[Federal Register Volume 80, Number 23 (Wednesday, February 4, 2015)]
[Notices]
[Pages 6076-6084]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2015-02210]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

[EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0217; FRL-9922-38-OW]
RIN 2040-A537


Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 4-- Draft

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Notice.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: EPA is publishing for public review and comment a draft list 
of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or 
promulgated national primary drinking water regulations. These 
contaminants are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems 
and may require regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). 
This draft list is the fourth Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4) 
published by the agency since the SDWA amendments of 1996. This Draft 
CCL 4 includes 100 chemicals or chemical groups and 12 microbial 
contaminants. The EPA seeks comment on the Draft CCL 4 and on 
improvements to the selection process for future CCLs for the agency to 
consider.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 6, 2015.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-
2012-0217, by one of the following methods:
     http://www.regulations.gov: Follow the on-line 
instructions for submitting comments.
     Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mail 
code: 28221T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.
     Hand Delivery: Water Docket, EPA Docket Center (EPA/DC) 
EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20004. 
Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of 
operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of 
boxed information.
    Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2012-
0217. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in 
the public docket without change and may be made available online at 
http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information 
provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be 
Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose 
disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you 
consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through http://www.regulations.gov or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site 
is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your 
identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of 
your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without 
going through http://www.regulations.gov, your email address will be 
automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is 
placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you 
submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name 
and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any 
disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to 
technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA 
may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid 
the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of 
any defects or viruses. For additional instructions on submitting 
comments, go to Section I.B of the GENERAL INFORMATION section of this 
document.
    Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some 
information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information 
whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such 
as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. 
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically 
in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket, EPA/
DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 
20004. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., 
Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number 
for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number 
for the EPA Docket Center is (202) 566-2426.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on chemical 
contaminants contact Meredith Russell, Office of Ground Water and 
Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division, at (202) 564-
0814 or email russell.meredith@epa.gov. For information on microbial 
contaminants contact Hannah Holsinger, Office of Ground Water and 
Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division, at (202) 564-
0403 or email holsinger.hannah@epa.gov. For general information contact 
the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: 
hotline-sdwa@epa.gov.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

ATSDR--Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CA--California
CASRN--Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number
CDC--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CCL--Contaminant Candidate List
CCL 1--EPA's First Contaminant Candidate List
CCL 2--EPA's Second Contaminant Candidate List
CCL 3--EPA's Third Contaminant Candidate List
CCL 4--EPA's Fourth Contaminant Candidate List
CFR--Code of Federal Regulations
EPA--United States Environmental Protection Agency
ESA--Ethanesulfonic acid
FL--Florida
FR--Federal Register
HPC--Heterotrophic Plate Count
IL--Illinois
MCL--Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG--Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MMWR--Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
NC--North Carolina
NCOD--National Contaminant Occurrence Database
NDWAC--National Drinking Water Advisory Council
NRC--National Academy of Science's National Research Council
NPDWR--National Primary Drinking Water Regulation
OH--Ohio
PCCL 3--Preliminary Contaminant Candidate List 3
PCCL 4--Preliminary Contaminant Candidate List 4
PFOA--Perfluorooctanoic Acid
PFOS--Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid
PWS--Public Water System
SAB--Science Advisory Board
SDWA--Safe Drinking Water Act
SD--South Dakota
STORET--EPA's Storage and Retrieval database of water quality 
monitoring data collected by water resource management groups across 
the U.S.
TX--Texas
UCM--Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
UCMR 1--First Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule
UCMR 2--Second Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule
USDA--United States Department of Agriculture
USEPA--United States Environmental Protection Agency
USGS--United States Geological Survey
WHO--World Health Organization
WI--Wisconsin

[[Page 6077]]


SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Table of Contents

I. General Information
    A. Does this action impose any requirements on my public water 
system?
    B. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?
II. Purpose, Background and Summary of This Action
    A. What is the purpose of this action?
    B. Statutory Requirements for CCL, Regulatory Determinations and 
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
    1. Contaminant Candidate List
    2. Regulatory Determinations
    3. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
    C. Interrelationship of the CCL, Regulatory Determinations and 
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
    D. Summary of Previous CCLs and Regulatory Determinations
    1. The First Contaminant Candidate List
    2. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 1 Contaminants
    3. The Second Contaminant Candidate List
    4. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 2 Contaminants
    5. The Third Contaminant Candidate List
    6. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 3 Contaminants
    E. Summary of the Approach Used To Identify and Evaluate 
Candidates for CCL 4
    1. Carry Forward of CCL 3 Contaminants
    2. Summary and Evaluation of CCL 4 Nominated Contaminants
    3. Evaluation of Previous Negative Regulatory Determinations
    F. What is included on EPA's Draft CCL 4?
III. Request for Comment
IV. EPA's Next Steps
V. References

I. General Information

A. Does this action impose any requirements on my public water system?

    The Draft Contaminant Candidate List 4 (CCL 4) and the Final CCL 4, 
when published, will not impose any requirements on regulated entities.

B. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?

    You may find the following suggestions helpful for preparing your 
comments:
     Explain your views as clearly as possible.
     Describe any assumptions that you used.
     Provide any technical information and/or data you used 
that support your views.
     Provide full references for any peer reviewed publication 
you used that support your views.
     Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns.
     Offer alternatives.
    Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period deadline. 
To ensure proper receipt by EPA, identify the appropriate docket 
identification number in the subject line on the first page of your 
response. It would also be helpful if you provided the name, date, and 
Federal Register citation related to your comments.

II. Purpose, Background and Summary of This Action

    This section briefly summarizes the purpose of this action, the 
statutory requirements, previous activities related to the Contaminant 
Candidate List (CCL) and the approach used to develop the Draft CCL 4.

A. What is the purpose of this action?

    The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), as amended in 1996, requires 
EPA to publish a list every five years of currently unregulated 
contaminants that may pose risks for drinking water (referred to as the 
Contaminant Candidate List, or CCL). This list is subsequently used to 
make regulatory determinations on whether to regulate at least five 
contaminants from the CCL with national primary drinking water 
regulations (NPDWRs) (SDWA section 1412(b)(1)). The purpose of today's 
action is to present EPA's draft list of contaminants on the CCL 4 and 
the rationale for the selection process used to make the list. Today's 
action only addresses the CCL 4. Regulatory determinations for 
contaminants on the CCL are a separate agency action.
    EPA requests comment on the Draft CCL 4 and suggestions for further 
improvements to the selection process for future CCLs for the agency to 
consider.

