[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Program Descriptions]
[Section 10. Child Care]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
       [1996 Green Book] SECTION 10. CHILD CARE *
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    * The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation 
Act of 1996 changed this program; see appendix L for details.
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                                CONTENTS

Introduction
Employment and Marital Status
Child Care Arrangements Used by Working Mothers
Child Care Costs
Supply of Child Care Providers
Child Care Standards
The Federal Role
Dependent Care Tax Credit
Child Care Programs Under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act
Child Care and Development Block Grant
Title XX--Social Services Block Grant
State Dependent Care Planning and Development Grants
Child and Adult Care Food Program
Head Start
Child Care Tables
References

                              INTRODUCTION

    Child care has become an issue of significant public 
interest for several reasons. The dramatic increase in the 
labor force participation of mothers is the most important 
factor affecting the demand for child care in the last quarter 
century. Currently, in a majority of American families with 
children--even those with very young children--the mother is in 
the paid labor force. Similarly, an increasingly significant 
trend affecting the demand for child care is the proportion of 
mothers who are the sole or primary financial supporters of 
their children, either because of divorce or because they never 
married. In addition, child care has been a significant issue 
in recent debates over how to move welfare recipients toward 
employment and self-sufficiency; some observers have argued 
that some mothers on welfare are not entering the labor force 
because of child care problems. Finally, the impact of child 
care on the children themselves is an issue of considerable 
interest, with ongoing discussion of whether low-income 
children benefit from participation in programs with an early 
childhood development focus.
    Concerns that child care may be in short supply, not of 
good enough quality, or too expensive for many families 
escalated during the late 1980s into a national debate over the 
nature and extent of the Nation's child care problems and what, 
if any, Federal interventions would be appropriate. The debate 
culminated in the enactment of legislation in 1990 that 
expanded Federal support for child care by establishing two new 
State child care grant programs. The programs--the Child Care 
and Development Block Grant and the At-Risk Child Care 
Program--were enacted as part of the Omnibus Budget 
Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508). These new 
programs were preceded by enactment of a major welfare reform 
initiative, the Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-
485), which authorized expanded child care assistance for 
welfare families and families leaving welfare. Issues currently 
receiving attention include questions about how the new 
programs are being implemented at the Federal and State levels, 
what effect the programs are having on improving the 
availability of child care, and how Federal child care programs 
can be coordinated with each other and with State and local 
programs. Most recently, the welfare debate has focused 
interest on both the child care needs of families transitioning 
off welfare and of other low-income families that are at risk 
of going on welfare.
    This chapter provides background information on the major 
indicators of the demand for and supply of child care, and a 
summary description of the major Federal programs that fund 
child care services.

                EMPLOYMENT AND MARITAL STATUS OF MOTHERS

    The dramatic increase in the labor force participation of 
mothers is commonly regarded as the most significant factor 
fueling the increased demand for child care services. A person 
is defined as participating in the labor force if she is 
working or seeking work. As shown in table 10-1, in 1947, just 
following World War II, slightly over one-fourth of all mothers 
with children between the ages of 6 and 17 were in the labor 
force. By contrast, in 1995, three-quarters of such mothers 
were labor force participants. The increased labor force 
participation of mothers with younger children has also been 
dramatic. In 1947, it was unusual to find mothers with a 
preschool-age child in the labor force--only about 12 percent 
of mothers with children under the age of 6 were in the labor 
force. But by 1995, over 60 percent of mothers with preschool-
age children were in the labor force, a rate more than 5 times 
higher than in 1947. Women with infant children have become 
increasingly engaged in the labor market as well. Today, over 
half of all mothers whose youngest child is under age 2 are in 
the labor market, while in 1975 less than one-third of all such 
mothers were labor force participants.
    The rise in the number of female-headed families has also 
contributed to increased demand for child care services. Single 
mothers maintain a greater share of all families with children 
today than in the past. Census data show that in 1970, less 
than 12 percent of families with children were headed by a 
single mother, compared with almost 27 percent of families with 
children in 1994. Perhaps the most telling statistic about 
female-headed families is that while 2-parent families with 
children remained at about 26 million between 1970 and 1994, 
female-headed families with children exploded from 3.4 million 
to 10 million. These 10 million families headed by mothers were 
a major source of growth in the demand for child care (U.S. 
Bureau of the Census, 1995, p. 61, table 71).
    Mothers' attachment to the labor force differs depending on 
the age of their youngest child and marital status, as tables 
10-2 and 10-3 show. Table 10-2 exhibits the labor force 
participation rates of various demographic groups of mothers 
with youngest child over or under age 6. The table provides 
graphic evidence of the exploding rate of working mothers, 
especially working mothers with preschool children.

  TABLE 10-1.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WOMEN, BY PRESENCE AND AGE OF YOUNGEST CHILD, SELECTED YEARS, 
                                                     1947-95                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              With children under age 18        
                                                              No    --------------------------------------------
                                                           children            Age 6          Under age 6       
                                                           under 18   Total    to 17  --------------------------
                                                                                only    Total   Under 3  Under 2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
April 1947...............................................      29.8     18.6     27.3     12.0       NA       NA
April 1950...............................................      31.4     21.6     32.8     13.6       NA       NA
April 1955...............................................      33.9     27.0     38.4     18.2       NA       NA
March 1960...............................................      35.0     30.4     42.5     20.2       NA       NA
March 1965...............................................      36.5     35.0     45.7     25.3     21.4       NA
March 1970...............................................      42.8     42.4     51.6     32.2     27.3       NA
March 1975...............................................      45.1     47.3     54.8     38.8     34.1     31.5
March 1980...............................................      48.1     56.6     64.3     46.8     41.9     39.2
March 1981...............................................      48.7     58.1     65.5     48.9     44.3     42.0
March 1982...............................................      48.6     58.5     65.8     49.9     45.6     43.3
March 1983...............................................      48.7     58.9     66.3     50.5     46.0     44.5
March 1984...............................................      49.3     60.5     68.1     52.1     47.6     46.4
March 1985...............................................      50.4     62.1     69.9     53.5     49.5     48.0
March 1986...............................................      50.5     62.8     70.4     54.4     50.8     49.2
March 1987...............................................      50.5     64.7     72.0     56.7     52.9     51.9
March 1988...............................................      51.2     65.0     73.3     56.1     52.5     50.8
March 1989...............................................      51.9     65.7     74.2     56.7     52.4     51.7
March 1990...............................................      52.3     66.7     74.7     58.2     53.6     52.1
March 1991...............................................      52.0     66.6     74.4     58.4     54.5     53.8
March 1992...............................................      52.3     67.2     75.9     58.0     54.5     54.3
March 1993...............................................      52.1     66.9     75.4     57.9     53.9     54.2
March 1994...............................................      53.1     68.4     76.0     60.3     57.1  \1\ 56.
                                                                                                               7
March 1995...............................................      52.9     69.7     76.4     62.3     58.7  \1\ 57.
                                                                                                               9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes mothers in the Armed Forces.                                                                       
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Data for 1994 and 1995 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of       
  introduction of a major redesign in the Current Population Survey (household survey) questionnaire and        
  collection methodology and the introduction of 1990 census-based population controls, adjusted for the        
  estimated undercount. For additional information, see ``Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective  
  January 1994'' in the February 1994 issue of Employment and Earnings.                                         
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                   


      TABLE 10-2.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WOMEN WITH CHILDREN, BY MARITAL STATUS AND AGE OF YOUNGEST CHILD FOR SELECTED YEARS, 1960-95      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                Percent 
                                        1960    1970    1980    1986    1987    1988    1989    1990    1991    1992    1993    1994    1995   increase,
                                                                                                                                                1970-95 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All women............................  \1\ 30                                                                                                           
                                           .4  \1\ 52                                                                                                   
                                                   .9    56.6    62.8    64.7    65.0    65.7    66.7    66.6    67.2    66.9    68.4    69.7       31.8
Married women:                                                                                                                                          
    Youngest < 6.....................    18.6    30.3    45.0    53.8    56.8    57.1    57.4    58.9    59.9    59.9    59.6    61.7    63.5      109.6
    Youngest 6 or >..................    39.0    49.2    61.8    68.4    70.6    72.5    73.4    73.6    73.6    75.4    74.9    76.0    76.2       54.9
Separated women:                                                                                                                                        
    Youngest < 6.....................      NA    45.4    52.2    57.4    55.1    53.0    54.9    59.3    52.2    55.7    52.1    59.2    59.3       30.6
    Youngest 6 or >..................      NA    60.6    66.6    70.6    72.6    69.3    68.0    75.0    74.7    71.6    71.6    70.7    71.5       18.0
Divorced women:                                                                                                                                         
    Youngest < 6.....................      NA    63.3    68.3    73.8    70.5    70.1    66.3    69.8    68.5    65.9    68.1    67.5    73.3       15.8
    Youngest 6 or >..................      NA    82.4    82.3    84.7    84.5    83.9    85.7    85.9    84.6    85.9    83.6    84.9    85.2        3.4
Never-married women:                                                                                                                                    
    Youngest < 6.....................      NA      NA    44.1    47.5    49.9    44.7    48.9    48.7    48.8    45.8    47.4    52.2    53.0         NA
    Youngest 6 or >..................      NA      NA    67.6    65.9    64.1    67.1    69.0    69.7    64.8    67.2    70.2    67.5    67.0        NA 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Excludes never-married women.                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Data for 1994 and 1995 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of introduction of a major redesign in the       
  Current Population Survey (household survey) questionnaire and collection methodology and the introduction of 1990 census-based population controls,  
  adjusted for the estimated undercount. For additional information, see ``Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1994'' in the   
  February 1994 issue of Employment and Earnings.                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                                                           

    Table 10-3 provides a detailed breakdown of the labor force 
participation of women for March 1995, by marital status and 
the age of the youngest child. Among those with children under 
18, divorced women have the highest labor force participation 
rates, followed by married and separated women. Widowed and 
never-married women have lower labor force participation rates.
    As table 10-3 illustrates, no matter what the marital 
status of the woman, labor force participation rates tend to 
increase as the age of the youngest child increases. Among all 
women with children under 18, 59 percent of those with a child 
under 3 participate, 67 percent of those whose youngest child 
is between 3 and 5 participate, and nearly 80 percent of those 
whose youngest child is between 14 and 17 participate.

 TABLE 10-3.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WOMEN WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18, MARCH 1995, BY MARITAL STATUS AND
                                              AGE OF YOUNGEST CHILD                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              Age of youngest child             
                                                                ------------------------------------------------
                         Marital status                          Under  Under  Under   3 to   6 to   6 to  14 to
                                                                   3      6      18     5      13     17     17 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All women with child under 18..................................   58.7   62.3   69.7   67.1   75.1   76.4   79.5
Married, spouse present........................................   60.9   63.5   70.2   67.2   74.9   76.2   79.6
Divorced.......................................................   65.8   73.3   82.0   77.8   83.7   85.2   88.6
Separated......................................................   57.2   59.3   66.1   61.3   70.9   71.5   73.1
Widowed........................................................   45.3   58.9   61.2   65.1   62.5   61.7   61.0
Never married..................................................   48.7   53.0   57.5   61.7   67.3   67.0   65.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Labor force participation rates include nonworking mothers who are actively looking for work.            
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                   

    While there has been a substantial increase in the 
proportion of mothers in the labor force, the data can be 
misleading. Although 70 percent of mothers participated in the 
labor force in 1995, table 10-4 shows 46 percent worked full 
time and 19 percent worked part time (less than 35 hours per 
week). Another 5 percent were actively seeking a job. Thirty-
eight percent of mothers with children under age 6 worked full 
time, and 19 percent worked part time. As the table 
demonstrates, how much mothers work differs according to their 
marital status and the age of their children. Forty-six percent 
of married women with children worked full time; thus, over 50 
percent either didn't work at all or worked part time. Some 64 
percent of all divorced mothers worked full time; 50 percent of 
divorced mothers with children under 6 worked full time. Only 
35 percent of never-married mothers worked full time, and 13 
percent worked part time.

            CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS USED BY WORKING MOTHERS

    Data are collected periodically by the Census Bureau on the 
types of child care arrangements used by families with working 
mothers. Because the interview questions obtain information 
about both paid and unpaid substitute care used while the 
mother works, it provides information on categories of care 
that generally are not considered child care, such as care 
provided by the father and school attendance. Further, the 
survey does not gather information on the child care 
arrangements used by the family while the father works. Though 
information is collected on the arrangements of families in 
which there is only a father present, it is considered too 
negligible to report.

TABLE 10-4.--PERCENT OF MOTHERS BY FULL- OR PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT STATUS,
                             MARCH 1995 \1\                             
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           With children   With children
             Marital status                  under 18         under 6   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
All mothers:                                                            
    Employed full time..................          46              38    
    Employed part time..................          19              19    
Married, spouse present:                                                
    Employed full time..................          45              39    
    Employed part time..................          22              21    
Divorced:                                                               
    Employed full time..................          64              50    
    Employed part time..................          13              17    
Never married:                                                          
    Employed full time..................          35              29    
    Employed part time..................          13              14    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Full-time workers work 35 hours or more per week.                   
                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.           

    The most recent Census Bureau statistics on child care 
arrangements are based on data collected by the Survey of 
Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for the fall of 1993. 
These data indicate that the types of child care arrangements 
used by families while the mother works vary depending on the 
age of the child, as well as the mother's work schedule, 
marital status, and family income. Table 10-5 shows the 
distribution of primary child care arrangements provided for 
preschoolers (children under age 5) and school-age children 
(children ages 5 to 14 years), by marital status and mother's 
work schedule. ``Primary'' child care arrangement refers to the 
arrangement used most frequently during a typical work week.
    Families of preschoolers with working mothers rely more on 
care provided in an organized child care facility (31 percent) 
than on family day care (care in another home by nonrelative; 
17 percent). Relative care, either in the child's home or the 
relative's home, is used by 25 percent of preschool children. 
Many families with young children do not rely on others for 
help with child care arrangements while the mother works 
because they use parental care (22 percent), especially care by 
fathers (16 percent). Only 5 percent of families rely on care 
provided in the child's home by a nonrelative.

