[Federal Register Volume 81, Number 97 (Thursday, May 19, 2016)]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2016-10990]
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
40 CFR Part 60
Technical Amendments to Performance Specification 18 and
AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
ACTION: Proposed rule.
SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to make
several minor technical amendments to the performance specifications
and test procedures for hydrogen chloride (HCl) continuous emission
monitoring systems (CEMS). The EPA is also proposing to make several
minor amendments to the quality assurance (QA) procedures for HCl CEMS
used for compliance determination at stationary sources. The
performance specification (Performance Specification 18) and the QA
procedures (Procedure 6) were published in the Federal Register on July
7, 2015. These proposed amendments make several minor corrections and
clarify several aspects of these regulations. In the ``Rules and
Regulations'' section of this Federal Register, the EPA is amending
Performance Specification 18 and Procedure 6 as a direct final rule
without a prior proposed rule. If we receive no adverse comment, we
will not take further action on this proposed rule.
DATES: Comments: Written comments must be received by July 5, 2016.
Public Hearing. The EPA will hold a public hearing on this rule if
requested. Requests for a hearing must be made by May 24, 2016.
Requests for a hearing should be made to Ms. Candace Sorrell via email
at [email protected] or by phone at (919) 541-1064. If a hearing
is requested, it will be held on June 3, 2016 at the EPA facility in
Research Triangle Park, NC.
ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-
OAR-2013-0696, at http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online
instructions for submitting comments. Once submitted, comments cannot
be edited or removed from Regulations.gov. The EPA may publish any
comment received to its public docket. Do not submit electronically any
information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI)
or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
Multimedia submissions (audio, video, etc.) must be accompanied by a
written comment. The written comment is considered the official comment
and should include discussion of all points you wish to make. The EPA
will generally not consider comments or comment contents located
outside of the primary submission (i.e., on the Web, Cloud, or other
file sharing system). For additional submission methods, the full EPA
public comment policy, information about CBI or multimedia submissions,
and general guidance on making effective comments, please visit http://www2.epa.gov/dockets/commenting-epa-dockets.
All documents in the docket are listed on the https://www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the index, some
information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information
whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such
as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be
publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket
materials are available either electronically through
www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Docket Center, Room
3334, EPA WJC West Building, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC
20004. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,
Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number
for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number
for the EPA Docket Center is (202) 566-1742.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Candace Sorrell, U.S. EPA, Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division,
Measurement Technology Group (Mail Code: E143-02), Research Triangle
Park, NC 27711; telephone number: (919) 541-1064; fax number: (919)
541-0516; email address: [email protected].
I. Why is the EPA issuing this proposed rule?
The EPA is proposing to take action to make minor technical
amendments to Performance Specification 18 (PS 18) and Procedure 6. In
addition, we have published a direct final rule making these amendments
in the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register
because we view this as non-controversial action and anticipate no
adverse comment. We have explained the amendments and our reasons for
this action in the preamble of the direct final rule. The regulatory
text for this proposal is identical to that for the direct final rule
published in the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal
If we receive no adverse comment, we will not take further action
on this proposed rule. If we receive adverse comment, we will withdraw
the direct final rule, and it will not take effect. We would address
all public comments in any subsequent final rule based on this proposed
We do not intend to institute a second comment period on this
action. Any parties interested in commenting must do so at this time.
For further information, please see the information provided in the
ADDRESSES section of this document.
II. Does this action apply to me?
The major entities that would potentially be affected by the final
PS 18 and the QA requirements of Procedure 6 for gaseous HCl CEMS are
those entities that are required to install a new HCl CEMS, relocate an
existing HCl CEMS, or replace an existing HCl CEMS under any applicable
subpart of 40 CFR part 60, 61, or 63. Table 1 of this preamble lists
the current federal rules by subpart and the corresponding source
categories to which PS 18 and Procedure 6 potentially would apply.