B. Statutory Requirements for CCL, Regulatory Determinations and 
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring

1. Contaminant Candidate List
    Section 1412(b)(1) of the SDWA, as amended in 1996, requires EPA to 
publish the CCL every five years. The SDWA specifies that the list must 
include contaminants that are not subject to any proposed or 
promulgated NPDWRs, are known or anticipated to occur in public water 
systems (PWSs), and may require regulation under the SDWA. The 
unregulated contaminants considered for listing shall include, but not 
be limited to, hazardous substances identified in section 101(14) of 
the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability 
Act of 1980, and substances registered as pesticides under the Federal 
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The SDWA directs the 
agency to consider the health effects and occurrence information for 
unregulated contaminants to identify those contaminants that present 
the greatest public health concern related to exposure from drinking 
water. The statute further directs the agency to take into 
consideration the effect of contaminants upon subgroups that comprise a 
meaningful portion of the general population (such as infants, 
children, pregnant women, the elderly and individuals with a history of 
serious illness or other subpopulations) that are identifiable as being 
at greater risk of adverse health effects due to exposure to 
contaminants in drinking water than the general population. EPA 
considers age-related subgroups as ``lifestages'' in reference to a 
distinguishable time frame in an individual's life characterized by 
unique and relatively stable behavioral and/or physiological 
characteristics that are associated with development and growth. Thus, 
childhood is viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from conception 
through fetal development, infancy and adolescence (see http://www2.epa.gov/children/early-life-stages).
2. Regulatory Determinations
    Section 1412(b)(1)(B)(ii) of the SDWA, as amended in 1996, requires 
EPA at five year intervals, to make determinations of whether or not to 
regulate no fewer than five contaminants from the CCL. The 1996 SDWA 
Amendments specify three criteria to determine whether a contaminant 
may require regulation:
     The contaminant may have an adverse effect on the health 
of persons;
     The contaminant is known to occur or there is a 
substantial likelihood that the contaminant will occur in public water 
systems with a frequency and at levels of public health concern; and
     In the sole judgment of the Administrator, regulation of 
such contaminant presents a meaningful opportunity for health risk 
reduction for persons served by public water systems.
    If EPA determines that these three statutory criteria are met and 
makes a final determination to regulate a contaminant, the agency has 
24 months to publish a proposed Maximum Contaminant Level Goal \1\ 
(MCLG) and

[[Page 6078]]

NPDWR \2\. After the proposal, the agency has 18 months to publish and 
promulgate a final MCLG and NPDWR (SDWA section 1412(b)(1)(E)) \3\.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ The MCLG is the ``maximum level of a contaminant in drinking 
water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health 
of persons would occur, and which allows an adequate margin of 
safety. Maximum contaminant level goals are non-enforceable health 
goals.'' (40 CFR 141.2; 42 U.S.C. 300g-1)
    \2\ An NPDWR is a legally enforceable standard that applies to 
public water systems. An NPDWR sets a legal limit (called a maximum 
contaminant level or MCL) or specifies a certain treatment technique 
for public water systems for a specific contaminant or group of 
contaminants. The MCL is the highest level of a contaminant that is 
allowed in drinking water and is set as close to the MCLG as 
feasible, using the best available treatment technology and taking 
cost into consideration.
    \3\ The statute authorizes a nine month extension of this 
promulgation date.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
    Section 1445 of the SDWA mandates that EPA promulgate regulations 
(known as the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule or UCMR) to 
establish criteria for a monitoring program for unregulated 
contaminants. The SDWA requires all large public water systems and a 
representative sample of smaller public water systems to monitor for 
unregulated contaminants. The statute requires EPA to issue a list 
every five years of not more than 30 unregulated contaminants to be 
monitored. The SDWA also specifies that EPA include the results of such 
monitoring, along with monitoring data for regulated contaminants and 
reliable information from other public and private sources, in a 
national drinking water occurrence database. EPA developed the National 
Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) to contain the monitoring data 
from the UCMR program and other data as specified by the SDWA. The 
current UCMR (UCMR 3) requires monitoring for 30 contaminants (28 
chemicals and two viruses) (77 FR 26071, May 2, 2012 (USEPA, 2012a)). 
Sampling is occurring during 2013-2015. Twenty-one of the contaminants 
being monitored under UCMR3 are included on the CCL 3 and 20 
contaminants being monitored under UCMR3 are included on the Draft CCL 
4.

C. Interrelationship of the CCL, Regulatory Determinations and 
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring

    The CCL is the first step in evaluating the subset of potential 
contaminants that may require future NPDWRs. The CCL serves as the 
initial screening of potential contaminants, and inclusion on the CCL 
does not mean that any particular contaminant will necessarily be 
regulated in the future. The UCMR provides a mechanism to obtain 
nationally representative occurrence data for contaminants. Most 
unregulated contaminants chosen by EPA for monitoring have been 
selected from the CCL. When selecting contaminants for monitoring under 
the UCMR, EPA considers the availability of health effects data and the 
need for national occurrence data for contaminants, as well as 
analytical method availability and cost, availability of analytical 
standards and laboratory capacity to support a nationwide monitoring 
program. The contaminant occurrence data collected under the UCMR 
serves to better inform future CCLs and regulatory determinations. 
Contaminants on the CCL are evaluated to see which ones have sufficient 
information to allow the agency to make a regulatory determination. 
Those contaminants with sufficient information to make a regulatory 
determination are then evaluated based on the three statutory criteria 
in SDWA section 1412(b)(1), to determine whether a regulation is 
required (called a positive determination) or not required (called a 
negative determination). EPA must make regulatory determinations for at 
least five contaminants listed on the CCL every five years. For those 
contaminants without sufficient information to allow the agency to make 
a regulatory determination, EPA encourages research to provide the 
information needed to determine whether to regulate the contaminant. 
Today's action addresses only the CCL 4 and not the UCMR or regulatory 
determinations.

