[United States Government Manual]
[May 30, 1997]
[Pages 53-60]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov]


101 Independence Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20540
Phone, 202-707-5000

Librarian of Congress                             James H. Billington
Deputy Librarian of Congress                      Donald L. Scott
Chief of Staff                                    JoAnn Jenkins
Associate Librarian for Library Services          Winston Tabb
Associate Librarian for Human Resources Services  Lloyd A. Pauls
Director, Congressional Research Service          Daniel Mulhollan
Register of Copyrights and Associate Librarian    Marybeth Peters
        for Copyright Services
Law Librarian                                     Rubens Medina
General Counsel                                   Lana Kay Jones, 
Inspector General                                 John W. Rensbarger
Chief, Loan Division                              L. Christopher Wright

Library of Congress Trust Fund Board                

Chairman (Librarian of Congress)                  James H. Billington
(Secretary of the Treasury)                       Robert E. Rubin
(U.S. Representative from California and          William M. Thomas
        Chairman, Joint Committee on the 

Appointive Members                                Edwin L. Cox, 
                                                     Patricia Duff, 
                                                     Julie Finley, 
                                                     Thomas S. Foley, 
                                                     Adele Hall, John 
                                                     Kluge, Peter Lynch,
                                                     Arthur Ortenberg, 
                                                     Cecille Pulitzer, 
                                                     Laurence Tisch

[[Page 54]]


The Library of Congress is the national library of the United States, 
offering diverse materials for research including the world's most 
extensive collections in many areas such as American history, music, and 

The Library of Congress was established by act of April 24, 1800 (2 
Stat. 56), appropriating $5,000 ``for the purchase of such books as may 
be necessary for the use of Congress . . . .'' The Library's scope of 
responsibility has been widened by subsequent legislation (2 U.S.C. 131-
168d). The Librarian, appointed by the President with the advice and 
consent of the Senate, directs the Library.
    Supported mainly by the appropriations of Congress, the Library also 
uses income from funds received from foundations and other private 
sources and administered by the Library of Congress Trust Fund Board, as 
well as monetary gifts presented for direct application (2 U.S.C. 154-
    Under the organic law, the Library's first responsibility is service 
to Congress. As the Library has developed, its range of service has come 
to include the entire governmental establishment and the public at 
large, making it a national library for the United States.


Collections  The Library's extensive collections are universal in scope. 
They include books, serials, and pamphlets on every subject and in a 
multitude of languages, and research materials in many formats, 
including maps, photographs, manuscripts, motion pictures, and sound 
recordings. Among them are the most comprehensive collections of 
Chinese, Japanese, and Russian language books outside Asia and the 
former Soviet Union; volumes relating to science and legal materials 
outstanding for American and foreign law; the world's largest collection 
of published aeronautical literature; and the most extensive collection 
in the Western Hemisphere of books printed before 1501 A.D.
    The manuscript collections relate to manifold aspects of American 
history and civilization, and include the personal papers of most of the 
Presidents from George Washington through Calvin Coolidge. The music 
collections contain volumes and pieces--manuscript and published--from 
classic works to the newest popular compositions. Other materials 
available for research include maps and views; photographic records from 
the daguerreotype to the latest news photo; recordings, including 
folksongs and other music, speeches, and poetry readings; prints, 
drawings, and posters; government documents, newspapers, and periodicals 
from all over the world; and motion pictures, microforms, and audio and 
video tapes.

Reference Resources  Admission to the various research facilities of the 
Library is free. No introduction or credentials are required for persons 
over high school age. Readers must submit appropriate photo 
identification with a current address and, for certain collections, like 
those of the Manuscript, Rare Book and Special Collections, and Motion 
Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Divisions, there are additional 
requirements. As demands for service to Congress and Federal Government 
agencies increase, reference service available through correspondence 
has become limited. The Library must decline some requests and refer 
correspondents to a library within their area that can provide 
satisfactory assistance. While priority is given to inquiries pertaining 
to its holdings of special materials or to subjects in which its 
resources are unique, the Library does attempt to provide helpful 
responses to all inquirers.

Copyrights  Since 1870 the Library has been responsible for copyrights, 
which are registered by the Copyright Office (acts of July 8, 1870 (16 
Stat. 212-217), February 19, 1897 (29 Stat. 545), March 4, 1909, as 
amended and codified (35 Stat. 1075), and October 19, 1976, as amended 
and codified (90 Stat. 2541)). All copyrightable works, whether

[[Page 55]]

[[Page 56]]

published or unpublished, are subject to a system of statutory 
protection that gives the copyright owner certain exclusive rights, 
including the right to reproduce the copyrighted work and distribute it 
to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. Works of authorship 
include books, periodicals, and other literary works, including computer 
programs, musical compositions, song lyrics, dramas and dramatic-musical 
compositions, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, architectural 
works, pantomimes and choreographic works, motion pictures and other 
audiovisual works, and sound recordings.

