model applications to assist with broader habitat identification 
across the Gunnison Basin (see Aldridge et al. 2012), or biological 
information and responses (i.e., effects of fences on sage-grouse 
mortality) based on studies conducted on the closely related greater 
sage-grouse.
    Our Response: We do not have access to the telemetry data collected 
by CPW. This data has not been published. We do have some telemetry 
information provided in overview maps and the information was discussed 
in meetings.
    As pointed out in the Species Information section, Gunnison sage-
grouse and greater sage-grouse (a similar, closely related species) 
have similar life histories and habitat requirements (Young 1994, p. 
44). In this final rule, we use scientific information specific to the 
Gunnison sage-grouse where available but also apply scientific 
management principles and scientific information for greater sage-
grouse that are relevant to Gunnison sage-grouse conservation needs and 
strategies, a practice followed by the wildlife and land management 
agencies that have responsibility for management of both species and 
their habitat. We have considered the best available information in our 
assessment, including data and studies provided by CPW.
    (22) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that the effects of powerlines 
are not all the same, depending on the type of the powerline. The peer 
reviewer requested that we clarify what types of powerlines we are 
referring to, and which were evaluated in each of the studies we 
address.
    Our Response: As described in this rule, depending on the 
infrastructure design, size, location, and site-specific factors, 
powerlines can directly affect greater sage-grouse by posing a 
collision and electrocution hazard (Braun 1998, pp. 145-146; Connelly 
et al. 2000a, p. 974) and can have indirect effects by decreasing lek 
recruitment (Braun et al. 2002, p. 10, Walker et al. 2007a, p. 2,644), 
increasing predation (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 12-13, Howe et al. 
2014), fragmenting habitat (Braun 1998, p. 146), and facilitating the 
invasion of exotic annual plants (Knick et al. 2003, p. 612; Connelly 
et al. 2004, p. 7-25). We also specify types of powerlines 
(transmission or distribution) and their effects on Gunnison sage-
grouse as appropriate. This topic is discussed further in Factor A 
(Powerlines) of this rule.
    (23) Comment: A peer reviewer commented that the proposed rule 
reads as though Wisdom et al. (2011) tested electromagnetic fields and 
found sage-grouse avoidance of them. The reviewer indicates that was 
not the case. Wisdom et al. (2011) found a correlation between sage-
grouse extirpations and the presence of powerlines. The reviewer 
suggested this effect may be related to electromagnetic fields. The 
reviewer cautioned that we ensure here, and throughout, that this 
supposition is not presented as a finding.
    Our Response: We revised our analysis to explicitly state that no 
studies have been conducted specifically on the effects of 
electromagnetic fields on sage-grouse.

[[Page 69206]]

This topic is discussed further in Factor A (Powerlines) of this rule.
    (24) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that Gregg et al. (2004) did 
not actually test grazing impacts on vegetation causing reduction in 
nest success. Rather, they found that lower heights of grass cover 
(below 18 cm) resulted in increased nest predation. The peer reviewer 
suggested that careful choice of wording may be necessary to accurately 
reflect what was evaluated and found by a study, versus what was 
inferred and speculated from the results of the study. The reviewer 
stated that our proposed rule suggested that Gregg et al. (2004) 
evaluated livestock reduction in grass heights and showed a direct link 
to reduced nesting success for sage-grouse, which was not the case.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we clarified that, Gregg et al. 
(1994, p. 165) speculated that the reduction of grass heights due to 
livestock grazing in sage-grouse nesting and brood-rearing areas may 
negatively affect nesting success when cover is reduced below the 18 cm 
(7 in.) needed for predator avoidance. This topic is discussed further 
under Factor A (Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory).
    (25) Comment: A peer reviewer commented that one could argue that 
livestock grazing on private lands might be better managed than public 
lands, because individual landowners may be more cognizant of grazing 
practices on those lands.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we state that livestock grazing 
allotments containing both Federal and private lands can often be 
managed by Federal agencies to meet land health standards through 
coordination and cooperation with grazing permittees (BLM 2013c, p. 1-
2). However, we have no information on the extent of grazing, 
management, or habitat conditions on private lands in Gunnison sage-
grouse range, and therefore cannot make a definitive assessment of 
these areas. Furthermore, although Federal land and livestock grazing 
may be more regulated, we cannot make any generalizations about how 
habitat conditions in those areas might compare with private lands 
where livestock grazing occurs. This topic is discussed further under 
Factor A (Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory).
    (26) Comment: A peer reviewer commented that the table displaying 
Land Health Standard data on Federal lands in Gunnison sage-grouse 
range is confusing.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we restructured the table and 
included additional columns and figures to better show how numbers were 
calculated (see Table 8 in Factor A (Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate 
Herbivory)). The information in the table was also updated based on 
comments received from Federal agencies during the public comment 
periods for the proposed rules.
    (27) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that mortality of handled 
Gunnison sage-grouse (ranging between zero and seven percent) could be 
significant. The peer reviewer would prefer to see a summary of the 
percentages by study and age class of birds handled and a sample size 
to indicate the potential overall population effect. The reviewer 
suggested that we link the summary to match with the cited number of 
research related mortalities being typically below three percent. The 
rule stated that ``Mortality from scientific research is low (two 
percent) and is not a threat.'' These all need appropriate citations, 
and the differences between these numbers should be reconciled.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we describe why, overall, we 
expect that scientific research and related conservation efforts, such 
as translocation of Gunnison sage-grouse, have a net conservation 
benefit for the species. However, some unintended, but minor negative 
effects are known to occur in the process. This topic is addressed 
further in Factor B (Scientific Research and Related Conservation 
Efforts, see especially Table 11 summarizing various research efforts).
    (28) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that in our table of 
conservation easements, we have cumulated the percentages based on the 
area in easements out of the total area (rangewide) considered, as 
opposed to taking the average of the percentages for each population.
    Our Response: In this final rule we updated conservation easement 
information and acres, based on Lohr and Gray (2013, entire) (see 
Factor A (Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation Easements)). 
Therein, we provide conservation easement acres by population and 
rangewide in occupied and unoccupied habitats. We feel this is a better 
representation of lands protected under conservation easement for 
Gunnison sage-grouse; averaging those values across populations would 
not accurately depict protected acres for the species.
    (29) Comment: A peer reviewer expressed concern about what the 
reviewer perceived as the frequent use of speculation and commentaries 
as empirical evidence. The peer reviewer stated that we speculate about 
proposed threats (e.g., climate change) that we have no information on 
how they may, or may not, affect Gunnison sage-grouse. The reviewer 
stated that we also frequently use vague language (i.e., ``may have'', 
or ``is likely to'') and then make definitive statements about Gunnison 
sage-grouse in support for the proposed listing decision.
    Our Response: As noted above, throughout this rule, we have 
carefully identified and qualified instances of speculation or 
hypotheses from past scientific studies and publications. Our 
identification of current and future threats to Gunnison sage-grouse is 
based on the best available scientific information, and we acknowledge 
where there is uncertainty associated with data or predictions. For 
instance, in this final rule, we discuss that climate change 
predictions are based on models with assumptions, and there are 
uncertainties regarding the magnitude of associated climate change 
parameters such as the amount and timing of precipitation and seasonal 
temperature changes.
    There is also uncertainty as to the magnitude of effects of 
predicted climate parameters on sagebrush plant community dynamics. 
These factors make it difficult to predict whether, or to what extent, 
climate change will affect Gunnison sage-grouse. We recognize that 
climate change has the potential to alter Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
by facilitating an increase in the distribution of cheatgrass and 
concurrently increasing the potential for wildfires, and reducing 
herbaceous vegetation and insect production in drought years, all of 
which would have negative effects on Gunnison sage-grouse.
    This topic is discussed further in Factor A (Climate Change) of 
this rule, and in Factor E (Drought and Extreme Weather).
    (30) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that we frequently make 
generalizations about the decline of Gunnison sage-grouse abundance, 
such as, ``Fragmentation of sagebrush habitats are a primary cause of 
the decline of Gunnison and greater sage-grouse populations.'' However, 
the reviewer notes, lek counts in the Gunnison Basin population are 
currently at historic high levels and have increased substantially 
since the mid-1990s. The reviewer further notes that lek counts from 
2005-2007 were the highest counts recorded in the Gunnison Basin 
population. Since 2007, lek counts in Gunnison Basin have averaged 703 
males.
    Our Response: Loss, degradation, and fragmentation of Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat is discussed in Factor A of this rule. Population 
trends based on 1996-2014 lek count data show stable to

[[Page 69207]]

slightly declining levels from 1996 through 2004, then the high levels 
mentioned from 2005-2007; followed by lower but stable levels since 
(see Figure 2). The 2008-2014 population level is higher than levels 
prior to 2005, but around 20 percent lower than the 2006 peak (CPW 
2014e. p.2). Population trends are discussed further in the section, 
Current Distribution and Population Estimates and Trends; and Factor E 
(Small Population Size and Structure) of this rule. Also see our 
response to State Comment 5 below.
    (31) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that we had not presented a 
case that Gunnison sage-grouse are in danger of extirpation in the 
Gunnison Basin. It is the largest of all Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations, and three different population viability analyses have all 
concluded it is relatively stable.
    Our Response: In our proposed rule to list Gunnison sage-grouse as 
endangered (78 FR 2486; January 11, 2013), we found that the species is 
in danger of extinction throughout its range, primarily due to habitat 
loss, degradation, and fragmentation associated with residential and 
human development across its range and, in particular, in the Gunnison 
Basin. In this final rule we determined that the species is not 
currently in danger of extinction throughout its range, but is likely 
to become so in the foreseeable future. As a result, this final rule 
lists the species as threatened rather than endangered. The basis for 
this decision is set out in the Determination section below. We also 
assess the three population viability analyses (PVA) for the Gunnison 
Basin and other populations in Factor E (Effective Population Size and 
Population Viability Analyses).
    (32) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that we present the PVA from 
the Rangewide Conservation Plan. However, the reviewer noted that there 
are two other PVAs we need to address: Garton (2005) and Davis (2012).
    Our Response: All three available PVAs for Gunnison sage-grouse are 
included in our assessment in this final rule (Factor E, Effective 
Population Size and Population Viability Analyses). Also see our 
response to peer review comment 31 above.
    (33) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that in referring to the PVA in 
the Rangewide Conservation Plan, we state that small populations (<50 
birds) are ``at a serious risk of extinction within the next 50 years 
(assuming some degree of consistency of environmental influences in 
sage-grouse demography).'' (p. 2531). However, environmental and 
democratic stochasticity were incorporated into the model (i.e., the 
model does not assume ``consistency of environmental influences'').
    Our Response: The RCP and actual PVA (see GSRSC 2005, pp. 170 and 
G-27) state that the estimates assumed some degree of consistency of 
environmental factors over time. This topic is discussed further in 
Factor E (Small Population Size and Structure).
    (34) Comment: A peer reviewer commented that we misapply the terms 
habitat loss, fragmentation, and loss.
    Our Response: In the scientific literature and community there are 
widely varying interpretations of habitat loss, degradation, and 
fragmentation processes, and various methods are applied to measure 
these processes. Therefore, in this final rule, we collectively refer 
to these processes as habitat decline, as prefaced in the Factor A 
section below. However, we do not alter the terminology as applied by 
peer-reviewed or other studies. For instance, if a particular study 
evaluated and presented results on habitat fragmentation, we did not 
interpret the study or authors to mean habitat loss, instead. This 
topic is discussed further in our introduction to Factor A in this 
rule.
    (35) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that we argue more than once 
that while individual human activities or features may not be a 
significant threat, it is the cumulative impact of all these features 
that threatens the Gunnison sage-grouse. However, the peer reviewer 
stated that this reasoning ignores the spatial (and temporal) variation 
in these potential threats. The reviewer is of the opinion that 
proposed threats are not uniformly distributed across space and 
therefore will not uniformly impact Gunnison sage-grouse populations. 
The reviewer stated that development will only impact a very small 
proportion of the habitat in Gunnison Basin and will be restricted to 
zoned areas. The reviewer stated that preliminary analyses indicate 
that Gunnison sage-grouse are flexible in their movement patterns and 
the habitats they use (CPW Demography and Movement project, in prep.). 
The reviewer stated that the cumulative negative impacts are not as 
likely as we seem to assume.
    Our Response: The historic loss of habitat and current isolation of 
once connected populations, the declining status of several satellite 
populations, and presence of current and future threats to habitat all 
indicate that the cumulative loss or decline of habitat has negatively 
influenced populations and the species as a whole and is likely to 
continue to do so into the future. This topic is discussed further in 
our introduction to Factor A in this rule. Threats to Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat are also discussed under Factor A in this rule. We agree 
that future residential development in occupied habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin is likely to be more limited than we presented in the proposed 
rule (see Factor A (Residential Development), but nonetheless find, for 
the reasons stated in Factor A, that this development remains a threat 
to the species and supports our determination that the species is 
likely to become in danger of extinction throughout its range in the 
foreseeable future.
    (36) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that, related to livestock 
grazing, Williams and Hild (2011) showed that vegetation conditions in 
the Gunnison Basin met, or exceeded, the habitat structural guidelines 
in the Rangewide Conservation Plan. The peer reviewer also stated that 
we misrepresented the objective of this study in our proposed rule, 
stating that it was not a grazing study and therefore our criticism is 
not valid. With 392 transects distributed across Gunnison Basin for 
this study, the reviewer did not understand our statement that 
``sampling is limited'' (p. 2503).
    Our Response: Because livestock grazing effects were not an 
objective of the Williams and Hild (2011) study, the extent of past or 
ongoing livestock grazing in these areas was not described, nor did the 
study compare un-grazed to grazed areas. The Williams and Hild study 
found that habitat conditions are likely favorable to Gunnison sage-
grouse in a portion of the Gunnison Basin (Williams and Hild 2011, 
entire), although the relationship to livestock grazing effects in 
those areas is unknown. In this final rule, we clarify that there is 
limited ability to make inferences from this study for other areas in 
the Gunnison Basin, due to limitations of the study. Transect locations 
for the study were prioritized and selected in areas used by radio-
collared Gunnison sage-grouse, potentially biasing study results. 
Therefore, the relationship between livestock grazing and habitat 
conditions is unclear in this study, and there is limited ability to 
infer from its conditions in other portions of the Gunnison Basin not 
prioritized for sampling. This topic is discussed further in Factor A 
(Domestic Grazing and Wildlife Herbivory) of this rule.
    (37) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that our discussion of 
``presettlement'' distribution of Gunnison sage-grouse was highly 
speculative. The peer reviewer also stated that we assume that

[[Page 69208]]

Gunnison sage-grouse distribution closely matches the distribution of 
sagebrush, and that this assumption is used by some authors (e.g., 
Schroeder, et al. 2004, Wisdom et al. 2011), but is not necessarily 
true. The peer reviewer stated that the map by Schroeder et al. (2004) 
is not meant to be a definitive description that accurately defines 
historical distribution, but a generalization based on available 
information (i.e., the model includes areas that are not habitat and 
omits other areas that are habitat). The peer reviewer noted that we 
also state Gunnison sage-grouse distribution depends on large areas of 
contiguous sagebrush. The peer reviewer also noted that this assumption 
does not seem to be well supported since Gunnison sage-grouse have 
existed in small, isolated populations for decades (Rogers 1964).
    Our Response: Related to potential historical range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse, and the estimated loss of historical range, see our 
response to Peer Reviewer Comment 17 above. Related to our position 
that the species depends on sagebrush on a landscape scale for its 
survival, the best available science supports this, and it is an 
empirical principle widely accepted by sage-grouse biologists and the 
scientific community. As discussed in this rule, Gunnison sage-grouse 
depend on sagebrush for their survival and persistence, and the 
historical and current distribution of the Gunnison sage-grouse closely 
matches that of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 9; Braun 1987, p. 1; 
Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 364, and references therein). Habitat 
fragmentation resulting from human development patterns is especially 
detrimental to Gunnison sage-grouse because of their dependence on 
large expanses of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 48; Connelly et al. 
2004, p. 4-1; Connelly et al. 2011a, p. 72) and more contiguous 
sagebrush habitats (Rogers 1964, p. 19; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 452-
453). The overall declining status of several of the satellite 
populations (despite translocation/augmentation efforts) does not 
support the idea that the species is capable of persisting at low 
levels or in isolated conditions. Refer to Factor E in this rule for 
more discussion on this topic.
    (38) Comment: A peer reviewer noted that we describe the genetic 
work by Oyler-McCance et al. (1999, 2005) that illustrates the lower 
genetic diversity of Gunnison sage-grouse compared to greater sage-
grouse, and the lower genetic diversity of the small Gunnison sage-
grouse populations compared to the Gunnison Basin population. The peer 
reviewer asserted that lower genetic diversity may have important 
consequences, but it is unlikely to have an effect anytime in the near 
future and that it must be demonstrated that low genetic diversity has 
negative consequences on individuals and populations.
    The peer reviewer stated that it is inappropriate to suggest that 
there is a specific population size that is necessary for long-term 
population survival from a genetic perspective (i.e., that there should 
be 500-5,000 Gunnison sage-grouse in a population for it to be viable). 
The peer reviewer commented that the genetic viability of a population 
depends on the effective population size, the type of genetic variation 
in the population, and type of selection acting on the population. The 
peer reviewer noted it is possible that animals can rapidly adapt to 
inbreeding by the selective elimination of the genes responsible for 
inbreeding depression and although highly speculative, this may be 
operating in the small, isolated Gunnison sage-grouse populations. So, 
the peer reviewer suggested that to argue that inbreeding depression 
due to low genetic diversity is a basis for listing the species as 
endangered is not warranted without empirical data focused on this 
specific question.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we have determined that listing 
the species as threatened, not endangered, is the appropriate 
determination. We describe the potential negative consequences of 
genetic deterioration associated with small population size and 
geographic isolation under Factor E (Genetic Risks)). We also discuss 
this topic and other relevant information further under Factor E (Small 
Population Size and Structure) in this rule.

Comments From States

    (1) Comment: The Arizona Game and Fish Department noted that there 
are no records of Gunnison sage-grouse ever existing in Arizona, and 
estimates of historical range in northeastern Arizona are based on pre-
settlement occurrence of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), which has largely 
been extirpated. Consequently, no viable habitat remains for the 
Gunnison sage-grouse in Arizona. Any future restoration efforts should 
focus on the remaining core distributions in Colorado and Utah.
    Our Response: Identification of potential pre-settlement Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat in Arizona was based on both historical sagebrush 
distribution and a 1937 observation of sage-grouse in the northeastern 
corner of that state (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 368-369, and 
references therein). Restoration or reintroduction of Gunnison sage-
grouse in Arizona is not being proposed.
    (2) Comment: The Colorado Office of the Governor noted that letters 
had been sent from Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) and Colorado 
Department of Agriculture (CDA), and recommended that the Gunnison 
sage-grouse should be determined not warranted for listing.
    Our Response: The Colorado Office of the Governor referenced CPW 
and CDA letters in support of a not warranted determination for 
Gunnison sage-grouse, but provided no other information or data to 
support their position. We acknowledge receipt of letters from CPW and 
CDA. Their comments will be addressed in further detail in this 
section. Our listing determination for the Gunnison sage-grouse is 
explained in this final rule.
    (3) Comment: CPW recommended the following hierarchy in the 
evaluation of biology and threats.
    a. Use of only Gunnison sage-grouse data when it exists.
    b. If Gunnison sage-grouse data does not exist, use greater sage-
grouse data closest to Gunnison sage-grouse range in Colorado or Utah.
    c. If greater sage-grouse data from adjacent populations does not 
exist, then proceed with the appropriate cautions and limited inference 
to available information within the range of greater sage-grouse.
    Another State commenter suggested that references to greater sage-
grouse be omitted altogether.
    Our Response: We generally used the above approach recommended by 
CPW, although we did not distinguish between greater sage-grouse data 
from populations closest to Gunnison sage-grouse's range. We did not 
explicitly state that in the proposed rule--we stated that the ``best 
available scientific and commercial data'' were used. We also noted 
that we used information specific to the Gunnison sage-grouse where 
available but still applied scientific management principles for 
greater sage-grouse that we determined were relevant to Gunnison sage-
grouse management needs and strategies. We followed the same approach 
in this final rule.
    (4) Comment: CPW and CDA stated that lek counts in the San Miguel, 
Crawford, and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa populations have 
increased in recent years, in contrast to the statement in the listing 
proposal that population trends over the last 12 years indicate that 
six of the populations are in decline.
    Our Response: We used the same CPW lek survey data that these 
comments refer to in our assessment of

[[Page 69209]]

population trends from 2001 through 2012. Our conclusion was that the 
six smaller populations had stable to declining numbers from the first 
half of the survey period (2001-2006) to the second half of the survey 
period (2007-2012). We agree that the three previously mentioned 
populations have increased in the past 2-3 years, along with 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, as indicated in Figure 3 in the proposed listing 
rule (78 FR 2492, January 11, 2013). However, these populations are not 
at higher levels than in 2001-2006. It should also be noted that these 
declining trends in the smaller populations have occurred despite 
translocation efforts (see Scientific Research and Related Conservation 
Efforts). Without these translocations, bird numbers likely would be 
lower for these populations. Furthermore, in this final listing rule, 
we analyzed population estimates over a longer period, based on lek 
count data from 1996-2014 (lek count protocols were standardized in 
1996 by CPW). Similar to our previous analysis, the long-term data 
indicate that, despite slight increases in the past several years, the 
satellite populations have declined overall, with the possible 
exception of the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population, which 
appears to be stable or increasing, and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, with its 
highest count since standardized lek counts began in 1996. This topic 
is discussed further in the Current Distribution and Population 
Estimates and Trends section of this rule.
    (5) Comment: CPW stated that the listing proposal does not 
acknowledge that male counts from recent lek surveys are at historic 
high levels in the Gunnison Basin, and notes that prior to 1996, 
surveys lacked a standard protocol and may have had an inconsistent 
counting effort.
    Our Response: The proposed listing rule stated that the Gunnison 
Basin population, while variable, has been relatively stable over the 
past 13 years. As the commenter noted, survey data was not standardized 
until 1996, making comparisons between current populations and 
populations prior to 1996 difficult. If data from 1953-2014 are 
considered, the highest lek count occurred in 2006, as shown in Figure 
2 in this final listing rule. However, apparent increases in population 
size based on lek count data may be the result of increased survey 
effort in recent years. Davis (2012, p. 139) noted a sharp increase in 
lek areas counted in 1996, when the protocol for lek counts was 
standardized in the Gunnison Basin. Therefore, the variation in the lek 
counts may reflect a change in survey effort and not a change in 
population size. (Also see Davis 2012, p. 143, Figure 5.1, which 
displays the increase in lek areas counted beginning around 1996.) 
Additionally, Davis (2012, pp. 137-138) and Davis et al. (in press) 
indicate that the Gunnison Basin population, although relatively 
stable, has declined slightly in recent years, following earlier 
increases. These topics are discussed further in the following sections 
of this rule: Current Distribution and Population Estimates and Trends; 
and Small Population Size and Structure.
    (6) Comment: CPW stated that both the PVA described in the RCP 
(GSRSC 2005) and the Garton (2005) PVA should be referenced and 
considered in the final rule. Another commenter stated that the Garton 
(2005) PVA overestimated the species' long-term viability.
    Our Response: We describe and evaluate the RCP and Garton PVAs, as 
well as that of Davis (2012), in this final rule (see Factor E).
    (7) Comment: CPW noted that the proposed rule to list the species 
cites the RCP PVA regarding the risk of extinction for small 
populations less than 50 birds, but does not explain why several small 
populations have persisted at low numbers for decades.
    Our Response: The Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population has 
had an estimated population of less than 50 birds for 14 of the past 16 
years. The Poncha Pass population has remained at less than 50 birds 
from 1999-2014, and lek surveys found no birds in 2013. Poncha Pass is 
nearing extirpation, and the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population 
may also be at risk--with five small leks known in the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron subpopulations and only one lek, which is inactive, in the 
Sims Mesa subpopulation. The four remaining satellite populations 
generally have population estimates of more than 50 birds, but less 
than 500 birds. These four populations would be expected to persist for 
a longer period of time than the two smallest populations, but are not 
secure from the threats described in this final rule below. 
Additionally, as noted in our response to State comment 4, several 
smaller populations have been augmented with birds from the Gunnison 
Basin population. Without these translocations, the numbers would have 
likely been lower for these populations.
    As presented in this final rule, based on 1996-2014 lek count data, 
a number of the satellite populations are declining. Several population 
viability analyses indicate a high extinction risk for all of the 
satellite populations (see response to Peer Review comment 31 above). 
Our assessment of the current and future threats to these populations 
indicates that these trends are likely to continue if the threats are 
not addressed. The best available information indicates a reduction of 
Gunnison sage-grouse distribution since Euro-American settlement in the 
1800s, with evidence of the loss of peripheral populations and a 
northward and eastward trend of extirpation (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 
369, 371, and references therein). These downward trends and historical 
losses further indicate the high vulnerability of the satellite 
populations to extirpation. These topics are discussed further in the 
following sections of this rule: Current Distribution and Population 
Estimates and Trends; and Small Population Size and Structure.
    (8) Comment: CPW stated that an updated refinement of historical 
habitat estimated by Schroeder et al. (2004) is critical to an accurate 
assessment of changes in distribution, since they believe this study 
likely overestimates the historical range of Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: Historical range estimates from Schroeder et al. 
(2004, pp. 370-371) were modified by the RCP (GSRSC 2005, pp. 34-35) 
based on more complete information on historical and current habitat 
and distribution of the species. We are not aware of any further 
refinements to estimates of historical range. Information from Braun et 
al. (2014) matches information presented by Schroeder et al. (2004) and 
does not add or detract from changes & additions to historical range 
presented in the RCP (GSRSC 2005, p. 33-35). Consequently, the RCP 
(GSRSC 2005, entire) provides the best available information concerning 
the likely historical range of the species. That information indicates 
that the Gunnison sage-grouse currently occupies about 8.5 percent of 
its potential historical range. Further analysis in this final rule 
indicates that approximately 88 to 93 percent of the historical range 
of Gunnison sage-grouse has been lost since Euro-American settlement. 
While there is some uncertainty in all of these figures, the best 
available information indicates there has been a considerable loss of 
habitat and a reduction in the range and distribution of Gunnison sage-
grouse. Our listing decision is based on the current status of Gunnison 
sage-grouse and the current and future threats to the species and its 
habitat. However, the loss of historical range and decline in Gunnison 
sage-grouse abundance, and their causes, have contributed to the 
species' current status. This topic is

[[Page 69210]]

discussed further in our introduction to Factor A of this rule.
    (9) Comment: CPW noted a discrepancy between current occupied range 
estimates of 4,720 square kilometers (km\2\) in our 2006 decision and 
3,795 km\2\ in the 2013 proposed rule to list the species, which 
results in a loss of 925 km\2\ of currently occupied range.
    Our Response: Both estimates cite GSRSC (2005). However, the 2006 
final listing determination used an initial estimate based on Schroeder 
et al. (2004). The 2013 estimate is a refined estimate based on the 
GSRSC and CPW data.
    (10) Comment: CPW recommended that we rely primarily on Rogers 
(1964) to determine historic distribution of the Gunnison sage-grouse, 
and noted three citations of Rogers (1964) in the proposed rule to list 
the species that should more precisely quote the author. Another 
commenter stated that historic distribution estimates by Rogers (1964) 
are inferior to Schroeder et al. (2004).
    Our Response: Rogers (1964) was written prior to the identification 
of Gunnison sage-grouse as a separate species, and summarized overall 
sage-grouse distribution in Colorado (including greater sage-grouse) 
based on both qualitative and quantitative data and reports from 
various sources. This study is informative in that it provides a broad 
picture of the species' status, distribution, and trends in Colorado 
over time, among other data and information. As such, Rogers (1964) is 
considered and cited in this final rule. However, the study did not 
conduct a spatial analysis of the species' potential historic range or 
the loss of habitat over time, as was done by Schroeder et al. (2004, 
entire). Consequently, we concluded it is appropriate to consider and 
evaluate this more recent, quantitative study specific to Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Schroeder et al. 2004, entire), as modified by GSRSC 
(2005, pp. 34-35). We verified information derived from Rogers (1964, 
entire) and provided more precise citations in this final rule.
    (11) Comment: CPW noted that the Wisdom et al. (2011) standard for 
identifying a population stronghold could likely never have been met in 
the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, even historically, due to the high 
elevation basins and naturally fragmented nature of sagebrush 
communities in Colorado.
    Our Response: We agree that the distribution of Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat is naturally disconnected due to the presence of 
unsuitable habitats such as forests, deserts, and canyons across the 
landscape (Rogers 1964, p. 19). This is evident in Figure 18.1 of 
Wisdom et al. (2011). The authors combined the occupied and extirpated 
ranges of both greater sage-grouse and Gunnison sage-grouse for their 
``stronghold'' analysis. Given the much larger range of greater sage-
grouse, with typically larger patches of contiguous sagebrush habitat, 
conclusions from the analysis are likely more applicable to greater 
sage-grouse. Therefore, in this final rule, we discuss Wisdom et al. 
(2011, entire) and its conclusions, but do not further use the term 
``stronghold'' because the term, based on the scale of analysis, was 
more applicable to greater sage-grouse. This topic and study is 
discussed further in our introduction to Factor A in this rule, and 
throughout the rule where applicable.
    (12) Comment: CPW and others stated that the proposed rule used the 
rate of residential development associated with the entirety of 
Gunnison County, including the Crested Butte area, and is not 
representative of development rates in Gunnison sage-grouse habitats. 
Other commenters also noted that human population growth rates have 
slowed in recent years leading to slower rates of development. Lastly, 
commenters recommended that a single source of human population growth 
(such as Colorado Department of Local Affairs) be used. Other 
commenters suggested that the human population is increasing.
    Our Response: Our estimates regarding human population growth in 
the Gunnison Basin in the proposed rule to list the species were 
largely based on Colorado Water Conservation Board studies that 
included all of Gunnison County, including areas not occupied by 
Gunnison sage-grouse, and were derived before the economic downturn (78 
FR 2495, January 11, 2013). We recognize that a large portion of 
projected human population growth for Gunnison County is expected to 
occur outside of Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat, such as in the 
Crested Butte area and within the City of Gunnison. For this final 
rule, we apply current data from the Colorado Department of Local 
Affairs to our analysis of human population growth and project 
residential development in Gunnison and other counties across the 
Gunnison sage-grouse range. For each sage-grouse population area, we 
consider total private lands available for development as a proportion 
of total occupied habitat, accounting for perpetual conservation 
easements that would preclude or limit such development. This analysis 
indicates that human populations are expected to continue increasing 
across the species' range, but that residential development is a threat 
of a low magnitude in the Gunnison Basin now, but is expected to 
increase in the future. Residential development is a substantial 
current and future threat to the San Miguel, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims 
Mesa, and Poncha Pass populations. This topic is discussed further in 
the Factor A, Residential Development section of this final rule.
    (13) Comment: CPW disagreed with the conclusion in the proposed 
rule that roads are a ``major threat'' to the continued existence of 
Gunnison sage-grouse and stated that the proposed rule used speculation 
from Oyler-McCance et al. (2001) that overstated the threat from roads 
and powerlines.
    Our Response: In its discussion of roads, the proposed rule stated 
that ``Roads within Gunnison sage-grouse habitats have been shown to 
impede movement of local populations between the resultant patches, 
with road avoidance presumably being a behavioral means to limit 
exposure to predation (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 330).'' The 
proposed rule then gave several examples, with additional citations, of 
impacts due to roads including: increased disturbance, corridors for 
predators, invasion of exotic plants, and resultant avoidance by sage-
grouse. The proposed rule does not cite Oyler-McCance et al. (2001) in 
its discussion of powerlines. In this final rule, we describe impacts 
from roads and conclude that increased road use and construction will 
continue at least through 2050, and is a current and future threat to 
the species (see Factor A).
    (14) Comment: CPW and one other commenter questioned the use of 
Aldridge et al. (2012) regarding nest site selection and urged caution 
in applying results across the entire Gunnison Basin, particularly the 
firm conclusion that habitat within 2.5 km (1.6 miles (mi)) of roads 
and residential developments is unsuitable for the species. CPW also 
presented data from a GIS analysis that it conducted.
    Our Response: In the proposed rule to list the species, we did not 
use 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in any recommendations regarding thresholds for 
nest selection; although we did cite papers by Aldridge et al. (2008 
and 2011). We agree that some recommendations from the modeling effort 
completed by Aldridge et al. (2012) are based on confusing 
probabilities regarding selection of nest sites, in particular, the 
relationship between relative probability of nest occurrence and 
distance to residential development. Figure 5f in Aldridge et al. 
(2012) indicates that the probability of nest occurrence is greatest 
when the nest is approximately 2.5 km (1.6 mi)

[[Page 69211]]

from development. This probability decreases at both shorter and 
greater distances from development; although one would expect the 
probability of nest occurrence to continue to increase with increasing 
distance from residential development. The variable of residential 
density was more intuitive, with the likelihood of nesting decreasing 
with increasing residential density. Other variables such as the 
proportion of sagebrush cover and road density had more influence on 
nest site selection and were also more intuitive. For example, the 
probability of nesting decreased abruptly with decreasing sagebrush 
cover and with increasing road density. In this final rule, we updated 
our older citation (Aldridge et al. 2011); we added a citation 
regarding CPW's preliminary GIS analysis of the frequency of successful 
and unsuccessful nests at increasing distances from roads (CPW 2013b); 
and we do not apply spatial zones of influence to evaluate impacts of 
residential development as is discussed in Factor A.
    (15) Comment: CPW urged caution in citing Braun (1995), Bui et al. 
(2010), and Aldridge and Boyce (2007) regarding impacts from roads due 
to the speculative nature of authors' conclusions.
    Our Response: We did not cite Braun (1995) or Bui et al. (2010) in 
discussions of Factor A, including roads, in the proposed rule or in 
this final rule. Aldridge and Boyce (2007) were cited in discussions of 
residential development, roads, and nonrenewable energy development. 
Related to this comment, when citing Aldridge and Boyce (2007), we 
indicate that this and other studies cited were on greater sage-grouse. 
However, as discussed in our response to State comment 3 above, due to 
similar life histories and habitat requirements between these two 
species, we consider information specific to greater sage-grouse as 
relevant to Gunnison sage-grouse, a practice followed by the wildlife 
and land management agencies that have responsibility for both species 
and their habitats.
    (16) Comment: CPW and some other commenters questioned the 
conclusions regarding powerlines and impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse 
from raptor perches and habitat fragmentation.
    Our Response: The discussion of powerlines in the proposed rule 
provided numerous citations regarding aspects such as raptor perches, 
habitat fragmentation, and the spread of invasive plants. Citations 
note when the studies were specific to greater sage-grouse. In some 
instances, the only information is specific to greater sage-grouse, in 
which case, we regard it as the best available information (see our 
response to comment 3). We revise our language in this final rule to 
clarify usage of the terms habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation 
(see our response to peer review comment 34).
    (17) Comment: CPW disagreed with the conclusion in the proposed 
rule to list the species that grazing in combination with climate 
change and other factors is a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse and 
questioned citations from Gregg et al. (1994) and Connelly et al. 
(2000a) regarding optimal grass height. CPW also noted a conflict 
between critical habitat requirements of grass height of 10-15 cm and 
aforementioned citations that recommend grass height of 18 cm or more.
    Our Response: In the proposed rule, we concluded that habitat 
degradation resulting from improper grazing (described in Factor A in 
the proposed rule), particularly with the interacting factors of 
invasive weed expansion and climate change, is a threat to Gunnison 
sage-grouse persistence. The proposed rule also noted that livestock 
grazing may have positive effects on sage-grouse (78 FR 2501, January 
11, 2013). Properly managed livestock grazing is not likely to 
adversely impact Gunnison sage-grouse. Gregg et al. (1994) described a 
study conducted on greater sage-grouse in Oregon and speculated about 
potential impacts from livestock grazing. In this final rule, we 
clarify that ``Gregg et al. (1994, p. 165) speculated that the 
reduction of grass heights due to livestock grazing in sage-grouse 
nesting and brood-rearing areas may negatively affect nesting success 
when cover is reduced below the 18 cm (7 in.) needed for predator 
avoidance.'' Connelly et al. (2000a) was not cited in the grazing 
discussion in the proposed rule to list, but was cited in the proposed 
rule to designate critical habitat. Seasonally specific primary 
constituent elements described in the proposed and final rules to 
designate critical habitat include a guideline of 10-15 cm (4-6 in) 
grass height based on recommendations in the RCP (GSRSC 2005, p. H-6). 
In this final rule, we clarify that recommendations vary for Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat requirements and vegetation characteristics. We 
note that Connelly et al. (2000a, p. 977) recommended greater than 18 
cm (7 in) grass height for breeding habitats, and that the GSRSC (2005, 
p. H-6) (the basis of the critical habitat proposal for breeding 
habitats) recommended a grass height of 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in).
    (18) Comment: CPW noted that the proposed rule to list the species 
suggests that livestock trample seedlings, and that this constitutes 
competition. CPW stated that they were unaware of any research that has 
demonstrated competition between grazers and sage-grouse. One other 
commenter stated that Connelly et al. (2004) does not describe 
trampling of sagebrush seedlings.
    Our Response: Connelly et al. (2004, p. 7-31) states that livestock 
trample sagebrush, and provides citations; we note in this final rule 
that Connelly et al. (2004) was citing other references. In the 
proposed rule, we surmised that livestock may compete directly with 
sage-grouse for rangeland resources by consuming forbs and shrubs. 
However, as the commenter mentions, this question has not been 
researched, and our conclusion is therefore inferred rather than 
proven. In this final rule, we deleted specific references to 
competition between livestock and sage-grouse. However, we present 
evidence that indicates consumption of important vegetation by 
livestock negatively affects sage-grouse that use those resources, such 
as the reduction of forbs and grasses that may affect chick survival 
(see Factor A).
    (19) Comment: CPW disagreed with the conclusion and inference that 
browsing by big game on mountain shrubs resulted in a negative effect 
on Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.
    Our Response: This final rule includes a discussion of available 
information regarding impacts of wild ungulate herbivory in Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat, including one study (Japuntich et al. 2010, pp. 7-
9) that documented reduced size and vigor of mountain shrubs (not 
sagebrush), which could reduce accumulations of drifting snow, which 
might in turn reduce the availability of soil moisture for forbs and 
grasses. If all of these impacts occurred, nesting and brood-rearing 
habitat could be affected. In this final rule, we conclude that the 
effects of livestock grazing are likely being exacerbated by intense 
browsing of woody species by wild ungulates in portions of the Gunnison 
Basin and the Crawford area (see Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild 
Ungulate Herbivory).
    (20) Comment: CPW asserted that the proposed rule relied on 
speculation by Braun (1998), Oyler-McCance et al. (2001), and Stevens 
(2011) regarding the effects of fences on Gunnison sage-grouse. CPW 
also provided additional information regarding research it conducted 
that tracked more than 1,000 radio-marked greater sage-grouse and 
documented two mortalities from collisions with fences. A follow-up

[[Page 69212]]

letter from CPW also noted four mortalities resulting from collisions 
with utility lines. One other commenter stated that fences fragment 
habitat.
    Our Response: We cite multiple references in Factor A of this final 
rule that implicate the potential impacts of fences on Gunnison sage-
grouse. Based on the information provided by CPW specific to Gunnison 
sage-grouse, mortalities from collisions with fences and utility lines 
are likely minimal, and we have included the information that CPW 
provided on strike-related mortalities. We conclude that fences may be 
a contributing factor in the species' decline; however, we have no 
specific data on the scope of this threat (see Factor A, Fences).
    (21) Comment: CPW stated that the Service does not know what the 
final measures in the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Resource 
Management Plans (RMPs) will be concerning travel management, and that 
the Service overstates the threat of roads. Consequently, CPW states 
that our conclusion that the revised RMPs are inadequate to address 
that threat of roads outlined by Aldridge et al. (2012) was premature.
    Our Response: We use the best available information to reach our 
conclusion in this final rule that roads are a threat to Gunnison sage-
grouse (see Factor A, Roads). The BLM is in the process of amending its 
RMPs and we do not know how road issues will be addressed in the 
amended plans. Under the Act, we are required to assess the adequacy of 
RMPs with respect to relevant threats based on the RMPs as they exist 
at the time of this listing decision. Thus, while we conclude that road 
impacts can be reduced by regulatory mechanisms, the existing 
mechanisms are currently not fully addressing the threat. We recognize 
the complexity of threats to Gunnison sage-grouse and the limited 
capacity of regulatory mechanisms to address some of those threats. For 
example, impacts caused by disease, small population size, or climate 
change are not easily addressed by regulatory mechanisms. However, 
other impacts such as current and future roads, hunting, grazing, or 
development can often be addressed with adequate regulatory mechanisms
    (22) Comment: CPW stated that the discussion regarding vegetative 
structure guidelines incorporated into management plans and permit 
renewals is confusing.
    Our Response: We clarify discussions regarding vegetative structure 
guidelines in this final rule (see Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild 
Ungulate Herbivory).
    (23) Comment: CPW asserted that the Service did not acknowledge 
that Gunnison sage-grouse habitat is highly variable rather than 
continuous across the landscape.
    Our Response: We acknowledge that Gunnison sage-grouse habitat is 
highly variable across the landscape, and we do not consider it to be 
continuous currently or historically. We included a discussion of the 
naturally disconnected nature of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in this 
final rule (see Factor A).
    (24) Comment: CPW and several other commenters suggested that the 
Service evaluate structural habitat guidelines recommended in the RCP 
with data reported by the BLM and Williams and Hild (2011).
    Our Response: The final rule includes conclusions from vegetation 
monitoring efforts in the Gunnison Basin conducted by Williams and Hild 
in 2010 and 2011. This topic is discussed further in the Domestic 
Grazing and Wildlife Herbivory section in Factor A of this final rule.
    (25) Comment: CPW presented new information regarding small 
populations and inbreeding depression.
    Our Response: We include and consider this information in this 
final rule. We note that this new information indicates that the San 
Miguel Basin Gunnison sage-grouse effective population size is below 
the level at which inbreeding depression has been observed to occur 
(Stiver et al. 2008, p. 479), and that the authors postulated that the 
observed lowered hatching success rate of Gunnison sage-grouse in their 
study may be caused by inbreeding depression. Finally, we conclude that 
because the remaining Gunnison sage-grouse satellite populations are 
smaller than the San Miguel population, they are also likely small 
enough to induce inbreeding depression, and could be losing adaptive 
potential (see Factor E).
    (26) Comment: CPW and two other commenters disagreed with 
conclusions in the proposed rule regarding minimum and effective 
population sizes, and the amount of habitat needed to support a viable 
population.
    Our Response: We do not recommend or adopt a specific number for a 
minimum viable population size, other than concluding that, based on 
the best available information, several of the satellite populations 
are trending toward extirpation. With their low absolute and effective 
population sizes, the satellite populations are particularly at risk 
from stochastic environmental and genetic factors (see Factor E, Small 
Population Size). We address the amount of habitat needed to provide 
for the conservation of the species in our final critical habitat 
determination for Gunnison sage-grouse published elsewhere in today's 
Federal Register. In this final rule we also reviewed the three 
available PVAs for Gunnison sage-grouse, which applied various 
techniques to estimate the viability of populations. Collectively, 
these studies and population trends from 1996-2014 indicate that one or 
more of the satellite populations may become extinct within the 
foreseeable future (see Factor E).
    (27) Comment: CPW noted that drought can impact nest success, but 
not adult survival, suggesting that Gunnison sage-grouse can 
accommodate drought cycles.
    Our Response: We agree that adults are less vulnerable to impacts 
from drought. Adult survival rates of Gunnison sage-grouse in the 
Gunnison Basin were not influenced by drought conditions in 2005 (CPW 
2013c, p. 9; Davis 2012, p. 55). However, if a drought persists through 
multiple nesting seasons, recruitment will likely be impacted. This 
topic is discussed further under the following sections in this final 
rule: Drought and Extreme Weather, Small Population Size and Structure, 
and Climate Change.
    (28) Comment: CPW and CDA noted that at least 79 percent of 
occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin is protected from development, 
including government-owned lands, private lands with Conservation 
Easements, Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances, and/or 
similar legal agreements that preclude development to the detriment of 
grouse. Therefore, these agencies asserted, the Gunnison Basin is 
adequately protected for the conservation of the species.
    Our Response: While the conservation and habitat protection efforts 
undertaken in the Gunnison Basin are commendable, and help reduce the 
impact of development on the species and its habitat, these measures 
vary in their capacity to avoid or minimize impacts such as the effects 
of habitat decline. Consequently, we were not able to conclude that 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat is adequately protected, despite the 
benefits of the various conservation efforts. Conservation efforts and 
regulatory mechanisms are evaluated in this final rule.
    (29) Comment: CPW, the Utah Office of the Governor, and several 
other commenters requested clarification regarding the interpretation 
and use of the Significant Portion of Range (SPR) policy.
    Our Response: On July 1, 2014, we published a final policy 
interpreting the phrase ``Significant Portion of its Range'' (SPR) (79 
FR 37578). In

[[Page 69213]]

accordance with that policy, the first step in our analysis of the 
status of a species is to determine its status throughout all of its 
range. If we determine that the species is in danger of extinction 
(endangered), or likely to become so in the foreseeable future 
(threatened), throughout all of its range, we list the species as an 
endangered or threatened species and no SPR analysis is required. In 
this case, we have determined in this rule that the Gunnison sage-
grouse is threatened throughout all of its range, therefore we did not 
perform an SPR analysis.
    (30) Comment: CPW, CDA, and the Utah Office of the Governor 
asserted that speculation in the literature was sometimes portrayed as 
science.
    Our Response: Under the standards of the Endangered Species Act 
(Act), we are required to base our determinations of species status on 
the best available information. Our first choice is information from 
recent, peer-reviewed publications that is specific to Gunnison sage-
grouse. However, sometimes the only available information may be based 
on studies of greater sage-grouse. Additionally scientific data are 
sometimes limited, studies are conflicting, or results are uncertain or 
seemingly inconclusive. Scientific information includes both empirical 
evidence, and expert knowledge or opinion. In this final rule, we 
carefully identified and qualified instances of speculation or 
hypotheses from past scientific studies and publications.
    (31) Comment: CDA noted that agriculture in Colorado generates $40 
billion annually, with cattle anticipated to contribute approximately 
$3.5 billion to agricultural production in 2013. CDA stated that cattle 
production would likely be seriously harmed, should the species be 
listed.
    Our Response: The Act does not allow us to consider economic 
impacts in decisions on whether to list a species, which must be made 
solely on the basis of scientific and commercial information related to 
the 5 factors in Section 4(a)(1) of the Act. Economic impacts may be 
considered in the designation of critical habitat, and are discussed in 
our final critical habitat rule. Our final critical habitat 
determination for Gunnison sage-grouse is published elsewhere in 
today's Federal Register.
    (32) Comment: The Utah Office of the Governor noted that the timing 
on the proposed rule is based solely on the need to meet a court 
approved settlement date, which did not include participation by the 
States of Utah or Colorado. Some commenters suggested that more time is 
needed for public review.
    Our Response: The publication deadline for the proposed rule was 
set by a court approved settlement agreement; however, the timeline for 
this final rule was initially set according to the statutory 
requirements of the Act and has been extended several times by court 
order. The Act requires that a final listing rule be published within 
one year of the publication of the proposed rule. As allowed by the 
Act, however, we extended this statutory deadline by 6 months due to 
substantial disagreement regarding the sufficiency or accuracy of 
available data relevant to our determination. Invoking this statutory 
extension postponed the final listing decision from September 30, 2013 
to March 31, 2014. We also re-opened the public comment period several 
times. In addition, due to a government shutdown in October 2013 that 
caused us to postpone and reschedule public meetings, the court granted 
our request for an additional 6 weeks beyond the statutory timeline. 
Finally, the court granted our subsequent request for an additional 6 
month extension to allow us to consider the possibility that the 
species should be listed as threatened rather than endangered, and to 
consider whether a 4(d) rule would be appropriate. This action extended 
the deadline for this final rule until November 12, 2014.
    (33) Comment: The Utah Office of the Governor stated that the 
Service's 2010 warranted-but-precluded finding and 2013 proposed rule 
to list Gunnison sage-grouse under the Act differs from the 2006 
finding that concluded the species was not warranted for listing, 
without presentation of any new information that would indicate a 
different conclusion is justified. Several commenters asserted that the 
decision to list was due to litigation.
    Our Response: Litigation resulted in a settlement agreement that 
established a schedule for us to submit a proposed rule to list the 
species or a finding that listing was not warranted by a date certain. 
The litigation had nothing to do with the ultimate decision to list, or 
not. The 2006 not-warranted, the 2010 warranted-but-precluded finding, 
and the 2013 proposed rule to list the species were based upon the best 
scientific and commercial information available at that time. The 2006 
finding concluded that the rangewide population was stable to slightly 
increasing (71 FR 19961-19962, April 18, 2006). The 2013 proposed 
listing rule included information from new studies, 8 additional years 
of recent survey information (2006-2013), as well as population data 
from 1996-2000, and concluded that the Gunnison Basin population was 
relatively stable and the six smaller populations were in decline (78 
FR 2488, January 11, 2013). This final rule incorporates additional 
information received since publication of the proposed rule. The basis 
for our determination in this final rule is provided in the 
Determination section of this rule.
    (34) Comment: The Utah Office of the Governor and one other 
commenter stated that a Federal listing of the species at this time 
provides no additional protection or resources from those already in 
place and that voluntary cooperation of private landowners will be much 
more effective in improving habitat than protections than what may be 
afforded by listing and critical habitat designation. The Utah Office 
of the Governor also noted that a final regulation providing for a 
listing will cause the State to reassess its conservation efforts for 
this species, and may result in reallocation of these efforts to other 
species.
    Our Response: By statute, the Service must list a species if it 
meets the definition of threatened or endangered. There is no provision 
in the Act that would allow us to decline to list a species that meets 
the definition of threatened or endangered if no additional protection 
would occur. Moreover, the Act would confer additional protection to 
the Gunnison sage-grouse that could help arrest and reverse its 
decline. Once listing of the Gunnison sage-grouse becomes effective, 
actions authorized, funded or carried out by Federal agencies that may 
affect the species will require section 7 consultations under the Act 
in all areas occupied by the species. Section 9 prohibitions against 
``take'' will further protect the species from human-caused mortality 
due to both direct effects and indirect effects such as continued 
habitat decline and harassment. We recognize that the voluntary 
cooperation of private landowners has improved conservation of the 
species in many areas. However, declining population trends indicate 
that these efforts have not been able to stabilize rangewide conditions 
(habitat and populations) for the species. We maintain that the best 
chance for conservation and ultimately recovery of the species will 
require both the protections afforded by listing and critical habitat 
designation as well as voluntary conservation measures undertaken by 
private landowners, with support from the States in accomplishing these 
measures.
    (35) Comment: The Utah Office of the Governor described efforts of 
the San

[[Page 69214]]

Juan Local Working Group, by Federal and State agencies, private 
landowners, and universities to address concerns regarding declining 
numbers of Gunnison sage-grouse. Similarly, Colorado's Office of the 
Governor identified dozens of conservation efforts that have been 
carried out in Colorado that they believe address Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: We acknowledge and commend conservation efforts 
undertaken in Utah and recognize their importance in a county where 
more than 90 percent of occupied habitat is on private lands. We also 
commend the conservation efforts undertaken in Colorado by CPW, local 
jurisdictions and other entities. This final rule describes many of the 
conservation measures, including local, State, and Federal laws and 
regulations, conservation easements, the Gunnison Basin CCA, and 
enrollment in the Colorado CCAA, that have been undertaken to improve 
or protect Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. We have carefully considered 
the projects and programs noted by Colorado and Utah in the development 
of this final rule.
    (36) Comment: The Utah Office of the Governor described Gunnison 
sage-grouse population trends in Utah and stated that reliance on 
current population figures would be an arbitrary and capricious 
application of facts because adequate time has not been allowed to 
determine if numbers will return to stable levels following the severe 
winter in 2010. In contrast, CPW stated that severe winters are not a 
threat to the species.
    Our Response: We recognize that there is annual variability in 
population numbers for the Gunnison sage-grouse. Consequently, we place 
more emphasis on longer-term population trends over a number of years 
than on population estimates from any given year. Our analysis 
considers Gunnison sage-grouse population trends from 1996 (when lek 
count protocols were standardized) through 2013. We do not conclude 
that severe winters are a threat to the species.

Comments From Federal Agencies

    (37) Comment: We received multiple comments expressing concerns 
regarding the long-term viability of the Poncha Pass population, noting 
that bird movement between Poncha Pass and the Gunnison Basin is not 
likely. One commenter suggested that Poncha Pass and other small 
populations may be better managed as satellite populations, rather than 
individual self-sustaining populations.
    Our Response: We are also concerned about the long-term viability 
of the Poncha Pass population, particularly in view of the 2013 lek 
count surveys, which did not detect any birds. CPW translocated 17 
additional birds from the Gunnison Basin in the fall of 2013, and 10 
more in spring of 2014 (CPW 2014e, p.7). Six males were counted in the 
Poncha Pass population during the spring 2014 lek count (CPW 2014d, 
p.2). This population will likely require repeated augmentations to 
avoid extirpation. This topic is discussed further under the following 
sections in this final rule: Current Distribution and Population 
Estimates and Trends; and Factor E.
    (38) Comment: One agency noted that although the proposed rule to 
list the species repeatedly states that the effects from grazing are 
inconclusive, the final conclusion was that habitat degradation from 
improperly managed grazing, particularly with the interacting factors 
of invasive weed expansion and climate change, is a threat to the 
species. Several commenters recommended that historical grazing 
practices be differentiated from improved current grazing practices.
    Our Response: The key word in our conclusion in the proposed rule 
is ``improperly.'' Livestock grazing that is done in a manner 
consistent with local ecological conditions, including soil types, 
precipitation zones, vegetation composition and drought conditions, is 
not likely to negatively impact Gunnison sage-grouse, and is compatible 
with the needs and conservation of the species. See discussion under 
Factor A. The final rule also notes that properly managed livestock 
grazing may have positive effects on sage-grouse. We also recognize 
that maintenance of sustainable grazing practices on private rangelands 
can aid in recovery of the Gunnison sage-grouse by discouraging further 
conversion of the species' habitat into habitat unsuitable to the 
species (i.e., due to development).
    (39) Comment: Several commenters noted that the proposed rule might 
have overstated the impacts from grazing on Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat as indicated by BLM Land Health Assessments (LHA). A comment 
stated that available data may vary by office, and the LHA is only a 
snapshot in time; therefore, it cannot indicate trends. Additionally, 
grazing is only one of many causal factors on land health. The 
commenter also noted that failure to meet indicators for Land Health 
Standard 4 (which evaluates ecological indicators for Special Status 
Species) may be due to population trends rather than existing habitat 
conditions.
    Our Response: This final rule recognizes the limitations and 
uncertainties associated with LHA and supporting data. Our conclusion 
for livestock grazing effects on Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat 
also acknowledges limitations associated with LHA data (see Factor A, 
Domestic Grazing and Wildlife Herbivory).
    (40) Comment: One commenter recommended we clarify the impact from 
different fence types with regard to habitat fragmentation, increased 
predator activities, and collisions.
    Our Response: This final rule discusses the various factors that 
influence fence strike risks. We acknowledge that those risks vary 
depending on fence design, landscape topography, and spatial 
configuration. In the Factor A discussion of fences, we note that in 10 
years of tracking radio-collared sage-grouse in Colorado, CPW has 
documented only two fence strike mortalities in Gunnison sage-grouse. 
This information suggests that direct mortality of Gunnison sage-grouse 
due to fence strikes is low.
    (41) Comment: We received a comment requesting that the Service 
recognize that fire and fuels treatment projects managed under very 
narrow parameters may be a beneficial tool in managing Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat. The commenter also noted that impacts from cheatgrass 
on fire regimes in Colorado do not appear to be the same as in the 
Great Basin, and suggests that fire has a role to play in rejuvenating 
unoccupied or marginal habitats by creating ``micro-mosaics'' that 
benefit the species during different portions of its life cycle.
    Our Response: The final rule acknowledges that small fires may have 
beneficial impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse habitat and concludes that 
fire is currently not a threat to the species. It also concludes that 
wildfires may become a threat in the future if cheatgrass continues to 
expand. Recent research indicates that prescribed fire may be 
inappropriate due to the direct loss and fragmentation of the remaining 
sagebrush habitat within the species' range, (Baker 2013, p. 8). We 
include this information and citation in this final rule (see Factor A, 
Fire).
    (42) Comment: One commenter expressed concern regarding the 
potential effects of climate change to the long-term sustainability of 
Gunnison sage-grouse, particularly in the Dove Creek and Dry Creek 
areas.
    Our Response: We too are concerned about the potential effects of 
climate change on Gunnison sage-grouse

[[Page 69215]]

rangewide. The final rule concludes that climate change is currently 
not a threat to the species, but is likely to become a threat in the 
foreseeable future. Our analysis includes consideration of climate 
change projections for the western U.S. A climate change vulnerability 
assessment for the Gunnison Basin described the Gunnison sage-grouse as 
highly vulnerable to impacts from climate change (TNC et al. 2011, p. 
iii). This topic is discussed further under Factor A, Climate Change in 
this final rule.
    (43) Comment: The United States Forest Service (USFS) suggested 
expanding the CCA from Gunnison Basin to other Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations on Federal lands. One other commenter expressed concern 
regarding a possible expansion of the CCA to areas outside of the 
Gunnison Basin.
    Our Response: We agree that the CCA could have benefitted Gunnison 
sage-grouse in other populations outside of the Gunnison Basin, and 
provided a means for Federal land agencies to streamline ESA section 7 
requirements associated with their programs and activities. Although 
CCAs cannot be implemented for listed species, adoption of a similar 
plan that builds on the principles of the CCA is a viable option for 
the satellite populations in the future. We also note the BLM is now in 
the process of amending all field office resource management plans 
within the range of the Gunnison sage-grouse to increase protections 
for this species. This effort will likely build on what was included in 
the CCA for BLM-managed lands in the Gunnison Basin.

Comments From the Public

    (44) Comment: Several commenters asserted that listing the Gunnison 
sage-grouse will adversely impact the local economy.
    Our Response: The Act does not allow us to consider economic 
impacts in decisions on whether to list a species, which must be made 
solely on the basis of scientific and commercial information regarding 
the 5 factors in Section 4(a)(1) of the Act. However, economic impacts 
may be considered in the designation of critical habitat. Our final 
critical habitat determination for Gunnison sage-grouse is published 
elsewhere in today's Federal Register. As part of the process of 
completing the final critical habitat rule, we completed an Economic 
Analysis that evaluates the potential economic impacts of designating 
critical habitat on transportation, livestock grazing, mineral and 
fossil fuel extraction, residential development, recreation, 
agriculture, and renewable energy (Industrial Economics, Inc. 2014). We 
also completed an environmental assessment pursuant to the National 
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the proposed critical habitat 
designation that evaluated the affected environment, including 
potential economic impacts to the human environment. These are 
discussed further in our final critical habitat rule, published 
elsewhere in today's Federal Register.
    (45) Comment: Several commenters suggested that the Service should 
work cooperatively with other Federal agencies, State wildlife 
agencies, farm bureaus, and local governments to partner with 
landowners on conservation efforts. One commenter asserted that the 
Service has no on-the-ground experience with Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation.
    Our Response: We encourage partnerships between the Service, other 
agencies, and landowners and have worked cooperatively in such 
partnership to further Gunnison sage-grouse conservation. In 2005, for 
example, we participated in development of the RCP (GSRSC 2005). This 
Plan established management guidelines throughout the range of the 
species. In 2006, we entered into a CCAA for the Gunnison sage-grouse 
with Colorado Division of Wildlife (now CPW). We estimate, in of 
December, 2014 when this rule becomes effective, 40 Certificates of 
Inclusion (CI) will have been completed for private properties, 
enrolling 94,391 ac in four Gunnison sage-grouse populations, although 
only roughly 81,156 ac of these acres fall within suitable Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat. We also cooperated with Federal agencies and other 
stakeholders in the Gunnison Basin to complete a CCA to promote 
conservation of the species in the Gunnison Basin population on Federal 
lands. As stated above, our listing decision is based on the best 
available scientific information. Accordingly, our focus is on well-
supported, scientific data and information for the species, generally 
at a broader scope than is acquired at the local level.
    (46) Comment: Several commenters expressed differing views on 
whether livestock grazing in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat should be 
restricted.
    Our Response: We determined that grazing that is inconsistent with 
local ecological conditions is a threat to the species, and grazing in 
general may have inadvertent effects at a local level (Factor A, 
Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory).
    Although grazing on both public and private lands may affect 
Gunnison sage-grouse, privately owned lands typically lack a Federal 
nexus for section 7 consultations under the Act, in which case grazing 
practices would not be affected by the Act unless they were to result 
in ``take'' of Gunnison sage-grouse, as prohibited by section 9 of the 
Act. However, more than 300 Federal grazing allotments on nearly 
405,000 ha (1,000,000 ac) are located within the final critical habitat 
designation (Industrial Economics, Inc. 2014, p. 3-1). On Federal 
allotments, through the section 7 consultation process, the managing 
agency (BLM or USFS) may choose to implement AUM reductions, seasonal 
restrictions, rotational grazing, or other changes to minimize impacts 
or avoid jeopardy to the species and any adverse modification to 
critical habitat. We do not intend to preclude grazing within critical 
habitat, but may seek grazing modifications where warranted to promote 
the conservation and recovery of the species. We discuss livestock 
grazing under Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory in 
this final rule.
    (47) Comment: Several commenters expressed differing views on 
whether energy and mineral development should be further restricted.
    Our Response: The Monticello-Dove Creek and San Miguel Basin 
populations support numerous mineral and fossil fuel extraction 
activities. One wind project and one potash mine are under development 
in the Monticello-Dove Creek population. There are no active uranium 
mines in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Oil and gas extraction occurs on 
both Federal and private lands within the species' range. Mineral and 
fossil fuel extraction activities on private lands without Federal 
mineral rights are unlikely to have a Federal nexus for section 7 
consultations under the Act. Existing Federal regulations, such as BLM 
RMPs, and State regulations from the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation 
Commission (COGCC) provide some protection to the species and its 
habitat. With respect to mineral and energy development projects on 
Federal lands or that otherwise have a Federal nexus (e.g., the project 
is authorized, funded or carried out by a Federal agency), we may seek 
project modifications during ESA section 7 consultations to benefit 
Gunnison sage-grouse. We consider current energy and mineral 
development a low threat to the species, as discussed under Factor A, 
Mineral Development and Renewable Energy Development, in this final 
rule.
    (48) Comment: Several commenters expressed differing views 
regarding the effectiveness of predator control.
    Our Response: Predator removal efforts may sometimes provide short-

[[Page 69216]]

term gains in sage-grouse numbers, but predator numbers quickly rebound 
without continual control efforts (Hagen 2011, p. 99). The impacts of 
predation on greater sage-grouse can increase where habitat quality has 
been compromised by anthropogenic activities such as exurban 
development and road development (Coates 2007, pp. 154-155; Bui 2009, 
p. 16; Hagen 2011, p. 100). This is discussed further under Factor C, 
Predation.
    (49) Comment: Several commenters stated that conservation efforts 
and recovery should focus on public lands.
    Our Response: Conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse will require 
collaboration between Federal, State, and local agencies wherever the 
species occurs. Federal agencies manage 54 percent of currently 
occupied habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse. Although there is an 
abundance of public lands within the current range of the Gunnison 
sage-grouse, Federal lands alone are insufficient to conserve the 
species. Therefore, conservation and recovery efforts limited to public 
lands are not sufficient to ensure conservation of the species.
    (50) Comment: Some commenters support or oppose development of a 
captive breeding program or translocation of Gunnison sage-grouse. One 
commenter stated that the State of Colorado does not have the funds 
necessary to conduct a long-term captive breeding program.
    Our Response: Establishing wild populations from captive-reared 
gallinaceous birds is very difficult, expensive, and only rarely 
successful; a captive breeding program in Idaho for greater sage-grouse 
had only minimal success (GSRSC 2005, p. 181). The CPW started a 
captive-rearing program in 2009 to study whether techniques can be 
developed to captively rear and release Gunnison sage-grouse. To date, 
survival of captive-reared chicks has been low, as we cited in our 
proposed rule (78 FR 2518, January 11, 2013). Translocation of wild 
Gunnison sage-grouse from Gunnison Basin to other populations has had 
some success, although our understanding of translocation contributions 
is limited. Without these translocations, current numbers would likely 
be lower for these populations. These topics are discussed further 
under Scientific Research and Related Conservation Efforts in this 
final rule.
    (51) Comment: Some commenters suggested that a Gunnison sage-grouse 
working group or recovery team should be established.
    Our Response: Local working groups including landowners, interested 
individuals and groups, local governments, land management agencies, 
and State wildlife agencies have developed conservation plans for the 
following Gunnison sage-grouse populations: Gunnison Basin, Crawford, 
Dove Creek, San Miguel Basin, Monticello, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, and Poncha 
Pass. As a result, all populations with the exception of the Cerro 
Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population have conservation plans. Following 
the development of these local conservation plans, the RCP (GSRSC 2005, 
entire) was developed, which included participation by the BLM, CPW, 
NPS, NRCS, USFS, the Service, and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources 
(UDWR). The RCP was intended to supplement local plans and provide 
guidance to aid in conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse. Population 
targets were recommended for each population. These planning efforts 
are discussed in further detail in Factor A of this final rule. We also 
discuss future conservation measures for this species below in this 
final rule. The Act requires development of a recovery plan in most 
cases for endangered and threatened species, which often results in 
establishment of a recovery team.
    (52) Comment: Some commenters suggested that sagebrush habitat 
should be preserved and, when necessary, recovered.
    Our Response: Because sage-grouse are obligate users of sagebrush, 
preserving and recovering sagebrush habitat is key to sage-grouse 
conservation. Other habitat types such as riparian meadows and 
agricultural lands may also be important for Gunnison sage-grouse, but 
only if they are in close proximity to sagebrush-dominated habitat (75 
FR 59808, September 28, 2010). Several Federal agencies as well as CPW 
and UDWR continue to work to improve the quality of sagebrush 
communities through grazing management, fencing, re-seeding, fuels 
management, and other habitat improvement strategies (GSRSC 2005, pp. 
214-219). Listing the species and designating critical habitat will 
further conserve Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.
    (53) Comment: Several commenters noted the importance of open water 
and wet meadows and some also suggested that these habitat types should 
be re-established in some areas by removal of sagebrush.
    Our Response: High quality brood-rearing habitat for Gunnison sage-
grouse includes mesic meadows, springs, seeps, and low vegetation 
riparian areas, all dependent on adequate moisture and consequently at 
risk in today's changing climate (TNC et al. 2011, p. H-9). Prescribed 
burning and mechanical treatments can be used on a small scale to 
create a mosaic of small open patches; however, care should be taken to 
avoid further fragmentation of sagebrush habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 206-
207).
    (54) Comment: Some commenters suggested that seasonal closures of 
roads and recreation areas should be implemented as appropriate.
    Our Response: Closures have been authorized and used by Federal 
agencies and counties to protect Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in 
several populations (BLM 2013c, attachment 2; Gunnison County Board of 
County Commissioners 2013a, Appendix A; NPS 2013, p. 1; USFS 2013, pp. 
11 and 14). We evaluate these efforts in this final rule (see Factor A, 
Roads, and Factor D).
    (55) Comment: One commenter suggested that number of leks, number 
of birds on leks, survival rates, and other ecological parameter be 
monitored and used as triggers for requiring additional conservation 
efforts.
    Our Response: The local and rangewide conservation plans include 
monitoring plans. The CPW has conducted annual monitoring of these 
parameters following a standard protocol since 1996. Monitoring of 
habitat conditions, treatment actions, and compliance are an integral 
part of the CCAA for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    (56) Comment: Several commenters stated that the Gunnison sage-
grouse population in the Gunnison Basin is stable and not at risk of 
extinction; consequently, since this is a significant portion of the 
species' range, the species is not endangered. One commenter noted that 
the six smaller populations did not constitute a significant portion of 
the species' range.
    Our Response: Please see our response to comment 29 above. We 
include an explanation of how we considered and applied the concept of 
SPR in this final rule.
    (57) Comment: Several commenters expressed various opinions 
regarding the stability of the six smaller populations outside of 
Gunnison Basin.
    Our Response: The six satellite populations are small, all were 
generally in decline from 1996 until 2010, and several continue to show 
a declining trend. The San Miguel and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations are 
currently the largest of the satellite populations, with 206 and 182 
birds, respectively, in 2014. The Monticello-Dove Creek population 
currently has less than 100 birds total. Population estimates in 2014 
for what have been the two smallest populations, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
Sims Mesa and

[[Page 69217]]

Poncha Pass, were 74 and 16, respectively (CPW 2014a, p.1). Based on 
lek count-based population estimates, some satellite populations have 
increased slightly over the last several years, or intermittently over 
time. However, the last 19 years (1996 to 2014) of lek count data as a 
whole indicate all the satellite populations are were in decline in 
2010. Several of the satellite populations have increased since 2010. 
Although population estimates for Pi[ntilde]on Mesa are currently 
higher than in any year since 1996, this population has been augmented 
with 93 birds from Gunnison Basin since 2010. The Crawford population 
has also been augmented, with 73 birds over the same period; and while 
the 2014 population estimate of 157 in this population is the highest 
since 2006, it is considerably less than the post-1996 high of 270 in 
1998.
    For all six satellite populations, population estimates from 1996 
to 2014 are below population targets (based on a 10-year average), set 
forth by the RCP (CPW 2014d, p. 1; GSRSC 2005, pp. 255-302). The RCP 
population targets are the number of birds thought necessary to 
conserve Gunnison sage-grouse in those population areas (GSRSC 2005, p. 
255). Combined, the satellite populations comprise about 16 percent of 
the rangewide population of Gunnison sage-grouse and include 
approximately 37 percent of rangewide occupied habitat. These topics 
are discussed further in Factors A and E of this rule.
    (58) Comment: Several commenters stated that lek counts are not 
accurate.
    Our Response: As described in this final rule (see Current 
Distribution and Population Estimates and Trends), lek count data are 
the primary means of estimating and monitoring Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations. However, sage-grouse populations can fluctuate widely on 
an annual basis, and there are concerns about the statistical 
reliability of population estimates based on lek counts (CDOW 2009b, 
pp. 1-3). Stiver et al. (2008, p. 474) concluded that lek counts likely 
underestimate population size. Another study (Davis 2012, p. 136) 
indicated that, based on demographic data, lek count indices 
overestimate population size. Although lek count data are available 
from as early as the 1950's for some populations, lek count protocols 
were first standardized and implemented in 1996 (GSRSC 2005, p. 46). 
Prior to 1996, lek count data are highly variable and uncertain, and 
are not directly comparable to recent population data (Braun 1998, p. 
3; Davis 2012, pp. 139, 143). Therefore, for the purposes of evaluating 
current population sizes and trends, the analysis in this final rule is 
focused on the standardized lek count data from 1996 to 2013. We also 
consider other available scientific information regarding Gunnison 
sage-grouse populations such as demographic data and population 
viability analyses (see Factor E).
    (59) Comment: Several commenters recommended that population data 
prior to 2001 be evaluated.
    Our Response: In the 2010 12-month finding we relied on population 
data over the past decade to quantitatively assess recent trends (75 FR 
59808, September 28, 2010). The starting point of 2001 was also used 
for trend analysis in the 2013 proposed rule (78 FR 2491, January 11, 
2013). In this final listing rule, we analyzed population estimates 
over a longer period, based on lek count data from 1996-2013. Similar 
to our previous analysis, the long-term data indicates that despite 
slight increases in the past several years, the satellite populations 
have declined overall, with the possible exception of the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron-Sims Mesa population, which appears stable to increasing at 
this time.
    (60) Comment: Some commenters stated that there are too many 
caveats in the rangewide conservation plan to rely on it for 
distribution and abundance information.
    Our Response: The current distribution of the Gunnison sage-grouse 
is thought to be well understood, based on several decades of surveys 
and data. Although not conclusive, CPW aerial surveys during 2013 found 
no new leks or occupied areas. Nevertheless, current distribution and 
abundance data are estimates due to adverse weather, access, and survey 
error. Earlier data is further compromised by the use of incomplete 
museum records and historical accounts, as well as varying 
methodologies and survey intensities. Pre-settlement data is by 
necessity an extrapolation based on species accounts and the likely 
distribution of suitable habitat. This is the best available 
information, and forms the basis of historical and current distribution 
and abundance information, as presented in this final rule.
    (61) Comment: Some commenters asserted that the Gunnison sage-
grouse is not a separate species from greater sage-grouse.
    Our Response: Gunnison sage-grouse and greater sage-grouse were 
recognized as separate species in 2000 based on morphological, genetic, 
and behavioral differences, and geographical isolation. Consequently, 
the American Ornithologist's Union accepted the Gunnison sage-grouse as 
a distinct species. Due to the several lines of evidence separating the 
two species, we determined in our 2010 12-month finding that the best 
available information indicates that the Gunnison sage-grouse is a 
valid taxonomic species and a listable entity under the Act (75 FR 
59804, September 28, 2010).
    (62) Comment: Several commenters stated that habitat fragmentation 
and degradation are the main reasons for a steep decline in Gunnison 
sage-grouse abundance. One commenter asserted that we overestimated the 
impact from fragmentation, and another commenter asserted that habitat 
has not been lost or fragmented in the past 50 years.
    Our Response: Habitat loss and fragmentation are recognized as 
primary causes of the decline in abundance and distribution of sage-
grouse across western North America (Rogers 1964, pp. 13-24; Braun 
1998, entire; Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 371), and in Gunnison sage-
grouse across its former range (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 330; 
GSRSC 2005, p. 149; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 465-469). Gunnison sage-
grouse depend on sagebrush for their survival and persistence, and the 
historical and current distribution of the Gunnison sage-grouse closely 
matches that of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 9; Braun 1987, p. 1; 
Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 364, and references therein). Current and 
future threats described under Factor A of this final rule will further 
contribute to habitat loss and decline and, based on historical and 
current population trends, a continued decline in the abundance of 
Gunnison sage-grouse across its range.
    (63) Comment: One commenter noted that there has been no chick 
survival in the Miramonte area of the San Miguel population.
    Our Response: Although sample size in a study of the San Miguel 
Basin (Miramonte subpopulation) was small (eight chicks were studied), 
no chicks survived to 30 days of age, meaning no recruitment (survival 
of bird from hatching to breeding age) occurred over a 4-year period 
(Davis 2012, p. 37). We provide this information in this final rule 
(see Predation; and Davis Population Viability Analysis sections).
    (64) Comment: Some commenters noted that the bio-geographical 
characteristics of the upper Gunnison Basin differ markedly from the 
lower Gunnison Basin.
    Our Response: There is wide habitat variation within and between 
all of the Gunnison sage-grouse populations. We presume this comment is 
directed to the idea of population redundancy in the Gunnison Basin. 
This topic is discussed

[[Page 69218]]

in Factor E, Small Population Size and Structure, of this final rule.
    (65) Comment: One commenter stated that there is no data indicating 
the Dove Creek population was within the historical range of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse prior to introducing the species to this area in 
2010 and 2011.
    Our Response: CPW began collecting lek count data from Dove Creek 
in 1993, which predates efforts to augment that population. Dove Creek 
is included in historical, recent, and current descriptions of the 
species' range (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 368-371). The 2006 not 
warranted finding described the Dove Creek subpopulation as ranging 
from 10-358 birds from 1995-2005 (71 FR 19957-19961, April 18, 2006).
    (66) Comment: One commenter stated that the Dove Creek population 
declined following the 2002-2003 drought and has not yet rebounded.
    Our Response: Drought conditions from 1999 through about 2003 (with 
residual effects lasting through about 2005) were closely associated 
with reductions in the sizes of all populations (CDOW 2009b, entire; 
CPW 2013c, p. 9) (see Figures 2 and 3 in this final rule) and lower 
nest success (CPW 2013c, p. 2). To date, several of the smaller 
satellite populations have not rebounded from declines around that time 
(see Figure 3 in this final rule).
    (67) Comment: Some commenters stated that conversion to cropland 
has not fragmented sagebrush habitat in the past 20-30 years.
    Our Response: As stated in this final rule (Factor A, Agricultural 
Conversion), except in Gunnison County, the total area of harvested 
cropland has declined over the past two decades in all counties within 
the occupied range of Gunnison sage-grouse (USDA NASS 2010, entire). 
Further, the majority of agricultural land use in Gunnison County is in 
hay production, and this has also declined over the past two decades 
(USDA NASS 2010, p. 1). We do not have any information to predict 
changes in the amount of land devoted to agricultural purposes. 
However, because of this long-term trend in reduced land area devoted 
to agriculture, we do not expect a significant amount of Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat to be converted to agricultural purposes in the future.
    (68) Comment: Some commenters stated that there are no new road 
projects; therefore, roads have not increased fragmentation.
    Our Response: Roads of all kinds can impact Gunnison sage-grouse 
through direct loss of habitat, mortality from collisions, habitat 
fragmentation, and habitat degradation. Existing roads will continue to 
require maintenance, and usage may increase due to increases in 
recreational activities or in the human population. We discuss roads 
under Factor A in this final rule.
    (69) Comment: Several commenters stated that grazing minimizes 
fragmentation by preventing development, conversion to cropland, and 
loss of water rights.
    Our Response: We agree that livestock grazing operations generally 
result in less habitat fragmentation than alternatives such as 
residential development, conversion to cropland, mineral and fossil 
fuel extraction, or road construction.
    (70) Comment: Two commenters noted that ranches are no longer being 
subdivided; therefore, fragmentation due to this factor is not 
occurring.
    Our Response: Exurban development and subdivision of ranches likely 
slowed during the recent economic downturn. However, it still occurs, 
particularly in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa and Gunnison Basin populations, 
and we expect it to continue into the future in some areas. We discuss 
this issue in this final rule (see Factor A, Residential Development).
    (71) Comment: Some commenters asserted that the conclusion that 
large blocks of sagebrush habitat are needed by Gunnison sage-grouse is 
in error because it is based on greater sage-grouse research. Other 
commenters stated that not all sagebrush habitat will support Gunnison 
sage-grouse.
    Our Response: With regard to the first comment, references cited in 
the proposed and final rules regarding the need for large expanses of 
sagebrush sometimes pertain to greater sage-grouse, but also include 
references specific to Gunnison sage-grouse. References specific to 
Gunnison sage-grouse that discuss the need for large blocks of 
sagebrush habitat include Oyler-McCance et al. (2001, pp. 327-330), 
Wisdom et al. (2011, p. 451), and Baker (2013, p. 8). Regarding the 
second comment, we agree that not all sagebrush habitat will support 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Much sagebrush habitat is outside the current 
range of the species or is in patches that are too small in size and 
are fragmented, and some sagebrush habitat does not contain the 
physical and biological features necessary to sustain the species.
    (72) Comment: One commenter stated that Blue Mesa Reservoir 
resulted in the largest habitat fragmentation in Gunnison County.
    Our Response: Our proposed rule noted the potential impacts of 
development of a large irrigation project, but it was not clear that we 
were referring to Blue Mesa Reservoir. As clarified in this final rule 
(see Factor A, Large Scale Water Development), development of Blue Mesa 
Reservoir in 1965 in the Gunnison Basin flooded an estimated 3,700 ha 
(9,200 ac), or 1.5 percent of potential habitat for Gunnison sage-
grouse in the Gunnison Basin (McCall 2005, pers. comm.), and according 
to Gunnison County (2013a, p. 124), at least one known lek. Based on 
the size and location of Blue Mesa Reservoir, we presume that habitat 
connectivity and dispersal of birds between the Gunnison Basin 
population and satellite populations to the west were impacted.
    (73) Comment: One commenter noted that mountain shrub habitat is 
used by the Gunnison sage-grouse and therefore, mountain shrub should 
not be lumped in with pi[ntilde]on-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus 
spp.) habitat.
    Our Response: We agree that some deciduous shrub communities 
(primarily Gambel oak and serviceberry) are used seasonally by Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Young et al. 2000, p. 451). See discussion under Factor A, 
Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment.
    (74) Comment: Several commenters asserted that Gunnison sage-grouse 
numbers were highest during a period of higher livestock grazing, and 
that there is no negative correlation between grazing intensity and 
Gunnison sage-grouse numbers. Other commenters noted either improvement 
or degradation of habitat associated with livestock grazing. One 
commenter asked what we consider to be a proper grazing regime.
    Our Response: Excessive grazing by domestic livestock during the 
late 1800s and early 1900s, along with severe drought, significantly 
impacted sagebrush ecosystems (Knick et al. 2003, p. 616). Overgrazing 
by livestock was cited as one of several contributing factors in the 
early loss and deterioration of sagebrush range in the region (Rogers 
1964, p. 13). Historical accounts indicate that overgrazing of 
sagebrush range in Colorado began around 1875. Overgrazing was 
apparently at its worst in the early 1900s and continued until the BLM 
was organized in 1934 (Rogers 1964, p. 13). Around 1910, a gradual but 
marked decline in sage-grouse numbers and distribution in Colorado had 
begun (Rogers 1964, pp. 20-22). This information indicates that 
historical livestock grazing practices and overgrazing were a 
contributing factor in the early loss and degradation of sagebrush 
habitats and initial declines in sage-grouse numbers and distribution. 
Although current livestock