    TABLE 10-5.--PRIMARY CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 15 WITH AN EMPLOYED MOTHER, BY MARITAL AND   
                                   EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF THE MOTHER, FALL 1993                                   
                                                  [In percent]                                                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Mothers with children     Mothers with children 5 to
                                                                under 5 years                  14 years         
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Age of child and type of arrangement                   Employed  Employed           Employed  Employed
                                                          Total    full      part     Total     full      part  
                                                                   time      time               time      time  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           ALL MARITAL STATUSES                 
                                                                                                                
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
Children of employed mothers (in thousands)............   9,937    6,410     3,527    22,276    15,056     7,220
                                                                                                                
Care in child's home...................................    14.8     14.2      15.9       5.0       4.9       5.1
    By grandparent.....................................     6.5      6.1       7.3       1.6       1.5       1.9
    By other relative..................................     3.3      3.4       3.1       2.4       2.5       2.2
    By nonrelative.....................................     5.0      4.7       5.4       1.0       0.9       1.1
Care in another home...................................    32.0     34.9      26.9       3.9       3.8       4.2
    By grandparent.....................................    10.0     10.8       8.6       1.4       1.5       1.3
    By other relative..................................     5.5      6.0       4.6       0.7       0.7       0.8
    By nonrelative \1\.................................    16.6     18.1      13.7       1.8       1.6       2.1
Organized child care facilities........................    30.9     35.7      22.0      76.3      78.2      72.4
    Day/group care center..............................    18.3     22.0      11.7       1.6       1.9       1.0
    Nursery school/preschool...........................    11.6     12.6       9.7       0.7       0.8       0.7
    Kindergarten/grade school..........................     1.0      1.2       0.6      74.0      75.6      70.7
    School-based activity..............................     0.2      0.1       0.3       3.0       3.1       3.0
Parental care..........................................    22.1     15.1      34.9       8.9       6.6      13.7
    By father..........................................    16.0     10.6      25.7       7.2       5.3      11.1
    By mother at work \2\..............................     6.2      4.5       9.2       1.7       1.3       2.5
Child cares for self...................................  ......  ........  ........      2.8       3.3       1.6
                                                                                                                
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
                                                                         MARRIED, HUSBAND PRESENT               
                                                                                                                
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
Children of employed mothers (in thousands)............   7,841    5,038     2,083    16,882    10,907     5,975
                                                                                                                
Care in child's home...................................    12.2     12.1      16.6       3.7       3.6       3.8
    By grandparent.....................................     4.8      4.4       7.5       1.0       0.9       1.2
    By other relative..................................     2.3      2.6       2.6       2.1       2.1       2.1
    By nonrelative.....................................     5.0      5.1       6.5       0.5       0.5       0.5
Care in another home...................................    30.5     33.7      33.4       2.8       2.8       2.6
    By grandparent.....................................     9.6     10.1      11.7       0.9       0.9       0.8
    By other relative..................................     4.6      5.4       4.3       0.4       0.4       0.4
    By nonrelative \1\.................................    16.3     18.3      17.4       1.4       1.4       1.4
Organized child care facilities........................    31.1     36.1      29.6      80.1      82.2      76.4
    Day/group care center..............................    18.2     22.2      14.9       1.5       1.7       1.1
    Nursery school/preschool...........................    11.8     12.8      13.3       0.8       0.8       0.8
    Kindergarten/grade school..........................     1.0      1.1       0.9      74.8      76.7      71.4
    School-based activity..............................     0.1      0.0       0.4       3.1       3.0       3.1
Parental care..........................................    26.2     18.1      54.9      11.1       8.5      15.8
    By father..........................................    19.3     13.1      41.0       9.2       7.1      13.0
    By mother at work \2\..............................     6.9      5.0      14.0       1.9       1.4       2.8
Child cares for self...................................  ......  ........  ........      2.4       2.9       1.3
                                                                                                                
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      ALL OTHER MARITAL STATUSES \3\            
                                                                                                                
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
 Children of employed mothers (in thousands)...........   2,096    1,372       724     5,393     4,149     1,244
                                                                                                                
Care in child's home...................................    24.6     21.9      29.6       9.1       8.5      11.3
    By grandparent.....................................    12.9     12.3      14.0       3.4       3.0       4.8
    By other relative..................................     6.9      6.4       7.9       3.3       3.5       2.6
    By nonrelative.....................................     4.7      3.1       7.7       2.4       2.0       3.9
Care in another home...................................    37.8     39.2      35.1       7.6       6.3      11.8
    By grandparent.....................................    11.7     13.4       8.6       3.1       2.9       3.6
    By other relative..................................     8.7      8.2       9.8       1.7       1.4       2.7
    By nonrelative \1\.................................    17.3     17.6      16.7       2.8       2.0       5.5
Organized child care facilities........................    30.7     34.6      23.3      77.1      79.2      70.3
    Day/group care center..............................    18.8     21.1      14.2       2.0       2.5       0.5
    Nursery school/preschool...........................    10.7     11.7       8.8       0.7       0.8       0.2
    Kindergarten/grade school..........................     1.0      1.3       0.3      71.4      72.7      67.2
    School-based activity..............................     0.3      0.4       0.0       3.0       3.2       2.4
Parental care..........................................     6.9      4.2      12.2       2.0       1.7       3.3
    By father..........................................     3.4      1.4       7.2       0.9       0.5       2.1
    By mother at work \2\..............................     3.5      2.8       5.0       1.2       1.2       1.2
Child cares for self...................................  ......  ........  ........      4.1       4.4       3.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Care in another's home by a nonrelative is known as ``family day care.''                                    
\2\ Includes women working at home or away from home.                                                           
\3\ Includes married, husband absent (including separated), widowed, divorced, and never married women.         
                                                                                                                
Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.          

    Preschool children of part-time employed mothers are much 
less likely to be cared for at an organized child care facility 
or by a family day care provider, and more likely to be cared 
for by a parent, than children of full-time employed mothers. 
Children of employed single mothers, shown in table 10-5 under 
the heading ``All Other Marital Statuses,'' are much more 
likely to be cared for by a relative than children of married 
mothers.
    Table 10-5 also illustrates that 74 percent of school-age 
children are in grade school or kindergarten during most of the 
hours their mothers work. Though not generally regarded as a 
form of child care, school is included in this table because it 
is the ``primary'' activity of these children during their 
mothers' working hours. Although the remaining 26 percent of 
school-age children attended school, their school hours did not 
overlap with the majority of hours worked by their mothers 
because of night and evening work shifts.
    Table 10-6 shows the types of after school arrangements 
used for school-age children by working mothers, as well as 
cases in which there were no arrangements used at all. A total 
of 1.2 million school-age children (5.4 percent of children age 
5-14) were reported to be in self-care or to be unsupervised by 
an adult for some time while their mothers were working. It is 
not known if the children in the ``no care mentioned'' category 
were unsupervised, or if other factors may account for their 
not being reported in a child care arrangement, such as travel 
time from school.

    TABLE 10-6.--AFTERSCHOOL CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS USED BY EMPLOYED   
                  MOTHERS FOR CHILDREN 5-14, FALL 1993                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Number (in           
               Type of arrangement                 thousands)   Percent 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Care in child's home.............................       2,535       11.4
    By grandparent...............................         779        3.5
    By other relative............................       1,209        5.4
    By nonrelative...............................         547        2.5
Care in another home.............................       2,645       11.9
    By grandparent...............................         949        4.3
    By other relative............................         517        2.3
    By nonrelative \1\...........................       1,179        5.3
Organized child care facilities..................       2,455       11.0
    Day/group care center........................       1,071        4.8
    Nursery school/preschool.....................         167        0.8
    School-based activity........................       1,217        5.5
Parental care....................................       3,203       14.4
    By father....................................       2,587       11.6
    By mother at work \2\........................         616        2.8
    Child cares for self.........................       1,202        5.4
No care mentioned................................      10,236       48.0
                                                  ----------------------
      Total children.............................      22,276      100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Care in another home by a nonrelative is known as a ``family day    
  care.''                                                               
\2\ Includes women working at home or away from home.                   
                                                                        
Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation, Bureau of the       
  Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.                                  

    Table 10-7 shows that the type of child care arrangements 
used for children under 5 varies by the economic well-being of 
the family. Children in poor families are more likely to be 
cared for by relatives (36 percent versus 24 percent) while 
their mother works than children in nonpoor families. In 
addition, children in nonpoor families use organized child care 
facilities more than children in poor families (32 percent 
versus 21 percent). Children in nonpoor families rely more on 
family day care provided by nonrelatives than do children 
living in poverty (17 percent versus 12 percent).

  TABLE 10-7.--PRIMARY CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS USED BY EMPLOYED MOTHERS 
    FOR CHILDREN UNDER 5, BY POVERTY STATUS OF THE MOTHERS, FALL 1993   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          All marital statuses             Total     Poor \1\   Not poor
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total children of employed mothers (in                                  
 thousands)............................      9,897      1,068      8,829
Percent................................      100.0      100.0      100.0
Care in child's home...................       14.7       20.9       14.0
    By grandparent.....................        6.5        8.2        6.3
    By other relative..................        3.3        6.1        3.0
    By nonrelative.....................        4.9        6.6        4.7
Care in another home...................       32.0       33.8       31.8
    By grandparent.....................       10.0       11.8        9.8
    By other relative..................        5.5        9.7        5.0
    By nonrelative \2\.................       16.5       12.3       17.1
Organized child care facilities........       31.1       21.0       32.3
    Day/group care center..............       18.4       12.0       19.2
    Nursery school/preschool...........       11.6        7.8       12.1
    Kindergarten/grade school..........        1.0        1.2        0.9
    School-based activity..............        0.2        0.0        0.2
Parental care..........................       22.2       24.3       21.9
    By father..........................       16.0       16.2       16.0
    By mother at work \3\..............        6.1        8.1        5.9
    Child cares for self...............  .........  .........  .........
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Below the poverty threshold, which was $14,350 annually or $1,196   
  monthly during the 1993 interview period for a family of four.        
\2\ Care in another home by a nonrelative is known as ``family day      
  care.''                                                               
\3\ Includes women working at home or away from home.                   
                                                                        
Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation, Bureau of the       
  Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.                                  

    Table 10-8 shows the primary arrangements used by working 
mothers for their preschool-aged children from June 1977 
through the fall of 1993. In general, the table does not show 
dramatic changes in the arrangements used during this time 
period, except with regard to day care centers and nursery 
schools. The share of children enrolled in day care centers and 
nursery schools increased sharply between 1977 and 1993, from 
13 percent to 30 percent. The table shows that the role of 
fathers in caring for their preschool children increased 
slightly after 1977, including for children of single mothers, 
although the proportion of children cared for by fathers 
dropped between 1991 and 1993. The share of children cared for 
by their mothers at work decreased from 1977 to 1993, as did 
the percent of children in family day care homes. Data on 
children cared for by their grandparents were obtained 
beginning in 1985, and remained relatively stable during the 
period from 1985 to 1993.

              TABLE 10-8.--PERCENT OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 IN SELECTED CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS, 1977-93             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Percent of children cared for by               
                                                ----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                     Day care   
        Family status and date of survey                                             Family day   center/nursery
                                                  Father   Mother \1\  Grandparent    care \2\        school    
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All families:                                                                                                   
    Fall 1993..................................      15.9         6.2        16.5          16.6           29.9  
    Fall 1991..................................      20.0         8.7        15.8          17.9           23.0  
    Fall 1990..................................      16.5         6.4        14.3          20.1           27.5  
    Fall 1988..................................      15.1         7.6        13.9          23.6           25.8  
    Fall 1987..................................      15.3         8.9        13.8          22.3           24.4  
    Fall 1986..................................      14.5         7.4        15.7          24.0           22.4  
    Winter 1985................................      15.7         8.1        15.9          22.3           23.1  
    June 1977..................................      14.4        11.4          NA          22.4           13.0  
Married couples:                                                                                                
    Fall 1993..................................      19.3         6.9        14.4          16.4           30.0  
    Fall 1991..................................      22.9         9.8        13.7          17.1           22.7  
    Fall 1990..................................      19.8         7.8        13.0          19.7           26.8  
    Fall 1988..................................      17.9         8.7        11.8          23.7           25.4  
    Fall 1987..................................      18.2        10.1        12.2          22.2           23.4  
    Fall 1986..................................      17.9         8.3        14.1          24.4           20.3  
    Winter 1985................................      18.8         9.2        13.9          21.8           22.3  
    June 1977..................................      17.1        12.9          NA          22.6           11.6  
Single mothers:                                                                                                 
    Fall 1993..................................       3.4         3.5        24.6          17.3           29.5  
    Fall 1991..................................       7.0         3.7        24.8          21.3           24.5  
    Fall 1990..................................       3.2         0.7        20.0          27.8           30.4  
    Fall 1988..................................       1.5         2.4        23.9          22.8           27.8  
    Fall 1987..................................       2.3         3.4        20.8          22.3           28.3  
    Fall 1986..................................       1.4         3.8        20.3          22.4           30.2  
    Winter 1985................................       2.2         3.5        24.5          24.4           26.7  
    June 1977..................................       0.8         4.4          NA          21.8           19.1  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes mothers working at home or away from home.                                                         
\2\ Children cared for in another home by nonrelatives.                                                         
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Data are the principal arrangement used by mothers during most of their hours at work. Single mothers    
  include women never married, widowed, divorced, and separated.                                                
                                                                                                                
Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation, Bureau of the Census, U.S Department of Commerce.           

                            CHILD CARE COSTS

    Research studies have found that the majority of families 
with working mothers and preschool children purchase child care 
services. The tendency to purchase care and the amount spent on 
care, both in absolute terms and as a percent of family income, 
generally varies by the type of child care used, family type 
(married or single mothers), and the family's economic 
situation.
    The most recent data on child care expenditures are from 
the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the fall of 
1993, published by the Census Bureau in 1995. These data show 
that 56 percent of families with employed mothers paid for 
child care for their preschool-aged children. Nonpaid child 
care was most typically provided by relatives. Families with 
mothers employed full time were more likely to purchase care 
for their young children than those with mothers working part 
time. Among families with full-time working mothers, 63 percent 
paid for child care, compared to 41 percent of families with 
mothers employed part time. Likewise, as shown in table 10-9, 
families with higher incomes were more likely to purchase care 
than families with lower incomes. For example, 69 percent of 
families with monthly incomes of $4,500 or more purchased child 
care in the fall of 1993, while only 39 percent of families 
with monthly incomes of less than $1,200 purchased care.
    As indicated in table 10-9, average weekly costs per family 
for all preschool-aged children were $74 in 1993 for those 
families who purchased care. Families with two or more 
preschoolers paid almost $110 per week for child care (11 
percent of family income), while families with one child paid 
$66 per week (7 percent of family income). Married-couple 
families devoted a smaller percentage of their income to child 
care (7 percent) than single-parent families (12 percent), but 
their child care expenditures were nonetheless greater ($78 per 
week) than those of single-parent families (about $60 per 
week).
    Table 10-9 also shows that, while low-income families spend 
fewer dollars for child care than higher income families, they 
spend a much greater percentage of their family income for 
child care. Specifically, families with monthly incomes of less 
than $1,200 had average weekly child care expenses of $47 in 
1993, compared with $69 for families with monthly incomes of 
$4,500 or more. However, lower income families devoted 25 
percent of their family income to child care, while the higher 
income families spent less than 6 percent of their income for 
child care.
    For families purchasing care, the average weekly cost of 
child care per arrangement was $57 in 1993. In-home, 
nonrelative babysitters were the most expensive type of care, 
at an average weekly cost of $68, followed by organized child 
care centers at $64 per week. Family day care homes cost an 
average of $57 per week, while the least expensive form of paid 
care was provided by relatives, at an average of $42 per week. 
Looking at child care costs per child, the average weekly cost 
for preschoolers in 1993 was $60, ranging from $66 per week for 
infants under a year old to $56 for 3-year-olds and $59 for 4-
year-olds.
    Child care costs have increased in recent years. Chart 10-1 
illustrates growth in the average weekly cost of care for all 
children (up to age 15) in families with a preschooler from 
1986 to 1993, in constant 1993 dollars. As the chart shows, the 
average weekly cost has gone up by $15, from $64 in 1986 to $79 
in 1993.