Table 1--Source Categories That Would Potentially Be Subject to PS 18
and Procedure 6
Subpart(s) Source category
40 CFR Part 63
Subpart LLL........................... Portland Cement Manufacturing
Subpart UUUUU......................... Coal- and Oil-fired Electric
Utility Steam Generating Units.
Subpart DDDDD......................... Industrial, Commercial, and
Institutional Boilers and
The requirements of PS 18 and Procedure 6 may also apply to
stationary sources located in a state, district, reservation, or
territory that adopts PS 18 or Procedure 6 in its implementation plan.
Table 2 lists the corresponding North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) codes for the source categories listed in
Table 1 of this preamble.
Table 2--NAICS for Potentially Regulated Entities
Industry NAICS Codes
Fossil Fuel-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units.. 327310
Portland Cement Manufacturing Plants....................... 327310
Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and 211
Process Heaters........................................... 321
\a\ Industry in Indian Country.
Tables 1 and 2 are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather they
provide a guide for readers regarding entities potentially affected by
this action. If you have any questions regarding the potential
applicability of PS 18 and test procedures (Procedure 6) to a
particular entity, consult the person listed in the FOR FURTHER
INFORMATION CONTACT section.
III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive
Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review
This action is not a significant regulatory action and was,
therefore, not submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
B. Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA)
This action does not impose an information collection burden under
the PRA. These quality assurance procedures do not add information
collection requirements beyond those currently required under the
C. Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA)
I certify that this action will not have a significant economic
impact on a substantial number of small entities under the RFA. This
action will not impose any requirements on small entities. This action
makes minor technical correction and adds clarification in PS 18 and
Procedure 6 and does not impose additional regulatory requirements on
D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA)
This action does not contain any unfunded mandate of $100 million
or more as described in UMRA, 2 U.S.C. 1531-1538, and does not
significantly or uniquely affect small governments. Rules establishing
quality assurance requirements impose no costs independent from
national emission standards which require their use, and such costs are
fully reflected in the regulatory impact assessment for those emission
E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism
This action does not have federalism implications. It will not have
substantial direct effects on the states, on the relationship between
the national government and the states, or on the distribution of power
and responsibilities among the various levels of government.
F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian
This action does not have tribal implications, as specified in
Executive Order 13175. This action adds additional language that
clarifies several aspects for the performance standard and procedure
and corrects some minor technical errors, but does not change the
requirements for conducting the test
method. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this action.
G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental
Health Risks and Safety Risks
The EPA interprets Executive Order 13045 as applying only to those
regulatory actions that concern environmental health or safety risks
that the EPA has reason to believe may disproportionately affect
children, per the definition of ``covered regulatory action'' in
section 2-202 of the Executive Order. This action is not subject to
Executive Order 13045 because it does not concern an environmental
health risk or safety risk.
H. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That
Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211 because it is
not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866.
I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act
This rulemaking does not involve technical standards.
J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental
Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations
The EPA believes the human health or environmental risk addressed
by this action will not have potential disproportionately high and
adverse human health or environmental effects on minority, low-income
or indigenous populations. This action does not relax the control
measures on sources regulated by the rule and, therefore, will not
cause emissions increases from these sources.
List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 60
Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure,
Air pollution control, Continuous emission monitoring systems, Hydrogen
chloride, Performance specifications, Test methods and procedures.
Dated: May 2, 2016.
For the reasons stated in the preamble, the Environmental
Protection Agency proposes to amend title 40, chapter I, of the Code of
Federal Regulations as follows:
PART 60--STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES
1. The authority citation for part 60 continues to read as follows:
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.
2. In appendix B to part 60, Performance Specification 18:
a. Revise Sections 3.1 through 3.23, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 12.1, 12.2 and
b. Add Sections 3.24, 3.25, and 12.2.1; and
c. Revise Section 11.2.3 in appendix A of Performance Specification 18.