[[Page 69219]]

stocking rates in the range of Gunnison sage-grouse are lower than 
historical levels (Laycock et al. 1996, p. 3), long-term effects from 
historical overgrazing, including changes in plant communities and 
soils, persist today (Knick et al. 2003, p. 116). In addition, 
widespread use of water developments across the West has since 
increased livestock access to sagebrush habitats, and so even reduced 
numbers of livestock still pose impacts (Connelly 2004, pp. 7-33, 7-35, 
7-92). We know that grazing can have negative impacts to sagebrush and 
consequently to Gunnison sage-grouse at local scales. Grazing 
inconsistent with local ecological conditions is occurring over a large 
portion of the range of the species. Habitat degradation that can 
result from grazing practices inconsistent with local ecological 
conditions, particularly with the interacting factors of invasive weed 
expansion and climate change, is a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse 
persistence. See Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate 
Herbivory.
    (75) Comment: Several commenters stated that Gunnison sage-grouse 
chicks depend on insects in cattle manure.
    Our Response: Anecdotal reports and opinion papers (Brunner 2006, 
p. 16; Gunnison County 2013a, p. 95) have suggested that cattle manure 
attracts and supports insect populations upon which sage-grouse depend 
for survival, and that sage-grouse ``follow'' cattle through pastures. 
However, there is no evidence to support this theory. Further, there 
are no data to substantiate the idea that in sagebrush areas not 
actively grazed by livestock, sage-grouse are limited in some way 
(Connelly et al. 2007, p. 37). This topic is discussed in Factor A of 
this final rule (see Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate 
Herbivory.).
    (76) Comment: Several commenters expressed differing opinions on 
whether livestock grazing reduces or increases the risk of catastrophic 
fire.
    Our Response: We know that livestock grazing influences fire 
ecology in sage-grouse habitat. However, due to the spatial complexity 
of fire in sagebrush ecosystems (Crawford et al. 2004, p. 7), and the 
numerous factors that determine the effects of grazing on sagebrush 
habitats, the effects of grazing on sage-grouse by altering fire 
regimes likely vary widely across time and space. This topic is 
discussed in detail in Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate 
Herbivory, of this final rule.
    (77) Comment: Several commenters asked what has changed from 2006, 
when the Service concluded that grazing was not a threat, to 2013, when 
the Service concluded that grazing was a threat.
    Our Response: Both the 2006 not warranted determination (71 FR 
19954, April 18, 2006) and the 2013 proposed rule to list the species 
(78 FR 2486, January 11, 2013) presented similar observations:
     Excessive grazing by domestic livestock during the late 
1800s and early 1900s, along with severe drought, significantly 
affected sagebrush ecosystems, causing long-term impacts that persist 
today.
     Although we know that historical livestock grazing 
practices and overgrazing were a contributing factor in the early loss 
and degradation of sagebrush habitats and initial declines in sage-
grouse numbers and distribution, the correlation between historical 
grazing and reduced sage-grouse numbers is not exact.
     Habitat manipulations to improve livestock forage, such as 
sagebrush removal, can affect sage-grouse habitat.
    In 2006, we concluded that there was insufficient data to 
demonstrate that current grazing was a rangewide threat to the species. 
In 2013, several new references related to grazing were available for 
consideration (Coates 2007, Hagen et al. 2007, Aldridge et al. 2008, 
France et al. 2008, BLM 2008, BLM 2009a, Gunnison County Stockgrowers 
2009, Knick et al. 2011, Pyke 2011, Williams and Hild 2011, BLM 2012a). 
Our conclusion in 2013 was that habitat degradation can result from 
improperly managed grazing, and, particularly with the interacting 
factors of invasive weed expansion and climate change, is a threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse persistence. Climate change was not included as a 
factor in 2006, but in 2013 we stated that climate change is likely to 
become an increasingly important threat to the persistence of Gunnison 
sage-grouse. We also noted in our 2013 proposed rule that livestock 
grazing can cause local impacts, but population-level impacts are 
unlikely. We make the same conclusions in this final rule (see Factor 
A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory).
    (78) Comment: Some commenters stated that wildlife herbivory needs 
to be addressed.
    Our Response: In the proposed and final rules, we discuss wild 
ungulate herbivory. It occurs throughout the range of the Gunnison 
sage-grouse, and there are instances of overgrazing by wild ungulates 
on a local level. In this final rule, we note that the effects of 
livestock grazing are likely being exacerbated by browsing of woody 
species by wild ungulates in portions of the Gunnison Basin and the 
Crawford area (see Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate 
Herbivory).
    (79) Comment: One commenter noted that very little private or 
public land in Dolores County is grazed.
    Our Response: More than 81 percent of lands in Dove Creek are 
privately owned. We do not have information regarding what percentage 
of private lands occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse in Dolores County is 
grazed.
    (80) Comment: One commenter suggested that grazing should be 
reduced or eliminated on public lands.
    Our Response: Properly managed livestock grazing is not likely to 
impact Gunnison sage-grouse such that it threatens populations or the 
species. The BLM and USFS manage grazing allotments on their lands, and 
currently consider conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse on many of 
their allotments. Allotments occur on approximately 292,000 ha (720,000 
ac) or 77 percent of occupied habitat (Industrial Economics, Inc. 2013, 
p. 3-1). Stocking rates have declined significantly in recent years. 
Both agencies have designated the Gunnison sage-grouse as a ``Sensitive 
Species.'' This designation requires the BLM and the USFS to address 
the species in their RMPs, and their Land and Resource Management Plans 
(LRMPs), respectively. Management actions in these plans include 
changes to seasons of use, AUM reductions, rotational grazing, and 
other changes to grazing management practices. When the Gunnison sage-
grouse is listed, actions on allotments that might affect the species 
will require ESA section 7 consultations under the Act in all areas 
occupied by the species. Section 9 prohibitions against ``take'' will 
also apply.
    (81) Comment: Several commenters asserted that invasive plants such 
as cheatgrass and pi[ntilde]on-juniper are not a proven threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse; they have only been proven a threat with greater 
sage-grouse. One commenter noted that cheatgrass has increased within 
the Gunnison sage-grouse range and is a major threat in the Gunnison 
Basin.
    Our Response: Cheatgrass can shorten fire intervals in sagebrush 
communities. Pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment is potential evidence of 
extended fire intervals. Either change in fire intervals can adversely 
impact habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse by reducing sagebrush 
cover. Based on what is known about the effects of cheatgrass and 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper on greater sage-grouse, it is reasonable to infer 
their expansion has similar effects on Gunnison sage-grouse. In this 
final rule we conclude that neither invasive weeds nor pi[ntilde]on-
juniper encroachment are substantial threats to Gunnison sage-

[[Page 69220]]

grouse at this time, due to their limited extent; however, they are 
potential future threats (see Factor A, Invasive Plants and 
Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment).
    (82) Comment: Several commenters stated that drought is causing a 
decline in Gunnison sage-grouse numbers; conversely, one commenter 
stated that drought is not a threat. Several commenters also stated 
that the Monticello-Dove Creek area has degraded Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat due to climate change and drought.
    Our Response: The proposed rule to list the species stated that it 
is too speculative to conclude that drought alone is a threat to the 
species at this time; however, based on rapid species decline in 
drought years, it is likely that drought exacerbates other known 
threats and thus can negatively affect the species. Drought and 
associated effects are discussed further in Factors A and E and 
Cumulative Effects From Factors A through E of this rule.
    (83) Comment: Several commenters stated that prescribed fire 
creates a desirable habitat mosaic, but may also cause a short-term 
decline in sagebrush.
    Our Response: In Factor A (Fire) of the proposed and final rules we 
state that in mesic areas used for brood-rearing, small fires may 
maintain a suitable habitat mosaic by reducing shrub encroachment and 
encouraging understory growth. However, without available sagebrush 
cover nearby, the utility of these sites is questionable.
    (84) Comment: Some commenters asserted that climate change is not a 
threat because it will not occur within the foreseeable future.
    Our Response: Climate change is ongoing and cumulative. The 
proposed and final rules conclude that climate change is not a threat 
to the Gunnison sage-grouse at this time, but is likely to become a 
threat to the persistence of the species over the next 40 years. The 
Gunnison sage-grouse was found to be ``highly vulnerable'' to climate 
change in the Gunnison Basin (TNC et al. 2011, p. 48).
    (85) Comment: Some commenters noted that fire suppression and 
reduced fire frequency due to grazing have caused pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
encroachment into sagebrush habitat.
    Our Response: Pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment has been attributed 
to the reduced role of fire, the introduction of livestock grazing, 
increases in global carbon dioxide concentrations, climate change, and 
natural recovery from past disturbance. Most Gunnison sage-grouse 
population areas are experiencing low to moderate levels of 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment, although considerable encroachment 
has occurred at Pi[ntilde]on Mesa (see Factor A, Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper 
Encroachment in All Population Areas). We discuss the relationship 
between fire and pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment in this final rule 
(see Factor A, Fire and Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment).
    (86) Comment: Some commenters noted that the historical fire 
rotation was 178-357 years in Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. 
wyomingensis) and 90-143 years in mountain big sagebrush; these 
rotation intervals may or may not be changing.
    Our Response: These time periods are from Bukowski and Baker (2013, 
p. 5). The authors concluded that fire size, rate of burning, and 
severity may be changing due to land-use changes, fire exclusion, and 
invasive species such as cheatgrass. Crawford et al. (2004, p. 2) 
stated that fire ecology changed dramatically with European settlement. 
In high elevation sagebrush habitat, fire return intervals increased 
from 12-24 years to more than 50 years, resulting in invasion of 
conifers and a resulting loss in shrubs and herbaceous understory; at 
lower elevations, fire return intervals decreased dramatically from 50-
100 years to less than 10 years due to invasion by annual grasses. TNC 
et al. (2011, p. 12) predicted a trend of higher fire frequency and 
severity in the Gunnison Basin due to climate change.
    (87) Comment: Two commenters noted that drought has encouraged 
invasive plants.
    Our Response: Drought can increase the likelihood of some invasive 
plants such as cheatgrass out-competing native perennials. The 
potential effects of drought and invasive plants on Gunnison sage-
grouse and its habitat are further described in Factors A (Invasive 
Plants) and E (Drought) of this final rule.
    (88) Comment: One commenter stated that climate change is adversely 
affecting Gunnison sage-grouse, but it cannot be mitigated by the 
Service.
    Our Response: The Service can do little to avert climate change; 
however, actions can be taken to minimize specific impacts and improve 
the resiliency of species in the face of climate change. For example, 
the preferred Gunnison sage-grouse habitat for early brood-rearing 
includes riparian areas and wet meadows near sagebrush that provide the 
insects and forbs essential for chick survival. These habitat types are 
highly vulnerable to impacts from climate change and have been 
seriously degraded, but management actions can be taken to maintain and 
restore these important habitats (TNC et al. 2011, p. H-9-10).
    (89) Comment: One commenter stated that if there are similar trends 
in Gunnison sage-grouse populations separated by long distances, the 
driver could be climate change.
    Our Response: This hypothesis is plausible, although there is no 
evidence to support this hypothesis. This final rule discusses the 
potential impacts of climate change and drought in Factors A (Climate 
change) and E (Drought), and the associated effects on Gunnison sage-
grouse.
    (90) Comment: Several commenters stated that predator numbers have 
increased and are likely a threat to the Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: Predator populations can increase as a result of 
habitat fragmentation and degradation, causing otherwise suitable 
habitat to become a population sink for sage-grouse. The best available 
information indicates that, as we stated in our proposed rule, 
predation is a current and future threat to the species, particularly 
in the satellite populations Predation is discussed further under 
Factor C in this final rule.
    (91) Comment: Several commenters suggested that predator levels 
could be managed to relieve the threat from predation.
    Our Response: Predator removal efforts sometimes result in short-
term population gains for sage-grouse, but predator numbers quickly 
rebound without continual control (Hagen 2011, p. 99). Predation may be 
limiting some of the smaller populations of Gunnison sage-grouse, and 
in those cases predator control efforts may be appropriate. The best 
available information indicates that, as we stated in our proposed 
rule, predation is a current and future threat to the species, 
particularly in the satellite populations. While predation likely acts 
as a threat in localized areas across the range of the species, the 
stability of the Gunnison Basin population over the last 19 years 
indicates that predation is not having a significant impact on that 
population. We believe, however, that the effects of predation are more 
pronounced in the satellite populations. Given the stability of the 
Gunnison Basin population, we do not believe that the magnitude of this 
threat is significant at the rangewide level.While predation is a 
threat rangewide, we believe that the effects of predation are 
localized and more pronounced in the satellite populations, and 
therefore we do not believe that the magnitude of this threat is 
significant (see Factor C, Predation).
    (92) Comment: Some commenters recommended that we reevaluate our 
conclusions regarding nest depredation by elk (Cervus canadensis) and 
cattle.

[[Page 69221]]

    Our Response: The proposed and final rules document that livestock 
can trample nests, either destroying eggs or causing abandonment by 
hens. We also cite references that list several species of nest 
predators, including elk and domestic cows (see Factor C). However, the 
best available information indicates that nest predation by livestock 
and elk has negligible impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse at the 
population level (See Factor C, Predation).
    (93) Comment: Some commenters noted that many predators of Gunnison 
sage-grouse are protected and cannot be controlled.
    Our Response: Migratory birds such as raptors are protected under 
the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712). Take of these 
species requires a Federal permit. However, most mammalian predators of 
Gunnison sage-grouse and some birds may be controlled. Nevertheless, 
predator control efforts will likely only be effective under special 
circumstances (see our response to comment 48).
    (94) Comment: Some commenters believed that raptor concentrations 
associated with powerlines are not evidence of increased predation on 
Gunnison sage-grouse, and that perch deterrents are not successful over 
the long-term. One commenter provided a paper that summarized studies 
regarding sage-grouse and powerlines (EDM International, Inc. 2011).
    Our Response: In the proposed and final rules, we present numerous 
peer-reviewed studies that have demonstrated an increase in corvids and 
raptors associated with powerlines and transmission lines, which we 
infer could logically lead to increased predation of sage-grouse. We 
discuss these topics further under Factors A (Powerlines) and E 
(Predation) in this final rule.
    (95) Comment: Some commenters suggested that the risk from the 
parasite Tryptmosoma cruzi and the encephalitis virus should be 
investigated.
    Our Response: In Factor C of this final rule we evaluate the best 
available information on diseases in Gunnison sage-grouse and greater 
sage-grouse, including West Nile virus, an encephalitis virus lethal to 
greater sage-grouse and other gallinaceous birds. We also discuss other 
pathogens potentially relevant to Gunnison sage-grouse, based on data 
provided by CPW. We are not aware of other scientific information 
related to disease in Gunnison sage-grouse. To our knowledge, 
Tryptmosoma cruzi is a disease endemic to Latin America and does not 
pose a threat to sage-grouse.
    (96) Comment: Some commenters stated that there is no evidence that 
disease is currently a threat. One commenter noted that there is a low 
abundance of the mosquito species that are known vectors of West Nile 
virus, and all mosquitos and Gunnison sage-grouse sampled by CPW tested 
negative.
    Our Response: In the proposed rule, we determined that West Nile 
virus is a potential future threat, but it, and other diseases and 
parasitic infections, were not considered a current threat. We received 
comments from the scientific community expressing concern with this 
conclusion, particularly in regard to West Nile virus, based on the 
following information: To date, West Nile virus has not been documented 
in Gunnison sage-grouse, but is present in all counties throughout the 
species' range (USGS 2013, entire). Walker and Naugle (2011, p. 140) 
predicted that West Nile virus outbreaks in small, isolated, and 
genetically depauperate populations could reduce sage-grouse numbers 
below a threshold from which recovery is unlikely because of limited or 
nonexistent demographic and genetic exchange from adjacent populations. 
Therefore, a West Nile virus outbreak in any Gunnison sage-grouse 
population, except perhaps the Gunnison Basin population, could limit 
the persistence of that population. This information is discussed 
further in Factor C of this final rule.
    (97) Comment: One commenter stated that Sovada et al. (1995) does 
not support the assertion that red fox and corvid populations are 
increasing.
    Our Response: We removed this citation from the final rule, because 
the study is not relevant to our analysis. Our proposed rule, in error, 
stated that Sovada et al. (1995, p. 5) found that ``red fox and 
corvids, which historically were rare in the sagebrush landscape, have 
increased in association with human altered landscapes.'' However, the 
author only speculated that abundance of these species had increased in 
sagebrush habitats over time. In this final rule, we discuss how 
anthropogenic pressures can influence the diversity and density of 
predators based on other studies (see Factor C).
    (98) Comment: One commenter stated that predation threats to 
Gunnison sage-grouse cannot be presumed to be similar to predation 
threats to greater sage-grouse.
    Our Response: In the proposed and final rules, we use the best 
available scientific and commercial data. We also note that we use 
information specific to the Gunnison sage-grouse where available but 
still applied scientific management principles for greater sage-grouse 
that are relevant to Gunnison sage-grouse management needs and 
strategies.
    (99) Comment: One commenter asserted that the threat of predation 
by raptors is exaggerated.
    Our Response: The proposed and final rules state that predation is 
the most commonly identified cause of direct mortality for Gunnison 
sage-grouse during all life stages and discuss common predators of 
adults, juveniles, and eggs. We also present information from 
scientific studies that demonstrate the potential impact of raptor 
predation on sage-grouse (see Factor C, Predation).
    (100) Comment: One commenter noted that in Dolores County at least 
one person has contracted West Nile virus, and a significant number of 
dead birds have been found.
    Our Response: The proposed rule to list the species stated that 
there have been no confirmed avian mortalities from West Nile virus in 
San Miguel, Dolores, and Hinsdale Counties (78 FR 2519, January 11, 
2013). For updates in the final rule, we revisited records from the 
Centers for Disease Control (USGS 2013, entire) for West Nile reports 
in Colorado and Utah. Those records indicate that a total of 84 dead 
wild birds (species other than Gunnison sage-grouse) infected by West 
Nile virus have been reported from nine counties within the current 
range of the Gunnison sage-grouse since 2002, when reporting began in 
Colorado and Utah. In this final rule we conclude that West Nile virus 
is a future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse (see Factor C).
    (101) Comment: Several commenters stated that conservation 
easements, CCAs, and CCAAs protect Gunnison sage-grouse, either 
directly or through protection of sagebrush habitat. Varying estimates 
of lands under conservation easements were provided, with most 
commenters citing the properties and acreages identified in Lohr and 
Gray (2013). Other commenters provided estimates of lands enrolled in 
the CCAA. Another commenter noted that 17.4 percent of all private 
lands in both occupied and unoccupied proposed critical habitat are 
protected through either conservation easements or CCAAs. Since 1995, a 
commenter reported, private landowners, local, and State expenditures 
towards Gunnison sage-grouse conservation exceed $31 million.
    Our Response: We applaud these efforts towards Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation. Continuation of conservation efforts across the species' 
range will be necessary for conservation and recovery of the species. 
Conservation easements and CCAAs

[[Page 69222]]

provide some level of protection for the species from future 
development on enrolled lands. In this final rule, we add information 
provided in Lohr and Gray (2013), update estimates for lands enrolled 
in CCAAs and conservation easements, and consider these conservation 
efforts in our listing decision as appropriate (see Factors A and D).
    (102) Comment: Several commenters asserted that the current 
regulations are either adequate or inadequate to address threats to the 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: There have been major strides in improving 
regulations to protect Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat. Examples 
include Gunnison and Montrose County regulations for land use 
permitting in occupied habitat. Nonetheless, for the reasons stated in 
Factor D of this rule, existing regulatory mechanisms currently do not 
fully address the threat of habitat decline caused by human development 
in the species range. In addition, under the Act, the adequacy or 
inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms is just one of several factors upon 
which our determination to list a species must be based. As described 
in the proposed and final rules, there are multiple other threats 
contributing to the species' decline rangewide. Therefore, even the 
most protective local regulations may be insufficient to address all 
threats to the species, or halt recent declines in many of the 
populations, such that protection of the species under the Act is not 
warranted. In Factor D of this final rule, we evaluate the best 
available information related to existing regulatory mechanisms that 
address threats to Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat (Factors A 
through C, and E).
    (103) Comment: Several commenters stated that the Service should 
discuss existing land use policies and regulatory mechanisms with local 
governments.
    Our Response: The Service has been engaged with Federal agencies, 
the States of Colorado and Utah, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, affected 
counties, and other interested parties throughout the listing process 
via letters, emails, telephone calls, meetings, and other means. Verbal 
and written comments have been carefully considered and in many 
instances incorporated into this final rule.
    (104) Comment: Some commenters noted that resources on private 
lands are not managed to a lesser standard than resources on Federal 
lands.
    Our Response: These comments may have been referring to our 
assessment of private lands in the grazing section of the proposed 
rule. In this final rule (see Factor A, Domestic Grazing and Wild 
Ungulate Herbivory), we revise our language to state that we have more 
limited information on the extent of grazing, management, and habitat 
conditions on non-Federal lands. Although Federal land and livestock 
grazing may be more regulated, we cannot make any generalizations about 
how habitat conditions in those areas might compare with private lands 
where livestock grazing occurs. We note, however, that grazing 
allotments containing both Federal and private lands are, in some 
cases, managed to meet BLM land health standards through coordination 
and cooperation with grazing permittees (BLM 2013c, p. 1-2).
    (105) Comment: Some commenters noted that as a designated 
``sensitive species'' the BLM must address Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation in their Resource Management Plans and associated activity 
plans.
    Our Response: We acknowledge that the commenter is correct (see 
Factor D, Federal Laws and Regulations).
    (106) Comment: Some commenters stated that the COGCC protects 
wildlife resources and their habitat.
    Our Response: The COGCC implements several environmental 
regulations that provide protection to the Gunnison sage-grouse and its 
habitat. These regulations generally apply to both Federal and private 
lands, although they may conflict with Federal regulations in some 
cases. The COGCC classifies all Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat 
as ``Sensitive Wildlife Habitat'' that requires operators to: (1) 
Consult with CPW to evaluate options for minimizing adverse habitat 
impacts, (2) educate employees and contractors on conservation 
practices, (3) consolidate new facilities to minimize disturbance, (4) 
control road access and limit traffic, and (5) monitor wells remotely 
when possible. The COGCC also designates lek areas as ``Restricted 
Surface Occupancy Areas'' that requires operators to: (1) Comply with 
all requirements for ``Sensitive Wildlife Habitat'' and (2) avoid all 
new ground-disturbing activities if feasible. The COGCC does not 
require these protections in unoccupied habitat (COGCC 2014). We 
discuss COGCC regulations in this final rule (see Factor D, State Laws 
and Regulations).
    (107) Comment: Some commenters noted that parcels of 35 ac (14 ha) 
or more are not exempted from State or county oversight.
    Our Response: We include this information in this final rule, and 
acknowledge that counties have regulatory controls applicable to plus-
35 acre development and projects (see Factor D, Local Laws and 
Regulations).
    (108) Comment: Some commenters suggested that a PECE analysis 
should be conducted.
    Our Response: Our Policy for Evaluation of Conservation Efforts 
(PECE) is used by the Service when making listing decisions under the 
Act. It established criteria for determining when we can consider in 
our listing determination future formalized conservation efforts that 
have not yet been implemented, or have been implemented, but have not 
yet demonstrated whether they are effective at the time of the listing 
decision. Numerous conservation actions have already been implemented 
for Gunnison sage-grouse, and these efforts have provided and will 
continue to provide conservation benefit to the species. These 
implemented efforts are considered in the appropriate section of this 
rule. Additionally, there are recently formalized future conservation 
efforts that intend to provide conservation benefits to the Gunnison 
sage-grouse; some of which have not been fully implemented or shown to 
be effective. A PECE analysis was conducted by the Service for these 
conservation efforts that are too recent to have demonstrated 
effectiveness as of this listing determination. This is described 
further under Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat 
Conservation. Efforts that are considered regulatory are considered 
under Factor D of this rule.
    (109) Comment: Two commenters stated that the BLM and USFS must 
modify all existing leases and permit allotments in Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat to incorporate enforceable terms and conditions to 
protect the species.
    Our Response: Current BLM RMPs and USFS LRMPs provide some 
regulatory protection for the species. Changes to grazing allotment 
management have occurred, consistent with existing RMPs, over the past 
10 years as permits have been revised or renewed. The extent to which 
appropriate measures to reduce or eliminate other threats to the 
species have been incorporated into planning documents or are being 
implemented, varies across the species' range and will likely continue 
to evolve as a result of BLM's on-going revision of several RMPs in the 
species' range and its planned landscape-level, targeted RMP amendments 
for the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse on BLM-administered public 
lands in Colorado and Utah (see Factor D, Federal Laws and 
Regulations).

[[Page 69223]]

    (110) Comment: Some commenters noted that although conservation 
easements are voluntary, they are legally binding once they have been 
recorded; therefore, they may offer regulatory protection. One 
commenter stated that voluntary conservation measures do not constitute 
adequate regulatory mechanisms if they are not enforceable and are not 
rangewide.
    Our Response: We consider conservation easements to be an effective 
regulatory tool for the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse, to the 
extent that they permanently limit or restrict land uses for identified 
conservation values and purposes and prevent long-term or permanent 
habitat loss (see Factor D, Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation 
Easements). Other conservation efforts such as the CCA and CCAA are not 
considered regulatory mechanisms; and are therefore evaluated in Factor 
A, Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Protection.
    (111) Comment: One commenter suggested that the Land and Water 
Conservation Fund could be used to acquire Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat.
    Our Response: We agree that this would be a reasonable expenditure 
for the Land and Water Conservation Fund. However, there is a backlog 
of Federal land acquisition needs, estimated at more than $30 billion, 
which could impede timely use of the Fund for this purpose.
    (112) Comment: One commenter asserted that conservation agreements 
are a violation of Federal and State constitutions.
    Our Response: Conservation agreements have been successfully used 
by Federal and State agencies for several years to improve the status 
of many wildlife species and their habitats; we are not aware of any 
instances where they have been found to be unconstitutional, nor do we 
have any reason to believe that they are unconstitutional.
    (113) Comment: Several commenters stated that oil and gas companies 
may cease operations if the Gunnison sage-grouse is listed or critical 
habitat is designated for the species. Some commenters asserted that 
they have been unable to lease their mineral rights as a result of the 
anticipated listing of the species. Several commenters also noted that 
a large percentage of county revenues in Dolores and Montezuma Counties 
are from oil and gas activities.
    Our Response: While restrictions may be placed on various types of 
development that are subject to consultation under section 7 of the Act 
(on Federal lands or with Federal permitting or funding), the Service 
does not intend to preclude mineral or fossil fuel extraction as a 
result of listing or designating critical habitat. As noted in our 
response to comment 106, the COGCC implements several environmental 
regulations on both Federal and private lands that provide some 
protection to the Gunnison sage-grouse and occupied habitat. The BLM 
generally requires conservation measures on leases it issues. We may 
also seek project modifications during section 7 consultations to 
benefit Gunnison sage-grouse.
    (114) Comment: Some commenters suggested that wind energy 
development should be allowed to proceed.
    Our Response: The Endangered Species Act contains provisions to 
allow development projects to go forward even if they are within 
critical habitat or could result in take of a listed species, if those 
projects are done in accordance with sections 7 and 10 of the Act. For 
a discussion of wind energy development as a threat to the species, see 
discussion of Renewable Energy Development in Factor A.
    (115) Comment: Some commenters expressed concern that potash mining 
in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat may cease operations if the species is 
listed or critical habitat designated. RM Potash expressed concerns 
that listing may delay their project (Thorson 2013).
    Our Response: Potash exploration is planned on BLM lands within 
Gunnison sage-grouse unoccupied habitat in San Miguel and Dolores 
Counties. The BLM requires operators to adopt conservation efforts 
specified in the RMP for this area. These conservation efforts are 
required with or without listing the species under the Act. When the 
species is listed and critical habitat is designated, section 7 
consultation will also be required. The amount of time necessary to 
complete a section 7 consultation will vary depending on the complexity 
of the project and the anticipated level of impacts to the species. In 
this final rule we consider the development of leasable minerals such 
as potash a low threat to the species (see Factor A, Mineral 
Development).
    (116) Comment: Two commenters stated that oil and gas development 
threatens some Gunnison sage-grouse populations in San Miguel County.
    Our Response: Approximately 13 percent of occupied habitat within 
the San Miguel Basin population has authorized Federal leases for oil 
and gas development; production is currently occurring on approximately 
five percent of this lease area. Currently, 25 gas wells are active 
within occupied habitat and 18 additional active wells are immediately 
adjacent to occupied habitat. All of these wells are in or near the Dry 
Creek subpopulation. In this final rule we consider the development of 
leasable minerals such as oil and gas a low threat to the species (see 
Factor A, Mineral Development).
    (117) Comment: Two commenters suggested that energy companies could 
contribute money for Gunnison sage-grouse conservation.
    Our Response: Energy companies that pursue development in Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat must follow stipulations provided in the applicable 
BLM RMP (if Federal minerals are involved) and comply with applicable 
COGCC regulations. The annual costs associated with required 
conservation efforts represent a contribution by energy companies.
    (118) Comment: One commenter suggested that energy development is 
not a threat to the Gunnison sage-grouse because: (1) There is not 
adequate information to indicate that renewable energy development is a 
threat, and (2) impacts from non-renewable energy development are very 
localized.
    Our Response: We do not consider renewable energy development to be 
a threat to the species at this time (see Factor A, Renewable Energy 
Development). As noted in our responses to comment 116, we consider the 
development of non-renewable energy (leasable minerals) a low threat to 
the species (see Factor A, Mineral Development).
    (119) Comment: One commenter asked if power companies will be able 
to clear sagebrush under their power lines.
    Our Response: The Endangered Species Act contains provisions to 
allow projects to go forward even if they are within habitat, critical 
habitat or could result in take of a listed species, if those projects 
are done in accordance with sections 7 and 10 of the Act. Listed 
species, both within and outside of critical habitat, are protected 
from take, which includes harming (e.g., shooting, killing, trapping, 
collecting) and harassing individual animals. Incidental take that may 
result from, but is not the purpose of, otherwise legal activities 
without a Federal nexus may be allowed with a permit available from the 
Service under section 10 of the Act. Pursuant to section 7 of the Act, 
Federal agencies are also required to consult with the Service 
regarding any action authorized, funded, or carried out by the agency 
that may affect a listed species, both within and outside of critical 
habitat, to ensure that the Federal action does not

[[Page 69224]]

jeopardize the existence of any listed species. Sagebrush clearing 
under power lines would likely need to be addressed, and effects 
minimized, through section 7 or 10 of the Act.
    (120) Comment: One commenter suggested that leks in areas of energy 
development be relocated.
    Our Response: Relocating leks is likely not in the best interest of 
the species. Sage-grouse often will continue to return to altered 
breeding habitats including leks, nesting areas, and early brood-
rearing areas due to the species' strong site fidelity, despite past 
nesting or productivity failures (Rogers 1964, pp. 35-40; Wiens and 
Rotenberry 1985, p. 666; Young 1994, p. 42; Lyon 2000, p. 20; Connelly 
et al. 2004, pp. 3-4-3-6; Holloran and Anderson 2005, p. 747). Broad-
scale characteristics within surrounding landscapes influence habitat 
selection, and adult Gunnison sage-grouse exhibit a high fidelity to 
all seasonal habitats, resulting in low adaptability to habitat 
changes. A study of greater sage-grouse concluded that strong site 
fidelity makes natural re-colonization slow and that anthropogenic 
translocations into areas with no resident populations are unlikely to 
succeed (Doherty 2008, pp. 80-81). We believe that this conclusion 
applies to the Gunnison sage-grouse as well because it exhibits similar 
site fidelity characteristics.
    (121) Comment: One commenter stated that information regarding 
impacts from energy development is based on studies of greater sage-
grouse rather than Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: There is more information available specific to 
greater sage-grouse due to the fact that Gunnison sage-grouse was not 
recognized as a distinct species until 2000, which means only 14 years 
of species-specific research is potentially available. The greater 
sage-grouse also has a much broader range, with several states 
monitoring and managing the species. The life history and ecology of 
the two species are very similar, therefore, with minimal information 
available regarding impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse from energy 
development, it is reasonable to also consider impacts to greater sage-
grouse from energy development when determining whether or not this 
development is a threat to the Gunnison sage-grouse. In this final rule 
we do not consider renewable energy development to be a current threat 
to the species rangewide; we consider non-renewable energy development 
to be a threat of low magnitude to Gunnison sage-grouse (see Factor A, 
Mineral Development and Renewable Energy Development).
    (122) Comment: One commenter asserted that the Federal government 
has put an end to oil and gas drilling throughout the range of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: Of approximately 22,000 ha (54,000 ac) leased by BLM 
within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in Colorado, 38 percent are 
currently in production, with 67 active wells. In Utah, approximately 
1,100 ha (2,700 ac) are leased within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, 
with none currently in production. On non-Federal lands there are five 
active wells in Colorado and three active wells in Utah (Industrial 
Economics, Inc. 2013, p. 5-4). Since 2005, the BLM has temporarily 
withheld new oil and gas leases from sales throughout occupied Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat in Colorado. However, leases can be sold on 
unoccupied habitat, and oil and gas development continues on private 
lands.
    (123) Comment: Several commenters stated that voluntary 
conservation measures and local regulations should be fully considered.
    Our Response: We agree. Local regulations and voluntary 
conservation measures such as conservation easements, CCAAs, and CCAs 
provide formal protection for the Gunnison sage-grouse. We recognize 
that such efforts contribute to the conservation of Gunnison sage-
grouse. Under Factor D we evaluate whether threats to the Gunnison 
sage-grouse are adequately addressed by existing regulatory mechanisms, 
including local regulations, conservation easements, State regulations, 
and Federal regulations. CCAAs and CCAs are discussed under Factor A, 
Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to habitat Protection.
    (124) Comment: Several commenters stated that the DPS analysis 
needs to be described in more detail for the seven Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations.
    Our Response: The term ``distinct population segment'' (DPS) is 
included in the definition of species in Section 3(16) of the Act, 
which describes a DPS as any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife 
which interbreeds when mature. We have a policy that guides our 
consideration of DPS issues. In addition to full taxonomic species and 
subspecies, a DPS of any vertebrate species is eligible for 
consideration for purposes of listing, delisting, or reclassifying. The 
authority to list a DPS is to be used sparingly and only when the 
biological evidence indicates that such action is warranted. In order 
to be considered a DPS, a population must be both discrete and 
significant. If a population segment is discrete and significant, it 
can be evaluated with regard to whether it is endangered or threatened. 
This analysis is different from an SPR (Significant Portion of the 
Range) analysis. We considered the entire range of the Gunnison sage-
grouse in our listing evaluation and found that it warranted listing 
throughout its range; therefore, there was no need to evaluate 
individual population segments for consideration as a DPS. In addition, 
we do not believe any biological evidence warrants the listing of any 
DPS.
    (125) Comment: Several commenters stated that the proposed rules 
rely too much on the use of linguistically uncertain or vague wording 
to support their conclusions.
    Our Response: Natural sciences, including wildlife biology, 
typically do not deal in absolutes. Studies seldom evaluate all members 
of a species or address all possible variables. Consequently, 
conclusions often include wording to address this uncertainty. Tools 
such as adaptive management can strengthen the decision-making process 
by incorporating new information and adjusting decisions accordingly. 
This has occurred with the Gunnison sage-grouse--as more information 
has become available, we have adjusted and refined our recommendations 
from the proposed to the final rule.
    (126) Comment: One commenter stated that if a stressor is not a 
threat; the regulatory mechanisms associated with that stressor cannot 
be considered a threat.
    Our Response: We agree. For example, if hunting is not considered a 
threat, then the regulations associated with hunting would not be 
considered inadequate. In other instances, it may not be possible to 
adequately address a threat through regulatory mechanisms (e.g., small 
population size, disease, climate change). We also recognize that 
regulatory mechanisms may help reduce impacts of a particular threat 
(e.g., residential development in Gunnison County), and yet not fully 
address this or other threats to the species.
    (127) Comment: Two commenters asserted that tribal concerns have 
not been addressed.
    Our Response: We have considered tribal concerns in this final 
rule. The Service underwent a Government to Government consultation 
with the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe regarding the Species Management Plan 
developed for the tribal-owned Pinecrest Ranch. This topic is discussed 
in detail in Factor A (Conservation Programs and Efforts) of this final 
rule.
    (128) Comment: Some commenters asserted that initial town hall 
meetings

[[Page 69225]]

were not conducted properly because no public meetings were held in 
Montezuma County, there was a faulty sound system, too short of a time-
frame for the meeting, poor coordination, and some comments were not 
recorded.
    Our Response: No public meetings were held in Montezuma County 
because no critical habitat was proposed in that county, nor is the 
species known to occur in that area. We apologize to anyone who 
experienced difficulties in hearing the discussions, did not feel that 
adequate time was provided, or felt there was poor coordination between 
the Service and local governments. In November, 2013, additional public 
hearings were held in Gunnison and Montrose, Colorado; and in 
Monticello, Utah to ensure that we provided adequate opportunity for 
public comment to occur through our hearing process. In addition, 
written comments were accepted during the reopened comment periods. 
These processes are discussed in Previous Federal Actions in this final 
rule.
    (129) Comment: Two commenters asserted that the Service's decision-
making process for listing is influenced by the International Union for 
Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
    Our Response: The IUCN does not influence our decision-making 
process. We provided information on IUCN's ranking of the species for 
background only; these assessments are not factored into our analysis 
or listing determination in this rule. We make this clarification in 
this final rule (see Additional Special Status Information).
    (130) Comment: One commenter suggested that the RCP not be 
considered in the listing decision because of its questionable legality 
and methodology.
    Our Response: We believe that the RCP used sound methods which 
constituted the best available information at the time. The RCP 
specifically states that it is not a legal or regulatory document 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 1). Accordingly, we do not consider it a regulatory 
mechanism, but do consider it in Factor A as a Conservation Program and 
Effort. The plan was developed cooperatively by the BLM, CPW, NPS, 
NRCS, USFS, the Service, and UDWR. It was intended to supplement local 
conservation plans and provide additional guidance to aid in 
conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse. New research and monitoring 
data has been collected since the plan was written; however, we still 
regard this as a valuable document. In many instances it provides the 
best available information regarding habitat requirements, distribution 
and abundance, threats, and current conservation strategies for the 
species.
    (131) Comment: Some commenters recommended that a range management 
school be created to address Gunnison sage-grouse and other issues.
    Our Response: In 2006, the Gunnison County Stockgrowers' 
Association, supported by a Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative 
Grant, organized a training workshop, called Range Management School, 
for 37 participants including private ranchers, permittees of Federal 
grazing allotments, Federal land managers, and other interested 
parties. We support this type of educational program.
    (132) Comment: Two commenters suggested that a classification of 
``threatened'' is a better approach than a classification of 
``endangered.''
    Our Response: Based upon the analysis of additional data and new 
information received during the comment period, we have concluded that 
``threatened'' is the appropriate determination. Our analysis and a 
detailed explanation for this determination are presented in this final 
rule (see Determination).
    (133) Comment: One commenter stated that snowmobiling does not 
conflict with lek activities because snowmobiling season ends before 
lek activities begin and snowmobiling requires snow depths adequate to 
bury sagebrush.
    Our Response: Snowmobiling was evaluated as a recreational activity 
under Factor E in the proposed rule to list the species. We cited 
several sources that identified snowmobiles as one form of recreation 
that may be of concern. In this final rule we conclude that 
recreational activities in general are not a threat at a rangewide or 
population level, but could impact individuals at the local level (see 
Factor B).
    (134) Comment: Two commenters suggested that overutilization for 
scientific research may be a factor in Gunnison sage-grouse declines.
    Our Response: We describe mortality risks from scientific research 
in the proposed and final rules to list the species and conclude that 
the associated mortality rate is low (two percent) and is not a threat 
at the population or species level (see Factor B).
    (135) Comment: One commenter asserted that chemicals used in 
households and farming have affected Gunnison sage-grouse habitat more 
than other factors.
    Our Response: We evaluate the effects of pesticides, contaminants 
associated with non-renewable energy development, and accidental spills 
associated with pipelines and transportation corridors in this final 
rule. We conclude that none of these posed a threat to the species (see 
Factor E, Pesticides and Herbicides).
    (136) Comment: One commenter stated that Gunnison sage-grouse are 
in an extinction vortex.
    Our Response: ``Extinction vortex'' is a modeling term that 
describes the process in a declining population where greater rates of 
decline occur as the population falls below a minimum viable number and 
approaches extinction. This final rule evaluates population trends 
across the range of the Gunnison sage-grouse. We determined that this 
species is threatened (i.e., likely to become an endangered species 
within the foreseeable future throughout all of its range). However, we 
do not believe that the species is at this time in an ``extinction 
vortex,'' which implies that extinction is inevitable.
    (137) Comment: One commenter stated that the number of off-highway 
vehicle (OHV) permits issued is not a good indication of the level of 
OHV use.
    Our Response: The proposed and final rules note that the number of 
annual OHV registrations in Colorado increased from approximately 
12,000 in 1991 to approximately 131,000 in 2007 (see Factor E, 
Recreation). This information is provided simply to note that OHV 
activity has increased. Although other factors also should be 
considered in determining the level of use by OHVs, an increase of more 
than an order of magnitude in registrations from 1991 to 2007 indicates 
that the level of use increased during that time period. We conclude 
that recreation does not pose a rangewide threat to the species, 
although it has the potential to cause individual or local impacts.
    (138) Comment: One commenter stated that aircraft-wildlife strikes 
pose a risk to aviation.
    Our Response: We are not aware of any studies or information 
demonstrating that Gunnison sage-grouse collisions with aircraft have 
occurred or are a concern.
    (139) Comment: One commenter stated that a recovery plan is needed.
    Our Response: Recovery Plans are typically drafted after a species 
is listed and provide guidance for recovery of threatened and 
endangered species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. Section 
4(f)(1) of the Act requires the Service to develop and implement these 
plans unless a plan will not promote the conservation of a species. 
Recovery plans should include: Management actions to conserve the 
species; objective, measurable criteria for determining when a species 
can be

[[Page 69226]]

removed from the list; and an estimate of the time and cost required to 
achieve recovery. We anticipate commencing a recovery planning process 
in the near future. Until that time, we are including a conservation 
strategy (see Conservation Measures for Gunnison Sage-Grouse Recovery) 
in this rule that will provide guidance for conservation efforts in the 
interim.
    (140) Comment: Several commenters noted specific ongoing projects 
or programs that improve Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.
    Our Response: We considered the projects and programs noted by the 
commenters in making our listing determination and finalizing this 
rule. Under Factors A and D in the proposed and final rules to list the 
species, we describe many of the conservation measures including local, 
State and Federal laws and regulations, conservation easements, the 
Gunnison Basin CCA, and enrollment in the Colorado CCAA that have been 
undertaken to improve or protect Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.
    (141) Comment: Some commenters suggested that the Service 
collaborate with the Colorado Farm Bureau (CFB) in Gunnison sage-grouse 
management.
    Our Response: We welcome input and participation from the CFB and 
other organizations. We received a comment letter from CFB that 
encouraged continued collaboration between the Service, private 
landowners, local and state governments, and others. We agree that 
working cooperatively with interested parties will aid in conservation 
and recovery of the Gunnison sage-grouse.
    (142) Comment: One commenter stated that when landowners enroll 
lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) they often stop 
maintaining ponds and wet meadows to the detriment of Gunnison sage-
grouse.
    Our Response: We are not aware of any information regarding the 
extent of ponds and wet meadows lost following enrollment in the CRP. 
We consider enrolled lands, particularly those enrolled under the CRP 
State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement initiative, to improve Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat in most cases. The CRP is implemented by the Farm 
Service Agency and promotes the conversion of environmentally sensitive 
land to long-term vegetative cover. The objectives of the program 
include reduction of soil erosion, protection of water resources, and 
enhancement of wildlife habitat. Approximately 23,000 ha (57,000 ac) of 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat are currently enrolled in the CRP 
(Industrial Economics, Inc. 2013, p. 4-5).
    (143) Comment: One commenter stated that wind farms are compatible 
with CRP, and wildlife protection.
    Our Response: The compatibility of wind farms with CRP as they 
relate to Gunnison sage-grouse, and wildlife protection would vary for 
each site, depending on the protective measures in place for wildlife, 
the location and number of turbines, the type of vegetative cover, and 
other variables.
    (144) Comment: One commenter stated that no explanation was 
provided for why Gunnison sage-grouse are no longer found in Arizona 
and New Mexico.
    Our Response: We note in the proposed and final rules that a 
description of the species' historical distribution was provided in the 
2010 12-month finding. In the 12-month finding, we state that much of 
what was once Gunnison sage-grouse habitat was lost prior to 1958 (75 
FR 59808, September 28, 2010). This included habitat loss throughout 
Arizona and New Mexico, as well as portions of Utah and Colorado. We 
summarize this information in the Background and Factor A sections of 
this final rule.
    (145) Comment: One commenter asserted that there is no evidence of 
Gunnison sage-grouse movement from Gunnison Basin to other populations.
    Our Response: Both the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa and Crawford 
populations are approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) from the Gunnison Basin 
population at their nearest points, which is well within movement 
distances documented for Gunnison sage-grouse. Sage-grouse require a 
diversity of seasonal habitats and are wide-ranging; therefore, they 
are capable of making large seasonal movements (Connelly et al. 2000a). 
Preliminary data in the Gunnison Basin documented bird movements as 
great as 56 km (35 mi) (Phillips 2013, p. 4). Most populations are 
currently geographically isolated, with low amounts of gene flow 
between populations. However, genetic analysis indicated that a recent 
migrant came to the Crawford population from the Gunnison Basin 
population; historically, populations were connected through more 
contiguous areas of sagebrush habitat (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005).
    (146) Comment: One commenter recommended that we distinguish 
between smaller distribution power lines and larger transmission power 
lines when assessing impacts and planning mitigation.
    Our Response: This final rule states that depending on the 
infrastructure design, size, location, and other factors, powerlines 
can directly affect greater sage-grouse by posing a collision and 
electrocution hazard (Braun 1998, pp. 145-146; Connelly et al. 2000a, 
p. 974) and can have indirect effects by decreasing lek recruitment 
(Braun et al. 2002, p. 10; Walker et al. 2007a, p. 2,644), increasing 
predation (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 13-12), fragmenting habitat (Braun 
1998, p. 146), and facilitating the invasion of exotic annual plants 
(Knick et al. 2003, p 612; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-25) (see Factor 
A, Powerlines). However, we have no information to precisely measure 
how powerlines and transmission lines vary in design or distribution 
across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, and how those effects might 
vary across time and space.
    (147) Comment: One commenter asserted that the proposed rules 
dismissed information provided by CPW.
    Our Response: In the proposed and final rules, we consider all 
information provided by CPW, and reference that information as 
appropriate throughout the rules.
    (148) Comment: One commenter recommended citing Davis (2012) 
regarding nest success.
    Our Response: In this final rule (see Factor E, Effective 
Population Size and Population Viability Analyses), we include a 
thorough discussion and evaluation of Davis's (2012) findings, 
including observed differences in nest success between populations.
    (149) Comment: Several commenters stated that we should not 
interfere in CPW's management of Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: We recognize the proactive management of Gunnison 
sage-grouse by CPW and continue to work with this agency for the 
species' conservation. However, our analysis in this final rule 
indicates that Gunnison sage-grouse meets the definition of a 
threatened species; therefore, we must list it under the Act.
    (150) Comment: One commenter noted that historical Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat on BLM land in the Sims Mesa area has been severely 
damaged by sagebrush removal.
    Our Response: Sagebrush removal on Sims Mesa may have contributed 
to the one known lek there being currently inactive. Sage-grouse have 
an obligate relationship with sagebrush. The original distribution of 
sage-grouse closely followed that of sagebrush. Loss, fragmentation, 
and degradation of this habitat is a major threat and a primary reason 
for listing the species and

[[Page 69227]]

designating critical habitat. If alteration of sagebrush habitat 
continues, remnant populations may become extirpated.
    (151) Comment: One commenter noted that there is not adequate data 
available to determine whether recent declines of Gunnison sage-grouse 
observed by Davis (2012) in the Gunnison Basin are short-term 
population fluctuations or the beginning of a long-term decline.
    Our Response: We agree. This concern supports the importance of 
continued monitoring and conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations. This study is discussed and evaluated in detail in Factor 
E of this final rule. We believe, however, that the threat from 
residential development in the Gunnison Basin will increase in the 
future. Habitat fragmentation and disturbance from new roads, 
powerlines, fences, and other infrastructure are also likely to 
increase (see Factor A). Additionally, climate change is likely to 
increase the threats from drought and West Nile Virus in the future 
(discussed further in Factors A, C, and E). Thus, these future threats 
must be considered along with the results of the Davis (2012) study.
    (152) Comment: One commenter asked if grazing will be considered 
``take.''
    Our Response: Whether a particular activity will result in ``take'' 
is determined on a case-by-case basis. Grazing practices that could 
result in take can be addressed through ESA section 7 or section 10 
processes as applicable, including appropriate review under the terms 
of the Gunnison Basin Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (153) Comment: Some commenters noted that all of the affected 
county governments have taken the following actions:
     Participation in a Memorandum of Understanding,
     Signatories to the Conservation Agreement,
     Formally committed to adopting a Habitat Prioritization 
Tool, which will better predict preferred habitat for the species, and
     Formally committed to updating and adopting an amended 
Rangewide Conservation Plan.
    Our Response: We considered this information in this final rule 
(see Factor D, Local Laws and Regulations).
    (154) Comment: Some commenters asserted that many of the peer 
review comments do not support listing.
    Our Response: We requested comments from appropriate and 
independent individuals with scientific expertise based on their review 
of the proposed rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse and to designate 
critical habitat for the species. We received numerous comments back 
from these individuals; some in agreement, some disagreements, and many 
suggestions for improving the proposed rules. Substantive comments are 
discussed above in the Peer Reviewer Comment section. We considered all 
of these comments and incorporated many of their suggestions into this 
final rule.
    (155) Comment: One commenter expressed concern that hang gliding 
and paragliding could be impacted by listing.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we conclude that recreational 
activities are not a threat at a rangewide or population level, but 
could impact the species at a local level (see Factor E, Recreation). 
Nevertheless, for those projects and activities with a Federal nexus, 
project and activity modifications may be requested by the Service 
through the section 7 consultation process to limit impacts on Gunnison 
sage-grouse, as necessary.
    (156) Comment: One commenter noted that most of the mineral 
ownership is severed from surface ownership within the range of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Our Response: In this final rule we note that the BLM has 
regulatory authority for oil and gas leasing on Federal lands and on 
private lands with split-estate, or Federal mineral estate (see Factor 
D, Federal Laws and Regulations).

Summary of Factors Affecting the Species

    Section 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1533), and its 
implementing regulations at 50 CFR part 424, set forth the procedures 
for adding species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants. Under section 4(a)(1) of the Act, we may list a 
species based on any of the following five factors: (A) The present or 
threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or 
range; (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade 
factors affecting the species' continued existence. Listing actions may 
be warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination.
    Below, we carefully assess the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding the past, present, and future threats 
to Gunnison sage-grouse. We consider all such information in analyzing 
the five factors identified in section 4(a)(1) of the Endangered 
Species Act to determine whether Gunnison sage-grouse meets the 
definition of an endangered or threatened species.
A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range
    In this section, we evaluate various factors influencing the 
decline of sagebrush and important sage-grouse habitats. The term 
habitat decline includes any quantitative or qualitative degradation of 
habitat by area, structure, function, or composition (Noss et al. 1995, 
pp. 2, 17). In this rule, we collectively refer to habitat loss, 
degradation, and fragmentation as `habitat decline'. There are varying 
interpretations of the term habitat decline, and various methods for 
measuring or evaluating it. In this rule, we apply the following 
general concepts and definitions to our analysis. Habitat loss or 
destruction (such as sagebrush conversion) includes the permanent or 
long-term reduction of habitat and generally occurs at smaller scales. 
Habitat degradation includes the reduction of habitat quality or 
characteristics and generally occurs at smaller scales. Habitat 
fragmentation, or the breaking apart of contiguous habitat, occurs at 
larger or landscape scales, often as the result of cumulative loss and 
degradation of habitat over space and time. In this final rule, we 
provide information indicating each of these processes has occurred 
across Gunnison sage-grouse range, though those processes may vary over 
time and space. Consequently, effects at the individual, population, 
and species levels due to habitat decline are variable and not always 
certain.
    Habitat loss and fragmentation are recognized as primary causes of 
the decline in abundance and distribution of sage-grouse across western 
North America (Rogers 1964, pp. 13-24; Braun 1998, entire; Schroeder et 
al. 2004, p. 371), and in Gunnison sage-grouse in Colorado, Utah, and 
across their former range (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 330; GSRSC 
2005, p. 149; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 465-469). Gunnison sage-grouse 
depend on sagebrush for their survival and persistence, and the 
historic and current distribution of the Gunnison sage-grouse closely 
matches that of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 9; Braun 1987, p. 1; 
Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 364, and references therein). Habitat 
fragmentation resulting from human development patterns is especially 
detrimental to Gunnison sage-grouse because of their dependence on 
large

[[Page 69228]]

expanses of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 48; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 
4-1; Connelly et al. 2011a, p. 72) and more contiguous sagebrush 
habitats (Rogers 1964, p. 19; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 452-453). In 
addition, female Gunnison and greater sage-grouse exhibit strong site 
fidelity to nesting locations (Connelly et al. 1988; Young 1994; Lyon 
2000, Connelly et al. 2004, Holloran and Anderson 2005, Thompson 2012). 
Sage-grouse often will continue to return to altered breeding habitats 
(leks, nesting areas, and early brood-rearing areas), despite any past 
failures in nesting or productivity (Rogers 1964, pp. 35-40; Wiens and 
Rotenberry 1985, p. 666; Young 1994, p. 42; Lyon 2000, p. 20, Connelly 
et al. 2004, pp. 3-4 to 3-6; Holloran and Anderson 2005, p. 747). 
Consequently, there may be lags in the response of sage-grouse to 
development or habitat changes, similar to those observed in other 
sagebrush obligate birds (Harju et al. 2010, entire; Wiens and 
Rotenberry 1985, p. 666).
    The distribution of sage-grouse habitat is naturally disconnected 
due to the presence of unsuitable habitats such as forests, deserts, 
and canyons across the landscape (Rogers 1964, p. 19). However, the 
onset of Euro-American settlement in the 1800s resulted in significant 
human alterations to sagebrush ecosystems throughout North America, 
primarily as a result of urbanization, agricultural conversion, and 
irrigation projects (West and Young 2000, pp. 263-265; Miller et al. 
2011, p. 147). Areas in Colorado that supported basin big sagebrush 
were among the first sagebrush community types converted to agriculture 
because their soils and topography are well-suited for agriculture 
(Rogers 1964, p. 13). Decreases in the abundance of sage-grouse 
paralleled the loss of range (Braun 1998, pp. 2-3), and a gradual but 
marked decrease in sage-grouse distribution and numbers in Colorado had 
begun around 1910 (Rogers 1964, pp. 20-22). Our listing decision is 
based on the current status of Gunnison sage-grouse and the current and 
future threats to the species and its habitat. However, the loss of 
historical range and decline in abundance, and the associated causes of 
those declines, have contributed to the species' current precarious 
status. Further, historical information can be evaluated to help 
forecast how populations and the species may respond to current and 
future threats.
    Based on historical records, museum specimens, and potential 
sagebrush habitat distribution, the potential historic range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse was estimated to be 21,376 square miles, or 
13,680,590 ac (GSRSC 2005, pp. 32-35, as adapted from Schroeder et al. 
2004, entire). This range included parts of central and southwestern 
Colorado, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, and northeastern 
Arizona (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 368, 370). However, only a portion 
of this historical range would have been occupied at any one time. The 
species' estimated current range is 1,822 square miles, or 1,166,075 
ac, in central and southwestern Colorado, and southeastern Utah (Figure 
1) (GSRSC 2005, pp. 32-35, as adapted from Schroeder et al. 2004, 
entire). Based on these figures, the species' current range represents 
approximately 8.5 percent of its historical range (GSRSC 2005, p. 32). 
Similarly, Schroeder et al. (2004, p. 371) estimated the species' 
current overall range to be 10 percent of potential presettlement 
habitat (prior to Euro-American settlement in the 1800s). As estimated 
in our final rule to designate critical habitat for Gunnison sage-
grouse published elsewhere in today's Federal Register, the species' 
current potential range includes an estimated 1,621,008 ac in 
southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, comprised of 923,314 ac 
(57 percent) of occupied habitat and 697,694 ac (43 percent) of 
unoccupied habitat. Based on these figures, the current potential range 
of 1,621,008 ac represents approximately 12 percent of the potential 
historic range of 13,680,640 ac. The estimates above indicate that 
approximately 88 to 93 percent of the historical range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse has been lost since Euro-American settlement. We 
acknowledge that these estimates are uncertain and imprecise. 
Nevertheless, the best available information indicates a reduction of 
Gunnison sage-grouse distribution since Euro-American settlement in the 
1800s, with evidence of the loss of peripheral populations and a 
northward and eastward trend of extirpation (Schroeder et al. 2004, pp. 
369, 371, and references therein). This contraction in the birds' range 
indicates the vulnerability of all the populations to extirpation.
    In southwestern Colorado, between 1958 and 1993, an estimated 20 
percent (155,673 ha (384,676 ac)) of sagebrush was lost, and 37 percent 
of sagebrush plots examined were fragmented (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, 
p. 326). Another study estimated that approximately 342,000 ha (845,000 
ac) of sagebrush, or 13 percent of the pre-Euro-American settlement 
sagebrush extent, were lost in Colorado, which included both greater 
sage-grouse and Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Boyle and Reeder 2005, p. 
3-3). However, the authors noted that the estimate of historic 
sagebrush area used in their analyses was conservative, possibly 
resulting in an underestimate of historic sagebrush losses (Boyle and 
Reeder 2005, p. 3-4). Within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, the 
principal areas of sagebrush loss were in the Gunnison Basin, San 
Miguel Basin, and areas near Dove Creek, Colorado. The authors point 
out, however, that the rate of loss in the Gunnison Basin was lower 
than other areas of sagebrush distribution in Colorado. At that time, 
the Gunnison Basin contained approximately 250,000 ha (617,000 ac) of 
sagebrush and areas of riparian aspen forest, mixed-conifer forest, and 
oakbrush (Boyle and Reeder 2005, p. 3-3). Within the portion of the 
Gunnison Basin currently occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse, 170,000 ha 
(420,000 ac) is composed exclusively of sagebrush vegetation types, as 
derived from Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) 
landcover data (multi-season satellite imagery acquired 1999-2001) 
(USGS 2004, entire).
    Sagebrush habitats within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse are 
becoming increasingly fragmented as a result of various changes in land 
uses and the expansion in the density and distribution of invasive 
plant species (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, pp. 329-330; Schroeder et al. 
2004, p. 372). Based on spatial modeling, a variety of human 
developments including roads, energy development, residential 
development, and other factors known to cause habitat decline were 
correlated with historical loss of range and extirpation of Gunnison 
and greater sage-grouse (Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 465-468). This model 
indicated that no ``strongholds'' (secure areas where the risk of 
extirpation appears low) of occupied range are evident for Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Wisdom et al., 2011, p. 469). Landscapes containing large 
and contiguous sagebrush patches and sagebrush patches in close 
proximity had an increased likelihood of sage-grouse persistence 
(Wisdom et al. 2011, p. 462).
    In this final rule, we discuss Wisdom et al. (2011, entire) and its 
conclusions, but do not use the term ``stronghold.'' Nevertheless, 
consistent with Wisdom et al. (2011, entire) and numerous other studies 
noted above, we maintain that the persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse 
is dependent on large and contiguous sagebrush habitats, that human 
development and disturbance contribute to the decline of this needed 
habitat, and that such impacts negatively affect the survival and 
persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse.

[[Page 69229]]

    The degree to which habitat fragmentation prevents a species' 
movement across the landscape depends, in part, on that species' 
ability to move large distances and thereby adjust to changes on the 
landscape. Sage-grouse are wide-ranging and capable of making large 
seasonal movements, because they require a diversity of seasonal 
habitats (Connelly et al. 2000a, pp. 968-969, and references therein). 
Movements of Gunnison sage-grouse as great as 56 km (35 mi) have been 
documented in the Gunnison Basin (Phillips 2013, p. 4). In contrast, 
the maximum recorded movement distance of Gunnison sage-grouse in the 
Monticello population is 8.2 km (5.1 mi), associated with winter 
movement (Ward 2007, p. 15). Prather (2010, p. 70) noted that such 
behavior may be due to the presence of large areas of pi[ntilde]on-
juniper (i.e., less suitable habitats) which bracket currently occupied 
habitat in the Monticello population area.
    Population dynamics of greater sage-grouse in northwestern Colorado 
functioned at much smaller scales than expected for a species capable 
of moving large distances (Thompson 2012, p. 256). The majority of 
juvenile dispersal was intra-population movement (within one breeding 
population), with only one inter-population movement (between separate 
breeding populations) observed during one study (Thompson 2012, p. 
169). As a result, juvenile recruitment into home breeding ranges 
ranged between 98 and 100 percent (Thompson 2012, p. 170). Based on 
observed bird dispersal in that study, gene flow and connectivity can 
likely be maintained for populations within 5 to 10 km (most dispersals 
were less than 10 km) and possibly as far as 20 km (the maximum 
dispersal distance of one of the subpopulations studied) in greater 
sage-grouse (Thompson 2012, p. 285-286). The populations of greater 
sage-grouse studied were within areas where birds are known for moving 
between populations.
    Because individual movement patterns likely vary by population and 
area, their susceptibility to habitat loss and degradation may also 
differ. We expect that where habitat is already more limited (quantity 
and quality) and isolated, such as in the six satellite populations, 
habitat loss and decline will have more serious consequences in terms 
of population fitness and survival. Where habitat is already severely 
limited or degraded, or where sage-grouse populations are small, any 
loss of habitat may impact those populations. In addition, habitat loss 
impacts are expected to be greater in important and/or limiting 
seasonal habitats, such as areas used during moderate to severe 
winters, or in lekking, nesting, or brood-rearing habitats (GSRSC 2005, 
p. 161).
    The loss of leks or the decline of nesting or brood-rearing 
habitats can have serious consequences for sage-grouse population 
viability by reducing reproductive success and recruitment (survival of 
young to breeding age). Limitations in the quality and quantity of 
nesting and early brood-rearing habitats, in particular, are especially 
important because Gunnison sage-grouse population dynamics are most 
sensitive during these life-history stages (GSRSC 2005, p. G-15). 
Juvenile recruitment is one of the most important demographic factors 
influencing or limiting sage-grouse population growth rates and 
viability (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 3-11, GSRSC 2005, p. 173). In a 
recent demographic and population viability study of Gunnison sage-
grouse, juvenile survival was found to be the most influential vital 
rate in the Gunnison Basin population, which is currently a relatively 
stable population (Davis 2012).
    Brood-rearing habitat must provide adequate cover adjacent to areas 
rich in forbs and insects to assure chick survival during this period 
(Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 971; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 4-11). Late 
brood-rearing habitats (also referred to as summer-fall habitats) may 
include riparian areas, wet meadows, and irrigated fields that provide 
an abundance of forbs and insects for hens and chicks (Schroeder et al. 
1999, p. 4; Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 980). In northwest Colorado, 
dispersal, migration, and settlement patterns of juvenile greater sage-
grouse--factors important to population persistence--were more 
influenced by limitations associated with local traditional breeding 
(lek) and brood-rearing areas than by landscape-level vegetation 
structure and composition (i.e., the spatial distribution and 
configuration of vegetation types) (Thompson 2012, pp. 317, 341). The 
same study recommended restoration, creation, and protection of early 
and late brood-rearing habitats to increase chick survival rates 
(Thompson 2012, p. 135). The importance of brood-rearing habitat for 
juvenile survival, recruitment, and hence, population viability of 
sage-grouse is evident. These key habitats are particularly susceptible 
to drought (see Factor E, Drought) and predicted climate change effects 
(The Nature Conservancy 2011, p. 11) (see Climate Change in this Factor 
A analysis).
    As presented above, habitat decline, including loss, fragmentation, 
and degradation of quality, has known adverse effects on Gunnison sage-
grouse populations. Gunnison sage-grouse depend on sagebrush for their 
survival and persistence, and the historical and current distribution 
of the Gunnison sage-grouse closely matches that of sagebrush 
(Patterson 1952, p. 9; Braun 1987, p. 1; Schroeder et al. 2004, p. 364, 
and references therein). Approximately 88 to 93 percent of the species' 
former range has been lost since the 1800s (see discussion above), and 
much of the remaining habitat is degraded or fragmented (Oyler-McCance 
et al. 2001, p. 326; Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, pp. 329-330; Schroeder 
et al. 2004, p. 372; Wisdom et al., 2011, p. 469). Future habitat loss 
will have greater impacts in seasonally important habitats and in 
smaller populations where available habitat is already limited (GSRSC 
2005, p. 161). As described later in this section, many of the factors 
that result in habitat decline may be amplified by the effects of 
climate change, thereby influencing long-term population trends. The 
following sections examine factors that can result in or contribute to 
habitat decline to evaluate whether they, individually and 
cumulatively, threaten Gunnison sage-grouse.

Residential Development

    In our proposed rule to list Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered (78 
FR 2486, January 11, 2013), we determined habitat loss and 
fragmentation from residential development to be a principal threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse conservation. We received numerous comments and 
new information from the scientific community, government agencies, and 
other entities related to residential development in the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Many of the comments we received suggested that 
our initial analysis incorrectly applied scientific and other 
information related to residential development and its effects, likely 
overestimating its threat to the species, particularly in relation to 
the Gunnison Basin area.
    In light of these comments, in this final rule, we reevaluate the 
threat of residential development to Gunnison sage-grouse. First, we 
evaluate scientific information related to effects of residential and 
infrastructural development on sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats in 
general, including studies specific to Gunnison sage-grouse where 
available. Second, we discuss human population growth and residential 
development trends and projections across the broader Rocky Mountain 
region. Finally, we assess the impact of current and future human 
population growth and residential development rangewide and within the

[[Page 69230]]

individual Gunnison sage-grouse populations. As in the proposed listing 
rule, much of our analysis here is focused on the current and potential 
future effects of residential development and habitat loss in the 
Gunnison Basin, since it contains the vast majority of occupied habitat 
and Gunnison sage-grouse.
    The level of habitat loss due to residential development varies 
widely across the seven populations of Gunnison sage-grouse. Federal 
land ownership of occupied habitat in some populations reduces the 
potential impact of residential development, which largely occurs on 
private lands. Conversely, portions of occupied habitat in private 
ownership may predispose some sage-grouse populations to greater 
impacts due to higher levels of development (GSRSC 2005, p. 160). As 
described in the following sections, current and future human 
population growth rates and patterns also vary widely across the 
species' range. Concentration of residential growth in or near 
municipal and other areas outside of occupied or suitable habitat will 
likely avoid or minimize impacts, while rural and exurban development 
in occupied habitat will likely increase impacts on the species.
    Other factors may also affect the impact of residential development 
on Gunnison sage-grouse populations or habitat. These factors include, 
but are not limited to, the extent and density of already developed 
land and existing infrastructure, changes in future patterns of 
residential growth, new or additional development of infrastructure 
(e.g., roads, powerlines, irrigation) associated with human population 
growth, the site-specific quality or quantity of suitable habitat on 
affected lands, resiliency or sensitivity of the affected sage-grouse 
population or group of birds, and indirect effects of development such 
as functional habitat loss due to weed invasion, noise disturbance, and 
other anthropogenic stressors. Functional habitat loss results from 
disturbance that changes a habitat's successional state or reduces or 
removes one or more habitat functions or values; presents physical 
barriers that preclude use of otherwise suitable areas; or introduces 
activities that prevent animals from using suitable habitat due to 
behavioral avoidance.
    In evaluating the impact that residential development has on the 
species, we acknowledge that enrollment in the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement with Assurances (CCAA) for Gunnison sage-grouse, local 
regulatory mechanisms, Federal efforts such as the Gunnison Basin 
Candidate Conservation Agreement (CCA), and implementation of future 
conservation easements and similar conservation efforts will, upon 
effective implementation, likely reduce, but not necessarily preclude, 
impacts from residential development. However, as described in more 
detail in Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat 
Conservation in this Factor A analysis and in Local Laws and 
Regulations in the Factor D analysis, currently available data and 
information indicates that these conservation efforts do not fully 
address this and other threats, or are too uncertain with respect to 
their implementation and effectiveness for us to forecast or evaluate 
how all of these efforts will individually or collectively influence 
future residential development in the species' range, the resultant 
habitat decline, and related impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse.
    We base our analysis of residential development primarily on the 
following available information: (1) Current and future human 
population growth rates in and around occupied habitat as an indicator 
of residential development; (2) total available private land area and 
conservation easement protection (prohibited or restricted residential 
development) in the context of total occupied habitat; and (3) the 
current and potential loss of occupied and unoccupied habitats as a 
result of residential development, and its direct and indirect effects 
on Gunnison sage-grouse individuals and populations. Broadly, we 
consider private lands in occupied habitat without conservation 
easement as being at higher risk of residential development, relative 
to those lands currently under conservation easement (see Other 
Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation Easements in the Factor D 
analysis). Applying the best available information, these factors 
depict the intensity and immediacy of impacts due to residential 
development, and the exposure and anticipated response of Gunnison 
sage-grouse to that impact.

Effects of Residential Development

    Residential development is likely contributing to habitat decline 
in parts of the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. It was estimated that 3 
to 5 percent of all sage-grouse historical habitat in Colorado has been 
negatively affected by town and urban development (Braun 1998, p. 7). 
Habitat fragmentation resulting from human development patterns is 
especially detrimental to Gunnison sage-grouse because of their 
dependence on large areas of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 48; Connelly 
et al. 2004, p. 4-1; Connelly et al. 2011a, p. 72) and more contiguous 
sagebrush habitats (Rogers 1964, p. 19; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 452-
453). Greater sage-grouse range retraction was linked to patterns of 
remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to factors including human 
population growth and the peripherality of populations (Aldridge et al. 
2008). Infrastructure such as roads and power lines associated with 
residential development (urban and exurban) further contribute to 
habitat decline and other impacts such as increased risk of predation. 
Those specific effects are discussed elsewhere in this rule, but we 
recognize the cumulative effects of development and related 
infrastructure increase the level of impact on Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Aldridge developed a landscape-scale spatial model predicting 
Gunnison sage-grouse nesting probability based on nesting data from the 
western portion of the Gunnison Basin (Aldridge et al. 2012, entire). 
The study extrapolated the model to the entire Gunnison Basin to 
predict the likelihood of Gunnison sage-grouse nesting throughout the 
area (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 403). Results of the model indicated 
that Gunnison sage-grouse select nest sites in landscapes with a low 
density of residential development (<1 percent in a 1.5 km [0.9 mi] 
radii) (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 400). Nest site selection by Gunnison 
sage-grouse decreased near residential developments, out to 
approximately 2.5 km (1.6 mi) from any given residential development 
(Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 400). Since early brood-rearing habitat is 
often in close proximity to nest sites (Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 971), 
impacts to nesting habitat likely also affect nearby brood-rearing 
habitat (however, individual females with broods may move large 
distances (Connelly 1982, as cited in Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 971)).
    Similar to the above findings (and those referenced in Aldridge et 
al. 2008), based on spatial modeling of anthropogenic factors and nest 
and brood habitat selection, Aldridge (2005, entire) found that nesting 
greater-sage grouse and broods also tended to avoid urban development 
areas and other human developments such as roads or cropland, 
potentially due to predator avoidance behavior. As discussed elsewhere 
in this rule, there are numerous other studies indicating that the 
expansion of roads and other human development in occupied habitat can 
negatively affect sage-grouse (see, e.g., Roads below.)
    The RCP (GSRSC 2005, pp. 160-161) hypothesized that residential 
density in excess of one housing unit per 1.3 km\2\ (0.5 mi\2\) could 
cause declines in

[[Page 69231]]

Gunnison sage-grouse populations. However, because the analyses that 
formed the basis for this hypothesis were preliminary and did not take 
into account potential lags in the response of Gunnison sage-grouse to 
development (Wiens and Rotenberry 1985, p. 666), the threshold at which 
impacts are expected could be higher or lower (GSRSC 2005, p. F-3). The 
resulting impacts are expected to occur in nearly all seasonal 
habitats, including moderate to severe winter use areas, nesting and 
brood-rearing areas, and leks (GSRSC 2005, p. 161).
    Based on preliminary analysis of radio telemetry, a CPW researcher 
reported that Gunnison sage-grouse do not totally avoid residences, and 
that some farmyards and areas with low housing density are used by 
individual birds (Phillips 2013, p. 8). Further information about this 
study was provided during the public comment period by CPW, including 
preliminary results of the distances for successful and unsuccessful 
nests to the nearest road in Gunnison and Saguache Counties (CPW 2013b, 
pp. 8-9). CPW has not provided us with these data, however, or a map of 
the reported locations. We are also uncertain as to what percentage of 
roads in the study may have been closed to protect nesting Gunnison 
sage-grouse, which may influence nest survival. Further, this 
preliminary analysis of CPW's telemetry data has not been peer 
reviewed. While this information may suggest that individual Gunnison 
sage-grouse within the Gunnison Basin vary in their response to 
development, the preliminary nature of the study doesn't allow us to 
draw any definite conclusions.
    Residential development can cause habitat decline both by the 
direct loss of occupied habitat and by indirect effects (e.g., off-site 
or functional habitat loss, habitat degradation, loss of unoccupied 
habitat). We consider both in the analysis that follows, though we 
assess direct loss from a quantitative perspective and indirect effects 
more qualitatively.

Indirect Effects of Residential Development

    As stated above, we know that indirect effects of development such 
as functional habitat loss due to weed invasion, noise disturbance, and 
other anthropogenic stressors occur, and that these indirect effects 
act cumulatively with the direct loss of occupied and unoccupied 
habitats to fragment native sagebrush habitats and increase threats, 
for example, through an increase in the number and types of predators 
(see Factor C, Predation). The impact of residential development is 
also increased by the additional disturbance footprint and the area of 
species' avoidance of other associated infrastructure such as roads, 
powerlines, and fences. Because we have no specific information about 
the level of these impacts, we have evaluated them qualitatively, but 
we focus the remainder of our analysis on the direct effects of 
residential development.

Human Population Growth in the Rocky Mountains

    Human population growth in the rural Rocky Mountains is driven by 
the availability of natural amenities, recreational opportunities, 
aesthetically desirable settings and views, and perceived remoteness 
(Riebsame et al. 1996, p. 396, 402; Theobald et al. 1996, p. 408; 
Gosnell and Travis 2005, pp. 192-197; Mitchell et al. 2002, p. 6; 
Hansen et al. 2005, pp. 1899-1901). The increase in residential and 
commercial development associated with expanding human populations is 
different from historical land use patterns in the rural Rocky 
Mountains (Theobald 2001, p. 548). The allocation of land for resource-
based activities such as agriculture and livestock production is 
decreasing as the relative economic importance of these activities 
diminishes (Theobald et al. 1996, p. 413; Sammons 1998, p. 32; Gosnell 
and Travis 2005, pp. 191-192). Currently, agribusiness occupations 
constitute approximately 3 percent of the total job base in Gunnison 
County (Colorado Department of Local Affairs (CDOLA) 2009b, p. 4). 
Recent conversion of farm and ranch lands to housing development has 
been significant in Colorado (Odell and Knight 2001, p. 1144). Many 
large private ranches in the Rocky Mountains, including the Gunnison 
Basin, are being subdivided into both high-density subdivisions and 
larger, scattered ranchettes with lots typically greater than 14 ha (35 
ac), which encompass a large, isolated house (Riebsame et al. 1996, p. 
399; Theobald et al. 1996, p. 408).
    The resulting pattern of residential development in the rural Rocky 
Mountains is less associated with existing town sites or existing 
subdivisions, and is increasingly exurban in nature (Theobald et al. 
1996, pp. 408, 415; Theobald 2001, p. 546). Exurban development is 
described as low-density growth outside of urban and suburban areas 
(Clark et al. 2009, p. 178; Theobald 2004, p. 140) with less than one 
housing unit per 1 ha (2.5 ac) (Theobald 2003, p. 1627; Theobald 2004, 
p. 139). Also, the pattern is one of increased residential lot size and 
the diffuse scattering of residential lots in previously rural areas 
with a premium placed on adjacency to federal lands and isolated open 
spaces (Riebsame et al. 1996, p. 396, 398; Theobald et al. 1996, pp. 
413, 417; Theobald 2001, p. 546; Brown et al. 2005, p. 1858). 
Residential subdivision associated with exurban development causes 
landscape fragmentation (Gosnell and Travis 2005, p. 196) primarily 
through the accumulation of roads, buildings, (Theobald et al.1996, p. 
410; Mitchell et al. 2002, p. 3) and other infrastructure such as power 
lines (GSRSC 2005, p. 146).