TABLE 10-9.--AVERAGE WEEKLY CHILD CARE EXPENDITURES FOR PRESCHOOLERS AND
 PERCENTAGE OF INCOME SPENT ON CARE, BY POVERTY STATUS AND FAMILY INCOME
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percent of
                                                               monthly  
                                     Percent      Average       family  
                                    paying for  weekly cost     income  
                                       care       of care      spent on 
                                                                 care   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Poverty status:                                                         
    Below poverty................           37       $49.56         17.7
    Above poverty................           58        76.03          7.3
Monthly family income:                                                  
    Less than $1,200.............           39        47.29         25.1
    $1,200 to $2,999.............           49        60.16         12.0
    $3,000 to $4,499.............           57        73.10          8.5
    $4,500 and over..............           69        91.93          5.7
                                  --------------------------------------
Total............................           56       $74.15          7.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Casper (1995).                                                  

               CHART 10-1. WEEKLY COST OF CHILD CARE \1\

  [In constant 1993 dollars. Limited to families with a preschooler.]


    \1\ Represents total costs for all children in the family.

    Source: Casper (1995).

                     SUPPLY OF CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

    The profile of child care settings (PCS) study, released by 
the U.S. Department of Education in 1991, is regarded as the 
most comprehensive national study of regulated child care/early 
education services since the 1970s (Kisker, Hofferth, Phillips 
& Farquhar, 1991). The study provides information on the supply 
and characteristics of State licensed child care centers and 
early education programs, center-based programs exempt from 
State or local licensing (such as programs sponsored by 
religious organizations or schools), and licensed family day 
care providers.
    Kisker and her colleagues reported that approximately 
80,000 center-based early education and care programs were 
providing services in the United States at the beginning of 
1990. They estimate that about 12 percent of centers on State 
licensing lists were not operating during the time of the 
survey, but that operating centers had about 5.3 million spaces 
(defined as the sum of enrollment plus vacancies), of which 
approximately 4.2 million were for preschool-age children and 
1.1 million were for school-age children. The study found that 
an average of 88 percent of the available spaces in centers 
were filled. It concluded that this high overall utilization 
rate indicates that ``the market seems to be working to 
increase supply as demand expands.'' As shown in table 10-10, 
centers are distributed across regions in urban/rural areas 
approximately in proportion to the population of children under 
age 5.

  TABLE 10-10.--DISTRIBUTION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS, AND PROGRAM SPACES BY REGION AND  
                                                   URBANICITY                                                   
                                                  [In percent]                                                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Spaces in
                                         Children             Spaces                                   regulated
                                          younger   Centers     in          Regulated home-based         home-  
                                          than 5              centers            programs                based  
                                            \1\                                                         programs
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region:                                                                                                         
    Northeast..........................        19        18        16                   14                    11
    South..............................        35        41        42                   21                    20
    Midwest............................        24        23        23                   29                    32
    West...............................        23        18        19                   36                    37
Urbanicity:                                                                                                     
    Metropolitan.......................        75        76        83                   77                    77
    Nonmetropolitan....................        25        24        17                   23                   23 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The distribution of children younger than age 5 by region is estimated from projections of 1980 census data 
  to 1988 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1989). The distribution of children younger than age 5 by urbanicity is   
  estimated as the distribution of the population by urbanicity in 1980 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983).      
                                                                                                                
Source: Kisker, Hofferth, Phillips, & Farquhar (1991).                                                          

    The study also found that there were approximately 118,000 
licensed family day care providers with a capacity to care for 
860,000 children (defined as the number of children for whom 
the provider is licensed to provide care) operating in the 
United States at the beginning of 1990. This number is about 30 
percent less than counts of family day care providers obtained 
directly from licensing lists because such lists are not 
generally up to date. About 82 percent of all family day care 
spaces were filled at the beginning of 1990. In contrast to 
centers, the distribution of family day care homes across 
regions of the United States is not proportional to the number 
of young children in those regions (table 10-10). The authors 
postulate that this imbalance may be due to regional 
differences in State family day care licensing requirements.
    When providers were asked how many vacancies were actually 
available, the study found that the average child care center 
has four full-time vacancies and that the average regulated 
family day care home has one full-time vacancy. For centers, 
the study reports that vacancies are concentrated in fewer than 
half of all centers and that two-thirds to three-fourths of all 
centers reported having no vacancies. Vacancies are also 
concentrated in less than half of all family day care homes. 
According to the study, more than half of all regulated homes 
reported being ``unable or unwilling'' to accept more children 
on a full-time basis.
    It is assumed by child care researchers that the number of 
unregulated family day care providers far exceeds the number of 
regulated family providers, though it is difficult to determine 
by how much. Based on an estimate that 4 million children are 
in family day care and that the average number of children per 
home ranges from 3 to 6, Kisker et al. estimate that there are 
from 550,000 to 1.1 million unlicensed providers. Based on this 
estimate, the number of regulated family day care homes 
(118,000) represents 10 to 18 percent of the total number of 
family day care providers (National Association for the 
Education of Young Children, 1991).

                          CHILD CARE STANDARDS

    Regulation and licensing of child care providers is 
conducted primarily at the State and local levels, although the 
extent to which the Federal Government should play a role in 
this area has been a topic of debate for many years (see 
below). Table 10-11 presents information on State licensing 
standards in 1993, which was collected by ``Parenting'' 
magazine and the Children's Defense Fund (CDF). It should be 
noted that these standards apply to licensed or regulated child 
care providers. In the case of family day care homes, most 
States exempt certain providers--typically those serving 
smaller numbers of children--from licensing or regulation. 
Research in 1990 estimated that between 82 and 90 percent of 
family child care is unregulated.

                            THE FEDERAL ROLE

    The Federal Government entered the child care business 
during the New Deal of the 1930s when federally funded nursery 
schools were established for poor children. The motivation for 
creating these nursery schools was not specifically to provide 
child care for working families. Rather, the schools were 
designed primarily to create jobs for unemployed teachers, 
nurses, and others, and also to provide a wholesome environment 
for children in poverty. However, when mothers began to enter 
the work force in large numbers during World War II, many of 
these nursery schools were continued and expanded. Federal 
funding for child care, and other community facilities, was 
available during the war years under the Lanham Act, which 
financed child care for an estimated 550,000-600,000 children 
before it was terminated in 1946.
    The end of the war brought the expectation that mothers 
would return home to care for their children. However, many 
women chose to remain at work and the labor force participation 
of women has increased steadily ever since. The appropriate 
Federal role in supporting child care, including the extent to 
which the Federal Government should establish standards for 
federally funded child care, has been an ongoing topic of 
debate. Most recently, four new Federal child care programs 
were enacted in 1988 and 1990 providing child care for families 
receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 
families that formerly received AFDC, low-income working 
families at-risk of becoming dependent on AFDC, and low-income 
working families generally.
    The establishment of these programs was the culmination of 
a lengthy, and often contentious debate, about what role the 
Federal Government should play in child care. Lasting nearly 4 
years, the debate centered on questions about the type of 
Federal subsidies that should be made available and for whom, 
whether the Federal Government should set national child care 
standards, conditions under which religious child care 
providers could receive Federal funds, and how best to assure 
optimal choice for parents in selecting child care arrangements 
for their children, including options that would allow a mother 
to stay home. Differences stemming from philosophical and 
partisan views, as well as jurisdictional concerns, were 
reflected throughout the debate.
    Though the new programs represented a significant expansion 
of Federal support for child care, they joined a large number 
of existing Federal programs providing early childhood 
services, administered by numerous Federal agencies and 
overseen by several congressional committees. The General 
Accounting Office (GAO) estimated that in fiscal year 1992 and 
fiscal year 1993, more than 90 early childhood programs were 
funded by the Federal Government, administered through 11 
Federal agencies and 20 offices. Of these programs, GAO 
identified 34 as having education or child care as key to their 
mission (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1994a). The 
Congressional Research Service (CRS), in a memo to the House 
Committee on Ways and Means (Forman, 1994), identified 46 
Federal programs related to child care operating in fiscal year 
1994. These programs were administered by the Departments of 
Agriculture, Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and 
Urban Development, Interior, Labor, and Treasury, the 
Appalachian Regional Commission, the Corporation for National 
Service, and the Small Business Administration.
    CRS noted that some of these programs are not primarily 
child care programs; rather, they are programs designed for 
some other major purpose that included some type of child care 
or related assistance. Moreover, a majority of the programs are 
small, with 32 of the 46 providing less than $50 million in 
annual funding.

    TABLE 10-11.--NUMBER OF STATES WITH SELECTED CHILD CARE LICENSING   
     REQUIREMENTS, FOR CHILD CARE CENTERS AND FAMILY DAY CARE HOMES     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Child care   Family day
                     Item                         centers     care homes
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Children must have all immunizations \1\......       50           45    
Children must have all recommended                                      
 immunizations \2\............................        7            9    
All or some staff must have first aid training       42           28    
All or some staff must have CPR training......       32           18    
Energy-absorbing surfaces must be under                                 
 climbing equipment...........................       23           NA    
Smoke detectors and periodic fire drills:                               
    Both required.............................       44           35    
    Fire drill only...........................        6            2    
    Smoke detector only.......................        1            7    
Staff must wash hands after diapering and                               
 before handling food.........................       48           NA    
Smoking prohibited............................       45           19    
Maximum number of children allowed per staff                            
 members exceeds NAEYC recommendation: \3\                              
    6 months old..............................       18           NA    
    12 months old or walking..................       20           NA    
    18 months old.............................       25           NA    
    2 years old...............................       31           NA    
    3 years old...............................       21           NA    
    4 years old...............................       33           NA    
Group size not regulated, or exceeds NAEYC                              
 recommendation: \3\                                                    
    6 months old..............................       33           NA    
    12 months old or walking..................       25           NA    
    18 months old.............................       30           NA    
    2 years old...............................       20           NA    
    3 years old...............................       23           NA    
    4 years old...............................       23           NA    
Parental access required......................       46           42    
Frequency of state licensing inspections:                               
    More than once per year...................       12            9    
    Once per year.............................       30           15    
    Less than once per year...................        8           21    
    Never.....................................        1            6    
Liability insurance required..................       20            5    
Corporal punishment prohibited................       43           39    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Basic immunizations are the DPT vaccine against diphtheria-pertussis-
  tetanus, the OPV vaccine against polio, and the MMR vaccine against   
  measles, mumps and rubella.                                           
\2\ In addition to the basic immunizations, the American Academy of     
  Pediatrics recommends the Hib vaccine against bacterial meningitis,   
  and HBV against Hepatitis B.                                          
\3\ Staff-child ratios are recommended by the National Association for  
  the Education of Young Children.                                      
                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                      
                                                                        
Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service from data        
  reported by Adams, 1995.                                              

    Table 10-12 provides a brief description of the major 
Federal programs that support child care and related 
activities. As the table shows, one of the largest Federal 
sources of child care assistance is provided indirectly through 
the Tax Code, in the form of a nonrefundable tax credit for 
taxpayers who work or are seeking work. Other major sources of 
Federal child care assistance, in addition to the four newest 
programs mentioned above, include the Social Services Block 
Grant under title XX of the Social Security Act and the Child 
Care Food Program, which subsidizes meals for children in child 
care. Head Start, the early childhood development program 
targeted to poor preschool children, has been characterized as 
a child care program. Although Head Start primarily operates on 
a part-day, part-year basis, programs increasingly are being 
linked to other all-day child care providers to better meet the 
needs of full-time working parents.
    Numerous other Federal programs provide assistance for 
child care services, training for child care providers, and 
related activities. Most of these programs are not child care 
programs per se, but support child care as a component of other 
activities, such as job training, housing assistance, 
education, food stamps, and other kinds of services. For 
example, under various Federal student financial aid programs, 
students can count a certain portion of child care expenses as 
part of the total cost of postsecondary education and thereby 
receive Federal student aid to help cover these costs. Another 
example is the Job Training Partnership Act, under which funds 
are designated for supportive services that can include child 
care services for program participants.
    During congressional consideration of child care 
legislation in the late 1980s, concerns were often raised that 
the Federal role in this area lacked coordination and focus. 
Some argue that the new child care programs--with their 
different eligibility rules, standards, requirements, 
applications, and reports, as well as different Federal and 
State administering agencies--have exacerbated this concern, 
and that there is need for coordination and streamlining in 
Federal child care policy. For example, the GAO reported in 
1994 that different requirements of the major programs, 
combined with resource constraints in the States, have caused 
gaps in child care service delivery to low-income families. In 
particular, GAO found that, primarily because of a shortage of 
resources, substantial numbers of nonwelfare working poor 
families who were eligible for child care subsidies by virtue 
of their income were denied benefits and placed on waiting 
lists in five out of six States visited (U.S. General 
Accounting Office, 1994b).
    Though Congress requires the States and HHS to collect and 
compile information on child care services funded and families 
served by the major Federal child care programs, little 
information is actually available to make assessments about the 
impact of the recent expansions in Federal child care 
assistance. For example, there is virtually no information 
readily available on the types of child care providers serving 
subsidized families with respect to their level of quality or 
regulation. There is also little information about the total 
number of families served, the degree of choice they have in 
selecting care, and whether choice is inhibited by payment 
rates or other factors.