The revisions and additions read as follows:
Appendix B to Part 60--Performance Specifications
* * * * *
Performance Specification 18-Performance Specifications and Test
Procedures for Gaseous Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Continuous Emission
Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources
* * * * *
3.1 Beam attenuation is the reduction in electromagnetic
radiation (light) throughput from the maximum beam intensity
experienced during site specific CEMS operation.
3.2 Beam intensity is the electromagnetic radiation (light)
throughput for an IP-CEMS instrument measured following
3.3 Calibration cell means a gas containment cell used with
cross stack or integrated path (IP) CEMS for calibration and to
perform many of the test procedures required by this performance
specification. The cell may be a removable sealed cell or an
evacuated and/or purged cell capable of exchanging reference and
other calibration gases as well as zero gas standards. When charged,
it contains a known concentration of HCl and/or interference gases.
The calibration cell is filled with zero gas or removed from the
optical path during stack gas measurement.
3.4 Calibration drift (CD) means the absolute value of the
difference between the CEMS output response and an upscale reference
gas or a zero-level gas, expressed as a percentage of the span
value, when the CEMS is challenged after a stated period of
operation during which no unscheduled adjustments, maintenance or
repairs took place.
3.5 Centroidal area means a central area that is geometrically
similar to the stack or duct cross section and is no greater than 10
percent of the stack or duct cross-sectional area.
3.6 Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) means the total
equipment required to measure the pollutant concentration or
emission rate continuously. The system generally consists of the
following three major subsystems:
3.6.1 Sample interface means that portion of the CEMS used for
one or more of the following: Sample acquisition, sample transport,
sample conditioning, defining the optical measurement path, and
protection of the monitor from the effects of the stack effluent.
3.6.2 HCl analyzer means that portion of the HCl CEMS that
measures the total vapor phase HCl concentration and generates a
3.6.3 Data recorder means that portion of the CEMS that provides
a permanent electronic record of the analyzer output. The data
recorder may record other pertinent data such as effluent flow
rates, various instrument temperatures or abnormal CEMS operation.
The data recorder may also include automatic data reduction
capabilities and CEMS control capabilities.
3.7 Diluent gas means a major gaseous constituent in a gaseous
pollutant mixture. For combustion sources, either carbon dioxide
(CO2) or oxygen (O2) or a combination of these
two gases are the major gaseous diluents of interest.
3.8 Dynamic spiking (DS) means the procedure where a known
concentration of HCl gas is injected into the probe sample gas
stream for extractive CEMS at a known flow rate to assess the
performance of the measurement system in the presence of potential
interference from the flue gas sample matrix.
3.9 Independent measurement(s) means the series of CEMS data
values taken during sample gas analysis separated by two times the
procedure specific response time (RT) of the CEMS.
3.10 Integrated path CEMS (IP-CEMS) means an in-situ CEMS that
measures the gas concentration along an optical path in the stack or
duct cross section.
3.11 Interference means a compound or material in the sample
matrix other than HCl whose characteristics may bias the CEMS
measurement (positively or negatively). The interference may not
prevent the sample measurement, but could increase the analytical
uncertainty in the measured HCl concentration through reaction with
HCl or by changing the electronic signal generated during HCl
3.12 Interference test means the test to detect CEMS responses
to interferences that are not adequately accounted for in the
calibration procedure and may cause measurement bias.
3.13 Level of detection (LOD) means the lowest level of
pollutant that the CEMS can detect in the presence of the source gas
matrix interferents with 99 percent confidence.
3.14 Liquid evaporative standard means a reference gas produced
by vaporizing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
traceable liquid standards of known HCl concentration and
quantitatively diluting the resultant vapor with a carrier gas.
3.15 Measurement error (ME) is the mean difference between the
concentration measured by the CEMS and the known concentration of a
reference gas standard, divided by the span, when the entire CEMS,
including the sampling interface, is challenged.
3.16 Optical path means the route light travels from the light
source to the receiver used to make sample measurements.