Human Population Growth Across the Range of Gunnison Sage-Grouse

    The GSRSC (2005, p. 146) identified current and potential issues 
affecting Gunnison sage-grouse populations, based on conservation 
status information, local working group plans, and similar documents. 
Residential development, and associated habitat loss or degradation, 
urban development, roads, utility corridors, and fences were all 
identified as current or potential issues in each of the seven 
populations.
    Human population growth is occurring throughout much of the range 
of Gunnison sage-grouse. The human population in all Colorado counties 
within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse has increased by approximately 
57.8 percent in the last several decades, since 1985 (Table 2). During 
the same period, human population growth in Utah counties in Gunnison 
sage-grouse range increased by about 24.5 percent (Table 3), less than 
that of Colorado counties. Residential development in the Gunnison 
sage-grouse range is expected to increase to meet the demand of growing 
human populations.

[[Page 69232]]



        Table 2--Human Population Growth in Colorado Counties in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Range, 1985 to 2012
                           [Colorado Department of Local Affairs (CDOLA) 2012, entire]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Human
                                         Overlap with Gunnison                                      population
                County                   sage-grouse population     1985 Human      2012 Human      growth from
                                                  \a\               population      population     1985 to 2012
                                                                                                        (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison.............................  Gunnison Basin...........          10,390          15,475            48.9
                                       Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
                                        Sims Mesa
Ouray................................  Cerro Summit-Cimarron-              2,130           4,530           112.7
                                        Sims Mesa.
                                       San Miguel--Overlap with
                                        unoccupied habitat only
San Miguel...........................  Monticello-Dove Creek....           3,189           7,580           137.7
                                       San Miguel
Hinsdale.............................  Gunnison Basin--Overlap               472             810            71.6
                                        with unoccupied habitat
                                        only.
Saguache.............................  Gunnison Basin...........           4,400           6,304            43.3
                                       Poncha Pass
Mesa.................................  Pi[ntilde]on Mesa........         88,0121         147,855            68.0
Montrose.............................  Cerro Summit-Cimarron-             24,389          40,732            67.0
                                        Sims Mesa.
                                       San Miguel
Montezuma............................  Monticello-Dove Creek--            19,283          25,437            31.9
                                        Overlap with unoccupied
                                        habitat only.
Delta................................  Crawford.................          23,466          30,436            29.7
Dolores..............................  Monticello-Dove Creek....           1,548           1,994            28.8
Chaffee..............................  Poncha Pass..............          12,349          18,151            47.0
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total............................  .........................         189,637         299,304            57.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Based on county overlap with occupied habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 54-102) unless noted otherwise.


          Table 3--Human Population Growth in Utah Counties in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Range, 1985 to 2011
                             [Demographic and Economic Analysis (DEA) 2011, entire]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Human
                                         Overlap with Gunnison                                      population
                County                   sage-grouse population     1985 Human      2011 Human      growth from
                                                  \a\               population      population     1985 to 2011
                                                                                                        (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
San Juan.............................  Dove Creek-Monticello....          12,300          14,954            21.6
Grand................................  Pi[ntilde]on Mesa--                 7,200           9,322            29.5
                                        Overlap with unoccupied
                                        habitat only.
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total............................  .........................          19,500          24,276            24.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Based on county overlap with occupied habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 54-102) unless noted otherwise.

    These trends are expected to continue into the future (GSRSC 2005, 
p. 150-153). The year 2050 projected human population for the entire 
Gunnison River Basin (a watershed area spanning multiple counties), 
which encompasses the majority of Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat 
across all population areas, is expected to be 2.3 times (233 percent) 
greater than the 2005 population, with Mesa and Montrose Counties being 
the most populous in that area (Colorado Water Conservation Board 
(CWCB) 2009, pp. 15, 53). Across the six satellite populations, the 
human population in Colorado is forecasted to grow by about 60 percent, 
with most of this growth (and total number of persons) occurring in 
Mesa, Montrose, and Delta Counties (Table 4). Similar to the past, 
future human population growth in Utah counties in Gunnison sage-grouse 
range is expected to be low, approximately 14 percent by the year 2040, 
lower than Colorado counties. In some counties, the population growth 
is projected to occur mainly in urban areas. For example, in Grand 
County, Utah, and Mesa County, Colorado, significant growth is expected 
within the cities of Moab and Grand Junction, respectively. Also, we 
recognize that in some counties, what appears to be significant growth 
from the baseline may actually be minimal in terms of total persons 
added to the population (for example, see Hinsdale County in Table 4). 
In response to public comments regarding human population growth 
figures for Gunnison County provided in our proposed listing rule (78 
FR 2486, January 11, 2013), we discuss future human population growth 
for Gunnison County in detail in the following section.

       Table 4--Human Population Forecast in Colorado Counties in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Range, 2013 to 2040
                                              [CDOLA 2011, entire]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Human
                                         Overlap with Gunnison    2013 (current)    2040 human      population
                County                   sage-grouse population        human        population      growth from
                                                  \a\               population       forecast      2013 to 2040
                                                                                                        (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison.............................  Gunnison Basin...........          15,982          22,107            38.3

[[Page 69233]]

 
                                       Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
                                        Sims Mesa.
Ouray................................  Cerro Summit-Cimarron-              4,662           6,108            31.0
                                        Sims Mesa.
                                       San Miguel--Overlap with
                                        unoccupied habitat only.
San Miguel...........................  San Miguel...............           8,148          16,426           101.6
                                       Monticello-Dove Creek....
Hinsdale.............................  Gunnison Basin--Overlap               853           1,378            61.6
                                        with unoccupied habitat
                                        only.
Saguache.............................  Gunnison Basin...........           6,478           9,133            41.0
                                       Poncha Pass..............
Mesa.................................  Pi[ntilde]on Mesa........         150,123         226,263            50.7
Montrose.............................  Cerro Summit-Cimarron-             41,751          75,048            79.8
                                        Sims Mesa.
                                       San Miguel...............
Montezuma............................  Monticello-Dove Creek-             26,481          42,947            62.2
                                        Overlap with unoccupied
                                        habitat only.
Delta................................  Crawford.................          31,741          59,142            86.3
Dolores..............................  Monticello-Dove Creek....           2,097           3,313            57.9
Chaffee..............................  Poncha Pass..............          18,726          30,282            61.7
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Rangewide Total..................  .........................         307,042         492,147            60.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Based on county overlap with occupied habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 54-102) unless noted otherwise.


         Table 5--Human Population Forecast in Utah Counties in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Range, 2013 to 2040
                                               [DEA 2012, entire].
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Human
                                         Overlap with Gunnison                      2040 human      population
                County                   sage-grouse population     2010 human      population      growth from
                                                  \a\               population       forecast      2013 to 2040
                                                                                                        (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
San Juan.............................  Dove Creek-Monticello....          14,746          15,191             3.0
Grand................................  Pi[ntilde]on Mesa--                 9,225          12,147            31.7
                                        Overlap with unoccupied
                                        habitat only.
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Rangewide Total..................  .........................          23,971          27,338            14.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Based on county overlap with occupied habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 54-102) unless noted otherwise.

    In addition to past and projected human population growth, the 
impact of residential development on Gunnison sage-grouse depends on 
total private land area in occupied habitat available for development. 
Substantial Federal land ownership of occupied habitat in the Crawford, 
Gunnison Basin, Poncha Pass, and portions of the San Miguel Basin 
populations helps reduce the threat of residential development in these 
areas. Conversely, large portions of occupied habitat in the Dove 
Creek-Monticello, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, 
and some portions of the San Miguel populations are in private 
ownership, making those areas more vulnerable to residential 
development and associated impacts (GSRSC 2005, p. 160). Within all 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations, the area of private land under 
conservation easement (which generally prohibits subdivision and 
restricts other residential or agricultural development to defined 
areas) will help ameliorate impacts from human population growth and 
residential development that might otherwise occur (see Factor D 
discussion, Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation Easements).
    Below, Table 6 synthesizes future human population growth rates in 
Gunnison sage-grouse population areas, total private land area, and 
conservation easement protection in occupied habitats. As noted above, 
we focused our analysis on the potential for direct habitat loss in 
occupied habitats, where negative impacts are more likely to occur. We 
qualitatively ranked past and forecasted human population growth for 
area counties in Colorado (based on Tables 2 and 4) and Utah (based on 
Tables 3 and 5), considering both percent growth and total number of 
persons. Below, we apply information from Table 6 to determine the 
impact of residential development to individual Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations and to the species rangewide.

[[Page 69234]]



                                           Table 6--Human Population Growth Rates and Conservation Easements in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Occupied Habitat
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Human population                       Private land in     Private land in occupied   Private land in occupied
                                                                  growth rates \a\                      occupied habitat          habitat under            habitat not under       Percentage of
                                                               ----------------------                ---------------------- conservation easement \b\    conservation easement    total occupied
                                                                                      Total occupied                       ------------------------------------------------------   habitat at
                Gunnison sage-grouse population                   Past:    Forecast:      habitat                                       Percentage of              Percentage of  higher risk of
                                                                 1985 to    2013 to       (acres)       Acres        %                  private land               private land     residential
                                                                   2012       2040                                            Acres      in occupied     Acres      in occupied     development
                                                                                                                                         habitat (%)                habitat (%)       \c\ (%)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
San Miguel Basin..............................................          M          M         101,750     49,492         49      6,961            14.1     42,531            85.9            41.8
Monticello-Dove Creek.........................................          L          L         112,543    100,773         90      5,482             5.4     95,291            84.6            84.7
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa.............................................          H          H          44,678     31,313         70     15,317            48.9     15,996            51.1            35.8
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa...............................          H          H          37,161     28,218         76      3,484            12.3     24,734            87.7            66.6
Crawford......................................................          L          M          35,015      8,481         24      2,005            23.6      6,476            76.4            18.5
Poncha Pass...................................................          L          L          27,747      7,893         28          0             0.0      7,893           100.0            28.4
Gunnison Basin................................................          L          L         592,168    178,855         30     40,769            22.8    138,086            77.2            23.3
                                                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Rangewide Total...........................................  .........  .........         951,062    405,025         43     74,018            18.3    331,007            81.7            34.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Based on a qualitative assessment of past and forecast human population growth for area counties in Colorado (Tables 2 and 4) and Utah (Tables 3 and 5), considering percent growth and
  total number of persons: H--High; M--Moderate; L--Low.
\b\ Lohr and Gray (2013, entire).
\c\ Calculated by dividing acres of ``private land in occupied habitat not under conservation easement'' by ``total occupied habitat.''

    Based on the factors presented in Table 6 above, residential 
development is likely to have the greatest impact on the San Miguel and 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa populations of Gunnison sage-grouse. In 
the San Miguel Basin population, moderate human population growth has 
occurred and is projected through the year 2040; and private land 
comprises about 49 percent of total occupied habitat, of which 14 
percent is under conservation easement. This means that approximately 
42 percent of total occupied habitat in the San Miguel population area 
is at higher risk of residential development (Table 6). The rate of 
residential development in the San Miguel Basin population area 
increased between 2005 and 2008 but slowed in 2009 (CDOW 2009b, p. 
135). However, a 429-ha (1,057-ac) parcel north of Miramonte Reservoir 
is currently being developed. The CPW reports that potential impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse resulting from this development may be reduced by 
placing a portion of the property into a conservation easement and the 
relocation of a proposed major road to avoid occupied habitat (CDOW 
2009b, p. 136). A downward trend in the San Miguel population over the 
last decade or more (Figure 3) indicates it may not have the resilience 
(see Small Population Size and Structure) to sustain substantial 
habitat losses. Therefore, residential development is a current and 
future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse in the San Miguel Basin 
population.
    Likewise, in the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa area, considerable 
human population growth has occurred and is forecast through the year 
2040; and private land comprises about 76 percent of total occupied 
habitat, of which 12 percent is under conservation easement. This means 
that approximately 67 percent of total occupied habitat in the Cerro 
Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population area is at higher risk of 
residential development (Table 6). Scattered residential development 
has recently occurred along the periphery of occupied habitat in the 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population (CDOW 2009b, p. 45). Already 
limited habitat (Table 6) and low population numbers (Figure 3) 
indicate the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population may not have 
the resilience (see Small Population Size and Structure) to sustain 
substantial habitat losses. Therefore, residential development is a 
current and future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse in the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron-Sims Mesa population.
    Although past and future human population growth in the Poncha Pass 
population is estimated to be low, and the proportion of land at higher 
risk of residential development is low (about 28 percent) (see Table 
6), other information indicates that residential development is 
nevertheless a threat to the Poncha Pass population. Residential 
subdivision continues to be concentrated in the northern part of the 
Poncha Pass population area where Gunnison sage-grouse occur most, and 
CPW considers this to be the highest priority threat to this population 
(CDOW 2009b, p. 124). As noted earlier, where habitat is already 
severely limited, or where sage-grouse populations are small, any loss 
of habitat may impact those populations (GSRSC 2005, p. 161). Due to 
the pattern of residential development, already limited sagebrush 
habitat in the area (about 20,000 acres), and critically low population 
numbers (zero birds counted in 2013; Figure 3), residential development 
is a current and future threat to the Poncha Pass population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    For the remaining four Gunnison sage-grouse populations, we find 
that current residential development may impact individual birds or 
areas of habitat, but is a threat of low magnitude at the population 
level at the present time. In these areas, past or projected human 
population growth rates are very low, indicating that residential 
development will be limited (Monticello-Dove Creek); or private land 
available for residential development (considering Federal land 
ownership and conservation easement protection) is limited 
(Pi[ntilde]on Mesa and Crawford). For these three populations, we also 
believe that the threat of residential development will remain low in 
the future. With respect to the Gunnison Basin population, however, as 
described in more detail below, over half of the 23.3 percent of total 
occupied habitat that is at higher risk of residential development (see 
Table 6) is high priority habitat, because it includes seasonally 
important habitat for the species. The potential loss or degradation of 
even relatively smaller portions of habitat due to future residential 
development is a concern, especially if important seasonal habitats are 
affected, so we believe that threats related to residential development 
will be higher in the future in the Gunnison

[[Page 69235]]

Basin (see Reevaluation of Residential Development in the Gunnison 
Basin).
    The analysis above is focused on the threat of residential 
development in occupied habitats for Gunnison sage-grouse. However, it 
is reasonable to assume that residential development will also occur in 
important but currently unoccupied habitats. These habitats may now or 
in the future provide dispersal corridors for birds between occupied 
habitat, subpopulations, or populations; or provide areas for range 
migration or expansion. The threat of habitat loss or degradation due 
to residential development in the San Miguel and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
Sims Mesa populations will likely reduce habitat connectivity between 
satellite populations and potential connectivity between the Gunnison 
Basin population and satellite populations to the west. The GSRSC 
(2005, p. 167) identified habitat areas in the San Miguel population 
that provide potential linkages with the Dove Creek-Monticello 
population to the west, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population to the north, and 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population to the east. Potential 
linkages in the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population were also 
identified that may provide connectivity with the San Miguel population 
to the west, Crawford population to the northeast, and Gunnison Basin 
population to the east. Genetic evidence indicates maintaining or 
enhancing habitat connectivity between populations is important for 
Gunnison sage-grouse survival into the future (See detailed discussion 
in Factor E analysis, Small Population Size and Structure).

Reevaluation of Residential Development in the Gunnison Basin 
Population Area

    In our proposed rule to list Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered, we 
concluded that residential development was a principal threat to the 
species as a whole. That analysis was focused on the potential impacts 
of residential development in the Gunnison Basin population area, since 
the vast majority of occupied habitat and birds occur there. As noted 
above, based on numerous public comments and new information we 
received on the proposed rule, we have reevaluated the threat of 
residential development to the species, both in the individual 
populations and rangewide. In this section, we describe in greater 
detail the basis for our conclusions regarding the effects of 
residential development, both at the present time and in the 
foreseeable future, on individual birds or areas of habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin population area.

Current Impacts of Residential Development

    Approximately 239,640 ha (592,168 ac) of occupied habitat occur in 
the Gunnison Basin. Of this, approximately 161,336 ha (398,669 ac) (67 
percent) are on Federal lands; 5,906 ha (14,595 ac) (2 percent) are 
State land; and 72,380 ha (178,855 ac) (30 percent) are private land 
(Table 1). In this rule, our evaluation of residential development in 
the Gunnison Basin is based largely on human demographic information 
for Gunnison County, where nearly three-quarters (approximately 71 
percent) of the Gunnison Basin population of Gunnison sage-grouse 
occurs (the remainder occurs in Saguache County). Based on the 
available information, we expect that the rate of future residential 
development in the Saguache County portion of the Gunnison Basin will 
be similar to that of Gunnison County. Approximately 30 percent of 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin occurs on 
private lands.
    When evaluating Gunnison County overall (including both Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat and non-habitat areas), our analysis found that the 
cumulative number of human developments (including housing, 
infrastructure, and improvements to existing development) increased 
considerably since the early 1970s. The number of new developments 
averaged approximately 70 per year from the late 1800s to 1969, 
increasing to approximately 450 per year from 1970 to 2008 (USFWS 
2010a, pp. 1-5). Furthermore, there has been an increasing trend toward 
development away from major roadways (primary and secondary paved 
roads) into areas of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat that had 
previously undergone very limited development (USFWS 2010b, p. 7). 
Between 1889 and 1968, approximately 51 human developments were located 
more than 1.6 km (1 mi) from a major road in currently occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Between 1969 and 2008, this number 
increased to approximately 476 developments (USFWS 2010b, p. 7).
    However, the majority of residential development in Gunnison County 
is outside of Gunnison-sage grouse occupied habitat. About 26 percent 
of housing units in Gunnison County occur within Gunnison sage-grouse 
occupied habitat (Gunnison County 2013a, Appendix G, p. 9). Although 
significant development has occurred in the past, residential growth in 
Gunnison County has been influenced heavily by development in the East 
River Valley near Crested Butte, outside of occupied habitat for 
Gunnison sage-grouse (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 69-70). Furthermore, 
the majority of existing development in the lower Gunnison Basin is 
concentrated near the City of Gunnison, outside of occupied habitat or 
in more marginalized habitat (Gunnison County 2013c, p. 5). Gunnison 
County building permit data indicate that since 1980, over 70 percent 
of all county building permits have been located within subdivisions 
that are already served by water and sewer services (urban service 
areas). If building permits for the City of Gunnison are included, over 
80 percent of all new development since 1980 has occurred in urban 
service areas (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 68). Urban service areas 
(utilities, trash, etc.) in Gunnison County may include small areas of 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, but are generally less suitable than more 
rural areas; therefore, human development and activities in such areas 
are likely to have less impact to Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Available data nonetheless indicates human developments in occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in Gunnison County occur and have 
increased over time. We conducted a GIS analysis of parcel ownership 
data to evaluate the spatial and temporal pattern of past human 
development (including infrastructure) within occupied Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat in the Gunnison Basin population area. Our analyses were 
limited to the portion of occupied habitat in Gunnison County because 
parcel data was available only for Gunnison County and not Saguache 
County. Approximately 18 percent of the land area within the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse in Gunnison County has a residential density 
greater than one housing unit per 1.3 km\2\ (0.5 mi\2\) (USFWS 2010b, 
p. 8). The GSRSC (2005, pp. 160-161) hypothesized that residential 
density in excess of one housing unit per 1.3 km\2\ (0.5 mi\2\) could 
cause declines in Gunnison sage-grouse populations, though there are 
limitations with this assumption (see discussion above). Based on this 
estimate, current human residential densities in the Gunnison Basin 
population area are such that they may be having an impact on Gunnison 
sage-grouse in at least 18 percent of the occupied area.
    In our proposed rule to list Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered, we 
also applied a 1.5 km (.93 mi) ``zone of influence'' to residential 
development in Gunnison County (based on Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 400), 
in an effort to evaluate how the current level of

[[Page 69236]]

residential development may be impacting habitat and limiting the 
Gunnison Basin population of sage-grouse (for more details, see 78 FR 
2486, January 11, 2013). That analysis led us to conclude that within 
occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in Gunnison County, 49 percent of 
the land area within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse had at least one 
housing unit within a radius of 1.5 km (0.9 mi). We found that this 
level of residential development strongly decreased the likelihood of 
Gunnison sage-grouse using these areas as nesting habitat. Based on 
this analysis, we determined that residential development, particularly 
in the Gunnison Basin, was currently a principal threat to the species. 
This conclusion was critical to our proposal to list the species as 
endangered.
    Since the listing proposal, we have received significant comments 
and new information regarding this conclusion, and particularly our 
application of the Aldridge et al. 2012 study, to find that human 
development is currently negatively affecting the species' utilization 
of 49 percent of occupied habitat in Gunnison County. As noted by 
various commentators, this conclusion is at odds with the current 
status of the Gunnison Basin population, which, as described above, is 
and has been relatively stable for the last 19 years, based on lek 
count data. If residential development was currently negatively 
impacting such a significant percentage of occupied habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin population, we would expect to see some evidence of this 
in these population trends. This is so even recognizing that, as a 
consequence of their site fidelity to seasonal habitats (Lyon and 
Anderson 2003, p. 489), measurable population effects may lag behind 
negative changes in habitat (Harju et al. 2010, entire; Wiens and 
Rotenberry 1985, p. 666). As a result, we believe that our use of 
Aldridge et. al 2012, as described above, significantly overestimated 
the impact that current levels of residential development in Gunnison 
County are having on the species.
    Based on this reevaluation, we conclude that current development in 
the Gunnison Basin population area is a threat of low magnitude to the 
persistence of this Gunnison sage-grouse population. Despite past 
residential development in the Gunnison Basin, the Gunnison Basin 
population of Gunnison sage-grouse has remained relatively stable over 
the past 19 years, based on lek count data and population estimates 
(Figure 2). The Gunnison Basin population is currently large and 
relatively stable and appears to be resilient (see further discussion 
under Small Population Size and Structure section). Therefore, this 
population has been able to sustain the negative effects of development 
at current levels.

Future Impacts of Residential Development

    Residential development in occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin 
will increase in the future, which means the impacts from such 
development will also increase. Based on new information received since 
the proposed rule, however, we believe that the rate of increase may be 
less than what we determined in the proposed rule. Projections for 
human population growth in Gunnison County range from about 0.75 
percent to 2.15 percent annually, depending on the source (Table 7). 
The current (2013) estimated human population of Gunnison County is 
15,982 (CDOLA 2011, entire). By 2050, the human population in Gunnison 
County is projected to be 20,877 to 37,828 people (Table 7). In our 
proposed rule to list Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered (78 FR 2486, 
January 11, 2013), we applied the Colorado Water Conservation Board's 
(CWCB) middle-growth scenario of 1.7 percent annual growth for Gunnison 
County (CWCB 2009, p. 53). We now recognize this figure may 
overestimate actual growth in the area due to that study's broader 
geographic focus (Colorado watersheds) and purpose (to forecast water 
use and demands). The Colorado State Demographer (CDOLA 2011, entire) 
estimated an average annual growth rate of 1.2 percent for Gunnison 
County, with approximately 22,107 people by the year 2040, or 
approximately 38 percent greater than the 2013 population. 
Coincidentally, these projections are near the average of the range of 
projected growth rates from the various sources (Table 7), and 
represent a reliable estimate of expected future growth in the Gunnison 
Basin area.

                            Table 7--Human Population Projections for Gunnison County
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Average annual  growth
              Source                         rate           Population projection         Source/ citation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Colorado Water Conservation Board.  1.06%--low scenario...  By the year 2050:....  CWCB 2009, p. 53.
                                    1.70%--middle scenario   23,314--low scenario
                                    2.15%--high scenario..   31,086--middle
                                                             scenario.
                                                             37,828--high
                                                             scenario.
Colorado State Demographer........  1.2%..................  By the year 2040:....  CDOLA 2011, entire.
                                                             22,107..............
Gunnison County...................  1%....................  By the year 2050:....  Gunnison County 2013a, p. 69.
                                                             20,877..............
Gunnison City Council.............  0.75%.................  n/a..................  City of Gunnison 2013, p. 4.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Future population growth in the Saguache County portion of the 
Gunnison Basin is projected to be 1.5 percent per year, with an 
estimated population of 9,133 by the year 2040, or approximately 41 
percent greater than the 2013 population (Table 4 above).
    All population projections from Table 4 and Table 7 above indicate 
the density and distribution of human residences in the Gunnison Basin 
will increase in the future. The precise rate of human population 
growth in Gunnison or Saguache Counties, however, is not the 
determinative factor in assessing whether the Gunnison Basin population 
of Gunnison sage-grouse will persist into the future. As discussed 
below, future residential development in occupied habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin is constrained by the relatively limited area of 
developable private lands. In addition, if future residential 
development follows past patterns, much of this future development in 
Gunnison County will occur outside of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat and 
within existing urban or otherwise developed areas. Nonetheless, even 
under this development pattern, approximately 26 percent of future 
residential development in Gunnison County would occur in occupied

[[Page 69237]]

Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Gunnison County 2013a, Appendix G, p. 9).
    Of the 239,640 ha (592,168 ac) of occupied habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin, approximately 72,380 ha (178,855 ac) (30 percent) are on private 
lands (Table 6). Approximately 16,499 ha (40,769 ac) (22.8 percent) of 
these private lands, or 6.9 percent of occupied habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin population area, are currently under conservation easement where 
development is prohibited or restricted to protect conservation values, 
including values for Gunnison sage-grouse on some properties (Gunnison 
County 2013b, p. 21; Lohr and Gray 2013, p. 54). (Refer to Factor D 
analysis, Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation Easements for a 
detailed discussion.) Approximately 55,881 ha (138,086ac) (77.2 
percent) of private lands are not currently under conservation easement 
and, thus, are at higher risk of residential development. This 
constitutes 23.3 percent of the entire occupied range in the Gunnison 
Basin. Therefore, about 23.3 percent of the 239,640 ha (592,168 ac) of 
total occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin is at higher risk of 
residential development (relative to lands not protected under 
conservation easement).
    Over half of this at risk occupied habitat currently consists of 
high priority habitat for the species. Based on the habitat 
recommendations in the RCP, the Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse Strategic 
Committee developed a Habitat Prioritization Tool (Gunnison County 
2013a, Appendix G; see detailed description under Local Laws and 
Regulations, Gunnison County), which identifies sage-grouse habitat and 
then discounts the value of the habitat based on distance to 
structures, roads, and power lines. The Habitat Prioritization Tool 
determined that, of private lands in occupied habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin not under conservation easement, over half are Tier 1 habitat, or 
high value habitat (e.g., lekking, nesting, brood-rearing, or wintering 
habitat); the remaining habitat is classified as Tier 2, or lower value 
habitat (Cochran 2013, pers. comm.) that is closer to structures, 
roads, and power lines. This tool does not quantify or map unoccupied 
habitats. Based on this figure, of the 55,881 ha (138,086 ac) or 23.3 
percent of total occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin at higher risk 
of residential development (as discussed below), 28,033 ha (69,270 ac) 
of those are Tier 1, or priority habitat.
    The GSRSC (2005, p. 161) cautioned that, in the Gunnison Basin 
population, any habitat loss from residential development should be 
avoided or mitigated because of this population's high conservation 
importance. As noted earlier, the GSRSC (2005, p.161) suggested that 
the greatest impacts from permanent habitat loss are expected in 
seasonal habitats most important to Gunnison sage-grouse, such as areas 
used during moderate to severe winters or in lekking, nesting, or 
brood-rearing habitats. These areas are quantified within the Tier 1 
habitats of the Habitat Prioritization Tool described above, and 
constitute approximately 69,000 acres. Forty-five percent of the leks 
in the Gunnison Basin population area occur on private lands (see 
discussion above in the Current Distribution and Population Estimates 
and Trends section), and any impacts within 4 miles of these leks could 
affect nesting and brood-rearing activities.
    Additional residential development in those high value habitats 
could result in increased impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse in the 
Gunnison Basin. Lesser impacts would be expected in Tier 2 habitats, 
and from indirect effects of development in unoccupied habitats. These 
impacts, particularly to the seasonally important habitats, are a 
concern, and we expect impacts, and the level of threat posed by 
residential development, to increase in the future, although at a 
somewhat lower rate than what we described in the proposed listing 
rule.
    Although exurban development will likely increase as in other parts 
of the rural west, if past residential growth patterns in Gunnison 
County continue, we can expect the majority of residential development 
to occur outside of occupied habitat and near municipalities and 
existing infrastructure. Nevertheless, under these past residential 
growth patterns, we would still expect approximately 26 percent of 
residential growth in the future to occur in occupied habitat.
    While we recognize that current conservation efforts, including 
conservation easements, enforcement of current county land use 
regulations, and CCAA implementation are likely to help reduce (but not 
necessarily preclude) the effects of past and future residential 
development on Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin, we find that such efforts will not fully address this and other 
threats (see Factor A, Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to 
Habitat Conservation, and Factor D, Regulatory Mechanisms). In 
addition, future residential development of private lands will likely 
demand new or additional infrastructure on adjacent properties such as 
Federally administered lands, which may cause additional impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (see Cumulative Effects From Factors A 
through E). Although we cannot forecast what those impacts might look 
like, we anticipate that such impacts on Federal lands will be 
addressed, to some degree, through Federal programs and policies such 
as the Gunnison Basin CCA (see Conservation Programs and Efforts 
Related to Habitat Conservation in this Factor A analysis).
    In summary, the threat to Gunnison sage-grouse as a result of 
current residential development is less than we previously thought as 
discussed above. While individual birds may be affected, current 
residential development is a threat of low magnitude to Gunnison Basin 
birds at the population level. Approximately 23.3 percent of the 
239,640 ha (592,168 ac) of total occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin 
is at higher risk of development (i.e., are not protected by 
conservation easement) in the future, relative to lands where 
development is precluded, prohibited, or restricted (under State or 
Federal ownership or conservation easement). Approximately 50 percent 
of these developable lands are in priority habitats, and their 
potential loss or degradation in the future would be a concern for the 
Gunnison Basin population. In addition, indirect and cumulative effects 
of infrastructure associated with residential development will increase 
the impacts of future residential development. Based on these reasons, 
we find that residential development is currently a threat of low 
magnitude to the Gunnison Basin population of Gunnison sage-grouse, but 
that it is an increasing threat in the future.

Summary of Residential Development

    Residential development is likely contributing to habitat loss and 
degradation throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Habitat 
fragmentation resulting from human development patterns is especially 
detrimental to Gunnison sage-grouse because of their dependence on 
large areas of sagebrush (Patterson 1952, p. 48; Connelly et al. 2004, 
p. 4-1; Connelly et al. 2011a, p. 72) and more contiguous sagebrush 
habitats (Rogers 1964, p. 19; Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 452-453). 
Infrastructure such as roads and power lines associated with 
residential development (urban and exurban) likely further contribute 
to habitat loss and other impacts such as increased risk of predation, 
particularly in the satellite populations. Residential development, and 
associated habitat loss or degradation, urban development, roads, 
utility corridors, and fences have all been identified as current or

[[Page 69238]]

potential issues in each of the seven populations (GSRSC 2005, p. 146). 
Increasing rural and exurban development in sagebrush habitats will 
continue impacting Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Human population growth is occurring throughout much of the range 
of Gunnison sage-grouse. The human population in all Colorado counties 
within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse has increased by approximately 
57.8 percent in the last several decades, since 1985 (Table 2). During 
the same period, human population growth in Utah counties in Gunnison 
sage-grouse range increased by about 24.5 percent (Table 3), much less 
than that of Colorado counties. Population increases are expected to 
continue into the future (GSRSC 2005, p. 150-153). Across the six 
satellite populations, the human population in Colorado is forecasted 
to grow by about 60 percent, with most of this growth (and total number 
of persons) occurring in Mesa, Montrose, and Delta Counties (Table 4). 
Residential development is expected to increase to meet the demand of 
these growing human populations. Projected human population growth 
rates in the Gunnison Basin population are considered low relative to 
other populations. However, residential development in the Gunnison 
Basin, including development in occupied habitat, is expected to 
continue into the future and potentially impact the species and its 
habitat.
    Our analysis was focused on the direct loss of occupied habitat due 
to residential development, in which negative impacts on the species 
are more quantifiable. Indirect effects (e.g., off-site or functional 
habitat loss, loss of unoccupied habitat) of habitat decline due to 
residential development are also expected, however, and are evaluated 
qualitatively in the above analysis. Residential growth rates and 
patterns vary widely across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Based on 
these considerations, our framework for assessing the threat of 
residential development was based primarily on human population growth 
rates (current and projected), the availability of developable private 
lands, the ameliorating effects of conservation efforts, and other 
information (see Table 6 and discussions above). Our evaluation found 
that residential development is a substantial threat to the San Miguel, 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, and Poncha Pass populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse, both now and in the future. Based on the best 
available information, current residential development in the remaining 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations may impact individual birds or areas 
of habitat, but is currently a threat of low magnitude at the 
population level. Residential development will continue into the future 
in these areas and, as discussed above, such development in areas of 
important seasonal habitats would be a concern in these populations.
    Rangewide, approximately 34.8 percent of occupied Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat is at higher risk of residential development (Table 6), 
relative to lands not under conservation easement or Federal or State 
ownership. As described above, human population growth is occurring 
throughout much of the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, although the rate 
and pattern of residential development varies widely by sage-grouse 
population. These trends are expected to continue into the future, 
resulting in further residential development, associated 
infrastructure, and habitat loss in parts of the species' range.
    The threat of habitat loss or degradation due to residential 
development in the San Miguel and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa 
populations will likely reduce habitat connectivity between satellite 
populations and, potential connectivity between the Gunnison Basin 
population and satellite populations to the west. The GSRSC (2005, p. 
167) identified habitat areas in the San Miguel population that provide 
potential linkages with the Dove Creek-Monticello population to the 
west, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population to the north, and Cerro Summit-
Cimarron-Sims Mesa population to the east. Potential linkages in the 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population were also identified that 
may provide connectivity with the San Miguel population to the west, 
Crawford population to the northeast, and Gunnison Basin population to 
the east. Genetic evidence indicates maintaining or enhancing habitat 
connectivity between populations is important for Gunnison sage-grouse 
survival into the future (See discussion in Factor E analysis, Small 
Population Size and Structure). Based on the above information, we find 
residential development to be a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse 
rangewide, both now and into the future.

Roads

    Impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse from roads may include direct 
habitat loss, direct mortality, barriers to migration corridors or 
seasonal habitats, facilitation of predation and spread of invasive 
vegetative species, and other indirect influences such as noise (Forman 
and Alexander 1998, pp. 207-231). Greater sage-grouse mortality 
resulting from collisions with vehicles does occur, but mortalities are 
typically not monitored or recorded (Patterson 1952, p. 81). Therefore, 
it is difficult to determine the influence of road-related mortalities 
on sage-grouse populations. We have no information on the frequency or 
number of mortalities of Gunnison sage-grouse due to roads or vehicles, 
but because of similarities in their habitat and habitat use, we expect 
effects to be similar to those observed in greater sage-grouse 
(described below). Roads have been shown to fragment Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat, with road avoidance by birds presumably to limit 
exposure to human activity and predation (Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 
330). The probability of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat occupancy 
(presence based on pellet surveys or sage-grouse observation) was 
positively correlated with distance from roads and habitat patch size 
(Oyler-McCance et al. 1999, p. 29).
    The presence of roads increases human access and resulting 
disturbance effects in remote areas (Forman and Alexander 1998, p. 221; 
Forman 2000, p. 35; Connelly et al. 2004, pp. 7-6 to 7-25). In 
addition, roads can provide corridors for predators to move into 
previously unoccupied areas. Some mammalian species known to prey on 
sage-grouse, such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoons (Procyon lotor), 
and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), have greatly increased their 
distribution by dispersing along roads (Forman and Alexander 1998, p. 
212; Forman 2000, p. 33; Frey and Conover 2006, pp. 1114-1115). Corvids 
(Family Corvidae: Crows, ravens, magpies, etc.) also use linear 
features such as primary and secondary roads as travel routes (Bui 
2009, p. 31), expanding their movements into previously unused regions 
(Knight and Kawashima 1993, p. 268; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 12-3). 
Corvids are significant sage-grouse nest predators and were responsible 
for more than 50 percent of nest predations in Nevada (Coates 2007, pp. 
26-30). See Factor C below for further discussion of predation.
    The expansion of road networks also contributes to exotic plant 
invasions via introduced road fill, vehicle transport, and road 
maintenance activities (Forman and Alexander 1998, p. 210; Forman 2000, 
p. 32; Gelbard and Belnap 2003, p. 426; Knick et al. 2003, p. 619; 
Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-25). Invasive species are not limited to 
roadsides, but also encroach into surrounding habitats (Forman and 
Alexander 1998, p. 210; Forman 2000, p. 33; Gelbard and Belnap

[[Page 69239]]

2003, p. 427). Upgrading unpaved four-wheel-drive roads to paved roads 
resulted in increased cover of invasive plant species within the 
interior of adjacent plant communities (Gelbard and Belnap 2003, p. 
426). This effect was associated with road construction and maintenance 
activities and vehicle traffic, and not with differences in site 
characteristics. The incursion of invasive and exotic plants into 
native sagebrush systems can negatively affect Gunnison sage-grouse 
through habitat losses and conversions (see Invasive Plants).
    Gunnison sage-grouse may avoid road areas because of noise, visual 
disturbance, pollutants, and predators moving along a road, which 
further reduces the amount of available habitat. An unpublished study 
by Western State Colorado University and CPW in the Gunnison Basin 
found that anthropogenic noise was significantly higher at leks closer 
to roads and human activity centers than leks farther from those 
sources (Piquette et al. 2013, pp. 7-8). Leks with higher noise levels 
were associated with lower Gunnison sage-grouse male counts and 
attendance (Piquette et al. 2013, pp. 10-11). The landscape-scale 
spatial model predicting Gunnison sage-grouse nest site selection 
showed strong avoidance of areas with high road densities of roads 
classed 1 through 4 (primary paved highways through primitive roads 
with 2-wheel drive sedan clearance) within 6.4 km (4 mi) of nest sites 
(Aldridge et al. 2012 p. 397). Nest sites also decreased with increased 
proximity to primary and secondary paved highways (roads classes 1 and 
2) (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 401). Male greater sage-grouse lek 
attendance was shown to decline within 3 km (1.9 mi) of a deep seam 
natural gas well haul road where traffic volume exceeded one vehicle 
per day (Holloran 2005, p. 40). Surface coal mining activity and 
associated vehicle traffic on haul roads in the North Park of Colorado 
was correlated with a 94 percent reduction in the number of displaying 
greater sage-grouse males over a 5-year period on leks situated within 
2 km (1.24 mi) of roads (Remington and Braun 1991). Peak male greater 
sage-grouse attendance at leks experimentally treated with noise from 
natural gas drilling and roads decreased 29 percent and 73 percent, 
respectively, relative to paired control (no treatment) areas (Blickley 
et al. 2012, p. 467). Male sage-grouse depend on acoustical signals to 
attract females to leks (Gibson and Bradbury 1985, p. 82; Gratson 1993, 
p. 692). If noise from roads interferes with mating displays, and 
thereby female attendance, younger males will not be drawn to the lek 
and eventually leks will become inactive (Amstrup and Phillips 1977, p. 
26; Braun 1986, pp. 229-230).
    In a study on the Pinedale Anticline in Wyoming, greater sage-
grouse hens that bred on leks within 3 km (1.9 mi) of roads associated 
with oil and gas development traveled twice as far to nest as did hens 
that bred on leks greater than 3 km (1.9 mi) from roads. Nest 
initiation rates for hens bred on leks close to roads also were lower 
(65 versus 89 percent), affecting population recruitment (33 versus 44 
percent) (Lyon 2000, p. 33; Lyon and Anderson 2003, pp. 489-490). Roads 
may be the primary impact of oil and gas development to sage-grouse, 
due to their persistence and continued use even after drilling and 
production have ceased (Lyon and Anderson 2003, p. 490). Lek 
abandonment patterns suggested that daily vehicular traffic along road 
networks for oil wells can impact greater sage-grouse breeding 
activities (Braun et al. 2002, p. 5). Similar data are not available 
for Gunnison sage-grouse, so we do not know how the species responds to 
roads and traffic associated with energy development, though we expect 
effects would be similar to those observed in greater sage-grouse.
    One study showed that road density was not an important factor 
affecting greater sage-grouse persistence or rangewide patterns in 
sage-grouse extirpation (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 992). However, the 
authors did not consider the intensity of human use of roads in their 
modeling efforts. They also indicated that their analyses may have been 
influenced by inaccuracies in spatial road data sets, particularly for 
secondary roads (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 992). Spatial modeling of 
historic range where greater and Gunnison sage-grouse have been 
extirpated had a 25 percent higher density of roads than occupied range 
(Wisdom et al. 2011, p. 467). Wisdom et al.'s (2011, entire) greater 
and Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide analysis supports the findings of 
numerous local studies showing that roads can have both direct and 
indirect impacts on sage-grouse distribution and individual fitness 
(reproduction and survival) (e.g., Lyon and Anderson 2003 p. 490, 
Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 520).
    Recreational activities including off-highway vehicles (OHV), all-
terrain vehicles, motorcycles, mountain bikes, and other mechanized 
methods of travel have also been recognized as a potential direct and 
indirect threat to Gunnison sage-grouse and their habitat (BLM 2009a, 
p. 36). In Colorado, the number of annual off-highway vehicle (OHV) 
registrations has increased dramatically from 12,000 in 1991 to 131,000 
in 2007 (BLM 2009a, p. 37). Four wheel drive, OHV, motorcycle, 
specialty vehicle, and mountain bike use is expected to increase in the 
future based on increased human population in Colorado and within the 
range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Numerous off-road routes and access 
points to habitat used by Gunnison sage-grouse combined with increasing 
capabilities for mechanized travel and increased human population 
further contribute to habitat decline.

Roads in the Gunnison Basin Population Area

    Currently, 1,349 km (838 mi) of roads accessible to 2-wheel-drive 
passenger cars occur in occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin on all land ownerships. Four-wheel-drive vehicle roads, 
as well as motorcycle, mountain bike, horse, and hiking trails are 
heavily distributed throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse (BLM 
2009a, pp. 27, 55, 86), which further increases the overall density of 
roads and their direct and indirect effects on Gunnison sage-grouse. 
User-created roads and trails have increased since 2004 (BLM 2009a, p. 
33), although we do not know the scope of this increase.
    On BLM lands in the Gunnison Basin, approximately 2,050 km (1,274 
mi) of roads are currently within 6.4 km (4 mi) of Gunnison sage-grouse 
leks (BLM 2010a, p. 147). This distance is thought to be important, 
because eighty-seven percent of all Gunnison sage-grouse nests were 
located less than 6.4 km (4 mi) from the lek of capture (Apa 2004, p. 
21). However, the BLM proposed to reduce the roads on its Gunnison 
Basin lands from 2,050 km (1,274 mi) to 1,157 km (719 mi) (BLM 2010a, 
p. 147), including implementation of other conservation measures from 
the Gunnison Basin Candidate Conservation Agreement (CCA) (BLM 2013b, 
entire) (see Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat 
Conservation below). The NPS completed a Motorized Vehicle Access Plan 
and Environmental Assessment for the Curecanti National Recreation Area 
(NPS 2010, 78 FR 72028). As of January 2014, roads open to the public 
within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (occupied and unoccupied) were 
reduced from 91.1 km (56.6 mi) to 39.6 km (24.6 mi) (Stahlnecker 2014, 
pers. com) (also discussed below).

[[Page 69240]]

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) is implementing their 2010 Travel 
Management Plan to benefit Gunnison sage-grouse. Approximately 66 km 
(41 mi) of road have recently been decommissioned on USFS lands in the 
Gunnison Basin. An additional 40-56 km (25-35 mi) of roads were 
proposed for decommissioning by the USFS in 2013. The BLM, USFS, CPW, 
and Gunnison County currently close 36 roads at 47 closure points to 
all motorized traffic from March 15 to May 15 to minimize impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse during the breeding season. Six USFS closures 
extend to June 15 to protect nesting Gunnison sage-grouse. These 
closures limit motorized access to all known leks and adjacent habitats 
on public lands in the Gunnison Basin (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 78, 
127). The USFS implements winter and spring travel closures for 
motorized and mechanized activities in the Flat Top Mountain and Almont 
Triangle areas, which includes a total of more than 11,000 ha (27,000 
ac). While road closures may be violated in a small number of 
situations, we expect these seasonal closures are having a beneficial 
effect on Gunnison sage-grouse in the majority of the Gunnison Basin 
area through avoidance or minimization of impacts during sensitive 
periods.
    Using GIS and a spatial dataset of roads in the Gunnison Basin, we 
evaluated the potential effects of roads to Gunnison sage-grouse and 
their habitat. To account for secondary effects from invasive weed 
spread from roads (see discussion below in Invasive Plants), we applied 
a 0.7-km (0.4-mi) ``zone of influence'' (Bradley and Mustard 2006, p. 
1146) to all roads in the Gunnison Basin. These analyses indicate that 
approximately 85 percent of occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin has 
an increased likelihood of current or future road-related invasive weed 
invasion, although the extent and severity of weed invasion would vary 
by road and area. It is likely that all occupied habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin may be negatively affected in some way by the direct or 
indirect impacts of roads (see the discussion below). In addition, 
available information indicates that noise from roads and other human 
activity centers such as the airport may be negatively impacting 
Gunnison sage-grouse reproduction in the Gunnison Basin by reducing 
male sage-grouse attendance at nearby leks (Piquette et al. 2013, 
entire).
    The CPW (2013b, pp. 8-9) calculated the distance from roads 
(highways and county roads) for 185 separate successful and 
unsuccessful sage-grouse nests in the Gunnison Basin population, based 
on telemetry and nesting data collected from 2005 to 2010. Roads 
included highways and county roads in Gunnison and Saguache counties. 
The study did not evaluate ``primitive'' roads as the Aldridge et al. 
2012 study did, making this analysis more conservative. A GIS analysis 
of the distance frequencies of the 185 nests did not indicate an 
avoidance of roads by sage-grouse, in contrast to the findings of other 
authors cited above (see discussion above). Rather, CPW believes the 
data showed a correlation between a decline in the number of nests and 
increasing distance from roads. Approximately 45 percent of studied 
nests were within 300 m (984 ft) of a road, and 70 percent were within 
500 m (1,640 ft). Nest frequency declined around distances greater than 
500 m (1,640 ft) from roads. However, road density was not described 
and the distance to nests may be a reflection of road density rather 
than site selection. We are also uncertain as to what percentage of 
these roads may have been closed to protect nesting Gunnison sage-
grouse, which may influence nest survival. The CPW acknowledged, 
moreover, that their analysis was not peer reviewed, and did not 
account for factors such as age (yearling vs. adult), re-nesting 
(however, only 3.2 percent of females studied re-nested), or time 
(i.e., the same female observed across years) (CPW 2013b, pp. 8-9). CPW 
also recognized that its report of nesting success in relation to roads 
only addressed one aspect of potential threats to Gunnison sage-grouse 
from roads, and did not address additional threats from roads such as 
impacts on suitability of brood-rearing and seasonal habitat 
components, changes in lekking behavior, noise impacts, depredation 
risks and chick and adult mortality (CPW 2013b, p.9). While the CPW 
study may indicate that Gunnison sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin are 
not totally avoiding roads, the best available scientific information 
on the effects of roads on sage-grouse and their habitats nevertheless 
indicates that roads are likely having a negative impact on Gunnison 
sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin population, though the extent and 
magnitude of those impacts are unknown.

Roads in All Other Population Areas

    Approximately 140 km (87 mi), 243 km (151 mi), and 217 km (135 mi) 
of roads (all road classes) occur on BLM lands within the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron-Sims Mesa, Crawford, and San Miguel Basin population areas, 
respectively, all of which are managed by the BLM (BLM 2009a, p. 71). 
We do not have information on the total length of roads within the 
Monticello-Dove Creek, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, or Poncha Pass Gunnison sage-
grouse populations. However, several maps provided by the BLM show that 
roads are widespread and common throughout these population areas (BLM 
2009a, pp. 27, 55, 86).
    In the Crawford population area, Montrose County seasonally closes 
C77 Road from March 15 through May 15 to protect Gunnison sage-grouse 
during the breeding season (Gunnison County 2013, App. 1.G.40). 
Likewise, Saguache County seasonally closes three roads in the Poncha 
Pass population, and one road in the Gunnison Basin population area 
(Gunnison County 2013, App. 1.I.49). San Miguel County vacated, 
reclaimed, and relocated a county road in the San Miguel Basin to 
protect a lek in the Miramonte area (Gunnison County 2013, App. 
1.K.67). San Miguel County also restricts road traffic speed year-round 
to 10 miles per hour or less on another road in the Miramonte area 
(Gunnison County 2013, App. 1.K.67.b). An Ouray County resolution 
(Resolution Number 2013-022, entire), adopted on May 28, 2013, provides 
that seasonal restrictions (March 15 until May 15) be implemented for 
roads (not belonging to adjacent property owners or their guests), and 
appropriate terms and conditions be applied during this same time 
period at construction sites within 0.6 miles of a lek to minimize and 
avoid impacts on breeding and brood-rearing habitat. This affects 
portions of the San Miguel and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa 
populations. We expect these seasonal closures and restrictions are 
benefitting Gunnison sage-grouse in important portions of these 
populations through avoidance and minimization of impacts during 
sensitive periods. However, we believe that roads are having negative 
impacts at some level on all Gunnison sage-grouse populations.

Summary of Roads

    As described above in the Residential Development section, the 
human population is increasing throughout the range of Gunnison sage-
grouse (CDOLA 2009a, pp. 2-3; CWCB 2009, p. 15), and data indicates 
this trend will continue. Gunnison sage-grouse are dependent on large 
landscapes to meet their life history needs (GSRSC 2005, pp. 26-30) and 
contiguous sagebrush habitat (Rogers 1964, p. 19; Wisdom et al. 2011, 
pp. 452-453). The collective influences of fragmentation and 
disturbance from roads reduce the amount of effective habitat to the 
extent that they are avoided by sage-grouse (Aldridge et al.

[[Page 69241]]

2012, p. 402; Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 520; Knick et al. 2011, pp. 
212-219 and references therein; CPW 2013, pp. 8-9). Given the current 
and future human demographic and economic trends discussed above under 
the Residential Development Section, we conclude that increased road 
use and increased road construction associated with residential 
development will continue to increase. Seasonal closures are likely 
providing benefits to Gunnison sage-grouse in portions of its range and 
during sensitive periods. Nevertheless, habitat decline associated with 
roads, as described above, is a current and future threat to Gunnison 
sage-grouse rangewide.

Powerlines

    Depending on the infrastructure design, size, location, and site-
specific factors, powerlines can directly affect greater sage-grouse by 
posing a collision and electrocution hazard (Braun 1998, pp. 145-146; 
Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 974) and can have indirect effects by 
decreasing lek recruitment (Braun et al. 2002, p. 10, Walker et al. 
2007a, p. 2,644), increasing predation (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 13-
12), fragmenting habitat (Braun 1998, p. 146), and facilitating the 
invasion of exotic annual plants (Knick et al. 2003, p. 612; Connelly 
et al. 2004, p. 7-25). In 10 years of tracking and studying over 1,000 
radio-collared sage-grouse in Colorado, CPW has documented only three 
powerline strike-related mortalities (two confirmed cases, and one 
suspected case) of Gunnison sage-grouse; and one powerline strike-
related mortality of greater sage-grouse (CPW 2013b, p. 11; Phillips 
and Griffin 2013, pers. comm.). In contrast, powerline collisions in 
southeastern Idaho accounted for 33 percent of juvenile mortality of 
greater sage-grouse in low-elevation areas (Beck et al. 2006, p. 
1,075). Based on spatial modeling, proximity to powerlines is 
positively correlated with Gunnison and greater sage-grouse extirpation 
and loss of range (Wisdom et al. 2011, pp. 467-468). Due to the 
potential spread of invasive species and predators as a result of 
powerline construction and maintenance, the most substantial impact of 
powerlines on Gunnison sage-grouse likely comes from indirect effects, 
rather than from direct mortality. The effects of powerlines to 
Gunnison sage-grouse are expected to be similar to those observed in 
greater sage-grouse due to similar life histories and behavior.
    In areas where vegetation is low and the terrain relatively flat, 
power poles provide an attractive hunting, roosting, and nesting perch 
for many species of raptors and corvids, known predators of Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Steenhof et al. 1993, p. 27; Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 
974; Manville 2002, p. 7; Vander Haegen et al. 2002, p. 503) (see 
Factor C, Predation). Power poles increase a raptor's range of vision, 
allow for greater speed during attacks on prey, and serve as 
territorial markers (Steenhof et al. 1993, p. 275; Manville 2002, p. 
7), thereby increasing the likelihood of predation where sage-grouse 
occur. Raptors may actively seek out power poles where natural perches 
are limited. For example, within 1 year of construction of a 596-km 
(370-mi) transmission line in southern Idaho and Oregon, raptors and 
common ravens began nesting on the supporting poles (Steenhof et al. 
1993, p. 275). Within 10 years of construction, 133 pairs of raptors 
and ravens were nesting along this stretch (Steenhof et al. 1993, p. 
275). Raven counts increased by approximately 200 percent along the 
Falcon-Gondor transmission line corridor in Nevada within 5 years of 
construction (Atamian et al. 2007, p. 2). Howe et al. (2014) found (1) 
the average distance to a transmission line from selected raven nest 
sites was approximately 2.5 times closer than from random sites, and 
(2) areas comprised of nonnative vegetation next to sagebrush were more 
likely to be used by ravens (p.42), suggesting that ravens selected 
nest sites (1) closer to transmission lines, and (2) in close proximity 
to land cover edges and areas where land cover edges adjoined one 
another. A post hoc analysis revealed that ravens were most likely to 
nest near edges of adjoining big sagebrush and land cover types that 
were associated with direct human disturbance or fire (Howe et al., p. 
43). It is reasonable to assume an increase in the abundance of corvids 
within occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitats can lead to increased 
predation (see Factor C, Predation, for further discussion).
    As with corvids, eagles can also increase following power line 
installation. Golden eagle (Aquila chryrsaetos) predation on sage-
grouse on leks increased from 26 to 73 percent of the total predation 
after completion of a transmission line within 200 meters (m) (220 
yards (yd)) of an active sage-grouse lek in northeastern Utah (Ellis 
1985, p. 10). The lek was eventually abandoned, and Ellis (1985, p. 10) 
concluded that the presence of the powerline resulted in changes in 
sage-grouse dispersal patterns and caused fragmentation of the habitat. 
Golden eagles are found throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse 
(USGS 2010, p. 1), and golden eagles were found to be the dominant 
species recorded perching on power poles in Utah in Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat (Prather and Messmer 2009, p. 12). An increase in the 
abundance of golden eagles associated with power lines within occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitats would be expected to increase predation 
rates (see Factor C, Predation, for further discussion).
    Greater sage-grouse leks within 0.4 km (0.25 mi) of new powerlines 
constructed for coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin 
of Wyoming had significantly lower recruitment compared to leks further 
from these lines, presumably resulting from increased raptor predation 
(Braun et al. 2002, p. 10). Connelly et al. (2004, p. 7-26) assumed a 
5- to 6.9-km (3.1- to 4.3-mi) radius buffer around the perches, based 
on the average foraging distance of these corvids and raptors, and 
estimated that the area potentially influenced by additional perches 
provided by powerlines was 672,644 to 837,390 km\2\ (259,641 to 323,317 
mi\2\), or 32 to 40 percent of their assessment area. The impact on a 
given area would depend on local densities of corvids and raptors (see 
discussion in Factor C, Predation).
    Powerlines may negatively impact sage-grouse habitats even if 
raptors are not present. The use of otherwise suitable habitat by sage-
grouse near powerlines increased as distance from the powerline 
increased for up to 600 m (660 yd) (Braun 1998, p. 8), indicating sage-
grouse avoidance of powerlines. Based on those unpublished data, Braun 
(1998, p. 8) reported that the presence of powerlines may limit 
Gunnison and greater sage-grouse use within 1 km (0.6 mi) in otherwise 
suitable habitat. Greater sage-grouse tended to avoid using brood-
rearing habitats within 4.7 km (2.9 mi) of wind energy transmission 
lines in Wyoming (LeBeau 2012, p. 27).
    Electromagnetic fields emitted by power and transmission lines can 
alter the behavior, physiology, endocrine systems and immune function 
in birds, with negative consequences on reproduction and development 
(Fernie and Reynolds 2005, p. 135). Birds are diverse in their 
sensitivities to electromagnetic field exposures, with domestic 
chickens being very sensitive. Many raptor species are less affected 
(Fernie and Reynolds 2005, p. 135). Based on spatial modeling, sage-
grouse extirpation appears to be correlated to the presence of 
powerlines (Wisdom et al. 2011, p. 467). However, no studies have been 
conducted specifically on the effects of electromagnetic fields on 
sage-

[[Page 69242]]

grouse. Therefore, we do not know how electromagnetic fields may impact 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    In addition, linear corridors through sagebrush habitats can 
facilitate the spread of invasive species, such as cheatgrass (Bromus 
tectorum) (Gelbard and Belnap 2003, pp. 424-426; Knick et al. 2003, p. 
620; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 1-2). However, we were unable to find any 
information regarding the amount of invasive species incursion 
associated with powerlines within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.

Powerlines in the Gunnison Basin Population Area

    On approximately 121,000 ha (300,000 ac) of BLM land in the 
Gunnison Basin, 36 rights-of-way for power facilities, power lines, and 
transmission lines have resulted in the direct loss of 350 ha (858 ac) 
of occupied habitat (Borthwick 2005a, pers. comm.; Borthwick 2005b, 
pers. comm.). In the Curecanti National Recreation Area, Gunnison 
County Electric Association has a right of way for 63 km (39 mi) of 
overhead power lines, and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) has 
a 31-km (19 mi) right of way for transmission lines.
    As discussed above, the impacts of these lines likely extend beyond 
their actual footprint. Based on the average foraging distance of 
corvids and raptors, Connelly et al. (2004, p. 7-26) assumed a 5- to 
6.9-km (3.1- to 4.3-mi) radius buffer around the perches, and estimated 
that the area potentially influenced by additional perches provided by 
powerlines was 672,644 to 837,390 km \2\ (259,641 to 323,317 mi \2\), 
or 32 to 40 percent of their assessment area. We performed a similar 
GIS analysis of large transmission line location in relation to overall 
habitat area and Gunnison sage-grouse lek locations in the Gunnison 
Basin population area to obtain an estimate of the potential effects in 
the Basin. These analyses indicate that 68 percent of the Gunnison 
Basin population area is within 6.9 km (4.3 mi) of an electrical 
transmission line and is potentially influenced by avian predators 
using the additional perches provided by transmission lines. This area 
within 6.9 km (4.3 mi) of an electrical transmission line contains 65 
of 109 active leks (60 percent) in the Gunnison Basin population. While 
we recognize that powerlines will not entirely preclude the use of 
adjacent habitats by Gunnison sage-grouse, these results suggest that 
increased predation risks associated with transmission lines could 
affect a substantial portion of the Gunnison Basin population. Four 
sage-grouse collisions with taller utility lines were documented during 
a demographic study (Davis 2012, entire) in the Gunnison Basin, but 
none of those birds were killed as a result (Phillips 2013, p. 4). 
There have been no documented strike-related mortalities of Gunnison 
sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin (Phillips and Griffin 2013, pers. 
comm.). Conservation measures from the Gunnison Basin CCA (BLM 2013b, 
entire) are expected to reduce impacts from some future power line 
projects and activities on Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin (see 
Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation).

Powerlines in All Other Population Areas

    A transmission line runs through the Dry Creek Basin group in the 
San Miguel Basin population, and the Beaver Mesa group has two 
transmission lines. None of the transmission lines in the San Miguel 
Basin have raptor proofing, nor do most distribution lines (Ferguson 
2005, pers. comm.), so their use by raptors and corvids as perch sites 
for hunting and use for nest sites is not discouraged. In the winter of 
2012, one Gunnison sage-grouse individual in the San Miguel population 
died due to a powerline strike (Phillips and Griffin 2013, pers. 
comm.). One major electric transmission line runs east-west in the 
northern portion of the current range of the Monticello population (San 
Juan County Gunnison Sage-grouse Working Group 2005, p. 17). There have 
been no documented strike-related mortalities of Gunnison sage-grouse 
in the Dove Creek or Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population areas (Phillips and 
Griffin 2013, pers. comm.), and because of their limited extent in 
occupied habitat, powerlines do not appear to be a threat to the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population. One transmission line parallels Highway 
92 in the Crawford population and distribution lines run from there to 
homes on the periphery of the current range (Ferguson 2005, pers. 
comm.). Several transmission and utility lines intersect occupied 
habitat in the Poncha Pass area and may be negatively impacting an 
already small population and limited available habitat. A bird 
translocated from the Gunnison Basin to the Poncha Pass area in 2013 
was found dead under the large transmission line on the west side of 
Highway 285; necropsy results indicated collision was a likely cause of 
death (Phillips and Griffin 2013, pers. comm.; Nehring 2013b, pers. 
comm.). During the same year, one radio collar was found under a 
powerline, but no bird was observed (i.e., an unconfirmed mortality) 
(Phillips and Griffin 2013, pers. comm.)

Summary of Powerlines

    Human populations are projected to increase to varying degrees in 
and near most Gunnison sage-grouse populations (see Residential 
Development discussion above). As a result, we expect an associated 
increase in distribution powerlines to meet this demand. Powerlines are 
likely negatively affecting Gunnison sage-grouse as they contribute to 
habitat decline and facilitation of predators of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Given the current demographic and economic trends described in the 
Residential Development Section above, we conclude that existing 
powerlines and anticipated distribution of powerlines associated with 
residential and other development will continue to increase. Direct and 
indirect impacts resulting from powerlines are a current and future 
threat to Gunnison sage-grouse persistence rangewide.

Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory

    At least 87 percent of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat on 
Federal lands is currently grazed by domestic livestock (USFWS 2010c, 
entire). We lack information on the proportion of Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat on private lands that is currently grazed, but it is reasonable 
to expect that the proportion of grazed area is similar to that on 
Federal lands because livestock grazing is the most widespread type of 
land use across the sagebrush biome (Connelly et al. 2004), and almost 
all sagebrush areas are managed for livestock grazing (Knick et al. 
2003). Livestock grazing can have negative or positive impacts on sage-
grouse, depending on the timing and intensity of grazing and the 
habitat type or attribute of interest (Crawford et al. 2004, p. 2). 
Excessive grazing by domestic livestock during the late 1800s and early 
1900s, along with severe drought, significantly impacted sagebrush 
ecosystems (Knick et al. 2003, p. 616). Overgrazing by livestock was 
cited as one of several contributing factors in the early loss and 
deterioration of sagebrush range in the region (Rogers 1964, p. 13). 
Historical accounts indicate that overgrazing of sagebrush range in 
Colorado began around 1875. Overgrazing was apparently at its worst in 
the early 1900's and continued until the BLM was organized in 1934 
(Rogers 1964, p. 13). Around 1910, a gradual but marked decline in 
sage-grouse numbers and distribution in Colorado had begun (Rogers 
1964, pp. 20-22). Though there

[[Page 69243]]

is no evidence of direct correlation, this information suggests that 
historical livestock grazing practices and overgrazing were a 
contributing factor in the early loss and degradation of sagebrush 
habitats and initial declines in sage-grouse numbers and distribution. 
Although current livestock stocking rates in the range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse are lower than historical levels (Laycock et al. 1996, p. 
3), long-term effects from historical overgrazing, including changes in 
plant communities and soils, persist today (Knick et al. 2003, p. 116).
    In addition, widespread use of water developments in connection 
with livestock grazing across the West has since increased livestock 
access to sagebrush habitats, and so even reduced numbers of livestock 
still pose impacts (Connelly et al. 2004, pp. 7-33, 7-35, 7-92). 
However, in some cases, small scale water development may benefit the 
species. For instance, in the recent past, landowners in San Juan 
County, Utah, in the range of the Monticello population of Gunnison 
sage-grouse did not have automatic control valves on water developments 
for livestock watering. This resulted in overflow creating seasonal wet 
meadow and mesic habitats often used by Gunnison sage-grouse and 
broods. The recent use of more advanced watering devices and shutoff 
valves has resulted in the loss of many of these created wet meadow 
sites, potentially contributing to sage-grouse declines in the area 
(Prather 2010, p. 27). Water developments are also a potential source 
of West Nile virus, a serious risk factor to sage-grouse populations. 
Unless they are designed and managed specifically to benefit Gunnison 
sage-grouse, we conclude that the negative effects of water development 
outweigh the positives (see Factor C discussion, Disease).
    Although livestock grazing and associated land treatments have 
likely altered plant composition, increased topsoil loss, and increased 
spread of exotic plants, the impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations are not clear. Few studies have directly addressed the 
effect of livestock grazing on sage-grouse (Beck and Mitchell 2000, pp. 
998-1000; Wamboldt et al. 2002, p. 7; Crawford et al. 2004, p. 11), and 
little direct experimental evidence links grazing practices to Gunnison 
sage-grouse population levels (Braun 1987, pp. 136-137, Connelly and 
Braun 1997, p. 7-9). Rowland (2004, pp. 17-18) conducted a literature 
review and found no experimental research that demonstrates grazing 
alone is responsible for reduction in sage-grouse numbers.
    Despite the obvious impacts of grazing on plant communities within 
the range of the species, the GSRSC (2005, p. 114) could not find a 
direct correlation between historical grazing and reduced Gunnison 
sage-grouse numbers. Impacts from livestock grazing on individual birds 
and site-specific habitat conditions may have impacts at the population 
level as well, given the widespread nature of grazing. However, no 
studies have documented the impacts (positive or negative) of grazing 
at the population level.
    Sage-grouse need significant grass and shrub cover for protection 
from predators, particularly during nesting season, and females will 
preferentially choose nesting sites based on these qualities (Hagen et 
al. 2007, p. 46). However, specific recommendations on vegetation 
characteristics and habitat requirements for sage-grouse vary. Nest 
success in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat was positively correlated with 
greater grass and forb heights; and shrub density and cover (Young 
1994, p. 38). In contrast, nest site vegetation characteristics did not 
have a strong influence on nest success between the Gunnison Basin and 
San Miguel populations, where temporal factors had the greatest 
influence (Davis 2012, pp. 1, 10). It is thought that, in Colorado, 
sagebrush canopy cover conceals nests more than grass (GSRSC 2005, p. 
73). In Oregon, grass height at greater sage-grouse nests was taller at 
successful nests than at unsuccessful nests (specific grass species 
that tend to be taller than others were also positively associated with 
successful nests) (Gregg 1991, p. 2). Gregg et al. (1994, p. 165) 
speculated that a reduction of grass heights due to livestock grazing 
in sage-grouse nesting and brood-rearing areas would negatively affect 
nesting success whenever cover is reduced below the 18 cm (7 in.) 
needed for predator avoidance. Maintaining average grass height greater 
than 18 cm (7 in.) was recommended by Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 977). 
However, guideline standards from Connelly et al. (2000a, entire) are 
derived primarily from research and publications from the Great Basin 
and northwest, where bunch grasses predominate (GSRSC 2005, p. 73).
    The RCP (GSRSC 2005, p. H-6) provided structural habitat guidelines 
for Gunnison sage-grouse and recommends a grass height of 10 to 15 cm 
(3.9-5.9 in.) in breeding habitats. Lupis (2005, entire) found that 
despite reduced grass and forb cover, all (100 percent) Gunnison sage-
grouse nests monitored in the Monticello population were successful. 
However, sample size for the study was limited to three nests, and 
predator control at the time may have contributed to relatively high 
nesting success (Lupis 2005, entire); inference from this study is 
therefore limited. Based on measurements of cattle foraging rates on 
bunchgrasses both between and under sagebrush canopies, the probability 
of foraging on under-canopy bunchgrasses depends on sagebrush size and 
shape. Consequently, the effects of grazing on nesting habitats might 
be site-specific (France et al. 2008, pp. 392-393). Effects of grazing 
on nesting habitats are dependent on the timing as well as duration and 
intensity of grazing. Grazing on grasses and forbs during nesting and 
early brood rearing seasons could impact food sources for young broods, 
as well as alter the desired herbaceous plant community. Grazing on 
grasses and forbs in late-fall or winter could reduce residual 
vegetation important for hiding cover for nesting hens the following 
spring. In addition, grazing on shrubs, especially sagebrush, during 
winter months may cause impacts to both hiding/thermal cover as well as 
the primary food resource for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Livestock grazing can also impact fire return intervals, which in 
turn can affect Gunnison sage-grouse habitat quality. Fire ecology in 
the sagebrush steppe ecosystem has changed dramatically with European 
settlement. In high elevation sagebrush habitat, fire return intervals 
have increased from 12-24 years to more than 50 years, resulting in the 
dominance of woody vegetation (typically juniper and/or pi[ntilde]on 
pine) and the decline of important shrubs and herbaceous understories. 
At lower elevations, fire return intervals have decreased dramatically 
from 50-100 years to less than 10 years due to invasion by annual 
grasses resulting in the loss of native perennial shrubs, forbs, and 
grasses (Crawford et al. 2004, p. 8). By changing vegetative structure 
and composition, livestock grazing can contribute to either condition 
(an increase in woody vegetation or invasive annual grasses) (Beck and 
Mitchell 2000, pp. 995-996, and references therein), increasing the 
risk of larger, more severe, or more frequent wildfires (also see 
Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment and Invasive Plants sections in this 
rule). On the other hand, livestock grazing may reduce herbaceous fuel 
accumulation and continuity and, consequently, the risk of wildfires in 
sagebrush habitats (Davies et al. 2010, p. 662).
    We know that livestock grazing influences fire ecology in sage-
grouse habitat. However, due to the spatial complexity of fire in 
sagebrush ecosystems (Crawford et al. 2004, p.7),

[[Page 69244]]

and the numerous factors determining the effects of grazing on 
sagebrush habitats (as described above), the effects of grazing on 
sage-grouse by altering fire ecology likely vary widely across time and 
space. Grazing by livestock, especially if done in a manner not 
consistent with local ecological conditions, including soil types, 
precipitation zones, vegetation composition and drought conditions, can 
reduce the suitability of breeding and brood-rearing habitat, 
negatively affecting sage-grouse populations (Braun 1987, p. 137; 
Dobkin 1995, p. 18; Connelly and Braun 1997, p. 231; Beck and Mitchell 
2000, pp. 998-1000; USFWS 2013e, p. 45). Livestock and wild ungulate 
numbers must be managed at levels that allow native sagebrush 
vegetative communities to minimally achieve Proper Functioning 
Conditions for riparian areas or Rangeland Health Standards for uplands 
(USFWS 2013e, p. 45). Domestic livestock grazing reduces water 
infiltration rates and the cover of herbaceous plants and litter, 
compacts the soil, and increases soil erosion (Braun 1998, p. 147; 
Dobkin et al. 1998, p. 213). These impacts change the proportion of 
shrub, grass, and forb components in the affected area, and facilitate 
invasion of exotic plant species that do not provide suitable habitat 
for sage-grouse (Mack and Thompson 1982, p. 761; Miller and Eddleman 
2000, p. 19; Knick et al. 2011, pp. 228-232).
    Cattle feed mostly on grasses, but will make seasonal use of forbs 
and shrub species like sagebrush (Vallentine 1990, p. 226), the primary 
source of nutrition for sage-grouse. Within the range of Gunnison sage-
grouse, sheep use of sagebrush habitats occurs primarily during the 
winter and spring months, depending on elevation. Sheep feed primarily 
on sagebrush and other shrubs. A sage-grouse hen's nutritional 
condition affects nest initiation rate, clutch size, and subsequent 
reproductive success (Barnett and Crawford 1994, p. 117; Coggins 1998, 
p. 30). Grazing management practices that are inconsistent with local 
ecological conditions in mesic sites result in a reduction of forbs and 
grasses available to sage-grouse chicks, thereby affecting chick 
survival (Aldridge and Brigham 2003, p. 30). Chick survival is one of 
the most important factors in maintaining Gunnison sage-grouse 
population viability (GSRSC 2005, p. 173). We conclude that livestock 
utilization of forage resources has the potential to negatively impact 
Gunnison sage-grouse, though the magnitude of those effects depends on 
location, grazing practices, and site-specific factors.
    Livestock can trample sage-grouse nests and nesting habitat. 
Although the effect of trampling at a population level is unknown, 
outright nest destruction has been documented, and the presence of 
livestock can cause sage-grouse to abandon their nests (Rasmussen and 
Griner 1938, p. 863; Patterson 1952, p. 111; Call and Maser 1985, p. 
17; Holloran and Anderson 2003, p. 309; Beck and Mitchell 2000, p. 994; 
Coates 2007, p. 28). Sage-grouse have been documented to abandon nests 
following partial nest predation by cows (Coates 2007, p. 28). In 
general, all recorded encounters between livestock and grouse nests 
resulted in hens flushing from nests, which could expose the eggs to 
predation. Visual predators like ravens likely use hen movements to 
locate sage-grouse nests (Coates 2007, p. 33). Livestock also may 
trample sagebrush seedlings, thereby removing a source of future sage-
grouse food and cover (Connelly et al. 2004, pp. 7-31, and references 
therein). Trampling of soil by livestock can reduce or eliminate 
biological soil crusts making these areas susceptible to cheatgrass 
invasion (Mack 1981, pp. 148-149; Young and Allen 1997, p. 531).
    Livestock grazing may also have positive effects on sage-grouse 
under some habitat conditions. Sage-grouse use grazed meadows 
significantly more during late summer than ungrazed meadows because 
grazing had stimulated the regrowth of forbs (Evans 1986, p. 67). 
Greater sage-grouse sought out and used openings in meadows created by 
cattle grazing in northern Nevada (Klebenow 1981, p. 121). Also, both 
sheep and goats have been used to control invasive weeds (Mosley 1996 
in Connelly et al. 2004, pp. 7-49; Merritt et al. 2001, p. 4; Olsen and 
Wallander 2001, p. 30) and woody plant encroachment (Riggs and Urness 
1989, p. 358) in sage-grouse habitat. Anecdotal reports and opinion 
papers (Brunner 2006, p. 16; Gunnison County 2013a, p. 95) have 
suggested that cattle manure attracts and supports insect populations 
upon which sage-grouse depend for survival, and that sage-grouse 
``follow'' cattle through pastures. However, there is no empirical 
evidence to support this theory. Further, there are no data to 
substantiate the idea that in areas not actively grazed by livestock, 
sage-grouse are limited in some way (Connelly et al. 2007, p. 37).
    Sagebrush plant communities are not adapted to domestic grazing 
disturbance. Grazing changed the functioning of systems into less 
resilient, and in some cases, altered communities (Knick et al. 2011, 
pp. 229-232). The ability to restore or rehabilitate areas depends on 
the condition of the area relative to the ability of a site to support 
a specific plant community (Knick et al. 2011, pp. 229-232). For 
example, if an area has a balanced mix of shrubs and native understory 
vegetation, a change in grazing management can restore the habitat to 
its potential historical species composition (Pyke 2011, pp. 536-538). 
Wambolt and Payne (1986, p. 318) found that resting areas from grazing 
had a better perennial grass response than other treatments. Active 
restoration is likely required where native understory vegetation is 
much reduced (Pyke 2011, pp. 536-540). But, if an area has soil loss or 
invasive species, returning the site to the native historical plant 
community may be impossible (Daubenmire 1970, p. 82; Knick et al. 2011, 
pp. 230-231; Pyke 2011, p. 539).
    Aldridge et al. (2008, p. 990) did not find any relationship 
between sage-grouse persistence and livestock densities. However, the 
authors noted that livestock numbers do not necessarily correlate with 
range condition. They concluded that the intensity, duration, and 
distribution of livestock grazing are more influential on rangeland 
condition than the density of livestock (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 990). 
Currently, little direct evidence links grazing practices to population 
levels of Gunnison or greater sage-grouse. Although grazing has not 
been examined at large spatial scales, as discussed above, we do know 
that grazing that is incompatible with local ecological conditions and 
that does not allow native sagebrush vegetative communities to 
minimally achieve Proper Functioning Conditions for riparian areas or 
Rangeland Health Standards for uplands can have negative impacts to 
individuals, nests, breeding productivity, and sagebrush and, 
consequently, to sage-grouse at local scales (USFWS 2013e, p. 44). 
However, how these impacts operate at large spatial scales and thus on 
population levels is currently unknown.

Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring

    Our analysis of grazing is focused on BLM lands because nearly all 
of the information available to us regarding current grazing management 
within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse was provided by the BLM. 
Similar information was provided by the USFS, but was more limited 
since the USFS has less occupied habitat in grazing allotments and has 
a different habitat monitoring approach than BLM (see

[[Page 69245]]

discussion below). A summary of domestic livestock grazing management 
on BLM and USFS lands in occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat is 
provided in Table 8.

 Table 8--Summary of Domestic Livestock Grazing Management and Allotment Data on BLM \a\ and USFS \b\ Lands in Occupied Habitat for Each of the Gunnison
                                                             Sage-Grouse (GUSG) Populations
                               [From BLM (2013b, p. 3-1) and USFWS (2010c), compilation of data provided by BLM and USFS]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                USFS                                                      BLM
                                     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Population                Number of active USFS    Number of     Active BLM allotments
                                             allotments         active BLM  with GUSG \c\ objectives
                                                                allotments
                                        BLM allotments assessed under LHA
                                                       \d\
                                       Assessed BLM allotments meeting LHA
                                              objective (standard 4)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison............................  34.....................           62           62         100%           62         100%           20          32%
San Miguel Basin....................  no data................           12           11          92%           10          83%        \g\ 4          40%
Dove Creek..........................  n/a \e\................            3            0           0%            3         100%  \h\ Unknown  ...........
Monticello..........................  n/a \e\................            6            6         100%            5          83%            4          80%
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa...................  no data................           15            8          53%            4          27%            4         100%
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa.....  n/a \e\................            6            1          17%            6         100%        \i\ 1          17%
Crawford \f\........................  n/a \e\................            8            8         100%            8         100%        \j\ 7          88%
Poncha Pass.........................  no data................            8            8         100%            8         100%            8         100%
                                     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...........................  34.....................          124           83          67%          101          81%           48          48%
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Bureau of Land Management.
\b\ United States Forest Service.
\c\ Gunnison sage-grouse.
\d\ Land Health Assessments.
\e\ No United States Forest land in occupied habitat in this population area.
\f\ Includes allotments on National Park Service lands but managed by the Bureau of Land Management.
\g\ BLM did not evaluate land health specific to GUSG Habitat Objectives in 8 of the 12 active allotments in the San Miguel Basin population area.
\h\ BLM did not evaluate land health specific to GUSG Habitat Objectives in any of the 3 active allotments in the Dove Creek population area.
\i\ BLM did not evaluate land health specific to GUSG Habitat Objectives in 5 of the 6 active allotments in the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa
  population area; however, general land health standards were met on BLM lands in this area.
\j\ BLM found that 6 allotments (75 percent) were ``meeting with problems'' for GUSG Habitat Objectives. Generally these allotments were found to be low
  for some aspect of vegetation characteristics for breeding habitat recommended in GSRSC (2005 H-6).