D. Summary of Previous CCLs and Regulatory Determinations

1. The First Contaminant Candidate List
    The first CCL (CCL 1) was published on March 2, 1998 (63 FR 10274 
(USEPA, 1998)). CCL 1 was developed based on recommendations by the 
National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) and review by 
technical experts. It contained 50 chemicals and 10 microbial 
contaminants/groups. EPA consulted with the scientific community, 
including the Science Advisory Board, on a process for developing the 
first CCL.
2. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 1 Contaminants
    EPA published its final regulatory determinations for a subset of 
contaminants listed on CCL 1 on July 18, 2003 (68 FR 42898 (USEPA, 
2003)). EPA identified nine contaminants from the 60 contaminants 
listed on CCL 1 that had sufficient data and information available to 
make regulatory determinations. The nine contaminants were 
Acanthamoeba, aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobutadiene, manganese, 
metribuzin, naphthalene, sodium and sulfate. The agency determined that 
an NPDWR was not necessary for any of these nine contaminants at that 
time. The agency subsequently issued guidance on Acanthamoeba and 
Health Advisories for manganese, sodium and sulfate.
3. The Second Contaminant Candidate List
    The agency published its Final CCL 2 on February 24, 2005 (70 FR 
9071 (USEPA, 2005)). The agency carried forward the 51 remaining 
chemical and microbial contaminants from CCL 1 (that did not have 
regulatory determinations) to CCL 2.
4. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 2 Contaminants
    EPA published its final regulatory determinations for a subset of 
contaminants listed on CCL 2 on July 30, 2008 (73 FR 44251 (USEPA, 
2008b)). EPA identified 11 contaminants from the 51 contaminants listed 
on CCL 2 that had sufficient data and information available to make 
regulatory determinations. The 11 contaminants were boron, the dacthal 
mono- and di-acid degradates; 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) 
ethylene (DDE); 1,3-dichloropropene; 2,4-dinitrotoluene; 2,6-
dinitrotoluene; s-ethyl propylthiocarbamate (EPTC); fonofos; terbacil; 
and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. The agency made a final determination 
that an NPDWR was not necessary for any of these 11 contaminants. New 
or updated Health Advisories were subsequently issued for boron, the 
dacthal degradates, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 1,1,2,2-
tetrachloroethane.
5. The Third Contaminant Candidate List
    The agency published its Final CCL 3 on October 8, 2009 (74 FR 
51850 (USEPA, 2009e)). The CCL 3 contained 104 chemicals or chemical 
groups and 12 microbial contaminants. In developing CCL 3, EPA improved 
and built upon the process that was used for CCL 1 and CCL 2. In 1998, 
the agency requested advice from the National Academy of Sciences' 
National Research Council (NRC) on how to improve the CCL process. The 
NRC recommended a more reproducible process whereby a broadly defined 
``universe'' of potential drinking water contaminants is identified, 
assessed and reduced to a preliminary CCL (PCCL) using simple screening 
criteria (NRC, 2001). All of the contaminants on the PCCL would then be 
evaluated in more detail to assess the likelihood that specific 
contaminants could occur in drinking water at levels that pose a public 
health concern. In

[[Page 6079]]

2002, the agency sought input from the NDWAC on how to implement the 
NRC's recommendations to improve the CCL process. NDWAC agreed that EPA 
should proceed with the NRC's recommendations and provided additional 
considerations and recommendations in a 2004 report (NDWAC, 2004).
    Based on these consultations, public input and peer review, EPA 
developed a multi-step process to select contaminants for the CCL 3, 
which included the following key steps:
     Identification of a broad universe of potential drinking 
water contaminants (the CCL 3 Universe);
     Screening the CCL 3 Universe to a PCCL, using criteria 
based on the potential to occur in public water systems and the 
potential for public health concern;
     Evaluation of the PCCL contaminants based on a more 
detailed evaluation of occurrence and health effects data, using a 
scoring and classification system; and
     Incorporating public input and expert review in the CCL 3 
process.
    EPA also considered new information on contaminants identified by 
surveillance efforts, which included collaboration with internal EPA 
offices and other federal agencies and the review of scientific 
publications and data. The agency provided the public with the 
opportunity to nominate contaminants to be considered for the Draft CCL 
3 and sought public comment on the Draft CCL 3 before the list was 
finalized.
    Exhibit 1 illustrates the multi-step CCL 3 approach. This 
generalized process was applied to both chemical and microbial 
contaminants, though the specific execution of particular steps differs 
between them.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN04FE15.182

    A complete description of the CCL 3 process can be found in the 
Draft and Final CCL 3 Federal Register documents (73 FR 9628, February 
21, 2008 (USEPA, 2008a) and 74 FR 51850, October 8, 2009 (USEPA, 
2009e)). Supporting documents that explain each stage of the CCL 3 
process in further detail (i.e., identifying the CCL 3 Universe, 
screening to the PCCL, and the classification of the PCCL to the CCL) 
can be found at: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/drinkingwater/dws/ccl/ccl3_processflowdiagram.cfm and in the CCL 3 docket at 
www.regulations.gov (Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OW-2007-1189).
6. The Regulatory Determinations for CCL 3 Contaminants
    On February 11, 2011, as a separate action, the agency issued a 
positive regulatory determination for perchlorate, a chemical listed in 
CCL 1, CCL 2 and CCL 3 (76 FR 7762; USEPA, 2011). Recently, EPA 
published preliminary regulatory determinations for five unregulated 
contaminants (79 FR 62716, October 20, 2014 (USEPA, 2014a)). The five 
contaminants include: 1,3-dinitrobenzene; dimethoate; strontium; 
terbufos; and terbufos sulfone. The agency is making preliminary 
determinations to regulate one contaminant (strontium) and to not 
regulate four contaminants (1,3-dinitrobenzene, dimethoate, terbufos, 
and terbufos sulfone). Therefore, the agency is removing perchlorate 
and these five contaminants from the Draft CCL 4, pending the result of 
the final regulatory determinations for CCL 3.