                                           TABLE 10-12.--OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS THAT SUPPORT CHILD CARE                                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                              Fiscal year 1995 outlays  
              Program                     Budgetary        Statutory authority         Federal           Federal funding         (in millions)\1\       
                                       classification                              administration            support                                    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dependent care credit.............  Nonrefundable tax     Internal Revenue      U.S. Department of    NA..................  $2,746 \2\                  
                                     credit.               Code.                 Treasury, Internal                                                     
                                                                                 Revenue Service.                                                       
Child care for AFDC recipients....  Authorized            Social Security Act.  HHS, ACF \3\........  Open-ended, Federal   633                         
                                     entitlement.                                                      match at Medicaid                                
                                                                                                       rate.                                            
Transitional child care assistance  Authorized            Social Security Act.  HHS, ACF \3\........  Open-ended, Federal   192                         
 (TCC).                              entitlement.                                                      match at Medicaid                                
                                                                                                       rate.                                            
At-risk child care................  Authorized            Social Security Act.  HHS, ACF \3\........  Funding ceiling,      279                         
                                     entitlement.                                                      Federal match at                                 
                                                                                                       Medicaid rate.                                   
Child care and development block    Discretionary         Omnibus Budget        HHS, ACF \3\........  Funding ceiling, 100  933                         
 grant.                              authorization.        Reconciliation Act                          percent Federal                                  
                                                           of 1990.                                    funding.                                         
Child and adult care food program.  Authorized            National School       U.S. Department of    Open-ended, 100       1,461 \4\                   
                                     entitlement.          Lunch Act of 1946.    Agriculture, Food     percent Federal                                  
                                                                                 and Nutrition         funding.                                         
                                                                                 Service.                                                               
Title XX social services block      Authorized            Social Security Act.  HHS, ACF \3\........  Funding ceiling, 100  448 \5\                     
 grant.                              entitlement.                                                      percent Federal                                  
                                                                                                       funding.                                         
Head start........................  Discretionary         Omnibus Budget        HHS, ACF \3\........  Funding ceiling, 80   3,393                       
                                     authorization.        Reconciliation Act                          percent Federal                                  
                                                           of 1981.                                    funding.                                         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Provider          Reimbursement  
             Program               Target population   Eligible children     requirements     rates to providers
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dependent care credit...........  Taxpayers who need  Children under age  Centers only must   NA                
                                   dependent care in   13.                 meet applicable                      
                                   order to accept                         State and local                      
                                   or maintain                             standards.                           
                                   employment.                                                                  
Child care for AFDC recipients..  AFDC recipients     Children under age  Must meet           Cost up to $200   
                                   who need            13 (unless          applicable State    per month (< 2), 
                                   dependent care to   incapable of self-  and local           and $175 per     
                                   accept or           care or under       standards.          month (2 or      
                                   maintain            court                                   older). Not more 
                                   employment, or to   supervision).                           than the 75th    
                                   participate in                                              percentile of    
                                   State-approved                                              local market     
                                   education/                                                  rate.            
                                   training.                                                                    
Transitional child care           Families that lose  Children under age  Must meet           Same as AFDC.     
 assistance (TCC).                 AFDC eligibility    13.                 applicable State                     
                                   due to employment                       and local                            
                                   (increase in                            standards.                           
                                   income or hours                                                              
                                   worked).                                                                     
At-risk child care..............  Low-income          Children under age  Must meet           Same as AFDC.     
                                   families not        13.                 applicable State                     
                                   receiving AFDC                          and local                            
                                   who need child                          standards or, if                     
                                   care to work, and                       not regulated and                    
                                   are at risk of                          with the                             
                                   welfare                                 exception of                         
                                   eligibility if                          relatives, be                        
                                   care not provided.                      registered.                          
Child care and development block  Families with       Children under age  Must meet           No limit.         
 grant.                            incomes at or       13 (unless          applicable State                     
                                   below 75 percent    incapable of self-  and local                            
                                   of State median     care or under       standards or be                      
                                   income, with        court               registered                           
                                   parents engaged     supervision).       (including                           
                                   in work or                              relatives). With                     
                                   education/                              exception of                         
                                   training.                               relatives, must                      
                                                                           also meet certain                    
                                                                           health and safety                    
                                                                           standards.                           
Child and adult care food         NA................  Children < 13;      Must meet           Meal rates are    
 program.                                              migrant children    applicable State    indexed to       
                                                       < 16.               and local           inflation, rates 
                                                                           standards.          vary by family   
                                                                                               income.          
Title XX social services block    State discretion..  State discretion..  Must meet           No limit.         
 grant.                                                                    applicable State                     
                                                                           and local                            
                                                                           standards.                           
Head start......................  Low-income          Children from poor  Must meet           No limit.         
                                   children and        families who have   federally                            
                                   families.           not reached the     established                          
                                                       age of compulsory   standards with                       
                                                       school attendance.  respect to                           
                                                                           health,                              
                                                                           education,                           
                                                                           parental                             
                                                                           involvement,                         
                                                                           nutrition, and                       
                                                                           social services.                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Source: Congressional Budget Office for Programs, Joint Committee on Taxation for tax expenditures.         
\2\ Preliminary 1995 IRS return data. Data is tax expenditures, not outlays.                                    
\3\ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.                     
\4\ Obligations.                                                                                                
\5\ Estimate based on reports from 23 States submitting data for fiscal year 1990 to the American Public Welfare
  Association.                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
Source: Compiled by Committee on Ways and Means staff.                                                          

                       DEPENDENT CARE TAX CREDIT

    Under section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code, a 
nonrefundable credit against income tax liability is available 
for up to 30 percent of a limited amount of employment-related 
dependent care expenses. Eligible employment-related expenses 
are limited to $2,400, if there is one qualifying dependent, or 
$4,800, if there are two or more qualifying dependents. The 
credit may be claimed by a taxpayer who maintains a household 
that includes one or more qualifying individuals. Generally, a 
qualifying individual is a dependent under the age of 13, a 
physically or mentally incapacitated dependent, or a physically 
or mentally incapacitated spouse. The costs of care must be 
incurred to enable a taxpayer (or taxpayer's spouse, if 
married) to work or look for work. Qualified expenses include 
the costs of household services.
    The percentage used to calculate the credit depends on a 
taxpayer's adjusted gross income (AGI). A taxpayer whose AGI is 
$10,000 or less is allowed a credit equal to 30 percent of 
qualified work-related expenses. The credit percentage is 
reduced by 1 percentage point for each additional $2,000 in AGI 
above $10,000. For taxpayers whose AGI is greater than $28,000, 
the credit is equal to 20 percent of qualified expenses. The 
maximum amount of the credit is $720 for one qualifying 
individual and $1,440 for two or more qualifying individuals.
    More detailed information on the dependent care tax credit 
is provided in section 14.

    CHILD CARE PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE IV-A OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT

    Title IV-A of the Social Security Act, under which the Aid 
to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program is 
established, contains authorities for three different child 
care programs. These programs fund child care services for low-
income families, though each target a different low-income 
population. One program funds child care services for AFDC 
families who are working or participating in an approved work, 
education, or training program. A second program funds care for 
families for up to 1 year after they leave AFDC. A third 
program funds care for families who are ``at risk'' of becoming 
eligible for AFDC. Each of the title IV-A child care programs 
is described briefly below.

                     Child Care for AFDC Recipients

    Under the AFDC Program, the Federal Government requires 
States to ``guarantee'' child care to recipients of AFDC if the 
care is needed for individuals to accept employment or remain 
employed. Child care also must be guaranteed to AFDC recipients 
who are participating in a State-approved education and 
training activity, including an AFDC Job Opportunities and 
Basic Skills (JOBS) Training Program. \1\ The AFDC Child Care 
Program is funded by an open-ended entitlement. The Federal 
share of a State's child care payments is based on the Medicaid 
matching rate, which varies by State and is inversely related 
to a State's per capita income. The program is administered on 
the Federal level by the Administration for Children and 
Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services, as part of the AFDC Program.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Under the Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-485), all 
States were required to have a JOBS Program in place by October 1, 
1990. The centerpiece of a major welfare reform initiative, JOBS is 
intended to prevent long-term welfare dependency by providing needy 
families with education, training, and employment. All AFDC recipients 
not otherwise exempt by law are required to participate in JOBS. The 
parent of a child under age 6 may be required to participate only if 
child care is guaranteed and if participation is limited to no more 
than 20 hours per week. A parent of a child under age 3 is exempt from 
participation, unless required to participate at State option. More 
detailed information on the AFDC JOBS Program is provided in section 8.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    State welfare agencies are responsible for administering 
the program at the State level and must inform AFDC applicants 
and recipients of the availability of child care assistance and 
the types and locations of child care services. The State 
agencies can provide child care directly, arrange for care with 
providers through contracts or vouchers, provide cash or 
vouchers in advance to families, reimburse families, or use 
other arrangements. States can also choose to disregard certain 
child care expenses--up to $175 per month per child age 2 and 
over and up to $200 per month per child under age 2--from the 
earned income of a family in determining the family's 
eligibility for AFDC benefits.
    Reimbursement for child care costs must be at least equal 
to the lower of the actual cost of care or a statewide limit 
(which could be the child care disregard amount or a higher 
amount). Reimbursement cannot be more than the 75th percentile 
of the local market rate for the type of care being provided, 
as determined by each State. \2\ The child care must meet 
applicable standards of State and local law. In addition, 
States must ensure that center-based child care is subject to 
State and local health and safety requirements, including fire 
safety protections. States must also endeavor to develop 
guidelines for family day care services.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\ The 75th percentile does not mean 75 percent of the cost of 
care. To determine the 75th percentile, child care rates are ranked 
from lowest to highest. Starting from the bottom of the list, the 
amount separating the 75 percent of providers with the lowest rates 
from the 25 percent with highest rates is the 75th percentile.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    GAO has reported, on the basis of a nationwide survey, that 
about three-fourths of State JOBS Programs have been able to 
provide child care subsidies or help arrange child care for all 
or most of their participants who needed such assistance. 
However, GAO attributed this success to the relatively small 
number of AFDC recipients actually participating in JOBS--about 
13 percent of the adult caseload in a given month. State and 
local officials told GAO that barriers to providing child care 
assistance included shortages of certain types of care, such as 
infant care, sick child care, before- and after-school care, 
and child care during nontraditional work hours, as well as 
transportation problems (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995).

                   Transitional Child Care Assistance

    Under the AFDC Program, the Federal Government requires 
States to ``guarantee'' child care to a family who loses AFDC 
eligibility due to increased hours of, or increased income from 
employment or loss of the income disregard due to the time 
limitations, if the care is necessary for an individual to 
accept or retain employment. To be eligible for transitional 
child care (TCC), families must have received AFDC in at least 
3 of the 6 months immediately before the month in which they 
became ineligible for AFDC. The child care assistance under 
this program is limited to a period of 12 months after the last 
month for which the family received AFDC benefits. The program 
is operated under the same rules as those that apply to the 
Child Care Program for eligible AFDC recipients, except that 
families must contribute to the cost of the care in accordance 
with a State-established sliding fee scale. It is also 
administered by ACF at the Federal level.

                       At-Risk Child Care Program

    The At-Risk Child Care Program authorized by the Omnibus 
Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508) entitles 
States to Federal matching funds for child care services for 
low-income families who are not receiving AFDC, need child care 
in order to work, and are ``at risk'' of becoming eligible for 
welfare if child care were not provided. The program is 
permanently authorized as a ``capped entitlement'' at $300 
million annually. It is administered by ACF. States are 
entitled to matching funds for child care expenditures up to 
State allocation limits determined by a formula in the law. 
State allocations are based on the number of children under age 
13 in a State compared to the total number of such children in 
the United States. If a State's grant award is less than its 
full allocation limit in one year, the difference can be 
applied to the State's allocation limit in the next year. Like 
the AFDC Child Care Programs, the Federal share of a State's 
child care payments is based on the Medicaid matching rate, 
which varies by State.
    The At-Risk Program is similar to the AFDC Child Care 
Programs with regard to the flexibility States are afforded in 
providing care. The requirements for reimbursement rates also 
are similar. Like the TCC Program, families are required to 
make some contribution to the cost of care, based on a State-
designed sliding fee scale. At-Risk child care must meet 
applicable standards of State and local law. In contrast to the 
other title IV-A child care programs, At-Risk child care 
providers not required to meet such standards (with the 
exception of those providing care solely to family members) 
must be registered by the State.
    The At-Risk Program is administered on the State level by 
the State welfare agency. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, States 
were required to report annually to the Federal Government on 
how they used program funds. Reports are to include information 
on the number of children served, the average cost of care, 
eligibility rules, child care licensing and regulatory 
requirements, and enforcement policies. The Secretary of HHS is 
required to report to Congress annually on the State reports.

                 CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANT

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant Program was 
authorized as an amendment to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation 
Act of 1990, and provides child care services for low-income 
families, as well as for activities to improve the overall 
quality and supply of child care for families in general. 
Appropriated funds are distributed to States, territories, and 
tribes (grantees) based on a formula in law. No match is 
required. The formula reserves up to 0.5 percent for the 
territories and up to 3 percent for Indian tribes and tribal 
organizations. Remaining funds are allocated to the States 
based on the States' proportion of children under age 5 and the 
number of children receiving free or reduced-priced school 
lunches, as well as the States' per capita income.
    The program was authorized for 5 years, through fiscal year 
1995, although it continued to operate in fiscal year 1996 
under continuing resolutions. The authorization level began at 
$750 million in fiscal year 1991 and rose to $925 million in 
fiscal year 1993. ``Such sums as necessary'' were authorized 
for fiscal years 1994 and 1995. Actual appropriations for the 
CCDBG were $732 million in fiscal year 1991 and rose to $935 
million in fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Table 10-22 provides 
State allocations for fiscal years 1994 and 1995, and estimates 
for fiscal year 1996.
    The law requires States to use 25 percent of their 
allotments for activities to improve the quality of child care 
and to increase the availability of early childhood development 
and before- and after-school child care services. The remaining 
75 percent is for child care services and for activities to 
improve the quality and availability of child care. States must 
use at least 75 percent of the 25 percent share (18.75 percent 
of a State's total allotment) to establish, expand, or operate, 
through grants or contracts, early childhood development or 
before- and after-school child care programs or both. Twenty 
percent (5 percent of total funds) must be used for at least 
one or more of the following quality improvement activities: 
providing assistance to resource and referral programs; 
providing grants or loans to assist providers in meeting 
applicable State and local child care standards; monitoring the 
compliance and enforcement of State and local regulatory 
requirements; providing training and technical assistance in 
relevant child care areas, such as health and safety, 
nutrition, first aid, child abuse detection and prevention; and 
improving salaries of child care workers. States can use the 
remaining 5 percent (1.25 percent) for any of the activities 
allowed under the 25 percent share. With regard to the 75 
percent of funds, regulations provide that 90 percent must be 
used for services, and up to 10 percent can be used for 
activities to improve child care quality and availability and 
administrative costs. Grantees can spend more on administrative 
costs associated with setting up voucher programs if granted 
permission by HHS.
    Children under age 13 who come from families with incomes 
at or below 75 percent of the State median income and reside 
with parents (or a parent) who are working, attending school, 
or in a job training program are eligible for services. 
Children also are eligible if they are receiving or need to 
receive protective services. Priority is to be given to serving 
children in very low-income families and children with special 
needs.
    Child care providers receiving block grant assistance must 
meet all licensing or regulatory requirements, including 
registration requirements, applicable under State or local law. 
Providers who are 18 years of age or older who care only for 
grandchildren, nieces, or nephews must be registered and comply 
only with any State requirements that govern relative care. 
Providers that are not required by State or local law to be 
licensed or regulated must be registered with the State as a 
condition of funding. Registration procedures must be designed 
to facilitate payment and permit the State to inform providers 
of the availability of health and safety training, technical 
assistance, and other information. States must establish 
minimum health and safety standards, applicable to child care 
providers receiving block grant assistance (except 
grandparents, aunts and uncles). The standards must cover: 
prevention and control of infectious diseases (including 
immunization); building and physical premises safety; and 
minimum health and safety training appropriate to the provider 
setting (i.e., center, family home, etc.).
    States have the option of imposing more stringent standards 
and requirements on child care providers funded under the 
program than those imposed on other providers in the State. Any 
reductions that are made in child care standards must be 
reported and explained to HHS in the State's annual report on 
the program. In addition, States are required to conduct a one-
time review of their child care licensing and regulatory 
requirements and policies. The requirement is to be waived if 
such a review was conducted in the last 3 years.
    States are required to give eligible families the option of 
(1) enrolling their children with an eligible provider that has 
a grant from or contract with the State's block grant program 
or (2) receiving a child care certificate with which they can 
purchase child care. This option only applies to funding for 
child care services from the 75 percent portion of the State's 
allocation. Certificates are not an option in providing early 
childhood development and before- and after-school care under 
the 25 percent set-aside.
    Child care certificates can be used only to pay for child 
care services from eligible providers, including sectarian 
child care providers. Certificates must be issued directly to 
the parent and must be worth amounts that are commensurate with 
contract/grant values. States are directed by the regulations 
to make the certificate option available to all families 
offered services under the program. Certificates can be checks 
or other disbursements at the discretion of the State.
    Payment rates for child care funded by the block grant must 
be sufficient to ensure equal access for eligible children to 
comparable child care in the State or substate area that is 
provided to children not eligible for Federal or State child 
care subsidies. In addition, the payment rates must take into 
account variations in the cost of child care due to setting, 
age of children, and special needs of children.
    The block grant program contains specific requirements with 
regard to the use of funds for religious activities. Under the 
program, a provider that receives operating assistance as a 
result of a direct grant from, or contract with, a government 
agency may not use the assistance for any sectarian purpose or 
activity, including religious worship and instruction. However, 
a sectarian provider that receives a child care certificate 
from an eligible parent is not so restricted in the use of 
funds.
    States are required to report annually to the Secretary of 
HHS on how they used their funds. Reports are to include 
information on the number of children served, types and number 
of providers assisted, child care staff salaries and 
compensation, improvements made in child care quality and 
availability, and descriptions of health and safety standards. 
States must also conduct program audits and submit reports to 
the State legislature and the Secretary of HHS. The Secretary 
of HHS must report to Congress annually on the State reports.
    At the Federal level, the program is administered by the 
Administration for Children and Families, HHS. HHS is required 
to coordinate all child care activities within the agency and 
with similar activities in other Federal agencies. HHS is also 
required to publish a list of State child care standards at 
least once every 3 years, give technical assistance to the 
States in operating their block grant programs, and monitor 
State compliance with program requirements.