Extension of Service  The Library extends its service through:
    --an interlibrary loan system;
    --the photoduplication, at reasonable cost, of books, manuscripts, 
maps, newspapers, and prints in its collections;
    --the sale of sound recordings, which are released by its Recording 
    --the exchange of duplicates with other institutions;
    --the sale of CD-ROM cataloging tools and magnetic tapes and the 
publication in book format or microform of cumulative catalogs, which 
make available the results of the expert bibliographical and cataloging 
work of its technical personnel;
    --a centralized cataloging program whereby the Library of Congress 
acquires material published all over the world, catalogs it promptly, 
and distributes cataloging information in machine-readable form as well 
as by printed cards and other means to the Nation's libraries;
    --a cooperative cataloging program whereby the cataloging of data, 
by name authority and bibliographic records, prepared by other libraries 
becomes part of the Library of Congress data base and is distributed 
through the MARC Distribution Service;
    --a cataloging-in-publication program in cooperation with American 
publishers for printing cataloging information in current books;
    --the National Serials Data Program, a national center that 
maintains a record of serial titles to which International Standard 
Serial Numbers have been assigned and serves, with this file, as the 
United States Register; and
    --the development of general schemes of classification (Library of 
Congress and Dewey Decimal), subject headings, and cataloging, embracing 
the entire field of printed matter.
    Furthermore, the Library provides for:
    --the preparation of bibliographical lists responsive to the needs 
of Government and research;
    --the maintenance and the publication of cooperative publications;
    --the publication of catalogs, bibliographical guides, and lists, 
and of texts of original manuscripts and rare books in the Library of 
    --the circulation in traveling exhibitions of items from the 
Library's collections;
    --the provision of books in braille and ``talking book'' records, as 
well as books on tape, for the blind and the physically handicapped 
through 143 cooperating libraries throughout the United States;
    --the distribution of its electronic materials via the Internet, 
including more than 40 million bibliographic records, summaries of 
congressional bills, copyright registrations, bibliographies and 
research guides, summaries of foreign laws, an index of Southeast Asian 
POW/MIA documents, and selections from the Library's unique historical 
collections--the Library's major contribution to the National Digital 
Library--via LC WEB (http://www.loc.gov/); online public legislative 
information through Thomas (http://thomas.loc.gov/); major exhibits; the 
Library's catalog; the Library's digitized collection of unique American 
materials; pointers to external Internet resources including extensive 
international, national, State, and local government information; and an 
international electronic library of resources; and
    --the provision of research and analytical services on a fee-for-
service basis to agencies in the executive and judicial branches.

Congressional Research Service  The Congressional Research Service (CRS) 
serves the Congress. The Service provides objective, nonpartisan 

[[Page 57]]

analysis, and informational support to assist Congress in its 
legislative, oversight, and representative functions.
    The Service evolved from the Legislative Reference Service, whose 
statutory authority dates back to the Legislative Reorganization Act of 
1946, as amended (2 U.S.C. 72a note), and the Legislative Reorganization 
Act of 1970, as amended (2 U.S.C. 166), authorizing increased emphasis 
on indepth research and analysis. Its mandate has grown over the years 
in response to the increasing scope of public policy issues on the 
congressional agenda. The Service's staff anticipates and responds to 
congressional information and policy analysis needs in an 
interdisciplinary manner. For the last several years, the Service has 
answered more than one-half million requests annually.
    The Service provides timely and objective information and analysis 
in response to congressional inquiries at every stage of the legislative 
process concerning subject areas relevant to policy issues before 
Congress. Its director, assisted by a management team, oversees and 
coordinates the work of seven research divisions, which span a range of 
public policy subjects and disciplines. These divisions contain scholars 
and experts in the following broad areas: American law, economics, 
environment and natural resources policy, foreign affairs and national 
defense, government, and science policy. The highest level researchers 
are senior specialists, with national and international recognition in 
their fields. The Service contains two reference divisions--the 
Congressional Reference Division and the Library Services Division. 
These divisions provide reference, bibliographic, and other 
informational services to Congress and CRS staff using both traditional 
techniques and sophisticated computerized systems. The Service creates 
and maintains a number of specialized reading lists for Members of 
Congress and their staffs, and disseminates other materials of interest.
    The Service maintains those parts of the Library of Congress 
automated information system that cover legislative matters, including 
digests of all public bills and briefing papers on major legislative 
issues. The Service administrative offices include Special Programs, 
Operations, Policy, Research Coordination, and the Director's office.
    In addition to responding to individual requests for information and 
analysis, CRS anticipates congressional needs for research and develops 
and presents seminars that provide a forum for discussion among Members 
of Congress and their staffs, CRS specialists, and nationally recognized 
experts on important legislative issues. Audio and visual materials on a 
variety of topics of congressional interest are also produced and aired 
on the congressional cable television system. A language service section 
provides a variety of foreign language services, including translations.