E. Summary of the Approach Used To Identify and Evaluate Candidates for 
CCL 4

    EPA proposes an abbreviated three step evaluation and selection 
process for CCL 4: (1) Carrying forward CCL 3 contaminants (except 
those with regulatory determinations), (2) seeking and evaluating 
nominations from the public for additional contaminants to consider, 
and (3) evaluating any new data for those contaminants with previous 
negative regulatory determinations from CCL 1 or CCL 2 for potential 
inclusion on the CCL 4. The

[[Page 6080]]

agency also seeks comment on how to further improve upon the process 
developed for CCL 3 as a tool for future CCLs.
1. Carry Forward of CCL 3 Contaminants
    EPA carried forward all contaminants listed on CCL 3 to the Draft 
CCL 4 with the exception of perchlorate, for which the agency made a 
positive regulatory determination, and the five CCL 3 contaminants with 
preliminary regulatory determinations (listed in Section D.6 of this 
notice), pending their final determinations. This carry forward process 
is consistent with that previously used in CCL 2. The agency has taken 
this approach based on the following considerations: (1) In developing 
the CCL 3, the agency implemented a robust process recommended by the 
NRC and the NDWAC to screen and score the universe of potential 
contaminants, (2) EPA used the best available, peer-reviewed data and 
information to evaluate contaminants for CCL 3; and (3) Carrying 
forward CCL 3 contaminants allows the agency to focus resources on 
evaluating contaminants nominated by the public for CCL 4 and review 
new data for CCL 1 or CCL 2 contaminants with previous negative 
regulatory determinations.
2. Summary and Evaluation of CCL 4 Nominated Contaminants
a. CCL 4 Nominations Summary
    EPA sought public nominations in a Federal Register document on May 
8, 2012, for contaminants to be considered for possible inclusion in 
the CCL 4 (77 FR 27057 (USEPA, 2012b)). In the document, the agency 
also requested supporting information that has been made available 
since the development of the CCL 3, or existing information that was 
not considered for CCL 3, which shows that the nominated contaminant 
may have an adverse effect on people and occurs or is likely to occur 
in public water systems.
    EPA received nominations for 59 unique contaminants for the CCL 4, 
including 54 chemicals and five microbials. Eight contaminants were 
nominated by more than one organization or individual. Aldicarb, 
bisphenol A, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, Toxoplasma gondii, and 
Microcystin-LR were each nominated by two separate organizations or 
individuals. Manganese and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were each 
nominated by three different organizations or individuals.
    Nominations were received from 10 different organizations and/or 
individuals. The agency did not require nominators to provide their 
name or an affiliated organization. Two nominators remained anonymous 
while providing documentation and rationale for the contaminants. Two 
other individuals identified themselves but did not provide an 
organization affiliation. The identified organizations that nominated 
contaminants were:
     American Water Works Association,
     Natural Resources Defense Council,
     Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection,
     Minnesota Department of Health,
     New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and
     U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
    EPA received three general types of nominations:
     Specific individual chemicals,
     Specific individual organisms, and
     Groups of contaminants (e.g., Heterotrophic Plate Count 
was considered as a group).
    The American Water Works Association also provided a letter with 
recommendations for the CCL 4 process. The full text of this letter and 
all of the nomination submittals in their original form can be found at 
http://www.regulations.gov (docket ID: EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0217). Exhibit 2 
contains the specific contaminants identified in public nominations. A 
more detailed summary of the nominations process is included in the 
support document ``Summary of Nominations for the Fourth Contaminant 
Candidate List'' (USEPA, 2015e).

 Exhibit 2. Contaminants Nominated for Consideration on the Draft CCL 4:
                    Nominated Microbial Contaminants
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adenovirus
Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria (HPC)
Naegleria fowleri
Toxoplasma gondii
Vibrio cholerae
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                     Nominated Chemical Contaminants
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Common Name - Registry Name                     CASRN
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone......      77439-76-0
alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane.............................        319-84-6
Aldicarb................................................        116-06-3
Alkylphenol mono- to tri-oxylates.......................      68555-24-8
Amoxicillin.............................................      26787-78-0
Azinphos-methyl.........................................         86-50-0
Bacitracin zinc.........................................       1405-89-6
Bentazone...............................................      25057-89-0
Benzyl butyl phthalate..................................         85-68-7
Bisphenol A.............................................         80-05-7
Bromoxynil..............................................       1689-84-5
Carbaryl................................................         63-25-2
Cesium 137..............................................      10045-97-3
Chlorothalonil..........................................       1897-45-6
Chlorpyrifos............................................       2921-88-2
Dibutyl phthalate.......................................         84-74-2
Dicamba.................................................       1918-00-9
Dichlorvos..............................................         62-73-7
Dicofol.................................................        115-32-2
Dicyclohexyl phthalate..................................         84-61-7
Diethyl phthalate.......................................         84-66-2
Di-isononyl phthalate...................................      28553-12-0
Dimethyl phthalate......................................        131-11-3
Di-n-octyl phthalate....................................        117-84-0
Endosulfan..............................................        115-29-7
Fluometuron.............................................       2164-17-2
Linezolid...............................................     165800-03-3
Linuron.................................................        330-55-2
Malathion...............................................        121-75-5
Manganese...............................................       7439-96-5
Methicillin.............................................         61-32-5
Methyl parathion........................................        298-00-0
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)......................       1634-04-4
Microcystin-LR..........................................     101043-37-2
Nonylphenol.............................................      25154-52-3
Nonylphenol ethoxylate..................................       9016-45-9
Octylphenol.............................................      27193-28-8
Octylphenol ethoxylate..................................       9036-19-5
Oxacillin...............................................         66-79-5
Penicillin..............................................       (multiple
                                                                 CASRNs)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)...........................        335-67-1
Permethrin..............................................      52645-53-1
Phosmet.................................................        732-11-6
Progesterone............................................         57-83-0
Radon...................................................      10043-92-2
Spiramycin..............................................       8025-81-8
Strontium 90............................................     121831-99-0
Testosterone............................................         58-22-0
Trichlorfon.............................................         52-68-6
Triclocarban............................................        101-20-2
Triclosan...............................................       3380-34-5
Tylosin.................................................       1401-69-0
Vancomycin..............................................       1404-90-6
Virginiamycin...........................................      11006-76-1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

b. Evaluation of Nominated Contaminants and Data Sources
    The SDWA specifies that the CCL only include those contaminants 
without any proposed or promulgated NPDWRs. Two nominated contaminants 
are covered under the existing NPDWR for beta photon emitters (40 CFR 
141.66(d)(1)) (i.e., strontium 90 and cesium 137), hence, the agency 
will not consider them for CCL 4. Radon was also nominated, but is not 
eligible for CCL 4 since the agency developed and proposed a NPDWR (64 
FR 59245, November 2, 1999 (USEPA, 1999)). Aldicarb was nominated but 
is not eligible for CCL 4 since it has an existing NPDWR (40 CFR 
141.61(c)); (Note, in response to an administrative petition, the 
agency issued an