    Some of the available information on domestic livestock grazing and 
its relationship to habitat conditions on Federal lands is in the form 
of BLM's Land Health Assessment (LHA) data. The purpose of LHAs is to 
determine the status of resource conditions within a specified 
geographic area at a specific time. The LHA process incorporates land 
health standards that define minimum resource conditions that must be 
achieved and maintained. Further discussion on the LHA process is 
provided in the following section.
    The USFS does not apply the LHA process, but monitors allotment 
trends through a combination of procedures including seasonal 
inspections, permanent photo points, and inventory and mapping of plant 
community conditions and changes over time (USFS 2010). The majority of 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat in USFS grazing allotments is 
located in the Gunnison Basin population area (Table 8 of Factor A 
(Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring)), and grazing 
information from USFS as it relates to Gunnison sage-grouse is 
therefore limited to this area (USFWS 2010c, p2).
    Although grazing also occurs on lands owned or managed by other 
entities, we have more limited information on the extent of grazing, 
management, and habitat conditions in those areas. However, substantial 
portions of sage-grouse habitat on private land in the Gunnison Basin, 
Crawford, San Miguel, and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population areas are 
enrolled in the CCAA (see Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to 
Habitat Conservation below in this Factor A section). Based on the RCP 
conservation objective of securing and maintaining 90 percent of 
seasonally important habitat (severe winter, nesting, and late brood-
rearing habitats) for the Gunnison sage-grouse in each population area 
(GSRSC 2005, pp. 223-224), the CCAA identifies targets for private land 
protection for each population area, including private lands not 
already considered as protected under a conservation easement (USFWS 
2006, pp. 11-12). Roughly 91 percent of the Gunnison Basin population 
area target, 95 percent of the Crawford population area target, 46 
percent of the San Miguel population area target, and 217 percent of 
the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area target on private lands are 
enrolled in the CCAA (Table 10). Except for properties recently 
enrolled in the program, all enrolled private lands have been monitored 
by CPW using standardized vegetation transects and rangeland health 
assessments and, despite recent drought conditions and ongoing land 
uses, no significant deviations from baseline habitat conditions were 
observed (CPW 2014a, p. 1). All enrolled properties continue to be in 
compliance with the terms of their Certificate of Inclusion (CI) (CPW 
2014a, p. 1). This information suggests that the current level of 
livestock grazing and operations on those lands is compatible with 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat needs.
    Although Federal land and livestock grazing may be more regulated 
than private lands grazing, we cannot make any generalizations about 
how habitat conditions in those areas might compare with private lands 
where livestock grazing occurs. Grazing allotments containing both 
Federal and private lands are, in some cases, managed to meet land 
health standards through coordination and cooperation with grazing 
permittees (BLM 2013c, p. 1-2). Furthermore, many livestock operations 
within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse are employing innovative 
grazing strategies and conservation actions (BLM 2012a, pp. 1-2; 
Gunnison County Stockgrowers 2009, entire) in

[[Page 69246]]

collaboration with the BLM and Forest Service.

BLM Land Health Assessment Standards

    LHA standards are based on the recognized characteristics of 
healthy ecosystems and include considerations of upland soils, riparian 
systems, plant and animal communities, habitat conditions and 
populations of special status species, and water quality (BLM 1997, pp. 
6-7). Each LHA standard, such as the condition and health of soils, 
riparian areas, or plant communities, has varying degrees of 
applicability to basic Gunnison sage-grouse habitat needs. The LHA 
standard most applicable to Gunnison sage-grouse is LHA Standard 4, 
which is specific to special status species (BLM 1997, p. 7). Special 
status species include Federally threatened, endangered, proposed, and 
candidate species; recently delisted (5 years or less) species; and BLM 
sensitive species. BLM sensitive species are those that require special 
management consideration to promote their conservation and reduce the 
likelihood and need for future listing under the Act; they are 
designated by the BLM State Director(s) (BLM 2008). Gunnison sage-
grouse was designated as a BLM sensitive species in 2000, when it was 
recognized as a separate species from greater sage-grouse (BLM 2009a, 
p. 7). Therefore, Gunnison sage-grouse is managed by the BLM as a 
special status species.
    In addition to requiring stable and increasing populations and 
suitable habitat for special status species, the specific indicators 
for LHA Standard 4 include the presence of: minimal noxious weeds, 
sustainably reproducing native plant and animal communities, mixed age 
classes sufficient to sustain recruitment and mortality fluctuations, 
habitat connectivity, photosynthetic activity throughout the growing 
season, diverse and resilient plant and animal communities in balance 
with habitat potential, plant litter accumulation, and several plant 
communities in a variety of successional stages and patterns (BLM 1997, 
p. 7). BLM deems an allotment that meets LHA Standard 4 to meet or 
exceed a minimum resource condition for those species considered for 
that area.
    If livestock grazing is found to be a causal factor for not meeting 
LHA standards, including LHA Standard 4, BLM implements changes to 
grazing management to address those issues and to move toward achieving 
desired resource conditions. Examples of adjustments include reduction 
of stocking rates or utilization, changes in seasons of use, reductions 
in duration of use, implementation of resting or deferred rotation 
grazing systems, or change in livestock class. Under BLM Instruction 
Memoranda WO-IM-2010-071, CO-IM-2010-028 and CO-IM-2013-033 (see 
further discussion in Factor D on Instruction Memoranda), BLM must 
consider Gunnison sage-grouse habitat needs and objectives when 
analyzing grazing management and permit renewals (BLM 2013a, Attachment 
1-10).
    We recognize that LHAs are largely qualitative and other factors 
such as impacts from invasive species, drought, OHV use, or the 
lingering effects of historical overgrazing, may influence the outcome 
of LHA determinations. Furthermore, BLM's application of LHA standards, 
methodologies used, and data interpretation varies widely by Field 
Office and State (Veblen et al. 2011, p. 3; BLM 2013c, p. 1-3), and the 
potentially subjective nature of the methodology is evident in the 
information on each populations presented below. Therefore, the 
relationship between LHA determinations and the effects of domestic 
livestock grazing on Gunnison sage-grouse is very imprecise. We also 
recognize that if an allotment does not fully meet LHA Standard 4, it 
does not mean the habitat is degraded or unsuitable for Gunnison sage-
grouse; and a ``not meeting'' ranking is not always attributable to 
livestock grazing (BLM 2013c, p. 1-2). For instance, some vacant 
allotments (not grazed by livestock) are not currently meeting LHA 
Standard 4 (BLM 2013c, p. 1-3), meaning current grazing practices are 
not a causal factor for that ranking. A ``not meeting'' determination 
could also be based primarily on the declining status of a special 
status species' population, including species other than Gunnison sage-
grouse. Finally, LHAs are typically only conducted every 10 years, 
triggered by changes in management such as grazing permit renewal and 
similar actions and, therefore, do not directly indicate rangeland 
trend (BLM 2013c, p. 1-3). However, the fact that some grazing 
allotments or areas within grazing allotments are not meeting LHA 
objectives indicates that habitat conditions may be degraded for 
Gunnison sage-grouse in parts of its range, and that domestic livestock 
grazing may be contributing to these conditions in some instances. A 
more thorough examination of each allotment not meeting LHA Standard 4 
would be required to determine to what extent livestock grazing is a 
causal factor.

Livestock Grazing in the Gunnison Basin Population Area

    The BLM manages approximately 51 percent of the area currently 
occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin. Nearly all (98 
percent) of this area is actively grazed USFWS 2010c, p. 1). The USFS 
manages livestock grazing on approximately 14 percent of the occupied 
portion of the Gunnison Basin population area. Therefore, this 
information on livestock grazing is pertinent to approximately 65 
percent of occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin.
    In 2013, of 62 active BLM grazing allotments in the Gunnison Basin 
population, all had incorporated Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives as described above and completed LHAs. LHA Standard 4 was 
met in 32 percent of these allotments in 2013 (Table 8 of Factor A 
(Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring); BLM 2013c, p. 3-
1). In 2012, on actively grazed BLM lands in the Gunnison Basin, 
approximately 8 percent was ``meeting'', 17 percent was ``moving 
towards'', and 63 percent was ``not meeting'' Standard 4; while 11 
percent was of ``unknown'' status (BLM 2012a, pp. 2-3).
    Although 2013 data shows that 68 percent of allotments may not be 
meeting LHA Standard 4, the data show that 32 percent of allotments 
were meeting this standard, which is an improvement over the 8 percent 
indicated by the 2012 data. Nonetheless, recognizing the limitations of 
LHA methodology and data as discussed above, the information above 
suggests that there may be reduced habitat conditions on BLM land in 
the Gunnison Basin. The cause of these conditions may or may not be 
directly related to grazing management practices that were inconsistent 
with local ecological conditions, either in the past or at present, but 
the overall trend is for improving conditions with respect to LHA 
Standard 4. The BLM has also implemented a CCA for Gunnison Basin (BLM 
2013b, entire), which has specific measures for livestock grazing 
within all occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin to help improve 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat quality (BLM 2013b, Attachment 5-4) (see 
Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation later 
in this Factor A analysis).
    In 2007 and 2008, the BLM Gunnison Field Office conducted Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat assessments in two major occupied habitat locations 
in the Gunnison Basin population, quantifying

[[Page 69247]]

vegetation structural characteristics and plant species diversity. Data 
were collected and compared to Gunnison sage-grouse Structural Habitat 
Guidelines in the 2005 Rangewide Conservation Plan (RCP) (GSRSC, 2005, 
Appendix H) during optimal growing conditions in these two major 
occupied areas. Of 97 transects, guidelines were met in 45 percent for 
sagebrush cover; 30 percent for grass cover; 25 percent for forb cover; 
75 percent for sagebrush height; 81 percent for grass height; and 39 
percent for forb height (BLM 2009a, pp. 31-32). This information 
suggests that habitat conditions in those areas generally fell short of 
standards for Gunnison sage-grouse, particularly in relation to grass 
cover, forb cover, and forb height. However, it is not known whether 
those conditions were attributable to livestock grazing or other 
factors such as big game forage use or weather patterns.
    Livestock grazing has also negatively impacted several Gunnison 
sage-grouse treatments (projects aimed at improving habitat condition) 
in the Gunnison Basin (BLM 2009a, p. 34). Although these areas are 
generally rested from domestic livestock grazing for 2 years after 
treatment, several have been heavily used by cattle shortly after the 
treatment and the effectiveness of the treatments decreased (BLM 2009a, 
p. 34), which reduced the potential benefits of the treatments.
    As noted earlier, the USFS does not use the LHA process, but 
monitors allotment trends through a combination of procedures including 
seasonal inspections, permanent photo points, and inventory and mapping 
of plant community conditions and changes over time (USFS 2010, 
entire). Three (9 percent) of the 34 USFS allotments in Gunnison sage-
grouse occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin population area have 
incorporated habitat objectives in their grazing plans. However, we 
have no specific data that evaluate allotment conditions as they relate 
to these objectives. Overall, the USFS reports that its grazing 
allotments in the Gunnison Basin population area appear to be improving 
in forb and grass cover but are declining in sagebrush cover (USFS 
2010, entire).
    All of this information indicates that grazing management may be a 
factor in degraded habitat conditions for Gunnison sage-grouse in parts 
of the Gunnison Basin. Given that there are far more acres of occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in the Gunnison Basin that are actively 
grazed than in other populations, and over 50 percent of land (295,000 
ac) in the Gunnison Basin is under BLM management, most of which is 
actively grazed, overall exposure to Federal grazing management is 
higher in the Gunnison Basin than elsewhere. This raises concerns about 
the long-term habitat impacts of grazing management on BLM land, and 
supports the need for BLM to continue to monitor and improve LHA trends 
and grazing allotment management.
    BLM reviews and renews grazing permits at 10 year intervals. Since 
at least 2010 BLM has modified grazing permit terms and conditions in 
areas determined to be ``not meeting'' LHA standards through the permit 
renewal process. Examples of new permit terms or conditions required by 
the BLM include implementation of rotational grazing systems, deferment 
or elimination of grazing in certain pastures, reduced grazing 
duration, changes in season of use, reduced stocking rates, fencing 
livestock out of riparian areas, or incorporating specific habitat 
objectives for Gunnison sage-grouse or other special status species 
(BLM 2012a, pp. 1-2). It is anticipated that these changes will 
minimize further impacts to habitat and, if continued in the future 
through Instruction Memoranda or Resource Management Plan Amendments 
(see Factor D discussion), improve degraded habitats for Gunnison sage-
grouse in the Gunnison Basin. Likewise, conservation measures from the 
CCA (BLM 2013b, entire) should continue to reduce impacts from 
livestock grazing and operations on Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin 
(see Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation 
later in this Factor A analysis for more details).
    Some data indicate habitat conditions within a part of occupied 
habitat in the Gunnison Basin may be favorable to Gunnison sage-grouse 
(Williams and Hild 2011, entire). Detailed vegetation monitoring was 
conducted on six study sites, across the Gunnison Basin during 2010 and 
2011 in order to determine baseline habitat conditions for a potential 
future study of the effects of manipulating livestock grazing on 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Williams and Hild 2011, entire). 
Transects were conducted on private, BLM, USFS, and CPW land. Despite 
lower than average precipitation in 2010, and wide variability of 
habitat conditions across the study area, most vegetation measurements 
were within the structural habitat guidelines for Gunnison sage-grouse 
from the 2005 Rangewide Conservation Plan (GSRSC \b\ 2005, pp. H-6-H-
8). However, measuring livestock grazing effects was not an objective 
of the study (Phillips 2013, p. 4). The extent of past or current 
livestock grazing in these areas was not described, nor did the study 
compare un-grazed to grazed areas. Further, transect locations were 
prioritized and selected in important breeding areas used by radio-
collared Gunnison sage-grouse, potentially biasing study results. 
Therefore, the relationship between livestock grazing and habitat 
conditions is unknown under this study, and there is limited ability to 
infer conditions in other portions of the Gunnison Basin not 
prioritized for sampling.

Livestock Grazing in All Other Population Areas

    The BLM manages approximately 36 percent of the area currently 
occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse in the San Miguel Basin, and 
approximately 79 percent of this area is actively grazed. Grazing also 
occurs on lands owned or managed by other entities within the San 
Miguel Basin, but we have no information on the extent of grazing in 
these areas. Within the occupied range in the San Miguel population, no 
active BLM grazing allotments have Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives incorporated into the allotment management plans or Records 
of Decision for permit renewals (USFWS 2010c, p. 9). In 2013, 10 (83 
percent) of 12 active allotments in the San Miguel population area had 
LHAs completed in the last 15 years; however, BLM only evaluated land 
health specific to Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives in four (33 
percent) of these 12 allotments. Of the four allotments evaluated, all 
were found to be meeting LHA Standard 4. LHA data are not available for 
conditions in the remaining 8 allotments where Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat objectives were not considered (Table 8 of Factor A (Livestock 
Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring); BLM 2013c, p. 3-1). 
Therefore, for the four allotments in the San Miguel population area 
for which we have information, it appears that grazing is managed in a 
manner consistent with land health standards and habitat requirements 
for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    More than 81 percent of the area occupied by the Dove Creek group 
is privately owned. The BLM manages 11 percent of the occupied habitat, 
and 41 percent of this area is actively grazed. Within the occupied 
range in the Dove Creek group of the Monticello-Dove Creek population, 
there are three active BLM grazing allotments, and none of these have 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives incorporated into the allotment 
management plans or Records of Decision for permit renewals (Table 8 of 
Factor A (Livestock Grazing

[[Page 69248]]

Allotments and Habitat Monitoring); USFWS 2010c, p. 3; BLM 2013c, p. 3-
1). In 2013, all three active allotments in occupied habitat had 
completed LHAs. However, because Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives were not considered in these assessments, habitat conditions 
for Gunnison sage-grouse are unknown (BLM 2013c, p. 3-1). Gunnison 
sage-grouse are not specifically considered in grazing management plans 
or permits in this area. Due to the lack of data specific to Gunnison 
sage-grouse, it is unknown how livestock grazing may be influencing the 
species or its habitat in the Dove Creek population area.
    More than 95 percent of the area occupied by the Monticello 
population is privately owned. The BLM manages 4 percent of the 
occupied habitat, and 83 percent of this area is grazed. Within the 
occupied range in the Monticello population, all 6 active BLM grazing 
allotments have Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives incorporated 
into the allotment management plans or Records of Decision for permit 
renewals (USFWS 2010c, p. 6). In 2009 (the most recent information 
received from BLM on this topic), 88 percent of the area of occupied 
habitat in active allotments had a recently completed LHA. 
Approximately 60 percent of the area in occupied habitat in active 
allotments was found by the BLM to meet LHA Standard 4. Given the small 
amount of land managed by the BLM in this area, most of which is 
meeting Standard 4, this information suggests that grazing on the 
majority of the small percentage of lands managed by the BLM in the 
Monticello population area is likely managed in a manner consistent 
with land health standards and habitat requirements for Gunnison sage-
grouse.
    The majority of occupied habitat in the Monticello population is in 
private ownership and is actively grazed by cattle. Sheep historically 
grazed this area as well (Messmer 2013, p. 16). A significant portion 
of the agricultural lands in Monticello population are enrolled in the 
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), and much of these lands are used by 
Gunnison sage-grouse (Lupis et al. 2006, pp. 959-960; Ward 2007, p. 
15). CRP land has provided a considerable amount of brood-rearing 
habitat in the Monticello group because of its forb component. Grazing 
of CRP land in Utah occurred in 2002 under emergency Farm Bill 
provisions due to drought and removed at least some of the grass and 
forb habitat component, thus likely negatively affecting Gunnison sage-
grouse chick survival (see NRCS and Private Land Conservation Efforts). 
Radio-collared males and non-brood-rearing females exhibited temporary 
avoidance of grazed fields during and after grazing (Lupis et al. 2006, 
pp. 959-960), although one hen with a brood continued to use a grazed 
CRP field and successfully fledged her brood.
    The BLM manages 28 percent of occupied habitat in the Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa population area, and approximately 97 percent of this area is 
grazed. Over 50 percent of occupied habitat in this population area is 
privately owned, and while grazing certainly occurs on these lands, we 
have no information on its extent. Within the occupied range in the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population, 8 of 15 (53 percent) active BLM grazing 
allotments have Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives incorporated 
into the allotment management plans or Records of Decision for permit 
renewals (USFWS 2010c, p. 5). In 2013, four of these allotments (27 
percent) had completed LHAs. Of the four allotments in which LHAs were 
completed, all (100 percent) were found to be meeting LHA Standard 4 
(Table 8 of Factor A (Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat 
Monitoring); BLM 2013c, p. 3-1). Therefore, for the small portion of 
the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area for which we have information, it 
appears that grazing is managed in a manner consistent with Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat requirements.
    Over 76 percent of the area occupied by the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
Sims Mesa population is privately owned. The BLM manages only 13 
percent of the occupied habitat, of which 83 percent is grazed. Within 
the occupied range in the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population, 1 
of 6 active BLM grazing allotments have Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives incorporated into the allotment management plans or Records 
of Decision for permit renewals (USFWS 2010c, p. 7). In 2013, of six 
active allotments, all had completed LHAs; however, BLM only evaluated 
land health specific to Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives in one 
(17 percent) of these six allotments. That single allotment was found 
to be meeting LHA Standard 4. However, general land health standards 
(not specific to Gunnison sage-grouse) were met on BLM lands in this 
area, although such conditions may or may not meet the needs of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. LHA data specific to Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives are not available for the remaining five allotments (Table 8 
of Factor A (Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring); BLM 
2013c, p. 3-1). However, for the small portion of the Cerro Summit-
Cimarron-Sims Mesa population area for which we have information, it 
appears that grazing is being managed in a manner consistent with land 
health standards and habitat requirements for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Lands administered by the BLM and NPS comprise over 75 percent of 
occupied habitat in the Crawford population, and 96 percent of this 
area is actively grazed. Grazing allotments on NPS lands in this area 
are administered by the BLM. In 2013, of eight active allotments in the 
Crawford population, all had incorporated Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives and completed LHAs. Seven (88 percent) of these eight 
allotments were found to be meeting LHA Standard 4, however 6 of those 
allotments were defined as ``meeting with problems'' (generally these 
allotments were found to be low for some aspect of vegetation 
characteristics for breeding habitat recommended in GSRSC) (Table 8 of 
Factor A (Livestock Grazing Allotments and Habitat Monitoring); BLM 
2013c, p. 3-1). Based on this information, it appears that grazing may 
be managed in a manner consistent with Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation in the majority of the Crawford population area.
    The BLM manages nearly half of occupied habitat in the Poncha Pass 
population area, and approximately 98 percent of this area is actively 
grazed. Within the occupied range in the Poncha Pass population, all 
eight active BLM grazing allotments have Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
objectives incorporated into the allotment management plans or Records 
of Decision for permit renewals (USFWS 2010c, p. 4). In 2013, all 
active allotments in occupied habitat had completed LHAs, and all were 
meeting LHA objectives. Based on this information it appears that 
grazing is managed in a manner consistent with Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation on BLM land in the Poncha Pass population area.

Wild Ungulate Herbivory in All Population Areas

    Overgrazing by deer and elk may cause local degradation of habitats 
by removal of forage and residual hiding and nesting cover. Hobbs et 
al. (1996, pp. 210-213) documented a decline in available perennial 
grasses as elk densities increased. Such grazing could negatively 
impact nesting cover for sage-grouse. The winter range of deer and elk 
overlaps the year-round range of the Gunnison sage-grouse. Excessive 
but localized deer and elk grazing has been documented in the Gunnison 
Basin (BLM 2005a, pp. 17-18; Jones 2005, pers. comm.).

[[Page 69249]]

    Grazing by deer and elk occurs in all Gunnison sage-grouse 
population areas. Although we have no information indicating that 
competition for resources is limiting Gunnison sage-grouse in the 
Gunnison Basin, BLM observed that certain mountain shrubs were being 
browsed heavily by wild ungulates (BLM 2009a, p. 34). Subsequent 
results of monitoring in mountain shrub communities indicated that 
drought and big game were having large impacts on the survivability and 
size of mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus utahensis), bitterbrush (Purshia 
tridentata), and serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) in the Gunnison 
Basin (Japuntich et al. 2010, pp. 7-9). The authors speculated that 
observed reductions in shrub size and vigor will reduce drifting snow 
accumulation resulting in decreased moisture availability to grasses 
and forbs during the spring melt. Reduced grass and forb growth could 
negatively impact Gunnison sage-grouse nesting and early brood-rearing 
habitat. It is also thought that elk numbers and their seasonal 
occurrence in the Crawford population may be contributing to habitat 
impacts and direct disturbance of Gunnison sage-grouse (BLM 2013c, p. 
4-9).

Summary of Domestic Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory

    Livestock management and domestic grazing have the potential to 
degrade Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Grazing incompatible with local 
ecological conditions, as described above, can adversely impact nesting 
and brood-rearing habitat by decreasing vegetation available for 
concealment from predators. Grazing incompatible with local ecological 
conditions also has been shown to compact soils, decrease herbaceous 
abundance, increase erosion, and increase the probability of invasion 
of exotic plant species (GSRSC 2005, p. 173).
    The impacts of livestock operations on Gunnison sage-grouse depend 
upon stocking levels and season of use. We recognize that not all 
livestock grazing results in habitat degradation, and many livestock 
operations within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse are employing 
innovative grazing strategies and conservation actions (BLM 2012a, pp. 
1-2; Gunnison County Stockgrowers 2009, entire) in collaboration with 
the BLM and Forest Service. As discussed above, habitat conditions are 
likely favorable to Gunnison sage-grouse in part of the Gunnison Basin 
(Williams and Hild 2011, entire), although the relationship of 
livestock grazing to habitat conditions in those areas is unknown.
    As described above, the relationship between LHA determinations and 
the effects of domestic livestock grazing on Gunnison sage-grouse is 
imprecise, and the application of LHA methods varies widely across the 
species' range. The best available information suggests that LHA 
objectives important to Gunnison sage-grouse are not being met across 
parts of the species' range and that livestock grazing is likely 
contributing to those conditions in some instances. Reduced habitat 
quality in those areas, as reflected in LHA data, is likely negatively 
impacting Gunnison sage-grouse in some of the populations, including 
the Gunnison Basin. In summary, for BLM allotments, 67 percent have 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives, and 39 percent are meeting LHA 
Standard 4 (Table 8 of Factor A (Livestock Grazing Allotments and 
Habitat Monitoring)).
    Numerous public comments on our proposed rule to list Gunnison 
sage-grouse as endangered (78 FR 2486, January 11, 2013) suggested that 
because the Gunnison Basin population is large and stable (but see 
additional discussion regarding this assumption in Factor E (Small 
Population Size and Structure)), current livestock grazing practices 
are not having adverse effects on this population. While we agree that, 
relative to the satellite populations, the Gunnison Basin population is 
large and lek count data indicate it is currently stable, there are no 
data to demonstrate whether livestock grazing is limiting the 
population. The best available data suggests that livestock grazing 
that is done in a manner inconsistent with local ecological conditions 
is likely negatively impacting localized areas of habitat and 
individual birds in the Gunnison Basin and in other populations.
    We know that grazing incompatible with local ecological conditions 
can have negative impacts to sagebrush and consequently to Gunnison 
sage-grouse at local scales. Impacts to sagebrush plant communities as 
a result of grazing are occurring on a large portion of the range of 
the species. As described in more detail below, conservation measures 
from the Gunnison Basin CCA (BLM 2013b, entire) should continue to 
reduce impacts from livestock grazing and operations on Federal lands 
in the Gunnison Basin. Likewise, conservation measures from the CCAA 
Program have minimized impacts from livestock grazing and operations on 
private lands across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse (see 
Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation later 
in this Factor A discussion). We expect livestock grazing to continue 
throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse for as long as it is 
economically viable. Since the winter range of deer and elk overlaps 
the year-round range of Gunnison sage-grouse and there is documentation 
of isolated localized excessive grazing by deer and elk as discussed 
above, effects of domestic livestock grazing are likely intensified by 
browsing of woody species by wild ungulates in portions of the Gunnison 
Basin and the Crawford area, and potentially other populations. Habitat 
degradation that can result from grazing in a manner incompatible with 
local ecological conditions, particularly with the interacting factors 
of invasive weed expansion and climate change, is a current and future 
threat to Gunnison sage-grouse persistence.

Fences

    Effects of fencing on sage-grouse include direct mortality through 
collisions, creation of raptor and corvid perch sites, the potential 
creation of predator corridors along fences (particularly if a road is 
maintained next to the fence), incursion of exotic species along the 
fencing corridor, and habitat decline (Call and Maser 1985, p. 22; 
Braun 1998, p. 145; Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 974; Beck et al. 2003, p. 
211; Knick et al. 2003, p. 612; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 1-2). However, 
fences can also benefit Gunnison sage-grouse by facilitating the 
management of livestock forage use and distribution to achieve desired 
habitat objectives (GSRSC 2005, pp. 211-213).
    Sage-grouse frequently fly low and fast across sagebrush flats, and 
fences can create a collision hazard resulting in direct mortality 
(Call and Maser 1985, p. 22; Christiansen 2009, pp. 1-2). Not all 
fences present the same mortality risk to sage-grouse. Mortality risk 
appears to be dependent on a combination of factors including design of 
fencing, landscape topography, and spatial relationship with seasonal 
habitats (Christiansen 2009, pp. 1-2). This variability in fence 
mortality rate and the lack of systematic fence monitoring make it 
difficult to determine the magnitude of direct strike mortality impacts 
to sage-grouse populations; however, in some cases the level of 
mortality is likely significant to localized areas within populations. 
Greater sage-grouse fence collisions during the breeding season in 
Idaho were found to be relatively common and widespread, with 
collisions being influenced by the technical attributes of the fences, 
fence length and density, topography, and distance to nearest active 
sage-grouse lek (Stevens 2011, pp. 102-107; Stevens et al. 2012a; p. 
300; Stevens et al. 2012b, p. 1377). Stevens

[[Page 69250]]

et al. (2012a; p. 299) found 41 of 60 recorded collisions (73 percent) 
in spring of 2010 were less than 500m from a lek and only 1 collision > 
500m from a lek, indicating that fences near leks containing certain 
topographic properties may pose an increased risk to sage-grouse.
    Although we expect the impacts of fences to Gunnison sage-grouse 
are similar to those observed in greater sage-grouse, studies on fence 
strike-related mortality in Gunnison sage-grouse are more limited. In 
10 years of tracking and studying over 1,000 radio-collared sage-grouse 
in Colorado, CPW has documented only two strike-related mortalities in 
Gunnison sage-grouse due to fences (one confirmed case in Poncha Pass 
attributed to bird release methods; and one unconfirmed case in the 
Gunnison Basin); and only two strike-related mortalities in greater 
sage-grouse due to fences (CPW 2013b, p. 11; Phillips and Griffin 2013, 
pers. comm.). This information suggests that, in Colorado, direct 
mortality of sage-grouse due to fence strikes is minimal, although 
without a more thorough study, the anecdotal information may be 
misleading.
    Although the effects of direct strike mortality on populations are 
not fully analyzed, fences are generally widespread across the 
landscape. At least 1,540 km (960 mi) of fence are on BLM lands within 
the Gunnison Basin (Borthwick 2005b, pers. comm.; BLM 2005a, 2005e) and 
an unquantified amount of fence is located on land owned or managed by 
other landowners. Many miles of historic fence occurs on NPS lands, 
some of which may be affecting Gunnison sage-grouse. As of 2013, the 
NPS has removed 1.6 km (1 mi) of unnecessary fencing, and will continue 
inventorying efforts for additional removal where fencing is not 
needed. The NPS is also constructing 8.8 km (5.5 mi) of fence to 
prevent cattle grazing on a retired portion of an allotment. The fence 
is built to CPW suggested wildlife-friendly specifications with raptor 
perch deterrents and marked fence wires. Fences are present within all 
other Gunnison sage-grouse population areas as well, but we have no 
quantitative information on the amount or types of fencing in these 
areas.
    Fence posts create perching places for raptors and corvids, which 
may increase the ability of these birds to prey on sage-grouse (Braun 
1998, p. 145; Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 330; Connelly et al. 2004, 
p. 13-12). This impact is potentially significant for sage-grouse 
reproduction because corvids were responsible for more than 50 percent 
of greater sage-grouse nest predations in Nevada (Coates 2007, pp. 26-
30). Greater sage-grouse avoidance of habitat adjacent to fences, 
presumably to minimize the risk of predation, effectively results in 
habitat fragmentation even if the actual habitat is not removed (Braun 
1998, p. 145). Because of similarities in behavior and habitat use, the 
response of Gunnison sage-grouse should be similar to that observed in 
greater sage-grouse.

Summary of Fences

    Fences contribute to habitat decline and increase the potential for 
loss of individual grouse through collisions or enhanced predation. 
Fences can also benefit Gunnison sage-grouse by facilitating better 
management of livestock grazing forage use and distribution in 
sagebrush habitats. Despite some fence removal, we expect that the 
majority of existing fences will remain on the landscape indefinitely. 
In the smaller Gunnison sage-grouse populations, fencing cumulatively 
affects the ability of the species to persist. We also recognize that 
fences are located throughout all Gunnison sage-grouse populations and 
are, therefore, contributing to the decline of remaining habitat and 
are a potential source of mortality within all populations. For these 
reasons, fences are likely a contributing factor to the decline of 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations, both directly and indirectly, and are 
therefore a current and future threat to the species.

Invasive Plants

    For the purposes of this rule, we define invasive plants as those 
that are not native to an ecosystem and that have a negative impact on 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Invasive plants alter native plant 
community structure and composition, productivity, nutrient cycling, 
and hydrology (Vitousek 1990, p. 7) and may cause declines in native 
plant populations through competitive exclusion and niche displacement, 
among other mechanisms (Mooney and Cleland 2001, p. 5446). Invasive 
plants reduce and can eliminate vegetation that sage-grouse use for 
food and cover, and generally do not provide quality sage-grouse 
habitat. Sage-grouse depend on a variety of native forbs and the 
insects associated with them for chick survival, and on sagebrush, 
which is used exclusively throughout the winter for food and cover. In 
eastern Nevada, leks with post-fire invasive grasses showed reduced lek 
recruitment and reduced annual survival of male greater sage-grouse as 
compared to leks surrounded by native sagebrush habitats, despite 
favorable rainfall and climatic conditions (Blomberg et al. 2012). 
Reduced adult survival, reproduction, and recruitment at the local 
levels may, in turn, negatively impact sage-grouse populations.
    Along with replacing or removing vegetation essential to sage-
grouse, invasive plants negatively impact existing sage-grouse habitat. 
They can create long-term changes in ecosystem processes, such as fire-
cycles (see discussion below under Fire in this Factor A analysis) and 
other disturbance regimes that persist even after an invasive plant is 
removed (Zouhar et al. 2008, p. 33). A variety of nonnative annuals and 
perennials are invasive to sagebrush ecosystems (Connelly et al. 2004, 
pp. 7-107 and 7-108; Zouhar et al. 2008, p 144). Cheatgrass is 
considered most invasive in Wyoming big sagebrush communities (Connelly 
et al. 2004, p. 5-9). Other invasive plants found within the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse that are reported to take over large areas 
include: spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), Russian knapweed 
(Acroptilon repens), oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), yellow 
toadflax (Linaria vulgaris), and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) 
(BLM 2009a, p. 28, 36; Gunnison Watershed Weed Commission (GWWC) 2009, 
pp. 4-6).
    Although not yet reported to affect large expanses in the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse, the following weeds are also known to occur in 
the species' range and have successfully invaded large expanses of 
native wildlife habitats in other parts of western North America: 
diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa), whitetop (Cardaria draba), 
jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), and yellow starthistle 
(Centaurea solstitialis). Other invasive plant species present within 
the range of Gunnison sage-grouse that are problematic yet less likely 
to overtake large areas include: Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), musk 
thistle (Carduus nutans), bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), houndstongue 
(Cynoglossum officinale), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), common 
tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), and absinth wormwood (A. biennis) (BLM 
2009a, p. 28, 36; GWWC 2009, pp. 4-6).
    Cheatgrass impacts sagebrush ecosystems by potentially shortening 
fire intervals from several decades, to as low as 3 to 5 years 
(depending on sagebrush plant community type and site productivity), 
perpetuating its own persistence and intensifying the role of fire 
(Whisenant 1990, p. 4). Another study found that cheatgrass presence 
can shorten fire intervals to less than 10 years resulting in the 
elimination of

[[Page 69251]]

shrub cover and reducing the availability and quality of forb cover 
(Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-5). Elevated carbon dioxide levels 
associated with climate change may increase the competitive advantage 
(via increased growth and reproduction rates) of exotic annual grasses, 
such as cheatgrass, in higher elevation areas, such as in Gunnison 
sage-grouse range, where its current distribution is limited (Miller et 
al. 2011, pp. 181-183). Decreased summer precipitation reduces the 
competitive advantage of summer perennial grasses, reduces sagebrush 
cover, and subsequently increases the likelihood of cheatgrass invasion 
(Bradley 2009, pp. 202-204; Prevey et al. 2009, p. 11). Future 
decreased summer precipitation could increase the susceptibility of 
sagebrush areas in Utah and Colorado to cheatgrass invasion (Bradley 
2009, p. 204).
    A variety of restoration and rehabilitation techniques are used to 
treat invasive plants, but they can be costly and are mostly unproven 
and experimental at a large scale. No broad-scale cheatgrass 
eradication method has yet been developed. Habitat treatments that 
either disturb the soil surface or deposit a layer of litter increase 
cheatgrass establishment in the Gunnison Basin when a cheatgrass seed 
source is present (Sokolow 2005, p. 51). Rehabilitation and restoration 
techniques for sagebrush habitats are mostly unproven and experimental, 
raising further concerns about soil disturbance and removal of any 
remaining sage-brush habitats. (Pyke 2011, p. 543). Therefore, 
researchers recommend using habitat treatment tools, such as brush 
mowers, with caution and suggest that treated sites should be monitored 
for increases in cheatgrass emergence (Sokolow 2005, p. 49).

Invasive Plants in the Gunnison Basin Population Area

    Quantifying the total amount of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
impacted by invasive plants is difficult due to differing sampling 
methodologies, incomplete sampling, inconsistencies in species sampled, 
and varying interpretations of what constitutes an infestation (Miller 
et al., 2011, pp. 155-156). Cheatgrass has invaded areas in the 
Gunnison sage-grouse range, supplanting sagebrush habitat in some areas 
(BLM 2009a, p. 60). However, we do not have a reliable estimate of the 
amount of area occupied by cheatgrass in the range of Gunnison sage-
grouse. While not ubiquitous, cheatgrass is found at numerous locations 
throughout the Gunnison Basin (BLM 2009a, p. 60) and has been 
identified as an impact to sage-grouse habitat in that population 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 78).
    Cheatgrass infestation within a particular area can range from a 
small number of individuals scattered sparsely throughout a site, to 
complete or near-complete understory domination of a site. Cheatgrass 
has increased throughout the Gunnison Basin in the last decade and is 
becoming increasingly detrimental to sagebrush community types (BLM 
2009a, p. 7). Currently in the Gunnison Basin, cheatgrass attains site 
dominance most often along roadways; however, other highly disturbed 
areas have similar cheatgrass densities. In the Gunnison Basin, 
cheatgrass is currently present in almost every grazing allotment in 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat; and other invasive plant 
species, such as Canada thistle, black henbane, spotted knapweed, 
Russian knapweed, kochia (Kochia scoparia), bull thistle, musk thistle, 
oxeye daisy, yellow toadflax and field bindweed, are found in riparian 
areas and roadsides (BLM 2009a, p. 7).
    Weed control efforts in the Gunnison Basin vary by area and agency 
or organization. NPS weed control efforts have been successful at 
reducing weeds (undesirable plant species, typically including exotic 
or introduced species) in targeted areas. Gunnison County, the Gunnison 
Basin Weed Commission, and other partners aggressively treat and 
control weeds on all lands in the Gunnison Basin. From 2006 to 2012, a 
total of 517 ha (1,280 ac) of land was treated for weeds in and near 
occupied habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 
105), however it is unclear what portion of habitat this represents. 
Gunnison County also recently adopted best management practices for 
weeds identified in the Gunnison Basin CCA (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 
78). Other measures related to weed control by Gunnison County include 
reclamation standards and inspections (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 106), 
educational programs and consultations (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 107). 
While beneficial and necessary, such control efforts are likely 
inadequate to address the threat of invasive plants, particularly in 
the face of climate change and drought which are likely to intensify 
the proliferation of these species in the range of Gunnison sage-
grouse.
    Although disturbed areas most often contain the highest cheatgrass 
densities, cheatgrass can readily spread into less disturbed and even 
undisturbed habitat. A strong indicator for future cheatgrass invasion 
is the proximity to current locations (Bradley and Mustard 2006, p. 
1146) as well as summer, annual, and spring precipitation, and winter 
temperature (Bradley 2009, p. 196). Although we lack the information to 
make a detailed determination on the actual extent or rate of increase, 
given its invasive nature, it appears that cheatgrass and its negative 
influence on Gunnison sage-grouse will increase in the Gunnison Basin 
in the future due to future human disturbances, potential exacerbation 
from climate change interactions, and the lack of success to date with 
control efforts at broad scales. Based on experience from other areas 
in sagebrush ecosystems concerning the rapid spread of cheatgrass and 
the shortened fire return intervals that can result, the spread of 
cheatgrass within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat and the negative effects 
to Gunnison sage-grouse populations will likely increase over time.

Invasive Plants in All Other Population Areas

    Cheatgrass is present throughout much of the San Miguel Basin 
population area (BLM 2005c, p. 6), but is most abundant in the Dry 
Creek Basin area (CDOW 2005, p. 101), which comprises 62 percent of the 
San Miguel Basin population. It is also present in the five Gunnison 
sage-grouse subpopulations east of Dry Creek Basin, although at much 
lower densities that do not currently pose a serious threat to Gunnison 
sage-grouse (CDOW 2005, p. 101).
    Invasive species are present at low levels in the Monticello group 
(San Juan County GSGWG 2005, p. 20). However, there is no evidence that 
they are affecting the population.
    Cheatgrass dominates 10-15 percent of the sagebrush understory in 
the current range of the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population (Lambeth 2005, 
pers. comm.). It occurs in the lower elevation areas below Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa that were formerly Gunnison sage-grouse range. Cheatgrass invaded 
two small prescribed burn areas in or near occupied habitat conducted 
in 1989 and 1998 (BLM 2005d, p. 6), and continues to be a concern with 
new ground-disturbing projects. Within the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
population, 520 ha (1,284 ac) of BLM lands are currently mapped with 
cheatgrass as the dominant species (BLM 2009a, p. 3). This is not a 
comprehensive inventory of cheatgrass occurrence, as it only includes 
areas where cheatgrass dominates the plant community and does not 
include areas where the species is present at lower densities.

[[Page 69252]]

    Invasive plants, especially cheatgrass, occur primarily along 
roads, other disturbed areas, and isolated areas of untreated 
vegetation in the Crawford population area. According to BLM (2005c, 
p.6), in the Crawford population area, the threat of cheatgrass may be 
greater than all other nonnative species combined and could be a major 
limiting factor when and if disturbance is used to improve habitat 
conditions, unless mitigated.
    Cheatgrass distribution has not been comprehensively mapped for the 
Monticello-Dove Creek population area; however, cheatgrass is beginning 
to be assessed on a site-specific and project-level basis. No 
significant invasive plant occurrences are currently known in the 
Poncha Pass population area.

Summary of Invasive Plants

    Invasive plants negatively impact Gunnison sage-grouse primarily by 
reducing or eliminating native vegetation that sage-grouse require for 
food and cover, resulting in habitat decline. Although invasive plants, 
especially cheatgrass, have affected some Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, 
the impacts do not currently appear to be threatening individual 
populations or the species rangewide. However, invasive plants continue 
to expand their range, facilitated by ground disturbances such as fire, 
grazing, and human infrastructure. Climate change will likely alter the 
range of individual invasive species, accelerating the decline of 
sagebrush communities. Even with treatments, given the history of 
invasive plants on the landscape, and our continued inability to 
control such species, invasive plants will persist and will likely 
continue to spread throughout the range of the species indefinitely. 
Although currently not a major threat to the persistence of Gunnison 
sage-grouse at the species level, we anticipate invasive species to 
become an increasing threat to the species in the future, particularly 
when considered in conjunction with future climate projections and 
potential changes in sagebrush plant community composition and 
dynamics.

Fire

    Mountain big sagebrush, the most important and widespread sagebrush 
species for Gunnison sage-grouse, is killed by fire and can require 
decades to recover. In nesting and wintering sites, fire causes direct 
loss of habitat due to reduced cover and forage (Call and Maser 1985, 
p. 17), with effects likely lasting 75 years or longer until sagebrush 
recovers (Baker 2011, p. 16). While there may be limited instances 
where burned habitat is beneficial (via prescribed fire or wildfire), 
these gains are lost if alternative sagebrush habitat is not readily 
available (Woodward 2006, p. 65). Another study (Baker 2013, p. 8) 
suggested that prescribed burning in sagebrush habitat may be 
detrimental, given the already limited range of Gunnison sage-grouse 
(see above sections, Current Distribution and Population Estimates, and 
Factor A introduction). Findings from that study indicated that 
historical fire regimes in Gunnison sage-grouse range resulted in large 
areas of contiguous sagebrush across the landscape when Gunnison sage-
grouse were more widespread and abundant. Fire treatments to thin or 
reduce sagebrush, with its potential negative effects, would not be as 
beneficial to the species as efforts made to expand areas of contiguous 
sagebrush (Baker 2013, pp. 1, 8). Likewise, using fire to remove all 
trees in sagebrush habitats is likely not appropriate, based on the 
historical presence of pi[ntilde]on-juniper in these communities. 
Pi[ntilde]on-juniper abundance likely fluctuated over time in response 
to fire, at times occupying approximately 20 percent of the sagebrush 
landscape (Baker 2013, p. 8). Thus, on the whole, we conclude that fire 
negatively affects Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat.
    The nature of historical fire patterns in sagebrush communities, 
particularly in Wyoming big sagebrush, is not well understood, and a 
high degree of variability likely occurred (Miller and Eddleman 2001, 
p. 16; Zouhar et al. 2008, p. 154; Baker 2011, p. 195). In general, 
mean fire return intervals in low-lying, xeric (dry) big sagebrush 
communities range from over 100 to 350 years, with return intervals 
from 50 to over 200 years in more mesic (wet) areas, at higher 
elevations, during wetter climatic periods, and in locations associated 
with grasslands (Baker 2006, p. 181; Mensing et al. 2006, p. 75; Baker 
2011, pp. 194-195; Miller et al. 2011, p. 166).
    Herbaceous understory vegetation plays a critical role throughout 
the breeding season as a source of forage and cover for Gunnison sage-
grouse females and chicks. The response of herbaceous understory 
vegetation to fire varies with differences in species composition, pre-
burn site condition, fire intensity, and pre- and post-fire patterns of 
precipitation. Any beneficial flush of perennial grasses and forbs 
following fire in sagebrush communities is often minimal and lost after 
only a few years, with little difference in herbaceous vegetation 
between burned and unburned sites, but reduced sagebrush in burned 
sites (Cook et al. 1994, p. 298; Fischer et al. 1996a, p. 196; Crawford 
1999, p. 7; Wrobleski 1999, p. 31; Nelle et al. 2000, p. 588; Paysen et 
al. 2000, p. 154; Wambolt et al. 2001, p. 250).
    In addition to altering plant community structure through shrub 
removal and potential weed invasion, fires can influence invertebrate 
food sources (Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 5). Studies in greater sage-
grouse habitats indicate fire indeed influences the abundance of 
important insect species (Fischer et al. 1996a, p. 196; Nelle et al. 
2000, p. 589; Pyle and Crawford 1996, p. 322). However, the response 
(positive or negative) and duration of those effects, and subsequent 
recovery of insect populations, varied widely between studies and 
areas. Therefore, although the best available information indicates 
that fire may influence sage-grouse survival by altering the 
availability of insect prey, the magnitude of those effects is 
uncertain.
    The invasion of the exotic annual grass cheatgrass increases fire 
frequency within the sagebrush ecosystem (Zouhar et al. 2008, p. 41; 
Miller et al. 2011, p. 170). As described in the previous section 
(Invasive Species), cheatgrass readily invades sagebrush communities, 
especially disturbed sites, and changes historical fire patterns by 
providing an abundant and easily ignitable fuel source that facilitates 
fire spread. While sagebrush is killed by fire and is slow to 
reestablish, cheatgrass recovers within 1 to 2 years of a fire event 
(Young and Evans 1978, p. 285). This annual recovery leads to a readily 
burnable fuel source and ultimately a reoccurring fire cycle that 
prevents sagebrush reestablishment (Eiswerth et al. 2009, p. 1324). The 
extensive distribution and highly invasive nature of cheatgrass poses 
increased risk of fire and permanent loss of sagebrush habitat, as 
areas disturbed by fire are highly susceptible to further invasion and 
ultimately habitat conversion to an altered community state. For 
example, Link et al. (2006, p. 116) show that risk of fire increases 
from approximately 46 to 100 percent when ground cover of cheatgrass 
increases from 12 to 45 percent or more. However, BLM (2013b, p. 1-7) 
noted that changes in fire frequency due to cheatgrass invasion, such 
as those observed in the Great Basin region of the western United 
States, have not been observed on BLM lands in Gunnison sage-grouse 
range.
    As discussed above, there are numerous potential negative effects 
of fire to sagebrush habitat and, presumably, Gunnison sage-grouse. A 
clear positive response of Gunnison or greater sage-grouse to fire has 
not been

[[Page 69253]]

demonstrated (Braun 1998, p. 9). The few studies that have suggested 
fire may be beneficial for greater sage-grouse were primarily conducted 
in mesic areas used for brood-rearing (Klebenow 1970, p. 399; Pyle and 
Crawford 1996, p. 323; Gates 1983, in Connelly et al. 2000c, p. 90; 
Sime 1991, in Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 972). In this type of habitat, 
small fires may maintain a suitable habitat mosaic by reducing shrub 
encroachment and encouraging understory, herbaceous growth. However, 
without available nearby sagebrush cover, the utility of these sites is 
questionable. This is especially true within the six small Gunnison 
sage-grouse populations, where fire could further degrade the remaining 
habitat. More recent research indicated that, due to the fragmented 
nature of remaining sagebrush habitat across the species' range, 
prescribed fire may be inappropriate if the goal is to improve 
sagebrush conditions and overall habitat quality for the species (Baker 
2013, p. 8).

Fire in the Gunnison Basin Population Area

    Six prescribed burns have occurred on BLM lands in the Gunnison 
Basin since 1984, totaling approximately 409 ha (1,010 ac) (BLM 2009a, 
p. 35). The fires created large sagebrush-free areas that were further 
degraded by poor post-burn livestock management (BLM 2005a, p. 13). As 
a result, these areas are less suitable as Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat. Approximately 8,470 ha (20,930 ac) of prescribed burns 
occurred on Forest Service lands in the Gunnison Basin since 1983 (USFS 
2009, p. 1). A small wildfire on BLM lands near Hartman Rocks burned 8 
ha (20 ac) in 2007 (BLM 2009a, p. 35). The NPS completed a prescribed 
burn on the north rim of the Black Canyon of the National Park in mixed 
montane shrub and mountain big sagebrush communities to remove invading 
juniper trees. Very few mountain big sagebrush were killed as a result 
of the burn. The total area of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in 
the Gunnison Basin burned in recent decades is approximately 8,887 ha 
(21,960 ac), which constitutes 1.5 percent of the occupied Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat area. Cumulatively, this 1.5 percent area equates 
to a relatively small amount of habitat burned over a period of nearly 
three decades. This information suggests that there has not been a 
demonstrated change in fire cycle in the Gunnison Basin population area 
to date. The Nature Conservancy et al. (2011, p. 12) predicts that, due 
to climate change, wildfire frequency and severity will increase in the 
Gunnison Basin (see Climate Change section in this Factor A analysis). 
However, CPW recently completed a literature review regarding fire in 
high elevation Intermountain sage-brush basins, such as the Gunnison 
Basin, and concluded that the probability of catastrophic fire in these 
areas in the future is low, due to historic fire return intervals, the 
low number of lightning strikes in the Gunnison Basin, and a low 
relative risk of cheatgrass invasion after fires (CPW 2014g, Attachment 
2).

Fire in All Other Population Areas

    Two prescribed burns conducted in 1986 (105 ha (260 ac)) and 1992 
(140 ha (350 ac)) on BLM land in the San Miguel Basin on the north side 
of Dry Creek Basin had localized negative impacts on Gunnison sage-
grouse. The burns were conducted for big game forage improvement, but 
the sagebrush died and was largely replaced with weeds (BLM 2005b, pp. 
7-8). The Burn Canyon wildfire in the Dry Creek Basin and Hamilton Mesa 
areas burned 890 ha (2,200 ac) in 2000. Three wildfires have occurred 
in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat since 2004 on lands managed by the BLM 
in the Crawford, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, and San Miguel Basin 
population areas. There have been no fires since 2004 on lands managed 
by the BLM within the Monticello-Dove Creek population. Because these 
fires were mostly small in size, we do not believe they resulted in 
substantial impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse at the species level.
    Several wildfires near or within the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population 
area have occurred in the past 20 years. One fire burned a small amount 
of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in 1995, and several fires 
burned in potential Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Individual burned 
areas in this population ranged from 3.6 ha (9 ac) to 2,160 ha (5,338 
ac). A wildfire in 2009 burned 1,053 ha (2,602 ac), predominantly 
within vacant or unknown Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (suitable habitat 
for sage-grouse that is separated from occupied habitats that has not 
been adequately inventoried, or without recent documentation of grouse 
presence) near the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population.
    Since 2004, a single 2.8-ha (7-ac) wildfire occurred in the Cerro 
Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population area, and two prescribed fires, 
both less than 12 ha (30 ac), were implemented in the San Miguel 
population area. No fire activity is reported within occupied Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat in the last two decades in the Poncha Pass 
population area (CDOW 2009b, pp. 125-126) or the Monticello-Dove Creek 
population area (CDOW 2009b, p. 75; UDWR 2009, p. 5). Although fire can 
have devastating effects on Gunnison sage-grouse habitats, as discussed 
above, because fires have burned primarily outside of occupied Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area and fire 
has been recently absent or minimal in most other population areas, 
fire has not resulted in substantial impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse in 
these population areas.

Summary of Fire

    Fires can cause the proliferation of weeds and can degrade suitable 
sage-grouse habitat, which may not recover to suitable conditions for 
decades, if at all (Pyke 2011, p. 539). Recent fires in Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat were mostly small in size and did not result in 
substantial impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse, and there has been no 
obvious change in fire cycle in any Gunnison sage-grouse population 
area to date. Therefore, we do not consider fire to be a current threat 
to Gunnison sage-grouse. While the best available scientific 
information does not currently allow us to predict the extent or 
location of future fire events, it does indicate that fire frequency 
may increase in the future as a result of cheatgrass encroachment on 
the sagebrush habitat and the projected effects of climate change (see 
Invasive Plants and Climate Change discussions, above and below in this 
Factor A analysis, respectively). Fire is, therefore, likely to become 
a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse in the future.

Climate Change

    Our analyses under the Act include consideration of ongoing and 
projected changes in climate and its associated effects. The terms 
``climate'' and ``climate change'' are defined by the Intergovernmental 
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ``Climate'' refers to the mean and 
variability of different types of weather conditions over time, with 30 
years being a typical period for such measurements, although shorter or 
longer periods also may be used (IPCC 2007, p. 78; IPCC 2013, p. 1450). 
The term ``climate change'' thus refers to a change in the mean or 
variability of one or more measures of climate (e.g., temperature or 
precipitation) that persists for an extended period, typically decades 
or longer, whether the change is due to natural variability, human 
activity, or both (IPCC 2007, p. 78; IPCC 2013, p. 1450). Various types 
of changes in climate can have direct or indirect effects on species. 
These effects

[[Page 69254]]

may be positive, neutral, or negative and they may change over time, 
depending on the species and other relevant considerations, such as the 
effects of interactions of climate with other variables (e.g., habitat 
fragmentation) (IPCC 2007, pp. 8-14, 18-19). In our analyses, we use 
our expert judgment to weigh relevant information, including 
uncertainty, in our consideration of various aspects of climate change.
    According to the IPCC, ``Warming of the climate system in recent 
decades is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of 
increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread 
melting of snow and ice, and rising global sea level'' (IPCC 2007, p. 
1). Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of 
the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year 
period in the last 500 years and likely the highest in at least the 
past 1,300 years (IPCC 2007, p. 30). Over the past 50 years, cold days, 
cold nights, and frosts have become less frequent over most land areas, 
and hot days and hot nights have become more frequent. Heat waves have 
become more frequent over most land areas, and the frequency of heavy 
precipitation events has increased over most areas (IPCC 2007, p. 30).
    For the southwestern region of the United States, including western 
Colorado, warming is occurring more rapidly than elsewhere in the 
country (Karl et al. 2009, p. 129). Annual average temperature in west-
central Colorado increased about 1.11 [deg]C (2[emsp14][deg]F) over the 
past 30 years, but high variability in annual precipitation precludes 
the detection of long-term precipitation trends (Ray et al. 2008, p. 
5). Under high greenhouse gas emission scenarios, future projections 
for the southwestern United States show increased probability of 
drought (Karl et al. 2009, pp. 129-134), and the number of days over 32 
[deg]C (90[emsp14][deg]F) could double by the end of the century (Karl 
et al. 2009, p. 34). Climate models predict annual temperature increase 
of approximately 2.2 [deg]C (4[emsp14][deg]F) in the Southwest by 2050, 
with summers warming more than winters (Ray et al. 2008, p. 29). 
Projections also show declines in snowpack across the West with the 
most dramatic declines at lower elevations (below 2,500 m (8,200 ft)) 
(Ray et al. 2008, p. 29).
    Colorado's complex, mountainous topography results in a high degree 
of spatial variability across the State. As a result, predicting 
localized climate changes is challenging for mountainous areas because 
current global climate models are unable to capture this variability at 
local or regional scales (Ray et al. 2008, pp. 7, 20). To obtain 
climate projections specific to the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, we 
requested a statistically downscaled model from the National Center for 
Atmospheric Research for a region covering western Colorado. The 
resulting projections indicate the highest probability scenario is that 
average summer (June through September) temperature could increase by 
2.8 [deg]C (5.1[emsp14][deg]F), and average winter (October through 
March) temperature could increase by 2.2 [deg]C (4.0[emsp14][deg]F) by 
2050 (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) 2009, pp. 
1-15). Annual mean precipitation projections for Colorado are unclear; 
however, data indicate a shift towards increased winter precipitation 
and decreased spring and summer precipitation (Ray et al. 2008, p. 34; 
Karl et al. 2009, p. 30). Similarly, there is a high probability of a 5 
percent increase in average winter precipitation and a 5 percent 
decrease in average spring-summer precipitation in 2050 (UCAR 2009, p. 
15). These predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will 
likely alter sagebrush plant community composition and dynamics, but to 
what degree is uncertain.
    For sagebrush, spring and summer precipitation comprises the 
majority of the moisture available to the species; thus, the 
interaction between reduced precipitation in the spring-summer growing 
season and increased summer temperatures will likely decrease growth of 
mountain big sagebrush. This effect could result in a significant long-
term reduction in the distribution of sagebrush communities (Miller et 
al. 2011, pp. 171-174). In the Gunnison Basin, increased summer 
temperature was strongly correlated with reduced growth of mountain big 
sagebrush (Poore et al. 2009, p. 558). Based on these results and the 
likelihood of increased winter precipitation falling as rain rather 
than snow, and the corresponding increase in evaporation and decrease 
in deep soil water recharge, Poore et al. (2009, p. 559) predict 
decreased growth of mountain big sagebrush, particularly at the lower 
elevation limit of the species. Because Gunnison sage-grouse are 
sagebrush obligates, loss of sagebrush would result in a reduction of 
suitable habitat and negatively impact the species. The interaction of 
climate change with other stressors likely has impacted and will impact 
the sagebrush steppe ecosystem where Gunnison sage-grouse occur.
    Climate change is likely to alter fire frequency, community 
assemblages, and the ability of nonnative species to proliferate. 
Increasing temperature as well as changes in the timing and amount of 
precipitation will alter the competitive advantage among plant species 
(Miller et al. 2011, pp. 175-179), and may shift individual species and 
ecosystem distributions (Bachelet et al. 2001, p. 174). Temperature 
increases may increase the competitive advantage of cheatgrass in 
higher elevation areas where its current distribution is limited 
(Miller et al. 2011, p. 182). Decreased summer precipitation reduces 
the competitive advantage of summer perennial grasses, reduces 
sagebrush cover, and subsequently increases the likelihood of 
cheatgrass invasion (Prevey et al. 2009, p. 11). This impact could 
increase the susceptibility of areas within Gunnison sage-grouse range 
to cheatgrass invasion (Bradley 2009, p. 204), which would reduce the 
overall cover of native vegetation, reduce habitat quality, and 
potentially decrease fire return intervals, all of which would 
negatively affect the species. In addition, The Nature Conservancy et 
al. (2011, p. 12) predicted increased fire frequency and severity in 
the Gunnison Basin associated with climate change.
    Under drought conditions, plants generally are less vigorous and 
less successful in reproduction, and may require several years to 
recover following drought (Weltzin et al. 2003, p. 946). Increased 
drought and shifts in the magnitude and timing of temperature and 
precipitation could reduce herbaceous and insect production within 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitats.
    A recent climate change vulnerability index applied to Gunnison 
sage-grouse ranked the species as ``highly vulnerable'' to modeled 
climate change by the year 2050 (The Nature Conservancy 2011, p. 11). 
The mechanism of this vulnerability was the degradation of high-quality 
brood-rearing habitat due to the loss of adequate moisture for the 
maintenance of mesic meadows, springs, seeps, and riparian areas, as 
well as potential changes in the fire regime and subsequent loss of 
sagebrush cover. A reduction in the quality and amount of these 
resources, including brood-rearing habitats in particular, will likely 
affect key demographic processes such as the productivity of breeding 
hens and survival of chicks and juveniles, resulting in reduced 
population viability. A recent analysis indicated juvenile survival was 
the most influential vital rate affecting population growth rates in 
the Gunnison Basin (Davis 2012, pp. 89). Drought conditions from 1999 
through 2003 were closely associated with reductions in the sizes of 
all Gunnison sage-grouse populations, including the

[[Page 69255]]

Gunnison Basin (CDOW 2009b, entire). While geographic and microclimatic 
variation in the Gunnison Basin may provide some degree of local 
variation and, perhaps, local population redundancy to resist 
environmental pressures, past drought has had widespread impacts on 
this population, as indicated by negative trends in nearly all lek 
complexes during that period (see Drought in this Factor A analysis; 
and Resiliency, Redundancy, and Representation in the Factor E analysis 
for further discussion on this topic).

Summary of Climate Change

    Climate change predictions are based on models with assumptions, 
and there are uncertainties regarding the magnitude of associated 
climate change parameters such as the amount and timing of 
precipitation and seasonal temperature changes. There is also 
uncertainty as to the magnitude of effects of predicted climate 
parameters on sagebrush plant community dynamics. These factors make it 
difficult to predict to what extent climate change will affect Gunnison 
sage-grouse. We recognize that climate change has the potential to 
alter Gunnison sage-grouse habitat by facilitating an increase in the 
distribution of cheatgrass and concurrently increasing the potential 
for wildfires, and reducing herbaceous vegetation and insect production 
in drought years, which would have negative effects on Gunnison sage-
grouse. We do not consider climate change to be a current threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse because of the uncertainties described above. 
However, based on the best available information on climate change 
projections over the next 35 years or so, climate change has the 
potential to alter important seasonal habitats and food resources of 
Gunnison sage-grouse, the distribution and extent of sagebrush, and the 
occurrence of invasive weeds and associated fire frequencies. Climate 
change effects, including increased drought, are also predicted in the 
Gunnison Basin population. Therefore, we find that climate change is a 
substantial future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide.

Mineral Development

    Mineral commodity development on Federal lands includes three 
primary types: Leasable, locatable, and salable minerals. Below, we 
define each type of mineral development and assess the scope of those 
activities and their potential impacts across Gunnison sage-grouse 
range.

Leasable Mineral Development

    Leasable minerals are defined and administered under the Mineral 
Leasing Act of 1920, as amended, and include oil and gas, oil shale, 
coal, geothermal, potash, sodium, and sulfur. In this section, we first 
discuss the effects of oil and gas development on sage-grouse and sage-
grouse habitats in general. We then evaluate potential and ongoing 
development of oil and gas, coal and coal-bed methane, and other 
leasable minerals across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Available 
scientific information on the effects of mineral development to sage-
grouse is related primarily to oil and gas development. However, in 
terms of effects on the species and its habitat, we expect other types 
of mineral development to have impacts similar to that of oil and gas 
development, though those impacts may vary in magnitude and scope.
Effects of Oil and Gas Development
    Oil and gas, or fluid mineral, development for energy resources on 
Federal (BLM and USFS) lands is regulated by the BLM (see Factor D 
analysis below for a more thorough discussion). The BLM (1999, p. 1) 
has classified the area encompassing all Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
for its oil and gas potential. Two population areas, San Miguel Basin 
and Monticello-Dove Creek, have areas with high potential, and one, the 
Crawford population area, has medium potential. BLM classifies the oil 
and gas potential for the remaining populations as low or none. San 
Miguel County, where much oil and gas activity has occurred in the last 
few years, ranked 9 out of 39 in Colorado counties producing natural 
gas in 2009 (Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission 2010a, p. 1) 
and 29 of 39 in oil production in 2009 (Colorado Oil and Gas 
Conservation commission 2010b, p. 2).
    Energy development impacts sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats 
through direct habitat loss from well pad construction, seismic 
surveys, roads, powerlines and pipeline corridors, and indirectly from 
noise, gaseous emissions, changes in water availability and quality, 
and human presence. The interaction and intensity of effects could 
cumulatively or individually lead to habitat degradation and 
fragmentation (Suter 1978, pp. 6-13; Aldridge 1998, p. 12; Braun 1998, 
pp. 144-148; Aldridge and Brigham 2003, p. 31; Knick et al. 2003, pp. 
612, 619; Lyon and Anderson 2003, pp. 489-490; Connelly et al. 2004, 
pp. 7-40 to 7-41; Holloran 2005, pp. 56-57; Holloran et al. 2007, pp. 
18-19; Aldridge and Boyce 2007, pp. 521-522; Walker et al. 2007a, pp. 
2652-2653; Zou et al. 2006, pp. 1039-1040; Doherty et al. 2008, p. 193; 
Leu and Hanser 2011, pp. 270-271). Increased human presence resulting 
from oil and gas development can also impact sage-grouse either through 
avoidance of suitable habitat or disruption of breeding activities 
(Braun et al. 2002, pp. 4-5; Aldridge and Brigham 2003, pp. 30-31; 
Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 518; Doherty et al. 2008, p. 194). The 
development of oil and gas resources requires surveys for economically 
recoverable reserves, construction of well pads and access roads, 
subsequent drilling and extraction, and transport of oil and gas, 
typically through pipelines. Ancillary facilities can include 
compressor stations, pumping stations, electrical generators and 
powerlines (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-39; BLM 2007, p. 2-110). Surveys 
for recoverable resources occur primarily through loud seismic 
exploration activities. These surveys can result in the crushing of 
vegetation. Well pads vary in size from 0.10 ha (0.25 ac) for coal-bed 
natural gas wells in areas of level topography to greater than 7 ha 
(17.3 ac) for deep gas wells and multi-well pads (Connelly et al. 2004, 
p. 7-39; BLM 2007, p. 2-123). Pads for compressor stations require 5-7 
ha (12.4-17.3 ac) (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-39). Individually, 
impacts from well pads, infrastructure, and ancillary features may be 
small; however, the cumulative impact of such development can be 
significant.
    The amount of direct habitat loss within an area of oil and gas 
development is ultimately determined by well densities and the 
associated loss from ancillary facilities. Roads associated with oil 
and gas development were suggested as the primary impact to greater 
sage-grouse due to their persistence and continued use even after 
drilling and production ceased (Lyon and Anderson 2003, p. 489). 
Declines in male greater sage-grouse lek attendance were reported 
within 3 km (1.9 mi) of a well or haul road with a traffic volume 
exceeding one vehicle per day (Holloran 2005, p. 40). Because of 
reasons discussed previously, the effects of oil and gas development to 
Gunnison sage-grouse are expected to be similar to those observed in 
greater sage-grouse. Sage-grouse also may be at increased risk for 
collision with vehicles simply due to the increased traffic associated 
with oil and gas activities (Aldridge 1998, p. 14; BLM 2003, p. 4-222).
    Habitat fragmentation resulting from oil and gas development 
infrastructure, including access roads, may have greater effects on 
sage-grouse than habitat loss associated with drill sites.

[[Page 69256]]

Energy development and associated infrastructure works cumulatively 
with other human activity or development to decrease available habitat 
and increase fragmentation. Greater sage-grouse leks had the lowest 
probability of persisting (40-50 percent) in a landscape with less than 
30 percent sagebrush within 6.4 km (4 mi) of the lek. These 
probabilities were even less in landscapes where energy development 
also was a factor (Walker et al. 2007a, p. 2652).
Oil and Gas Development Across the Gunnison Sage-Grouse Range--
    As noted above, high oil and gas development potential exists in 
the San Miguel Basin and Monticello-Dove Creek population areas, medium 
potential exists in the Crawford population area, and low or no 
potential exists in the remaining population areas. Approximately 33 
percent of the Gunnison Basin population area was ranked as having low 
oil and gas potential with the remainder having no potential for oil 
and gas development (GSRSC 2005, p. 130). No Federal lands are 
currently leased for oil and gas development within the Gunnison Basin 
population area.
    Energy development within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse is 
occurring primarily in the San Miguel Basin and Dove Creek population 
areas in Colorado. The San Miguel Basin and Monticello-Dove Creek 
population areas occur in the Paradox Basin, a known oil and gas 
producing region. The majority of oil and gas development and potential 
in the Paradox Basin, however, is outside of Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat (Industrial Economics, Inc. (IEc) 2014, p. 5-2, and references 
therein). In addition, to date, low levels of development and 
production have occurred in this area relative to recent development in 
other regions within the western U.S. Oil and gas production in San 
Juan County, Utah, which includes the Monticello portion of occupied 
range for Gunnison sage-grouse, has declined since the late 1980's (IEc 
2014, p. 5-1 to 5-2, and references therein). In the San Miguel Basin, 
approximately 8,000 acres are leased for oil and gas development in 
occupied habitat on BLM land and, of that area, about 5,000 acres (63 
percent) are producing (IEc 2014, p. 5-4, and references therein). The 
entire San Miguel Basin population area has high potential for oil and 
gas development (GSRSC 2005, p. 130).
    Fluid mineral development in the Paradox Basin is currently taking 
place on 44 active, producing, or permitted wells in occupied habitat 
in the San Miguel and Monticello-Dove Creek populations. Of these, 38 
active or producing wells occur in the San Miguel population area on 
BLM land; 5 newly permitted wells occur on non-Federal land in the Dove 
Creek population in Colorado; and 1 active well occurs on private land 
in the Monticello population in Utah (IEc 2014, pp. 5-4 to 5-5, and 
references therein). In the San Miguel population, most wells are in or 
near the Dry Creek subpopulation area. The exact locations of potential 
future wells are not known, but because the area is small, they will 
likely lie within 3 km (2 mi) of one of only three leks in this area 
(CDOW 2005, p. 108).
    In the remainder of the Gunnison sage-grouse range, a total of 10 
oil and gas wells occur in occupied habitat. Eight oil and gas wells 
occur in the Gunnison Basin population area, and one in each of the 
Crawford and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population areas (derived 
from Colorado Oil and Gas Commission 2010, GIS dataset). We are not 
aware of any new fluid mineral development in these or other population 
areas since 2010. No oil and gas wells or Federal leases are within the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area (BLM 2009a, p. 1), and no potential 
for oil or gas exists in this area except for a small area on the 
eastern edge of the largest habitat block (BLM 1999, p. 1; GSRSC 2005, 
p. 130). The Crawford population is in an area with medium potential 
for oil and gas development. A single Federal lease occurs on less than 
1 percent of the Crawford population area (GSRSC 2005, p. 130). We are 
not aware of any information which indicates that oil and gas 
development is a threat to the Poncha Pass population. Based on the 
best available information, we conclude that oil and gas development is 
not a current or future threat to the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, Crawford, or 
Poncha Pass populations.
    Since 2005, the BLM has deferred (temporarily withheld from lease 
sales) federal parcels nominated for oil and gas leasing in occupied 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in Colorado (see further discussion in 
Factor D Federal Laws and Regulations). Even with this temporary 
deferment, however, we expect energy development on public and private 
lands in the San Miguel Basin and the Monticello-Dove Creek areas to 
continue over the next 20 years based on the length of development and 
production projects described in existing project and management plans. 
Gas development may be negatively impacting a portion of the Dry Creek 
subpopulation because this area contains some of the poorest habitat 
and smallest grouse populations within the San Miguel population 
((SMBGSWG) 2009, pp. 28 and 36). Overall, we believe that this stressor 
is localized and, although it is likely to increase in the future, it 
is not now, or likely to become a rangewide threat to the species in 
the future.
Coal and Coal-bed Methane Development in All Population Areas
    While coal resources and several active coal fields (Somerset, 
Crested Butte, Grand Mesa, etc.) exist in the region, there are no 
active coal operations in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Colorado 
Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety (CDRMS) 2013), and 
recoverable coal resources are limited in Gunnison sage-grouse range. 
We have reviewed the best available scientific information regarding 
the potential for development of any coal resources in the Gunnison 
sage-grouse range, and found that it is unlikely in the near future due 
to technological, geologic, economic, and other constraints (USFWS 
2014a, entire). Therefore, we find that coal and coal-bed methane 
development are not current or future threats to Gunnison sage-grouse.
Other Leasable Mineral Development
    Potash exploration is currently underway in the Monticello-Dove 
Creek population area, but outside of occupied habitat for Gunnison 
sage-grouse. During 2009 and 2010, BLM received applications for 22 
prospecting permits on approximately 40,000 acres of BLM land in this 
area (outside of occupied habitat). Recently, BLM prepared an 
Environmental Analysis for six proof-of-concept drill sites. The 
company that submitted the application estimates that between 250,000 
and two million tons of potash may be recovered per year for at least 
20 years. If preliminary explorations determine that extraction is 
feasible, potash development will likely follow (IEc 2014, p. 5-6). 
However, because it is unknown where and to what extent development 
would occur, the degree to which potash development would affect 
Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat is unknown at this time.
Summary of Leasable Mineral Development
    The San Miguel Basin and Dove Creek populations are the only areas 
within Gunnison sage-grouse range that currently have a moderate amount 
of oil and gas production. However, impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse and 
its habitat in this area are limited in scope relative to other regions 
of oil and gas development within the western U.S. We recognize that 
portions of the range, such as the Dry Creek subpopulation of

[[Page 69257]]

the San Miguel population, may currently be impacted by fluid mineral 
development. However, current and potential leasable energy development 
is limited to a small portion of the species' overall range. To date, 
the majority of oil and gas development has occurred outside of 
occupied habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    While the San Miguel, Monticello-Dove Creek, and Crawford 
populations have high or medium potential for future development, the 
potential for future development is low throughout the remaining 
population areas, which represent the majority of the species' range. 
While coal resources and several active coal fields exist in the 
region, there are no active coal operations in Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat, and recoverable coal resources are limited in Gunnison sage-
grouse range (USFWS 2014a, entire). In the near future, there is a 
potential for potash development in the Monticello-Dove Creek 
population; however, the magnitude of the impacts (if any) of this 
development on the species are unknown at this time (see above 
discussion). Because of the localized scale of these impacts, we 
consider leasable mineral development to be a threat of low magnitude 
to species as a whole. However, given the small and isolated nature of 
the populations where oil and gas development is most likely to occur, 
oil and gas development is a current and future threat to those 
populations.

Locatable and Salable Mineral Development in All Population Areas

    Locatable minerals include both metallic minerals (gold, silver, 
uranium, vanadium, lead, zinc, copper, etc.) and certain unique, 
valuable non-metallic minerals (gemstones, fluorspar, mica, gypsum, 
asbestos, mica, etc.). The Mining Law of 1872 governs the exploration, 
purchase, and development of locatable minerals on mining claims. This 
law grants citizens of the United States the opportunity to explore 
for, discover, develop, and purchase certain valuable mineral deposits 
on public domain minerals. Unpatented mining claims established under 
the Mining Law of 1872 give the holder the right to mine locatable 
minerals on Federal lands. Locating a mining claim requires discovery 
of a valuable mineral through exploration. The BLM administers mining 
claims and related notices and approvals on BLM and USFS lands. The BLM 
reviews and approves a ``Plan of Operations'' for mining on Federal 
lands resulting in surface disturbance of more than 5 acres, and, in 
Colorado, financial warranty (e.g., cash bond) is required for 
reclamation through the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining and 
Safety (CDRMS). A mine operator need only file a ``Notice of Intent'' 
with BLM before proceeding with locatable mineral exploration or 
prospecting resulting in surface disturbance of 5 acres or less. 
Operators are required to provide financial warranty for reclamation 
costs associated with disturbance from exploration, which is also filed 
and held by the CDRMS. ``Casual use'' activities related to locatable 
minerals on Federal lands that cause negligible disturbance (e.g., no 
use of earth moving equipment or explosives) have no legal 
requirements. The quantity and extent of casual use activities, and 
thus the effects on Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat, are unknown.
    Salable minerals, or mineral materials, include sand, gravel, 
stone, clay, pumice, cinders, and similar minerals. Salable minerals on 
Federal lands are subject to mineral material disposal under the 
Materials Act of 1947, as amended. Mining of these minerals entails a 
sales contract or a free-use permit from the responsible Federal 
agency.
    The Service accessed CDRMS mine and mine claim data (CDRMS 2013, 
entire) to evaluate mineral potential and development in Gunnison sage-
grouse occupied range in Colorado. The CDRMS's dataset includes both 
active and terminated or expired mining permits since about 1984 to 
present, including locatable and salable minerals. Our analysis found 
that in Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat in Colorado, there are 19 
active mining permits (``active'' means the permits are valid and 
current, not necessarily that actual mining is occurring), comprising 
324.07 acres. Of this number, our analysis found that 247.96 acres (77 
percent) are in the Gunnison Basin population, and are associated 
primarily with sand and gravel operations (USFWS 2014b, p. 1).
    Fifty recently expired or terminated mining permits exist in 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied range in Colorado, affecting 
approximately 256.5 acres. Again, the majority of area affected was in 
the Gunnison Basin, including 194.1 acres (75.6 percent) associated 
with sand and gravel, borrow material, and gold mining. Some of these 
mining permit applications were withdrawn, or mining did not occur 
(USFWS 2014b, p. 2).
    Where mining has not yet been permitted or occurred, active 
(recorded) mining claims indicate potential development of those 
resources in the future, since identifying a claim requires discovery 
of a valuable mineral. Currently, in Gunnison sage-grouse occupied 
habitat in Colorado, there are 694 active mining claims, totaling 
approximately 9,966 acres, or 1.15 percent of rangewide occupied 
habitat. Approximately 7.79 percent and 2.10 percent of occupied 
habitat in the San Miguel Basin and Dove Creek populations, 
respectively, are under mining claims. For each of the other five 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations, the area under mining claims is less 
than 1 percent of total occupied habitat in those populations (USFWS 
2014b, p. 3). These data indicate that mining potential and future 
development is limited in scope in the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
It is uncertain what proportion of these mining claims will be 
developed in the future, and to what extent they will be developed. 
Future development depends on economic and market conditions, 
permitting requirements, and multiple other factors.
    Future development of some mining claims, however, could affect 
individual Gunnison sage-grouse or populations. Future development of 
uranium mining claims in the San Miguel population area, in particular, 
could result in impacts on this population of Gunnison sage-grouse and 
its habitat. This area includes the Uravan Mineral Belt, which has 
historically been the most productive uranium region in Colorado, and 
provides an important national reserve of uranium (IEc 2014, pp. 5-1, 
5-5 to 5-6). The Department of Energy, which is responsible for 
managing uranium leasing and development, is currently in the process 
of evaluating the continuation of existing uranium leases under a Draft 
Programmatic Environmental Impact statement. In recent years, uranium 
mining activity in this area has nearly ceased due to a decrease in 
global uranium prices. One active uranium mine occurs in occupied 
habitat in the San Miguel population. However, this mine is currently 
not in production (IEc 2014, p. 5-5 to 5-6). Construction of the first 
conventional uranium mill in 25 years, the Pi[ntilde]on Ridge Uranium 
Mill, is proposed near, but outside of, occupied habitat in the San 
Miguel Basin. However, this mill may not be built until uranium prices 
increase (IEc 2014, p. 5-5 to 5-6). Such a project may result in 
indirect impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse, though we cannot predict the 
scope or magnitude of those impacts.
    We were unable to acquire similar data for mining activity in the 
State of Utah, and as a result we do not know the degree to which 
mineral claims or mines overlap occupied habitat in the Monticello 
population area. Published

[[Page 69258]]

maps indicate there are four small mines (less than 5 ac of disturbance 
at any one time) on the periphery of occupied habitat in the Monticello 
population area. These include two uranium mines and one flagstone mine 
that are inactive; and one uranium/vanadium mine that was active as of 
2008 (UGS 2008a, pp. 4-5, 7). The majority of uranium and vanadium 
potential and past production in San Juan County is south-southeast of 
the city of Monticello, Utah, outside of occupied habitat (UGS 2005, 
entire). Several large mines (more than 5 ac of disturbance at any one 
time), including uranium and copper (inactive and active) occur 
northeast of Monticello, Utah (UGS 2008b, pp. 2, 5), outside the 
species' range. This information indicates that the overall current and 
potential development of locatable and salable minerals is very limited 
in Gunnison sage-grouse occupied range in Utah.
    Future mineral development, especially in seasonally important 
habitats or in smaller or declining populations, will likely impact 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations. Indirect effects such as functional 
habitat loss associated with mineral operations, as well as impacts 
from associated infrastructure, are also likely.
Summary of Locatable and Salable Mineral Development
    Mining, especially in seasonally important habitats or in smaller 
or declining populations, will likely impact Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations. Indirect effects such as functional habitat loss 
associated with mining operations, as well as impacts from associated 
infrastructure, are also likely. However, currently active mines and 
mining claims are limited in geographic scope, and thus are considered 
a threat of low magnitude to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide. If uranium 
prices increase in the future, development in the San Miguel Basin 
could potentially pose a threat to this already small and vulnerable 
population of Gunnison sage-grouse.