For further information, call 202-707-5700.

American Folklife Center  The Center, which was established in the 
Library of Congress by act of January 2, 1976 (20 U.S.C. 2102 et seq.), 
has a coordinative function both in and outside the Federal 
Establishment to carry out appropriate programs to support, preserve, 
and present American folklife through such activities as receiving and 
maintaining folklife collections, scholarly research, field projects, 
performances, exhibitions, festivals, workshops, publications, and 
audiovisual presentations. The Center is directed by a Board of Trustees 
consisting of four members appointed by the President from Federal 
agencies; four each appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House from private life; and five ex officio 
members, including: the Librarian of Congress, the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Chairmen of the National Endowment for the 
Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Director of 
the Center.
    The Center has conducted projects in many locations across the 
country, such as the ethnic communities of Chicago, IL; southern 
Georgia; a ranching community in northern Nevada; the Blue Ridge Parkway 
in southern Virginia and northern North Carolina; and the States

[[Page 58]]

of New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Montana. The projects have provided 
large collections of recordings and photographs for the Archive of Folk 
Culture. The Center administers the Federal Cylinder Project, which is 
charged with preserving and disseminating music and oral traditions 
recorded on wax cylinders dating from the late 1800's to the early 
1940's. A cultural conservation study was developed at the Center, in 
cooperation with the Department of the Interior, pursuant to a 
congressional mandate. Various conferences, workshops, and symposia are 
given throughout the year.
    The Folklife Center News, a quarterly newsletter, and other 
informational publications are available upon request. The Government 
Printing Office sells additional Center publications.
    The American Folklife Center maintains and administers the Archive 
of Folk Culture, an extensive collection of ethnographic materials from 
this country and around the world. It is the national repository for 
folk-related recordings, manuscripts, and other unpublished materials. 
The Center's reading room contains over 3,500 books and periodicals; a 
sizable collection of magazines, newsletters, unpublished theses, and 
dissertations; field notes; and many textual and some musical 
transcriptions and recordings.

For further information, call 202-707-6590.

Center for the Book  The Center was established in the Library of 
Congress by act of October 13, 1977 (2 U.S.C. 171 et seq.), to stimulate 
public interest in books, reading, and libraries, and to encourage the 
study of books and print culture. The Center is a catalyst for promoting 
and exploring the vital role of books, reading, and libraries--
nationally and internationally. As a partnership between the Government 
and the private sector, the Center for the Book depends on tax-
deductible contributions from individuals and corporations to support 
its programs.
    The Center's activities are directed toward the general public and 
scholars. The overall program includes reading and promotion projects 
with television and radio networks, symposia, lectures, exhibitions, 
special events, and publications. More than 100 national educational and 
civic organizations participate in the Center's annual reading promotion 
    Since 1984, 32 States have established statewide book centers that 
are affiliated with the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress. 
State centers plan and fund their own projects, involving members of the 
State's ``community of the book,'' including authors, readers, prominent 
citizens, and public officials who serve as honorary advisers.

For further information, call 202-707-5221.

National Preservation Program  The Library provides technical 
information related to the preservation of library and archival 
material. A series of handouts on various preservation and conservation 
topics has been prepared by the Preservation Office. Information and 
publications are available from the Library of Congress, Office of the 
Director for Preservation, Washington, DC 20540-4500. Phone, 202-707-

National Film Preservation Board  The National Film Preservation Board, 
established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1992 (2 U.S.C. 
179b), serves as a public advisory group to the Librarian of Congress. 
The Board consists of 36 members and alternates representing the many 
parts of the diverse American film industry, film archives, scholars, 
and others. As its primary mission, the Board works to ensure the 
survival, conservation, and increased public availability of America's 
film heritage, including advising the Librarian on the annual selection 
of films to the National Film Registry and counseling the Librarian on 
development and implementation of the national film preservation plan. 
Key publications are Film Preservation 1993: A Study of the Current 
State of American Film Preservation (4 volumes, 748 pages) and 
Redefining Film Preservation: A National Plan (79 pages).

For further information, call 202-707-5912.