[[Page 6081]]

administrative stay of the effective date of the maximum contaminant 
levels for aldicarbs).
    For the remaining 55 nominated contaminants, EPA reviewed the 
nominations and supporting information to determine if any new data 
were provided that had not been previously evaluated for CCL 3. Seven 
of the nominated contaminants were on CCL 3 and were carried forward to 
the Draft CCL 4, however the agency subsequently excluded those seven 
from the CCL 4 Universe. The agency also collected additional data for 
the nominated contaminants, when it was available, from both updated 
CCL 3 data sources and from new data sources that were not available at 
the time the agency finalized CCL 3. A complete list of references 
provided by nominators can be found in the support document ``Summary 
of Nominations for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List'' (USEPA, 
2015e). A more detailed description of the CCL data sources collected 
by EPA may be found in the support document ``Data Sources for the 
Contaminant Candidate List 4'' (USEPA, 2015c). If new data were 
available, EPA screened and scored the nominated contaminants using the 
same process that was used in CCL 3.
Data Sources for Chemical and Microbial Contaminants
    For nominated chemicals, occurrence data was collected from updated 
CCL 3 data sources including:
     2006 production data collected in the Chemical Update 
System under the Inventory Update Rule,
     2010 data from the Toxics Release Inventory,
     2003-2009 data from the USDA Pesticide Data Program, and
     EPA's Storage and Retrieval (STORET) data as of January 
2013.
    Additional occurrence data for the nominated chemicals were 
collected from data sources that are new since the CCL 3 including:
     United States Geological Survey (USGS) studies that 
focused on contaminant occurrence in source waters for public water 
systems (Hopple et al., 2009, and Kingsbury et al., 2008) and water 
quality in public-supply wells (Toccalino et al., 2010);
     Individual State public water supply data provided to EPA 
during the second Six-Year Review of regulated contaminants (for the 
time period covering 1998-2005) from States including: CA, EPA Region 9 
Tribes, FL, IL, NC, OH, SD, TX and WI;
     Data from The California State Water Resources Control 
Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring Assessment program; and
     New data from an EPA literature review of published 
studies on pharmaceuticals, personal care products and other 
contaminants.
    In addition to health effects data provided by the nominators, EPA 
searched for health effects data for the nominated chemicals from data 
sources used in CCL 3 that may have been updated including:
     EPA's Integrated Risk Information System program,
     EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs,
     The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 
(ATSDR),
     The California EPA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard 
Assessment),
     The Institute of Medicine,
     The National Toxicology Program, and
     The World Health Organization (WHO).
    EPA also considered new or updated health effects information 
contained in the agency's Office of Superfund Remediation and 
Technology Innovation Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values.
    For microbial contaminants, EPA evaluated waterborne disease 
outbreak data, and occurrence and health effects data, from data 
sources used in CCL 3, which have been updated (Murray et al., 2011; 
CDC, 2008; CDC, 2011). EPA also collected and evaluated information for 
microbial contaminants from data sources that are new since publication 
of the Final CCL 3.
    A more detailed description of the data sources used to evaluate 
contaminants for CCL 4 can be found in the support document ``Data 
Sources for the Contaminant Candidate List 4'' (USEPA, 2015c) available 
at http://www.regulations.gov (Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0217).
c. Outcomes for the CCL 4 Nominated Contaminants
    Forty-three of the nominated chemicals were included in the CCL 4 
Universe. Forty of the nominated chemicals were previously included in 
the CCL 3 Universe and were carried forward to the CCL 4 Universe. In 
addition to these 40, EPA added three nominated chemicals (i.e., 
octylphenol ethoxylate, oxacillin, and virginiamycin) to the CCL 4 
Universe based on health effects and/or occurrence data that is newly 
available since the Final CCL 3. EPA screened all of the nominated 
chemicals in the CCL 4 Universe according to the screening criteria 
developed for CCL 3 and based on that evaluation, the agency included 
20 of the nominated chemicals on the PCCL 4. Eighteen of those 20 
chemicals were also included in the PCCL 3, and EPA added two new 
chemicals (manganese and nonylphenol) to the PCCL 4. The data used to 
screen the nominated chemicals from the CCL 4 Universe to the PCCL 4 
can be found in the ``Screening Document for the Draft PCCL 4 Nominated 
Contaminants'' (USEPA, 2015d). EPA further evaluated the nominated 
chemicals on the PCCL 4 based on the classification process developed 
in CCL 3 and determined that manganese and nonylphenol should be added 
to the Draft CCL 4 based on new health and/or occurrence information 
(in addition to the chemicals carried forward from the CCL 3). The data 
that the agency used to further evaluate the nominated contaminants 
from the PCCL 4, and to select those that were included in the Draft 
CCL 4, can be found in the ``Contaminant Information Sheets (CISs) for 
the Draft Fourth Preliminary Contaminant Candidate List (PCCL 4) 
Nominated Contaminants'' (USEPA, 2015b).
    Manganese is an element that naturally occurs in oxide forms and in 
combinations with other elements in many minerals. Manganese is an 
essential nutrient for humans and animals. Manganese ores are used in a 
variety of applications in the United States. Its principal use is in 
steel production to improve hardness, stiffness and strength (ATSDR, 
2012). In 2003 and as part of the first (CCL 1) Regulatory 
Determination process, EPA made a negative regulatory determination for 
manganese based on the health and occurrence data available at that 
time. However, CCL 4 nominators cited more than 20 recent studies that 
indicate concern for neurological effects in children and infants 
exposed to excess manganese, which were not available at the time 
manganese was considered for the first Regulatory Determination or CCL 
3. In addition, new monitoring studies from USGS and drinking water 
monitoring information from several States support an earlier survey 
(i.e., the National Inorganics and Radionuclides Survey), which 
indicates manganese is known to occur in drinking water. EPA has 
determined that the new health effects information and additional 
occurrence data merit listing manganese in the Draft CCL 4.
    Nonylphenol is used in the preparation of lubricating oil 
additives, resins, plasticizers and antioxidants for plastics and 
rubber. Additionally, 60 percent of nonylphenol is used in the 
production of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are found in detergents 
and used