Renewable Energy Development--Geothermal and Wind

    Geothermal energy production is similar to oil and gas development 
in that it requires surface exploration, exploratory drilling, field 
development, and plant construction and operation, and likely results 
in similar degrees of direct and functional habitat loss (see Effects 
of Oil and Gas Development). Wells are drilled to access the thermal 
source, and drilling can require 3 weeks to 2 months of continuous 
activity (Suter 1978, p. 3), which may cause disturbance to sage-
grouse. The ultimate number of wells, and, therefore, potential loss of 
habitat, depends on the thermal output of the source and expected 
production of the plant (Suter 1978, p. 3). Pipelines are needed to 
carry steam or superheated liquids to the generating plant, which is 
similar in size to a coal- or gas-fired plant, resulting in further 
habitat destruction and indirect disturbance. Direct habitat loss 
occurs from well pads, structures, roads, pipelines and transmission 
lines, and impacts would be similar to those described above for oil 
and gas development. The development of geothermal energy requires 
intensive human activity during field development and operation, which 
could lead to habitat loss. Furthermore, geothermal development could 
cause toxic gas release. The type and effect of these gases depends on 
the geological formation in which drilling occurs (Suter 1978, pp. 7-
9). The amount of water necessary for drilling and condenser cooling 
can be high. Local water depletions may be a concern if such use 
results in the loss or degradation of brood-rearing habitat.
Geothermal Energy in the Gunnison Basin Population Area--
    The entire Gunnison Basin, or 87 percent of rangewide occupied 
habitat, is within a region of known geothermal potential (BLM and USFS 
2010, p. 1). Currently, geothermal leases in the Gunnison Basin occur 
in the same general vicinity on private, BLM, USFS, and Colorado State 
Land Board lands, near Tomichi Dome and Waunita Hot Springs in 
southeastern Gunnison County. The cumulative area of geothermal leases 
in occupied habitat is approximately 3,399 ha (8,400) ac, including 
1,861 ha (4,600 ac) on BLM land, and 1,538 ha (3,800 ac) on USFS land. 
This comprises 1.4 percent of occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin.
    In 2012, all of the leased area described above was acquired by a 
conservation group that does not intend to develop the resource. 
Geothermal leases are issued for 10 years and may be extended for two 
five-year periods (IEc 2014, p. 7-2, and references therein). 
Therefore, we do not anticipate geothermal development of these leases 
prior to 2032. If geothermal development occurs on the leases in the 
future, it would likely negatively impact Gunnison sage-grouse through 
habitat loss and disturbance of birds. One active lek and two inactive 
leks are located within the leased parcels. In addition, six active 
leks and four inactive leks are within 6.4 km (4 mi) of the lease 
application parcels indicating that a high degree of seasonal use may 
occur within the area surrounding these leks (GSRSC 2005, p. J-4). A 
significant amount of high-quality Gunnison sage-grouse nesting habitat 
also exists on and near the leased parcels (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 
402). Thus, geothermal development is a potential future threat to the 
Gunnison Basin population.
Geothermal Energy in All Other Population Areas--
    Geothermal development potential exists in the San Luis Valley 
including portions of the Poncha Pass population area. No geothermal 
leases currently exist in the San Luis Valley or Poncha Pass areas (BLM 
2012b, entire; IEc 2014, p. 7-2). Further, the 2013 BLM San Luis Valley 
Geothermal Amendment to their Resource Management Plan prohibits all 
geothermal development within Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat 
through a no surface occupancy stipulation (BLM 2012b, entire; BLM 
2013e, p. 2-11; BLM 2013f, entire). Therefore, geothermal development 
does not appear to be a current or future threat to Gunnison sage-
grouse in the Poncha Pass population. We found no other information on 
the presence of existing, pending, or authorized geothermal energy 
sites, nor any other areas with high potential for geothermal energy 
development, within any other Gunnison sage-grouse population area. 
Thus, at this time, geothermal development outside the Gunnison Basin 
does not appear to be a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse.

Wind Energy Development

    Most published reports of the effects of wind development on birds 
focus on the risks of collision with towers or turbine blades. However, 
a recent study conducted in south-central Wyoming examined the short-
term behavioral response of greater sage-grouse to wind energy 
development (LeBeau 2012, entire). In the two years following 
construction, greater sage-grouse were not avoiding habitats near wind 
turbines, and even selected for habitats closer to turbines during the 
summer months. Male lek attendance was apparently unaffected by wind 
energy development in the area. However, the author cautioned that 
these responses may have been due to typically high site fidelity of 
sage-grouse despite anthropogenic disturbances, and that impacts may 
not be realized until two to 10 years following development, similar to 
oil and gas development in sage-grouse habitats. The study reported 
that other fitness and vital rates such as nesting and brood survival 
rates

[[Page 69259]]

declined near constructed wind turbines, potentially as a result of 
increased predation and edge effects created by wind energy 
infrastructure (LeBeau 2012, entire).
    Avoidance of human-made structures such as powerlines and roads by 
sage-grouse and other prairie grouse is well-documented (Holloran 2005, 
p. 1; Pruett et al. 2009, pp. 1255-1256) (also see Roads and Powerlines 
sections above). Wind power requires many of the same features for 
construction and operation as do nonrenewable energy resources. 
Therefore, we anticipate that potential impacts from habitat decline 
due to roads and powerlines, noise, and increased human presence 
(Connelly et al. 2004, pp. 7-40 to 7-41) will generally be similar to 
those discussed above for mineral energy development.
    Wind farm development begins with site monitoring and collection of 
meteorological data to accurately characterize the wind regime. 
Turbines are installed after the meteorological data indicate the 
appropriate siting and spacing. Roads are necessary to access the 
turbine sites for installation and maintenance. Each turbine unit has 
an estimated footprint of 0.4 to 1.2 ha (1 to 3 ac) (BLM 2005e, pp. 
3.1-3.4). One or more substations may be constructed depending on the 
size of the farm. Substation footprints are 2 ha (5 ac) or less in size 
(BLM 2005e, p. 3.7).
    The average footprint of a turbine unit is relatively small from a 
landscape perspective. Turbines require careful placement within a 
field to avoid loss of output from interference with neighboring 
turbines. Spacing improves efficiency but expands the overall footprint 
of the field. Sage-grouse populations are impacted by the direct loss 
of habitat associated with the construction of access roads, as well as 
indirect loss of habitat and behavioral avoidance of the wind turbines. 
Sage-grouse could be killed by flying into turbine rotors or towers 
(Erickson et al. 2001, entire), although reported collision mortalities 
have been few. One sage-grouse was found dead within 45 m (148 ft) of a 
turbine on the Foote Creek Rim wind facility in south-central Wyoming, 
presumably from flying into a turbine (Young et al. 2003, Appendix C, 
p. 61). This is the only known sage-grouse mortality at this facility 
during three years of monitoring. We have no recent reports of sage-
grouse mortality due to collisions with wind turbines; however, many 
facilities may not be monitored. No deaths of gallinaceous birds were 
reported in a comprehensive review of avian collisions and wind farms 
in the United States; the authors hypothesized that the average tower 
height and flight height of grouse, and diurnal migration habitats of 
some birds minimized the risk of collision (Johnson et al. 2000, pp. 
ii-iii; Erickson et al. 2001, pp. 8, 11, 14, 15).
    Noise is produced by wind turbine mechanical operation (gear boxes, 
cooling fans) and airfoil interaction with the atmosphere. No published 
studies have focused specifically on the noise effects of wind power to 
Gunnison or greater sage-grouse. In studies conducted in oil and gas 
fields, noise may have played a factor in habitat selection and 
decrease in greater sage-grouse lek attendance (Holloran 2005, pp. 49, 
56). However, comparison between wind turbine and oil and gas 
operations is difficult based on the character of sound. Adjusting for 
manufacturer type and atmospheric conditions, the audible operating 
sound of a single wind turbine has been calculated as the same level as 
conversational speech at 1 m (3 ft) at a distance of 600 m (2,000 ft) 
from the turbine. This level is typical of background levels of a rural 
environment (BLM 2005e, p. 5-24). However, commercial wind farms do not 
have a single turbine, and multiple turbines over a large area would 
likely have a much larger noise print. Low-frequency vibrations created 
by rotating blades also produce annoyance responses in humans (Van den 
Berg 2004, p. 1), but the specific effect on birds is not documented.
    Moving blades of turbines cast moving shadows that cause a 
flickering effect producing a phenomenon called ``shadow flicker'' 
(American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) 2008, p. 5-33). Shadow flicker 
could mimic predator shadows and elicit an avoidance response in birds 
during daylight hours, but this potential effect has not been 
investigated. However, greater sage-grouse hens with broods have been 
observed under turbines at Foote Creek Rim in south-central Wyoming 
(Young 2004, pers. comm.), suggesting those birds were not disturbed by 
the motion of turbine blades.
Wind Energy in the Monticello Population Area--
    There is increasing interest in wind energy development in the 
vicinity of the Monticello population in San Juan County, Utah (UDWR 
2011, p. 3). Three wind energy projects are proposed in the vicinity of 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (IEc 2014, p. 7-2). The San Juan County 
Commission recently issued a permit for wind energy development on 
private land in occupied habitat in the Monticello population area, and 
development is currently underway there by Eco-Power Wind Farms, LLC 
(IEc 2014, p. 7-2). Other landowners have recently been approached to 
lease their properties for wind development as well (Messmer 2013, p. 
14). The two other wind projects are proposed for areas outside of 
occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (IEc 2014, p. 7-2 to 7-3, and 
references therein).
    In addition, the State of Utah recently completed a statewide 
screening study to identify geographic areas with a high potential for 
renewable energy development (UDNR 2009, entire). An area approximately 
80,200-ha (198,300-ac) in size northwest of the city of Monticello, UT, 
was identified, with a high level of confidence, as a wind power 
production zone with a high potential for utility-scale wind 
development (production of greater than 500 megawatts) (UDNR 2009, p. 
19). The mapped wind power production zone overlaps with nearly all 
Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat in the Monticello population, as 
well as the large area surrounding the perimeter of occupied habitat. 
The Monticello population is currently small (approximately 70 
individuals), with apparent low resilience (see discussion and analysis 
in Factor E below), making it particularly sensitive to habitat loss 
and other impacts. Therefore, we conclude that future wind energy 
development poses a threat to the Monticello population of Gunnison 
sage-grouse.
Wind Energy in All Other Population Areas--
    We found no additional information on the presence of existing, 
pending, or authorized wind energy sites, or any other areas with high 
potential for wind energy development within any other Gunnison sage-
grouse population area.

Summary of Renewable Energy Development

    Based on the above information, we do not consider renewable energy 
development to be a current threat to Gunnison sage-grouse range-wide. 
However, in the Gunnison Basin, geothermal development potential is 
high; if geothermal energy development were to increase here in the 
future, it may influence the overall long-term viability of the 
Gunnison Basin population; thus, it is a potential future threat to 
that population. Similarly, information suggests wind energy 
development may increase in the future in the Monticello population, 
potentially contributing to further population declines in this small 
and vulnerable population. Therefore, wind

[[Page 69260]]

energy development is a future threat to the Monticello population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse.

Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment

    Pi[ntilde]on-juniper woodlands are a native habitat type dominated 
by pi[ntilde]on pine (Pinus edulis) and various juniper species 
(Juniperus species) that can encroach upon, infill, and eventually 
replace sagebrush habitat and other rangelands. Pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
extent has increased ten-fold in the Intermountain West since Euro-
American settlement, causing the loss of many bunchgrass and sagebrush-
bunchgrass communities (Miller and Tausch 2001, pp. 15-16). 
Pi[ntilde]on-juniper woodlands have also been expanding throughout 
portions of the range of Gunnison sage-grouse (BLM 2009a, pp. 14, 17, 
25), although we do not have information that quantifies this 
expansion. Pi[ntilde]on-juniper expansion has been attributed to the 
reduced influence of fire, the introduction of livestock grazing, 
increases in global carbon dioxide concentrations, climate change, and 
natural recovery from past disturbance (Miller and Rose 1999, pp. 555-
556; Miller and Tausch 2001, p. 15; Baker 2011, p. 199). In addition, 
Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) invasion as a result of fire suppression 
is a potential threat to Gunnison sage-grouse (CDOW 2002, p.139) if 
stands become thick and begin to choke out sagebrush understory. 
However, some deciduous shrub communities (primarily Gambel oak and 
serviceberry) are used seasonally by Gunnison sage-grouse (Young et al. 
2000, p. 451).
    Removal of pi[ntilde]on-juniper is a common treatment to improve 
sage-grouse habitat. Similar to powerlines, trees provide perches for 
raptors, and as a consequence, Gunnison sage-grouse avoid areas with 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper (Commons et al. 1999, p. 239). In Oregon, greater 
sage-grouse lek activity ceased when conifer canopy exceeded 4 percent 
of the land area, suggesting that low levels of pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
encroachment can lead to population-level impacts (Baruch-Mordo et al. 
2013, p. 238). The number of male Gunnison sage-grouse observed on leks 
in the Crawford population doubled after pi[ntilde]on-juniper removal 
and mechanical treatment of mountain sagebrush and deciduous brush 
(Commons et al. 1999, p. 238). However, removal of all trees in a given 
area is likely not appropriate, based on the historical presence of 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper communities when Gunnison sage-grouse were more 
abundant and widespread. Pi[ntilde]on-juniper abundance likely 
fluctuated over time in response to fire, at times occupying 
approximately 20 percent of the sagebrush landscape (Baker 2013, p. 8).

Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment in All Population Areas

    The Gunnison Basin population area is not currently undergoing 
significant pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment (Boyle and Reeder 2005, 
Figure 4-1); however, all other populations have some degree of 
documented encroachment. A considerable portion of the Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa population is experiencing pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment. 
Approximately 9 percent (1,140 ha [3,484 ac]) of occupied habitat in 
the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area has pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
coverage, while 7 percent (4,414 ha [10,907 ac)] of vacant or unknown 
(suitable habitat for sage-grouse that is separated from occupied 
habitats that either (1) has not been adequately inventoried, or (2) 
has not had documentation of grouse presence in the past 10 years 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 258) and 13 percent (7,239 ha [17,888 ac]) of potential 
habitat (unoccupied habitats suitable for occupation of sage-grouse if 
practical restoration were applied) have encroachment (BLM 2009a, p. 
17).
    Some areas on lands managed by the BLM within other population 
areas are undergoing pi[ntilde]on-juniper invasion. However, the extent 
of the area affected has not been quantified (BLM 2009a, p. 74; BLM 
2009a, p. 9). Approximately 9 percent of the 1,300 ha (3,200 ac) of the 
current range in the Crawford population is dominated by pi[ntilde]on-
juniper (GSRSC 2005, p. 264). However, BLM (2005d, p. 8) estimated that 
as much as 20 percent of the Crawford population area is occupied by 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper, although much of that has been removed by habitat 
treatments in recent years. Pi[ntilde]on and juniper trees have also 
been encroaching in peripheral habitat on Sims Mesa, and to a lesser 
extent on Cerro Summit, but not to the point where it is a threat to 
the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population area (CDOW 2009b, p. 
47). Pi[ntilde]on and juniper trees are reported to be encroaching 
throughout the current range in the Monticello group, based on a 
comparison of historical versus current aerial photos, but no 
quantification or mapping of the encroachment has occurred (San Juan 
County GSWG 2005, p. 20). A relatively recent invasion of pi[ntilde]on 
and juniper trees between the Dove Creek and Monticello groups appears 
to be contributing to their isolation from each other (GSRSC 2005, p. 
276).
    Within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, approximately 5,341 ha 
(13,197 ac) of pi[ntilde]on-juniper have been treated with various 
methods designed to remove pi[ntilde]on and juniper trees since 2005, 
and nearly half of which occurred in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population 
area (CDOW 2009b, pp. 111-113). Mechanical treatment of areas 
experiencing pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment continues to be one of 
the most successful and economical treatments for the benefit of 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. However, such treatments may have minimal 
benefit at the population level, since the majority of affected 
populations have continued to decline since 1996 (Figure 3) despite 
considerable efforts to remove pi[ntilde]on-juniper in those areas.

Summary of Pi[ntilde]on-Juniper Encroachment

    Most Gunnison sage-grouse population areas are experiencing low to 
moderate levels of pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment; however, 
considerable pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
population has occurred. The encroachment of pi[ntilde]on-juniper into 
sagebrush habitats can contribute to the decline of Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat. However, pi[ntilde]on-juniper treatments, particularly 
when completed in the early stages of encroachment when the sagebrush 
and forb understory is still intact, have the potential to benefit 
sage-grouse (Commons et al. 1999, p. 238). Approximately 5,341 ha 
(13,197 ac) within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse has been treated 
to address pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment. Based on the rate of past 
treatment efforts (CDOW 2009c, entire), we expect pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
encroachment and corresponding treatment efforts to continue. 
Pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment is contributing to habitat decline in 
a limited area, but the level of encroachment is not sufficient to pose 
a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse at a population or rangewide level at 
this time. However, in combination with other factors such as those 
contributing to habitat decline (roads, powerlines, invasive plants, 
etc.), pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment poses a threat to the species. 
In addition, future conditions due to drought or climate change may 
intensify the problem such that pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment 
becomes a more serious threat, particularly in the smaller, declining 
populations.

Conversion to Agriculture

    While sage-grouse may forage on agricultural croplands (Commons 
1997, pp. 28-35), they tend to avoid landscapes dominated by 
agriculture (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 991) and do not nest or winter in 
agricultural lands where shrub cover is lacking. Effects resulting from 
agricultural activities extend into adjoining sagebrush, and

[[Page 69261]]

include increased predation and reduced nest success due to predators 
associated with agriculture (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-23). 
Agricultural lands provide limited benefits for sage-grouse as some 
crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa), winter wheat (Triticum 
aestivum), and pinto bean sprouts (Phaseolus spp.) are eaten or used 
seasonally for cover by Gunnison sage-grouse (Braun 1998, pers. comm., 
Lupis et al. 2006, entire). Since lek monitoring began, the Monticello 
population of Gunnison sage-grouse appears to have been at its highest 
numbers during the 1970's and 1980's (SJCWG 2003, p. 5). During this 
time, winter wheat and dryland alfalfa were the primary agricultural 
crops in the area, and many growers did not use herbicides or 
insecticides because of the slim profit margin in growing these crops. 
Also during this period, landowners frequently reported observing 
flocks of sage-grouse in their fields during harvest and post-harvest 
periods (Messmer 2013, p. 19). These agricultural fields and their 
management may have provided a surplus of arthropods and forbs for 
Gunnison sage-grouse, and for hens with broods, in particular. Despite 
these seasonal benefits, crop monocultures do not provide adequate 
year-round food or cover (GSRSC 2005, pp. 22-30).

Current Agriculture in All Gunnison Sage-grouse Population Areas

    The following estimates of land area dedicated to agriculture 
(including grass/forb pasture) were derived primarily from Southwest 
Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) landcover data (USGS 2004, 
entire). Agricultural parcels are distributed patchily amongst what was 
recently a sagebrush landscape. These agricultural parcels are likely 
used briefly by grouse to move between higher quality habitat patches. 
Habitat conversion to agriculture is most prevalent in the Monticello-
Dove Creek population area, where approximately half of Gunnison sage-
grouse occupied range is currently in agricultural production 
(primarily cropland and pastureland). The conversion of sagebrush to 
agricultural use eliminated suitable vegetation cover at three leks in 
the Monticello population, and those leks are no longer used by 
Gunnison sage-grouse (SJCWG 2000, p. 15; GBSC 2005, p. 81). However, 
habitat loss due to agricultural conversion has been mitigated somewhat 
by the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (see section below, NRCS and 
Private Land Conservation Efforts, in this Factor A analysis).
    In the Gunnison Basin, approximately 9 percent of the occupied 
range is currently in agricultural production. In Gunnison County, 
approximately 38,419 ha (94,936 ac) is currently in agricultural 
production (primarily irrigated hay and pastureland) (Gunnison County 
2013a, p. 97, 123; GSRSC 2005, p. 73), though we do not know what 
proportion of these lands occur in occupied range. Approximately 15 
percent of the occupied range in the San Miguel Basin is currently in 
agricultural production. In the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa 
population, approximately 14 percent of the occupied range is currently 
in agricultural production. Habitat conversion due to agricultural 
activities is limited in the Crawford, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, and Poncha 
Pass populations, with 3 percent or less of the occupied range 
currently in agricultural production in each of the population areas.
    Substantial portions of sage-grouse habitat on private land in the 
Gunnison Basin, Crawford, San Miguel, and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population 
areas are currently enrolled in the CCAA (see Conservation Programs and 
Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation in this Factor A analysis). 
Except for properties recently enrolled in the program, all enrolled 
private lands have been monitored using standardized vegetation 
transects and rangeland health assessments and, despite recent drought 
conditions and ongoing land uses, no significant deviations from 
baseline habitat conditions were observed. CPW reports that all 
enrolled properties continue to be in compliance with the terms of 
their Certificates of Inclusion (CIs) (CPW 2014a, p. 1). This 
information suggests that the current level of livestock grazing and 
operations on those lands is compatible with Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat needs.
    Except in Gunnison County, where cropland is relatively limited, 
total cropland has declined over the past two decades in all counties 
within the occupied range of Gunnison sage-grouse (USDA NASS 2010, 
entire). The majority of agricultural land use in Gunnison County is 
hay production, and this has also declined over the past two decades 
(USDA NASS 2010, p. 1). We do not have any information to predict 
changes in the amount of land devoted to agricultural purposes. 
However, because of this long-term downward trend in land area devoted 
to agriculture, we do not expect a significant amount of Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat to be converted to agricultural purposes in the future.

Summary of Conversion to Agriculture

    Throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, the amount of land 
area devoted to agriculture is declining. Therefore, although we expect 
most land currently in agricultural production to remain so 
indefinitely, we do not expect significant additional, future habitat 
conversion to agriculture within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. The 
loss of sagebrush habitat from 1958 to 1993 was estimated to be 
approximately 20 percent throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse 
(Oyler-McCance et al. 2001, p. 326). One exception is the Monticello-
Dove Creek population, where more than half of the occupied range is 
currently in agriculture or other land uses that are generally 
incompatible with Gunnison sage-grouse conservation. This habitat loss 
is being mitigated somewhat by the enrollment of lands in CRP. Because 
of its limited extent, we do not consider future conversion of 
sagebrush habitats to agriculture to be a current or future threat to 
the persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse.
    However, the extent of historical conversion of sagebrush to 
agriculture has fragmented the remaining Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
to a degree that currently occupied lands are inadequate for the 
species' conservation, especially in light of other threats discussed 
throughout this rule. As described above in the introduction to this 
Factor A analysis, the onset of Euro-American settlement in the 1800s 
resulted in significant human alterations to sagebrush ecosystems 
throughout North America, primarily as a result of urbanization, 
agricultural conversion, and irrigation projects (West and Young 2000, 
pp. 263-265; Miller et al. 2011, p. 147). Areas in Colorado that 
supported basin big sagebrush were among the first sagebrush community 
types converted to agriculture because their soils and topography are 
well-suited for agriculture (Rogers 1964, p. 13). Decreases in the 
abundance of sage-grouse paralleled the loss of range (Braun 1998, pp. 
2-3), and a gradual but marked decrease in sage-grouse distribution and 
numbers in Colorado had begun around 1910 (Rogers 1964, pp. 20-22). 
However, due to the long-term downward trend in land area devoted to 
agriculture, we do not expect agricultural conversion to be a 
significant cause of further range contraction into the future.

Large-Scale Water Development and Irrigation

    Irrigation projects have generally resulted in loss of sage-grouse 
habitat

[[Page 69262]]

(Braun 1998, p. 6). Development of Blue Mesa Reservoir in 1965 in the 
Gunnison Basin flooded an estimated 3,700 ha (9,200 ac), or 1.5 percent 
of potential habitat for Gunnison sage-grouse (McCall 2005, pers. 
comm.), and according to Gunnison County (2013a, p. 124), at least one 
known lek. Based on the size and location of Blue Mesa Reservoir, we 
presume that habitat connectivity and dispersal of birds between the 
Gunnison Basin population and satellite populations to the west were 
impacted. Three other reservoirs inundated approximately 2 percent of 
habitat in the San Miguel Basin population area (Garner 2005, pers. 
comm.).
    The demand for water in Gunnison sage-grouse range is expected to 
increase into the future due to increased temperatures resulting from 
climate change (see Climate Change in this Factor A analysis), severe 
drought (see Drought and Extreme Weather in the Factor E analysis), and 
human population growth (see Residential Development in this Factor A 
analysis). Water demand from the Upper Colorado River Basin, which 
encompasses Gunnison sage-grouse occupied range, is expected to 
increase over the next several decades, and there are likely to be 
significant shortfalls between projected water supply and demand 
through 2060 (BOR 2013, entire). However, it is unknown if, when, or 
where future water projects in the Upper Colorado River Basin would 
occur.
    A small amount of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat has been lost to 
large-scale water development projects, but in potentially important 
areas (see discussion above). We expect these existing reservoirs to be 
maintained indefinitely, thus acting as another source of habitat 
fragmentation. With increased water demand in the future, we expect 
that water developments and irrigation practices may further contribute 
to impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse, though the scope and magnitude of 
those effects are unknown. Based on this information, we conclude that 
large-scale water developments and irrigation are a threat of low 
magnitude to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide, both now and in the 
future. Small-scale water developments, such as stock ponds and tanks, 
are described and evaluated in the Domestic Grazing and Wildlife 
Herbivory (Factor A analysis), and Disease (Factor C analysis) sections 
of this rule.

Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation

Consideration of Conservation Efforts in This Rulemaking

    Multiple partners including private citizens, nongovernmental 
organizations, Tribal, State, and Federal agencies are engaged in 
conservation efforts across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Numerous 
conservation actions have already been implemented for Gunnison sage-
grouse, and these efforts have provided and will continue to provide 
conservation benefit to the species. These implemented efforts are 
considered below.
    Additionally, there are recent and planned conservation efforts 
that are intended to provide conservation benefits to the Gunnison 
sage-grouse; some of which have not been fully implemented or shown to 
be effective. The Service's Policy for Evaluation of Conservation 
Efforts When Making Listing Decisions (PECE; 68 FR 15100, March 28, 
2003) describes our procedure for evaluating the certainty of 
implementation and effectiveness of these recent and future actions. 
The purpose of PECE is to ensure consistent and adequate evaluation of 
recently formalized conservation efforts when making listing decisions. 
The policy provides guidance on how to evaluate formalized conservation 
efforts that have not yet been implemented or have not yet demonstrated 
effectiveness. The evaluation focuses on the certainty that the 
conservation efforts will be implemented and effectiveness of the 
conservation efforts. The policy defines ``formalized conservation 
efforts'' as ``specific actions, activities, or programs designed to 
eliminate or reduce threats or otherwise improve the status of 
species'' that are identified in a conservation agreement, conservation 
plan or similar document, and presents nine criteria for evaluating the 
certainty of implementation and six criteria for evaluating the 
certainty of effectiveness of such conservation efforts. These criteria 
are not considered comprehensive evaluation criteria. The certainty of 
implementation and the effectiveness of a formalized conservation 
effort may also depend on species-specific, habitat-specific, location-
specific, and effort-specific factors.
    Conservation efforts that are not sufficiently certain to be 
implemented and effective cannot contribute to a determination that 
listing is unnecessary or a determination that to list as threatened 
rather than endangered (PECE, 68 FR 15115). Accordingly, before 
considering whether a future formalized conservation effort contributes 
to forming a basis for not listing a species, or listing a species as 
threatened rather than endangered, we must find that the conservation 
effort is sufficiently certain to be implemented, and effective, so as 
to have contributed to the elimination or adequate reduction of one or 
more threats to the species identified through the section 4(a)(1) 
(five-factor) analysis. If a conservation effort meets the criteria 
described in PECE, we are able to include and rely upon these recent 
and future efforts in our current threats analysis and status 
determination.
    We completed an evaluation of the recently developed multi-county 
Conservation Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the 2013 
Gunnison Basin CCA and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe's 2014 Species 
Management Plan pursuant to PECE; however, only the CCA met the 
criteria established under PECE and thus may be considered in 
determining whether the species is warranted for listing or is 
threatened rather than endangered. Neither the MOU nor the multi-county 
conservation agreement can contribute to these determinations because 
they do not include specific conservation efforts as defined in the 
PECE polic, and the Tribal plan only met 7 of the 15 PECE criteria. 
Therefore, we did not rely upon these conservation efforts in our 
current threats analysis and status determination.
    The 2006 Colorado Gunnison sage-grouse CCAA, 2013 Gunnison Basin 
CCA, habitat improvement projects, and other non-regulatory 
conservation efforts that address habitat-related issues are described 
and evaluated below in this section. Habitat-related and other 
conservation efforts provided through Federal, state, tribal, and local 
laws and regulations, conservation easements, and similar regulatory 
mechanisms are evaluated under Factor D below. Also, throughout this 
rule, conservation efforts are described under relevant threat 
sections.

2006 Colorado Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances (CCAA)

    In April 2005, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW, now called 
Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW)) applied to the Service for an 
Enhancement of Survival Permit for the Gunnison sage-grouse pursuant to 
section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act. The permit application included a 
proposed Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances (CCAA) 
between CPW and the Service. The standard that a CCAA must meet is that 
the ``benefits of the conservation measures implemented by

[[Page 69263]]

a property owner under a CCAA, when combined with those benefits that 
would be achieved if it is assumed that conservation measures were also 
to be implemented on other necessary properties, would preclude or 
remove any need to list the species'' (64 FR 32726, June 17, 1999). The 
draft CCAA, the permit application, and the draft environmental 
assessment were made available for public comment on July 6, 2005 (70 
FR 38977). The CCAA and environmental assessment were finalized in 
October 2006, and the associated permit was issued on October 23, 2006, 
with a term of 20 years.
    The goal of the CCAA is to reduce threats to Gunnison sage-grouse 
and help provide for secure, self-sustaining local populations by 
enrolling, protecting, maintaining, and enhancing or restoring non-
federally owned Colorado habitats of Gunnison sage-grouse (as described 
further below). Landowners with eligible property in southwestern 
Colorado could voluntarily sign up under the CCAA and associated permit 
through a Certificate of Inclusion (CI) that specifies the land 
enrolled in the CCAA and the habitat protection or enhancement measures 
the landowner will implement on these lands. Eligible lands include 
non-Federal lands in Colorado within the current range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse where occupied, vacant/unknown, or potentially suitable 
habitats occur, as mapped and identified in the RCP. After Gunnison 
sage-grouse is listed under the Act, the CCAA remains in place and the 
permit becomes effective. The permit exempts take of Gunnison sage-
grouse incidental to otherwise lawful activities specified in the CCAA 
(e.g., crop cultivation or harvesting, livestock grazing, farm 
equipment operation, commercial/residential development), when 
performed in accordance with the terms of the CCAA, provided the 
participating landowner is implementing conservation measures 
voluntarily agreed to in the landowner's CI (USFWS 2006, entire). 
Landowners may only enroll properties in the CCAA and receive these 
benefits before a species is listed under the Act.
    CPW may terminate landowner participation in the CCAA or otherwise 
revoke the CI if the landowner fails to comply with or implement the 
terms of the agreement. Further, the Service may suspend or revoke the 
permit for just cause or if continuation of permitted activities would 
likely result in jeopardy to Gunnison sage-grouse (USFWS 2006, p. 20). 
However, except for recently enrolled properties, all properties have 
been monitored using standardized vegetation transects and rangeland 
health assessments and, despite recent drought conditions and ongoing 
land uses, no significant deviations from baseline habitat conditions 
have been observed. According to CPW, which is responsible for 
administering the CCAA with Service oversight, all enrolled properties 
continue to be in compliance with the terms of their CIs (CPW 2014a, p. 
1).
    Colorado Parks and Wildlife has made great strides to enroll 
landowners, protect habitat, and alleviate threats to Gunnison sage-
grouse under this voluntary program. We estimate that by December 2014, 
when this rule becomes effective, 40 CIs will have been completed for 
private properties, enrolling 94,391 ac, roughly 81,156 ac that are in 
suitable habitat, in four Gunnison sage-grouse populations. This 
includes 32 CIs (54,580 ac (roughly 50,410 ac in suitable habitat)) in 
the Gunnison Basin; 2 CIs (4,231 ac (roughly 3,921 ac in suitable 
habitat)) in Crawford; 3 CIs (16,820 ac (roughly 13,694 ac in suitable 
habitat)) in San Miguel; and 3 CIs (18,761 ac (roughly 13,131 ac in 
suitable habitat)) in Pi[ntilde]on Mesa (Table 9).

  Table 9--Completed and In-Progress CIs Under the Gunnison Sage-Grouse
                                  CCAA
               [CPW 2014a, entire; CPW 2014g, appendix 3]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Total
                                ----------------------------------------
           Population                                       Acres * in
                                    #     Enrolled acres     suitable
                                                              habitat
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison Basin.................       32          54,580          50,410
Crawford.......................        2           4,231           3,921
San Miguel.....................        3          16,820          13,694
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa..............        3          18,761          13,131
                                ----------------------------------------
    Rangewide Totals...........       40          94,391         81,156
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* These are estimates based on Geospatial analyses.

    Based on the RCP conservation objective of securing and maintaining 
90 percent of seasonally important habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse 
in each population area (GSRSC 2005, pp. 223-224), the CCAA identifies 
targets for private land protection for each population area, including 
private lands not already considered as protected under a conservation 
easement (USFWS 2006, pp. 11-12). However, we note that there are lands 
that are part of the CCAA, and are also protected under a conservation 
easement. Targeted CCAA acreages on private lands are intended to 
complement lands already receiving some protection because they are 
under Federal ownership.
    A habitat protection objective of 75 percent of seasonally 
important habitat was identified for the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims 
Mesa population, because this area is thought to function more as a 
habitat linkage between the San Miguel Basin, Gunnison, and Crawford 
populations (GSRSC 2005, pp. 223-224; USFWS 2006, p. 10). The CCAA 
habitat protection target for the Gunnison Basin population was based 
on important seasonal habitats since these are mapped in this area. In 
the remaining populations where important seasonal habitats are not 
mapped, CCAA targets were based on available occupied habitat (USFWS 
2006, pp. 11-12). Roughly 99 percent of the Gunnison Basin population 
area target, 95 percent of the Crawford population area target, 45 
percent of the San Miguel population area target, and 217 percent of 
the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area target on private lands are 
enrolled in the CCAA (Table 10).

[[Page 69264]]



                    Table 10--CCAA Habitat Protection Targets on Private Land and Enrollment
                                     [CPW 2014a, entire; CPW 2014b, entire]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    CCAA Target    Enrolled CIs      % of CCAA
                           Population                                 (ac) on       (ac) \a\ on      target on
                                                                   private land    private land    private land
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison basin..................................................          55,302          54,580              99
Crawford........................................................           4,143           4,231              95
San Miguel......................................................          37,690          16,820              45
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa...............................................           8,635          18,761            217
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ CI acreage in suitable habitat based on geospatial analyses. Includes some properties also protected by
  conservation easements.

    The CCAA promotes the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse on 
portions of private lands in the Gunnison Basin, Crawford, San Miguel, 
and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations. In these areas, threats to Gunnison 
sage-grouse are reduced and habitats covered by the CCAA are protected, 
maintained, enhanced, or restored. In particular, private land uses 
including livestock grazing and agricultural production are managed to 
be consistent with the needs of Gunnison sage-grouse and the species' 
conservation. Although enrollment of property in the CCAA is voluntary 
and not permanent or binding, the program's regulatory assurances and 
take authority provide an incentive for participating landowners to 
continue enrollment and compliance with terms of their CI. However, 
there are instances in which those assurances and incentives would no 
longer be desirable to the landowner. For instance, a landowner may 
choose to opt out of the CCAA to sell subject lands, whether for 
development or other purposes, meaning the benefits to Gunnison sage-
grouse provided under the program would cease as well unless the new 
owner decided to continue the property's enrollment in the CCAA. Thus, 
although residential development is expected to be very limited on 
enrolled properties under the terms of the CIs (USFWS 2006, p. 13), the 
CCAA does not preclude the sale of those properties nor their 
subsequent development. Such development would likely result in further 
habitat loss and decline for Gunnison sage-grouse, though we cannot 
predict the scope or magnitude of those impacts. Therefore, the Service 
views the CCAA differently from conservation easements in terms of its 
regulatory certainty (see Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation 
Easements, Factor D analysis; and Residential Development, in this 
Factor A analysis). Nevertheless, we consider lands enrolled under the 
CCAA to be a net gain for Gunnison sage-grouse conservation, 
particularly in regard to the reduction of habitat-related impacts due 
to ongoing land uses on private lands.

2013 Gunnison Basin Candidate Conservation Agreement

    Candidate Conservation Agreements are formal, voluntary agreements 
between the Service and one or more parties to address the conservation 
needs of one or more candidate species or species likely to become 
candidates in the near future. Participants commit to implement 
specific actions designed to remove or reduce threats to the covered 
species, so that listing may not be necessary. Unlike CCAAs, CCAs do 
not provide assurances that additional conservation measures will not 
be required if a species is listed or critical habitat is designated.
    In January 2010, the BLM, USFS, NPS, and other members of the 
Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse Strategic Committee (Strategic Committee) 
began preparing a Candidate Conservation Agreement (CCA) with the 
Service to promote the conservation of the Gunnison Basin population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse (BLM 2013b, entire). The CCA was completed and 
signed by the Federal land management agencies on August 23, 2012. On 
April 12, 2013, the Federal land management agencies submitted a joint 
biological assessment (BA) and letter to the Service requesting an ESA 
Section 7 formal conference on the CCA. The Service issued its 
conference opinion on July 29, 2013 (USFWS 2013b, entire) and 
subsequently signed the CCA. The conference opinion evaluated 
anticipated effects of the CCA on Gunnison sage-grouse and estimated 
incidental take over a 20-year period, or through July 29, 2033.
    The CCA serves as a project screen and requires implementation of 
conservation measures associated with specified actions under three 
Federal land use programs: Development (roads, transmission lines, 
etc.), recreation (such as trails and special recreation permits, 
etc.), and livestock grazing (permit renewals and operations). Larger 
or impact intensive projects (e.g., construction of a new transmission 
line, energy development) are not covered under the CCA, and any 
conservation measures required for these projects on Federal lands in 
the Gunnison Basin will be addressed separately through ESA section 7 
consultation. However, the actions addressed by the CCA, as listed 
above, comprise the most common land use authorizations where Gunnison 
sage-grouse occur on Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin. The CCA and 
conference opinion cover an estimated 160,769 ha (397,267 ac) of 
occupied habitat on Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin. This 
constitutes about 67 percent of the estimated 239,953 ha (592,936 ac) 
of total occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin; approximately 78 
percent of rangewide occupied habitat on Federal lands; and 
approximately 42 percent of rangewide total occupied habitat for the 
species.
    Conservation measures in the CCA and conference opinion are actions 
that the signatory agencies agreed to implement to further the recovery 
of Gunnison sage-grouse. A key component of the CCA's site-specific 
conservation measures is a requirement for offsetting habitat loss or 
disturbance to ensure a net increase in priority habitats, and no net 
loss (maintenance) of secondary habitats for Gunnison sage-grouse. A 
number of other conservation measures and practices will be implemented 
pursuant to the CCA by the Federal agencies during the ESA section 7 
consultation process to avoid and minimize project impacts on Gunnison 
sage-grouse.
    The Service commends the Federal agencies, and the Gunnison Basin 
Sage-grouse Strategic Committee for their efforts in the design of the 
CCA and implementation of conservation measures to benefit Gunnison 
sage-grouse. In our conference opinion, we found that, despite 
incidental negative effects on individual birds and potential short-
term, localized, and unavoidable effects, implementation of the CCA 
will provide a long-term, net benefit for Gunnison sage-grouse on a 
landscape scale. The conservation measures and mitigation scheme are 
required for the signatory Federal agencies engaging in covered 
activities, and are based on

[[Page 69265]]

current applicable land management plans of the respective agencies. As 
noted earlier, approximately 87 percent of the rangewide population of 
Gunnison sage-grouse occurs in the Gunnison Basin population. 
Implementation of the proposed action and its conservation measures 
will help reduce several substantial threats known to affect the 
species on Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin, including habitat 
decline. Although we analyzed the CCA under our PECE policy and found 
it satisfies all the criteria for consideration in our listing 
determination, approximately 22 percent of rangewide occupied habitat 
on Federal lands--all within the satellite population areas--are not 
covered under the CCA or a similar agreement. Additional protections on 
those Federal lands will be necessary to conserve these smaller, 
declining populations. Therefore, while the CCA is effective in 
reducing some threats in the Gunnison Basin population, it is not 
effective at reducing the threats to the species rangewide such that 
listing is not warranted.

NRCS and Private Lands Conservation Efforts

    The NRCS's Sage-Grouse Initiative (SGI) is a rangewide, 
collaborative, targeted effort to implement conservation practices 
which alleviate threats that some agricultural activities can pose to 
greater and Gunnison sage-grouse while improving the sustainability of 
working ranches. Through SGI, the NRCS and its partners help ranchers 
proactively conserve and improve sage-grouse habitat. The SGI includes 
a monitoring and evaluation component for projects to measure the 
response of sage-grouse populations and vital rates (USFWS 2010d, p. 
5).
    In 2010, the Service issued the SGI Conference Report (USFWS 2010d, 
entire) to facilitate the SGI and conservation of Gunnison and greater 
sage-grouse rangewide. In the Conference Report, the Service provided 
guidance and conservation recommendations for avoiding and minimizing 
adverse effects to sage-grouse associated with the SGI, and found that 
the implementation of the SGI and identified conservation measures 
would have a net benefit on the species. The report identified primary 
conservation practices (management, vegetative, and structural) 
implemented by the NRCS to benefit sage-grouse and its habitat, and 
specific conservation measures (e.g., avoiding fence construction near 
leks) for those practices. The report did not provide for exemption of 
incidental take of sage-grouse if either species is listed under the 
Act (USFWS 2010d, entire).
    Also under the SGI and related private land programs (e.g., Farm 
Bill), the NRCS, Farm Service Agency (FSA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service Partners for Fish and Wildlife (PFW), CPW, and other partners 
have implemented numerous habitat improvement projects on private lands 
to benefit Gunnison sage-grouse. Since 1998, the Service's Colorado PFW 
has completed 20 habitat improvement or restoration projects in 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat including projects on 638.5 ac of wetland 
habitat; 3,957 ac of upland habitat; and 4.3 mi of riparian habitat in 
Gunnison, Saguache, and Montrose Counties, with most treated acres in 
Gunnison County. Project types included restoration, improvement, and 
management actions such as enhancement of wetland and brood-rearing 
habitat, treating sagebrush, reseeding of native vegetation, fencing 
installation, grazing management, and removal of pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
(USFWS 2014c, entire). Contributing partners for these projects have 
included CPW, NRCS, and Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory. In addition, 
in 2006 the NRCS Gunnison Basin Conservation District sponsored a Range 
Management School to assist ranchers in managing and monitoring their 
lands to benefit Gunnison sage-grouse and meet the requirements of the 
CCAA (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 204-206).
    Projects undertaken through SGI and related private land programs, 
as described above, have benefitted Gunnison sage-grouse and its 
habitat, but are limited in extent. Therefore, it is unlikely that such 
actions are able to offset habitat loss and decline across the species' 
range.
    The CRP is another Federally sponsored program that has helped 
offset the loss of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Administered by the 
FSA, this program provides incentives to landowners to plant more 
natural vegetation in lands formerly devoted to agricultural 
production. The NRCS provides technical assistance and planning in the 
implementation of CRP. The CRP helps address the threat of habitat 
decline due to agricultural conversion.
    Lands within the occupied range of Gunnison sage-grouse currently 
enrolled in the CRP are limited to Dolores and San Miguel counties in 
Colorado, and San Juan County in Utah (USDA FSA 2010, entire). From 
2000 to 2008, CRP enrollment averaged 10,622 ha (26,247 ac) in Dolores 
County, 1,350 ha (3,337 ac) in San Miguel County, and 14,698 ha (36,320 
ac) in San Juan County (USDA FSA 2010, entire). In 2011, approximately 
9,793 ha (24,200 ac) were enrolled in the CRP program within occupied 
habitat in the Monticello population (UDWR 2011, p. 7). This area 
represents approximately 34 percent of the occupied habitat in the 
Monticello population, and approximately 22 percent of the entire 
Monticello-Dove Creek population area. By 2011, lands that had dropped 
out of the CRP program were replaced by newly enrolled properties, and 
the total acreage of lands enrolled in the CRP program remained at the 
maximum allowed by the FSA for San Juan County, UT (UDWR 2011, p. 7).
    Gunnison sage-grouse are known to regularly use CRP lands in the 
Monticello population (Lupis et al. 2006, pp. 959-960; Ward 2007, p. 
15). In San Juan County, Gunnison sage-grouse use CRP lands in 
proportion to their availability (Lupis et al. 2006, p. 959). The CRP 
areas are used by grouse primarily as foraging and brood-rearing 
habitat, but these areas vary greatly in plant diversity and forb 
abundance, generally lack any shrub cover (Lupis et al. 2006, pp. 959-
960; Prather 2010, p. 32), and thus are less suitable for nesting and 
wintering habitat.
    Except in emergency situations such as drought, CRP-enrolled lands 
are not hayed or grazed. In response to a severe drought, four CRP 
parcels totaling 1,487 ha (3,674 ac) in San Juan County, UT, were 
emergency grazed for a duration of one to two months in the summer of 
2002 (Lupis et al. 2006, p. 959). Males and broodless females avoided 
the grazed areas while cattle were present but returned after cattle 
were removed (Lupis et al. 2006, pp. 960-961). Thus, the effects from 
grazing were likely negative but apparently short in duration.
    Largely as a result of agricultural conversion, sagebrush patches 
in the Monticello-Dove Creek subpopulation area have progressively 
become smaller and more fragmented, thereby limiting the amount of high 
quality nesting and winter habitat (GSRSC 2005, pp. 82, 276). Overall, 
the CRP has provided important foraging habitat and has protected a 
portion of the Monticello-Dove Creek population from more intensive 
agricultural use and development. Continued enrollment of lands in CRP 
and management of those lands are conservation priorities of the local 
sage-grouse working group (SJCWG 2003, entire). However, the overall 
value of CRP lands to Gunnison sage-grouse to reduce or remove the 
threat of habitat loss and fragmentation is currently limited because 
these lands largely lack sagebrush cover required by the species 
throughout most of the year.

[[Page 69266]]

The value of CRP lands to the species will likely increase over time 
with the establishment of sagebrush in those areas. The extent to which 
existing CRP lands will be reenrolled in the future is unknown. 
However, given the recent enrollment, we expect lands to continue to be 
enrolled into the future.

Tribal Species Management Plan

    Approximately 12,000 ac of occupied habitat on Pinecrest Ranch are 
owned by the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (Tribe) under restricted fee 
status. The Pinecrest Ranch includes a total of 18,749 ac in the 
Gunnison Basin population area west of Gunnison, Colorado. The Tribe 
uses the ranch primarily for livestock grazing and for important 
traditional and cultural purposes. In February 2014, the Tribe 
completed a Species Management Plan (SMP) to promote the conservation 
of Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat on the Pinecrest Ranch while 
maintaining a sustainable agricultural operation and other traditional 
uses of the property (Ute Mountain Ute Tribe 2014a, entire). On April 
9, 2014, the Tribe approved and adopted the SMP for the Pinecrest Ranch 
per Resolution No. 2014-059 (Ute Mountain Ute Tribe 2014b, pp. 1-2).
    The SMP includes management actions and/or considerations that will 
benefit Gunnison sage-grouse including, but not limited to, continued 
predator control, seasonal restrictions for construction and 
development activities, road restrictions and closures, wildlife-
friendly fencing, outreach and education, and sustainable grazing 
practices which are compatible with maintaining habitat that meets the 
species' needs (UMUT 2014, pp. 7-15). While we think the SMP provides a 
benefit to species, we evaluated the species management plan under our 
PECE policy, but found the plan met only 7 of the 15 criteria.

Other Conservation Efforts

    To varying degrees, most counties in Colorado either support or are 
involved in other conservation efforts for Gunnison sage-grouse, such 
as local working groups, habitat improvement projects, and research 
projects (Gunnison County 2013b, Appendix 1 A-K, CPW 2014g, Attachment 
3 and Appendix A; Office of the Governor of Colorado 2014, entire). 
Through CPW, the State of Colorado has also been a leader in sage-
grouse research and conservation efforts throughout the species' range 
(CPW 2014g, entire; Office of the Governor of Colorado 2014, entire). 
We have considered all such conservation efforts in this listing 
determination, and highlight some of the more significant of these 
efforts below.
    Except for the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population, each of 
the Gunnison sage-grouse population areas has a Conservation Plan 
authored by Local Working Groups with publication dates of 1997 to 2011 
(CSGWG 1997; Dove Creek/Monticello Local Working Group 1998; GSRSC 
2005; Pi[ntilde]on Mesa Gunnison Sage-grouse Working Group 2000; Poncha 
Pass Local Working Group 2000; Gunnison Sage-grouse Working Group 2000; 
SJCWG 2000 and 2003; SMBGSWG 2009; Crawford Area Sage-grouse Working 
Group 2011). These plans provide guidance and recommendations for 
management of Gunnison sage-grouse and have been the basis for 
identifying and prioritizing local conservation efforts. We have 
reviewed all of the Local Working Group plans and the implementation 
reporting we received with respect to these plans. While these plans 
are providing a conservation benefit to the species, the actions in 
these plans are all voluntary and many of the satellite populations are 
in a downward trajectory, therefore the actions do not reduce the 
threats, such as residential development (Factor A), which may require 
compensatory mitigation to ameliorate, and, to the species to a point 
where listing is not warranted.
    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse Rangewide Conservation Plan (RCP) was 
developed by the states of Colorado and Utah and 5 Federal agencies, 
including the Service, in 2005 to supplement the local working group 
plans and to offer a rangewide perspective for conservation of the 
species. The RCP includes specific, recommended avoidance and 
minimization measures, as well as species and habitat conservation 
targets. However, similar to the local plans, the RCP is a guidance 
document only, is voluntary, and does not provide regulatory mechanisms 
for Gunnison sage-grouse conservation (GSRSC 2005, p. 1). Where RCP 
recommended conservation measures have been implemented, we have 
evaluated and included them in our analysis. For example, the RCP 
recommends road closures and the enactment of county regulations to 
minimize impacts to the species; where appropriate, the existing 
efforts that implement these recommendations are included in our 
analysis. Overall, however, there is no requirement to implement the 
recommendations in the RCP and past implementation of these 
recommendations has generally been ad hoc and opportunistic. Given this 
history, we find that the RCP is not effective at reducing the threats 
acting on the species to the point where listing the species is not 
warranted.
    Other conservation efforts in the species' range include the North 
Rim Landscape Strategy developed by Federal and state agencies, 
partners, and stakeholders to supplement the Crawford Area Conservation 
Plan. The strategy identifies broad recommendations for resource 
management and conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse in the Crawford 
population area, but is not a legal decision document (BLM 2013c, p. 4-
5).
    Gunnison County has been particularly active in Gunnison sage-
grouse conservation activities. In 2005, it hired a Gunnison Sage-
grouse Coordinator and organized a Strategic Committee to facilitate 
implementation of conservation measures in the Gunnison Basin under 
both the local Conservation Plan (CSGWG 1997, entire) and RCP (GSRSC 
2005, entire). An estimated $30 million has been invested in 
conservation actions by these groups and partners in the Gunnison Basin 
(Gunnison County 2013a, p. 147). Gunnison County reports that it alone 
has contributed more than $1 million to Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation (Gunnison County 2013a, p. 218). In 2009, Gunnison County 
adopted the Gunnison Basin Sage-grouse Strategic Plan (Gunnison County 
2013a, Appendix E) to foster coordination and guide local citizens in 
the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse. Also in 2009, the Gunnison 
County Sage-Grouse Conservation Action Plan (Gunnison County 2013a, 
Appendix F) was developed to guide and prioritize the implementation of 
specific conservation actions identified in the Strategic Plan. 
Gunnison County and the Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse Strategic Committee 
(local working group for the Gunnison Basin population area) have also 
made significant public outreach efforts including holding the Gunnison 
Sage-Grouse Festival, providing Web site information for the public, 
and education and communication with area landowners (Gunnison County 
2013a, p. 59).
    The Crawford Working Group (Delta and Montrose County areas) also 
hired a Gunnison sage-grouse coordinator in December 2009. Likewise, 
Saguache County hired a part-time coordinator for the Poncha Pass 
population in 2013. These efforts facilitate coordination relative to 
sage-grouse management and reflect positively on these counties' 
commitment to Gunnison sage-grouse conservation.

[[Page 69267]]

    Gunnison County and several other counties in the species' range 
have also enacted regulatory and related measures to benefit Gunnison 
sage-grouse and its habitat, as discussed under Factor D (Local Laws 
and Regulation).
    The Gunnison Climate Adaptation Pilot Project, led by the Gunnison 
Climate Change Working Group, implemented several habitat projects in 
2012 and 2013 to restore and improve the resiliency of Gunnison sage 
brood-rearing habitats (riparian areas and wet meadows) to address 
climate change in the Gunnison Basin (The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 
2012, entire). The projected vulnerability of the Gunnison Basin to 
climate change was the primary impetus for the pilot project (see 
Climate Change). Long-term monitoring will determine effectiveness of 
the projects. Additional projects under this initiative are planned for 
the future (The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 2011, p. 1).
    A review of a database compiled by the CPW that included local, 
State, and Federal ongoing and pending Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation actions in Colorado from 2005 to 2009 (CDOW 2009c, entire) 
revealed a total of 224 individual conservation efforts, most of which 
were habitat improvement or protection projects. As of 2012, 165 of 
those efforts were completed, resulting in the treatment (enhancement 
or restoration) of 9,324 ha (23,041 ac), or approximately 2.5 percent 
of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. A monitoring component was 
included in 45 percent of the completed efforts, although we do not 
have information on their overall effectiveness. Five habitat 
improvement or protection projects occurred between January 2011 and 
September 2012, treating an additional 300 acres (CPW 2012b, p. 7). 
Further discussions of habitat improvement projects occurred before 
2005 and subsequent to the 2012 summary document (CPW 2012b, entire; 
CPW 2014e, entire; CPW 2014g entire). These are not discussed here but 
were considered. Individually, these projects are generally all 
relatively small in scale, in relation to the individual populations 
where they have occurred. Cumulatively, these conservation efforts are 
providing a conservation benefit to the species, however, given the 
general downward trend of many of the satellite populations and the 
inability of these efforts to reduce threats such as residential 
development, we find these conservation efforts are not effective at 
reducing the threats acting on the species to the point where listing 
the species is not warranted.

Multi-County Rangewide Efforts

    In 2013, the ``Conservation Agreement for Gunnison Sage-grouse,'' 
and a Memorandum of Understanding, was drafted by 11 Colorado and Utah 
Counties across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse (Gunnison, Saguache, 
Dolores, Montezuma, Delta, Montrose, Hinsdale, Mesa, San Miguel, and 
Ouray Counties in Colorado; and San Juan County in Utah) (hereafter, 
County Coalition). To date, the Governors of the States of Colorado and 
Utah; and County Commissioners from all nine counties in occupied range 
from both States have signed the agreement. Hinsdale and Montezuma 
Counties do not contain occupied range for Gunnison sage-grouse and, 
therefore, did not sign the agreement. While the agreement itself is 
not regulatory, signatories of the agreement committed to implementing 
appropriate resolutions, regulations, and guidelines to enhance the 
species and its habitat in an effort to increase populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse (County Coalition 2013, entire). Specifically, 
they have formally committed to adopting a Habitat Prioritization Tool, 
which will better predict preferred habitat for the species, and they 
have formally committed to updating and adopting an amended Rangewide 
Conservation Plan. We did evaluate these multi-county efforts under our 
PECE policy, but found they did not include specific conservation 
efforts as defined by the PECE policy, and hence cannot contribute to a 
determination that listing is unnecessary or a determination to list 
the species as threatened rather than endangered.

Summary of Conservation Programs and Efforts Related to Habitat 
Protection

    Numerous conservation actions have been implemented for Gunnison 
sage-grouse, and these efforts have provided and will continue to 
provide conservation benefit to the species. The CCAA and CCA provide 
significant conservation benefit to the species and its habitat on 
private lands rangewide and Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin, 
respectively, reducing the impacts of primarily habitat-related threats 
in those areas. However, the identified conservation efforts, taken 
individually and in combination, do not fully address the substantial 
threats of rangewide habitat decline (Factor A), small population size 
and structure (Factor E), drought (Factor E), climate change (Factor 
A), and disease (Factor C). The Gunnison Basin CCA provides some 
protection for Gunnison sage-grouse on Federal lands in the Gunnison 
Basin, but does not cover the remaining, more vulnerable satellite 
populations. Similarly, the existing CCAA benefits Gunnison sage-
grouse, but does not provide sufficient coverage of the species' range 
to ensure the species' long-term conservation. Based on their voluntary 
nature and track records, the RCP, local working group plans, and other 
conservation efforts are not effective at reducing the threats acting 
on the species to the point where listing the species is not warranted. 
Thus, although the ongoing conservation efforts are a positive step 
toward the conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse and have 
undoubtedly reduced the severity of certain threats to populations, on 
the whole we find that current conservation efforts are not sufficient 
to offset the full scope of threats to Gunnison sage-grouse.

Summary of Factor A

    Gunnison sage-grouse require large areas of sagebrush for long-term 
persistence, and thus are affected by factors that occur at the 
landscape scale. Broad-scale characteristics within surrounding 
landscapes influence habitat selection, and adult Gunnison sage-grouse 
exhibit a high fidelity to all seasonal habitats, resulting in low 
adaptability to habitat changes. Habitat loss, degradation, and 
fragmentation of sagebrush habitats are a primary cause of the decline 
of Gunnison and greater sage-grouse populations (Patterson 1952, pp. 
192-193; Connelly and Braun 1997, p. 4; Braun 1998, p. 140; Johnson and 
Braun 1999, p. 78; Connelly et al. 2000a, p. 975; Miller and Eddleman 
2000, p. 1; Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 29; Johnsgard 2002, p. 108; 
Aldridge and Brigham 2003, p. 25; Beck et al. 2003, p. 203; Pedersen et 
al. 2003, pp. 23-24; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 4-15; Schroeder et al. 
2004, p. 368; Leu et al. 2011, p. 267). Documented negative effects of 
fragmentation include reduced lek persistence, lek attendance, 
population recruitment, yearling and adult annual survival, female nest 
site selection, and nest initiation rates, as well as the loss of leks 
and winter habitat (Holloran 2005, p. 49; Aldridge and Boyce 2007, pp. 
517-523; Walker et al. 2007a, pp. 2651-2652; Doherty et al. 2008, p. 
194).
    We examined a number of factors that contribute to habitat decline. 
Habitat loss due to residential and infrastructural development 
(including roads and powerlines) is a current and future threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse range-wide. Due to habitat decline, the seven 
individual populations are now mostly isolated, with limited migration 
and gene flow among populations,

[[Page 69268]]

increasing the likelihood of population extirpations. Functional 
habitat loss also contributes to habitat decline as sage-grouse avoid 
areas due to human activities and noise, even when sagebrush remains 
intact. The collective disturbance from human activities around 
residences and infrastructure results in habitat decline that 
negatively impacts Gunnison sage-grouse survival. Human populations are 
increasing across the species' range, a trend expected to continue into 
the future. Resulting habitat decline is diminishing the probability of 
Gunnison sage-grouse survival and persistence, particularly in the 
satellite populations.
    Other habitat-related threats that are impacting Gunnison sage-
grouse include grazing practices inconsistent with local ecological 
conditions, fences, invasive plants, fire, mineral development, 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment, and large-scale water development 
and irrigation. The cumulative presence of all these features and 
activities constitutes a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse as they 
collectively contribute to habitat decline. In particular, the 
satellite populations are less resilient and more vulnerable to 
extirpation and environmental pressures including habitat loss and 
fragmentation (see discussion in Factor A analysis above and in the 
Factor E analysis below).
    Several issues discussed above, such as fire, invasive species, and 
pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment, may not currently have a substantial 
impact on Gunnison sage-grouse. For example, while it may be impacting 
individual birds or populations, pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment does 
not currently pose a threat to the species because of its limited 
distribution throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. However, the 
documented synergy among these three issues (pi[ntilde]on-juniper 
encroachment, fire and invasive species), results in a high likelihood 
that they will pose a threat to the species in the future. Nonnative 
invasive plants, including cheatgrass and other noxious weeds, continue 
to expand their range, facilitated by ground disturbances such as fire, 
grazing incompatible with local ecological conditions, and human 
infrastructure. Invasive plants negatively impact Gunnison sage-grouse 
primarily by reducing or eliminating native vegetation that sage-grouse 
require for food and cover, resulting in habitat decline (both direct 
and functional). Cheatgrass is present at varying levels in nearly all 
Gunnison sage-grouse population areas, but there has not yet been a 
demonstrated change in fire cycle in the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
However, climate change will likely alter the range of invasive plants, 
intensifying the proliferation of invasive plants to the point that 
they become a threat to the species. Even with aggressive treatments, 
invasive plants will likely persist and continue to spread throughout 
the range of Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Livestock management inconsistent with local ecological conditions 
has the potential to degrade sage-grouse habitat at local scales by 
causing the loss of nesting cover and decreases in native vegetation, 
and by increasing the probability of incursion of invasive plants. 
Given the widespread nature of grazing within the range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse, the potential for population-level impacts is probable. 
Effects of domestic livestock grazing inconsistent with local 
ecological conditions are likely being exacerbated by intense browsing 
of woody species by wild ungulates in parts of the Gunnison Basin. We 
conclude that habitat degradation that can result from grazing 
practices inconsistent with local ecological conditions is a threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    We do not consider nonrenewable energy development to be impacting 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat to the extent that it is a threat to the 
long-term persistence of the species at this time, because its current 
and anticipated extent is limited throughout the range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse. We do not consider renewable energy development to be a 
threat to the persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide at this 
time. However, geothermal and wind energy development could increase in 
the Gunnison Basin and Monticello areas, respectively, in the future.
    We recognize ongoing and proposed conservation efforts by all 
entities across the range of the Gunnison sage-grouse, and commend all 
parties for their vision and participation. Local communities, 
landowners, agencies, and organizations in Colorado and Utah have 
dedicated resources to Gunnison sage-grouse conservation and have 
implemented numerous conservation efforts. We encourage continued 
implementation of these efforts into the future to promote the 
conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse. Our review of conservation 
efforts indicates that the measures identified are not fully addressing 
the most substantial threats to Gunnison sage-grouse including habitat 
decline (Factor A), small population size and structure (Factor E), 
drought (Factor E), climate change (Factor A), and disease (Factor C). 
All of the conservation efforts are limited in size and the measures 
provided to us were not implemented at the scale (even when considered 
cumulatively) that would be required to effectively reduce the threats 
to the species and its habitat across its range. The Gunnison Basin 
CCA, for example, provides some protection for Gunnison sage-grouse on 
Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin, but does not cover the remaining, 
more vulnerable satellite populations. Similarly, the existing CCAA 
benefits Gunnison sage-grouse on participating lands, but does not 
provide sufficient coverage of the species' range to ensure the 
species' long-term conservation. Thus, although the ongoing 
conservation efforts are a positive step toward the conservation of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse, and some have likely reduced the severity of some 
threats to the species, on the whole we find that current conservation 
efforts are not sufficient to offset the full scope of threats to 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    We have evaluated the best scientific information available on the 
present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse's habitat or range. Based on the current and 
anticipated habitat threats identified above and their cumulative 
effects as they contribute to the overall decline of Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat, we have determined that the present or threatened 
destruction, modification, or curtailment of Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat poses a threat to the species throughout its range. This threat 
is substantial and current, and is projected to continue and increase 
into the future with additional anthropogenic pressures.
B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

Hunting

    Hunting for Gunnison sage-grouse is not currently permitted under 
Colorado and Utah law. Hunting was eliminated in the Gunnison Basin in 
2000 due to concerns with meeting Gunnison sage-grouse population 
objectives (Colorado Sage Grouse Working Group (CSGWG) 1997, p. 66). 
Hunting has not occurred in the other Colorado populations of Gunnison 
sage-grouse since 1995 when the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa area was closed 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 122). Utah has not allowed hunting of Gunnison sage-
grouse since 1989 according to GSRSC (2005, p. 82), or as early as the 
mid-1970's according to SJCWG (2000, p. 11).
    Both Colorado and Utah report they will consider hunting of 
Gunnison sage-grouse only if populations can be sustained (GSRSC 2005, 
pp. 5, 8, 229). The local Gunnison Basin working group plan calls for a 
minimum

[[Page 69269]]

population of 500 males (based on lek counts) before hunting would 
occur again (CSGWG 1997, p. 66). The minimum population level in the 
Gunnison Basin population has been exceeded in all years since 1996, 
except 2003 and 2004 (CDOW 2009d, pp. 18-19). However, the sensitive 
State regulatory status and potential political ramifications of 
hunting the species has precluded the States from opening a hunting 
season. If hunting does ever occur again, harvest will likely be 
restricted to only 5 to 10 percent of the fall population, and will be 
structured to limit harvest of females to the extent possible (GSRSC 
2005, p. 229). However, the ability of these measures to be implemented 
is in question, as adequate means to estimate fall population size have 
not been developed (Reese and Connelly 2011, pp. 110-111) and limiting 
female harvest may not be possible (WGFD 2004, p. 4; WGFD 2006, pp. 5, 
7).
    In 1992, a CPW effort to simplify hunting restrictions 
inadvertently opened the Poncha Pass area to sage-grouse hunting, and 
at least 30 grouse were harvested from this population. The area was 
closed to sage-grouse hunting the following year and has remained 
closed to hunting since (Nehring and Apa 2000, p. 3). One sage-grouse 
was known to be illegally harvested in 2001 in the Poncha Pass 
population (Nehring 2010, pers. comm.), but based on the best available 
information illegal harvest has not contributed to Gunnison sage-grouse 
population declines in either Colorado or Utah. We do not anticipate 
hunting to be opened in the Gunnison Basin or smaller populations for 
many years, if ever. Consequently, we do not consider hunting to be a 
threat to the species now or in the future.

Lek Viewing and Counts

    The Gunnison sage-grouse was designated as a new species in 2000 
(American Ornithologists' Union 2000, pp. 847-858), which has prompted 
a much increased interest by bird watchers to view the species on their 
leks (Pfister 2010, pers. comm.). Daily human disturbances on sage-
grouse leks could cause a reduction in mating, and some reduction in 
total production (Call and Maser 1985, p. 19). Human disturbance, 
particularly if additive to disturbance by predators, could reduce the 
time a lek is active, as well as reduce its size by lowering male 
attendance (Boyko et al. 2004, in GSRSC 2005, p. 125). Smaller lek 
sizes have been hypothesized to be less attractive to females, thereby 
conceivably reducing the numbers of females mating. Disturbance during 
the peak of mating also could result in some females not breeding 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 125). Furthermore, disturbance from lek viewing might 
affect nesting habitat selection by females (GSRSC 2005, p. 126), as 
leks are typically close to areas in which females nest. If females 
move to poorer quality habitat farther away from disturbed leks, nest 
success could decline. If chronic disturbance causes sage-grouse to 
move to a new lek site away from preferred and presumably higher 
quality areas, both survival and nest success could decline. Whether 
any or all of these have significant population effects would depend on 
timing and degree of disturbance (GSRSC 2005, p. 126).
    Throughout the range of Gunnison sage-grouse, public viewing of 
leks is limited by a general lack of knowledge of lek locations, 
seasonal road closures in some areas, and difficulty in accessing many 
leks. Furthermore, 52 of 109 active Gunnison sage-grouse leks occur on 
private lands, further limiting public access. The BLM closed a lek in 
the Gunnison Basin to viewing in the late 1990s due to declining 
population counts perceived as resulting from recreational viewing, 
although no scientific studies were conducted (BLM 2005a, p. 13; GSRSC 
2005, pp. 124, 126).
    The Waunita lek east of Gunnison is the only lek in Colorado 
designated by the CPW for public viewing (Waunita Watchable Wildlife 
Area) (CDOW 2009b, p. 86). Since 1998, a comparison of male counts on 
the Waunita lek versus male counts on other leks in the Doyleville zone 
show that the Waunita lek's male counts generally follow the same trend 
as the others (CDOW 2009d, pp. 31-32). In fact, in 2008 and 2009, the 
Waunita lek increased in the number of males counted along with three 
other leks, while seven leks decreased in the Doyleville zone (CDOW 
2009d, pp. 31-32). These data suggest that lek viewing on the Waunita 
lek has not impacted Gunnison sage-grouse attendance at leks. Two lek 
viewing tours per year are organized and led by UDWR on a privately 
owned lek in the Monticello population. The lek declined in males 
counted in 2009, but 2007 and 2008 had the highest counts for several 
years, suggesting that lek viewing is not impacting that lek either. 
Data collected by CPW on greater sage-grouse viewing leks also 
indicates that controlled lek visitation has not impacted greater sage-
grouse at the viewed leks (GSRSC 2005, p. 124).
    A lek viewing protocol has been developed and has largely been 
followed on the Waunita lek, likely reducing impacts to sage-grouse 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 125). During 2004-2009, the percentage of individuals 
or groups of people in vehicles following the Waunita lek viewing 
protocol in the Gunnison Basin ranged from 71 to 92 percent (CDOW 
2009b, pp. 86, 87; Magee et al. 2009, pp. 7, 10). Violations of the 
protocol, such as showing up after the sage-grouse started to display 
and creating noise, caused one or more sage-grouse to flush from the 
lek (CDOW 2009b, pp. 86, 87). Despite the protocol violations, the 
percentage of days from 2004 to 2009 that grouse were flushed by humans 
was relatively low, ranging from 2.5 percent to 5.4 percent (Magee et 
al. 2009, p. 10). The current lek viewing protocol includes regulations 
to avoid and minimize disturbance from photography, research, and 
education-related viewing; regulations and related information are 
provided to the public online (CDOW 2009b, p. 86; Gunnison County 
2013a, p. 127; CPW 2013, entire). Implementation of this protocol 
should preclude lek viewing from becoming a threat to this lek.
    The CPW and UDWR will continue to coordinate and implement lek 
counts to determine population levels. We expect annual lek viewing and 
lek counts to continue into the future. Lek counts may disturb 
individual birds. However, since the Waunita lek is open to viewers on 
a daily basis throughout the lekking season, and lek counters only 
approach an individual lek 2-3 times per season, all leks counted will 
receive lower disturbance from counters than the Waunita lek receives 
from public viewing, so we do not consider lek counts a threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations or the species.

Scientific Research and Related Conservation Efforts

    Overall, it is expected that scientific research and related 
conservation efforts by the States, such as translocation of Gunnison 
sage-grouse, have a net conservation benefit for the species, because 
they contribute to improved understanding of the species' conservation 
needs and may have helped to augment some of the satellite populations, 
likely contributing to their continued persistence. However, some 
unintended negative effects are known to occur in the process. Gunnison 
sage-grouse have been the subject of multiple scientific studies, some 
of which included capture and handling. Most field research has been 
conducted in the Gunnison Basin population, San Miguel Basin 
population, and Monticello portion of the Monticello-Dove Creek 
population. Between zero and seven percent mortality of handled adults 
or

[[Page 69270]]

juveniles and chicks has occurred during recent Gunnison sage-grouse 
studies where trapping and radio-tagging was done (Apa 2004, p. 19; 
Childers 2009, p. 14; Lupis 2005, p. 26; San Miguel Basin Gunnison 
Sage-grouse Working Group (SMBGSWG) 2009, p. A-10). For these studies 
combined, of 688 birds captured, 11 (1.6 percent) died (Table 11). 
Additionally, one radio-tagged hen was flushed off a nest during 
subsequent monitoring and did not return after the second day, 
resulting in the loss of 10 eggs (Ward 2007, p. 52). The CPW does not 
feel that these losses or disturbance are having significant impacts on 
the sage-grouse (CDOW 2009b, p. 29), and we agree with this assessment.

                         Table 11--Mortality of Gunnison Sage-Grouse From Recent Studies
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Total birds              Mortality
                                           handled/    --------------------------------
              Study focus                  captured/       Number of      % of total             Source
                                            studied       individuals        birds
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Habitat use, movement, survival of                 138               3             2.2  Apa 2004, p. 19.
 Gunnison sage-grouse in southwest
 Colorado.
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat use......         \a\ 336               7             2.1  Childers 2009, p. 14.
Summer ecology of Gunnison sage-grouse              14               1             7.1  Lupis 2005, p. 26.
Summary of CPW research projects in                200               0             0.0  SMBGSWG 2009, p. A-10.
 the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel
 populations from 2004 to 2009.
                                       ------------------------------------------------
    Total.............................             688              11             1.6  n/a.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ This figure includes 218 adults and 118 chicks captured; of these, 5 adults (2.3%) and 2 chicks (1.7%) died.

    Translocation of birds from the Gunnison Basin population has been 
used to augment some of the satellite populations and may contribute to 
their persistence. However, related to translocated birds, there are 
potential genetic and population viability concerns for the satellite 
(receiving) populations and the Gunnison Basin (source) population (see 
Small Population Size and Structure in Factor E). Trapping and 
translocation of Gunnison sage-grouse may also increase mortality 
rates, either due directly to capturing and handling, or indirectly 
(later in time) as a result of translocation to areas outside the 
individuals' natal (home) range.
    From the spring of 2000 to the spring 2013, CPW translocated a 
total of 300 radio-collared Gunnison sage-grouse from the Gunnison 
Basin population to the following satellite populations: Poncha Pass 
(41 birds), San Miguel Basin (Dry Creek Basin) (51 birds), Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa (93 birds), Dove Creek (42 birds), and Crawford (73 birds). During 
this time, CPW reported only four bird deaths associated with capture 
myopathy (muscle damage due to extreme exertion or stress associated 
with capture and transport), including two deaths in 2007 and two in 
2009 (CPW 2014c, entire). Excluding capture myopathy cases, data for 
birds with unknown fates (i.e., due to dropped or expired radio 
collars), and some of the more recent (2013) translocated birds, CPW 
has tracked the survival of 176 Gunnison sage-grouse translocated to 
date. Survival of all translocated birds to 12 months following 
translocation was higher in the spring (53.8 percent) than fall (39.6 
percent); higher for yearlings (55.4 percent) and juveniles (61.3 
percent) than adults (40.0 percent); and comparable for males (50.0 
percent) and females (48.8 percent). By population, survival to 12 
months was highest in Dove Creek (60 percent) and Crawford (59.6 
percent), followed by Pi[ntilde]on Mesa (40 percent), Dry Creek Basin 
(35.3 percent), and Poncha Pass (20.0 percent). Overall survival of 
translocated birds to 12 months was approximately 48 percent (CPW 
2013d, entire; Wait 2013, pers. comm.; CPW 2014c, entire). Therefore, 
about 50 percent of these translocated birds died within the first 12 
months following translocation, greater than the average annual 
mortality rate of non-translocated sage-grouse (approximately 20 
percent) (CDOW 2009b, p. 9). However, some birds with an unknown fate 
(e.g., a dropped radio collar with no sign of death) were assumed dead 
and, therefore, the data may overestimate actual mortality rates (Wait 
2013, pers. comm.).
    In the fall of 2013, an additional 17 Gunnison sage-grouse were 
translocated to the Poncha Pass population from the Gunnison Basin. As 
of January 2014, 10 of these birds were known to be surviving (Nehring 
2014, pers. comm.). In spring of 2014, 10 more birds were translocated 
to the Poncha Pass population from the Gunnison Basin (CPW 2014e, p. 
7). In the fall of 2013 and spring of 2014, CPW translocated 23 birds 
from the Gunnison Basin to the Miramonte subpopulation of the San 
Miguel population (CPW 2014e, p. 7). Survival data for these birds were 
not available upon the drafting of this final rule.
    Greater sage-grouse translocations have not fared any better than 
those of Gunnison sage-grouse. Over 7,200 greater sage-grouse were 
translocated between 1933 and 1990, but only five percent of the 
translocation efforts were considered to be successful in producing 
sustained, resident populations at the translocation sites (Reese and 
Connelly 1997, pp. 235-238, 240). More recent translocations from 2003 
to 2005 into Strawberry Valley, Utah, resulted in a 40 percent annual 
mortality rate (Baxter et al. 2008, p. 182). We believe the lack of 
success of translocations found in greater sage-grouse is applicable to 
Gunnison sage-grouse because the two species exhibit similar behavior 
and life-history traits, and translocations are also managed similarly.
    Because the survival rate for translocated sage-grouse has not been 
as high as desired, the CPW started a captive-rearing program in 2009 
to investigate techniques for captive breeding and rearing of chicks, 
and methods to release chicks into wild, surrogate broods, to 
potentially increase brood survival and recruitment (CDOW 2009b, pp. 9-
12). The GSRSC conducted a review of captive-rearing attempts for both 
greater sage-grouse and other gallinaceous birds and concluded that 
survival will be very low, unless innovative strategies are developed 
and tested (GSRSC 2005, pp. 181-183). However, greater sage-grouse have 
been reared in captivity, and survival of released chicks was similar 
to that of wild chicks (CDOW 2009b, p. 10). Consequently, the CPW 
started a captive-breeding project for Gunnison sage-grouse. After 
establishing a captive,

[[Page 69271]]

breeding flock, 78 domestically-reared chicks were introduced to wild 
Gunnison sage-grouse broods in 2010 and 2011 at two treatment ages. 
While survival of successfully-adopted, domestically-reared chicks was 
slightly lower than that of wild-reared chicks through 14 weeks, across 
both years none of the domestically-reared chicks were recruited into 
the breeding population (Wiechman 2014c, pers. comm.). Although 
introduced chick survival was relatively low, chick survival during 
captivity increased with improved protocols, and valuable knowledge on 
Gunnison sage-grouse rearing techniques has been gained (CPW 2011b). In 
another study, approximately 42 percent of captive-reared chicks 
introduced to wild females and their broods survived to 30 days of age. 
Of chicks that did not survive, 26.3 percent of chicks were lost due to 
predation, and 25.6 percent were lost due to exposure to the elements 
(Thompson 2012, pp. 29, 93).
    As techniques improve, the CPW intends to develop a captive-
breeding manual for Gunnison sage-grouse (CDOW 2009b, p. 11). Although 
adults or juveniles have been captured and moved out of the Gunnison 
Basin, as well as eggs, the removal of the grouse only accounts for a 
very small percentage of the total population of the Gunnison Basin 
sage-grouse population (less than 1 percent per year).
    The CPW has a policy regarding trapping, handling, and marking 
techniques approved by its Animal Use and Care Committee (SMBGSWG 2009, 
p. A-10, Childers 2009, p. 13). Evaluation of research projects by the 
Animal Use and Care Committee and improvement of trapping, handling, 
and marking techniques over the last several years has resulted in 
fewer mortalities and injuries. In fact, in the San Miguel Basin, 
researchers have handled more than 200 sage-grouse with no trapping 
mortalities (SMBGSWG 2009, p. A-10). The CPW has also drafted a sage-
grouse trapping and handling protocol, which is required training for 
people handling Gunnison sage-grouse, to minimize mortality and injury 
of the birds (CDOW 2002, pp. 1-4 in SMBWG 2009, pp. A-22-A-25). Injury 
and mortality does occasionally occur from trapping, handling, marking, 
and flushing off nests. However, research-related mortality is 
typically below two percent of handled birds (Table 11), indicating 
there is minimal effect on Gunnison sage-grouse at the population 
level.
    Overall, we find that ongoing and future scientific research and 
related conservation efforts provide a net conservation benefit for the 
species. Primarily due to handling, capture, and translocations, short-
term negative effects to individuals occur as does injury and 
mortality, but these effects do not pose a threat to Gunnison sage-
grouse populations or the species. Translocation of birds from the 
Gunnison Basin population has been used to augment some of the 
satellite populations and may have contributed to their persistence, 
albeit with potential genetic and population viability concerns for the 
receiving populations (see Genetic Risks), and for the Gunnison Basin 
(source) population (see Small Population Size and Structure in Factor 
E). Based on the best available information, scientific research and 
associated activities as described above have a relatively minor impact 
and are not a threat to the Gunnison sage-grouse.