                 TITLE XX--SOCIAL SERVICES BLOCK GRANT

    Title XX of the Social Security Act authorizes grants to 
States for providing social services that are determined 
appropriate by the State. The program operates as a ``capped 
entitlement,'' under which States are allocated funds based on 
their relative population size up to a nationwide ceiling. No 
matching funds are required. In addition, there are no Federal 
eligibility requirements for participants. The program is 
administered at the Federal level by ACF, HHS. The Omnibus 
Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-239) 
permanently authorized $2.8 billion annually for the program, 
beginning in fiscal year 1990. For fiscal year 1996 only, the 
entitlement ceiling and appropriation for title XX was reduced 
to $2.381 billion.
    Available information on use of title XX funds indicates 
that a majority of States typically spend some portion of their 
grants on child care services. According to State reports on 
the intended use of title XX funds (known as preexpenditure 
reports), 45 States funded child care services in fiscal year 
1990. Another source of data on title XX is the Voluntary 
Cooperative Information System (VCIS) of the American Public 
Welfare Association funded by HHS. VCIS is a national data base 
comprised of aggregate State program statistics. The VCIS found 
that, based on data from 23 States, child care services 
accounted for 16 percent of fiscal year 1990 title XX 
expenditures. In addition, expenditures for child care services 
accounted for 22 percent of expenditures for services for 
children among 14 States. VCIS data from 25 States provide 
information on eligibility rules States use for title XX 
services in fiscal year 1990. Twenty of those States determine 
eligibility for child care services based on income standards. 
AFDC recipients are eligible for title XX child care in 16 
States. Individuals can be eligible for title XX child care in 
15 States without regard to income.
    More information on title XX, including State allocations, 
is provided in section 11.

          STATE DEPENDENT CARE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT GRANTS

    The State dependent care grant program provides Federal 
matching funds to States to plan, develop, establish, expand, 
improve, or operate before- and after-school child care 
programs for school-age children and resource and referral 
systems that provide information on dependent care services. 
Funds are allotted to States based on State total population 
compared to the United States' total population, except that no 
State can receive less than $50,000 in each fiscal year. The 
program is administered at the Federal level by ACF, HHS. The 
program was authorized through fiscal year 1994 by the Augustus 
F. Hawkins Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1990 (Public 
Law 101-501), and was extended through fiscal year 1995 by the 
Human Services Amendments of 1994 (Public Law 103-252). For 
fiscal year 1995, $13 million was both authorized and 
appropriated. No funds are provided in fiscal year 1996.
    States are required to use 40 percent of their grants on 
resource and referral systems for services for children and/or 
the elderly and 60 percent on school-age child care programs 
and services. These percentage requirements may be waived if 
States request it. Resource and referral information services 
funded by the program cannot include dependent care services 
that are out of compliance with State and local laws. Funds for 
school-age child care services must be targeted to low-income 
families. Such services must meet State and local child care 
licensing laws and regulations. States cannot use funds to make 
cash payments to intended program recipients of dependent care 
services, including child care services.
    Public Law 101-501 required States to collect information 
on the number of children who participate in program-funded 
school-age child care, characteristics of these children, 
salary levels of child care program employees, and the number 
of clients served by resource and referral programs funded by 
the program. HHS has never compiled this information.

                   CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM

    The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is 
permanently authorized under section 17 of the National School 
Lunch Act. The CACFP provides Federal subsidies for breakfasts, 
lunches, suppers, and snacks meeting Federal nutrition 
requirements that are served in licensed nonresidential child 
care centers and family or group day care homes. \3\ Federal 
assistance is made up overwhelmingly of cash subsidies paid out 
based on the number of meals/snacks served; less than 2 percent 
is in the form of federally donated commodities. CACFP 
subsidies to participating centers and homes are available for 
meals/snacks served to children age 12 or under, migrant 
children age 15 or under, and handicapped children of any age. 
But the majority of children in the program are between 3 and 6 
years old. With spending estimated at $1.578 billion in fiscal 
year 1996 (up from $1.467 billion in 1995 and $1.355 billion in 
1994), the CACFP is the single largest source of direct 
financial assistance for child care. In fiscal year 1995, 
average daily attendance in CACFP-subsidized centers and homes 
totaled 2.3 million children.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\ CACFP subsidies also are available for meal services to 
chronically impaired adults and the elderly in adult day care centers 
under the same general terms and conditions as child care centers. 
However, very few adult centers participate (about 1,500 sites serving 
some 40,000 persons in fiscal year 1995), and Federal spending for them 
is a minor fraction of the total cost of the CACFP (just over $20 
million in fiscal year 1995, or about 1.5 percent of overall CACFP 
spending).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    At the Federal level, the program is administered by the 
Agriculture Department's Food and Consumer Service. At the 
State level, a variety of agencies have been designated as 
responsible by the individual States, and, in one State 
(Virginia) the Federal Government operates the program in lieu 
of the State. State agencies, in turn, approve, oversee, and 
provide payments to (1) child care centers (some 13,000 
facilities with over 30,000 sites in fiscal year 1995) and (2) 
in the case of family or group day care homes, their sponsoring 
organizations (some 1,200 sponsors with more than 190,000 homes 
in fiscal year 1995).
    Child care centers in the CACFP serve an average of 40-50 
children and are of 4 types: public or private nonprofit 
centers (the single largest group), Head Start centers, for-
profit proprietary centers (see restrictions noted below), and 
outside-of-school centers often operated by schools. \4\ Almost 
60 percent of children in the CACFP are reached through 
centers, and, of those participating through centers, one-third 
are in Head Start centers, 1 out of 8 are in proprietary 
centers, and 1 out of 10 are in after-school centers. On the 
other hand, only about 40 percent of CACFP funding is provided 
to centers, primarily because subsidies are differentiated by 
children's family income (see below). Child care centers must 
meet any applicable Federal, State, or local licensing 
requirements, or otherwise demonstrate that they comply with 
government-established standards (e.g., receive title XX 
funds). Proprietary centers are eligible for CACFP subsidies 
only if they receive title XX funding for at least 25 percent 
of their enrollment or licensed capacity, regardless of the 
income status of the children they serve. \5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\ A small Homeless Children Nutrition Program (with about 100 
sites) also provides shelters with subsidies for free meals and snacks 
served to homeless children in their charge who are under age 6.
    \5\ In two States (Iowa and Kentucky), a pilot project allows 
proprietary centers to participate in the CACFP if children 
representing at least 25 percent of their enrollment or licensed 
capacity have family income below 185 percent of the Federal poverty 
income guidelines (the income test from receiving free or reduced-price 
meals and snacks).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In general, day care centers may receive daily subsidies 
for up to two meals and one snack (or one meal and two snacks) 
for each child; but, where a child is in day care for more than 
8 hours a day, centers may receive subsidies for up to three 
meals and one snack (or two meals and two snacks). All meals 
and snacks served in centers are federally subsidized to at 
least some degree; different subsidies are provided for 
breakfasts, lunches/suppers, and snacks, and subsidy rates are 
indexed annually. However, subsidies vary according to the 
family income of each child, and applications for free or 
reduced-price meals/snacks must be taken. The largest subsidies 
are paid for meals and snacks served free to children with 
family income below 130 percent of the Federal poverty income 
guidelines: for July 1995 through June 1996, these subsidies 
are 49.25 cents for each snack, 99.75 cents for each breakfast, 
and $1.795 for each lunch or supper. Smaller subsidies are 
available for meals and snacks served at a reduced price to 
children with family income between 130 and 185 percent of the 
Federal poverty guidelines: for July 1995 through June 1996, 
these are 24.75 cents for each snack, 69.75 cents for each 
breakfast, and $1.395 for each lunch or supper. The smallest 
subsidies are paid for meals and snacks served to children who 
do not qualify or apply for free or reduced-price meals/snacks: 
for July 1995 through June 1996, these are 4.5 cents for 
snacks, 19.5 cents for breakfasts, and 17.25 cents for lunches 
and suppers.
    CACFP-subsidized family and group day care homes serve an 
average of 4-6 children, and just over 40 percent of children 
in the CACFP are in day care homes. Approximately 60 percent of 
CACFP money supports meals served in homes. As with day care 
centers, approved homes must meet licensing requirements or 
otherwise show compliance with government standards. Unlike 
centers, day care homes must participate under the auspices of 
a public or private nonprofit sponsor that typically has over 
100 homes under its supervision; CACFP day care home sponsors 
receive monthly administrative payments based on the number of 
homes they are responsible for. Also unlike centers, meal and 
snack subsidies for homes are not varied by children's family 
income, although they are annually indexed and differ by type 
of meal. \6\ For July 1995 through June 1996, all snacks are 
subsidized at 45.75 cents, all breakfasts at 84.5 cents, and 
all lunches/suppers at $1.5375. Payments are provided for no 
more than two meals and one snack (or one meal and two snacks), 
regardless of the length of time a child is in care.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\ Children of day care home operators may not receive federally 
subsidized meals/snacks unless their family income is below 185 percent 
of the poverty guidelines.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               HEAD START

    Head Start began in 1965 under the general authority of the 
Economic Opportunity Act, and is authorized currently through 
fiscal year 1998 under the Human Services Amendments of 1994 
(Public Law 103-252). Head Start is federally administered by 
ACF, HHS, and provides grants directly to local programs. Head 
Start provides comprehensive early childhood development, 
educational, health, nutritional, social and other services to 
primarily low-income preschool children and their families. In 
general, Head Start operates a part-day program during the 
school year, although some local Head Start grantees coordinate 
with other programs to provide all-day care. With Federal 
appropriations of $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995, Head Start 
served an estimated 750,700 children. (For more information on 
Head Start, see section 17.)

                           CHILD CARE TABLES

    Tables 10-13 through 10-23 provide extensive information 
about selected Federal child care programs, especially programs 
under the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. 
These programs include AFDC Child Care, Transitional Child 
Care, At-Risk Child Care, and the Child Care and Development 
Block Grant.
    Table 10-13 provides data on Federal payments to States for 
AFDC child care and TCC for fiscal years 1991 through 1997. 
Table 10-14 provides State-specific information on child care 
options under the AFDC and TCC Programs, based on biennial 
State ``supportive services'' plans filed with HHS as of 
February 6, 1996. Table 10-15 provides data on Federal payments 
to States for At-Risk child care for fiscal years 1991 through 
1997. Table 10-16 provides State-specific information on child 
care options under the At-Risk Child Care Program, based on 
biennial State ``supportive services'' plans.
    The most current State-by-State data on the number of JOBS 
participants who receive title IV-A child care subsidies are 
shown in table 10-17. The types of child care arrangements used 
by the JOBS participants' children is provided in table 10-18. 
The number of families not in JOBS who receive title IV-A child 
care assistance is shown in table 10-19. The type of care used 
by AFDC families not in JOBS who receive title IV-A child care 
assistance is shown in table 10-20. Current data on the number 
of children receiving TCC subsidies and the type of care 
arrangements used by their families are found in table 10-21.

                     TABLE 10-13.--FEDERAL PAYMENTS TO STATES FOR AFDC CHILD CARE AND TRANSITIONAL CHILD CARE, FISCAL YEARS 1991-97                     
                                                               [Fiscal year in thousands]                                                               
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                         1996 estimated   1997 estimated
                           States                               1991      1992    1993 \1\   1994 actual   1995 actual        \2\              \2\      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.....................................................    $2,820    $5,981    $9,050       $13,586       $11,115          $13,900          $14,915
Alaska......................................................       445     1,329     1,262         1,756         2,221            2,776            2,980
Arizona.....................................................     2,354     5,998     8,462        11,025        15,846           19,817           21,262
Arkansas....................................................     4,348     1,940     1,268         1,525         2,142            2,679            2,875
California..................................................    11,331    16,655    34,401        30,586        48,205           60,283           64,681
                                                                                                                                                        
Colorado....................................................     3,649     4,082     5,315         5,763         5,342            6,681            7,168
Connecticut.................................................     5,301     6,563     7,061         9,916        13,987           17,491           18,767
Delaware....................................................     1,300     1,787     3,016         3,350         4,445            5,558            5,964
District of Columbia........................................     2,799     4,284     1,855         4,668         3,187            3,986            4,276
Florida.....................................................    20,678    17,506    20,136        20,457        31,313           39,159           42,016
                                                                                                                                                        
Georgia.....................................................    13,231    16,060    25,247        36,240        36,599           45,769           49,109
Guam........................................................         9        22         4             1             3                3                4
Hawaii......................................................       249        70       273         1,084         1,667            2,085            2,237
Idaho.......................................................       756       775     1,069         1,468         1,307            1,635            1,754
Illinois....................................................     8,468     4,455    11,949        22,237        42,870           53,611           57,523
                                                                                                                                                        
Indiana.....................................................    12,828     4,640     7,101         5,763        22,696           28,382           30,453
Iowa........................................................     2,204     1,730     2,409         3,227         6,402            8,005            8,590
Kansas......................................................     3,233     5,388     6,677         7,836         5,442            6,806            7,302
Kentucky....................................................     5,027     9,188    10,450        13,484        11,948           14,942           16,032
Louisiana...................................................    12,741    10,955    15,512        11,233        12,088           15,117           16,220
                                                                                                                                                        
Maine.......................................................     1,354       361     1,083           953         1,935            2,420            2,596
Maryland....................................................     9,509    10,027    13,912        17,192        19,187           23,994           25,745
Massachusetts...............................................    24,889    24,933    23,991        36,003        48,401           60,527           64,944
Michigan....................................................    14,467    15,727    13,597        17,866        12,514           15,649           16,791
Minnestoa...................................................    11,342     9,918    12,415        19,911        16,328           20,419           21,909
                                                                                                                                                        
Mississippi.................................................       574     2,577     3,230         3,660         5,782            7,230            7,758
Missouri....................................................     1,196     8,624    14,348        14,201        17,528           21,920           23,519
Montana.....................................................     1,144     2,943     1,988         2,127         1,908            2,386            2,560
Nebraska....................................................     5,152     5,630     7,455         9,936         8,787           10,988           11,790
Nevada......................................................     1,057       435     1,032         1,029         1,228            1,535            1,647
                                                                                                                                                        