[[Page 6082]]

in the treatment of textiles. Nonylphenol was previously considered for 
CCL 3. It was included in the CCL 3 Universe, but was not included in 
the PCCL 3 or CCL 3. Updated health and occurrence data are now 
available for nonylphenol, and these data were considered by the agency 
in evaluating nonylphenol for the Draft CCL 4. Nonylphenol and some of 
its degradation products have been found to have estrogenic activity in 
rats and mice (WHO, 2004), and additional occurrence data are available 
from a USGS National Reconnaissance monitoring study of ambient water 
(Kolpin et al., 2002). EPA has determined that this updated health data 
and additional occurrence data show that nonylphenol is anticipated to 
occur in PWSs, has potential adverse health effects and, therefore, 
merits listing on the Draft CCL 4.
    EPA considered adding dicofol to the Draft CCL 4, however, both of 
the most recent manufacturers of the pesticide ceased all production as 
of May 17, 2011, and agreed to an EPA registration cancellation, which 
effectively prohibits all labeled uses of existing stocks after October 
31, 2016. Use of dicofol has declined significantly in recent years. In 
addition, the chemical properties of dicofol indicate that it has low 
mobility in water because it is expected to adsorb to organic matter in 
soil and sediment and it has moderately low solubility in water. As a 
result, the agency did not list dicofol on the Draft CCL 4 because it 
is not known or anticipated to occur in drinking water.
    EPA evaluated the microbial contaminants nominated for the CCL 4 
(see Exhibit 2) using the same process developed for the CCL 3. Taylor 
et al. (2001) was used as the basis of the microbial CCL 3 Universe, 
which includes a list of 1,415 known human pathogens. EPA added 10 
additional microbes to the CCL 3 Universe based on CCL 3 public 
nominations and other available data, thus bringing the total number of 
microbes in the CCL 3 Universe to 1,425. More detailed information 
about the selection of the CCL 3 Universe for microbial contaminants 
can be found in the support document ``Final Contaminant Candidate List 
3 Microbes: Identifying the Universe'' (USEPA, 2009b).
    The microbes in the CCL 3 Universe were subsequently screened into 
the PCCL 3 by applying 12 criteria to narrow the CCL 3 Universe of all 
human pathogens to just those pathogens that could be transmitted 
through drinking water. More detailed information on the screening 
process developed under CCL 3 for the microbial contaminants can be 
found in the support document ``Final Contaminant Candidate List 3 
Microbes: Screening to the PCCL'' (USEPA, 2009d).
    All the microbes nominated for the CCL 4, with the exception of 
Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) bacteria, were already included in both 
the CCL 3 Universe and PCCL 3. Thus, the agency carried forward those 
microbes to the CCL 4 Universe and PCCL 4, respectively.
    EPA reviewed new and/or updated sources of information for the 
nominated microbes on the PCCL 4 (i.e., Adenovirus, Naegleria fowleri, 
Toxoplasma gondii and Vibrio cholerae), and determined that there were 
no new data that would change the scores or listing decisions for these 
contaminants.
    Vibrio cholerae and Toxoplasma gondii will remain on the Draft PCCL 
4 because there are no new data that would change the CCL 3 scores or 
listing decisions for these contaminants. Naegleria fowleri and 
Adenovirus were on the Final CCL 3 and are therefore being carried 
forward to the Draft CCL 4, along with the other microbes included on 
the Final CCL 3. A detailed description of the CCL 3 scoring protocol 
for microbes can be found in the support document ``Final Contaminant 
Candidate List 3 Microbes: PCCL to CCL Process'' (USEPA, 2009c). The 
data used to further evaluate the nominated microbes on the PCCL 4 can 
be found in the ``Contaminant Information Sheets (CISs) for the Draft 
Fourth Preliminary Contaminant Candidate List (PCCL 4) Nominated 
Contaminants'' (USEPA, 2015b).
    The group of HPC bacteria was nominated for CCL 4, but EPA is not 
including it on the Draft CCL 4. HPC may include both pathogenic and 
harmless bacteria. However, available epidemiological evidence shows no 
relationship between gastrointestinal illness and HPC bacteria in 
drinking water (Calderon, 1988; Calderon and Mood, 1991; Payment et 
al., 1997; WHO, 2003). Thus, EPA considers the potential health risk of 
HPC bacteria in drinking water as likely negligible and is not 
including HPC on the Draft CCL 4. In addition, HPC bacteria are 
addressed by the treatment technique requirements under the Surface 
Water Treatment Rule, where they can be monitored in lieu of a 
disinfectant residual.
3. Evaluation of Previous Negative Regulatory Determinations
    EPA evaluated the 20 contaminants from CCL 1 and CCL 2 for which 
the agency made negative regulatory determinations. EPA collected and 
evaluated new or updated data for the previous negative regulatory 
determinations, if data were available, from the data sources listed in 
section II.E.2(b), ``Evaluation of Nominated Contaminants and Data 
Sources.'' Since regulatory determinations for the CCL 3 contaminants 
were recently made using the best available data, EPA did not include 
the CCL 3 regulatory determinations in this evaluation. EPA is adding 
manganese to the Draft CCL 4, as previously discussed in section 
11.E.2, ``Summary and Evaluation for CCL 4 Nominated Contaminants.'' 
The agency concluded there was not sufficient new information for any 
of the other 19 contaminants with previous negative regulatory 
determinations to justify including them on the Draft CCL 4. A listing 
of previous negative regulatory determinations is included in sections 
II.D.2 and II.D.4.

F. What is included on EPA's Draft CCL 4?

    The Draft CCL 4 includes 100 chemicals and 12 microbes.