Summary of Factor B

    We have no evidence to suggest that legal hunting resulted in the 
overutilization of Gunnison sage-grouse. However, Gunnison sage-grouse 
harvest from an inadvertently opened hunting season resulted in a 
significant population decrease in the small Poncha Pass population. 
Nevertheless, we do not expect hunting to be permitted in the near 
future. Illegal hunting has only been documented once in Colorado and 
is not a known threat in Colorado or Utah. Lek viewing has not affected 
the Gunnison sage-grouse, and lek viewing protocols designed to reduce 
disturbance have generally been followed. CPW is currently revising its 
lek viewing protocol to make it more stringent and to include 
considerations for photography, research, and education-related 
viewing. Mortality from scientific research and capture or handling of 
wild birds is low, generally less than 2 percent and is not a threat. 
We know of no overutilization for commercial or educational purposes. 
Thus, based on the best scientific and commercial data available, we 
conclude that overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, 
or educational purposes is not a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse.
C. Disease or Predation

Disease

    No research focusing on the types or pathology of diseases in 
Gunnison sage-grouse has been published. However, multiple bacterial 
and parasitic diseases have been documented in greater sage-grouse 
(Patterson 1952, pp. 71-72; Schroeder et al. 1999, pp. 14, 27). Some 
early studies have suggested that greater sage-grouse populations are 
adversely affected by parasitic infections (Batterson and Morse 1948, 
p. 22). However, the role of parasites or infectious diseases in 
population declines of greater sage-grouse is unknown based on the few 
systematic surveys conducted (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 10-3). No 
parasites have been documented to cause mortality in Gunnison sage-
grouse, but the protozoan, Eimeria spp., which causes coccidiosis, has 
been reported to cause death in greater sage-grouse (Connelly et al. 
2004, p. 10-4). Infections tend to be localized to specific geographic 
areas, and no cases of greater sage-grouse mortality resulting from 
coccidiosis have been documented since the early 1960s (Connelly et al. 
2004, p. 10-4).
    Parasites have been implicated in greater sage-grouse mate 
selection, with potentially subsequent effects on the genetic diversity 
of this species (Boyce 1990, p. 263; Deibert 1995, p. 38). These 
relationships may be important to the long-term ecology of greater 
sage-grouse, but they have not been shown to be significant to the 
immediate status of populations (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 10-6). 
Although diseases and parasites have been suggested to affect isolated 
sage-grouse populations (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 10-3), we have no 
evidence indicating that parasitic diseases are a threat to Gunnison 
sage-grouse populations.
    Greater sage-grouse are subject to a variety of bacterial, fungal, 
and viral pathogens. The bacterium Salmonella sp. has caused a single 
documented mortality in the greater sage-grouse and studies have shown 
that infection rates in wild birds are low (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 
10-7). The bacteria are apparently contracted through exposure to 
contaminated water supplies around livestock stock tanks (Connelly et 
al. 2004, p. 10-7). Other bacteria found in greater sage-grouse include 
Escherichia coli, botulism (Clostridium spp.), avian tuberculosis 
(Mycobacterium avium), and avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida). These 
bacteria have never been identified as a cause of mortality in greater 
sage-grouse and the risk of exposure and hence, population effects, is 
low (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 10-7 to 10-8). In Gunnison sage-grouse, 
domestically-reared chicks have died due to bacterial infections by 
Klebsiella spp., E. coli, and Salmonella spp. In one case (CDOW 2009b, 
p. 11), bacterial growth was encouraged by a wood-based brooder 
substrate used to raise chicks. However, in a subsequent study (CPW 
2011b, pp. 14-15) where the wood-based substrate was not used, similar 
bacterial infections and chick mortality still occurred. This was 
likely

[[Page 69272]]

a product of warm and potential moist substrates which promoted 
bacterial growth and spread. After switching to a gravel-based 
substrate and administering antibiotics, bacteria-related mortalities 
decreased. While this appears to suggest that Gunnison sage-grouse may 
be less resistant to bacterial infections than greater sage-grouse, 
most of the bacteria found can be present at non-lethal levels in wild 
Gunnison sage-grouse (Wiechman 2014a, pers. comm.). However, we have no 
information that shows the risk of exposure in the wild is different 
for Gunnison sage-grouse; therefore, these bacteria do not appear to be 
a threat to the species.
    To limit the risk of disease transmission from introduced avian 
species, Gunnison County's Land Use Resolution (LUR) Number 07-17 
regulates the importation of non-indigenous, gallinaceous game birds. 
This regulation requires that species only be imported from a source 
certified by the State of Colorado to be disease free (Gunnison County 
2013a, p. 130).
    West Nile virus was introduced into the northeastern United States 
in 1999 and has subsequently spread across North America (Marra et al. 
2004, p. 394). Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to West Nile 
virus (Clark et al. 2006, p. 19; McLean 2006, p. 54) and do not develop 
a resistance to the disease. Death is almost certain once an individual 
is infected with the disease (Clark et al. 2006, p. 18). Transmission 
occurs when mosquitoes acquire the virus by biting an infected bird, 
and then transfer it by feeding on a new host (avian or mammalian). 
Culex species are recognized as the most efficient mosquito vectors for 
West Nile virus (Turell et al. 2005, p. 60), and Culex tarsalis is the 
dominant vector of the virus in sagebrush habitats (Naugle et al. 2004, 
p. 711). West Nile virus transmission is regulated by multiple factors, 
including temperature, precipitation, biology of the mosquito vector 
(Turrell et al. 2005, pp. 59-60), and the presence of anthropogenic 
water sources, such as stock ponds and tanks, coal bed methane ponds, 
and irrigated agricultural fields that support mosquito life cycles 
(Reisen et al. 2006, p. 309; Walker and Naugle 2011, pp. 131-132). The 
peak of West Nile virus activity typically occurs in the summer from 
July through August, though this varies by region (Walker et al. 2004).
    In Gunnison sage-grouse range and other parts of the west, water 
sources are commonly developed to support livestock operations and 
improve animal distribution and forage use. Some water developments are 
designed specifically to benefit Gunnison sage-grouse, although this 
practice was recommended prior to our knowledge of West Nile virus as a 
serious risk factor for sage-grouse (Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 29) 
(see discussion below; also see discussion of the potential benefits of 
water development to Gunnison sage-grouse in Domestic Grazing and 
Wildlife Herbivory in Factor A above). The precise quantity and 
distribution of water developments in Gunnison sage-grouse range is 
unknown. However, we know that at least 87 percent of occupied Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat on Federal lands is currently grazed by domestic 
livestock (USFWS 2010c, entire), suggesting that water developments are 
common and widespread across the species range. A similar proportion of 
area on private lands is likely grazed by domestic livestock as well. 
It is expected that some of these water sources are contributing to the 
persistence of mosquito populations and, therefore, to the potential 
spread of West Nile virus across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Management or modification of water developments in sage-grouse 
habitats is one way to control mosquito vector populations and, 
therefore, sources of West Nile virus (Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 29, 
and references therein).
    The virus persists largely within a mosquito-bird-mosquito 
infection cycle (McLean 2006, p. 45). However, direct bird-to-bird 
transmission of the virus has been documented in several species 
(McLean 2006, pp. 54, 59), including the greater sage-grouse (Walker 
and Naugle 2011, p. 132; Cornish 2009, pers. comm.). The frequency of 
direct transmission has not been determined (McLean 2006, p. 54). Cold 
ambient temperatures preclude mosquito activity and virus 
amplification, so transmission to and in sage-grouse is limited to the 
summer (mid-May to mid-September) (Naugle et al. 2005, p. 620; Zou et 
al. 2007, p. 4), with a peak in July and August (Walker and Naugle 
2011, p. 131). Reduced and delayed West Nile virus transmission in 
sage-grouse has occurred in years with lower summer temperatures 
(Naugle et al. 2005, p. 621; Walker et al. 2007b, p. 694). In non-
sagebrush ecosystems, high temperatures associated with drought 
conditions increase West Nile virus transmission by allowing for more 
rapid larval mosquito development and shorter virus incubation periods 
(Shaman et al. 2005, p. 134; Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 131).
    Greater sage-grouse congregate in mesic (moist) habitats in the 
mid-late summer (Connelly et al. 2000, p. 971), thereby increasing 
their risk of exposure to mosquitoes. Likewise, Gunnison sage-grouse 
use more mesic habitats in the summer and early fall (GSRSC 2005, p. 
30, and references therein), increasing their exposure to mosquitoes. 
If West Nile virus outbreaks coincide with drought conditions that 
aggregate birds in habitat near water sources, the risk of exposure to 
West Nile virus will be elevated (Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 131). 
Greater sage-grouse inhabiting higher elevation sites in summer 
(similar to areas of the Gunnison Basin) are likely less vulnerable to 
contracting West Nile virus than birds at lower elevation (similar to 
Dry Creek Basin of the San Miguel population) as ambient temperatures 
are typically cooler at higher elevations (Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 
131).
    West Nile virus has caused population declines in wild bird 
populations on the local and regional scale (Walker and Naugle 2011, 
pp. 128-129) and has reduced the survival rates of greater sage-grouse 
(Naugle et al. 2004, p. 710; Naugle et al. 2005, p. 616). Experimental 
results, combined with field data, suggest that a widespread West Nile 
virus infection has negatively affected greater sage-grouse (Naugle et 
al. 2004, p. 711; Naugle et al. 2005, p. 616). As noted above, the 
selective use of mesic habitats by sage-grouse during the summer and 
fall increases their exposure to West Nile virus. Greater sage-grouse 
are highly susceptible to West Nile virus (Clark et al. 2006, p. 19; 
McLean 2006, p. 54) and do not develop a resistance to the disease. 
Death is certain once an individual is infected with the disease (Clark 
et al. 2006, p. 18). Furthermore, other gallinaceous bird species such 
as ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), 
and chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), have died as a result of West 
Nile virus infection (CDC 2013, entire).
    It is reasonable to assume the Gunnison sage-grouse is susceptible 
to West Nile virus based on the confirmed cases of infection and 
mortality in greater sage-grouse and other taxonomically related birds. 
We are also aware of at least 3 Gunnison sage-grouse dying of West Nile 
disease, although these birds were growing in captivity in Fort 
Collins, CO where the virus is more likely to be present (Wiechman 
2014b, pers. comm). To date, however, West Nile virus has not been 
documented in Gunnison sage-grouse despite the presence of West Nile 
virus across most of the species' range (see discussion below). This 
may be the result of the small number of birds marked and studied; 
limited local abundance of the principle mosquito vector species,

[[Page 69273]]

Culex; unsuitable conditions in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat for the 
virus to become virulent or widespread; or any number of other factors. 
West Nile virus activity within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse is 
apparently low compared to other parts of Colorado, Utah, and the 
western United States. However, West Nile virus surveillance may not 
occur every year or in every county (USGS 2013, entire), meaning that 
incidents likely go undetected. Furthermore, rural areas with smaller 
human populations, such as the majority of lands within Gunnison sage-
grouse range, may have decreased detection and reporting rates of avian 
mortalities, thus potentially biasing the modeled distribution of West 
Nile virus (Ward et al. 2006, p. 102).
    To date, across Gunnison sage-grouse occupied range, only San 
Miguel and Dolores, Counties in Colorado have no confirmed avian 
mortalities associated with West Nile virus, nor has the virus been 
reported in human or mosquito infection data in those counties. 
However, adjacent counties have confirmed West Nile virus presence, so 
the virus is potentially present in San Miguel and Dolores Counties as 
well. A total of 84 dead wild birds (species other than Gunnison sage-
grouse) infected by West Nile virus have been reported from nine 
counties within the current range of Gunnison sage-grouse since 2002, 
when reporting began in Colorado and Utah. These include Chaffee, 
Delta, Gunnison, Mesa, Montrose, Ouray, and Saguache Counties in 
Colorado; and Grand and San Juan Counties in Utah. Seventy and 14 of 
these bird deaths were reported in Colorado and Utah, respectively. 
Fifty-two (62 percent) of reported cases were in Mesa County where the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population is found. Also, the majority of reported 
cases were in Colorado counties (USGS 2013, entire; USFWS 2013a, 
entire). However, as noted above, areas with higher human population 
densities, such as Mesa County, Colorado, can result in increased 
detection and reporting rates, thus potentially biasing the modeled 
distribution of West Nile virus (Ward et al. 2006, p. 102). In Utah, 13 
(93 percent) avian mortality reports were in Grand County, and 1 (7 
percent) was in San Juan County. Sixty-four (76 percent) of the 84 
total reported bird mortalities in Colorado and Utah occurred in 2003 
and 2004, when summer temperatures were above average and, likely 
contributing to the spread of West Nile virus (Reisen et al. 2006, p. 
1). Since that time, reported avian mortalities associated with West 
Nile virus across the range of Gunnison sage-grouse have declined, and 
no avian infections or mortalities were reported from 2008 through 2012 
(USGS 2013, entire; USFWS 2013a, entire).
    A CPW study with the Colorado Mosquito Control Company in 2004 used 
mosquito trap monitoring to evaluate the relative risk of West Nile 
virus on Gunnison sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin. Trapping resulted 
in a total of 6,729 mosquitoes throughout the Gunnison Basin from June 
1 through August 30. Testing of mosquito samples conducted by the 
Colorado Department of Public Health observed nine species of mosquito, 
including Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of West Nile virus. 
However, the relative abundance of C. tarsalis was low, comprising 
about 15.8 percent of all samples collected. No other Culex species 
were observed. The other species observed are not known to be effective 
transmitters of West Nile virus to avian species. All mosquito samples 
tested negative for West Nile virus. Sixteen Gunnison sage-grouse were 
radiomarked by CPW during the same summer, and no mortalities of marked 
or unmarked birds were observed (Phillips 2013, p. 6). One avian 
mortality (a species other than Gunnison sage-grouse) due to West Nile 
infection was reported in Gunnison County in 2003 (USGS 2013, entire; 
USFWS 2013a, p. 1).
    Walker and Naugle (2011, p. 140) predict that West Nile virus 
outbreaks in small, isolated, and genetically depauperate populations 
could reduce sage-grouse numbers below a threshold from which recovery 
is unlikely because of limited or nonexistent demographic and genetic 
exchange from adjacent populations. If so, a West Nile virus outbreak 
in any Gunnison sage-grouse population, except perhaps the Gunnison 
Basin population, assuming it remains large and resilient, would 
challenge their survival.
    As described above, West Nile virus is present throughout most of 
the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Although the disease has not yet 
been documented in any Gunnison sage-grouse, it has caused large 
mortality events and has also caused the deaths of other gallinaceous 
birds including greater sage-grouse. Similar to observations in greater 
sage-grouse (Walker and Naugle 2011, p. 131), higher elevation 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse, such as the Gunnison Basin may be 
at lower risk of West Nile virus infection and outbreaks. Also, the 
frequency of avian mortalities (species other than sage-grouse) 
associated with the virus have apparently declined since 2004 across 
the range of Gunnison sage-grouse. However, increased temperature and 
drought conditions are expected to increase in the future due to 
climate change across the range (see Climate Change in Factor A). Such 
conditions will contribute to the prevalence and spread of West Nile 
virus and, therefore, the exposure of Gunnison sage-grouse to this 
disease. Therefore, due to the known presence of West Nile virus across 
the majority of Gunnison sage-grouse range, the high risk of mortality 
and population-level impacts based on the biology of the species, and 
the immediacy of those potential impacts, we conclude that West Nile 
virus is a future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide. The threat 
of West Nile virus is currently lower in the high elevation areas, such 
as the Gunnison Basin population, but is expected to increase in the 
foreseeable future due to increased drought and the predicted effects 
of climate change. No other diseases or parasitic infections are known 
to be a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse now or in the future.

Predation

    Predation is the most commonly identified cause of direct mortality 
for sage-grouse during all life stages (Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 9; 
Connelly et al. 2000b, p. 228; Connelly et al. 2011b, p. 66). However, 
sage-grouse have co-evolved with a variety of predators, and their 
cryptic plumage and behavioral adaptations have allowed them to persist 
despite this mortality factor (Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 10; Coates 
2008, p. 69; Coates and Delehanty 2008, p. 635; Hagen 2011, p. 96). 
Until recently, little published information has been available that 
indicates predation is a limiting factor for the greater sage-grouse 
(Connelly et al. 2004, p. 10-1), particularly where habitat quality has 
not been compromised (Hagen 2011, p. 96). Although many predators will 
consume sage-grouse, none specialize on the species (Hagen 2011, p. 
97). Generalist predators have the greatest effect on ground-nesting 
birds because predator numbers are independent of the density of a 
single prey source since they can switch to other prey sources when a 
given prey source is not abundant (Coates 2007, p. 4). We presume that 
the effects of predation observed in greater sage-grouse are similar to 
those anticipated in Gunnison sage-grouse since overall behavior and 
life-history traits are similar for the two species. However, as 
discussed below, those effects may be more substantial and of greater 
concern for smaller, declining populations, such as the six satellite 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse.

[[Page 69274]]

    Major predators of adult sage-grouse include many species including 
golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red foxes (Vulpes fulva), and 
bobcats (Felis rufus) (Hartzler 1974, pp. 532-536; Schroeder et al. 
1999, pp. 10-11; Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 25; Rowland and Wisdom 
2002, p. 14; Hagen 2011, p. 97). Juvenile sage-grouse also are killed 
by many raptors as well as common ravens (Corvus corax), badgers 
(Taxidea taxus), red foxes, coyotes (Canis latrans), and weasels 
(Mustela spp.) (Braun 1995, entire; Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 10). Nest 
predators include badgers, weasels, coyotes, common ravens, American 
crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos), magpies (Pica spp.), elk (Cervus 
canadensis) (Holloran and Anderson 2003, p. 309), and domestic cows 
(Bovus spp.) (Coates et al. 2008, pp. 425-426). Ground squirrels 
(Spermophilus spp.) also have been identified as nest predators 
(Patterson 1952, p. 107; Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 10; Schroder and 
Baydack 2001, p. 25), but recent data show that they are physically 
incapable of puncturing eggs (Holloran and Anderson 2003, p. 309; 
Coates et al. 2008, p. 426; Hagen 2011, p. 97). Several other small 
mammals visited sage-grouse nests in Nevada, but none resulted in 
predation events (Coates et al. 2008, p. 425).
    The most common predators of Gunnison sage-grouse eggs are weasels, 
coyotes, and corvids (Young 1994, p. 37). Most raptor predation of 
sage-grouse is on juveniles and older age classes (GSRSC 2005, p. 135). 
Golden eagles were found to be the dominant raptor species recorded 
perching on power poles in Utah in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
(Prather and Messmer 2009, p. 12), indicating a possible source of 
predation. In a study conducted from 2000 to 2009 in the western 
portion of the Gunnison Basin, 22 and 40 percent of 111 adult Gunnison 
sage-grouse mortalities were the result of avian and mammalian 
predation, respectively (Childers 2009, p. 7). Twenty-five and 35 
percent of 40 chick mortalities were caused by avian and mammalian 
predation, respectively (Childers 2009, p. 7). A causative agent of 
mortality was not determined in the remaining mortalities 
(approximately one-third of all known mortalities) in the western 
portion of the Gunnison Basin from 2000 to 2009 (Childers 2009, p. 7).
    Adult male Gunnison and greater sage-grouse are very susceptible to 
predation while on the lek (Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 10; Schroeder and 
Baydack 2001, p. 25; Hagen 2011, p. 5), presumably because they are 
conspicuous while performing their mating displays. Because leks are 
attended daily by numerous grouse, predators also may be attracted to 
these areas during the breeding season (Braun 1995, p. 2). In a study 
of greater sage-grouse mortality causes in Idaho, it was found that, 
among males, 83 percent of the mortality was due to predation and 42 
percent of those mortalities occurred during the lekking season (March 
through June) (Connelly et al. 2000b, p. 228). In the same study, 52 
percent of the mortality of adult females was due to predation and 52 
percent of those mortalities occurred between March and August, which 
includes the nesting and brood-rearing periods (Connelly et al. 2000b, 
p. 228).
    Predation of adult sage-grouse is low outside the lekking, nesting, 
and brood-rearing season (Connelly et al. 2000b, p. 230; Naugle et al. 
2004, p. 711; Moynahan et al. 2006, p. 1536; Hagen 2011, p. 97). Adult 
female greater sage-grouse are susceptible to predators while on the 
nest but mortality rates are low (Hagen 2011, p. 97). Greater sage-
grouse selected nest and brood-rearing sites with lower avian predator 
densities than nearby random locations (Dinkins et al. 2012, p. 605). 
Hens will abandon their nest when disturbed by predators (Patterson 
1952, p. 110), likely reducing this mortality (Hagen 2011, p. 97). 
Sage-grouse populations are likely more sensitive to predation upon 
females given the highly negative response of Gunnison sage-grouse 
population dynamics to adult female reproductive success and chick 
mortality (GSRSC, 2005, p. 173).
    Estimates of predation rates on juvenile sage-grouse are limited 
and variable due to the difficulties in studying this age class 
(Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 509; Hagen 2011, p. 97). For greater sage-
grouse, chick mortality from predation ranged from 10 to 51 percent in 
2002 and 2003 on three study sites in Oregon (Gregg et al. 2003, p. 15; 
2003b, p. 17). Mortality due to predation during the first few weeks 
after hatching was estimated to be 82 percent (Gregg et al. 2007, p. 
648). Survival of juveniles to their first breeding season was 
estimated to be low (10 percent). In northwest Colorado, mortality due 
to predation was estimated at 26.3 percent in captive reared greater 
sage-grouse chicks introduced to the wild (Thompson 2012, pp. 29, 93). 
Given the known sources and rates of adult mortality due to predation, 
it is reasonable to assume that predation is a contributor to the high 
juvenile mortality rates as well (Crawford et al. 2004, p. 4).
    Sage-grouse nests are subject to varying levels of predation. 
Predation can be total (all eggs destroyed) or partial (one or more 
eggs destroyed). However, hens abandon nests in either case (Coates, 
2007, p. 26). Over a 3-year period in Oregon, 106 of 124 nests (84 
percent) were preyed upon (Gregg et al. 1994, p. 164). Nest predation 
rates of 41 percent were reported in one study in Wyoming (Patterson 
1952, p. 104), while another study reported a predation rate of 12 
percent in Wyoming (Holloran and Anderson 2003, p. 309). Moynahan et 
al. (2007, p. 1777) attributed 131 of 258 (54 percent) of nest failures 
to predation in Montana. Re-nesting efforts may partially compensate 
for the loss of nests due to predation (Schroeder 1997, p. 938), but 
re-nesting rates for greater sage-grouse are highly variable (Connelly 
et al. 2011b, p. 63). Further, re-nesting rates are low in Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Young, 1994, p. 44; Childers, 2009, p. 7), indicating that 
re-nesting may not offset losses caused by predation. Loss of breeding 
hens and young chicks to predation can influence overall greater and 
Gunnison sage-grouse population numbers, as these two groups contribute 
most significantly to population productivity (GSRSC, 2005, p. 29, 
Baxter et al. 2008, p. 185; Connelly et al., 2011, pp. 64-65).
    Nesting success of greater sage-grouse is positively correlated 
with the presence of big sagebrush and grass and forb cover (Connelly 
et al. 2000, p. 971). Females actively select nest sites with these 
qualities (Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 25; Hagen et al. 2007, p. 
46). Nest predation appears to be related to the amount of herbaceous 
cover surrounding the nest (Gregg et al. 1994, p. 164; Braun 1995, pp. 
1-2; DeLong et al. 1995, p. 90; Braun 1998; Coggins 1998, p. 30; 
Connelly et al. 2000b, p. 975; Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 25; 
Coates and Delehanty 2008, p. 636). Therefore, loss of nesting cover 
from any source (e.g., grazing, fire) has the potential to reduce nest 
success and adult hen survival. Also, habitat alteration that reduces 
cover for young chicks can increase their rate of predation (Schroeder 
and Baydack 2001, p. 27). Conversely, Coates (2007, p. 149) found that 
badger predation was facilitated by nest cover as it attracts small 
mammals, a badger's primary prey.
    In a review of published nesting studies, Connelly et al. (2011, 
pp. 63-64) reported that nesting success was greater in unaltered 
habitats versus habitats affected by anthropogenic activities. Where 
habitat has been altered, it has been shown that the associated influx 
of predators can decrease annual recruitment of greater sage-grouse 
(Gregg et al. 1994, p. 164;

[[Page 69275]]

DeLong et al. 1995, p. 91; Coates 2007, p. 2;), and the same cause-
effect relationship has been speculated in other cases as well 
(Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 28; Braun 1995, pp. 1-2; Braun 1998; 
Hagen 2011, pp. 97-98). Agricultural development, landscape 
fragmentation, and human populations can increase predation pressure on 
all life stages of greater sage-grouse by forcing birds to nest in less 
suitable or marginal habitats, increasing travel time through altered 
habitats where they are vulnerable to predation, and increasing the 
diversity and density of predators (see further discussion below) 
(Ritchie et al. 1994, p. 125; Schroeder and Baydack 2001, p. 25; 
Connelly et al. 2004, p. 7-23; and Summers et al. 2004, p. 523; GSRSC 
2005, p.135). We believe the above information for greater sage-grouse 
is also applicable to Gunnison sage-grouse since overall behavior and 
life-history traits are similar between the two species (Young 1994, p. 
4).
    In the Strawberry Valley of Utah, a high density of red fox 
contributed to historically low survival rates of female (30 percent) 
and male (29.7 percent) greater sage-grouse. The authors speculated 
that the high density of red foxes were attracted to the area by 
Strawberry Reservoir and associated anthropogenic activities (Bambrough 
et al. 2000, p. 1). The red fox population has apparently increased 
within the Gunnison Basin (BLM, 2009, p. 37), and the species was only 
recently observed in habitat within the Monticello, Utah, population 
area (UDWR 2011, p. 4). In addition to wild predators, domestic species 
including dogs (Canis domesticus) and cats (Felis domesticus) have been 
introduced by ranches, farms, and housing developments into greater 
sage-grouse habitats (Connelly et al. 2004, p. 12-2).
    Raven abundance has increased as much as 1,500 percent in some 
areas of western North America since the 1960s (Coates 2007, p. 5). 
Breeding bird survey trends from 1966 to 2007 indicate increases 
throughout Colorado and Utah (USGS, 2009, pp. 1-2). The presence of 
ravens was negatively associated with greater sage-grouse nest and 
brood success in western Wyoming (Bui 2009, p. 27). It was suggested 
that raven numbers have increased in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population, 
though data have not been collected to verify this (CDOW 2009b, p. 
110). Raven numbers in the Monticello population area remain high (UDWR 
2011, p. 4).
    Local attraction of ravens to nesting hens may be facilitated by 
loss and fragmentation of native shrublands, which increases the 
exposure of nests to predators (Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 522; Bui 
2009, p. 32; Howe et al. 2014, p. 41-44). Human-made structures in the 
environment increase the effect of raven predation, particularly in low 
canopy cover areas, by providing ravens with perches (Braun 1998, pp. 
145-146; Coates 2007, p. 155; Bui 2009, p. 2; Howe et al. 2014, p. 41-
44) (also see discussion under Factor A above). Reduction in patch size 
and diversity of sagebrush habitat, as well as the construction of 
fences, powerlines, and other infrastructure, also are likely to 
encourage the presence of the common raven (Coates et al. 2008, p. 426; 
Bui 2009, p. 4; Howe et al. 2014, p. 44). For example, raven counts 
have increased by approximately 200 percent along the Falcon-Gondor 
transmission line corridor in Nevada (Atamian et al. 2007, p. 2). 
Ravens contributed to lek disturbance events in the areas surrounding 
the transmission line (Atamian et al. 2007, p. 2), but as a cause of 
decline in surrounding sage-grouse population numbers, this could not 
be separated from other potential impacts, such as West Nile virus. 
Holloran (2005, p. 58) attributed increased sage-grouse nest predation 
to high corvid abundance, which resulted from anthropogenic food and 
perching subsidies in areas of natural gas development in western 
Wyoming. Bui (2009, p. 31) also found that ravens used road networks 
associated with oil fields in the same Wyoming location for foraging 
activities. Holmes (2009, pp. 2-4) also found that common raven 
abundance increased in association with oil and gas development in 
southwestern Wyoming.
    Raven abundance was strongly associated with sage-grouse nest 
failure in northeastern Nevada, with resultant negative effects on 
sage-grouse reproduction (Coates 2007, p. 130). The presence of high 
numbers of predators within a sage-grouse nesting area may negatively 
affect sage-grouse productivity without causing direct mortality. 
Increased raven abundance was associated with a reduction in the time 
spent off the nest by female sage-grouse, thereby potentially 
compromising their ability to secure sufficient nutrition to complete 
the incubation period (Coates 2007, pp. 85-98). Another model utilized 
known raven nest locations and found a 31 percent decrease in the odds 
of nesting by ravens for every 1-km increase in distance from a 
transmission line (Howe et al. 2014), indicating that the presence of 
transmission lines may increase the presence of and risk of predation 
by ravens in sage-grouse habitat.
    As more suitable grouse habitat is converted to exurban 
development, agriculture, or other non-sagebrush habitat types, grouse 
nesting and brood-rearing become increasingly spatially restricted (Bui 
2009, p. 32). Future human population growth and associated development 
and infrastructure will likely further restrict nesting habitat within 
the species' range. Additionally, Gunnison sage-grouse have been shown 
to avoid residential development and infrastructure in some areas, 
resulting in functional habitat loss (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 402). Of 
99 nest sites studied in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin 
population, 69 (approximately 70 percent) occurred within 13 percent of 
the available habitat (Aldridge et al. 2012, p. 400). Unnaturally high 
nest densities, which result from habitat fragmentation or disturbance 
associated with the presence of edges, fencerows, or trails, may 
increase predation rates by making foraging easier for predators 
(Holloran 2005, p. C37). Increased nest density could negatively 
influence the probability of a successful hatch (Holloran and Anderson, 
2005, p. 748).
    The influence of the human footprint in sagebrush ecosystems may be 
underestimated (Leu and Hanser 2011, pp. 270-271) since it is uncertain 
how much more habitat sage-grouse (a large landscape-scale species) 
need for persistence in increasingly fragmented landscapes (Connelly et 
al. 2011a, pp. 80-82). Therefore, the influence of ravens and other 
predators associated with human activities may be underestimated. In 
addition, nest predation may be higher, more variable, and have a 
greater impact on the small, fragmented Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations, particularly the six smallest populations (GSRSC 2005, p. 
134).
    Except for the few studies presented here, data that link Gunnison 
sage-grouse population numbers and predator abundance are limited. 
Still, in at least the six smaller populations, the best available 
information suggests that predation may be limiting Gunnison sage-
grouse survival and persistence. The lack of recruitment in the San 
Miguel population may be associated with predation (CDOW 2009b, p. 31; 
Davis 2012, p. 162). In this area, six of 12 observed nests were 
destroyed by predation. None of the chicks from the remaining 
successful nests survived beyond two weeks. Those observations are in 
contrast to the Gunnison Basin where approximately 20 percent of radio-
marked chicks survived their first year during that period. Further, 
trends in lek count and other data indicate there has been no 
recruitment of young into the San Miguel population since

[[Page 69276]]

around 2005. The CPW suspects these trends are most likely due to 
predation (CDOW 2009b, p. 30-31; Davis 2012, pp. 37, 79). The other 
five satellite populations are smaller than the San Miguel population; 
therefore, it is reasonable to expect that predation may be limiting 
those populations as well.

Actions To Address Predation

    Due to low population numbers and the potential impact of 
predation, a predator control program initiated by CPW occurred between 
March 2011 and June 2012 in the Miramonte subpopulation area of the San 
Miguel population to evaluate the effects of predator removal on 
Gunnison sage-grouse juvenile recruitment in the subpopulation (CPW 
2012b, pp. 8-10). Over the two-year period, the United States 
Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 
removed 155 coyotes, 101 corvids, two bobcats, eight badgers, two 
raccoons, and three red foxes. Radio-marked hens, nest success, and 
chick survival were monitored during this time, and results were 
compared to baseline data collected for the same area from 2007 to 
2010. Prior to predator control, of eight marked chicks, no individuals 
survived to 3 months. From 2011 through August of 2012, during which 
predator control occurred, of 10 marked chicks, four (40 percent) 
chicks survived to three months, and two (20 percent) survived at least 
one year. The study did not compare chick survival rates to non-
predator removal areas, so it is unknown whether the apparent increase 
in chick survival was due to predator control or other environmental 
factors (e.g., weather, habitat conditions, etc.).
    Predator removal efforts have sometimes shown short-term gains that 
may benefit fall populations, but not breeding population sizes (Cote 
and Sutherland 1997, p. 402; Hagen 2011, pp. 98-99; Leu and Hanser 
2011, p. 270). Predator removal may have greater benefits in areas with 
low habitat quality, but predator numbers quickly rebound without 
continual control (Hagen 2011, p. 99). Red fox removal in Utah appeared 
to increase adult greater sage-grouse survival and productivity, but 
the study did not compare these rates against other nonremoval areas, 
so inferences are limited (Hagen 2011, p. 98).
    Coyote control efforts failed to have an effect on greater sage-
grouse nesting success in southwestern Wyoming (Slater 2003, p. 133). 
However, coyotes may not be an important predator of sage-grouse. In a 
coyote prey base analysis, sage-grouse and bird egg shells made up a 
very small percentage (0.4-2.4 percent) of analyzed scat samples 
(Johnson and Hansen 1979, p. 954). Additionally, coyote removal can 
have unintended consequences resulting in the release of smaller 
predators, like the red fox, many of which may have more negative 
impacts on sage-grouse (Mezquida et al. 2006, p. 752).
    Removal of ravens from an area in northeastern Nevada caused only 
short-term reductions in raven populations (less than 1 year), as 
apparently transient birds from neighboring sites repopulated the 
removal area (Coates 2007, p. 151). Additionally, badger predation 
appeared to partially compensate for decreases due to raven removal 
(Coates 2007, p. 152). In their review of literature regarding 
predation, Connelly et al. (2004, p. 10-1) noted that only two of nine 
studies examining survival and nest success indicated that predation 
had limited a sage-grouse population by decreasing nest success, and 
both studies indicated low nest success due to predation was ultimately 
related to poor nesting habitat. It has been suggested that removal of 
anthropogenic ``subsidies'' (e.g., landfills, tall structures) may be 
an important step to reducing the presence of sage-grouse predators 
(Bui 2009, pp. 36-37). Leu and Hanser (2011, p. 270) also argue that 
reducing the effects of predation on sage-grouse can only be 
effectively addressed by precluding these features.
    In 1999, property was transferred from the BLM to Gunnison County 
for the purposes of the Gunnison County Landfill. This conveyance 
required implementation of a mitigation plan for potential impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse, including establishment of a mitigation fund 
known as the Gunnison Sage-grouse Conservation Trust. To date, over 
$250,000 has been allocated from the trust fund for Gunnison sage-
grouse projects in occupied habitat in Gunnison County. Projects 
include, but are not limited to, habitat improvements, conservation 
easements, road closures, and outreach and education (Gunnison County 
2013a, pp. 147-150). Gunnison County has actively controlled ravens at 
the Gunnison County Landfill since 2003. Between 200 and 250 ravens are 
removed annually within the landfill boundaries. Further efforts to 
control ravens in the Gunnison Basin are under consideration by the 
county and the Gunnison Basin Sage-grouse Strategic Committee (Gunnison 
County 2013a, p. 132). The effects of these control efforts on Gunnison 
sage-grouse survival have not been studied.
    Gunnison County and CPW have jointly funded an ongoing study (Magee 
2013, pers. comm.) of the distribution and abundance of ravens and 
crows (corvids), which may help inform managers of the potential 
influence of these species in the Gunnison Basin. Of twelve survey 
sites in the Gunnison Basin, the site most used by ravens was the 
Gunnison County Landfill. Preliminary distribution and abundance data 
indicate that a large number of ravens are utilizing the landfill as 
their primary food source (Magee 2013, pers. comm.). Additional 
information from surveys during spring and early summer of 2014 may 
provide information on raven use of sagebrush habitats during the sage-
grouse breeding and nesting season when Gunnison sage-grouse are more 
vulnerable to predation. Evaluating raven predation on Gunnison sage-
grouse was not an objective of this study. However, preliminary data on 
raven abundance, spatial and temporal distribution, and movements 
suggest that ravens are not preying on Gunnison sage-grouse as primary 
food source in the Gunnison Basin. Planned spring and early summer 
surveys may indicate otherwise, but the results of these surveys were 
not available at the time of drafting of this final rule.

Summary of Predation

    Due to the extent of human influence and alteration of habitat 
across its range, Gunnison sage-grouse may be increasingly subject to 
levels and impacts of predation that would not normally occur in the 
historically contiguous, intact sagebrush habitats, or in larger, more 
resilient populations. Gunnison sage-grouse are adapted to minimize 
predation through cryptic plumage and behavior, however predation is 
strongly influenced by anthropogenic factors on the landscape, and 
human presence on the landscape will continue to increase. The impacts 
of predation on greater sage-grouse can increase where habitat quality 
has been compromised by anthropogenic activities (exurban development, 
road development, powerlines, etc.) (e.g., Coates 2007, pp. 154, 155; 
Bui 2009, p. 16; Hagen 2011, p. 100; Howe et al. 2014, p. 41-44). 
Landscape fragmentation and habitat decline associated with human 
populations have the potential to increase predator populations through 
increasing the ease of securing prey and subsidizing food sources and 
nest or den substrate for predators. Consequently, otherwise suitable 
habitat may change into a habitat sink (habitat in which reproduction 
is insufficient to balance

[[Page 69277]]

mortality) for grouse populations (Aldridge and Boyce 2007, p. 517).
    Anthropogenic influences on sagebrush habitats that increase 
suitability for ravens may also limit sage-grouse populations (Bui 
2009, p. 32). Current land-use practices in the Intermountain West 
favor high predator (in particular, raven) abundance relative to 
historical numbers (Coates et al. 2008, p. 426). The interaction 
between changes in habitat and predation may have substantial effects 
to sage-grouse at the landscape level (Coates 2007, pp. 3-5; Howe et 
al. 2014, p. 41-44).
    Research and data linking predation to Gunnison sage-grouse 
abundance and viability are limited. However, the studies presented 
above suggest that, particularly in areas of intensive habitat 
alteration and fragmentation and in smaller less resilient populations, 
sage-grouse productivity and, potentially, population viability could 
be negatively affected by predation. Since the Gunnison and greater 
sage-grouse have similar behavior and life-history traits, it is 
reasonable to assume that predator impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse are 
similar to those documented in greater sage-grouse. As more habitats 
are altered or lost due to human development, including dispersed 
development, we expect predators to spread and increase in numbers into 
the future, thereby increasing the risk of predation. Ongoing effects 
from predation are likely greater in the smaller satellite populations, 
and will likely increase if these populations continue declining in 
abundance. Therefore, the best available information indicates that, as 
we stated in our proposed rule, predation is a current and future 
threat to the species, particularly in the satellite populations. While 
predation likely acts as a threat in localized areas across the range 
of the species, the stability of the Gunnison Basin population over the 
last 19 years indicates that predation is not having a significant 
impact on that population. We believe, however, that the effects of 
predation are more pronounced in the satellite populations. Given the 
stability of the Gunnison Basin population, we do not believe that the 
magnitude of this threat is significant at the rangewide level.

Summary of Factor C

    We have reviewed the available information on the effects of 
disease and predation on the long-term persistence of the Gunnison 
sage-grouse. The only disease that is known to be a threat to the 
survival of the Gunnison sage-grouse is West Nile virus. This virus is 
distributed throughout most of the species' range. However, despite its 
near 100 percent lethality, disease occurrence is sporadic in other 
taxa across the species' range and has not yet been detected in 
Gunnison sage-grouse. While we have no evidence of West Nile virus 
acting on Gunnison sage-grouse individuals or populations, because of 
its presence within the species' range, its lethality to sage-grouse, 
and the continued development of anthropogenic water sources in the 
area that support mosquito vector populations, the virus is a future 
threat to the species. We anticipate that West Nile virus will persist 
within the range of Gunnison sage-grouse indefinitely and that the 
threat it presents will be exacerbated by any factor (e.g., drought, 
climate change) that increases ambient temperatures and the presence of 
the vector on the landscape.
    The best available information shows that existing and future 
habitat decline, and fragmentation in particular, will increase the 
effects of predation on this species, particularly in the six smaller 
populations, resulting in a reduction in sage-grouse productivity and 
abundance in the future.
    We evaluated the best available scientific information regarding 
disease and predation and their effects on the Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Based on the information available, we have determined that predation 
and disease are threats to the species throughout its range at the 
present time and are likely to increase in the future. In particular, 
West Nile virus poses a substantial threat to Gunnison sage-grouse 
rangewide in the foreseeable future.
D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms
    Under this factor, we examine whether threats to the Gunnison sage-
grouse are adequately addressed by existing regulatory mechanisms. 
Existing regulatory mechanisms that can provide some protection for 
Gunnison sage-grouse include: (1) Local land use laws, regulations and 
ordinances; (2) State laws and regulations; and (3) Federal laws and 
regulations. Regulatory mechanisms, if they exist, may preclude the 
need for listing if such mechanisms adequately address the threat to 
the species such that listing is not warranted. Conversely, threats to 
a species may be exacerbated when not addressed at all by existing 
regulatory mechanisms, or if the existing mechanisms are not adequately 
implemented or enforced.
    Multiple partners, including private citizens, nongovernmental 
organizations, Tribes, Counties, States, and Federal agencies, are 
engaged in conservation efforts across the range of Gunnison sage-
grouse. Conservation efforts by these parties that are voluntary or are 
not enforceable, however, including conservation strategies and 
guidance, are typically not regulatory mechanisms. Non-regulatory 
conservation efforts that address habitat related issues, such as the 
Rangewide Conservation Plan, the Colorado CCAA and the Gunnison Basin 
CCA, are described and evaluated under Factor A, and other non-
regulatory conservation efforts are described and assessed under 
relevant threat sections. In this section, pursuant to Factor D, we 
review and evaluate only regulatory mechanisms undertaken by local, 
State, and Federal entities designed to reduce or remove threats to 
Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat.

Local Laws and Regulations

    Approximately 43 percent of Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide occupied 
habitat is privately owned (Table 1), and local laws and regulations 
are most applicable in those areas. Local laws and regulations vary 
widely by county across Gunnison sage-grouse range. Below we first 
broadly address general county regulations that have the potential to 
affect Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat and then move on to local 
laws and regulations that specifically address Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Under state law, all county governments have general authority to 
regulate land use development in their jurisdictions through the 
implementation of comprehensive or master plans, zoning, and 
subdivision planning (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  30-28-101 et seq.; Utah 
2011, entire), and to protect wildlife habitat through enforcement of 
wildlife-related regulations or requirements (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  
24-65.1-104; Utah Code Sec.  17-27a-403). Local laws and regulations 
enacted pursuant to this authority may benefit Gunnison sage-grouse 
depending on the regulations adopted in a particular county and the 
degree to which threats to Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat are 
considered and addressed in these local regulations.
    By statute, the State of Colorado grants Colorado counties broad 
authority for planning and regulation of land use and development in 
their respective jurisdictions (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  30-28-101 et. 
seq.). This law provides that whenever local land use regulations 
impose higher standards than other statutes, the provisions of the 
regulations made under local authority (i.e., county planning) shall 
apply (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  30-28-123). Furthermore, Colorado law 
authorizes local

[[Page 69278]]

governments to plan for and regulate land uses in order to protect 
significant wildlife habitat and species (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  30-29-
104).
    In our proposed rule, we reported that Colorado law exempts parcels 
of land that are 35 acres or larger from county land use regulations 
(78 FR 2523). This is only partially correct. Under Colorado law, a 
county does not have authority to regulate the subdivision of land that 
creates parcels that are each 35 acres or larger (``plus-35 acre 
parcels'') (Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec.  30-28-101(10)(b)). However, Colorado 
counties retain authority to regulate the actual use and development of 
plus-35 acre parcels (for example, home, road, or infrastructure 
development). All Colorado counties in the occupied range of Gunnison 
sage-grouse have land use regulations that apply to development of 
plus-35 acre parcels (Delta County 2013-R-025; Dolores County policy on 
subdivisions exemptions; Gunnison County 95-34; Mesa County 31; 
Montrose County 45-2012, 02-2013, 24-2013, 14-2006; Ouray County 2013-
022; Saguache County 2013-LU-11; San Juan County Utah Statute Summary; 
San Miguel Article 1). Similarly, the State of Utah grants County 
governments, including San Juan County, which encompasses the 
Monticello population of Gunnison sage-grouse, authority to regulate 
and control property (i.e., zoning) and development (Utah 2011, 
entire).
    County or city ordinances in San Juan County, Utah, that address 
agricultural lands, transportation, and zoning for various types of 
land uses have the potential to affect sage-grouse habitat, behavior, 
and abundance. Similarly, general, non-sage-grouse specific local land 
use codes and permitting requirements in the Colorado portion of the 
species' range can affect development in occupied habitat and thus have 
implications for the species and its habitat. We do not, however, have 
sufficient information about implementation of general local land use 
laws and regulations to determine what uses, if any, have been modified 
pursuant to these general authorities to avoid or lessen impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that such 
general county land use codes and regulations within Gunnison sage-
grouse occupied habitat constitute adequate regulatory mechanisms to 
reduce the threats to the species. (Local land use regulations specific 
to Gunnison sage-grouse are discussed individually and separately 
below.)
    Many Colorado counties within Gunnison sage-grouse range have 
requirements for County review of development proposals, which may 
include generic ``1041'' wildlife habitat regulations, requiring review 
and/or coordination with CPW/UDWR for new subdivision and development 
requests in sensitive wildlife habitat (Delta County 2011-R-054. 2012-
R-044, 2013-R-025; Delta County 2011-R-054; Dolores County land use 
regulations; Mesa County 7.6.4; Ouray County 6, 25, and site 
development permit; Saguache County Article XX). However, we do not 
have sufficient information to determine whether and how these general 
wildlife habitat regulations have been applied to Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat, what recommendations may have been made by CPW/UDWR regarding 
the avoidance of impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse under these non-sage-
grouse specific regulations, and how or if the counties incorporated 
any such recommendations in their land use authorization. Therefore, we 
cannot conclude that the generic county requirements to consult with 
state wildlife agencies for actions that occur within sensitive 
wildlife habitat constitute adequate regulatory mechanisms to reduce 
the threats to the species. (Again, wildlife habitat regulations 
specific to Gunnison sage-grouse are discussed separately below.)
    Several counties without specific land use regulations directed at 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat conservation do have regulations that 
contain restrictions that may benefit the species. These measures may 
include control of dogs, seasonal road closures, or requirements for 
clustering housing units within subdivisions. Specifically, San Juan 
County, Utah, and Gunnison, San Miguel, Mesa, and Montrose Counties, 
Colorado include regulations to control dogs from roaming freely and 
Dolores, Gunnison, Mesa, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties have 
regulations that apply to road closures (CPW 2014g; Appendix A).
    Counties within Gunnison sage-grouse range with regulations or 
policies that include conservation measures or considerations 
specifically targeted at Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat include 
Dolores, Gunnison, Montrose, Ouray, and San Miguel Counties, Colorado 
(Dolores County 05-13-04; Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 33-57; Gunnison 
County 2013b, p. 11; Gunnison County 11-106, 07-17 and 2013-23; 
Gunnison County 2014-24; Montrose County 2013, entire; Montrose County 
39-2013; Ouray County 2013-022; San Miguel County land use code, 2-16, 
5-407, 5-26; San Miguel County Wright's Mesa Zone Districts), as 
described below. We anticipate that land use regulations designed 
specifically for Gunnison sage-grouse will typically be more effective 
in conserving the species and its habitat than the standard regulations 
described above that do not address the species specifically.
Gunnison County Sage-Grouse Regulations (Gunnison Basin Population)
    The Gunnison Basin population is located in Gunnison and Saguache 
County, Colorado. Gunnison County has adopted specific regulations to 
further the conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat 
(Gunnison County Land Use Resolution (LUR) Sec.  11.106 including 
amendments 07-17 and 2013-23). Approximately 79 percent of private 
lands in occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin population is in 
Gunnison County, and is thereby subject to those regulations. The 
remaining 21 percent of private lands in the Gunnison Basin population 
is in Saguache County, which does not currently have similar species-
specific regulations in place, although Saguache County is working to 
develop species-specific criteria (CPW 2014g, Attachment 3, Appendix 
A).
    Gunnison County's Land Use Resolution (LUR) 11.106 was adopted in 
1977 and broadly provides for the regulation of land uses in sensitive 
wildlife habitat areas. In 2007, Gunnison County Board of County 
Commissioners approved Resolution Number 07-17, which amended LUR 
11.106, to create a review process and protective standards specific to 
Gunnison sage-grouse. In 2013, Gunnison County further amended LUR 
Sec.  11.106 to incorporate use of the Gunnison Basin Sage Grouse 
Habitat Prioritization Tool, a GIS model developed by the Gunnison 
Basin Sage-grouse Strategic Committee in 2012 that first stratifies or 
values Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (largely based on distances to 
leks) and then discounts the value of the habitat based on soils, and 
on distance to developed areas including structures, roads, and power 
lines. This process stratifies occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin 
into three types (Gunnison County 2013a, Appendix G; see detailed 
description under Local Laws and Regulations, Gunnison County). Tier 1 
habitat includes important seasonal habitats and is considered the 
highest value for the species; Tier 2 habitat includes the remainder of 
occupied habitat in the Gunnison Basin that is closer to structures, 
roads, and power lines, and is generally of lower value to the species. 
Occupied habitat that does not stratify into Tier 1 or Tier 2 is not 
considered Gunnison sage-grouse

[[Page 69279]]

habitat under Gunnison County's sage-grouse regulations. CPW telemetry 
data from 2004 to 2010 for approximately 500 collared Gunnison sage-
grouse in the Gunnison Basin showed that, of 10,140 radio locations in 
Saguache and Gunnison County, approximately 79.63 percent (8,074) and 
15.65 percent (1,587) points occurred in Tier 1 habitat and Tier 2 
habitats, respectively (including all occupied habitat in the Gunnison 
Basin regardless of ownership) (Gunnison County 2013b, p. 25; Gunnison 
County 2013d, p. 1). This indicates a preference for modeled Tier 1 
habitats by the Gunnison Basin birds and supports the model's 
reliability.
    As amended, Gunnison County LUR Sec.  11.106 requires the County to 
review applications for land use change permits, building permits, 
individual sewage disposal system permits, Gunnison County access 
permits, and Gunnison County Reclamation permits (Gunnison County 
Public Works Department 2014a, 2014b; subject to some exceptions) 
specifically for potential impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse and occupied 
habitat. If the activity to be permitted is located wholly or partially 
in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat identified pursuant to the Habitat 
Prioritization Tool, then the County performs a site-specific analysis 
and works with the applicant to ensure that the project meets the 
County's sage-grouse specific and other wildlife protective standards 
for such development (LUR Sec.  11.106.G-11.106.J). In general, these 
standards direct that covered land use activities and projects be 
designed to avoid, minimize, and/or mitigate impacts on the species and 
its habitat. According to Gunnison County, standard avoidance and 
minimization measures included in permits subject to LUR Sec.  11.106 
include restrictions on pets and animals and on the siting and timing 
of construction, adjustment of building envelopes, and other 
recommendations (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 24-31). Mitigation 
techniques as defined and used by Gunnison County include visual and 
sound buffers, limitation of human activities during sensitive time 
periods, and controls on the location of development. Gunnison County's 
use of the term ``mitigation'' thus differs from the Service's 
definition of this term, which is the full suite of activities to 
avoid, minimize, and compensate for adverse impacts to sage-grouse and 
sage-grouse habitat.
    From July 2006 through September 2014, Gunnison County reviewed 461 
projects under Sec.  11.106 for impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Gunnison County reports that, to date, the majority of development 
projects have been located within existing areas of development, 
including outbuildings or additions to buildings. According to the 
County seventy-one (15.4 percent) of the projects reviewed involved 
development within 1 km (0.6 mi) of a lek (CPW 2014g, Attachment 3, p. 
27). Implementation of the County regulations likely reduced impacts 
from these projects, but did not fully compensate for disturbance or 
lost habitat.
    Pursuant to Gunnison County Resolution No. 95-34, adopted on June 
6, 1995, ``individual parcels of land greater than 35 acres in size are 
subject to the same county review and regulatory processes as 
individual parcels less than 35 acres in size except, as is generally 
provided in current state statute, for the act of subdividing such 
parcels into resultant parcels all of which are 35 acres or greater in 
size'' (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 34-35). As a result, development on 
parcels that are 35 acres or larger requires one or more of the County 
permits identified above and are subject to review and regulation under 
LUR Sec.  11.106.
    Gunnison County reports that five separate developments involving 
35-acre or greater parcels (``plus-35 acre'') have occurred in the 
County since 2003. This included a total of about 2,700 acres divided 
into 75 parcels, with portions occurring in occupied habitat for 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Two of the five projects were reviewed by 
Gunnison County under LUR Sec.  11.106 for Gunnison sage-grouse 
concerns and included permit conditions to avoid and minimize potential 
impacts from their development. The County reports that the other three 
projects did not occur in Gunnison sage-grouse habitats. The Ohio Creek 
area, which has experienced the greatest concentration of plus-35 acre 
development in the county since lek counts were standardized in 1996, 
has had increasing numbers of Gunnison sage-grouse since that time 
(based on increased high male counts at the Ohio Creek lek) (Gunnison 
County 2013a, pp. 35-37).
    Recently, Gunnison County has started requiring monetary 
compensation for reclamation of habitats disturbed in Tier 1 and Tier 2 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Gunnison County Public Works Department 
2014a, 2014b; subject to some exceptions). This is a recently enacted 
regulation for which we have little more information that what is 
presented here. Additional regulatory measures implemented by Gunnison 
County in coordination with State and Federal agencies include: closing 
of shed antler collection in the Gunnison Basin by the Colorado 
Wildlife Commission due to its disturbance of Gunnison sage-grouse 
during the early breeding season, and a BLM/USFS/Gunnison County/CPW 
collective effort to implement and enforce road closures during the 
early breeding season (March 15 to May 15) (see Roads for more 
details). These regulatory efforts have provided a benefit to Gunnison 
sage-grouse during the breeding period.
    We commend Gunnison County for the regulatory measures (and other 
actions it has taken, as described in the Factor A discussion above and 
elsewhere in this final rule), to conserve Gunnison sage-grouse and its 
habitat. The County regulations have helped to reduce some of the 
negative effects of human development and infrastructure on the species 
and its habitat. However, Gunnison County's current Gunnison sage-
grouse related regulations do not prevent human development in Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat nor do they prevent additional habitat loss and 
fragmentation that occurs as a result. Further, they do not address or 
require offsetting or mitigation for the habitat loss and fragmentation 
that cannot be avoided and that occurs as a result of permitted 
development in the species' habitat. Gunnison County's sage-grouse 
regulations have not, therefore, sufficiently or adequately reduced 
this threat, which is the primary concern related to human development 
(see Factor A, Residential Development).
San Miguel County Gunnison Sage-Grouse Regulations (San Miguel 
Population)
    In 2005, San Miguel County amended its Land Use Codes to require 
consideration and implementation, to the extent possible, of 
conservation measures recommended in the 2005 RCP (GSRSC 2005, entire) 
for the Gunnison sage-grouse when considering land use activities and 
development located within its habitat (San Miguel County 2005). More 
specifically, under its Land Use Code, the County has specific 
requirements that apply when there is a request for a special use 
permit (such as for oil and gas facilities or wind turbines) in 
occupied habitat. Special use permits are not, however, typically 
required for residential development projects, which limits the 
County's involvement in review of projects adversely affecting Gunnison 
sage-grouse and their habitat. In addition, when the County receives an 
application for a special use permit for activities in sage-grouse 
habitat, it only solicits recommended conservation measures from the 
CPW and a local

[[Page 69280]]

Gunnison sage-grouse working group, and does not require implementation 
of the recommended conservation measures. As a result, implementation 
of recommended conservation measures is dependent on negotiations 
between the County and the applicant.
    Some positive measures (e.g., locating a special use activity 
outside grouse habitat, establishing a 324-ha (800-ac) conservation 
easement; implementing speed limits to reduce likelihood of bird/
vehicle collisions) have been implemented as a result of this process. 
Most measures that result from discussions with applicants, however, 
result in measures that may minimize, but do not prevent, or mitigate 
for impacts (Henderson 2010, pers. comm.). In addition, as noted above, 
residential development proposals typically do not require a special 
use permit so are not subject to this review and negotiation process. 
San Miguel County also has regulations relating to the Wrights Mesa 
Zone Districts that restrict fence building, sagebrush removal, 
powerlines, housing, and roads within 0.6 miles of a lek (San Miguel 
County 2010, entire). In addition, San Miguel County hired a Gunnison 
Sage-grouse Coordinator for the San Miguel Basin population in March 
2006 to implement the regulatory process.
    The San Miguel County Land Use Codes provide some conservation 
benefit to the species by encouraging landowners to voluntarily 
minimize impacts of residential development in grouse habitat where the 
County has authority to do so (with special use permits). The County's 
regulations do not prevent human disturbance in occupied habitat or 
address or require offsetting or mitigation for habitat loss and 
fragmentation resulting from such disturbance. As a result, we find 
that San Miguel County's regulations do not adequately address the 
threat of habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation which is the 
primary concern related to human development (see Factor A, Residential 
Development).
Dolores, Ouray, and Montrose County Sage-Grouse Regulations (San Miguel 
and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa Populations)
    Ouray County adopted a resolution (Resolution Number 2013-022) on 
May 28, 2013, directed at protecting Gunnison sage-grouse breeding and 
brood-rearing habitat from land use activities including construction 
and motor vehicle use. The resolution provides that seasonal 
restrictions (March 15 until May 15) be implemented for roads (not 
belonging to adjacent property owners or their guests) and appropriate 
terms and conditions be applied during this same time period at 
construction sites within 0.6 miles of a lek to minimize and avoid 
impacts on breeding and brood-rearing habitat (Ouray County 2013, 
entire). The restrictions do not specify what avoidance or minimization 
will occur with development permits in these areas.
    On November 4, 2013, Montrose County adopted special regulations 
(``1041 regulations'' 39-2013) that are intended to avoid and minimize 
impacts from land use activities on Gunnison sage-grouse and occupied 
habitat, similar to the approach adopted by Gunnison County. Building 
permits are required for construction within 0.6 miles of an active 
lek, and land use projects or permitting in occupied habitat will 
require conservation actions to avoid or minimize impacts on Gunnison 
sage-grouse (Montrose County 2013, entire).
    On May 20, 2013 Dolores County clarified what planning and 
regulatory means are available for local efforts in preservation of 
Gunnison sage-grouse (Dolores County Resolution 05-13-04). The 
resolution highlights coordination with CPW (and other agencies) to 
review the impacts to wildlife from any change of use application 
submitted to the County. It also highlights regular coordination with 
both the BLM and the U.S. Forest Service.
    While these three recently enacted county regulations likely 
provide some conservation benefits to the species, none of them provide 
the requisite certainty that they will be effective in ameliorating the 
threat human development poses to the species and its habitat. For 
example, the Ouray County regulations do not specify what terms or 
conditions will be required for construction in occupied habitat, and 
neither the Montrose nor Dolores County regulations specify how 
mitigation will occur where effects cannot be avoided. None of these 
county regulations prevent human development in occupied habitat and 
the additional habitat loss and fragmentation that occurs as a result, 
or address or require offsetting or mitigation of habitat loss for the 
species, which is the primary concern related to human development (see 
Factor A, Residential Development). As a result, none of these local 
land regulations eliminate or adequately reduce the impact of human 
development on Gunnison sage-grouse and their habitat.
Summary of Local Laws and Regulations
    We commend the efforts that local governments have made to date 
(those regulations not yet completed are not included) to enact and 
strengthen local regulatory protections for Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Existing local laws and regulations are helping and will continue to 
help to reduce the negative effects of human development and 
infrastructure on the species. Continuation, enhancement, and expansion 
of these efforts across the species' range will likely be necessary for 
conservation of the species. Nevertheless, current local laws and 
regulations do not fully address the full scope of threats to the 
species (Factors A through C and E), including habitat loss due to 
residential and human development (see Residential Development). The 
permanent loss, and associated fragmentation and degradation, of 
sagebrush habitat are considered the greatest threat to Gunnison sage-
grouse (GSRSC 2005, p. 2). Residential development is likely 
contributing to habitat loss and degradation throughout the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Future development, especially in areas of 
important seasonal habitats, is a concern throughout the range, 
including in the Gunnison Basin, where we believe that the level of 
impact from residential development will increase in the future (Factor 
A). For the reasons described above, existing local regulations and 
laws do not fully address this threat. Likewise, existing local 
regulations and laws do not address other substantial threats to the 
species, including small population size and structure (Factor E), 
drought (Factor E); or disease (Factor C).

State Laws and Regulations

    Colorado and Utah State laws and regulations may influence Gunnison 
sage-grouse conservation by providing specific authority for sage-
grouse conservation over lands that are directly owned by the States. 
As described in more detail below, the States also have broad authority 
to regulate and protect wildlife on all lands within their borders, and 
State laws provide mechanisms for indirect conservation through 
regulation of threats to the species (e.g., noxious weeds). In the 
previous section, we described the authorities granted by Colorado and 
Utah to local and county governments in regulating land use development 
within their respective jurisdictions to conserve wildlife, including 
the Gunnison sage-grouse.

[[Page 69281]]

    Colorado Revised Statutes (C.R.S.) section 33-1-104 gives the CPW 
Board responsibility for the management and conservation of wildlife 
resources within State borders. The CPW, which operates under the 
direction of the CPW Board, is required by statute to provide counties 
with information on ``significant wildlife habitat,'' and provide 
technical assistance in establishing guidelines for designating and 
administering such areas, if asked (C.R.S. Sec.  24-65.1-302). The CPW 
Board also has authority to regulate possession of the Gunnison sage-
grouse, set hunting seasons, and issue citations for poaching (C.R.S 
Sec.  33-1-106). These authorities, as implemented by the CPW Board, 
provide individual Gunnison sage-grouse with protection from direct 
mortality from hunting, as described below.
    The Wildlife Resources Code of Utah (Utah Code Annotated Title 23) 
provides UDWR with the powers, duties, rights, and responsibilities to 
protect, propagate, manage, conserve, and distribute wildlife 
throughout the State (Utah Code Ann. Sec.  23-14-1). Section 23-13-3 of 
the Code declares that wildlife existing within the State, not held by 
private ownership and legally acquired, is property of the State. 
Section 23-14-18 authorizes the Utah Wildlife Board to prescribe rules 
and regulations for the taking and/or possession of protected wildlife, 
including Gunnison sage-grouse. These authorities provide adequate 
protection to individual Gunnison sage-grouse from direct mortality 
from hunting, as described below.
    Gunnison sage-grouse are managed by CPW and UDWR on all lands 
within each State as resident native game birds. In both States this 
classification allows the direct human taking of the bird during 
hunting seasons authorized and conducted under State laws and 
regulations. In 2000, CPW closed the hunting season for Gunnison sage-
grouse in the Gunnison Basin, the only area then open to hunting for 
the species. The hunting season for Gunnison sage-grouse in Utah has 
been closed since 1989 according to GSRSC (2005, p. 82), or as early as 
the mid-1970's according to SJCWG (2000, p. 11). The Gunnison sage-
grouse is listed as a species of special concern in Colorado, as a 
sensitive species in Utah, and as a Tier I species under the Utah 
Wildlife Action Plan, providing heightened priority for management 
(CDOW 2009b, p. 40; UDWR 2009, p. 9). Hunting and other State 
regulations that deal with issues such as harassment provide adequate 
protection for individual birds (see discussion under Factor B), but do 
not protect the habitat or address other substantial threats such as 
drought, climate change, or disease.
    In 2009, the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC), 
which is the entity responsible for permitting oil and gas well 
development in Colorado, adopted new rules addressing the impact of oil 
and gas development on wildlife resources (COGCC as amended 2014, 
entire). These COGCC rules require that permittees and operators on all 
lands within the state of Colorado determine whether their proposed 
development location overlaps with ``sensitive wildlife habitat,'' or 
is within a restricted surface occupancy (RSO) area. If it does, the 
COGCC rules require that the Commission consult with CPW, the operator 
and the surface owner to allow it to determine whether conditions of 
approval are necessary to ``minimize adverse impacts'' from the 
proposed oil and gas operations in the identified sensitive wildlife 
habitat or RSO area (COGCC 2014). For purposes of this rule, ``minimize 
adverse impacts'' means, ``wherever reasonably practicable, to (i) 
avoid adverse impacts from oil and gas operations on wildlife 
resources, (ii) minimize the extent and severity of those impacts that 
cannot be avoided, (iii) mitigate the effects of unavoidable remaining 
impacts, and (iv) take into consideration cost-effectiveness and 
technical feasibility with regard to actions taken and decisions made 
to minimize adverse impacts to wildlife resources, consistent with the 
other provisions of the Act.'' (Id.) Consultation with CPW is not 
required under certain circumstances, however, such as when the 
Director of the COGCC issues a variance, a previously CPW-approved 
wildlife mitigation plan exists, and others (COGCC 2014).
    All oil and gas operations in sensitive wildlife habitat or RSO 
areas authorized since implementation of the regulations in 2009 are 
also required to comply with specified general operating requirements, 
including (1) educating employees and contractors on conservation 
practices, (2) consolidating new facilities to minimize disturbance, 
(3) controlling road access and limiting traffic, where approved by the 
surface owner and appropriate authorities, and (4) monitoring wells 
remotely when possible (COGCC 2014). The COGCC Director may waive these 
requirements, however (COGCC 2014). With respect to RSO areas, 
operators are also required to avoid these areas in planning and 
conducting new oil and gas operations ``to the maximum extent 
technically and economically feasible,'' again subject to various 
exceptions (COGCC 2014).
    The 2009 COGCC rules identified certain areas as ``sensitive 
wildlife habitat'' and RSO areas for Gunnison sage-grouse (COGCC 2009). 
In September 2013, COGCC amended its rules to, among other things, 
update and expand the definitions and maps of sensitive wildlife 
habitat and RSO areas for Gunnison sage-grouse (COGCC 2013). The COGCC 
rules as amended define sensitive wildlife habitat for the Gunnison 
sage-grouse lek based on 4 mile buffers around lek sites and RSO areas 
for the species as areas within 0.6 miles of a lek (COGCC 2014; COGCC 
2013).
    We find that while COGCC's rules provide for greater consideration 
of Gunnison sage-grouse needs, the rules only apply to oil and gas 
development, and they do not adequately address the threats to Gunnison 
sage-grouse. Oil and gas operations that were approved before the 
COGCC's 2009 adoption of the wildlife protection rules are not subject 
to Rule 1202's wildlife consultation and conditions of approval 
requirements, for example, even if operations have not yet begun (COGCC 
2014). The limitations on new oil and gas development operations in RSO 
areas also do not apply to applications that were approved before May 
1, 2009 on federal land or April 1, 2009 on all other land (COGCC 
2014). Unless operations change in a manner that requires additional 
COGCC authorization, drilling operations that are already on the 
landscape may continue to operate without further restriction into the 
future. In addition, the COGCC regulations qualify implementation of 
many of its conservation measures to ``wherever reasonably 
practicable'' and like terms, which can limit the effectiveness of 
these measures in avoiding or minimizing impacts to the species. We 
also are not aware of any situations where RSOs have been effectively 
applied or where conservation measures have been implemented for 
potential oil and gas development impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse on 
private lands underlain with privately owned minerals.
    Colorado and Utah have laws that directly address the priorities 
for use of State school section lands, which require that management of 
these properties be based on maximizing financial returns. We have no 
information on any conservation measures that will be implemented under 
statutes or regulations for Gunnison sage-grouse on State school 
section lands.

[[Page 69282]]

    In 2007, the Colorado State Land Board (SLB) purchased the 
Miramonte Meadows property (approximately 809 ha (2,300 ac) next to the 
Dan Noble State Wildlife Area (SWA)). Roughly 526 ha (1,300 ac) of this 
property is considered prime Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (Garner 2010, 
pers. comm.). Discussions with the SLB have indicated a willingness to 
implement habitat improvements (juniper removal) on the property. They 
have also accepted an application to designate the tract as a 
``Stewardship Trust'' parcel. The Stewardship Trust program is capped 
at 119,383 to 121,406 ha (295,000 to 300,000 ac), and no more property 
can be added until another tract is removed from the program. Because 
of this cap, it is unknown if or when the designation of the tract as a 
Stewardship Trust parcel may occur. The scattered nature of State 
school sections (generally single sections of land) across the 
landscape and the requirement to conduct activities to maximize 
financial returns minimize the likelihood of implementation of measures 
that will benefit Gunnison sage-grouse. Thus, no regulatory mechanisms 
are present on State trust lands to minimize habitat decline and thus 
help ensure conservation of the species. However, State school section 
lands account for only 1 percent of occupied habitat in Colorado and 1 
percent in Utah, so impacts from development and relevant laws or 
regulation pertaining to State lands may be negligible in terms of 
effects on Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Some States require landowners to control noxious weeds, which are 
a potential habitat threat to sage-grouse (as discussed in Factor A, 
Invasive Plants). The types of plants considered to be noxious weeds 
vary by State. Cheatgrass, which is a particular threat to sage-grouse, 
is listed as a Class C species in Colorado (Colorado Department of 
Agriculture 2010, p. 3). The Class C designation delegates to local 
governments the choice of whether or not to implement activities for 
the control of cheatgrass. Gunnison, Saguache, and Hinsdale Counties 
target cheatgrass with herbicide applications (GWWC 2009, pp. 2-3). The 
CPW annually sprays for weeds on SWAs (CDOW 2009b, p. 106). The State 
of Utah, however, does not consider cheatgrass as noxious within the 
State (Utah Department of Agriculture 2010a, p. 1) nor in San Juan 
County, Utah (Utah Department of Agriculture 2010b, p. 1). The laws 
dealing with other noxious and invasive weeds may provide some 
protection for sage-grouse in local areas by requiring some control of 
the invasive plants, although large-scale control of the most 
problematic invasive plants is not occurring. Rehabilitation and 
restoration techniques for sagebrush habitats are mostly unproven and 
experimental (Pyke 2011, p. 543). Neither Colorado nor Utah's 
regulatory mechanisms have been demonstrated to be effective in 
addressing the overall impacts of invasive plants on the decline of 
sagebrush habitat within the species' range.

Federal Laws and Regulations

    Gunnison sage-grouse are not covered or managed under the 
provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712) because 
they are considered resident game species. Federal agencies are 
responsible for managing 54 percent of the total Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat. The Federal agencies with the most sagebrush habitat are BLM, 
an agency of the Department of the Interior, and USFS, an agency of the 
Department of Agriculture. The NPS in the Department of the Interior 
also has responsibility for lands that contain Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat.
BLM
    About 42 percent of Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat is on 
BLM-administered land (see Table 1). The Federal Land Policy and 
Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) is the primary 
Federal law governing most land uses on BLM-administered lands. Section 
102(a)(8) of FLPMA specifically recognizes wildlife and fish resources 
as being among the uses for which these lands are to be managed. 
Regulations pursuant to FLPMA (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.) and other 
statutory authorities that address wildlife habitat protection on BLM-
administered land include 43 CFR 3162.3-1 and 43 CFR 3162.5-1 (oil and 
gas); 43 CFR 4120 et seq. (grazing); and 43 CFR 4180 et seq. (grazing).
    Gunnison sage-grouse has been designated as a BLM Sensitive Species 
since they were first identified and described as a species in 2000 
(BLM 2009a, p. 7). The management guidance afforded sensitive species 
under BLM Manual 6840--Special Status Species Management (BLM 2008, 
entire) states that ``Bureau sensitive species will be managed 
consistent with species and habitat management objectives in land use 
and implementation plans to promote their conservation and to minimize 
the likelihood and need for listing'' under the Act (BLM 2008, p. 05V). 
BLM Manual 6840 further requires that Resource Management Plans (RMPs) 
should address sensitive species, and that implementation ``should 
consider all site-specific methods and procedures needed to bring 
species and their habitats to the condition under which management 
under the Bureau sensitive species policies would no longer be 
necessary'' (BLM 2008, p. 2A1). As a designated sensitive species under 
BLM Manual 6840, sage-grouse conservation must be addressed in the 
development and implementation of RMPs on BLM lands.
    RMPs are the basis for all actions and authorizations involving 
BLM-administered lands and resources. They establish allowable resource 
uses, resource condition goals and objectives to be attained, program 
constraints and general management practices needed to attain the goals 
and objectives, general implementation sequences, and intervals and 
standards for monitoring and evaluating the plan to determine its 
effectiveness and the need for amendment or revision (43 CFR 1601 et 
seq.).
    The RMPs also provide a framework and programmatic guidance for 
activity plans, which are site-specific plans written to implement 
decisions made in an RMP. Examples include Allotment Management Plans 
that address livestock grazing, oil and gas field development, travel 
management (motorized and mechanized road and trail use), and wildlife 
habitat management. Activity plan decisions normally require additional 
planning and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis. If an 
RMP contains specific direction regarding Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, 
conservation, or management, the specific direction for the species is 
an enforceable regulatory mechanism to ensure that the species and its 
habitats are considered during permitting and other decision making for 
activities that occur on BLM lands.
    The BLM in Colorado manages Gunnison sage-grouse habitat under six 
existing RMPs. These include the Gunnison Field Office (1993), 
Uncompahgre Field Office (1989), Gunnison Gorge National Conservation 
Area (NCA) (2004), Tres Rios Field Office (1985), Grand Junction Field 
Office (1987), and San Luis Valley Field Office (1991) RMPs. A new RMP 
for the BLM Dominguez-Escalante NCA, designated in 2009 and 
encompassing Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in the vicinity of the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population, is also under development.
    In Utah, Gunnison sage-grouse habitat falls under the Monticello 
Field Office (2008) and Moab Field Office (2008) RMPs. All six of the 
existing Colorado RMPs contain broad objectives for Gunnison sage-
grouse conservation, but lack specific land use allocation

[[Page 69283]]

decisions, stipulations, and enforceable measures to achieve those 
objectives. Three of these RMPs were under revision as of the drafting 
of this rule, including the Tres Rios, Grand Junction, and Uncompahgre 
Field Offices, covering all or portions of the San Miguel, Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa, Crawford, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, and Dove Creek 
populations.
    All ongoing RMP revisions include in their range of alternatives or 
preferred alternative various stipulations and measures, such as 
spatial buffers, seasonal limitations, and other site-specific 
restrictions and best management practices, for land use activities in 
important Gunnison sage-grouse habitat (leks, nesting habitat, brood-
rearing habitat, winter habitat). Many of these recommendations are 
derived or adapted from the RCP (GSRSC 2005, entire) or local Gunnison 
sage-grouse working group plans (see Multi-County and Rangewide Efforts 
in Factor A above) and should provide conservation benefits to the 
species and its habitat, if adopted into Final RMP Plan Revisions and 
Records of Decision (BLM 2009a, p.6).
    In May of 2014, BLM Headquarters issued guidance and direction to 
BLM Colorado and Utah to undertake a landscape-level, targeted RMP 
Amendment for the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse on BLM-
administered public lands in Colorado and Utah (BLM 2014a). This 
process is expected to be completed within 18-24 months, and will 
evaluate the adequacy of all current RMPs, including those which may be 
revised during the current plan amendment review process. It is unknown 
what conservation measures will be included in the planned RMP 
Amendments or in the three BLM Colorado RMPs that are currently under 
revision rangewide.
    All existing Colorado BLM RMPs date from 1985 to 1993 and, as 
described above, contain broad objectives for Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation, but generally lack specific land use allocation 
decisions, stipulations, and enforceable measures to ensure that those 
objectives are achieved. This may be attributed, in part, to the 
broader view and approach in land use planning and resource decisions 
typical of older RMPs.
    More recent (i.e., 2000 and later) RMPs or revisions typically 
contain more detailed and resource-specific decisions and protections 
than their predecessors. The Gunnison Gorge NCA RMP (BLM 2004) contains 
management decisions adequate to conserve Gunnison sage-grouse and its 
habitat in the Crawford population. This RMP designates an ACEC in 
habitat occupied by Gunnison sage-grouse where management and 
protection of the Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitat will be 
emphasized. Within this area, the plan contains specific protections to 
maintain or increase Gunnison sage-grouse numbers and its distribution, 
improve the quality of sage-grouse habitat, and to prevent, minimize 
and mitigate fragmentation and loss of habitat. The RMP adopts and 
incorporates the Gunnison sage-grouse conservation plan, Crawford Area, 
Colorado (Crawford Area Gunnison Sage-Grouse Working Group 2011), as 
part of the direction and management objectives of the ACEC.
    Current BLM RMPs in Utah and Colorado do provide limited regulatory 
protection for Gunnison sage-grouse as they are implemented through 
project-level planning. These protections include conservation measures 
to be implemented during travel management (the management of the 
motorized and non-motorized use of public lands), energy development, 
and grazing permit renewals.
    The 2008 Final RMP for the BLM Monticello Field Office in Utah 
incorporates the recommendations of the 2005 RCP, which provides a 
level of benefit for Gunnison sage-grouse. For example, this RMP 
precludes oil and gas development, roads, power lines, fences, and 
other aboveground structures within 0.6 mile of a Gunnison sage-grouse 
lek. It also prohibits grazing in allotments containing Gunnison sage-
grouse during the breeding season, It does not, however, specifically 
limit oil and gas development and the construction of other 
infrastructure in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat beyond 0.6 mile, which 
includes nesting, brood rearing, and wintering habitat.
    In general, other than the Gunnison Gorge NCA RMP, the remaining 
RMPs provide only partial protection for Gunnison sage-grouse in terms 
of land use allocation decisions specific to the species and its 
habitat and, therefore, are considered inadequate to protect the 
species
    In addition to land use planning through its RMPs, BLM uses 
Instruction Memoranda (IM) to provide instruction to district and field 
offices regarding specific resource issues. Instruction Memoranda 
provide policy guidance or directives, but do not contain binding legal 
decisions such as those promulgated under an RMP. IMs are temporary 
directives, generally of short duration (1 to 2 years), intended to 
address urgent resource concerns by providing interim direction to 
staff until a threat passes or until the resource issue can be 
addressed through revisions or updates to manuals or RMPs.
    BLM has issued a number of IMs addressing Gunnison sage-grouse. On 
July 12, 2005 BLM Colorado issued IM Number CO-2005-038, stating BLM's 
intent and commitment to assist with and participate in the 
implementation of the 2005 RCP. This guidance has been used for BLM-
administered lands in the State of Colorado to provide conservation 
benefit for Gunnison sage-grouse (BLM 2009a, p. 6). On August 17, 2010, 
BLM Colorado issued IM number CO-2010-028 on Gunnison sage-grouse and 
greater sage-grouse habitat management policy, which provides direction 
regarding implementation of National BLM sage-grouse guidance, ensures 
continued coordination with CPW and other agency partners regarding 
sage-grouse conservation planning, and calls for fluid mineral leasing 
deferrals in core Greater sage-grouse habitats until Field Office plan 
revisions have been completed (BLM 2010b, entire).
    On July 15, 2013, BLM Colorado issued IM Number CO-2013-033 to 
provide policy guidance to Colorado Field Offices on Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat management, land uses, and resource management planning 
(BLM 2013d, p. 1). This IM updated and superseded the 2010 IM, Number 
CO-2010-028. The 2013 IM was developed in coordination with the Service 
and provided direction regarding management and ongoing land use 
planning in Gunnison sage-grouse occupied habitat, including the 
application of specific conservation measures for the species (BLM 
2013d, p. 2).
    On May 30, 2014, BLM HQ issued a new IM, 2014-100, which applies to 
all Gunnison sage-grouse proposed occupied critical habitat in both 
Colorado and Utah (BLM 2014b entire). In order to protect important 
habitat across the range of the species, BLM will continue to apply 
conservation measures and focus any type of development in non-habitat 
areas. All disturbances will be focused outside of a 4-mile buffer 
around leks, except where there are valid existing rights or where 
benefits to Gunnison sage-grouse may be greater than under other 
alternatives (BLM 2014b, p.1). The Policy identifies conservation 
measures for activities including Land Use Planning, Proper Livestock 
Grazing, Wildland Fire and Fuels Management, Processing Fluid Mineral 
Leases and Solid Mineral Leases (BOM 2014b pp. 2-5). This IM is 
expected to remain in effect until the RMP Amendment

[[Page 69284]]

process is complete in 2016. While this IM is of short duration, we 
anticipate that its implementation will reduce threats to the Gunnison 
sage-grouse on BLM lands from the covered activities.