3.17 Path length means, for an extractive optical CEMS, the
distance in meters of the optical path within a gas measurement
cell. For an IP-CEMS, path length means the distance in meters of
the optical path that passes through the source gas in the stack or
3.18 Point CEMS means a CEMS that measures the source gas
concentration, either at a single point at the sampling probe tip or
over a path length for IP-CEMS less than 10 percent of the
equivalent diameter of the stack or duct cross section.
3.19 Stack pressure measurement device means a NIST-traceable
gauge or monitor that measures absolute pressure and conforms to the
design requirements of ASME B40.100-2010, ``Pressure Gauges and
Gauge Attachments'' (incorporated by reference--see Sec. 60.17).
3.20 Reference gas standard means a NIST-traceable gas standard
containing a known concentration of HCl certified in accordance with
an EPA traceability protocol in section 7.1 of this PS.
3.21 Relative accuracy (RA) means the absolute mean difference
between the gas concentration or the emission rate determined by the
CEMS and the value determined by the RM, plus the confidence
coefficient of a series of nine test runs, divided by the average of
the RM or the applicable emission standard.
3.22 Response time (RT) means the time it takes for the
measurement system, while operating normally at its target sample
flow rate, dilution ratio, or data collection rate to respond to a
known step change in gas concentration, either from a low- or zero-
level to a high-level gas concentration or from a high-level to a
low or zero-level gas concentration, and to read 95 percent of the
change to the stable instrument response. There may be several RTs
for an instrument related to different functions or procedures
(e.g., DS, LOD, and ME).
3.23 Span value means an HCl concentration approximately equal
to two times the concentration equivalent to the emission standard
unless otherwise specified in the applicable regulation, permit or
other requirement. Unless otherwise specified, the span may be
rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5.
3.24 Standard addition means the addition of known amounts of
HCl gas (either statically or dynamically) to the actual measurement
path or measured sample gas stream.
3.25 Zero gas means a gas or liquid with an HCl concentration
that is below the LOD of the measurement system.
* * * * *
11.0 Performance Specification Test Procedure
* * * * *
184.108.40.206 If your system LOD field verification does not
demonstrate a SAR greater than or equal to your initial controlled
environment LOD, you must increase the SA concentration
incrementally and repeat the field verification procedure until the
SAR is equal to or greater than LOD. The site-specific standard
addition detection level (SADL) is equal to the standard addition
needed to achieve the acceptable SAR, and SADL replaces the
controlled environment LOD. For extractive CEMS, the SADL is
calculated as the ESA using Equation A7 in appendix A of this PS.
For IP-CEMS, the SADL is the SA calculated using Equation A8 in
appendix A of this PS. As described in section 13.1 of this PS, the
LOD or the SADL that replaces an LOD must be less than 20 percent of
the applicable emission limit.
* * * * *
220.127.116.11 For IP-CEMS, you must include the source measurement
optical path while performing the upscale CD measurement; you may
exclude the source measurement optical path when determining the
zero gas concentration. Calculate the CD for IP CEMS using equations
4, 5, 6B, and 7 in section 12.4.