  Exhibit 3. Draft Contaminant Candidate List 4: Microbial Contaminants
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Pathogens
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adenovirus
Caliciviruses
Campylobacter jejuni
Enterovirus
Escherichia coli (0157)
Helicobacter pylori
Hepatitis A virus
Legionella pneumophila
Mycobacterium avium
Naegleria fowleri
Salmonella enterica
Shigella sonnei
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                        Chemical Contaminants \4\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Common name--Registry name                      CASRN
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane...............................        630-20-6
1,1-Dichloroethane......................................         75-34-3
1,2,3-Trichloropropane..................................         96-18-4
1,3-Butadiene...........................................        106-99-0
1,4-Dioxane.............................................        123-91-1
17 alpha-Estradiol......................................         57-91-0
1-Butanol...............................................         71-36-3
2-Methoxyethanol........................................        109-86-4
2-Propen-1-ol...........................................        107-18-6
3-Hydroxycarbofuran.....................................      16655-82-6
4,4'-Methylenedianiline.................................        101-77-9
Acephate................................................      30560-19-1
Acetaldehyde............................................         75-07-0
Acetamide...............................................         60-35-5
Acetochlor..............................................      34256-82-1
Acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)....................     187022-11-3

[[Page 6083]]

 
Acetochlor oxanilic acid (OA)...........................     194992-44-4
Acrolein................................................        107-02-8
Alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)......................     142363-53-9
Alachlor oxanilic acid (OA).............................     171262-17-2
Alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane.............................        319-84-6
Aniline.................................................         62-53-3
Bensulide...............................................        741-58-2
Benzyl chloride.........................................        100-44-7
Butylated hydroxyanisole................................      25013-16-5
Captan..................................................        133-06-2
Chlorate................................................      14866-68-3
Chloromethane (Methyl chloride).........................         74-87-3
Clethodim...............................................     110429-62-4
Cobalt..................................................       7440-48-4
Cumene hydroperoxide....................................         80-15-9
Cyanotoxins.............................................             N/A
Dicrotophos.............................................        141-66-2
Dimethipin..............................................      55290-64-7
Disulfoton..............................................        298-04-4
Diuron..................................................        330-54-1
Equilenin...............................................        517-09-9
Equilin.................................................        474-86-2
Erythromycin............................................        114-07-8
Estradiol (17-beta estradiol)...........................         50-28-2
Estriol.................................................         50-27-1
Estrone.................................................         53-16-7
Ethinyl Estradiol (17-alpha Ethinyl Estradiol)..........         57-63-6
Ethoprop................................................      13194-48-4
Ethylene glycol.........................................        107-21-1
Ethylene oxide..........................................         75-21-8
Ethylene thiourea.......................................         96-45-7
Fenamiphos..............................................      22224-92-6
Formaldehyde............................................         50-00-0
Germanium...............................................       7440-56-4
Halon 1011 (bromochloromethane).........................         74-97-5
HCFC-22.................................................         75-45-6
Hexane..................................................        110-54-3
Hydrazine...............................................        302-01-2
Manganese...............................................       7439-96-5
Mestranol...............................................         72-33-3
Methamidophos...........................................      10265-92-6
Methanol................................................         67-56-1
Methyl bromide (Bromomethane)...........................         74-83-9
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)......................       1634-04-4
Metolachlor.............................................      51218-45-2
Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)...................     171118-09-5
Metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA)..........................     152019-73-3
Molinate................................................       2212-67-1
Molybdenum..............................................       7439-98-7
Nitrobenzene............................................         98-95-3
Nitroglycerin...........................................         55-63-0
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone..................................        872-50-4
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)............................         55-18-5
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)...........................         62-75-9
N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA).......................        621-64-7
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine..................................         86-30-6
N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR).............................        930-55-2
Nonylphenol.............................................      25154-52-3
Norethindrone (19-Norethisterone).......................         68-22-4
n-Propylbenzene.........................................        103-65-1
o-Toluidine.............................................         95-53-4
Oxirane, methyl-........................................         75-56-9
Oxydemeton-methyl.......................................        301-12-2
Oxyfluorfen.............................................      42874-03-3
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)....................       1763-23-1
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)...........................        335-67-1
Permethrin..............................................      52645-53-1
Profenofos..............................................      41198-08-7
Quinoline...............................................         91-22-5
RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)...........        121-82-4
sec-Butylbenzene........................................        135-98-8
Tebuconazole............................................     107534-96-3
Tebufenozide............................................     112410-23-8
Tellurium...............................................      13494-80-9
Thiodicarb..............................................      59669-26-0
Thiophanate-methyl......................................      23564-05-8
Toluene diisocyanate....................................      26471-62-5
Tribufos................................................         78-48-8
Triethylamine...........................................        121-44-8
Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH)...........................         76-87-9
Urethane................................................         51-79-6
Vanadium................................................       7440-62-2
Vinclozolin.............................................      50471-44-8
Ziram...................................................        137-30-4
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\4\ Contaminants on the Final CCL 3 but not on the Draft CCL 4 are: 1,3-
  dinitrobenzene, dimethoate, perchlorate, strontium, terbufos, and
  terbufos sulfone.

III. Request for Comment

    The purpose of this document is to present the Draft CCL 4 and seek 
comment on the contaminants selected for the Draft CCL 4, including any 
supporting data that can be used in developing the Final CCL 4. Data 
that the agency obtained and evaluated for developing the Draft CCL 4 
may be found in the CCL 4 support documents located in the docket for 
this document. Specifically, the agency is asking for public comments 
on including manganese and nonylphenol on the CCL 4, and any additional 
data and information on manganese and nonylphenol health effects and 
concentrations in finished or ambient water. EPA is also seeking 
comment on ways the agency can improve or refine the selection process 
developed for CCL 3, and will take these comments into consideration 
when developing future CCLs. The agency will consider all information 
and comments received in determining the Final CCL 4, in the 
development of future CCLs, and in the EPA's efforts to set drinking 
water priorities in the future.

IV. EPA's Next Steps

    Between now and the publication of the Final CCL 4, the agency will 
evaluate comments received during the public comment period for this 
document, consult with the EPA's Science Advisory Board and revise the 
CCL 4 as appropriate.