Fluid Minerals

    The BLM has regulatory authority for oil and gas leasing on Federal 
lands and on private lands with a severed Federal mineral estate, as 
provided at 43 CFR 3100 et seq., and they are authorized to require 
stipulations as a condition of issuing a lease. The BLM's Land Use 
Planning Handbook describes program-specific guidance for fluid 
minerals (which include oil and gas) and the handbook specifies that 
RMP decisions will identify restrictions on areas subject to leasing, 
including closures, as well as lease stipulations (BLM 2005e, Appendix 
C, pp. 23-24). The handbook also specifies that all stipulations must 
have waiver, exception, or modification criteria documented in the 
plan, and notes that the least restrictive constraint to meet the 
resource protection objective should be used (BLM 2005e, Appendix C, 
pp. 23-24).
    To our knowledge, BLM Field Offices are deferring the sale of new 
drilling leases, which was first implemented in the 2010 IM, in 
habitats they have identified as ``priority'' or ``core'' habitats for 
Gunnison sage-grouse until RMP revisions are complete and/or adequate 
protective lease stipulations are in place. However, there is currently 
no regulatory mechanism in effect which assures that future lease sales 
in occupied habitat on BLM administered lands will not occur or that 
operations on federal leases are conducted in a manner consistent with 
protection of the Gunnison sage-grouse.
    In addition, oil and gas leases already exist in 17 percent of the 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population area, and 49 percent of the San Miguel 
Basin population. For existing oil and gas leases on BLM land in 
occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, oil and gas companies may 
conduct drilling operations subject to BLM-imposed permit conditions. 
Specifically, the BLM has regulatory authority to condition 
``Application for Permit to Drill'' authorizations that are conducted 
under a lease that does not contain specific Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation stipulations, consistent with lease rights, but 
utilization of these conditions is discretionary and we are uncertain 
at this time how widely such authority has or will be applied to avoid 
or minimize impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse.
    We also note that onshore federal oil and gas leases include a 
provision (also known as a standard lease term) that allows movement of 
the drilling area or facilities by 200m (650ft) to avoid sensitive 
resources (43 CFR 3101.1(c)). However, in most cases this small amount 
of movement would have little to no conservation benefit to Gunnison 
sage-grouse because sage-grouse respond to nonrenewable energy 
development at much further distances (Holloran et al. 2007, p. 12; 
Walker et al. 2007, p. 10). Pursuant to its permitting authority as 
described above, our experience is that many of the BLM field offices 
work with the operators to move a proposed drilling site farther from 
sensitive resources and justify such a move through a site-specific 
NEPA process.
    Given the already small and fragmented nature of the populations 
where future oil and gas leases are likely to occur, additional 
development within occupied habitat would negatively impact those 
populations by contributing to further habitat decline. Since we have 
no information on what minimization and mitigation measures might be 
applied to future leases at this time, we cannot assess the 
conservation benefit of potential BLM regulations to those populations.

Salable and Locatable Minerals

    As discussed under Factor A (Locatable and Salable Mineral 
Development), currently active mines and mining claims are limited in 
geographic scope and mining is expected to have limited impacts on 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations. As a result, we found current 
locatable and salable mineral development to be a threat of low 
magnitude to Gunnison sage-grouse. We have no information indicating 
that any regulatory mechanisms currently exist to reduce impacts of 
mines.

Grazing

    As stated previously, Gunnison sage-grouse are a BLM Sensitive 
Species and therefore receive Special Status Species management 
considerations. The BLM regulatory authority for grazing management is 
provided at 43 CFR part 4100 (Regulations on Grazing Administration 
Exclusive of Alaska). Livestock grazing permits and leases contain 
terms and conditions determined by BLM to be appropriate to achieve 
management and resource condition objectives on the public lands and 
other lands administered by BLM, and to ensure that habitats are, or 
are making significant progress toward being, restored or maintained 
for BLM special status species (43 CFR 4180.1(d)). BLM's State or 
regional standards for grazing administration must address habitat for 
endangered, threatened, proposed, candidate, or special status species, 
and habitat quality for native plant and animal populations and 
communities (43 CFR 4180.2(d)(4) and (5)). BLM's guidelines for 
ensuring that grazing standards are met similarly must address 
restoring, maintaining, or enhancing habitats of BLM special status 
species to promote their conservation, as well as maintaining or 
promoting the physical and biological conditions to sustain native 
populations and communities (43 CFR 4180.2(e)(9) and (10)); BLM 2009b, 
p. 8). The BLM is required to take appropriate action no later than the 
start of the next grazing year upon determining that existing grazing 
practices or levels of grazing use are significant factors in failing 
to achieve the standards and conform with the guidelines (43 CFR 
4180.2(c)).
    The BLM is required to consult with their Resource Advisory 
Councils (RACs) to expand the rangeland health standards required under 
43 CFR part 4180 so that there are public land health standards 
relevant to all ecosystems, not just rangelands, and that these 
standards apply to all BLM programs and actions across public lands, 
not just livestock grazing (BLM Land Health Manual 4180 (BLM 2009b, p. 
8)). Both southwest Colorado and southeast Utah have RACs established 
by the BLM.
    A detailed analysis of grazing on BLM-administered lands and its 
impacts on the Gunnison sage-grouse is included above in Factor A. As 
of 2012, all active BLM grazing permits in occupied Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat managed by the BLM Gunnison Field Office have vegetation 
structure guidelines specific to Gunnison sage-grouse incorporated into 
Allotment Management Plans or Records of Decision for permit renewals 
as habitat objectives (BLM 2012a, pp. 3-4). These Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat objectives are designed to provide good habitat for the 
species. Similar objectives are also incorporated into Allotment 
Management Plans in portions of some of the smaller population areas 
(see section, Public Lands Grazing in other Population Areas under 
Factor A). However, as noted earlier (see Domestic Grazing and Wild 
Ungulate Herbivory under Factor A), available information suggests that 
LHA objectives important to Gunnison sage-grouse are not being met 
across parts of the species' range. Reduced habitat quality in those 
areas, as reflected in unmet LHA objectives, may be negatively 
impacting Gunnison sage-grouse. However, the relationship between LHA 
determinations and the effects of domestic livestock grazing on

[[Page 69285]]

Gunnison sage-grouse is difficult to quantify.
    Specific Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives from the 2005 RCP 
are incorporated into some Federal grazing permits and are an effective 
means of ensuring that the needs of Gunnison sage-grouse are met on 
grazed lands. Certain grazing permits also contain standard terms and 
conditions, such as forage utilization standards, that may indirectly 
help achieve habitat objectives for Gunnison sage-grouse. However, 
terms and conditions applied within BLM's existing livestock grazing 
permits and leases are currently inadequate in parts of the range of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. As discussed under Factor A (Summary of Domestic 
Grazing and Wild Ungulate Herbivory), the best available information 
suggests that Land Health Assessment objectives important to Gunnison 
sage-grouse are not being met across localized parts of the species' 
range and that livestock grazing is likely contributing to those 
conditions in some instances. Reduced habitat quality in those areas, 
as reflected in LHA data, is likely negatively impacting Gunnison sage-
grouse in some of the populations. While it is anticipated that future 
terms and conditions in BLM grazing permits will minimize further 
grazing impacts to habitat on BLM-administered lands, it is currently 
unknown what terms and conditions might be incorporated into grazing 
permits and how such terms and conditions may improve degraded habitats 
for Gunnison sage-grouse.
USFS
    The USFS manages 10 percent of the occupied Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat (Table 1). Management of National Forest System lands is guided 
principally by the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) (16 U.S.C. 
1600-1614, August 17, 1974, as amended). The NFMA specifies that all 
National Forests must have a Land and Resource Management Plan (LRMP) 
(16 U.S.C. 1600) to guide and set standards for all natural resource 
management activities on each National Forest or National Grassland. 
The NFMA requires USFS to incorporate standards and guidelines into 
LRMPs (16 U.S.C. 1600), which include provisions to manage plant and 
animal communities for diversity, based on the suitability and 
capability of the specific land area in order to meet overall multiple-
use objectives.
    The Gunnison sage-grouse is a USFS sensitive species in both Region 
2 (Colorado) and Region 4 (Utah). USFS policy provides direction to 
USFS Forests to analyze potential impacts of programs and activities to 
endangered, threatened, proposed, or sensitive species in a biological 
evaluation. The National Forests within the range of sage-grouse 
provide important seasonal habitats for the species, particularly the 
Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison (collectively known as GMUG) 
National Forests. The 1991 Amended Land and Resource Management Plan 
for the GMUG National Forests has not incorporated Gunnison sage-grouse 
conservation measures or habitat objectives. Similarly, the 1996 the 
Forest Plan for the Rio Grande National Forest does not contain 
Gunnison sage-grouse specific conservation measures. The newer 2013 
Forest Plan for the San Juan National Forest does contain measures to 
protect Gunnison sage-grouse, although there is very little Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat on this national forest. The Regional Forester 
signed the 2005 RCP, agreeing to follow and implement the 
recommendations in the plan. Nonetheless, only three of the 34 grazing 
allotments in occupied grouse habitat on National Forest lands have 
incorporated Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives from the RCP, 
indicating that USFS regulations and the USFS agreement to implement 
the RCP are currently inadequate to protect the species.
    The only Gunnison sage-grouse population within USFS lands that is 
in an area of high or even medium potential for oil and gas reserves is 
the San Miguel Basin, and USFS lands only make up 1.4 percent of that 
population (GSRSC 2005, D-8). Although the 2014 BLM IM does not 
specifically apply to USFS lands, USFS considers the IM in evaluating 
leasing decisions. The BLM, which regulates oil and gas leases on USFS 
lands, has the authority to defer leases and would make a leasing 
decision consistent with their 2014 IM in coordination with USFS 
(McDonald 2014, pers. com).
    While USFS consideration of Gunnison sage-grouse as a sensitive 
species and commitment to follow the recommendations contained in the 
2005 RCP (GSRSC 2005, entire) can provide some conservation benefits to 
the species, both of these actions are primarily voluntary in nature 
and thus are not treated as regulatory mechanisms in our evaluation 
process. Considering the above information, the USFS has implemented 
some regulatory mechanisms and policies to provide for the long-term 
conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse and is a signatory to the CCA for 
the Gunnison Basin (see Factors A and E). However, we find that USFS 
regulations are not fully addressing the conservation of Gunnison sage-
grouse because the GMUG and Rio Grande National Forests, which cover 
the vast majority of Gunnison sage-grouse habitats on national forest 
lands, are governed by older Forest Plans that do not contain detailed 
conservation standards for this species.
NPS
    The NPS manages 2 percent of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
(Table 1), which means that there is little opportunity for the agency 
to affect range-wide conservation of the species. The NPS Organic Act 
(16 U.S. C. Sec.  1) states that NPS will administer areas under their 
jurisdiction ``by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental 
purpose of said parks, monuments, and reservations, which purpose is to 
conserve the scenery and the natural and historical objects and the 
wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such 
manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the 
enjoyment of future generations.'' Lands in the Black Canyon of the 
Gunnison National Park and the Curecanti National Recreation Area 
include portions of occupied habitat in the Crawford and Gunnison Basin 
populations and are managed under NPS's General Management Plan for 
these Park units (NPS 1997, entire). Under this plan, resource 
objectives related to Gunnison sage-grouse include protection of the 
species and its habitat, protection of threatened and endangered 
species, and minimization of the causes and impacts of habitat 
fragmentation (NPS 1997, pp. 18-19). In addition, the NPS has nearly 
completed an area Resource Stewardship Strategy, a plan that identifies 
more specific conservation measures and actions, including an emphasis 
on Gunnison sage-grouse conservation, for implementation of the General 
Management Plan (Stahlnecker 2014, pers. comm.). In the meantime, NPS's 
ability to actively manage for Gunnison sage-grouse is not limited by 
the scope of their management plans, as discussed below.
    The NPS completed a Fire Management Plan in 2006 that covers both 
of the areas mentioned above (NPS 2006, entire). Both prescribed fire 
and fire use (allowing wildfires to burn) are identified as a suitable 
use in Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. However, Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat is identified as a Category C area, meaning that, while fire is 
a desirable component of the ecosystem, ecological constraints must be 
observed. For Gunnison sage-grouse, constraints in the plan include 
limitation of acreage burned per year

[[Page 69286]]

and limitation of percent of project polygons burned. Moreover, the NPS 
is currently following the fire-related conservation measures in the 
local conservation plans as described in Multi-County and Rangewide 
Conservation Efforts above under Factor A, and the 2005 RCP fire 
recommendations (Stahlnecker 2010, pers. comm.). In most cases, 
implementation of NPS fire management policies should result in minimal 
adverse effects since emphasis is placed on activities that will 
minimize impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse habitat. Overall, 
implementation of NPS plans should reduce impacts to Gunnison sage-
grouse because they include conservation measures to protect Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat.
    Recreational activities are generally managed more intensively on 
NPS land than on other Federal lands. Nevertheless, recreational 
activities within occupied habitat on NPS land may have adverse effects 
on Gunnison sage-grouse individuals (see Factor E discussion). However, 
given the limited amount of occupied habitat on NPS land (2 percent of 
the Gunnison Basin population area), recreation on those lands is 
likely having negligible impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse at the 
population or species level.
    Grazing management activities on NPS lands are governed by BLM 
regulations, and their implementation and the results of these 
regulations are likely similar to those discussed for the BLM, because 
they occur under the same management criteria and guidance. In 2013, 
all of the active allotments in the Crawford population, including NPS 
allotments, had incorporated Gunnison sage-grouse habitat objectives 
and completed LHAs (see Grazing section in Factor A). Grazing 
management plans on NPS lands appear to be provide conservation 
measures for the species. Overall, NPS regulations reduce threats to 
Gunnison sage-grouse on the 2 percent of occupied habitat in the 
Gunnison Basin population under NPS jurisdiction. However, they do not 
significantly reduce threats on a rangewide basis.

Environmental Protection Agency

    On December 15, 2009, the EPA published in the Federal Register (74 
FR 66496) a rule titled, ``Endangerment and Cause or Contribute 
Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air 
Act.'' In this rule, the EPA Administrator found that the current and 
projected concentrations of the six long-lived and directly emitted 
greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, 
hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride--in the 
atmosphere threaten the public health and welfare of current and future 
generations; and that the combined emissions of these greenhouse gases 
from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines contribute to the 
greenhouse gas pollution that threatens public health and welfare. In 
effect, the EPA has concluded that the greenhouse gases linked to 
climate change are pollutants, whose emissions can now be subject to 
the Clean Air Act (42 U.S. C. 7401 et se.; see 74 FR 66496, December 
15, 2009). On October 15, 2012, EPA and the National Highway 
Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a joint Final 
Rulemaking to extend the National Program of harmonized greenhouse gas 
and fuel economy standards to model year 2017 through 2025 passenger 
vehicles (77 FR 62624). On June 17, 2013, EPA and NHTSA implemented 
standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (model years 2014 through 
2018) (78 FR 36370). These regulations are relatively new, and at 
present, we have no basis to conclude that implementation of the Clean 
Air Act in the near future (40 years, based on global climate 
projections) will substantially reduce the current rate of global 
climate change through regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, we 
conclude that while the Clean Air Act may reduce greenhouse gas 
emissions, it does not address the primary threats to the Gunnison 
sage-grouse, such as drought, nonnatives, fire frequency, and decrease 
of sagebrush.

Other Regulatory Mechanisms: Conservation Easements

    Conservation easements are voluntary legal agreements between a 
landowner and a land trust, nongovernmental organization, or government 
agency that permanently limit or restrict land uses for identified 
conservation values and purposes and are binding regulatory mechanisms 
once established. With very few exceptions, conservation easements 
require that individual parcels be owned and conveyed as single units 
in perpetuity, thereby ensuring they are not subdivided for development 
in the future. Conservation easements also restrict land uses by 
defining specific areas for residential or agricultural development, 
including roads and driveways, and may include other parameters for 
land management practices to achieve conservation values (Lohr and Gray 
2013, p. 2). Therefore, we generally consider conservation easements to 
be an effective regulatory tool to prevent long-term or permanent 
habitat loss. Conservation easements across Gunnison sage-grouse range 
are held by nongovernmental organizations and land trusts (The Nature 
Conservancy, Colorado Cattlemen's Agricultural Land Trust, and others), 
state agencies (CPW, UDWR), and Federal agencies (Natural Resources 
Conservation Service (NRCS), NPS, and BLM). Some conservation easements 
include conservation measures specific to Gunnison sage-grouse, while 
many are directed at other species, such as big game (GSRSC 2005, pp. 
59-103).
    Following is a summary of the estimated amount of lands under 
conservation easement for occupied and unoccupied Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat in Colorado and Utah, based on Lohr and Gray (2013, entire) 
(Table 12). This report also included lands not under conservation 
easement, but which are owned by entities that manage the property for 
Gunnison sage-grouse and other conservation values (e.g., The Nature 
Conservancy properties), or which carry covenants that restrict 
subdivision and development in perpetuity (e.g., Eagle Ridge Ranch in 
the Gunnison Basin). Rangewide, approximately 35,195 ha (86,968 ac), or 
22.6 percent, of private lands in occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
were under conservation easement as of 2013 (Lohr and Gray 2013, 
entire). Another 51,040 ac, or 11 percent, of private lands in mapped 
unoccupied habitat are also under conservation easement (Lohr and Gray 
2013, entire). Combined, conservation easements include approximately 
138,008 ac, or 16 percent, of all occupied and unoccupied habitat on 
private land (840,346 ac) across the species' range.
    Of all the Gunnison sage-grouse populations, the Gunnison Basin 
contains the most acres under conservation easement (102,986 ac total 
in occupied and unoccupied habitat). In proportion to total occupied 
habitat, conservation easements in the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa and Crawford 
population areas are significant (74 and 41 percent, respectively). 
Approximately 30 percent of private land in unoccupied habitat is also 
protected under conservation easement in the Gunnison Basin and 
Crawford population areas (Table 12).


[[Page 69287]]



                            Table 12--Conservation Easements in Gunnison Sage-Grouse Occupied \a\ and unoccupied \a\ Habitats
                                               [Lohr and Gray 2013, entire; Gunnison County 2013b, p. 21]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Private land in occupied                       Private land in unoccupied
                                                           Private land          habitat under CE          Private land          habitat under CE
                       Population                           in occupied  --------------------------------  in unoccupied -------------------------------
                                                           habitat (ac)        Acres        % of total     habitat (ac)        Acres        % of total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Monticello-Dove Creek...................................         100,702           6,117               5         200,318               0               0
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa.......................................          27,283          20,076              74          64,275          20,246              31
San Miguel Basin........................................          49,492           6,938              14          45,843           1,486               3
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa.........................          28,218           3,995              14          20,117           3,774              19
Crawford................................................           8,481           3,470              41          44,552           8,665              20
Gunnison Basin..........................................         178,531          46,372              26          56,614          16,348              29
Poncha Pass.............................................           4,792               0               0          11,128             521               5
    Rangewide Totals....................................         397,499          86,968              22         442,847          51,040              12
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Occupied and unoccupied habitat acres and conservation easements provided in Lohr and Gray (2013) were based on the Service's proposed critical
  habitat designation for Gunnison sage-grouse (78 FR 2540, January 11, 2013).

    In the context of potential threats to Gunnison sage-grouse, 
conservation easements and the protections they afford are most 
relevant to the threat of residential and human development. Therefore, 
in the Residential Development section of this rule (Factor A), we 
further analyzed existing conservation easements by Gunnison sage-
grouse population and across the species' range. Therein, Table 6 
summarizes conservation easement acres in occupied habitat for each 
Gunnison sage-grouse population, and also provides estimates for those 
portions of occupied habitat not under conservation easement, for the 
purposes of evaluating the threat of residential development.
    Total conservation easements recorded to date cover about 18.3 
percent of private lands in rangewide occupied habitat for Gunnison 
sage-grouse. The Service has analyzed the conservation and regulatory 
benefit of existing conservation easements throughout the range of the 
species. However, conservation easements are offered and held by 
numerous entities and happen opportunistically with willing sellers 
across the range of the species.
Summary of Factor D
    Gunnison sage-grouse conservation has been addressed in some local, 
State, and Federal, laws, regulations, and land management plans. We 
commend Gunnison, San Miguel, Ouray, and Montrose Counties for enacting 
special regulations for Gunnison sage-grouse for land uses within their 
jurisdictions. Existing local laws and regulations will help to reduce 
some of the negative effects of human development and infrastructure on 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Continuation and enhancement of these efforts 
across the species' range will be necessary for conservation of the 
species. Past residential and exurban development throughout the 
species range is a primary cause of habitat decline. Future human 
development will further contribute to habitat loss (see Factor A, 
Residential Development, Roads, and Powerlines). As described above, 
existing local laws and regulations do not fully address this threat to 
the species. Local regulatory mechanisms also do not fully address 
other substantial threats to the species, including small population 
size (Factor E), invasive plants (Factor A), disease (Factor B), and 
climate change (Factor A).
    Implementation of Federal agency regulations specifically for 
Gunnison sage-grouse conservation provides obvious benefits to the 
species, considering that approximately 54 percent of rangewide 
occupied habitat occurs on Federal lands (Table 1). Protections 
afforded to Gunnison sage-grouse vary by agency and field office or 
unit, but many of these protections are discretionary or undertaken on 
a voluntary basis rather than required by a regulatory mechanism. BLM's 
land use management plans are regulatory mechanisms, but for the most 
part do not currently include requirements directed at sage-grouse 
conservation. This will likely change in the future, as a result of the 
ongoing revision process for some RMPs in the species' range and the 
planned rangewide RMP Amendment to address sage-grouse threats. 
Nonetheless, we do not know at this time what conservation measures 
will be included in these future RMPs or the degree to which they may 
address threats to the species. As a result, we do not consider or rely 
on these future planning efforts in this rule. BLM's 2014 IM for 
Gunnison sage-grouse in Colorado provides a more consistent foundation 
for the management and conservation of the species on BLM land in 
Colorado, but it is a temporary measure and is not a binding regulatory 
mechanism. Based on this analysis, and our more detailed evaluation of 
BLM and other possible Federal regulatory mechanisms, we find that 
existing Federal laws and regulations are not fully addressing the full 
scope of threats to the species (Factors A through C, and E).
    The CPW, UDWR, and other entities have acquired and continue to 
pursue conservation easements in Colorado and Utah, respectively, to 
conserve Gunnison sage-grouse habitat and meet the species' needs. We 
determined that perpetual conservation easements offer protection from 
habitat loss, but that conservation values and objectives for those 
properties vary according to the terms of the easement. Existing 
conservation easements provide a level of protection from future 
development on these lands, but are limited in geographic scope such 
that they do not adequately address the threat of habitat loss across 
the species' range. State wildlife regulations provide protection for 
individual Gunnison sage-grouse from direct mortality due to hunting 
but do not address habitat loss and other threats such as drought, 
climate change, or disease. While the COGCC regulations discussed above 
provide some protection and mitigation (as defined by COGCC, not the 
Service) for loss of Gunnison sage-grouse habitat, they do not prevent 
ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation (Factor A).
    We evaluated the best available information related to existing 
regulatory mechanisms that address threats (Factors A through C, and E) 
to Gunnison sage-grouse and its habitats. Based on our analysis, we 
find that some existing regulatory mechanisms are in place to conserve 
Gunnison sage-grouse, but individually or collectively they do not 
fully address the substantial

[[Page 69288]]

threats faced by Gunnison sage-grouse across their range. Further, 
while these existing regulatory mechanisms may help reduce current 
threats to the species, they are insufficient to fully reduce or 
eliminate the increase in threats that may act on the species in the 
future.
E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence
    Other factors potentially affecting the Gunnison sage-grouse's 
continued existence include small population size and structure; 
drought, recreational activities, pesticides and herbicides, and 
contaminants.

Small Population Size and Structure

    Negative effects on population viability, such as reduced 
reproductive success or loss of genetic variation and diversity, become 
more evident as populations decline or become more isolated. In this 
section, we evaluate the issue of small and declining population size 
and structure in Gunnison sage-grouse, and associated genetic risks and 
other effects. We also evaluate existing population viability analyses 
for the species. Finally, we synthesize this information to assess 
resiliency, redundancy, and representation of the individual Gunnison 
sage-grouse populations and the species as a whole.

Relevant Species Information

    In general, while various natural factors would not limit sage-
grouse populations across large geographic scales under historical 
conditions or in larger populations, they may contribute to local 
population declines or extirpations when populations are small, 
isolated, or when weather patterns, habitats, or mortality rates are 
altered. When coupled with mortality stressors related to human 
activity and significant fluctuations in annual population size, long-
term persistence of small populations (in general) is unlikely (Traill 
et al. 2010, entire). Sage-grouse have low reproductive rates and high 
annual survival rates (Schroeder et al. 1999, pp. 11, 14; Connelly et 
al. 2000a, pp. 969-970), resulting in a long recovery period from 
disturbances due to slower potential or intrinsic population growth 
rates than is typical of other game birds. Also, as a consequence of 
their site fidelity to seasonal habitats (Lyon and Anderson 2003, p. 
489), measurable population effects may lag behind negative changes in 
habitat (Harju et al. 2010, entire; Wiens and Rotenberry 1985, p. 666).
    As described in the Current Distribution and Population Estimates 
and Trends subsection in the Background section above, the Gunnison 
Basin is the largest population of Gunnison sage-grouse (3978 
individuals in 2014) and, while showing variation over the period of 
record, has been relatively stable since 1996, based on lek count data 
(Figure 2). However, as discussed later in this section, demographic 
data indicate this population may not be quite as stable as suggested 
by lek count data (Davis 2012, p. 38). The Gunnison Basin population 
declined during the period 2005-2010, as shown by rates of growth 
estimated from demographic parameter estimates measured during that 
time period (Davis 2012, entire), and from lek count indices (CPW 
2014e, entire). In addition to this, an integrated population model 
that used this short term demographic data in conjunction with the 
longer time series of lek count data estimated a rate of growth 
slightly less than 1.0 (lambda = 0.984) with confidence intervals that 
overlapped 1.0 (0.879-1.179) for the period 1996-2012 (Davis et al. in 
press). This 1996-2012 estimate was not statistically significantly 
different from a lambda of 1.0, suggesting the population is currently 
largely stable. The Gunnison Basin population comprises about 84 
percent of the rangewide population of Gunnison sage-grouse and 
includes 63 percent of rangewide occupied habitat.
    In contrast, the remaining six populations, also referred to in 
this final rule as satellite populations, were generally in decline 
from 1996 until 2010; however, increases in several populations have 
been observed recently (Figure 3) and could be a product of numerous 
factors including but not limited to population cycles, translocation 
efforts, and increased access to leks. The San Miguel and Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa populations are currently the largest of the satellite 
populations, with 206 and 182 birds, respectively, in 2014. The 
Monticello-Dove Creek and Crawford populations currently have less than 
160 birds. Population estimates in 2014 for the two smallest 
populations, Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa and Poncha Pass, were 74 
and 16, respectively (CPW 2014, p.6). The 16 radio-telemetered birds 
known at Poncha Pass in summer 2014 are the remainder of 27 birds 
translocated from Gunnison Basin in fall of 2013 and spring of 2014.
    Based on lek count-based population estimates, some satellite 
populations have increased slightly over the last several years, or 
intermittently over time. However, the last 19 years (1996 to 2014) of 
lek count data as a whole indicate that the satellite populations are 
in decline, with the possible exception of the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
Sims Mesa population which appears to be relatively stable to 
increasing, and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, which is at its highest over the 19 
year period (Figure 3). However, some of the recent increases in 
population sizes may be attributable to translocation and survey 
efforts, rather than an actual increase in the population, which may be 
the case with Pi[ntilde]on Mesa. For example, the 2014 estimated 
population for Pi[ntilde]on Mesa was 182 birds (CPW 2014, p. 6), much 
greater than the 2012 estimate of 54 birds. This increase could be, in 
part, a product of the 93 birds translocated to Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
population between the spring of 2010 and spring of 2013 (CPW 2014c, 
entire) and the discovery of two new leks in 2012 (CPW 2012a, pp. 2-3). 
For all six satellite populations, population estimates from 1996 to 
2014 are below population targets (based on a 10-year average), as set 
forth by the RCP (CPW 2013, p. 11; GSRSC 2005, pp. 255-302) (see 
Current Distribution and Population Estimates and Trends in the 
Background section for more details). The RCP identified population 
targets as attainable population sizes sufficient to conserve Gunnison 
sage-grouse in those population areas (GSRSC 2005, p. 255). This 
constitutes the current and best available information on population 
targets for Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Combined, the satellite populations comprise about 16 percent of 
the rangewide population of Gunnison sage-grouse and include 
approximately 37 percent of rangewide occupied habitat. Small 
population size and population structure occur in all of the six 
satellite populations, or across approximately 37 percent of occupied 
range for the species. The small sizes of the satellite populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse make them particularly sensitive to stochastic and 
demographic fluctuations, and this vulnerability is exacerbated by 
other threats such as drought (GSRSC 2005, p. G-22). Small population 
size, declining population trends, and apparent isolation indicate 
long-term population persistence and evolutionary potential are 
compromised in the satellite populations (see Genetic Risks).

Genetic Risks

    Small populations face three primary genetic risks: Inbreeding 
depression; loss of genetic variation; and accumulation of new 
mutations. In general, these negative genetic consequences influence a 
species' fitness, or ability to reproduce and survive in the face of 
environmental pressures. Inbreeding can have individual and population 
level

[[Page 69289]]

consequences by either increasing the phenotypic expression of 
recessive, deleterious alleles (the expression of harmful genes through 
the physical appearance) or by reducing the overall fitness of 
individuals in the population (GSRSC 2005, p. 109 and references 
therein).
    Gunnison sage-grouse have low levels of genetic diversity, 
particularly in comparison to greater sage-grouse (Oyler-McCance et al. 
2005, p. 635). There is no consensus regarding how large a population 
must be in order to prevent inbreeding depression. However, the San 
Miguel Basin satellite population has an effective population size (the 
number of individuals in a population that contribute their genes to 
the next generation) that is below the level at which inbreeding 
depression has been observed to occur (Stiver et al. 2008, p. 479). 
Since the remaining Gunnison sage-grouse satellite populations are 
smaller than the San Miguel population, they are likely small enough to 
induce inbreeding depression, and thus could be losing adaptive 
potential (Stiver et al. 2008, p. 479).
    Population structure of Gunnison sage-grouse was investigated using 
mitochondrial DNA sequence (mtDNA, maternally-inherited DNA located in 
cellular organelles called mitochondria) and nuclear microsatellite 
data from six geographic areas (Crawford, Gunnison Basin, Curecanti 
area of the Gunnison Basin, Monticello-Dove Creek, Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, 
and San Miguel Basin) (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, entire). The Cerro 
Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa population was not included in the analysis 
due to inadequate sample sizes. The Poncha Pass population also was not 
included as it is composed of individuals translocated from Gunnison 
Basin. Levels of genetic diversity were highest in the Gunnison Basin, 
which had more alleles and many but not all of the alleles present in 
other populations. All other populations had much lower levels of 
diversity. The lower diversity levels were thought to be the result of 
small population sizes and a high degree of geographic isolation 
(Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, entire).
    Collectively, the smaller populations contained 24 percent of the 
genetic diversity of the species. Individually, each of the satellite 
populations may not be crucially important genetically to the survival 
of the species, but collectively it is reasonable to assume that 24 
percent of the genetic diversity is important to the future rangewide 
survival and adaptability of the species. Some of the genetic makeup 
contained within the satellite populations (with the potential 
exception of the Poncha Pass population since it consists of birds from 
the Gunnison Basin) may be critical to maintaining adaptability in the 
face of issues such as climate change or other environmental change. 
All populations sampled were found to be genetically discrete units 
(Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, p. 635), so the loss of any of them would 
result in a decrease in genetic diversity of the species. In addition, 
having multiple populations across a broad geographic area (population 
redundancy) provides insurance against catastrophic events, such as 
prolonged drought, and the aggregate number of individuals across all 
populations increases the probability of demographic persistence and 
preservation of overall genetic diversity by providing an important 
genetic reservoir (GSRSC 2005, p. 179). The satellite populations are 
important to the long-term viability of Gunnison sage-grouse because 
they: (1) Increase species abundance rangewide; (2) minimize the threat 
of catastrophic events to the species since the populations are widely 
distributed across the landscape; and (3) provide additional genetic 
diversity not found in the Gunnison Basin (GSRSC 2005, p. 199).
    Habitat loss and decline can lead to range contraction and 
population extinction (see Factor A). As a species' range contracts and 
distances between populations increase, opportunities for gene flow are 
reduced. Historically, the Monticello-Dove Creek, San Miguel, Crawford, 
and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations were larger and were connected 
through more contiguous areas of sagebrush habitat. The loss and 
fragmentation of sagebrush habitat between the late 1950s and the early 
1990s led to the current isolation of these populations, which is 
reflected in low amounts of gene flow and isolation by distance (Oyler-
McCance et al. 2005, p. 635). However, Oyler-McCance et al. (2005, p. 
636) noted that a few individuals in their analysis appeared to have 
the genetic characteristics of a population other than their own, 
suggesting they were dispersers from a different population. Two 
probable dispersers were individuals moving from the San Miguel Basin 
population into Monticello-Dove Creek and Crawford. The San Miguel 
population itself appeared to have a mixture of individuals with 
differing probabilities of belonging to different clusters. This 
information suggests that the San Miguel population may act as a 
conduit of gene flow among the satellite populations surrounding the 
larger Gunnison Basin population. Additionally, another potential 
disperser into Crawford was found from the Gunnison Basin (Oyler-
McCance et al. 2005, p. 636). This result is not surprising given their 
close geographic proximity. The genetic makeup of the outlying 
Monticello-Dove Creek and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations were 
consistently distant from all other populations and from each other. 
This and other tests indicated that geographic distances (or 
separation) are correlated with the genetic distance between 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, p. 
635).
    Movement of local (not translocated) birds between the Monticello 
and Dove Creek populations has not been documented. In 2011, five 
translocated and radio-collared hens released in Dove Creek during the 
spring were recorded in Utah during the breeding season (Messmer 2013, 
p. 4). These movements may not be representative of typical behavior of 
local birds, however, since translocated birds have been known to make 
erratic or irregular movements following translocation.
    While we acknowledge there are likely benefits from translocating 
Gunnison sage-grouse from the Gunnison Basin to satellite populations 
(see Scientific Research and Related Conservation Efforts in Factor B), 
such efforts may have diluted the genetic makeup and potentially unique 
characteristics of some of the receiving populations (e.g., 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, which is thought to be more unique genetically). 
However, more research is needed to determine the success of 
translocations, what the effect is on genetic make-up within 
populations, and whether translocations should continue in all 
satellite populations.
    In northwestern Colorado, dispersal of juvenile male greater sage-
grouse had more influence on genetic diversity in populations than 
dispersal of females (Thompson 2012, p. 256). Based on observed bird 
dispersal, gene flow and connectivity in greater sage-grouse can likely 
be maintained for populations 5 to 10 km apart (most dispersals were 
less than 10 km) and possibly as far as 20 km (the maximum dispersal 
distance of birds studied) (Thompson 2012, p. 285-286). If genetic 
diversity and dispersal mechanisms operate similarly in Gunnison sage-
grouse populations (typical dispersals less than 10 km), it is unlikely 
that gene flow and genetic diversity is currently being maintained due 
to the distance between these populations. The seven Gunnison sage-
grouse populations are generally more than 10 km apart from each other 
(based

[[Page 69290]]

on mapped occupied habitat), and most are 20 km apart or more (Figure 
1).
    Lowered hatching success is a well-documented indicator of 
inbreeding in wild bird populations. In one study, it was suggested 
that the low hatching success rates observed in Gunnison sage-grouse 
may have been due to inbreeding depression (Stiver et al. 2008, p. 479, 
and references therein). Other bird species that had undergone genetic 
bottlenecks have had similar hatchability rates. Independent of genetic 
pressures or differences in a given population, some eggs fail to hatch 
because they are infertile or simply do not develop fully. Based on a 
review of sage-grouse research in Colorado, an estimated 10 percent of 
eggs produced will likely fail to hatch, even in healthy populations 
(CPW 2013b, p. 12). However, we expect that hatch failure rates would 
likely increase above that level in smaller populations where 
inbreeding is more likely to occur.

Effective Population Size and Population Viability Analyses

    Effective population size (Ne) is an important parameter in 
conservation biology. It is defined as the number of individuals 
contributing their genes to the next generation. In technical terms, 
effective population size is an idealized population size of breeding 
adults that would experience the same rate of (1) loss of 
heterozygosity (the amount and number of different genes within 
individuals in a population), (2) change in the average inbreeding 
coefficient (a calculation of the amount of breeding by closely related 
individuals), or (3) change in variance in allele (one member of a pair 
or series of genes occupying a specific position in a specific 
chromosome) frequency through genetic drift (the fluctuation in gene 
frequency occurring in an isolated population) as the actual population 
(Wright 1930, entire).
    The effective size of a population is often much less than its 
actual size or number of individuals. As effective population size 
decreases, the rate of loss of allelic diversity via genetic drift 
increases. Two consequences of this loss of genetic diversity, reduced 
fitness through inbreeding depression and reduced response to sustained 
directional selection (``adaptive potential''), are thought to elevate 
extinction risk (Stiver et al., 2008, p. 472 and references therein). 
While no consensus exists on the population size needed to retain a 
level of genetic diversity that maximizes evolutionary potential (i.e., 
the ability to adapt to local changes) for a given species, up to 5,000 
greater sage-grouse may be necessary to maintain an effective 
population size of 500 birds (Aldridge and Brigham, 2003, p. 30). Other 
recent recommendations also suggest populations of at least 5,000 
individuals to deal with evolutionary and demographic constraints 
(Traill et al. 2009, p. 3, and references therein). While the 
persistence of wild populations is usually influenced more by 
ecological rather than by genetic effects, once populations are reduced 
in size, genetic factors become increasingly important (Lande 1995, p. 
318).
    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a risk assessment tool used 
to predict the relative probability of extinction for a species, 
population, or various population sizes under different management 
scenarios to aid in decision-making for conservation and management. 
Fundamentally, population viability and persistence depends on a 
population's growth rate (births and deaths) and the recruitment of 
individuals through immigration and emigration. PVA does not predict 
the real or absolute risk of extinction for a species or population, 
only their relative extinction risk under various scenarios, and thus 
should be interpreted and applied with caution. To date, three 
population viability analyses or studies have been conducted for 
Gunnison sage-grouse: (1) A PVA developed as part of the RCP in 2005 by 
Dr. Phil Miller through CPW (GSRSC 2005, Appendix G); (2) a PVA 
developed for the Service in 2005 by Dr. Edward Garton (Garton 2005, 
entire); and (3) a demographic study and PVA developed by Dr. Amy Davis 
at Colorado State University (Davis 2012, entire). Each of these 
studies and their results are described in detail below.
RCP Population Viability Analysis
    Dr. Phillip Miller prepared a population viability analysis (PVA) 
for the Gunnison sage-grouse for CPW as part of the RCP (GSRSC 2005, 
Appendix G). The purpose of this PVA was to assist the CPW in 
evaluating the relative risk of extinction for each population under 
the conditions at that time (i.e., the risk of extinction if nothing 
changed), to estimate relative extinction probabilities and loss of 
genetic diversity over time for various population sizes, and to 
determine the sensitivity of Gunnison sage-grouse population growth 
rates to various demographic parameters (GSRSC 2005, p. 169). The PVA 
was used by the RCP as a tool to predict the relative, not absolute or 
precise, probability of extinction for the different populations under 
various management scenarios based on information available at that 
time. The model did not incorporate certain factors including habitat 
loss and fragmentation, density-dependent reproduction, effects of 
disease, or inbreeding depression, all of which may affect the 
demographic rates and, therefore, status of a given population (GSRSC 
2005, p. 170). Furthermore, while Gunnison sage-grouse demographic data 
were used where available, the PVA also applied greater sage-grouse 
demographic data, as needed (GSRSC 2005, p. 169). We believe it is 
appropriate to apply greater sage-grouse data where Gunnison sage-
grouse data are not available or limited. However, this may weaken 
inferences in assessing the viability of Gunnison sage-grouse due to 
the species' unique behavioral and genetic characteristics (Young et 
al. 2000b, entire) and potentially different vital rates, such as 
annual survival (Davis 2012, p. 63) and nesting success rates (Davis 
2012, p. 11). In contrast, another more recent PVA applied only 
Gunnison sage-grouse demographic data (Davis 2012, entire) (see Davis 
Population Viability Analysis), and thus it is likely more reliable in 
terms of assessing the viability of the species.
    This 2005 PVA indicated that, in the absence of additional habitat 
loss and fragmentation and the factors noted above, stable populations 
in excess of 500 birds had an extinction risk of less than 5 percent 
within the next 50 years following the study (that is, through 2055) 
and may be considered ``secure'' (GSRSC 2005, p. 170; GSRSC 2005, p. G-
21). The PVA found that the probability of the Gunnison Basin 
population going extinct within the next 50 years was less than 
approximately 1 percent (GSRSC 2005, p. G-21). The Gunnison Basin 
population was approximately 3,000 individuals around the time the PVA 
was developed (2005). If the model were re-run, with approximately 
3,978 birds as of 2014, the predicted risk of extinction would be even 
lower due to this population increase (Phillips 2013, p. 2). This view 
does not take into account, however, other new information that could 
be incorporated into an updated model re-run, such as the Gunnison 
sage-grouse demographic data collected by Davis (2012, entire). The 
model concluded that the Gunnison Basin population, and therefore the 
species, is likely to survive over the long term (GSRSC 2005, p. 179), 
barring catastrophic events such as disease or prolonged drought 
(assuming a degree of consistency of environmental influences on sage-
grouse demography) or a

[[Page 69291]]

significant reduction in carrying capacity through habitat loss.
    In contrast, the analysis found that small populations (<25 to 50 
birds) are at high risk of extinction within the next 50 years (through 
the year 2055) (assuming some degree of consistency of environmental 
influences on sage-grouse demography), even if these populations are 
expected to increase over the long-term (GSRSC 2005, pp. 170 and G-27). 
A stable population of 50 birds had an extinction probability of 59 
percent within the next 50 years; a stable population of 25 birds had 
an extinction probability of 86 percent within the next 50 years. The 
analysis also found that the probability of extinction was higher yet 
for declining populations of this size (GSRSC 2005, p. G-27). However, 
the model found that augmentation of birds (approximately 10 birds 
every five years) would considerably reduce the probability of 
extinction (to near zero) for these smaller populations (GSRSC 2005, 
pp. 176-179).
    Based on the RCP PVA (GSRSC 2005, Appendix G), in the absence of 
intervention such as translocating of birds, the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-
Sims Mesa (74 birds) and Dove Creek (24 birds) populations are 
currently at high risk of extirpation (GSRSC 2005, pp. 168-179). 
Likewise, the Poncha Pass population has remained below 50 birds since 
1999, and has generally declined over this period (Figure 3), 
indicating this population is also at high risk of extirpation, based 
on this PVA. Zero birds were counted at leks in the spring of 2013 for 
the Poncha Pass population. However, 17 birds were translocated into 
the population in the fall of 2013, with 16 surviving in the spring of 
2014 and 10 more birds were translocated in the spring of 2014 (see 
Scientific Research and Related Conservation Efforts in Factor B). 
Considerable translocation efforts from 2010 to 2013 have likely 
contributed to increased population estimates in the Crawford and 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa populations (see Current Distribution and Population 
Estimates and Trends; and Scientific Research and Related Conservation 
Efforts). Without the recent increases in bird numbers, Crawford and 
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa population would also likely be at serious risk of 
population extinction (i.e., around 50 birds and a 59 percent or 
greater probability of extinction), based on this PVA.
Garton Population Viability Analysis
    To estimate population viability, Garton (2005, entire) analyzed 
trends in abundance for Gunnison sage-grouse populations and the 
species rangewide using male lek count data from the preceding 50 years 
from CPW and the UDWR. Due to inconsistencies in data collection over 
time, the analysis was conducted for two time periods--long-term lek 
data collected since 1957 for CPW, and since 1976 for UDWR, through 
2005; and short-term lek data from 1995-2005 when sampling 
methodologies were standardized and became more consistent. Relative 
population size from past years was calculated by setting the most 
recent population estimate at the time (in 2005) to 100 and calculating 
the previous years' population size relative to that, so that it could 
be viewed as a percentage of the 2005 population level.
    Garton's (2005, pp. 3-4) analysis indicated that the rangewide 
population varied between a low of 40 percent of the 2005 lek count in 
1991 and 1993; to a high of 140 percent of the 2005 lek count in 1969. 
He suggested that unusual counts, which represented at least a 50 
percent change in abundance, were preceded or followed by more typical 
count indices, and that these outlier data probably reflect measurement 
errors rather than actual changes population size. For instance, lek 
count data collected for 2005 show a considerable increase in the 
number of males attending leks, with an approximate 50 percent increase 
from 2004 estimates of rangewide abundance. This aberration is thought 
to be the result of unusual weather conditions during that period and, 
consequently, possible double- or triple-counting of males across 
multiple lek sites at various elevations (Garton 2005, pp. 2-3, and 
references therein). Because of this, the analyses were conducted both 
with and without 2005 data. Including the 2005 data in the long-term 
analysis (since 1957) resulted in a slightly increasing population 
trend; without the 2005 count data, the analysis showed a slightly 
decreasing population trend, which Garton (2005, p. 4) suggested was a 
better descriptor of observed trends in population estimates. 
Statistical analyses of the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa and Dove 
Creek populations could not be completed due to low lek counts and 
inconsistencies in sampling over time. Likewise, the small Poncha Pass 
population was not analyzed because it had been surveyed for only 6 
years and the population was augmented with birds from Gunnison Basin 
during that time.
    The long-term analysis (1957-2005) by Garton (2005, entire) found 
that the rangewide population of Gunnison sage-grouse was stable, 
neither increasing nor decreasing, during that time period. Annual 
rates of change were highly variable, with some of that variability 
likely attributed to different sampling methods rather than actual 
population change. The shorter analysis period (1995-2005) yielded the 
same results, although the variability was reduced, likely due to more 
consistent data collection methods. Individual populations reflected 
the trends in the rangewide analysis, in that some populations were 
slightly increasing and some were slightly decreasing.
    As observed in similar analyses conducted for the greater sage-
grouse (Connelly et al. 2004, entire), density-dependent models 
appeared to more accurately describe observed population trends in 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Garton's study suggested an apparent inverse 
density-dependent pattern of population change in Gunnison sage-grouse, 
resulting in a low probability (less than 1 percent) that the 
population will decline to low abundances (below 25 percent of the 2005 
population index), provided environmental factors (e.g., catastrophic 
drought, disease, continuing habitat loss) do not reduce equilibrium 
population size or increase the variability in population change 
(Garton 2005, pp. 4-5).
    Of the populations studied, Gunnison Basin and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
showed slightly increasing trends in abundance of Gunnison sage-grouse; 
San Miguel Basin, Crawford, and Monticello showed slightly decreasing 
trends in abundance from 1995 to 2005 (Table 13 below). The short-term 
analysis (1995-2005) indicated that the San Miguel Basin population was 
declining rapidly, as much as a 10 percent decline per year, though 
there was uncertainty in this prediction due to possible sampling 
errors. Declines were also evident in the Monticello population.

Table 13--Summary of Population Trends for the Gunnison Sage-Grouse From
                   1995 to 2005 (Garton 2005, Entire)
 [Values are the finite rate of change in the population, where 1 is no
change, numbers less than 1 indicate a decline, and numbers greater than
                         1 indicate an increase]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Finite rate  of
                       Population                         change  1995-
                                                               2005
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gunnison Basin.........................................             1.05
Pi[ntilde]on Mesa......................................             1.09
San Miguel Basin.......................................            0.902
Crawford...............................................            0.999
Monticello.............................................             0.99
Rangewide..............................................            1.049
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Six peer reviewers evaluated the report by Garton (2005, entire). 
We received comments from five of the

[[Page 69292]]

reviewers, three generally favorable towards the report and its 
conclusions and two expressing concerns regarding limitations in the 
data sets, assumptions, and/or analyses. For example, one would have to 
assume that habitat availability over time would remain stable in order 
to conclude that Gunnison sage-grouse numbers are unlikely to 
experience a decline in the future. Also, while the conclusions showed 
that the number of males per lek remained relatively stable over time, 
the proportion of leks on which males were counted appeared to have 
declined, which could be indicative of population declines. Peer 
reviewers also recommended that more appropriate statistical tests 
would need to be applied to come to any conclusion about potential 
population trends and that emphasis should be on an independent 
analysis of each geographically isolated population because each 
population exhibits independent population dynamics. Population trend 
analyses were conducted on a population basis as well as rangewide. 
There was concern expressed that habitat loss over time was not 
accounted for, that population declines would go unnoticed, and that 
population trends would appear far too optimistic.
Davis Demographic Study and Population Viability Analysis
    The Davis PVA (2012, entire) utilized demographic data specific to 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations and incorporated other variables such 
as extreme weather, fire, disease, and predation known to affect 
survival and reproduction rates in Gunnison sage-grouse. This is in 
contrast to the RCP PVA (GSRSC 2005, Appendix G) which combined greater 
and Gunnison sage-grouse demographic data and did not account for 
environmental variation (fire, disease, predation) other than 
simulating a 3-year drought resulting in increased mortality; and the 
Garton PVA (Garton 2005, entire) which only examined lek count-based 
population estimates and trends to estimate viability. To estimate and 
project Gunnison sage-grouse population trends, Davis (2012, pp. 1, 18) 
conducted a demographic study of the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel 
populations, the two largest populations. CPW acknowledged that this 
study represents the most current and longest set of demographic data 
collected for Gunnison sage-grouse (Phillips 2013, p. 2). Demographic 
parameters (survival and reproduction rates) from both populations 
collected from 2005 to 2010 were used to estimate population size and 
viability over the next 30 years (Davis 2012, p. 79). These demographic 
data were combined with longer-term lek count data from 1996 to 2011 
(lek count protocols were standardized in 1996 (GSRSC 2005, p. 46)) in 
the Gunnison Basin to model that population. The purpose of the model 
(i.e., an integrated model that combined the two datasets) was to 
reduce potential weaknesses and biases in both datasets--high 
variability and uncertainty with the lek count data, and the small 
sample size of the shorter-term demographic data--thereby statistically 
improving estimates and predictions (Davis 2012, pp. 125-126). Key 
methods and findings of this study are summarized below.
    The demographic component of the study found no apparent difference 
in nest success rates or adult survival between the San Miguel and 
Gunnison Basin populations (Davis 2012, p. 37). However, the results 
may be due in part to the limited duration and small sample size of the 
study, especially in the San Miguel population (Davis 2012, p. 92). 
Nest success from 2005 to 2011 varied widely between 21 and 60 percent, 
with an average of 39 percent (Davis 2012, p. 9). Contrary to 
expectations, nest site vegetation characteristics did not have a 
strong influence on nest success in the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel 
populations (Davis 2012, p. 10). Temporal factors appeared to have the 
greatest influence on nesting success, as earlier season nesting tended 
to be more successful than later season nesting, and the longer that 
incubation occurred, the greater the risk of nest failure (Davis 2012, 
p. 1). No yearlings were observed in the San Miguel population during 
the study (Davis 2012, p. 12).
    Juvenile recruitment was also evaluated within and between the two 
populations (Davis 2012, p. 27). Chick survival (hatching to 30 days of 
age) was higher in the Gunnison Basin than the San Miguel population 
(Davis 2012, p. 44). Although sample size in the San Miguel Basin was 
small (eight chicks were studied), none survived to 30 days of age, 
meaning no recruitment (survival of bird from hatching to breeding age) 
occurred over a 4-year period (Davis 2012, p. 37). Of 282 chicks 
studied in the Gunnison Basin, 124 (44 percent) survived to 30 days of 
age (Davis 2012, pp. 37-38). A slight negative trend in chick survival 
and stronger negative trend in juvenile survival in the Gunnison Basin 
population occurred from 2005 to 2010 (Davis 2012, p. 27). Juvenile 
recruitment declined from 26 percent in 2005 to 5 percent in 2010. 
These results indicate that lower juvenile recruitment may be 
contributing to the study's observed population declines in the 
Gunnison Basin (birds from the San Miguel population were not included 
in the juvenile survival analysis, as none survived to 31 days), and 
that the population may not be as stable as has been suggested. 
However, study results may be due to the limited sample size (duration) 
of the study, and a longer study may indicate that declines observed 
are fluctuations within a larger cyclical time series (Davis 2012, p. 
38).
    Adult and yearling survival rates were also analyzed within and 
between the two populations. The effect of harsh winter conditions on 
these demographic rates was also studied. Male survival rates were 
lower during the lekking season (March--April), and female survival 
rates were lower during the nesting and chick rearing season (May- 
August) (Davis 2012, p. 55). Harsh winters (as indicated by above 
normal snow depth), which occurred during 2007 and 2008 in the Gunnison 
Basin, and during 2009 and 2010 in the San Miguel Basin, had minimal 
effect on Gunnison sage-grouse survival (Davis 2012, pp. 55, 65). The 
study found no differences in adult and yearling survival between the 
San Miguel and Gunnison Basin populations. This was surprising, given 
the apparent decline in bird numbers in the San Miguel population based 
on lek count estimates, suggesting declines are likely due to reduced 
recruitment and juvenile survival rates rather than reduced adult 
survival (Davis 2012, p. 66).
    The Davis PVA applied the derived baseline demographic data for 
survival and reproduction rates to estimate population growth of 
Gunnison sage-grouse, including an analysis of viability and extinction 
risk. The study also evaluated the effects of bird translocation 
efforts on the survival of the San Miguel (destination) population and 
the Gunnison Basin (source) population (Davis 2012, p. 79, 87). Based 
on the six years of demographic data collected from 2005 to 2010 in the 
Gunnison Basin, and four years of demographic data collected from 2007 
to 2010 in the San Miguel population, deterministic population models 
indicated that both the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel populations were 
declining during those time periods, with more pronounced declines in 
the latter (Davis 2012, p. 87). For the four years when data was 
collected in both populations (2007-2010), population growth rates 
([lambda]) ranged from 0.65 to 0.91 in the Gunnison Basin, and 0.52 to 
0.68 in the San Miguel population (Davis 2012, pp. 87-88). A [lambda] 
value of 1.0 indicates a stable population; values

[[Page 69293]]

less than 1.0 indicate a declining population; and values greater than 
1.0 indicate an increasing population. Of the six years of study (2005-
2010) in the two populations combined, population growth rates ranged 
from 0.65 in 2010, to 1.14 in 2006 (Davis 2012, p. 134). Of the six 
years of study in the Gunnison Basin alone (from 2005 to 2010), four of 
these years indicated population declines and two years indicated 
population growth (Davis 2012, p. 87).
    Incorporating environmental stochasticity (variability in 
population growth rates due to external factors such as weather, fire, 
disease, and predation) and demographic stochasticity (variability in 
population growth rates due to survival and reproduction rates), model 
simulations also predicted population declines in the future (Davis 
2012, pp. 105-106). Combining the six years of demographic data (2005 
to 2010) from both populations, environmental stochastic simulations 
resulted in a minimum extinction time of 31 years for both populations. 
Minimum extinction time is the earliest time at which population 
extinction occurred among the various modeled simulations in this 
study. This is in contrast to the mean extinction time, the average 
time of all modeled simulations at which population extinction 
occurred. Mean or expected extinction time in this PVA for the Gunnison 
Basin population is 58 years (Davis 2012, p. 137). Davis also (2012, p. 
92) noted, however that if the study had been conducted just a few 
years earlier or later, a different trend across time could have 
resulted, because it was based on a 6-year period of time when the 
population was experiencing a slight decline.
    Assuming and incorporating an additional year of increasing, 
constant, or declining population growth into these simulations to 
model demographic stochasticity resulted in minimum extinction times of 
41, 29, and 20 years, respectively for both populations combined (Davis 
2012, p. 88). Additionally, the extinction risk (i.e., proportion of 
simulations that went extinct within 30 years) was substantially larger 
for San Miguel than for Gunnison Basin (0.53 for San Miguel, 0 for 
Gunnison Basin) (Davis 2012, p. 88). Demographic stochastic simulations 
for the Gunnison Basin population approached extinction, but none went 
extinct over the 30-year period. Therefore, the estimated extinction 
risk was 0.00 for the Gunnison Basin population over this period, 
indicating a low probability of extinction over the next 30 years due 
to demographic stochasticity alone (Davis 2012, pp. 88, 106). However, 
looking further out, demographic stochastic simulations resulted in 
mean extinction time of 58 years for the Gunnison Basin population, 
without removing any birds for translocation efforts (removal of birds 
decreased the mean extinction time) (Davis 2012, pp. 111, 137). These 
demographic projections indicate the Gunnison Basin population is 
relatively stable, but may be in decline (Davis 2012, p. 137-138). 
However, see discussion involving the integrated model below. 
Additionally, Davis also (2012, p. 92) noted that if the study had been 
conducted just a few years earlier or later, a different trend across 
time could have resulted, because it was based on a 6-year period of 
time when the population was experiencing a slight decline.
    Davis (2012, p. 96) also examined the periodic removal of birds 
from the Gunnison Basin and whether a long-term translocation effort 
would be sustainable since it could negatively affect the viability of 
that population depending upon the number of birds translocated each 
time and the frequency of translocations. Results indicated that, in 
general, more frequent removal of birds from the source population had 
a greater effect than removing a larger number less frequently.
    If trends observed during the study continue into the future, 
declines in both the San Miguel and Gunnison Basin populations are 
expected to occur over the next 30 years (i.e., by 2042). However, the 
results may be due in part to the limited duration and small sample 
size of the study (Davis 2012, p. 92) (see also discussion involving 
the integrated model below.) Davis (2012, pp. 89, 93) indicated that 
adult survival may be the most important vital rate for steeply 
declining populations, such as the San Miguel population, while 
juvenile survival is most important for increasing or slightly 
declining populations, such as the Gunnison Basin population.
    An evaluation of translocation efforts indicated that more frequent 
translocations would increase population persistence in the San Miguel 
population, but with negative effects on the Gunnison Basin, or source, 
population (decreased mean and minimum extinction times) (Davis 2012, 
p. 91). Frequent translocations would avoid extinction of the San 
Miguel population, based on the population models, although this would 
mean maintaining a population of translocated birds (Davis 2012, p. 
96). Furthermore, juvenile recruitment in that population would need to 
be improved for the population to persist on its own (Davis 2012, p. 
97).
    To further evaluate population viability, Davis (2012, pp. 125-126) 
combined baseline demographic data and lek count data from the Gunnison 
Basin in a separate, integrated population model. Short-term 
demographic data were combined with long-term lek count data from 1996 
to 2011 (16 years) to reduce potential weaknesses in both datasets--
high variability and uncertainty with the lek count data and small 
sample size of the demographic data--with the goal of statistically 
improving estimates and predictions (Davis 2012, pp. 125-126). Lek 
count protocols were standardized in 1996 (GSRSC 2005, p. 46); prior to 
that time, data showed high variability and uncertainty and, therefore, 
were not included in the analysis (Davis 2012, pp. 139, 143). The 
analysis indicated that the Gunnison Basin population has declined 
slightly over the past 16 years, with a mean annual population growth 
rate of 0.94, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 0.83 to 1.04. 
This growth range was found to be narrower (more accurate) than growth 
estimates based on lek count data alone (0.79-1.92, with a mean of 
1.04) or demographic data alone (0.65-1.14, with a mean of 0.89) (Davis 
2012, p. 134). On average, the population appeared to be relatively 
stable over the 16-year period, but the end of the time series showed a 
slight decline (Davis 2012, p. 138). However, it was noted that results 
of the study are preliminary, and further testing is needed to validate 
the model (Davis 2012, p. 140).
    More recently, incorporating an additional year of lek count data 
into their integrated model (1996-2012), Davis et al. (in press) states 
that the Gunnison Basin population is ``slightly declining'' and the 
growth rate of this population has been variable, but is ``near 
stable.'' The updated growth rate was calculated to be 0.988, with the 
95 percent confidence interval also including stable and slightly 
increasing growth rates (0.893 to 1.079).
    Davis (2012, p. 139) cautioned against making conclusions and 
population estimates based on lek count data collected prior to 1996, 
due to the data's high variability and uncertainty. The number of lek 
areas surveyed in Colorado increased beginning in 1996, when lek count 
protocols were standardized (GSRSC 2005, p. 46), indicating increases 
in abundance that may not be accurate (Davis 2012, p. 143). Even 
standardized lek counts show high variability and uncertainty and, 
therefore, should not be used alone to estimate or project Gunnison 
sage-

[[Page 69294]]

grouse populations (Davis 2012, p. 165). Demographic data showed 
consistently lower population growth rates than indicated by 
standardized lek count data, suggesting an imperfect relationship 
between the two data types. Lek count data sometimes resulted in 
extremely high values of population growth that were not realistic 
based on demographic analyses (Davis 2012, pp. 134, 136).
Discussion of All Population Viability Analyses
    The most current and comprehensive demographic study and population 
viability analysis for Gunnison sage-grouse (Davis PVA) indicated that 
the San Miguel population is showing a decline, and the Gunnison Basin 
population has been relatively stable over the past 16 years (up to 
2011), with a slight decline towards the end of the study period (Davis 
2012, entire). Incorporating environmental and demographic 
stochasticity into the models also predicted declines in both of these 
populations in the future (Davis 2012, pp. 105-106). Combining 
demographic data from both populations, environmental stochastic 
simulations resulted in a minimum extinction time of 31 years (i.e., 
2043) for the two populations combined (Davis 2012, p. 88). For the San 
Miguel population, demographic stochastic simulations indicated a high 
probability (0.53) of extinction over the next 30 years (2042) (Davis 
2012, p. 88). Demographic stochastic simulations for the Gunnison Basin 
population approached extinction over this period, but none went 
extinct over the 30-year period (extinction risk of 0.00) (Davis 2012, 
pp. 88, 106). However, looking further out, demographic simulations 
resulted in a mean extinction time of 58 years for the Gunnison Basin 
population (without removing any birds for translocation efforts) 
(Davis 2012, pp. 111, 137), or by about 2070. Davis (2012, p. 92) 
noted, however, that if the study had been conducted just a few years 
earlier or later, a different trend across time could have resulted, 
because it was based on a 6-year period of time when the population was 
experiencing a slight decline.
    The Davis PVA also suggested that the Gunnison Basin population may 
not be as stable as previously thought (Davis 2012, p. 38). Based on an 
integrated analysis of 16 years of lek count and demographic data, the 
Gunnison Basin population may be declining slightly (Davis 2012, p. 
137). Further, based on Davis's findings, we infer that the Gunnison 
Basin population may not be as large as lek count-based estimates 
suggest. Davis (2012, pp. 134, 136) found that lek count data resulted 
in extremely high values of population growth that were not realistic 
based on demographic data for the Gunnison Basin population. Davis 2012 
(p. 138) and Davis et al. in press state, however, that the Gunnison 
Basin population has shown only a slight decline since 1996, which they 
also describe as currently being ``relatively stable'' and ``near-
stable.''
    In contrast, the earliest population viability analysis for 
Gunnison sage-grouse from the RCP (GSRSC 2005, Appendix G) indicated a 
low probability of extinction (less than 1 percent) for the Gunnison 
Basin population (with approximately 3,000 birds at the time); and a 
low extinction risk (less than 5 percent) for smaller populations (more 
than 500 birds) over the next 50 years (i.e., to 2055) (GSRSC 2005, p. 
G-21). This model concluded that the Gunnison Basin population, and 
therefore the species, is likely to survive over the long term (GSRSC 
2005, p. 179). We are concerned, however, with the reliability of the 
estimated extinction probabilities and conclusions from this study, for 
reasons noted above and as follows. Applying the extinction 
probabilities from this study, some satellite populations would have 
been considered relatively secure in recent years based on estimated 
abundance. For example, the San Miguel and Monticello populations, with 
approximately 200 to 400 birds or more in recent years (see Figure 3), 
would have had a relatively low risk of extinction over the 50 years 
ending in 2055 according to the RCP PVA. However, these populations 
have declined since 2005 (Figure 3; also see Relevant Species 
Information in this section) to a point that their survival and long-
term viability is currently at risk. This suggests that the extinction 
risk for individual Gunnison sage-grouse populations, including the 
Gunnison Basin, and the entire species is higher than was estimated in 
this study (i.e., the study may have overestimated the viability of 
Gunnison sage-grouse). This PVA combined greater and Gunnison sage-
grouse demographic data and did not account for environmental variation 
(such as fire, disease, and predation), in contrast to the Davis PVA.
    Long-term (1957-2005) and short-term analyses (1996-2005) from 
Garton (2005, entire) found that the rangewide population of Gunnison 
sage-grouse was generally stable, neither increasing nor decreasing 
during that time period. Accordingly, some populations were declining 
and some were increasing. The study did not estimate extinction 
probabilities. We are concerned with the current relevance of the 
Garton (2005, entire) study, however, as nine additional years of lek 
count data have become available since the study was conducted. These 
new lek count data, combined with other data from 1996 to 2010 (per 
Davis 2012, entire), provide a more precise estimate of population 
levels and trends than from information that was available in 2005. As 
discussed earlier, lek count protocols were first standardized in 1996 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 46), and lek count data collected prior to that year 
were prone to high variability and uncertainty (Davis 2012, p. 139). 
Based on lek count population estimates, relatively stable trends in 
the Gunnison Basin population 1996 to 2014 match that of the findings 
in Garton (2005, entire). However, a relatively stable rangewide 
population, as indicated by Garton (2005, entire), is not supported by 
recent declines in several of the satellite populations from 1996 to 
2014 (Figure 3; also see Relevant Species Information above). The 
apparent rangewide stability of Gunnison sage-grouse under the 2005 
Garton PVA is influenced primarily by the largest population (the 
Gunnison Basin--about 63 percent of the species' range) (Figure 2). 
However, based on overall declining trends in several of the satellite 
populations (encompassing about 37 percent of the species' occupied 
range; and 16 percent of the known birds), as well as the questions 
raised by the Davis PVA regarding the long-term stability of the 
Gunnison Basin population, we do not agree that the species is stable 
rangewide. Finally, in contrast to the Davis PVA, the Garton PVA only 
examined lek count-based population estimates and trends to estimate 
viability, and did not consider demographic or environmental factors or 
stochasticity.
    Each of these population viability models has its own limitations 
and weaknesses, as described above. Again, a PVA does not predict the 
real or absolute risk of extinction for a species or population, only 
their relative extinction risk under various scenarios, and thus should 
be interpreted and applied with caution. Further, the available PVAs 
for Gunnison sage-grouse have resulted in somewhat disparate findings. 
The two earlier PVAs (GSRSC 2005, entire; Garton 2005, entire) 
collectively suggest most Gunnison sage-grouse populations are 
relatively stable and that the species is likely to persist into the 
future, attributable primarily to the large size and apparently stable 
trend of the

[[Page 69295]]

Gunnison Basin population. On the other hand, the Davis model (2012, 
entire) showed that the second largest population, the San Miguel 
population, is at risk of extinction, with 53 percent of model 
simulations reaching extinction in the next 30 years (by 2042) (Davis 
2012, p. 88), and that even the largest Gunnison Basin population is 
declining with a mean extinction time of 58 years from now, or by about 
2070, due to demographic stochasticity alone (Davis 2012, pp. 111, 
137). Davis (2012, p. 92) noted, however, that if the study had been 
conducted just a few years earlier or later, a different trend across 
time could have resulted, because it was based on a 6-year period of 
time when the population was experiencing a slight decline. Based on 
recent population trend data and related information, we identified 
concerns with the two earliest PVAs and their current relevance and 
reliability for assessing the status of Gunnison sage-grouse now and in 
the future.
    For the reasons stated above and here, we find that Davis (2012, 
entire) and Davis et al. (in press) represent the most current and best 
available scientific information regarding the viability of Gunnison 
sage-grouse. We recognize that absolute extinction probabilities 
provided in the Davis PVA are uncertain. However, based on that study 
(Davis 2012, entire), the survival and persistence of the San Miguel 
population appears to be at risk, with a 53 percent chance of 
extinction by about 2042. Based on this finding, it is reasonable to 
assume that the viability of the remaining satellite populations is 
also at similar risk due to their small size, though we recognize that 
environmental, demographic, genetic, and other factors likely vary 
between populations, and that these differences will influence survival 
and viability rates. Due to demographic fluctuations alone, the Davis 
PVA also indicated that the Gunnison Basin population's viability is at 
risk in the future, with a mean extinction time of 58 years, or by 
about 2070.
Resiliency, Redundancy, and Representation
    In this section, we synthesize the information above to evaluate 
resiliency, redundancy, and representation as they relate to the 
viability of Gunnison sage-grouse. Resiliency refers to the capacity of 
an ecosystem, population, or organism to recover quickly from 
disturbance by tolerating or adapting to changes or effects caused by a 
disturbance or a combination of disturbances. Redundancy, in this 
context, refers to the ability of a species to compensate for 
fluctuations in or loss of populations across the species' range such 
that the loss of a single population has little or no lasting effect on 
the structure and functioning of the species as a whole. Representation 
refers to the conservation of the diversity of a species, including 
genetic makeup.
    Small population sizes, declining population trends, low genetic 
diversity, geographic isolation, and overall low viability (see 
preceding discussions in this section) indicate that long-term 
persistence and evolutionary or adaptive potential are compromised in 
the six satellite populations. This, in turn, suggests that resiliency 
is very low in the satellite populations, meaning they are less likely 
to tolerate or adapt to the changes and effects from current and future 
threats (see discussions in Factors A through C, and E). For example, 
drought conditions from 1999 through about 2003 (with residual effects 
lasting through about 2005) were closely associated with reductions in 
the sizes of all Gunnison sage-grouse populations (CDOW 2009b, entire; 
CPW 2013c, p. 9) (Figures 2 and 3) and lower nest success (CPW 2013c, 
p. 2). To date, most of the smaller satellite populations have not 
rebounded from declines around that time (Figure 3) (see Drought and 
Extreme Weather in this Factor E discussion below).
    In contrast, resilience currently appears to be relatively high in 
the Gunnison Basin population, likely due to a large effective 
population. For instance, drought has coincided with declines in the 
Gunnison Basin population (CDOW 2009b, entire; Figure 2), including 
declines at many of the lek complex areas (USFWS 2013c, pp. 1-2), but 
the population has since rebounded to pre-drought levels (see Drought 
and Extreme Weather in this section below for a detailed discussion). 
However, as the effects from drought, climate change, disease, and 
other substantial threats increase in the future, it is uncertain 
whether resilience in this population will be sufficient to offset 
declines (see Drought and Extreme Weather (Factor E discussion below), 
Climate Change (Factor A), and Disease (Factor C)). As discussed 
earlier, model simulations of environmental and demographic 
stochasticity (natural fluctuations) resulted in extinction of the 
Gunnison Basin population in 31 years (minimum extinction time) and 58 
years (mean extinction time), respectively. This analysis suggested the 
Gunnison Basin population may not be as stable (i.e., resilient) as 
previously thought (Davis 2012, entire) (see Davis Population Viability 
Analysis in this Factor E analysis). Davis also (2012, p. 92) noted, 
however, that if the study had been conducted just a few years earlier 
or later, a different trend across time could have resulted, because it 
was based on a 6-year period of time when the population was 
experiencing a slight decline.
    While population redundancy currently exists across the species' 
range, the best available information indicates the six satellite 
populations are at risk of extirpation in approximately 30 years (see 
preceding discussions in this section). Maintaining multiple satellite 
populations is important to the long-term viability of Gunnison sage-
grouse because they: (1) Increase species abundance rangewide; (2) 
minimize the threat of catastrophic events to the species since the 
populations are widely distributed across the landscape; and (3) 
provide additional genetic diversity not found in the Gunnison Basin 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 199). With the loss of any population, population 
redundancy will be lowered, thereby decreasing the species' chances of 
survival in the face of environmental, demographic, and genetic 
stochastic factors and catastrophic events (extreme drought, fire, 
disease, etc.). Therefore, multiple populations across a broad 
geographic area are required to provide insurance against catastrophic 
events, and the aggregate number of individuals across multiple 
populations increases the probability of demographic persistence and 
preservation of overall genetic diversity by providing an important 
genetic reservoir (representation) (GSRSC 2005, p. 179).
    Five physiographic zones or divisions are recognized in the 
Gunnison Basin population area for the purposes of monitoring and 
management actions (CSGWG 1997, pp. 6-7). It has been suggested that 
these zones represent subpopulations, or relatively discrete breeding 
populations, and that they provide adequate population redundancy and 
insurance against environmental disturbances such as drought (CPW 
2013c, pp. 2, 9-10; Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 137-138; 169-170; 
Gunnison County 2013b, p. 43). In this rule (see Drought and Extreme 
Weather in this Factor E analysis), we present information which 
indicates that, while some local redundancy may exist in the Gunnison 
Basin population, it is not at a large enough scale to withstand 
environmental pressures. While geographic and microclimatic variation 
in the Gunnison Basin likely provide some degree of local variation 
and, perhaps, local population redundancy to resist environmental 
pressures, past