New Hampshire...............................................     1,621     2,013     2,495         2,955         3,670            4,589            4,924
New Jersey..................................................     2,195     6,653     9,309         9,096        11,921           14,908           15,996
New Mexico..................................................     2,026     1,745     3,994         6,475         3,657            4,573            4,907
New York....................................................    29,289    36,303    57,988        60,215        46,171           57,739           61,952
North Carolina..............................................     7,306    24,423    35,163        56,868        61,151           76,472           82,051
                                                                                                                                                        
North Dakota................................................     1,554     1,725     1,709         1,841         1,513            1,892            2,030
Ohio........................................................     9,394    18,407    34,071        46,630        54,665           68,361           73,349
Oklahoma....................................................     7,983    18,925    22,950        19,460        16,828           21,045           22,580
Oregon......................................................     6,260     5,392     8,768        15,007        15,937           19,930           21,384
Pennsylvania................................................     (100)    28,647    31,105        32,473        40,964           51,227           54,965
                                                                                                                                                        
Puerto Rico.................................................       223     2,901         0             0             0                0                0
Rhode Island................................................     1,821     2,154     4,310         3,980         5,957            7,449            7,993
South Carolina..............................................       541     1,040     4,294         3,673         4,910            6,140            6,588
South Dakota................................................       983    13,457     1,759           766         1,003            1,254            1,346
Tennessee...................................................     4,492    25,090    18,675        33,617        31,969           39,979           42,896
                                                                                                                                                        
Texas.......................................................    20,803     6,544    33,737        39,014        43,929           54,935           58,943
Utah........................................................     6,275     1,605     9,236        10,401        10,026           12,538           13,453
Vermont.....................................................     1,626         3     2,023         2,684         3,567            4,460            4,786
Virgin Islands..............................................        11        11        11             4             1                1                1
Virginia....................................................     4,320    15,439     8,328        11,009        16,386           20,491           21,986
                                                                                                                                                        
Washington..................................................     8,355     3,205    21,057        28,887        43,654           54,592           58,575
West Virginia...............................................     2,169    16,742     4,548         5,304         6,902            8,631            9,260
Wisconsin...................................................     8,242     2,300    12,390        10,281        15,209           19,019           20,407
Wyoming.....................................................       957  ........     2,076         1,825         2,416            3,021            3,242
                                                             -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total.................................................   320,744   415,000   595,568       730,544       854,828        1,069,000        1,147,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Represents grant awards to States.                                                                                                                  
\2\ Preliminary data.                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Office of Financial Management, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                         


                          TABLE 10-14.--AFDC CHILD CARE AND TRANSITIONAL CHILD CARE (TCC)--SUMMARY OF STATE CHILD CARE OPTIONS                          
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                         Statewide limit; Special                       
               State                 Method of providing   Supplements dependent   Method of providing        needs care (if        Child care provided 
                                     AFDC child care \1\       care disregard            TCC \1\              different) \2\          during gaps \3\   
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama...........................  2, 5, 6, 7...........  Yes..................  5, 6, 7..............  $324.75.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Alaska............................  2, 6.................  No...................  6....................  $845.00.................  2 weeks/1 week       
Arizona...........................  2, 6, 7..............  Yes..................  5, 6, 7..............  $455.40/$391.00.........  2 weeks/1 month      
Arkansas..........................  5, 6.................  No...................  5, 6.................  $453.00.................  1 month              
California........................  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8..  Yes..................  3, 4, 5, 6, 7........  $1,068.30/$11,039.20;     2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $1,602.45/$1,558.80.                          
Colorado..........................  1, 2, 7, 8...........  Yes..................  5, 7.................  $314.00/$288.00; $637.00/ 2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $575.00.                                      
Connecticut.......................  2, 3.................  No...................  3....................  $325.00; $435.00........  1 month              
Delaware..........................  2, 4, 5, 6, 7........  No...................  4, 5, 6, 7...........  $358.00/$312.00; $375.90/ 2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $327.60.                                      
District of Columbia..............  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.....  No...................  3, 4, 5, 6, 7........  $635.50/$558.00;          No                   
                                                                                                          $1,555.00.                                    
Florida...........................  2, 5, 6, 7...........  Yes..................  5, 6, 7..............  $340.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Georgia...........................  6, 7.................  No...................  5, 6, 7..............  $346.66/$303.33.........  1 month              
Guam..............................  2, 5,................  No...................  5....................  $325.00/$300.00.........  1 month              
Hawaii............................  1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7.....  No...................  3, 5, 7..............  $350.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Idaho.............................  1, 2, 5..............  No...................  5....................  $440.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Illinois..........................  2, 3, 5, 6, 7........  No...................  3, 5, 6, 7...........  $932.17.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Indiana...........................  2, 3, 5, 6...........  Yes..................  3, 5, 6..............  $650.00.................  1 month              
Iowa..............................  2, 5, 8..............  No...................  7....................  $844.80/$702.24;          1 month              
                                                                                                          $2,067.12/$2,633.84.                          
Kansas............................  2, 5, 6, 7...........  No...................  5, 6, 7..............  $563.00/$427.00; $947.00/ 2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $844.00.                                      
Kentucky..........................  2, 7, 8..............  No...................  5, 7, 8..............  $496.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Louisiana.........................  2, 3, 5, 6...........  No...................  3, 5, 6..............  $238.30/$216.50.........  2 weeks/1 month      
Maine.............................  2, 5, 6..............  No...................  5....................  $551.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Maryland..........................  2, 7.................  No...................  7....................  $662.42/$348.08; $387.21  2 weeks/1 month      
Massachusetts.....................  2, 4, 6, 7, 8........  No...................  4, 6, 8..............  $1,426.00...............  2 weeks/1 month      
Michigan..........................  2, 7.................  No...................  3, 7.................  $866.67.................  No                   
Minnesota.........................  2, 5, 7..............  Yes..................  7....................  $200.00/$175.00;          No                   
                                                                                                          $4,300.00.                                    
Mississippi.......................  6, 7.................  No...................  6, 7.................  $299.00/$276.00.........  2 weeks              
Missouri..........................  2, 7, 8..............  No...................  7, 8.................  $542.50/$474.30.........  1 month              
Montana...........................  2, 6, 8..............  No...................  6, 8.................  $330.00/$308.00; $319.00  2 weeks/1 month      
Nebraska..........................  2, 5, 6, 7...........  Yes..................  5, 7.................  $1,150.00/$970.00;        2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $3,000.00.                                    
Nevada............................  2, 5.................  No...................  5....................  $516.00/$430.00.........  No                   
New Hampshire.....................  2, 5, 6..............  No...................  5, 6.................  $548.70.................  2 weeks              
New Jersey........................  2, 7.................  Yes..................  7....................  $955.00/$787.00.........  2 weeks/1 month      
New Mexico........................  2, 3, 5, 7...........  No...................  5, 7.................  $330.00/$291.50.........  2 weeks/1 month      
New York..........................  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8..  Yes..................  1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8..  $940.33.................  2 weeks/1 month      
North Carolina....................  1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7.....  No...................  1, 3, 5, 6, 7........  $550.00; $2,164.00......  2 weeks/1 month      
North Dakota......................  1, 2, 3, 5, 6........  No...................  1, 5, 6..............  $200.00/$175.00.........  1 month              
Ohio..............................  2, 6, 7..............  No...................  6, 7.................  $537.50/$494.50.........  2 weeks/1 month      
Oklahoma..........................  2, 4, 7..............  No...................  5, 7.................  $372.00/$341.00; $775.00  2 weeks/1 month      
Oregon............................  4, 6, 7..............  No...................  7....................  $450.00.................  1 month              
Pennsylvania......................  2, 3, 5, 6, 8........  No...................  5, 8.................  $878.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Puerto Rico.......................  2, 6, 7..............  Yes..................  7....................  $200.00/$175.00; $250.00  1 month              
Rhode Island......................  2, 7.................  No...................  7....................  $415.97/$285.98.........  No                   
South Carolina....................  1, 2, 6, 8...........  No...................  5, 6, 8..............  $425.00.................  2 weeks/1 month      
South Dakota......................  2, 3.................  No...................  3....................  $300.00; $400.00........  No                   
Tennessee.........................  2, 5, 7..............  No...................  5, 7.................  $296.70/$258.00.........  1 month              
Texas.............................  2, 5, 7..............  No...................  5, 7.................  $482.00; $916.00........  2 weeks/1 month      
Utah..............................  2, 5, 6..............  No...................  6....................  $410.70/$296.70.........  No                   
Vermont...........................  5, 7.................  No...................  5, 7.................  $659.51.................  2 weeks/1 month      
Virgin Islands....................  1, 8.................  Yes..................  5....................  $200.00/$175.00; $300.00  1 month              
Virginia..........................  2, 5, 6, 7...........  No...................  5, 6, 7..............  $752.50/$593.40;          2 weeks/1 month      
                                                                                                          $2,500.00.                                    
Washington........................  2, 7.................  No...................  7....................  $616.00/$476.08;          1 month              
                                                                                                          $1,206.15.                                    
West Virginia.....................  2, 7.................  Yes..................  7....................  $300.00/$253.00; $300.00  2 weeks/1 month      
Wisconsin.........................  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8..  Yes..................  4, 6.................  $600.00/$500.00.........  2 weeks/1 month      
Wyoming...........................  7....................  No...................  7....................  $325.00.................  Up to 1 week         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Key to the code: 1 = Direct; 2 = Dependent care disregard; 3 = Cash in advance; 4 = Voucher in advance; 5 = Cash reimbursement; 6 = Purchase of     
  service; 7 = Certificate; 8 = Other.                                                                                                                  
\2\ When two amounts are shown separated by a slash (/), the first amount is the statewide limit for children under 2. The second amount is the         
  statewide limit for children over 2. Statewide limits for handicapped/special needs children follow a semicolon (;) when different limits apply.      
\3\ At State option, child care provided: for up to two (2) weeks while participant is waiting to enter either approved education, training, or JOBS; OR
  for up to one (1) month if JOBS component activity is scheduled to begin within that period or to reserve child care arrangements which would         
  otherwise be lost.                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Based on biennial Supportive Service Plans filed as of 2/6/96. Child Care Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 


                                  TABLE 10-15.--FEDERAL PAYMENTS TO STATES FOR AT-RISK CHILD CARE, FISCAL YEARS 1991-97                                 
                                                                     [In thousands]                                                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                           1996 estimate   1997 estimate
                 States                     1991 actual     1992 actual     1993 actual     1994 actual     1995 actual         \1\             \1\     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.................................          $4,935          $4,934          $4,692          $4,374          $4,978          $4,704          $4,545
Alaska..................................             808           1,211             825             903             859             905             849
American Samoa                                         0              NA               0             145              72              NA              NA
Arizona.................................           1,151           9,210           4,624           4,709           4,769           5,004           5,004
Arkansas................................               0           4,519           2,657           2,271           2,777           2,682           2,682
California..............................          36,592          73,183          25,170          36,592          55,766          43,731          39,041
                                                                                                                                                        
Colorado................................               0           8,103           4,320           4,062           3,990           4,201           4,201
Connecticut.............................           3,455           3,455           3,485           4,574           3,448           3,474           3,474
Delaware................................             777             776             770             771             778             763             763
District of Columbia....................             677             677             648             537             527             543             543
Florida.................................          13,231          13,230          13,632          13,904          14,321          14,310          14,310
                                                                                                                                                        
Georgia.................................           8,110           8,110           7,986           3,905           1,342          15,938           8,158
Guam....................................               0              NA               0               0               0             391             195
Hawaii..................................               0           1,361             929           1,318           1,334           1,340           1,340
Idaho...................................           1,392           2,088             879           1,439           1,396           1,402           1,402
Illinois................................           6,833          13,666          16,007          13,426          14,876          13,363          13,363
                                                                                                                                                        
Indiana.................................           6,538           6,537           6,538           6,539           7,433           7,474           6,224
Iowa....................................           3,226           3,225           3,226           3,177           3,114           3,034           3,034
Kansas..................................           3,070           3,070           3,052           5,162           2,972           2,974           2,948
Kentucky................................           4,294           4,294           4,551           4,109           4,142           4,031           4,031
Louisiana...............................               0           5,903               0               0           5,346           8,382           5,221
                                                                                                                                                        
Maine...................................           1,367           1,367             809           1,335           1,318           1,292           1,292
Maryland................................           5,363           5,363           5,539           5,398           5,562           5,595           5,595
Massachusetts...........................           6,122           6,121           6,287           6,240           6,226           6,288           6,288
Michigan................................               0              NA               0          11,522           8,242          10,813          10,813
Minnesota...............................           5,245           5,245           5,427           5,359           5,359           5,305           5,305
                                                                                                                                                        
Mississippi.............................               0              NA               0             351           1,309           5,172           3,159
Missouri................................           5,966           5,966           6,022           5,926           5,894           5,872           5,872
Montana.................................               0             843             568              84             857           1,211             989
Nebraska................................           1,951           1,951           1,958           1,929           1,894           1,870           1,870
Nevada..................................               0           3,262           1,589           1,352           1,713           1,911           1,667
                                                                                                                                                        
New Hampshire...........................           1,280           1,280           1,290           1,261           1,259           1,271           1,271
New Jersey..............................           8,290           8,290           8,000           8,272           8,363           8,441           8,441
New Mexico..............................               0           3,401           2,580           1,943           1,375           3,074           2,138
New York................................          19,931          19,930          19,699          19,647          19,697          19,785          19,785
North Carolina..........................           7,333           7,333           9,681           7,274           7,411           7,573           7,573
                                                                                                                                                        
North Dakota............................             839             838           1,007             550             595             718             718
Ohio....................................          12,734          12,733          12,598          12,334          12,598          12,149          12,149
Oklahoma................................           3,909           3,656           3,762           3,734           2,616           3,729           3,729
Oregon..................................           3,194           5,029           3,354           3,352           3,352           3,311           3,311
Pennsylvania............................               0          25,616          12,681          12,502          12,485          12,429          12,429
                                                                                                                                                        
Puerto Rico.............................               0              NA               0               0               0          10,302           5,131
Rhode Island............................           1,057           1,056           1,046             923             821           1,056           1,051
South Carolina..........................           4,294           4,294           4,174           4,797           5,728           4,068           4,068
South Dakota............................             914             913             431             488             605           1,128             877
Tennessee...............................               0              NA             575           2,859           5,441           8,582           5,502
                                                                                                                                                        
Texas...................................           8,923          37,103          26,480          19,601          18,623          28,602          23,021
Utah....................................           2,995           2,995           2,732           2,826           1,730           2,797           2,797
Vermont.................................             646             646             650             637             628             623             623
Virgin Islands..........................               0              NA               0               0               0             356             177
                                                                                                                                                        