V. References

    ATSDR. 2012. ToxFAQs for Manganese. Atlanta, GA. October, 2012. 
Available on the Internet at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=101&tid=23.
    Calderon, R.L. 1988. Bacteria Colonizing Point-of-Entry Granular 
Activated Carbon filters and their Relationship to Human Health. EPA 
CR-813978-01-0, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 
DC.
    Calderon, R.L. and Mood, E.W. 1991. Bacteria Colonizing Point-
of-Use Granular Activated Carbon Filters and their Relationship to 
Human Health. EPA CR 811904-01-0, U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Washington, DC.
    CDC. 2008. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks 
Associated with Drinking Water and Water not Intended for Drinking--
United States, 2005-2006. MMWR 57 (SS-9).
    CDC. 2011. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks 
Associated with Drinking Water--United States, 2007-2008. MMWR 60 
(SS-12).
    Code of Federal Regulations. Revised as of July 1, 2012. Title 
40 Protection of the Environment. Subpart G--National Primary 
Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum 
Residual Disinfectant Levels. Section 141.61 (c).
    Code of Federal Regulations. Revised as of July 1, 2012. Title 
40 Protection of the Environment. Subpart G--National Primary 
Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum 
Residual Disinfectant Levels. Section 141.66 (d)(1).
    Hopple, J.A., G.C. Delzer, and J.A. Kingsbury. 2009. 
Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Selected 
Community Water Systems that Use Groundwater, 2002-05. U.S. 
Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5200. 74 pp. 
Available on the Internet at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5200/pdf/sir2009-5200.pdf.
    Kingsbury, J.A., G.C. Delzer, and J.A. Hopple. 2008. 
Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community 
Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05. U.S. Geological 
Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5208. 66 pp. Available 
on the Internet at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5208/pdf/sir2008-5208.pdf.
    Kolpin, D. W., E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E. M. Thurman, S. D. 
Zaugg, L. B. Barber, and H. T. Buxton. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, 
Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 
1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance. Environmental Science and 
Technology, v. 36, no. 6.
    Murray, P. R., E. J. Baron, J. H. Jorgensen, M. L. Landry, and 
M. A. Pfaller (ed.). 2011.

[[Page 6084]]

Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition, ASM Press, 
Washington, DC.
    National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). 2004. National 
Drinking Water Advisory Council Report on the CCL Classification 
Process to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 19, 2004.
    National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Classifying Drinking 
Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration. National Academy 
Press, Washington, DC.
    Payment, P., J. Siemiatycki, L. Richardson, G. Renaud, E. 
Franco, and M. Prevost. 1997. A prospective epidemiological study of 
gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking 
water. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. (7): 5-31.
    Taylor, L.H., S.M. Latham, and M.E. Woolhouse. 2001. Risk 
Factors for Human Disease Emergence (Appendix A). Phil. Trans. R. 
Soc. Lond. B. Vol 256, pp. 983-989.
    Toccalino, P.L., J.E. Norman, and K.J. Hitt. 2010. Quality of 
Source Water from Public-supply Wells in the United States, 1993-
2007. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-
5024. 206 pp. Available on the Internet at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5024/.
    USEPA, 1998. Announcement of the Drinking Water Contaminant 
Candidate List; Notice. Federal Register. Vol. 63, No. 40. p. 10273, 
March 2, 1998.
    USEPA, 1999. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Radon-
222; Proposed Rule. Federal Register. Vol. 64, No. 211. p. 59245, 
November 2, 1999.
    USEPA. 2003. Announcement of Regulatory Determinations for 
Priority Contaminants on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate 
List. Federal Register. Vol. 68, No. 138. p. 42898, July 18, 2003.
    USEPA. 2005. Notice--Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 
2; Final Notice. Federal Register. Vol. 70, No. 36. p. 9071, 
February 24, 2005.
    USEPA. 2008a. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3--
Draft. Federal Register. Vol. 73, No. 35. p. 9628, February 21, 
2008.
    USEPA. 2008b. Drinking Water: Regulatory Determinations 
Regarding Contaminants on the Second Drinking Water Contaminant 
Candidate List. Federal Register. Vol. 73, No. 174. p. 44251, July 
30, 2008.
    USEPA. 2009a. Final Contaminant Candidate List 3 Chemicals: 
Identifying the Universe. EPA 815-R09-006. August, 2009.
    USEPA. 2009b. Final Contaminant Candidate List 3 Microbes: 
Identifying the Universe. EPA 815-R-09-004. August, 2009.
    USEPA. 2009c. Final Contaminant Candidate List 3 Microbes: PCCL 
to CCL Process. EPA 815-R-09-009. August, 2009.
    USEPA. 2009d. Final Contaminant Candidate List 3 Microbes: 
Screening to the PCCL. EPA 815-R-09-0005. August, 2009.
    USEPA. 2009e. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3--
Final. Federal Register. Vol. 74, No. 194. p. 51850, October 8, 
2009.
    USEPA. 2011. Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on 
Perchlorate. Federal Register. Vol. 76, No. 29. p. 7762, February 
11, 2011.
    USEPA. 2012a. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant 
Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems. Federal 
Register. Vol. 77, No. 85. p. 26071, May 2, 2012.
    USEPA. 2012b. Request for Nominations of Drinking Water 
Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List. Federal 
Register. Vol. 77, No. 89. p. 27057, May 8, 2012.
    USEPA. 2014a. Announcement of Preliminary Regulatory 
Determination for Contaminants on the Third Drinking Water 
Contaminant Candidate List. Federal Register. Vol. 79, No. 202, p. 
62716, October 20, 2014.
    USEPA. 2015b. Contaminant Information Sheets (CISs) for the 
Draft Fourth Preliminary Contaminant Candidate List (PCCL 4) 
Nominated Contaminants. EPA 815-R-15-003. January, 2015.
    USEPA. 2015c. Data Sources for the Contaminant Candidate List 4. 
EPA 815-R-15-004. January, 2015.
    USEPA. 2015d. Screening Document for the Draft PCCL 4 Nominated 
Contaminants. EPA 815-R-15-002. January, 2015.
    USEPA. 2015e. Summary of Nominations for the Fourth Contaminant 
Candidate List. EPA 815-R-15-001. January, 2015.
    WHO. 2003. Emerging Issues in Water and Infectious Disease 
Series: Heterotrophic Plate Counts and Drinking-water Safety. ed. J. 
Bartram, J. Cotruvo, M. Exner, C. Fricker, and A. Glasmacher. IWA 
Publishing, London, UK. P. 119-122.
    WHO. 2004. Integrated Risk Assessment: Nonylphenol Case Study. 
ed. D. Bontje, J. Hermens, T. Vermeire, and T. Damstra. 63 pp. 
December, 2004. Available on the Internet at: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/Nonylphenol.pdf.>

    Dated: January 27, 2015.
Kenneth J. Kopocis,
Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Water.
[FR Doc. 2015-02210 Filed 2-3-15; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P