[[Page 69296]]

drought has had apparently extensive impacts on this population, as 
indicated by concurrent negative trends in the majority of lek 
complexes (see Drought and Extreme Weather in this Factor E analysis). 
This information suggests that population redundancy in the Gunnison 
Basin is limited, and is inadequate at the landscape scale necessary to 
withstand more environmental pressures than those experienced to date, 
such as prolonged drought, climate change effects, disease, or any 
combination of those threats.
    As discussed above, representation across the species' range is 
currently low due to apparently isolated populations and limited gene 
flow. Genetic diversity is highest in the Gunnison Basin population, 
but low in the studied satellite populations (Oyler-McCance et al. 
2005, entire). If population sizes continue declining, genetic 
diversity will likely decrease as well (see Genetic Risks above in this 
Factor E analysis).
    Based on the information above, we find that resiliency, 
redundancy, and representation in Gunnison sage-grouse are inadequate 
overall to ensure the species' long-term viability. In particular, the 
best available information indicates population redundancy will be more 
limited in the near future, due to the extirpation of one or more 
satellite populations, thereby decreasing the species' chances of 
survival in the face of limiting factors. Current and future threats to 
the Gunnison Basin population (in particular, see Drought and Extreme 
Weather (Factor E discussion below), Climate Change (Factor A), and 
Disease (Factor C)) combined with the probable loss of one or more 
satellite populations and overall reduction of range indicate the long-
term persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse is at risk.
Summary of Small Population Size and Structure
    Negative effects on population viability, such as reduced 
reproductive success or loss of genetic variation and diversity are a 
concern as populations decline and become smaller or more isolated. 
Small population size and population structure occur in all of the six 
satellite populations, or across approximately 37 percent of occupied 
range for the species (see Relevant Species Information in this 
section). Lek count data for the last 19 years (1996 to 2014) as a 
whole indicate that several satellite populations are in decline 
(despite increases in numbers in some populations in the last several 
years Figure 3). Integrating lek count data and demographic data, the 
Gunnison Basin population, the largest population, may be declining 
slightly and may not be quite as stable as previously thought (Davis et 
al. in press; Davis 2012, pp. 134, 38). Furthermore, because lek count 
data tend to overestimate populations (Davis 2012, pp. 134, 136) the 
Gunnison Basin population may not be large as has been estimated.
    Based on small effective population sizes, the satellite 
populations are at risk of inbreeding depression and could be losing 
evolutionary or adaptive potential (Stiver et al. 2008, p. 479). Lower 
levels of genetic diversity were apparent in studied satellite 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse, thought to be the result of small 
population sizes and a high degree of geographic isolation (Oyler-
McCance et al. 2005, entire). All satellite populations sampled were 
found to be genetically discrete units (Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, p. 
635), so their loss would result in a decrease in genetic diversity of 
the species. The only population currently providing individuals for 
translocation is the Gunnison Basin population; however, we believe 
care should be taken to ensure that this population can sustain the 
loss of individuals required by a long-term translocation program to 
other populations.
    Historically, the satellite populations were larger and better 
connected through more contiguous areas of sagebrush habitat. The loss 
and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat between the late 1950's and the 
early 1990's led to the current isolation of these populations, as 
indicated by the low amounts of gene flow and isolation by distance 
(Oyler-McCance et al. 2005, p. 635). Genetic information suggests gene 
flow is limited between all populations (Oyler-MCance et al. 2005, 
entire) (see Genetics discussion above in this section).
    Available PVAs for Gunnison sage-grouse have resulted in somewhat 
disparate findings, each with their own limitations or weaknesses. We 
found that Davis (2012, entire) represents the best available 
scientific information regarding the viability of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
This represents the longest and most current demographic study and 
population viability analysis for Gunnison sage-grouse. Based on that 
study, the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel populations, the two largest 
populations, are declining, with more pronounced declines in the latter 
(Davis 2012, p. 87). The survival and persistence of the San Miguel 
population, and likely the smaller satellite populations as well, 
appear to be at risk in the near future. Though we expect the Gunnison 
Basin population will persist longer than the satellite populations, 
Davis (2012, entire) indicated that its future viability is also at 
risk due to natural environmental and demographic fluctuations.
    Small population size, declining population trends, and apparent 
isolation indicate long-term population persistence and evolutionary 
potential (i.e., resiliency) are compromised in the satellite 
populations. In general, while various natural factors would not limit 
sage-grouse populations across large geographic scales under historical 
conditions or in larger populations, they may contribute to local 
population declines or extirpations when populations are small or when 
weather patterns, habitats, or mortality rates are altered. Multiple 
populations across a broad geographic area provide insurance against 
catastrophic events (population redundancy), such as prolonged drought, 
and the aggregate number of individuals across all populations 
increases the probability of demographic persistence and preservation 
of overall genetic diversity by providing an important genetic 
reservoir (representation) (GSRSC 2005, p. 179). As discussed above, 
the best available information indicates the viability of the six 
satellite populations is currently at risk due to small population size 
and structure, and those cover 37 percent of the species occupied 
range. Loss of as much as 37 percent of the species' occupied range 
would impact the species' overall viability. The cumulative effects of 
ongoing and future threats, such as habitat loss (Factor A) and drought 
(discussed below), will further contribute to declining and 
increasingly isolated populations and, ultimately, smaller population 
size and structure.
    Based on the best available information, we determined that 
resiliency, redundancy, and representation in Gunnison sage-grouse are 
inadequate, or will be inadequate in the near term, to ensure the 
species' long-term viability. The best available information indicates 
population redundancy, in particular, will be limited or compromised in 
the near term, due to the probable extirpation of one or more satellite 
populations, thereby decreasing the species' chances of survival in the 
face of limiting factors. The rangewide cumulative effects of ongoing 
and future threats (Factors A through C, and E) will further compromise 
resiliency, redundancy, and representation of the species. Current and 
future threats to the Gunnison Basin population (in particular, see 
Drought (Factor E discussion below), Climate Change

[[Page 69297]]

(Factor A), and Disease (Factor C)) combined with the probable loss of 
satellite populations and overall reduction of range indicate the long-
term persistence of Gunnison sage-grouse is at risk.
Drought and Extreme Weather
    Drought and extreme weather such as severe winters have the 
potential to impact the survival and, therefore, persistence of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Drought is a common occurrence throughout the 
range of the Gunnison and greater sage-grouse (Braun 1998, p. 148) and 
is considered a universal ecological driver across the Great Plains 
region (Knopf 1996, p. 147). Infrequent, severe drought may cause local 
extinctions of annual forbs and grasses that have invaded stands of 
perennial species, and recolonization of these areas by native species 
may be slow (Tilman and El Haddi 1992, p. 263). Drought reduces 
vegetation cover (Milton et al. 1994, p. 75; Connelly et al. 2004, p. 
7-18), potentially resulting in increased soil erosion and subsequent 
reduced soil depths, decreased water infiltration, and reduced water 
storage capacity. Drought also can exacerbate other natural events such 
as defoliation of sagebrush by insects. For example, approximately 
2,544 km\2\ (982 mi\2\) of sagebrush shrublands died in Utah in 2003 as 
a result of drought and infestations with the Aroga (webworm) moth 
(Connelly et al. 2004, p. 5-11). Sage-grouse are affected by drought 
through the loss of vegetative habitat components, reduced insect 
production (Connelly and Braun 1997, p. 9), and increased risk of West 
Nile virus infections as described in the Factor C discussion above. 
These habitat component losses can result in declining sage-grouse 
populations due to increased nest predation and early brood mortality 
associated with decreased nest cover and food availability (Braun 1998, 
p. 149; Moynahan et al. 2007, p. 1781).
    Greater sage-grouse populations declined during the 1930s period of 
drought (Patterson 1952, p. 68; Braun 1998, p. 148). Drought conditions 
in the late 1980s and early 1990s also coincided with a period when 
sage-grouse populations were at historically low levels (Connelly and 
Braun 1997, p. 8). Although drought has been a consistent and natural 
part of the sagebrush-steppe ecosystem, drought impacts on sage-grouse 
can be exacerbated when combined with other habitat impacts, such as 
human developments, that reduce cover and food (Braun 1998).
    Aldridge et al. (2008, p. 992) found that the number of severe 
droughts from 1950 to 2003 had a weak negative effect on patterns of 
greater sage-grouse persistence. However, they cautioned that drought 
may have a greater influence on future sage-grouse populations as 
temperatures rise over the next 50 years, and synergistic effects of 
other threats affect habitat quality (Aldridge et al. 2008, p. 992). 
Drought has also been shown to have a negative effect on chick survival 
rates in greater sage-grouse (Aldridge 2005, entire), a key factor in 
sage-grouse population reproduction, survival, and persistence (GSRSC 
2005, p. 173). Populations on the periphery of the range may suffer 
extirpation during a severe and prolonged drought (Wisdom et al. 2011, 
pp. 468-469). In eastern Nevada, annual recruitment of greater sage-
grouse was higher in years with higher precipitation, based on annual 
precipitation, annual rainfall, and average winter snow depth. 
Likewise, greater sage-grouse population growth was positively 
correlated with annual rainfall and mean monthly winter snowpack in the 
study area. Annual survival of adult male greater sage-grouse was 
negatively affected by high summertime temperatures (i.e., higher 
survival rates occurred in years with relatively low maximum 
temperatures) (Blomberg et al. 2012, pp. 7, 9). In contrast, adult 
survival rates of Gunnison sage-grouse in the Gunnison Basin were not 
apparently influenced by drought conditions in 2005 (CPW 2013c, p. 9; 
Davis 2012, p. 55).
    Drought conditions from 1999 through about 2003 (with residual 
effects lasting through about 2005) were closely associated with 
reductions in the sizes of all populations of Gunnison sage-grouse 
(CDOW 2009b, entire; CPW 2013c, p. 9) (Figures 2 and 3) and lower nest 
success (CPW 2013c, p. 2). The driest summer on record in the Gunnison 
Basin occurred in 2002 (Gunnison County 2013a, pp. 112, 141). Based on 
population trends from lek count data, the Gunnison Basin population 
declined by about 30 percent from 2001 to 2003, but has since rebounded 
to pre-drought numbers (USFWS 2013c, p. 1; Figure 2). Therefore, larger 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse may be capable of enduring moderate 
or severe, but relatively short-term, drought. However, to date, most 
of the smaller satellite populations have not rebounded from declines 
around that time (Figure 3). This information highlights the potential 
significance of drought and its influence on Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations. It also indicates that resiliency is currently limited in 
the satellite populations (see Resiliency, Redundancy, and 
Representation). The small sizes of the satellite populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse make them particularly sensitive to stochastic and 
demographic fluctuations, and this vulnerability is intensified by 
drought (GSRSC 2005, p. G-22).
    Overall, habitat appeared to be negatively affected by drought 
conditions across a broad area of the Gunnison sage-grouse's range from 
1999 through about 2003, though those effects varied by population area 
(see our April 18, 2006, finding (71 FR 19954) for a detailed 
discussion). Defoliation and mortality of sagebrush plants, and the 
loss of grass and forb understories, was reported in 2003 across the 
range of Gunnison sage-grouse (GSRSC 2005, p. 143, and references 
therein), and in 2013 in the Gunnison Basin and Dry Creek Basin area of 
the San Miguel population (CPW 2013c, p. 10, and references therein). 
However, the reduction of sagebrush density, allowing for greater 
herbaceous growth and stimulating the onset of sagebrush seed crops, 
may have been beneficial to sagebrush habitats in certain areas over 
the long term (GSRSC 2005, p.143; CPW 2013c, p. 10). Nonetheless, as 
indicated by declining Gunnison sage-grouse populations during and 
following drought periods, the negative impacts of drought appear to 
outweigh any positive effects.
    The above information indicates that regional drought has operated 
at large enough scales to impact all populations of Gunnison sage-
grouse. Furthermore, it appears that past drought has had broad-scale, 
measurable impacts on even the Gunnison Basin population, despite its 
larger geographic area and population size. Figure 4 below shows 
changes in high male sage-grouse counts at lek complexes in the 
Gunnison Basin from 2001 to 2003. Based on lek count data, the largest 
declines in the Gunnison Basin occurred during this time (Figure 2). Of 
25 total lek complexes in the Gunnison Basin (not including leks where 
no birds were observed or where counts did not occur), approximately 68 
percent declined from 2001 to 2003, including many of the larger 
complex areas with typically more birds. The largest lek complex in the 
Gunnison Basin, Ohio Creek, declined by about 34 percent, from 530 
birds in 2001 to 348 birds in 2003 (USFWS 2013c, pp. 1-2). The eight 
lek complexes that remained stable or increased during this period (32 
percent of total lek complexes) were typically smaller lek complexes 
with fewer birds

[[Page 69298]]

(Lost Canyon, Gold Basin, Iola, North Parlin, and Sugar Creek); or, if 
larger, only minor increases in bird numbers were observed (Antelope, 
Hartman Gulch, Eagle Ridge) (USFWS 2013c, p. 3).
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR20NO14.003


 
 
 
    Figure 4. Change in High Male Counts at Lek Complexes \a\ in the
       Gunnison Basin From 2001 to 2003 (USFWS 2013c, pp. 1-2) \b\
 


[[Page 69299]]

    While geographic and microclimatic variation in the Gunnison Basin 
likely provides a degree of local variation and, perhaps, local 
population redundancy to resist environmental pressures, past drought 
had apparent widespread impacts on this population, as indicated by 
negative trends in the majority of lek complexes during that time. This 
suggests that population redundancy in the Gunnison Basin is limited, 
and is inadequate at the landscape scale necessary to withstand more 
substantial environmental pressures such as prolonged drought, climate 
change effects, disease, or a combination of those threats. The drought 
from 2001 to 2003 was severe but relatively short in duration. More 
severe, prolonged, or frequent drought would likely have more serious 
impacts. The species' apparent sensitivity to drought effects in all 
populations, including the Gunnison Basin and across most lek complexes 
in that population, suggests the species would have limited capacity to 
withstand or adapt to more significant drought and the interacting 
effects of climate change, disease, and other threats. Drought is also 
discussed under the Climate Change (Factor A); and Resiliency, 
Redundancy, and Representation (Factor E) sections.
    Harsh or severe winters appear to have minimal influence on 
Gunnison sage-grouse survival. Davis (2012, p. 55) evaluated the effect 
of harsh winter conditions (as indicated by above normal snow depth) on 
adult and yearling survival rates in the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel 
populations. The winter of 2007 to 2008 was one of the most severe 
winters on record in the Gunnison Basin, with snow depths that exceeded 
records for all but 2 winters in the last 50 years (CPW 2013c, p. 2; 
Gunnison County 2013a, p. 112). Severe winter conditions during 2007 
and 2008 in the Gunnison Basin, and during 2009 and 2010 in the San 
Miguel Basin, had minimal effect on Gunnison sage-grouse survival in 
both populations; and, in the Gunnison Basin, the highest nesting 
success during the study was observed the following spring (Davis 
(2012, p. 55; CPW 2013c, p. 2).
    Data are not available to evaluate whether the observed population 
declines are due to drought alone. Drought likely intensifies other 
stressors such as predation (Factor C), invasive plants (Factor A), and 
fire (Factor A). However, based on the best available information, 
drought has contributed to substantial declines in all Gunnison sage-
grouse populations. Therefore, we conclude that drought is a 
substantial threat to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide, both now and into 
the future.

Recreation

    Nonconsumptive recreational activities can degrade wildlife 
resources, water, and the land by distributing refuse, disturbing and 
displacing wildlife, increasing animal mortality, and simplifying plant 
communities (Boyle and Samson 1985, pp. 110-112). Sage-grouse response 
to disturbance may be influenced by the type of activity, recreationist 
behavior, predictability of activity, frequency and magnitude, timing, 
and activity location (Knight and Cole 1995, p. 71). We do not have any 
published literature concerning measured direct effects of recreational 
activities on Gunnison or greater sage-grouse, but can infer potential 
impacts on Gunnison sage-grouse from studies on related species and 
from research on nonrecreational activities. Displacement of male 
sharp-tailed grouse has been reported at leks due to human presence, 
resulting in loss of reproductive opportunity during the time of 
disturbance (Baydack and Hein 1987, p. 537). Female sharp-tailed grouse 
were observed at undisturbed leks while absent from disturbed leks 
during the same time period (Baydack and Hein 1987, p. 537). 
Disturbance of incubating female sage-grouse could cause displacement 
from nests, increased predator risk, or loss of nests. Disruption of 
sage-grouse during vulnerable periods at leks, or during nesting or 
early brood-rearing could affect reproduction or survival (Baydack and 
Hein 1987, pp. 537-538).
    Recreational use of off-highway vehicles (OHVs) is one of the 
fastest-growing outdoor activities. In the western United States, 
greater than 27 percent of the human population used OHVs for 
recreational activities between 1999 and 2004 (Knick et al. 2011, p. 
217). Knick et al. (2011, p. 219) reported that widespread motorized 
access for recreation facilitated the spread of predators adapted to 
humans and the spread of invasive plants. Any high-frequency human 
activity along established corridors can affect wildlife through 
habitat loss and fragmentation (Knick et al. 2011, p. 219). The effects 
of OHV use on sagebrush and sage-grouse have not been directly studied 
(Knick et al. 2011, p. 216). However, Gunnison sage-grouse local 
working groups and conservation plans considered recreational uses, 
such as off-road vehicle use and biking, to be a risk factor in many 
areas (see Factor D discussion, Multi-County and Rangewide Efforts).
    Recreation from OHVs, hikers, mountain bikes, campers, snowmobiles, 
bird watchers, and other sources has affected many parts of the range, 
especially portions of the Gunnison Basin and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
population areas (BLM 2005a, p. 14; BLM 2005d, p. 4; BLM 2009a, p. 36). 
These activities can result in abandonment of lekking activities and 
nest sites by Gunnison sage-grouse, energy expenditure reducing 
survival, and greater exposure to predators (GSRSC 2005).
    Recreation is a significant use on lands managed by BLM (Connelly 
et al. 2004, p. 7-26). For example, recreational activities within the 
Gunnison Basin are widespread, occur during all seasons of the year, 
and have expanded as more people move to the area or travel there to 
recreate (BLM 2009a, pp. 36-37). Four wheel drive, OHV, motorcycle, and 
other mechanized travel has been increasing rapidly. The number of 
annual OHV registrations in Colorado increased from 12,000 in 1991 to 
131,000 in 2007 (BLM 2009a, p. 37). Recreational activities can have 
direct and indirect impacts to the Gunnison sage-grouse and their 
habitat (BLM 2009a, p. 36). The Grand Mesa, Uncompaghre, and Gunnison 
(GMUG) National Forest is the fourth most visited National Forest in 
the Rocky Mountain Region of the USFS (Region 2), and is the second 
most heavily visited National Forest on the western slope of Colorado 
(DEIS Gunnison Basin Federal Lands Travel Management 2009, p. 137). 
However, it is unknown what percentage of the visits occurs within 
Gunnison sage-grouse habitat on the Gunnison Ranger District (DEIS 
Gunnison Basin Federal Lands Travel Management 2009, p. 137). With 
human populations expected to increase in towns and cities within and 
adjacent to the Gunnison Basin and nearby populations (see Factor A 
analysis), the impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse from recreational use 
will continue to increase.
    The BLM, USFS, CPW, and Gunnison County currently close 36 roads at 
47 closure points in the Gunnison Basin to all motorized traffic from 
March 15 to May 15 to minimize impacts during the breeding season. Six 
road closures by the USFS extend to June 15 to protect nesting Gunnison 
sage-grouse. These closures limit motorized access to all known leks 
and adjacent habitats on public lands in the Gunnison Basin (Gunnison 
County 2013a, pp. 78, 127). While road closures may be violated in a 
small number of situations, road closures are having a beneficial 
effect on Gunnison sage-grouse through avoidance or minimization of 
impacts

[[Page 69300]]

during the breeding season. Conservation measures from the CCA (BLM 
2013b, entire), including road closure and reclamation, seasonal road 
closures, and over-snow travel area closures during severe winters, are 
expected to ameliorate impacts from some recreational activities on 
Federal lands in the Gunnison Basin (see Conservation Programs and 
Efforts Related to Habitat Conservation section in Factor A for more 
details).
    Dispersed camping occurs at a low level on public lands in all of 
the population areas, particularly during the hunting seasons for other 
species. However, we have no information indicating that these camping 
activities are impacting Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Domestic dogs accompanying recreationists or associated with 
residences can disturb, harass, displace, or kill Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Dogs, whether under control, on leash, or loose, have been shown to 
result in significant disturbance responses by various wildlife species 
(Sime 1999, entire, and references therein). The primary consequence of 
dogs being off leash is harassment, which can lead to physiological 
stress as well as the separation of adult and young birds, or flushing 
incubating birds from their nest. However, we have no data indicating 
that this activity is impacting Gunnison sage-grouse populations.
    Recreational activities as discussed above do not singularly pose a 
threat to Gunnison sage-grouse. However, there may be certain 
situations where recreational activities are impacting local 
concentrations of Gunnison sage-grouse, especially in areas where 
habitat is already fragmented such as in the six satellite populations 
and in certain areas within the Gunnison Basin.

Pesticides and Herbicides

    Insects are an important component of sage-grouse chick and 
juvenile diets (GSRSC 2005, p. 132 and references therein). Insects, 
especially ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera), can comprise a 
major proportion of the diet of juvenile sage-grouse and are important 
components of early brood-rearing habitats (GSRSC 2005, p. 132 and 
references therein). Most pesticide applications are not directed at 
control of ants and beetles. Insecticides are used primarily to control 
insects causing damage to cultivated crops on private lands and to 
control grasshoppers (Orthoptera) and Mormon crickets (Mormonius sp.) 
on public lands.
    Few studies have examined the effects of pesticides to sage-grouse, 
but at least two pesticides have caused direct mortality of greater 
sage-grouse as a result of ingestion of alfalfa sprayed with 
organophosphorus insecticides (Blus et al. 1989, p. 1142; Blus and 
Connelly 1998, p. 23). In one case, a field of alfalfa was sprayed with 
methamidophos and dimethoate when approximately 200 greater sage-grouse 
were present; 63 of these sage-grouse were later found dead, presumably 
as a result of insecticide exposure (Blus et al. 1989; p. 1142, Blus 
and Connelly 1998, p. 23). Both methamidophos and dimethoate remain 
registered for use in the United States (Christiansen and Tate 2011, p. 
125), but we found no further records of sage-grouse mortalities from 
their use. In another case in 1950, rangelands treated with toxaphene 
and chlordane bait to control grasshoppers in Wyoming resulted in game 
bird mortality of 23.4 percent (Christiansen and Tate 2011, p. 125). 
Forty-five greater sage-grouse deaths were recorded, 11 of which were 
most likely related to the insecticide (Christiansen and Tate 2011, p. 
125, and references therein). Greater sage-grouse who succumbed to 
vehicle collisions and mowing machines in the same area also were 
likely compromised from insecticide ingestion (Christiansen and Tate 
2011, p. 125). Neither toxaphene nor chlordane has been registered for 
grasshopper control since the early 1980's (Christiansen and Tate 2011, 
p. 125, and references therein) and thus they are not a threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Infestations of Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia) have 
occurred in Gunnison sage-grouse occupied range in Colorado and Utah 
(GSRSC 2005, p. 132). Disulfoton, a systemic organophosphate that is 
extremely toxic to wildlife, was routinely applied to over a million 
acres of winter wheat crops to control the aphids during the late 
1980s. We have no data indicating there were any adverse effects to 
Gunnison sage-grouse (GSRSC 2005, p. 132). More recently, an 
infestation of army cutworms (Euxoa auxiliaries) occurred in Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat along the Utah-Colorado State line. Thousands of 
acres of winter wheat and alfalfa fields were sprayed with insecticides 
such as permethrin, a chemical that is toxic to wildlife, by private 
landowners to control them (GSRSC 2005, p. 132), but again, we have no 
data indicating any adverse effects to Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Game birds that ingested sublethal levels of insecticides have been 
observed exhibiting abnormal behavior that may lead to a greater risk 
of predation (Dahlen and Haugen 1954, p. 477; McEwen and Brown 1966, p. 
609; Blus et al. 1989, p. 1141). Wild sharp-tailed grouse poisoned by 
malathion and dieldrin exhibited depression, dullness, slowed 
reactions, irregular flight, and uncoordinated walking (McEwen and 
Brown 1966, p. 689). Although no research has explicitly studied the 
indirect levels of mortality from sublethal doses of insecticides 
(e.g., predation of impaired birds), it was inferred to be the cause of 
mortality among some study birds (McEwen and Brown 1966 p. 609; Blus et 
al. 1989, p. 1142; Connelly and Blus 1991, p. 4). Both Post (1951, p. 
383) and Blus et al. (1989, p. 1142) located depredated sage-grouse 
carcasses in areas that had been treated with insecticides. Exposure to 
these insecticides may have predisposed sage-grouse to predation. Sage-
grouse mortalities also were documented in a study where they were 
exposed to strychnine bait used to control small mammals (Ward et al. 
1942 as cited in Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 16). While we do not have 
specific information on these effects occurring in Gunnison sage-
grouse, the effects observed in greater sage-grouse can be expected if 
similar situations arise within Gunnison sage-grouse habitat.
    Cropland spraying may affect populations that are not adjacent to 
agricultural areas, given the distances traveled by females with broods 
from nesting areas to late brood-rearing areas (Knick et al. 2011, p. 
211). The actual footprint of this effect cannot be estimated, because 
the distances sage-grouse travel to get to irrigated and sprayed fields 
is unknown (Knick et al. 2011, p. 211). Similarly, actual mortalities 
from insecticides may be underestimated if sage-grouse disperse from 
agricultural areas after exposure.
    Much of the research related to pesticides that had either lethal 
or sublethal effects on greater sage-grouse was conducted on pesticides 
that have been banned or have had their use restricted for more than 20 
years due to their toxic effects on the environment (e.g., dieldrin). 
We currently do not have any information to show that the banned 
pesticides are having negative impacts to sage-grouse populations 
through either illegal use or residues in the environment. For example, 
sage-grouse mortalities were documented in a study where they were 
exposed to strychnine bait used to control small mammals (Ward et al. 
1942 as cited in Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 16). According to the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), above-ground uses of the 
rodenticide strychnine were prohibited in 1988 and those uses remain 
temporarily cancelled today. We do not know when, or if, above-ground 
uses will be permitted to resume. Currently, strychnine is registered 
for use only

[[Page 69301]]

below-ground as a bait application to control pocket gophers (Thomomys 
sp.; EPA 1996, p. 4). Therefore, the current legal use of strychnine 
baits is unlikely to present much of an exposure risk to sage-grouse. 
No information on illegal use, if it occurs, is available. We have no 
other information regarding mortalities or sublethal effects of 
strychnine or other banned pesticides on sage-grouse.
    Although a reduction in insect population levels resulting from 
insecticide application can potentially affect nesting sage-grouse 
females and chicks (Willis et al. 1993, p. 40; Schroeder et al. 1999, 
p. 16), there is no information as to whether insecticides are 
impacting survivorship or productivity of the Gunnison sage-grouse.
    Use of insecticides to control mosquitoes is infrequent and 
probably does not have detrimental effects on sage-grouse. Available 
insecticides that kill adult mosquitoes include synthetic pyrethroids 
such as permethrin, which are applied at very low concentrations and 
have very low vertebrate toxicity (Rose 2004). Organophosphates such as 
malathion have been used at very low rates to kill adult mosquitoes for 
decades, and are judged relatively safe for vertebrates (Rose 2004).
    Herbicide applications can kill sagebrush and forbs important as 
food sources for sage-grouse (Carr 1968 in Call and Maser 1985, p. 14). 
The greatest impact resulting from a reduction of either forbs or 
insect populations is to nesting females and chicks due to the loss of 
potential protein sources that are critical for successful egg 
production and chick nutrition (Johnson and Boyce 1991, p. 90; 
Schroeder et al. 1999, p. 16). A comparison of applied levels of 
herbicides with toxicity studies of grouse, chickens, and other 
gamebirds (Carr 1968, in Call and Maser 1985, p. 15) concluded that 
herbicides applied at recommended rates should not result in sage-
grouse poisonings.
    In summary, historically insecticides have been shown to result in 
direct mortality of individuals, and also can reduce the availability 
of food sources, which in turn could contribute to mortality of sage-
grouse. Despite the potential effects of pesticides, we could find no 
information to indicate that the use of these chemicals, at current 
levels, negatively affects Gunnison sage-grouse population numbers. 
Schroeder et al.'s (1999, p. 16) literature review found that the loss 
of insects can have significant impacts on nesting females and chicks, 
but those impacts were not detailed. Many of the pesticides that have 
been shown to have an effect on sage-grouse have been banned in the 
United States for more than 20 years. We currently do not have any 
information to show that either the illegal use of banned pesticides or 
residues in the environment are presently having negative impacts to 
Gunnison sage-grouse populations. While the reduction in insect 
availability via insecticide application has not been documented to 
affect overall population numbers in sage-grouse, it appears that 
insect reduction, because of its importance to chick production and 
survival, could be having as yet undetected negative impacts in 
populations with low population numbers. At present, however, there is 
no information available to indicate that either herbicide or 
insecticide applications pose a threat to the species.

Contaminants

    Gunnison sage-grouse exposure to various types of environmental 
contaminants may potentially occur as a result of agricultural and 
rangeland management practices, mining, energy development and pipeline 
operations, and transportation of materials along highways and 
railroads.
    We expect that the number of sage-grouse occurring in the immediate 
vicinity of wastewater pits associated with energy development would be 
small due to the small amount of energy development within the species' 
range, the typically intense human activity in these areas, the lack of 
cover around the pits, and the fact that sage-grouse do not require 
free standing water. Most bird mortalities recorded in association with 
wastewater pits are water-dependent species (e.g., waterfowl), whereas 
dead ground-dwelling birds (such as the sage-grouse) are rarely found 
at such sites (Domenici 2008, pers. comm.). However, if the wastewater 
pits are not appropriately screened, sage-grouse may have access to 
them and could ingest water and/or become oiled while pursuing insects. 
If these birds then return to sagebrush cover and die, their carcasses 
are unlikely to be found as only the pits are surveyed.
    A few gas and oil pipelines occur within the San Miguel population. 
Exposure to oil or gas from pipeline spills or leaks could cause 
mortalities or morbidity to Gunnison sage-grouse. Similarly, given the 
network of highways and railroad lines that occur throughout the range 
of the Gunnison sage-grouse, there is some potential for exposure to 
contaminants resulting from spills or leaks of hazardous materials 
being conveyed along these transportation corridors. We found no 
documented occurrences of impacts to Gunnison sage-grouse from such 
spills, and we do not expect they are a significant source of mortality 
or threat to the species because these types of spills occur 
infrequently and may involve only a small area within the occupied 
range of the species.

Summary of Factor E: Other Natural or Manmade Factors

    Based on the information above, we find that small population size 
and structure is a threat to the six satellite populations of Gunnison 
sage-grouse, both now and into the future. Although genetic 
consequences of low Gunnison sage-grouse population numbers have not 
been definitively detected to date, the results from Stiver et al. 
(2008, p. 479) suggest that six of the seven populations may have 
effective sizes low enough to induce genetic deterioration, and that 
all seven could be losing adaptive potential. While some of these 
consequences may be ameliorated by translocations, information 
indicates the long-term viability of Gunnison sage-grouse is 
compromised by this situation, particularly when combined with threats 
discussed in other Factors. Therefore, we have determined that genetics 
risks related to the small population size of Gunnison sage-grouse are 
a threat to the species.
    Available PVAs for Gunnison sage-grouse have resulted in somewhat 
disparate findings, each with their own limitations or weaknesses. We 
found that Davis (2012, entire) represents the best available 
scientific information regarding the viability of Gunnison sage-grouse. 
This represents the longest and most current demographic study and 
population viability analysis for Gunnison sage-grouse. Based on that 
study, the Gunnison Basin and San Miguel populations, the two largest 
populations, are declining, with more pronounced declines in the latter 
(Davis 2012, p. 87). The survival and persistence of the San Miguel 
population, and likely the smaller satellite populations as well, 
appear to be at risk in the near future. Though we expect the Gunnison 
Basin population will persist longer than the satellite populations, 
Davis (2012, entire) indicated that its future viability is also at 
risk due to natural environmental and demographic fluctuations.
    Small population size, declining population trends, and apparent 
isolation indicate long-term population persistence and evolutionary 
potential (i.e., resiliency) are compromised in the satellite 
populations. In general, while various natural factors would not limit 
sage-grouse populations across large

[[Page 69302]]

geographic scales under historical conditions or in larger populations, 
they may contribute to local population declines or extirpations when 
populations are small or when weather patterns, habitats, or mortality 
rates are altered. Multiple populations across a broad geographic area 
(population redundancy) provide insurance against catastrophic events, 
such as prolonged drought, and the aggregate number of individuals 
across all populations increases the probability of demographic 
persistence and preservation of overall genetic diversity by providing 
an important genetic reservoir (representation) (GSRSC 2005, p. 179). 
As discussed, viability of the six satellite populations is currently 
at risk, and those cover 37 percent of the species occupied range. Loss 
of as much as 37 percent of the species' occupied range would impact 
the species' overall viability. The cumulative effects of ongoing and 
future threats, such as habitat loss (Factor A) and drought (discussed 
above), will further contribute to declining and increasingly isolated 
populations and, ultimately, smaller population size and structure.
    Based on the best available information, we determined that 
resiliency, redundancy, and representation in Gunnison sage-grouse are 
inadequate, or will be inadequate in the future, to ensure the species' 
long-term viability. The best available information indicates 
population redundancy, in particular, will be limited or compromised in 
the future, due to the probable extirpation of one or more satellite 
populations, thereby decreasing the species' chances of survival in the 
face of limiting factors. The rangewide cumulative effects of ongoing 
and future threats (see discussions in Factors A through C, and E) will 
further compromise resiliency, redundancy, and representation of the 
species. Current and future threats to the Gunnison Basin population 
(in particular, see Drought, Climate Change, and Disease sections) 
combined with the probable loss of one or more satellite populations 
and overall reduction of range indicate the long-term persistence of 
Gunnison sage-grouse is at risk.
    While sage-grouse have evolved with drought, population trends 
suggest that drought is at least correlated with, and likely an 
underlying cause of, observed declines. We found that drought is a 
current and future threat to Gunnison sage-grouse. Based on the best 
available information, pesticides are being used infrequently enough 
and in accordance with manufacturer labeling such that they are not 
adversely affecting populations of the Gunnison sage-grouse. The most 
likely impact of insecticides on Gunnison sage-grouse is the reduction 
of insect prey items. However, we could find no information to indicate 
that use of insecticides, in accordance with their label instructions, 
is a threat to Gunnison sage-grouse. We similarly do not have 
information indicating that contaminants, as described above, are a 
threat to the species.

Cumulative Effects From Factors A through E

    Many of the threats described in this finding may cumulatively or 
synergistically impact Gunnison sage-grouse beyond the scope of each 
individual threat. For example, grazing practices inconsistent with 
local ecological conditions alone may only affect portions of Gunnison 
sage-grouse habitat. However, grazing practices inconsistent with local 
ecological conditions, combined with invasive plants, drought, and 
recreational activities may collectively result in substantial habitat 
decline across large portions of the species' range. In turn, climate 
change may exacerbate those effects, further diminishing habitat and 
increasing the isolation of already declining populations, making them 
more susceptible to genetic deterioration, disease, or catastrophic 
events such as drought and fire. Drought, a substantial threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide, likely intensifies other threats such 
as predation, invasive plants, habitat loss, and fire. The impact of 
residential development is increased by the additional disturbance 
footprint and area of species' avoidance of other infrastructure such 
as roads, powerlines, and fences. Further, predation on Gunnison sage-
grouse may increase as a result of the increase in human disturbance 
and development. The impact of residential development can be increased 
by other anthropogenic stressors resulting in habitat loss and decline, 
such as powerlines, roads, and other infrastructure. Numerous threats 
are likely acting cumulatively to further increase the likelihood that 
the species will become extinct in the future. The cumulative effects 
of ongoing and future threats (Factors A through E), and small and 
declining population size and structure, in particular, are likely to 
further reduce resiliency, redundancy, and representation of the 
species.

Determination

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding the past, present, and future threats 
to the Gunnison sage-grouse. We consider the five factors identified in 
section 4(a)(1) of the Act in determining whether the Gunnison sage-
grouse meets the Act's definition of an endangered species (section 
3(6)) or a threatened species (section 3(20)).
    Section 3 of the Act defines an ``endangered species'' as ``any 
species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range,'' and defines a ``threatened 
species'' as ``any species which is likely to become an endangered 
species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant 
portion of its range.'' Although these statutory definitions are 
similar, there is a crucial temporal distinction between them. The 
statutory definition of an ``endangered species,'' a species that ``is 
in danger of extinction,'' connotes an established, present condition. 
The statutory definition of a ``threatened species,'' a species that is 
``likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable 
future,'' connotes a predicted or expected future condition. Thus, a 
key statutory difference between a threatened and endangered species is 
the time of when a species may be in danger of extinction, either now 
(endangered) or in the foreseeable future (threatened).
    As a result of new information and comments received on the 
proposed rule, we have reconsidered our prior determination that the 
Gunnison sage-grouse is currently in danger of extinction and therefore 
meets the definition of an ``endangered species'' under the Act. This 
reconsideration focuses on the principal threat relied upon in the 
proposed rule, the threat to the species posed by current residential 
development and associated infrastructure, especially in the critical 
Gunnison Basin population area.
    In the proposed rule, we reported that the results of a GIS 
analysis of parcel ownership and development in occupied habitat in 
Gunnison County indicated that the current level of residential 
development in this habitat was strongly decreasing the likelihood of 
Gunnison sage-grouse using 49 percent of this land area as nesting 
habitat. This analysis was based on a model indicating Gunnison sage-
grouse tend to select nest sites in larger landscapes (1.5 km [0.9 mi] 
radii) with a low density of residential development (Aldridge 2012, p. 
10). We considered the results of applying this modeling to the current 
level of residential development to be particularly concerning given 
the close link of nesting habitat to early brood rearing habitat and 
the sensitivity of the species population dynamics during these life 
history stages. In assessing the

[[Page 69303]]

risk posed by current levels of residential development, we also noted 
that the GSRSC (2005, pp. 160-61) hypothesized that residential density 
in excess of one housing unit per 1.3 km\2\ (0.5 mi\2\) could cause 
declines in Gunnison sage-grouse populations, and that under this 
hypothesis residential development is limiting the species in 
approximately 18 percent of its habitat in Gunnison County.
    Since our proposed listing rule, we reevaluated residential 
development and found it to be a current threat to the species as a 
whole, but that it is a lower magnitude threat to the Gunnison Basin 
population than we previously thought. Our reevaluation of residential 
development in the Gunnison Basin (Factor A above) found that human 
developments in occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat in Gunnison 
County occur and have increased over time. Our overall conclusion, 
however, was that current development in the Gunnison Basin population 
area is a threat of low magnitude to the persistence of this Gunnison 
sage-grouse population. The Gunnison Basin population is currently 
relatively stable, based on population trends since 1996. It is also 
the most important population for the species' survival with 
approximately 63 percent of occupied habitat, approximately 60 percent 
of the leks, and 84 percent of the rangewide population occurring in 
Gunnison Basin. Thus the current level of threat of residential 
development in the Gunnison Basin is not causing the rangewide 
population to trend towards extinction.
    Based on the factors presented in the Residential Development 
Section above (Factor A), outside of the Gunnison Basin, residential 
development is likely to have the greatest impact on the San Miguel, 
Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, and Poncha Pass populations of 
Gunnison sage-grouse. For the remaining three Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations, we found that current residential development may impact 
individual birds or areas of habitat, but is a threat of low magnitude 
at the population level at the present time. Although residential 
development is a current and future threat to the San Miguel, Cerro 
Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa, and Poncha Pass populations, we do not 
believe that it is a significant threat to the species rangewide such 
that it meets the definition of an endangered species.
    We find that the other factors that we identified as threats in the 
proposed rule (inadequate regulatory mechanisms, genetic issues and 
small population sizes, predation, improper grazing management, and the 
interaction among climate change, invasive plants and drought/weather) 
are still current threats to the species, but when considered 
individually and cumulatively with other current threats (including the 
lower level of the threat of development to the Gunnison Basin 
population), they do not support a finding that the species is 
currently in danger of extinction. Based on the preceding analysis, we 
have determined that Gunnison sage-grouse is not an endangered species 
as defined in the Act.
    However, considering both our analysis of the species' status here 
and in the proposed listing rule, and new information and comments 
received following publication of the proposed rule, we find that 
Gunnison sage-grouse qualifies as a threatened species under the Act 
because it is likely to become in danger of extinction throughout all 
of its range in the foreseeable future.
    The Act does not define the term ``foreseeable future.'' In a 
general sense, the foreseeable future is the period of time over which 
events can reasonably be anticipated. In the context of the definition 
of ``threatened species,'' the Service interprets the foreseeable 
future as the extent of time over which the Secretary can reasonably 
rely on predictions about the future in making determinations about the 
future conservation status of the species. It is important to note that 
references to ``reliable predictions'' are not meant to refer to 
reliability in a statistical sense of confidence or significance; 
rather the words ``rely'' and ``reliable'' are intended to be used 
according to their common, non-technical meanings in ordinary usage. In 
other words, we consider a prediction to be reliable if it is 
reasonable to depend upon it in making decisions, and if that 
prediction does not extend past the support of scientific data or 
reason so as to venture into the realm of speculation.
    In considering threats to the species and whether they rise to the 
level such that listing the species as a threatened or endangered 
species is warranted, we assess factors such as the imminence of the 
threat (is it currently affecting the species or, if not, when do we 
expect the effect from the threat to commence, and whether it is 
reasonable to expect the threat to continue into the future), the scope 
or extent of the threat, the severity of the threat, and the 
synergistic effects of all threats combined. If we determine that the 
species is not currently in danger of extinction, then we must 
determine whether, based upon the nature of the threats, it is 
reasonable to anticipate that the species may become in danger of 
extinction within the foreseeable future. As noted in the 2009 
Department of the Interior Solicitor's opinion on foreseeable future, 
``in some cases, quantifying the foreseeable future in terms of years 
may add rigor and transparency to the Secretary's analysis if such 
information is available. Such definitive quantification, however, is 
rarely possible and not required for a foreseeable future analysis'' 
(M-37021, January 16, 2009; p. 9). In some specific cases where 
extensive data are available to allow for the modeling of extinction 
probability over various time periods (e.g., the PVAs performed on the 
Gunnison sage-grouse), the Service has provided quantitative estimates 
of what may be considered to constitute the foreseeable future.
    We consider foreseeable future in this final rule to be 40-60 years 
based on the following:
    (1) The most current and comprehensive demographic study and 
population viability analysis (Davis 2012). In contrast to the RCP PVA 
described below, this study exclusively used demographic information 
from Gunnison sage-grouse and included environmental stochastic factors 
such as fire, disease, and drought. This analysis was done for the 
Gunnison Basin (2005-2010) and the San Miguel populations (2007-2010), 
the two largest populations (Davis 2012, entire). The study concluded 
that the small San Miguel Basin population had a high probability (53 
percent chance) of going extinct in the next 30 years. For the Gunnison 
Basin population, the model found a minimum extinction time of 31 years 
and a mean extinction time of 58 years, based on a six-year data set 
during a period with a slightly declining population. However, because 
the study occurred during a drought period and the overall population 
declined during this period, which is inconsistent with the long-term 
record of stability for this population, we are also utilizing the RCP 
PVA in our consideration of the foreseeable future.
    (2) A second population viability analysis done in conjunction with 
the RCP. This PVA found that small populations of birds (< 25 and 25 to 
50 birds) are at a high risk of extinction within the next 50 years 
(2055) with an 86 percent and 59 percent chance of extinction 
respectively (GSRSC 2005, pp. 170 and G-27). For the Gunnison Basin 
population, this PVA found the probability of extinction in the next 50 
years was less than 1 percent (GSRSC 2005, p. G-21).
    (3) The Gunnison Basin Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment (The 
Nature Conservancy (TNC) et al. 2011,

[[Page 69304]]

p. 4), which uses a timeframe of 50 years to project the likely effects 
of climate change in the Gunnison Basin.
    As noted in the proposed listing rule, we anticipate that current 
threats to the species will increase over time throughout the species' 
range. Based on the analysis of the listing Factors A-E described 
above, we now find that the Gunnison sage-grouse is ``likely to become 
endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range within 
the foreseeable future'' based on the following continuing, new, and 
increasing threats, which are acting on the species individually and 
cumulatively, contributing to the challenges faced by Gunnison sage-
grouse in the foreseeable future:
    (1) Small population size and population structure (Factor E) occur 
in all of the six satellite populations, or across approximately 37 
percent of occupied range for the species. Without concerted management 
effort, one or more of the satellite populations are likely to go 
extinct in the next 50 years. Satellite populations are isolated and 
small, with generally declining trends, low resilience, and low genetic 
diversity. The small sizes of the satellite populations of Gunnison 
sage-grouse make them particularly sensitive to stochastic and 
demographic fluctuations, and this vulnerability is exacerbated by 
other threats such as drought. Having multiple populations across a 
broad geographic area (population redundancy) is needed to provide 
insurance against such catastrophic events.
    (2) Gunnison sage-grouse require large areas of sagebrush for long-
term persistence, and thus are affected by factors that occur at the 
landscape scale. Habitat decline, including habitat loss, degradation, 
and fragmentation of sagebrush habitats (Factor A), is a primary cause 
of the decline of Gunnison sage-grouse populations. Habitat loss due to 
residential and infrastructural development (including roads, 
powerlines, and fences) is a significant threat to Gunnison sage-grouse 
across its range. Due to habitat decline, the seven individual 
populations are now mostly isolated, with limited migration and gene 
flow among populations, increasing the likelihood of population 
extirpations.
    a. Thirty-two percent of occupied Gunnison sage-grouse habitat 
rangewide is at risk of residential development (Factor A). Residential 
development is a substantial risk to the San Miguel, Poncha Pass, and 
Cerro-Cimarron-Sims populations, and the effects of residential 
development will likely reduce connectivity among satellite populations 
and potential connectivity between the Gunnison Basin and satellite 
populations to the west. Although our reevaluation found the threat of 
current residential development in the Gunnison Basin to be of a lower 
magnitude than previously thought, we believe that the level of impact 
and threat from residential development will increase in the Gunnison 
Basin population in the future.
    The collective influences of fragmentation and disturbance from 
roads (Factor A) reduce the amount of effective habitat, as roads are 
largely avoided by sage-grouse. Powerlines and fences (Factor A) also 
fragment habitat and are avoided by sage-grouse. They are also sources 
of direct mortality through strikes, electrocution, and by attracting 
and increasing the predator population.
    (3) Drought (Factor E) has contributed to substantial declines in 
all Gunnison sage-grouse populations. Drought likely intensifies other 
stressors such as predation, invasive plants, and fire. Based on the 
best available information, we concluded that drought is a substantial 
threat to Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide, both now and into the future.
    (4) Warming is occurring more rapidly in the southwestern region of 
the United States, including western Colorado, than elsewhere in the 
country. Based on the best available information on climate change 
projections over the next 35 years or so, climate change (Factor A) has 
the potential to alter important seasonal habitats and food resources 
of Gunnison sage-grouse, the distribution and extent of sagebrush, and 
the occurrence of invasive weeds and associated fire frequencies. 
Climate change effects, including increased drought, are predicted in 
all populations.
    (5) West Nile virus (Factor C) is present throughout most of the 
range of Gunnison sage-grouse. Although the disease has not yet been 
documented in any Gunnison sage-grouse, it has caused large mortality 
events and has also caused the deaths of other gallinaceous birds 
including greater sage-grouse. The effects of drought and increased 
temperatures will contribute to the prevalence and spread of West Nile 
virus and, therefore, the exposure of Gunnison sage-grouse to this 
disease. We concluded that West Nile virus is a future threat to 
Gunnison sage-grouse rangewide.
    (6) The Davis PVA (2012) is the most current and comprehensive 
demographic study and population viability analysis. This study 
exclusively used demographic information from Gunnison sage-grouse and 
incorporated environmental stochasticity (variability in population 
growth rates due to external factors such as weather, fire, disease, 
and predation) and demographic stochasticity (variability in population 
growth rates due to survival and reproduction rates). Model simulations 
predicted population declines in the future (Davis 2012, pp. 105-106). 
Combining the six years of demographic data (2005 to 2010) from both 
populations, environmental stochastic simulations resulted in a minimum 
extinction time of 31 years and a mean or expected extinction time in 
this PVA of 58 years. Although this model shows that the extinction 
probability for the Gunnison Basin population is farther into the 
future, it still supports a determination that the species is likely to 
become endangered in the foreseeable future.
    (7) We have found the above-listed factors to be significant 
threats that are acting on Gunnison sage-grouse populations rangewide 
and collectively are likely to increase over time. We further examined 
whether these threats to the Gunnison sage-grouse are adequately 
addressed by existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D). We evaluated 
the adequacy of existing local, State, and Federal plans, laws, and 
regulations currently in place across the range of the species and 
determined that while they will help to reduce the negative effects of 
human development and infrastructure on Gunnison sage-grouse in some 
respects, and that continuation of these efforts across the species' 
range will be necessary for conservation of the species, cumulatively 
the existing regulatory mechanisms are not being appropriately 
implemented such that land-use practices result in habitat conditions 
that adequately support the life-history needs of the species. Existing 
plans, laws, and regulations are not effective at ameliorating the 
threats resulting from small population size and structure, habitat 
decline, drought, climate change, and disease as discussed above. 
Further, while these regulatory mechanisms may help reduce current 
threats to the species, they are insufficient to fully reduce or 
eliminate the increase in threats that may act on the species in the 
future.
    (8) Other current and future threats to the species identified in 
this final rule, including grazing management inconsistent with local 
ecological conditions, fences, invasive plants, fire, mineral 
development, pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment, large scale water 
development (all in Factor A); predation

[[Page 69305]]

(primarily associated with anthropogenic disturbance and habitat 
decline)(Factor C); and recreation (Factor E) are acting at a more 
localized level, and while individually may affect some populations 
more than others, they do not individually or cumulatively rise to the 
level of a significant rangewide threat. However, the current impacts 
of these threats do contribute to the overall status of the species as 
``likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future''. As discussed 
under the Threat Factors sections above, we also expect that many of 
these threats will increase in the future.

Summary of the Threatened Determination

    In summary, multiple threats affecting Gunnison sage-grouse and its 
habitat are occurring and interacting synergistically, resulting in 
increasingly fragmented habitat and other threats. We expect all of 
these threats to increase in the future. The components of human 
infrastructure, once present on the landscape, become virtually 
permanent features, fragmenting sagebrush habitats, and resulting in 
the reduction or elimination of proactive and effective management 
alternatives. We anticipate other threats such as drought, climate 
change, invasive species, and fire frequency to increase in the future 
and to act synergistically to become greater threats to Gunnison sage-
grouse. We anticipate renewable energy development, particularly 
geothermal and wind energy development, to increase in some population 
areas. Taken cumulatively, the ongoing and future habitat-based impacts 
in all populations will likely act to fragment and further isolate 
populations of the Gunnison sage-grouse. As these threats increase, one 
or more of the satellite populations are likely to go extinct due to 
small population size, genetic factors, and stochastic environmental 
events and the remaining populations will become in danger of 
extinction.
    Therefore, we find that Gunnison sage-grouse is likely to become 
endangered throughout all of its range in the foreseeable future, and 
thus is a threatened species as defined by the Act.
    As noted above, in determining that Gunnison sage-grouse is a 
threatened species, we also considered ongoing conservation efforts and 
existing regulatory mechanisms. Based on the best available information 
(Factor A and Factor D), such conservation efforts are not currently 
adequate to address the full scope of threats to Gunnison sage-grouse, 
particularly habitat loss and decline, small population size and 
structure, drought, climate change, and disease. While some efforts 
have provided conservation benefits at the rangewide scale, such as the 
CCAA and CEs, these and other conservation efforts are limited in scope 
and therefore limited in their ability to effectively reduce or remove 
the threats to the species and its habitat across its range. Thus, 
although ongoing conservation efforts are a positive step toward 
conserving Gunnison sage-grouse, and some have undoubtedly reduced the 
severity of certain threats to the species, on the whole we find that 
current conservation efforts are not sufficient to offset the full 
scope of threats to Gunnison sage-grouse or prevent the increase in 
threats that result in the species likely becoming in danger of 
extinction in the foreseeable future. Therefore, we cannot conclude 
that the species is not warranted for listing.
    Therefore, on the basis of the best available scientific and 
commercial information, we are listing Gunnison sage-grouse as 
threatened in accordance with sections 3(20) and 4(a)(1) of the Act.
    The Gunnison sage grouse is restricted in its range and the threats 
occur throughout its range. Therefore, we assessed the status of the 
species throughout its entire range. Under the Act and our implementing 
regulations, a species may warrant listing if it is endangered or 
threatened throughout all or a significant portion of its range. 
Because we have determined that Gunnison sage-grouse is threatened 
throughout all of its range, no portion of its range can be 
``significant'' for purposes of the definitions of ``endangered 
species'' and ``threatened species.'' See the Final Policy on 
Interpretation of the Phrase ``Significant Portion of Its Range'' in 
the Endangered Species Act's Definitions of ``Endangered Species'' and 
``Threatened Species'' (79 FR 37577).

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
practices. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies, private 
organizations, and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection required by Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species. The recovery planning process involves the 
identification of actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the 
species' decline by addressing the threats to its survival and 
recovery. The goal of this process is to restore listed species to a 
point where they are secure, self-sustaining, and functioning 
components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline 
shortly after a species is listed, and preparation of a draft and final 
recovery plan. The recovery outline guides the immediate implementation 
of urgent recovery actions and describes the process to be used to 
develop a recovery plan. The recovery plan identifies site-specific 
management actions that set a trigger for a review of the five factors 
that control whether a species remains endangered or threatened or may 
be downlisted or delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery 
progress. Revisions of the plan may be made to address continuing or 
new threats to the species, as new substantive information becomes 
available. Incorporating or adapting components of the Gunnison sage-
grouse RCP for a recovery outline will be considered. Recovery plans 
also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate their recovery 
efforts and provide estimates of the cost of implementing recovery 
tasks. Recovery teams (composed of species experts, Federal and State 
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and stakeholders) are often 
established to develop recovery plans. When completed, the recovery 
outline, draft recovery plan, and the final recovery plan will be 
available on our Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our 
Western Colorado Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, Tribes, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, 
and private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (e.g., restoration of native vegetation), research, captive 
propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of

[[Page 69306]]

many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on Federal lands 
because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-Federal lands. 
To achieve recovery of these species requires cooperative conservation 
efforts on private, State, and Tribal lands.
    Funding for recovery actions may be available from a variety of 
sources, including Federal budgets, State programs, and cost share 
grants for non-Federal landowners, the academic community, and 
nongovernmental organizations. In addition, pursuant to section 6 of 
the Act, the States of Colorado and Utah will be eligible for Federal 
funds to implement management actions that promote the protection and 
recovery of the Gunnison sage-grouse. Information on our grant programs 
that are available to aid species recovery can be found at: http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Please let us know if you are interested in participating in 
recovery efforts for this species. Additionally, we invite you to 
submit any new information on this species whenever it becomes 
available and any information you may have for recovery planning 
purposes (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Section 7(a) of the Act requires Federal agencies to evaluate their 
actions with respect to any species that is proposed or listed as 
endangered or threatened and with respect to its critical habitat, if 
any is designated. Regulations implementing this interagency 
cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR part 402. When 
a species is listed, section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal 
agencies to ensure that activities they authorize, fund, or carry out 
are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the species or 
destroy or adversely modify its critical habitat. If a Federal action 
may affect a listed species or its critical habitat, the responsible 
Federal agency must enter into consultation with the Service.
    Federal agency actions within the species' habitat that may require 
consultation as described in the preceding paragraph include management 
and any other landscape-altering activities on Federal lands 
administered by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and 
National Park Service; issuance of section 404 Clean Water Act permits 
by the Army Corps of Engineers; construction and management of gas 
pipeline and power line rights-of-way by the Federal Energy Regulatory 
Commission; and construction and maintenance of roads or highways by 
the Federal Highway Administration.
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to all endangered and 
threatened wildlife. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(2) of the Act, 
codified at 50 CFR 17.21 for endangered wildlife, in part, make it 
illegal for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
to take (includes harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, 
capture, or collect; or to attempt any of these), import, export, ship 
in interstate commerce in the course of commercial activity, or sell or 
offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any listed species. 
Under the Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42-43; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378), it is also 
illegal to possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship any such 
wildlife that has been taken illegally. Certain exceptions apply to 
agents of the Service and State conservation agencies.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving endangered and threatened wildlife species under certain 
circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 CFR 
17.22 for endangered species, and at 17.32 for threatened species. With 
regard to endangered wildlife, a permit must be issued for the 
following purposes: for scientific purposes, to enhance the propagation 
or survival of the species, and for incidental take in connection with 
otherwise lawful activities.
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. The intent of this 
policy is to increase public awareness of the effect of a listing on 
proposed and ongoing activities within the range of listed species. The 
following activities could potentially result in a violation of section 
9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    (1) Unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, 
delivering, carrying, or transporting of the species, including import 
or export across State lines and international boundaries, except for 
properly documented antique specimens of these taxa at least 100 years 
old, as defined by section 10(h)(1) of the Act.
    (2) Actions that would result in the loss of sagebrush overstory 
plant cover or height. Such activities could include, but are not 
limited to, the removal of native shrub vegetation by any means for any 
infrastructure construction project; direct conversion of sagebrush 
habitat to agricultural land use; habitat improvement or restoration 
projects involving mowing, brush-beating, Dixie harrowing, disking, 
plowing, Tebuthiuron (Spike) and other herbicide applications, or 
prescribed burning; and fire suppression activities.
    (3) Actions that would result in the loss or reduction in native 
herbaceous understory plant cover or height, and a reduction or loss of 
associated arthropod communities. Such activities could include, but 
are not limited to, livestock grazing, the application of herbicides or 
insecticides, prescribed burning and fire suppression activities; and 
seeding of nonnative plant species that would compete with native 
species for water, nutrients, and space.
    (4) Actions that would result in Gunnison sage-grouse avoidance of 
an area during one or more seasonal periods. Such activities could 
include, but are not limited to, the construction of vertical 
structures such as power lines, fences, communication towers, 
buildings; motorized and non-motorized recreational use; and activities 
such as well drilling, operation, and maintenance, which would entail 
significant human presence, noise, and infrastructure.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Western 
Colorado Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Requests 
for copies of the regulations concerning listed animals and general 
inquiries regarding prohibitions and permits may be addressed to the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Permits, Denver 
Federal Center, P.O. Box 25486, Denver, Colorado, 80225-0489 (telephone 
(303) 236-4256; facsimile (303) 236-0027).
    Under section 4(d) of the ESA, the Secretary has discretion to 
issue such regulations as he deems necessary and advisable to provide 
for the conservation of threatened species. Our implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 17.31) for threatened wildlife generally 
incorporate the prohibitions of section 9 of the Act for endangered 
wildlife, except when a ``special rule'' promulgated pursuant to 
section 4(d) of the Act has been issued with respect to a particular 
threatened species. In such a case, the general prohibitions in 50 CFR 
17.31 would not apply to that species, and instead, the special rule 
would define the specific take prohibitions and exceptions that would 
apply for that particular threatened species, which we consider 
necessary and advisable to conserve the species. The Secretary also has 
the discretion to prohibit by regulation with respect to a

[[Page 69307]]

threatened species any act prohibited by section 9(a)(1) of the ESA. 
Exercising this discretion, which has been delegated to the Service by 
the Secretary, the Service has developed general prohibitions that are 
appropriate for most threatened species in 50 CFR 17.31 and exceptions 
to those prohibitions in 50 CFR 17.32. We continue to evaluate the 
appropriateness of issuing a special rule for the Gunnison sage-grouse 
in the future.

Conservation Measures for Gunnison Sage-Grouse Recovery

    We want to work cooperatively with and to support the ongoing 
conservation efforts of the many public and private partners across the 
range. Our desire is to build on the important existing conservation 
efforts of many partners to bring the species to a point where listing 
will no longer be necessary.
    In 2005, the Gunnison sage-grouse Range-wide Conservation Plan 
(RCP) (Gunnison Sage-grouse Rangewide Steering Committee 2005) 
identified conservation actions for the Gunnison sage-grouse. In 2013, 
the counties belonging to the County Coalition for Gunnison sage-grouse 
indicated that they would work with Colorado Parks & Wildlife (CPW) to 
update and revise the RCP in the near future to better reflect best 
available science and conservation progress made to date. Our partners, 
the counties, and the public asked the Service for our perspective on 
what conservation actions would be necessary to conserve the Gunnison 
sage-grouse. In advance of the revision of the RCP, and in advance of 
recovery planning for the species, the Service gathered the best 
available information and conferred with our partners to outline 
conservation recommendations that, if achieved, would improve the 
Service's confidence in the conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse. The 
conservation recommendations identified here are intended to update, 
modify, and build on the conservation strategies in the 2005 RCP and to 
be discussed in the context of an upcoming revision to the RCP. The 
approach and actions identified in this section, if completed, would 
help increase the satellite populations' redundancy to the Gunnison 
Basin population, thereby increasing the resiliency of the species. The 
Service further recommends that a recovery strategy include population 
and habitat targets for the Gunnison Basin and the satellite 
populations using a scientifically defensible, peer-reviewed approach.

Targeting Satellite Populations for Conservation Efforts

    The Gunnison Basin is the largest population (approximately 3,978 
birds in 2014) and, while showing variation from 1996 to 2014, has been 
relatively stable. However, redundancy to the Gunnison Basin population 
is a necessary element to have confidence in the conservation of the 
Gunnison sage-grouse. Confidence in redundancy provided by a satellite 
population is based on whether the satellite population is able to 
withstand perturbations and recover and persist. We recommend 
developing a recovery strategy that will be built around the resilience 
of multiple satellite populations to provide redundancy to the Gunnison 
Basin population.
    The total abundance of Gunnison sage-grouse is an important 
indicator of species-level resiliency. Of the six satellite 
populations, Poncha Pass and Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa have very 
low population numbers to the extent that their potential to provide 
redundancy would be very limited without extraordinary conservation 
actions taking place over a long period of time. Therefore, to maximize 
the potential to achieve resilience in the satellite populations that 
would provide redundancy to the Gunnison Basin population, our initial 
recommendations for conservation measures focus on the Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa, Crawford, San Miguel, and Dove Creek-Monticello satellite 
populations. In addition, the Service agrees with the RCP assertion 
that the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa area is needed for the 
conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse, as it has and should continue to 
provide an important habitat linkage to the other satellite 
populations. However, the Service recommends focusing limited 
conservation resources on the four larger satellite populations while 
still protecting the Cerro Summit-Cimarron-Sims Mesa area. This 
approach should yield the quickest conservation results and improve the 
resilience of the species as a whole.

Summary of Service Recommendations

    As soon as possible, we want to work with CPW and UDWR to convene 
science experts to identify targets for population numbers, habitat 
acreage, sagebrush cover, and limiting factors for the above-identified 
satellite populations. Development of the targets will guide recovery 
efforts and improve confidence in the conservation of the species as 
they are achieved.

Overarching Conservation Objectives

    We recommend protections that should apply rangewide and could be 
achieved on Federal and non-Federal lands.

Protection of Gunnison Sage-Grouse Habitat That Is Currently Occupied, 
or That Becomes Occupied Through Future Expansion
    Any further loss of habitat quality or quantity of habitat will 
decrease the long-term viability of Gunnison sage-grouse. In addition, 
current occupied habitat is not of sufficient quality or quantity to 
provide confidence in conservation of the Gunnison sage-grouse. 
Therefore the goal should be to protect all habitat that is occupied or 
that becomes occupied through future expansion from future loss and/or 
degradation, including temporary degradation related to indirect 
impacts of surface occupancy and/or disruptive activities.
    A 4-mile restriction on surface disturbance (e.g. No Surface 
Occupancy) for all surface-disturbing activities around a lek should be 
enforced. If there are circumstances that preclude No Surface Occupancy 
within 4 miles around a lek, such as existing disturbances, disruptive 
activities, or valid existing fluid or locatable mineral rights in 
occupied habitat, permitted activities should follow the mitigation 
hierarchy of avoiding impact to the degree possible, minimizing impact, 
and providing compensatory mitigation to offset any unavoidable 
impacts. In addition, for those areas where No Surface Occupancy is 
precluded, the following recommendations apply:
     Limit permitted surface disturbances to 1 per section with 
no more than 3 percent surface disturbance, factoring in existing and 
new impacts, in that section.
    Protect breeding habitat and leks from future loss and/or 
degradation, including temporary degradation related to indirect 
impacts of surface occupancy and/or disruptive activities.
     Leks and the area within 0.6 miles must be avoided and 
protected from surface occupancy and disruptive activities.
     [cir] If avoidance and/or disturbance is not possible due to pre-
existing valid rights, adjacent development, or split estate issues, 
development and/or disruptive activities should only be allowed in non-
habitat areas with an adequate buffer to preclude impacts to sage-
grouse habitat from noise and other human activities.
    Protect nesting habitat from any future loss and/or degradation,

[[Page 69308]]

including temporary degradation related to indirect impacts of surface 
occupancy and/or disruptive activities.
     The area from 1 to 6.5 km (0.6 to 4.0 mi) around a lek 
must be protected between March 1st and July 15th. Outside of this 
period, some disturbance may occur, but only if the disturbance does 
not exceed the disturbance cap, all feasible measures are taken to 
minimize impacts, and it is determined that the cumulative impact does 
not negatively affect reproductive success or reduce an individual's 
physiological ability to cope with environmental stress, and will not 
in the future.
    Protect winter habitat from any future loss and/or degradation, 
including temporary degradation related to indirect impacts of surface 
occupancy and/or disruptive activities.
     Winter habitats need to be identified by CPW or UDWR and 
protected from October 1st to March 1st. If winter habitat and winter 
refuge areas are not identified, all potential winter habitat must be 
protected from October 1st to March 1st. Outside of this period, some 
disturbance may occur, but only if the disturbance does not exceed the 
disturbance cap, all feasible measures are taken to minimize impacts, 
and if it is determined that the cumulative impact does not remove or 
negatively impact the stands of sage-brush necessary for Gunnison sage-
grouse winter survival.
    Maintain summer brood-rearing habitat. In grazed areas, require 
grazing management appropriate to local ecological conditions to 
promote and achieve habitat characteristics representative of healthy 
sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse habitat.
     Areas within 0.4 km (0.25 mi) of known late summer/brood-
rearing habitat must be maintained or enhanced to represent habitat 
characteristics representative of brood-rearing habitats described in 
the RCP.
    Prevent noise disturbance during the breeding season.
     Do not allow any disruptive activities or surface 
occupancy that will increase noise levels 10 dBa above ambient noise 
level measured at sunrise at the perimeter of leks during the breeding 
season (March 1st to May 31st).
Increase Occupied Habitat
    Reclaim and restore degraded habitat to meet characteristics of 
functional, seasonal sage-grouse habitats.
     Existing disturbances should meet reclamation standards 
that are aimed at restoring disturbances to functional sage-grouse 
habitat as described in the RCP and are representative of the pre-
disturbance habitat type.

Range-Wide Mitigation Strategy

    In the Gunnison Basin and the satellite populations, any 
development and/or disruptive activities in occupied habitat will 
impact Gunnison sage-grouse. We recommend the development of land-use 
regulations that prescribe the following mitigation hierarchy of avoid, 
minimize, and compensate for unavoidable impacts, at the State or local 
level.
    If avoidance of surface disturbance and disruptive activities 
around leks cannot be achieved, efforts to minimize and compensate for 
impacts will not offset impacts. Avoidance of direct and/or indirect 
disturbance of the area within 0.6 miles of existing leks is critical, 
due to sage-grouse site fidelity (Connelly 2000).
    If land use regulations quantify the negative impacts of surface 
disturbance and disruptive activities on Gunnison sage-grouse and then 
require an offset that provides a net conservation benefit, that would 
help ensure that negative impacts do not overshadow conservation 
efforts. To be effective, mitigation policy must require avoidance of 
impacts as the highest priority, then minimization of impacts and 
finally offset of unavoidable impacts through conservation actions.
    The San Miguel and Dove Creek-Monticello satellite populations may 
be impacted by oil and gas development. To manage the potential impact 
of oil and gas development, mitigation policy should specify best 
management practices and conservation measures to minimize impacts of 
oil and gas development to Gunnison sage-grouse and their habitat.

Conservation Actions Recommended for San Miguel, Dove Creek-Monticello, 
Crawford, and Pi[ntilde]on Mesa Satellite Populations

    The following are near-term high-priority recommendations for four 
of the satellite populations.

Assess Existing Habitat Availability and Quality

    Habitat loss and degradation are recognized as causes of the 
decline in abundance and distribution of Gunnison sage-grouse. The 
Service agrees with the 2005 RCP recommendation that Gunnison sage-
grouse seasonal habitat should be identified, habitat quality assessed, 
and changes in habitat monitored over time. If CPW and UDWR identify 
seasonal habitat types and assess habitat quality, it will improve 
their ability to identify potential limiting habitat types and 
prioritize habitat restoration efforts. The Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse 
Habitat Prioritization Tool (HPT) identifies sage-grouse habitat and 
then discounts the value of the habitat based on distance to 
structures, roads, and power lines. However, the HPT covers only the 
Gunnison Basin and does not possess the functionality to determine 
habitat quality. A tool should be developed for all of the populations 
to monitor and detect changes to habitat quality and seasonal habitat 
availability. A habitat mapping tool could help identify where and how 
to improve habitat quality, prioritize habitat improvement projects, 
evaluate development threats and protection needs, and adaptively 
manage Gunnison sage-grouse for the satellite populations.

Reduce Pinyon-Juniper Encroachment

    Pinyon-juniper encroachment degrades and, if untreated, eliminates 
sage-grouse habitat. Treatment of phase I and phase II encroachment 
levels of pinyon-juniper adjacent to occupied habitat is often the 
quickest and least expensive method to restore sagebrush habitat for 
sage-grouse. Under the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) 
Sage-Grouse Initiative (SGI), a geo-spatial analysis of potential 
pinyon-juniper removal is being completed for each of the Western 
Association of Fish & Wildlife Association (WAFWA) sage-grouse 
Management Zones (MZ). The range of the Gunnison sage-grouse is in MZ 
VII. Once the analysis is completed for MZ VII, phase I and II 
encroaching pinyon-juniper should be removed, starting within 6.5 km (4 
mi) of occupied habitat and expanding out by 6.5 km (4 mi) as restored 
habitat is occupied until habitat targets are achieved for each 
satellite population.

Road Closures

    Disturbance from roads and vehicular traffic near leks during the 
breeding season must be reduced and/or minimized. Road closures, 
seasonal timing restrictions, and proper siting of new roads should be 
used to eliminate or minimize disturbance. In the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa 
population, a seasonal closure and time of day restrictions for the 
section of MS County Road that is directly adjacent to one of the leks 
will remove a significant source of potential disturbance to that 
population.

Grazing Management Appropriate to Ecological Conditions

    Overgrazing that is not appropriate for ecological conditions on 
the range can lead to habitat degradation. Continued enrollment of 
ranchers into the NRCS

[[Page 69309]]

SGI will improve grazing management. Landowners and land managers who 
manage cattle on both private and public lands should be encouraged to 
manage across ownerships for sage-grouse conservation. The Service will 
consider lands already enrolled in the Candidate Conservation Agreement 
with Assurances, implementation of NRCS practices on private rangelands 
that follow Conference Opinion guidance, and lands subject to other 
programs that require signed commitments to manage grazing appropriate 
to ecological conditions when assessing the acreage being grazed in a 
manner appropriate to ecological conditions in a satellite population.

Prioritize Translocations

    The small population size and structure of the six satellite 
populations of Gunnison sage-grouse raises concerns about the 
probability of extirpation of the satellite populations and extinction 
of the species due to demographic and/or environmental stochasticity. 
Colorado Parks & Wildlife has indicated that recent translocations have 
had a positive influence on the population counts seen in 2012-2013. In 
order to maximize the population augmentation benefits of 
translocation, the Colorado Parks & Wildlife Trap and Transplant 
Committee should revise the translocation strategy to allow for 
prioritization of the Pi[ntilde]on Mesa, Crawford, San Miguel, and Dove 
Creek-Monticello satellite populations. The revision should address how 
timing (spring and/or fall), age class (adult or yearling), gender, and 
quantity of transplants can increase the resilience of the Pi[ntilde]on 
Mesa, Crawford, San Miguel, and Dove Creek-Monticello satellite 
populations. CPW should also continue to evaluate the effectiveness of 
translocation strategies to maximize their effectiveness.

Protection of Targeted Occupied Habitat

    The Service agrees with the RCP recommendation that 90 percent of 
habitats currently occupied, or that become occupied through future 
expansion should be protected through a combination of voluntary 
agreements, land use planning, conservation easements, fee-title 
acquisition, or land trades. We would consider a variety of 
conservation efforts as providing protection of occupied habitat. For 
example:
BLM Lands With an RMP That Protects Gunnison Sage-Grouse
    BLM lands that will be managed under the new range-wide Resource 
Management Plan (RMP) amendment for Gunnison sage-grouse with 
sufficient protections can be considered as providing habitat 
protection.
Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances (CCAA)
    Private lands already enrolled under the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement for Gunnison sage-grouse that is administered by Colorado 
Parks & Wildlife will be considered as providing habitat protection.
Enrollment in the Sage-Grouse Initiative (SGI)
    Private lands managed under Conservation Plans that follow the 
guidance of the Natural Resource Conservation Service's Sage-Grouse 
Initiative (SGI) will be considered as providing habitat protection.
Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
    The Service will consider private lands enrolled in the Farm 
Service Agency's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) within the Dove 
Creek-Monticello satellite population as providing habitat protection 
based on its assessment of the quality of habitat provided by CRP 
practices.
    The CRP State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement (SAFE) program allows 
continuous sign-up and is designed to address State and regional high-
priority wildlife objectives. Producers within a SAFE area can submit 
offers to voluntarily enroll acres in CRP contracts for 10-15 years. In 
exchange, producers receive annual CRP rental payments, incentives, and 
cost-share assistance to establish, improve, connect, or create higher 
quality habitat. In Colorado, the goal of the Colorado Western Slope 
Grouse CRP SAFE project is to restore and enhance habitat for the 
Columbian sharp-tailed grouse, greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-
grouse. The project seeks to enroll 12,600 acres in CRP.
    Enrollment in CRP is limited by FSA to 25 percent of cropland in a 
county, unless a waiver is granted. The enrollment caps for the Dove 
Creek-Monticello satellite population counties are: San Juan County, 
Utah 33,550 acres; Dolores County, Colorado, 22,152 acres; and San 
Miguel County, Colorado, 5,404 acres.
    Current enrollment in San Juan County is 33,654 acres. Three 
additions could be made in San Juan County, Utah, to increase the 
Gunnison sage-grouse conservation value of the CRP program: (1) The 
addition of a CRP SAFE program targeting Gunnison sage-grouse would 
make continuous signup available and could also provide additional 
incentives for landowners; (2) A waiver to exceed the 25 percent 
cropland limit to allow increased CRP enrollment and incentive to 
create Gunnison sage-grouse habitat; and (3) The addition of sagebrush 
and more forbs to the CRP seed mix would improve Gunnison sage-grouse 
habitat more quickly than relying on natural reestablishment.
    In Dolores County, Colorado, 6,431 acres of occupied habitat and 
10,869 acres of potentially suitable habitat are currently enrolled in 
CRP. In San Miguel County, Colorado, 303 acres of occupied habitat and 
4,742 acres of potentially suitable habitat are currently enrolled in 
CRP. The 2005 RCP identified the lack of sagebrush as an issue and 
recommends that CRP target establishment of 5,000 acres of sagebrush 
within 3 miles of leks in Utah and 3,000 acres of sagebrush within 6.5 
km (4 mi) of leks in Colorado.

Protection Under Conservation Easements

    Conservation easements with provisions that protect Gunnison sage-
grouse habitat will be considered as providing habitat protection on 
private lands. The Service recommends that efforts to increase acreage 
under conservation easements first prioritize areas closest to active 
leks.
    In San Miguel County and Montrose County, new conservation 
easements should focus on the Miramonte Basin, Iron Mesa, and Gurley 
Basin.
    In the Dove Creek-Monticello population, the majority of occupied 
habitat is privately owned (87 percent in Dove Creek; 95 percent in 
Monticello). Conservation easements in the Dove Creek-Monticello 
population should prioritize landowners participating in the 
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), if the habitat is recognized as 
already providing a high conservation value for the population.
    Targeted opportunities under the NRCS Agricultural Conservation 
Easement Program (ACEP) could play a major role in restoring sagebrush 
and understory grasses and forbs to provide the protection levels 
needed for the population persistence.

Summary

    An updated conservation strategy for the Gunnison sage-grouse 
should reflect the complexity of the species' biology, the distribution 
of the species across the landscape, and the diverse stakeholders who 
are critical to success. The Service will assess not only population 
and habitat status and trends, but also the degree to which current and 
projected threats are addressed when determining the confidence in the 
long-term

[[Page 69310]]

conservation of Gunnison sage-grouse. The status and trend of the total 
population size of Gunnison sage-grouse as well as the status and trend 
of the Gunnison Basin and satellite populations influence confidence in 
the resilience and redundancy evaluation. The Service also needs to 
know that sage-grouse habitat for the satellite populations are of 
sufficient quality and quantity to support populations with a high 
likelihood of persistence. Sufficient habitat quality and quantity 
combined with resilient population levels could provide confidence that 
the relative extinction risk in the future for the satellite 
populations is sufficiently low. Finally, an assessment of habitat 
quality and quantity for all the populations will highlight potential 
limiting habitat factors and target conservation to efforts that should 
yield the highest and most expedient impact on Gunnison sage-grouse 
populations.

Required Determinations

National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.)

    We have determined that environmental assessments and environmental 
impact statements, as defined under the authority of the National 
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA; 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), need not be 
prepared in connection with listing a species as an endangered or 
threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. We published a 
notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the Federal 
Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244).

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994 
(Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments; 59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175 (Consultation and 
Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments), and the Department of the 
Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our 
responsibility to communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal 
Tribes on a government-to-government basis. In accordance with 
Secretarial Order 3206 of June 5, 1997 (American Indian Tribal Rights, 
Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act), 
we readily acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with 
tribes in developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge 
that tribal lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal 
public lands, to remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make 
information available to tribes.
    The Service consulted with the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (Tribe) on 
March 26, 2014, regarding the proposed listing of Gunnison sage-grouse 
and proposed critical habitat designation, and potential impacts to 
Tribal activities on Pinecrest Ranch (USFWS 2014d, entire). Owned by 
the Tribe under restricted fee status, Pinecrest Ranch includes 18,749 
ac of land in the Gunnison Basin population area west of Gunnison, 
Colorado, including approximately 12,000 ac of occupied habitat for 
Gunnison sage-grouse. The consultation was focused primarily on 
potential exemptions from take of Gunnison sage-grouse on the ranch and 
exclusion of the ranch from critical habitat designation. In 
consideration of the information provided by the Tribe and Tribal 
conservation efforts for Gunnison sage-grouse (see discussion in Factor 
D), the Service is excluding the ranch from the critical habitat 
designation (published elsewhere in today's Federal Register).

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this rulemaking is available 
on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov and upon request from the 
Western Colorado Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

Authors

    The primary authors of this package are the staff members of the 
Western Colorado Field Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Final Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter I, title 50 
of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 1531-1544; 4201-4245; unless 
otherwise noted.


0
2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h) by adding an entry for ``Sage-grouse, 
Gunnison'' to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in 
alphabetical order under ``Birds'' to read as follows:


Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Species                                                    Vertebrate
--------------------------------------------------------                        population where                                  Critical     Special
                                                            Historic range       endangered or         Status      When listed    habitat       rules
           Common name                Scientific name                              threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
              Birds
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Sage-grouse, Gunnison............  Centrocercus minimus  U.S.A. (AZ, CO, NM,  Entire.............  T                       854     17.95(b)           NA
                                                          UT).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *

    Dated: November 7, 2014.
Daniel M. Ashe,
Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 2014-27109 Filed 11-19-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P