Virginia................................           6,768           6,767           6,963           6,783           6,611           6,968           6,968
Washington..............................           5,649           8,941           5,997           6,038           6,117           6,079           6,079
West Virginia...........................               0           2,001           1,762           1,802           1,761           1,724           1,724
Wisconsin...............................           5,755           5,754           5,892           5,402           5,782           5,699           5,699
Wyoming.................................             634           1,267             770             536             572             564             564
                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...............................         216,248         357,535         264,316         275,585         296,709         335,000         300,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Preliminary data. Numbers for 1996 assume States receive payment for full entitlement amount (1996 entitlement plus carryover from 1995             
  entitlement).                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Office of Financial Management, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                         


                                          TABLE 10-16.--AT-RISK CHILD CARE--SUMMARY OF STATE CHILD CARE OPTIONS                                         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Method of providing       Statewide limit;       Rules for counting                          Registration required
               State                   at-risk child care    Special needs care (if    income for sliding    Child care provided       for unlicensed   
                                              \1\                different) \2\            fee scale           during gaps \3\           providers      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama............................  4, 5.................  No statewide limit.....  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Alaska.............................  4....................  $845.00................  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
Arizona............................  4, 5.................  $455.40/$391.00........  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Arkansas...........................  5....................  $1,135.00..............  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
California.........................  2, 4, 5, 6...........  $1,068.30/$1,039.20;     TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $1,602.45/$1,558.80.                                                                       
Colorado...........................  5....................  $314.00/$288.00;         Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $637.00/$575.00.                                                                           
Connecticut........................  5....................  No statewide limit.....  Different............  1 month..............  Yes                  
Delaware...........................  2, 3, 4, 5, 6........  $358.00/$312.60;         AFDC rules...........  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $375.90/$327.60.                                                                           
District of Columbia...............  5....................  $635.50/$558.00;         TCC rules............  1 month..............  Yes                  
                                                             $1,555.00.                                                                                 
Florida............................  3, 4, 5..............  $340.00................  AFDC rules...........  1 month..............  Yes                  
Georgia............................  4, 5.................  $346.66/$303.33........  AFDC rules...........  No...................  Yes                  
Hawaii.............................  2, 3, 5..............  $350.00................  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Idaho..............................  6....................  $440.00................  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Illinois...........................  2, 3, 4, 5...........  $932.17................  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Indiana............................  2, 3, 5, 6...........  No statewide limit.....  Different............  1 month..............  Yes                  
Iowa...............................  5....................  $844.80/$702.24;         Different............  No...................  Yes                  
                                                             $2,067.12/$2,633.84.                                                                       
Kansas.............................  4, 5, 6..............  $563.00/$427.00;         TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
                                                             $947.00/$844.00.                                                                           
Kentucky...........................  5....................  $496.00................  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  AFDC-defined         
                                                                                                                                    relatives are exempt
Louisiana..........................  5....................  No statewide limit.....  Different............  1 month..............  Yes                  
Maine..............................  3, 4, 5, 6...........  No statewide limit.....  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Maryland...........................  2, 5.................  $662.42/$348.08;         TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
                                                             $387.21.                                                                                   
Massachusetts......................  4, 6.................  $1,426.00..............  AFDC rules...........  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Michigan...........................  5....................  $866.67................  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
Minnesota..........................  5....................  No statewide limit.....  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
Mississippi........................  4, 5.................  $299.00/276.00.........  AFDC rules...........  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Missouri...........................  5, 6.................  $542.50/$474.30........  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  AFDC-defined         
                                                                                                                                    relatives are exempt
Montana............................  4, 6.................  $330.00/$308.00........  TCC rules............  2 weeks..............  Yes                  
Nebraska...........................  5, 6.................  $1,150.00/$970.00;       Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $3,000.00.                                                                                 
Nevada.............................  2, 3.................  No statewide limit.....  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
New Hampshire......................  3, 4.................  $548.70................  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes.                 
New Jersey.........................  1, 4, 5..............  $955.00/$787.00........  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
New Mexico.........................  5....................  $300.00/$291.50........  AFDC rules...........  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
New York...........................  1, 2, 4, 5, 6........  $940.33................  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
North Carolina.....................  2, 3, 4, 5...........  $550.00; $2,164........  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
North Dakota.......................  1....................  $200.00/$175.00........  AFDC rules...........  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Ohio...............................  4, 5.................  $537.50/$494.50........  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Oklahoma...........................  5....................  $372.00/$341.00;         TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
                                                             $775.00.                                                                                   
Oregon.............................  5....................  $450.00................  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
Pennsylvania.......................  4, 5.................  No statewide limit.....  Different............  1 month..............  Yes                  
Rhode Island.......................  5....................  $415.97/$285.98........  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
South Carolina.....................  6....................  $425.00................  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
South Dakota.......................  5....................  $300.00; $400.00.......  Different............  No...................  Yes                  
Tennessee..........................  5....................  $296.70/$258.00........  TCC rules............  1 month..............  Yes                  
Texas..............................  5, 6.................  $482.00; $916.00.......  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Utah...............................  4....................  $410.70/$296.70........  TCC rules............  No...................  Yes                  
Vermont............................  5....................  $659.51................  TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Virginia...........................  4, 5, 6..............  $752.50/$593.40;         TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $2,500.00.                                                                                 
Washington.........................  5....................  $616.00/$476.08;         Different............  No...................  Yes                  
                                                             $1,206.15.                                                                                 
West Virginia......................  5....................  $300.00/$253.00;         TCC rules............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
                                                             $300.00.                                                                                   
Wisconsin..........................  2, 3, 5..............  $600.00/$500.00........  Different............  2 weeks/1 month......  Yes                  
Wyoming............................  5....................  $325.00................  TCC rules............  Up to one week.......  Yes                  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Key to the code: 1 = Direct; 2 = Cash/voucher in advance; 3 = Cash reimbursement; 4 = Purchase of service; 5 = Certificate; 6 = Other.              
\2\ When two amounts are shown separated by a slash (/), the first amount is the statewide limit for children under 2. The second amount is the         
  statewide limit for children over 2. Statewide limits for handicapped/special needs children are followed by a semicolon (;) when different limits    
  apply.                                                                                                                                                
\3\ At State option, child care provided: for up to two (2) weeks while participant is waiting to enter either approved education, training, or JOBS; OR
  for up to one (1) month if JOBS component activity is scheduled to begin within that period or to reserve child care arrangements which would         
  otherwise be lost.                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Based on biennial Supportive Services Plans filed in Administration for Children and Families Central Office as of February 6, 1996. Child Care 
  Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                                                                                                 


   TABLE 10-17.--JOBS PARTICIPANTS RECEIVING TITLE IV-A PAID CHILD CARE, BY AFDC PROGRAM STATUS AND BY STATE--  
                                                FISCAL YEAR 1994                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      JOBS participants by AFDC Program (case) status, average monthly number   
                                  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              State                                                                         Not                 
                                       Total      Receiving    Receiving     Eligible    receiving       AFDC   
                                   participants   AFDC-basic    AFDC-UP    for AFDC-UP      AFDC      applicant 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama..........................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Alaska...........................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Arizona..........................           936          896           40            0            0            0
Arkansas.........................           598          572            0            0            0           26
California.......................        13,964       12,448          953            0           35          528
Colorado.........................         2,223        2,031           12            4          170            6
Connecticut......................             4            4            0            0            0            0
Delaware.........................            87           86            0            0            1            0
District of Columbia.............            15           15            0            0            0            0
Florida..........................         2,443        2,432            3            2            0            6
Georgia..........................         5,024        4,256           16            9          743            0
Guam.............................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Hawaii...........................           439          421           18            0            0            0
Idaho............................           350          325           24            0            1            0
Illinois.........................         5,211            0           86           73            0        5,052
Indiana..........................         3,742        3,624          113            0            5            0
Iowa.............................         1,573        1,451           97            0           19            6
Kansas...........................           128          107            0            0           21            0
Kentucky.........................         2,491            0           58            0            0        2,433
Louisiana........................         3,166        3,048           30            0           88            0
Maine............................         1,089        1,003           75            0            9            2
Maryland.........................         2,484        2,173           84            0           71          156
Massachusetts....................         5,406        4,996           29            0          279          102
Michigan.........................         9,177        8,407          412            0          155          203
Minnesota........................         2,737        2,517          156            0           64            0
Mississippi......................         1,199        1,098            3            0            0           98
Missouri.........................         2,373        2,273          100            0            0            0
Montana..........................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Nebraska.........................         1,781        1,543           57           10          167            4
Nevada...........................           206          186            0            0           20            0
New Hampshire....................           634          587           22            0           23            2
New Jersey.......................         2,969        2,675           36            0          258            0
New Mexico.......................         1,910        1,866           44            0            0            0
New York.........................        19,184       18,502          682            0            0            0
North Carolina...................         5,380        5,172           94            0          114            0
North Dakota.....................           792          756           36            0            0            0
Ohio.............................           564          564            0            0            0            0
Oklahoma.........................         2,330        2,321            9            0            0            0
Oregon...........................           504          466           24            0           14            0
Pennsylvania.....................        11,825       11,702          123            0            0            0
Puerto Rico......................           342          342            0            0            0            0
Rhode Island.....................         2,034        1,988           16            0           27            3
South Carolina...................           301          301            0            0            0            0
South Dakota.....................           530          502            0            0           28            0
Tennessee........................         2,458        2,321           52            4           81            0
Texas............................           633          547           79            7            0            0
Utah.............................         2,099        2,071           10            0            0           18
Vermont..........................           532          511           19            0            2            0
Virgin Islands...................           (1)          (1)          (1)          (1)          (1)          (1)
Virginia.........................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Washington.......................         6,735        5,759          964            0            0           12
West Virginia....................         (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)        (\1\)
Wisconsin........................         2,089        1,759          219            0          111            0
Wyoming..........................            30           30            0            0            0            0
                                  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    U.S. total...................       132,721      116,654        4,795          109        2,506        8,657
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Data not reported by the State.                                                                             
                                                                                                                
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 


  TABLE 10-18.--AFDC CHILDREN IN THE JOBS PROGRAM RECEIVING TITLE IV-A PAID CHILD CARE, BY PRIMARY TYPE OF CARE 
                                     ARRANGEMENT AND STATE--FISCAL YEAR 1994                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Children by type of care arrangement (avg.                             
                                                        monthly no.)                                            
                                       ---------------------------------------------                            
                                            Care provided by a     Care provided by            Percent   Percent
                                Total         nonrelative in         a relative in            children  provided
            State             Children --------------------------------------------- Unknown     in       by a  
                                                  Group             Group                      center   relative
                                         Center   family     In     family     In               care            
                                          care     day    child's    day    child's                             
                                                   care     home     care     home                              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.....................     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Alaska......................     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Arizona.....................     1,639    1,222       99       13      258       42        5      74.6      18.3
Arkansas....................       781      286      391        0       52       52        0      36.6      13.3
California..................    22,374    5,777    9,252        0    7,136        0      209      25.8      31.9
Colorado....................     3,506    2,252      637       43      366      208        0      64.2      16.4
Connecticut.................         4        0        0        0        0        0        4       0.0       0.0
Delaware....................       138       97       40        0        0        0        1      70.3       0.0
District of Columbia........        15       11        0        0        4        0        0      73.3      26.7
Florida.....................     3,906    3,617      176       29       28       23       33      92.6       1.3
Georgia.....................     7,689    4,204      899      249    1,379      958        0      54.7      30.4
Guam........................     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Hawaii......................       688      262      141       18      257       10        0      38.1      38.8
Idaho.......................       569      261       43      138        0      108        0      45.9      19.0
Illinois....................     8,200    1,891    1,565    1,852    1,838    1,054        0      23.1      35.3
Indiana.....................     6,351    2,391    1,687      355    1,147      625      115      37.6      27.9
Iowa........................     2,519      653    1,150       84      539       93        0      25.9      25.1
Kansas......................       128        0        0        0       21        0      107       0.0      16.4
Kentucky....................     4,002    1,345      510      590        0      675      882      33.6      16.9
Louisiana...................     5,081    2,296      119      487      187    1,992        0      45.2      42.9
Maine.......................     1,634      291      626      192      172      167      186      17.8      20.7
Maryland....................     4,035    1,544      503      749      218      641      380      38.3      21.3
Massachusetts...............     7,995    5,688      199        0      780    1,328        0      71.1      26.4
Michigan....................    14,755    3,677    1,821    2,179    2,569    2,867    1,335      24.9      36.8
Minnesota...................     4,062    1,999    1,485      100      330       60       88      49.2       9.6
Mississippi.................     1,700      790      276      133      365      133        3      46.5      29.3
Missouri....................     3,870    1,632      797      526      724      123        0      42.2      21.9
Montana.....................     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Nebraska....................     3,146    1,556    1,245      123      159       63        0      49.5       7.1
Nevada......................       346       88       10       41       23       67       71      25.4      26.0
New Hampshire...............       973      373      188      141      132       84       55      38.3      22.2
New Jersey..................     4,368    2,338        0    1,957        0        0        0      53.5       0.0
New Mexico..................     3,284      999      619      318      626      722        0      30.4      41.0
New York....................    31,152    5,106   15,106    3,575    4,374    1,696      266      16.4      19.5
North Carolina..............     7,897    4,819        0      705    2,281        0        0      61.0      28.9
North Dakota................     1,131      217      698       20      185       11        0      19.2      17.3
Ohio........................       950      713      237        0        0        0        0      75.1       0.0
Oklahoma....................     2,080    1,284      260       18        8       56      454      61.7       3.1
Oregon......................       831        0      582        0      247        0        2       0.0      29.7
Pennsylvania................    18,303    8,031    6,469    1,770    1,107      524      366      43.9       8.9
Puerto Rico.................       497       31      208        0      167       69       13       6.2      47.5
Rhode Island................     3,079    1,612      136      150      610      480       21      52.4      35.4
South Carolina..............       632      536       66       12       12        6        0      84.8       2.8
South Dakota................       770      271      344       46       56       53        0      35.2      14.2
Tennessee...................     3,913    2,533      636        0      398        0      346      64.7      10.2
Texas.......................     1,346        0        0        0        0        0        0       0.0       0.0
Utah........................     3,517    1,929    1,400      114       59       15        0      54.8       2.1
Vermont.....................       852        7      221      227      217      160        9       0.8      44.2
Virgin Islands..............     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Virginia....................     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Washington..................     9,980    4,479    2,311    1,045    1,014      956      113      44.9      19.7
West Virginia...............     (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)     (\1\)     (\1\)
Wisconsin...................     2,887    2,013      464       10       74       10      316      69.7       2.9
Wyoming.....................        24       11        0        0        0        0        0      45.8       0.0
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U.S. Totals.................   207,599   81,132   53,616   18,009   30,119   16,131    5,380      39.1     22.3 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Data are applicable to the State, but not reported.                                                         
                                                                                                                