[[Page 59]]

Sources of Information

Books for the Blind and Physically Handicapped  Talking and braille 
books and magazines are distributed through 142 regional and subregional 
libraries to blind and physically handicapped residents of the United 
States and its territories. Information is available at public libraries 
throughout the United States and from the headquarters office, Library 
of Congress, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically 
Handicapped, 1291 Taylor Street NW., Washington, DC 20542-4960. Phone, 

Cataloging Data Distribution  Cataloging and bibliographic information 
in the form of microfiche catalogs, book catalogs, magnetic tapes, CD-
ROM cataloging tools, bibliographies, and other technical publications 
is distributed to libraries and other institutions. Information about 
ordering materials is available from the Library of Congress, Cataloging 
Distribution Service, Washington, DC 20541-4910. Phone, 202-707-6100. 
TDD, 202-707-0012. Fax, 202-707-1334. E-mail, cdsinfo@mail.loc.gov.
    Library of Congress card numbers for new publications are assigned 
by the Cataloging in Publication Division. Direct inquiries to Library 
of Congress, CIP Division, Washington, DC 20540-4320. Phone, 202-707-

Contracts  Persons seeking to do business with the Library of Congress 
should contact the Library of Congress, Contracts and Logistics 
Services, Landover Center Annex, 1701 Brightseat Road, Landover, MD 
20785. Phone, 202-707-8717.

Copyright Services  Information about the copyright law (title 17 of the 
U.S. Code), the method of securing copyright, and registration 
procedures may be obtained by writing to the Library of Congress, 
Copyright Office, Washington, DC 20559-6000. Phone, 202-707-3000. 
Copyright information is also available through the Internet, at http://
www.loc.gov/. Registration application forms may be ordered by calling 
the forms hotline at 202-707-9100. Reports on copyright facts found in 
the records of the Copyright Office may be obtained for a fee of $20 an 
hour; any member of the public, however, may use without charge the 
Copyright Card Catalog in the Copyright Office. Copyright Office records 
in machine-readable form cataloged from January 1, 1978, to the present 
are available through the Internet, at http://www.loc.gov/. The 
Copyright Information Office is located in Room LM-401, James Madison 
Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20559-
6000, and is open to the public Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5 
p.m. eastern time, except Federal holidays.

Employment  Employment inquiries and applications (on Standard Form 171, 
Application for Federal Employment) should be directed to the Library of 
Congress, Human Resources Services Operations Office, Washington, DC 
20540-2200. Potential applicants are encouraged to visit the Employment 
Office, Room LM-107, 101 Independence Avenue SE., where current vacancy 
announcements and application forms are available. The Human Resources 
hotline provides recorded information on career opportunities. Phone, 

Photoduplication Service  Copies of manuscripts, prints, photographs, 
maps, and book material not subject to copyright and other restrictions 
are available for a fee. Order forms for photoreproduction and price 
schedules are available from the Library of Congress, Photoduplication 
Service, Washington, DC 20540-4570. Phone, 202-707-5640.

Publications  A list of Library of Congress publications, many of which 
are of interest to the general public, is available through the 
Internet, at http://www.loc.gov/. A monthly Calendar of Events, listing 
programs and exhibitions at the Library of Congress, can be mailed 
regularly to persons within 100 miles of Washington, DC. Make requests 
to the Library of Congress, Office Systems Services, Washington, DC 

Reference and Bibliographic Services  Guidance is offered to readers in 
the identification and use of the material in

[[Page 60]]

the Library's collections, and reference service in answer to inquiries 
is offered to those who have exhausted local, State, and regional 
resources. Persons requiring services that cannot be performed by the 
Library staff can be supplied with names of private researchers who work 
on a fee basis. Requests for information should be directed to the 
Library of Congress, National Reference Service, Washington, DC 20540-
5570. Phone, 202-707-5522. Fax, 202-707-1389.

Research and Reference Services in Science and Technology  Reference 
specialists in the Science and Technology Division answer without charge 
brief technical inquiries entailing a bibliographic response. Of special 
interest is a technical report collection exceeding 3.4 million titles. 
Most of these are in microform and are readily accessible for viewing in 
the Science Reading Room. Requests for reference service should be 
directed to the Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, 
Washington, DC 20540-4750. Phone, 202-707-5639.
    An informal series of reference guides is issued by the Science and 
Technology Division under the general title LC Science Tracer Bullet. 
These guides are designed to help a reader locate published material on 
a subject about which he or she has only general knowledge. For a list 
of available titles, write to the Library of Congress, Science and 
Technology Division, Reference Section, Washington, DC 20540-4750. 
Phone, 202-707-5639.

Research Services in General Topics  Federal Government agencies can 
procure directed research and analytical products using the collections 
of the Library of Congress through the Federal Research Division. 
Science and social science topics of research are conducted by staff 
specialists exclusively on behalf of Federal agencies on a fee-for-
service basis. Requests for service should be directed to Library of 
Congress, Federal Research Division, Marketing Office, Washington, DC 
20540-4840. Phone, 202-707-9904. Fax, 202-245-3900.

For further information, contact the Public Affairs Office, Library of 
Congress, 101 Independence Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20540-8610. Phone, 
202-707-2905. Fax, 202-707-9199. Internet, http://www.loc.gov/.