* * * * *
12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
Ci = Zero or HCl reference gas concentration used for
test i (ppmv);
Ci,eff = Equivalent concentration of the reference gas
value, Ci, at the specified conditions (ppmv);
CC = Confidence coefficient (ppmv);
CDextractive = Calibration drift for extractive CEMS
CDIP = Calibration drift for IP-CEMS (percent);
CD0 = Calibration drift at zero HCl concentrations for an
davg = Mean difference between CEMS response and the
reference gas (ppmv);
di = Difference of CEMS response and the RM value (ppmv);
I = Total interference from major matrix stack gases, (percent);
LSF = Line strength factor for IP-CEMS instrument specific
correction for temperature and gas matrix effects derived from the
HITRAN and/or manufacturer specific database (unitless);
[Delta]MCavg = Average of the 3 absolute values of the
difference between the measured HCl calibration gas concentrations
with and without interference from selected stack gases (ppmv);
MCi = Measured HCl reference gas concentration i (ppmv);
MC[iota] = Average of the measured HCl reference gas
concentration i (ppmv);
MCint = Measured HCl concentration of the HCl reference
gas plus the individual or combined interference gases (ppmv);
MEextractive = Measurement error for extractive CEMS
MEIP = Measurement error for IP-CEMS (percent);
MNavg = Average concentration at all sampling points
MNbi = Measured native concentration bracketing each
calibration check measurement (ppmv);
MNi = Measured native concentration for test or run I
n = Number of measurements in an average value;
Pstack = Absolute stack pressure (mm Hg)
Preference = Absolute pressure of the calibration cell
for IP-CEMS (mm Hg)
PLCell = Path length of IP-CEMS calibration cell (m);
PLStack = Path length of IP-CEMS stack optical path (m);
RA = Relative accuracy of CEMS compared to a RM (percent);
RMi = RM concentration for test run i (ppmv);
RMavg = Mean measured RM value (ppmv);
S = Span value (ppmv);
Sd = Standard deviation of the differences (ppmv);
Sti = Stratification at traverse point i (percent);
SADL = Standard addition detection level (ppmv);
t0.975 = One-sided t-value at the 97.5th percentile
obtained from Table 5 in section 17.0 for n-1 measurements;
Treference = Temperature of the calibration cell for IP-
CEMS (degrees Kelvin);
Tstack = Temperature of the stack at the monitoring
location for IP-CEM (degrees Kelvin).
12.2 Calculate the Difference Between the Measured HCl
Concentration With and Without Interferents for Each Interference
Gas (or Mixture) for Your CEMS as:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP19MY16.029
Calculate the total percent interference as:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP19MY16.030
12.2.1 Calculate the equivalent concentration Ci,eff
using Equation 4:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP19MY16.031
* * * * *
12.4.4 Calculate the zero CD as a percent of span for an IP-CEMS
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP19MY16.032
* * * * *
PS-18 Appendix A Standard Addition Procedures
* * * * *
11.0 Calculations and Data Analysis. * * *
* * * * *
11.2.3 If you determine your spike dilution factor using an
independent stable tracer that is present in the native source
emissions, calculate the dilution factor for dynamic spiking using
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP19MY16.033
* * * * *
3. In appendix F to part 60, revise Sections 4.1.5, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124,
and 126.96.36.199 in Procedure 6 to read as follows:
Appendix F to Part 60--Quality Assurance Procedures
* * * * *
Procedure 6. Quality Assurance Requirements for Gaseous Hyrogen
Chloride (HCl) Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems Used for
Compliance Determination at Stationary Sources
* * * * *
4.0 Daily Data Quality Assurance Requirements and Measurement
* * * * *
4.1.5 Additional Quality Assurance for Data above Span. Unless
otherwise specified in an applicable rule or permit, this procedure
must be used to assure data quality and may be used when significant
data above span is being collected.
188.8.131.52 Any time the average measured concentration of HCl
exceeds 150 percent of the span value for two consecutive 1-hour
averages, conduct the following `above span' CEMS response check.
* * * * *
184.108.40.206 Unless otherwise specified in an applicable rule or
permit, if the `above span' response check is conducted during the
period when measured emissions are above span and there is a failure
to collect at least one data point in an hour due to the response
check duration, then determine the emissions average for that missed
hour as the average of hourly averages for the hour preceding the
missed hour and the hour following the missed hour
* * * * *
5.0 Data Accuracy Assessment
* * * * *
220.127.116.11 Calculate results as described in section 6.4. To
determine CEMS accuaracy you must calculate the dynamic spiking
error (DSE) for each of the two upscale audit gases using equation
A5 in appendix A to PS-18 and Equation 6-3 in section 6.4 of
Procedure 6 appendix B to this part.
* * * * *
[FR Doc. 2016-10990 Filed 5-18-16; 8:45 am]
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