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 


TABLE 10-19.--NONJOBS FAMILIES \1\ RECEIVING IV-A PAID CHILD CARE, WITH AND WITHOUT EARNED INCOME, BY AFDC PROGRAM STATUS AND BY STATE--FISCAL YEAR 1994
                                                                [Average monthly number]                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Families with earnings and            Families without earnings and 
                                                                          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           State                                 Total     Receiving                                     Receiving                      
                                                             families \2\    AFDC-    Receiving   Applying       In        AFDC-    Receiving   Applying
                                                                             basic     AFDC-UP    for AFDC   transition    basic     AFDC-UP    for AFDC
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama....................................................         1,523      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\4\)        1,523          0          0      (\4\)
Alaska.....................................................           167         23          4      (\4\)           93         44          3      (\4\)
Arizona....................................................         3,784      1,900          0          0        1,847         37          0          0
Arkansas...................................................           386        173          1          0          120         92          0          0
California.................................................        21,666     16,504        895      (\4\)        1,602      2,528        138      (\4\)
Colorado...................................................           603      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)          603      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)
Connecticut................................................         2,584      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\4\)        1,302      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\4\)
Delaware...................................................           704        459          2      (\4\)          243      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)
District of Columbia.......................................           134         68          0          0           67          0          0          0
Florida....................................................         9,583      3,803         11      (\4\)        5,769          0          0      (\4\)
Georgia....................................................         9,019      4,924          4          0        2,133      1,932         25          0
Guam.......................................................             0          0          0          0            0          0          0          0
Hawaii.....................................................           182        144          4          1           34          0          0          0
Idaho......................................................           530        214          3      (\4\)          153        160          0      (\4\)
Illinois...................................................         4,385      2,129         64      (\4\)        1,647        532         13      (\4\)
Indiana....................................................         4,024        255          4      (\4\)        1,034      2,684         47      (\4\)
Iowa.......................................................         2,390      2,024         78          0          288          0          0          0
Kansas.....................................................         (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)        (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)
Kentucky...................................................           924          9         44          0          816         54          1          0
Louisiana..................................................         2,475        111          1          0        1,952        434          1          0
Maine......................................................         2,834      2,425        178      (\3\)          231      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)
Maryland...................................................         4,825      1,199      (\3\)      (\4\)          701      2,924      (\3\)      (\4\)
Massachusetts..............................................         3,502      1,165         24         50        2,264      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)
Michigan...................................................         1,018      (\3\)      (\3\)         77          940          0          0          0
Minnesota..................................................         2,844        395          5      (\4\)        1,545        834         65      (\4\)
Mississippi................................................           261          0          0      (\4\)          261          0          0      (\4\)
Missouri...................................................         3,566        171          1      (\4\)        1,765      1,621          8      (\4\)
Montana....................................................           846        497         16      (\4\)          305         28          0      (\4\)
Nebraska...................................................         1,528        580         13          2          405        517         10          1
Nevada.....................................................           476        202          0      (\4\)          273          0          0      (\4\)
New Hampshire..............................................         1,093        169         22      (\4\)          348        539         17      (\4\)
New Jersey.................................................         5,215      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)        1,313      (\3\)      (\3\)      (\3\)
New Mexico.................................................           978        424          7      (\4\)          527         20      (\3\)      (\4\)
New York...................................................         6,402      4,326         42      (\4\)        2,034      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)
North Carolina.............................................        11,891      9,081         10      (\4\)        2,800          0          0      (\4\)
North Dakota...............................................           411          7          1      (\4\)          283        119          1      (\4\)
Ohio.......................................................         4,416      1,201         43      (\4\)        2,160        985         28      (\4\)
Oklahoma...................................................         1,782        430          0          0          706        430         46        170
Oregon.....................................................         3,521      1,329         26         20        1,979          3          0        165
Pennsylvania...............................................        10,845      3,541        706      (\4\)        6,580      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)
Puerto Rico................................................         (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)        (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)      (\4\)
Rhode Island...............................................           542        320          0          0          222          0          0          0
South Carolina.............................................         1,384      1,059          4      (\4\)          321          0          0      (\4\)
South Dakota...............................................           698        224          0          0          333        140          0          0
Tennessee..................................................         9,428      5,697         17      (\4\)        3,713          0          0      (\4\)
Texas......................................................         7,830      1,714         10      (\4\)        6,021         83          2      (\4\)
Utah.......................................................         4,281         32          8          0        1,129      3,111          0          2
Vermont....................................................         1,074        392         10          5          231        376         21         40
Virgin Islands.............................................            15         14          0          0            2          0          0          0
Virginia...................................................         3,094        493          2      (\4\)        1,593        957          5      (\4\)
Washington.................................................         4,058      3,113        141          0          782         20          1          0
West Virginia..............................................         1,262        475         35      (\4\)          347        384         22      (\4\)
Wisconsin..................................................         6,276      4,106        426          0        1,343        364         38          0
Wyoming....................................................         1,099        574          4      (\4\)          167        344          2      (\4\)
                                                            --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    U.S. totals............................................       174,313     78,095      2,866        155       64,850     22,296        494        378
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ ``Total Families'' may not equal the sum of the categories due to incomplete, inconsistent, or duplicated State reporting.                          
\2\ Data are reported for AFDC recipients who are employed or participating in a non-JOBS education and training program, Tribal JOBS participants, and 
  families receiving transitional child care.                                                                                                           
\3\ Data are applicable to the State, but not reported.                                                                                                 
\4\ The State indicates that the data are not applicable.                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                                                         


   TABLE 10-20.--NONJOBS AFDC FAMILIES \1\ RECEIVING IV-A PAID CHILD CARE, BY TYPE OF CARE ARRANGEMENT AND BY   
                                             STATE--FISCAL YEAR 1994                                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Families by type of care arrangement    
                                                                              (average monthly number)          
                                                                  ----------------------------------------------
                                                                    Care provided by      Care provided by a    
                         State                          Total \2\      a relative           nonrelative in      
                                                         families ----------------------------------------------
                                                                      In     Outside            Family          
                                                                   child's   child's  Child's  day care   Center
                                                                     home     home      home     home      care 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama...............................................      (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Alaska................................................         99       10        14        3        31       41
Arizona...............................................      1,929       20       122        4       200    1,583
Arkansas..............................................        266       22        23        5        49      165
California............................................     20,064    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Colorado..............................................      (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Connecticut...........................................      1,282    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Delaware..............................................        461        6        10        7       134      318
District of Columbia..................................         68    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Florida...............................................      3,814       17        25       35       229    3,509
Georgia...............................................      6,885      607       713      462       293    4,810
Guam..................................................          0        0         0        0         0        0
Hawaii................................................        149       21        23        8        93        4
Idaho.................................................        377       18        83       23       163      103
Illinois..............................................      2,738      369       775      621       474      500
Indiana...............................................      3,177      307       630      146       912    1,381
Iowa..................................................      2,102    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Kansas................................................      (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Kentucky..............................................        133       12        37       15        19       52
Louisiana.............................................        548       56        98       14       196      183
Maine.................................................      2,782      304       341      536       629      954
Maryland..............................................      4,124      208       173       90     1,819    1,833
Massachusetts.........................................      1,239       18         9      160        85      967
Michigan..............................................      (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Minnesota.............................................      1,299       22       105       35       633      552
Mississippi...........................................          0        0         0        0         0        0
Missouri..............................................      1,802       22       104       42       704      997
Montana...............................................        541        9        33       25       340      140
Nebraska..............................................      1,123       24        64       53       498      484
Nevada................................................        202       27        23       19        53       81
New Hampshire.........................................        746       60       110       88       196      321
New Jersey............................................      3,902    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
New Mexico............................................        450       13         8        0         0        0
New York..............................................      4,368      130       544      220     2,304    1,173
North Carolina........................................      9,091      534     1,044       69     1,106    6,426
North Dakota..........................................        128        2        98        1        26        7
Ohio..................................................      2,256        0        83        1       941    1,232
Oklahoma..............................................      1,076        0         3        1       164      907
Oregon................................................      1,542      101       213      226       812      190
Pennsylvania..........................................      4,247    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
Puerto Rico...........................................      (\4\)    (\4\)     (\4\)    (\4\)     (\4\)    (\4\)
Rhode Island..........................................        320    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
South Carolina........................................      1,063    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)     (\3\)    (\3\)
South Dakota..........................................        365       41        51       36       167       91
Tennessee.............................................      5,714      112       225       46       556    4,777
Texas.................................................         91        2         7        0         7       76
Utah..................................................      3,152    (\5\)     (\5\)      128     1,242    1,782
Vermont...............................................        844      103       123      121       327      172
Virgin Islands........................................         16        0         0        0         0       16
Virginia..............................................      1,589       88       114       11       556      819
Washington............................................      3,488      494       436      504       849    1,206
West Virginia.........................................        915       12       253        2       380      435
Wisconsin.............................................      4,933      201       544      153     2,016    2,019
Wyoming...............................................        924       63       138       32       333      358
                                                       ---------------------------------------------------------
    U.S. totals.......................................    108,424    4,055     7,399    3,942    19,446   40,664
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Data are reported for AFDC recipients who are employed or participating in a non-JOBS education and training
  program, and Tribal JOBS participants.                                                                        
\2\ ``Total Families'' may not equal the sum of the categories due to incomplete, inconsistent, or duplicative  
  State reporting.                                                                                              
\3\ Data are applicable to the State, but not reported.                                                         
\4\ The State indicates that the data are not applicable.                                                       
\5\ The State does not define ``Type of Care Arrangements'' according to Federal reporting requirements.        
                                                                                                                
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 


 TABLE 10-21.--FAMILIES RECEIVING TRANSITIONAL CHILD CARE BY TYPE OF CARE ARRANGEMENT AND BY STATE--FISCAL YEAR 
                                                      1994                                                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Families by type of care arrangement (average monthly number) 
                                                ----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Care provided by a         Care provided by a    
                                                                    relative                nonrelative in      
                     State                       Total \1\ -----------------------------------------------------
                                                  families                Outside               Family          
                                                            In child's    child's    Child's   day care   Center
                                                               home         home       home      home      care 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama........................................      1,523          69          185       57        301      911
Alaska.........................................        123           3           10        5         50       60
Arizona........................................      1,847          23          129        8        201    1,486
Arkansas.......................................        111          21            7        2         14       67
California.....................................      1,602         161          178      129        594      509
Colorado.......................................        670       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
Connecticut....................................      1,302       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
Delaware.......................................        243           4            7        5         67      171
District of Columbia...........................         67           4            8        0          1       54
Florida........................................      5,769          33           44       55        510    5,128
Georgia........................................      2,133         188          401      165        143    1,237
Guam...........................................          0           0            0        0          0        0
Hawaii.........................................         34           0            5        0         29        1
Idaho..........................................        153           5           33        9         69       53
Illinois.......................................      1,647         202          374      282        344      444
Indiana........................................      1,074         105          224       59        373      377
Iowa...........................................        288           0            0        0         77      210
Kansas.........................................      (\2\)       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
Kentucky.......................................        816          54          151      142         19      450
Louisiana......................................      1,921         259          513       78        733      339
Maine..........................................        231          16           28       24         81       84
Maryland.......................................        701          71           72       35        269      254
Massachusetts..................................      2,264           0            0      178         93    1,993
Michigan.......................................      1,018          73          196      113        295      341
Minnesota......................................      1,545          56          155       63        805      551
Mississippi....................................        261          19           72        3         56      110
Missouri.......................................      1,765          27          186       64        685      877
Montana........................................        305           5           15       13        191       79
Nebraska.......................................        405          11           32       20        205      136
Nevada.........................................        273          84           23       68         18      103
New Hampshire..................................        348          26           45       41         91      152
New Jersey.....................................      1,313       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
New Mexico.....................................        527         125           89       33        127      185
New York.......................................      2,034          12          143       10        750    1,118
North Carolina.................................      2,800         232          623       65        291    1,589
North Dakota...................................        282           3           81        5        160       38
Ohio...........................................      2,160           0           92        2        928    1,138
Oklahoma.......................................        706           1            5        2        116      583
Oregon.........................................      1,979         173          213      296        979      320
Pennsylvania...................................      6,580       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
Puerto Rico....................................      (\3\)       (\3\)        (\3\)    (\3\)      (\3\)    (\3\)
Rhode Island...................................        222          11           34        5         20      159
South Carolina.................................        321       (\2\)        (\2\)    (\2\)      (\2\)    (\2\)
South Dakota...................................        333          34           37       37        158       85
Tennessee......................................      3,713         168          268       55        491    2,731
Texas..........................................      6,021         339          254        3        272    5,254
Utah...........................................      1,129       (\4\)        (\4\)       32        454      644
Vermont........................................        238          23           20       21        120       53
Virgin Islands.................................          2           0            0        0          0        2
Virginia.......................................      1,738         144          170       26        599      799
Washington.....................................        820          92           90       85        221      331
West Virginia..................................        353           3          104        0        130      158
Wisconsin......................................      1,343          55          148       42        549      550
Wyoming........................................        175          15           26        6         67       62
                                                ----------------------------------------------------------------
    U.S. totals................................     65,228       2,949        5,490    2,343     12,746   31,976
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ ``Total Families'' may not equal the sum of the categories due to incomplete, inconsistent, or duplicated   
  State reporting.                                                                                              
\2\ Data are applicable to the State, but not reported.                                                         
\3\ The State indicates that the data are not applicable.                                                       
\4\ The State does not define ``Type of Care Arrangements'' according to Federal reporting requirements.        
                                                                                                                
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 


  TABLE 10-22.--STATE ALLOCATIONS UNDER THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT  
                          BLOCK GRANT, 1994-96                          
                     [By fiscal years, in thousands]                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 1966   
                                   1994 actual  1995 actual    estimate 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama..........................       18,868       19,492       19,492
Alaska...........................        1,786        1,858        1,858
Arizona..........................       16,114       17,416       17,416
Arkansas.........................       10,541       10,939       10,939
California.......................      101,826      110,790      110,790
Colorado.........................        9,808       10,014       10,014
Connecticut......................        6,400        6,716        6,716
Delaware.........................        1,751        1,909        1,909
District of Columbia.............        1,700        1,829        1,829
Florida..........................       43,796       46,165       46,165
Georgia..........................       27,996       29,375       29,375
Hawaii...........................        3,092        3,315        3,315
Idaho............................        4,475        4,675        4,675
Illinois.........................       33,067       34,452       34,452
Indiana..........................       16,578       16,767       16,767
Iowa.............................        8,306        8,634        8,634
Kansas...........................        7,900        8,246        8,246
Kentucky.........................       16,167       16,666       16,666
Louisiana........................       24,431       24,984       24,984
Maine............................        3,570        3,681        3,681
Maryland.........................       11,433       12,307       12,307
Massachusetts....................       12,335       13,354       13,354
Michigan.........................       26,502       26,871       26,871
Minnesota........................       12,330       12,591       12,591
Mississippi......................       16,080       16,287       16,287
Missouri.........................       16,212       16,872       16,872
Montana..........................        2,936        3,074        3,074
Nebraska.........................        5,020        5,180        5,180
Nevada...........................        3,490        3,669        3,669
New Hampshire....................        2,205        2,457        2,457
New Jersey.......................       16,314       17,068       17,068
New Mexico.......................        8,279        8,752        8,752
New York.........................       50,716       53,072       53,072
North Carolina...................       25,038       25,829       25,829
North Dakota.....................        2,241        2,230        2,230
Ohio.............................       32,436       32,864       32,864
Oklahoma.........................       13,521       14,170       14,170
Oregon...........................        8,952        9,104        9,104
Pennsylvania.....................       29,653       30,397       30,397
Rhode Island.....................        2,523        2,624        2,624
South Carolina...................       16,460       17,059       17,059
South Dakota.....................        3,073        3,010        3,010
Tennessee........................       18,799       19,271       19,271
Texas............................       77,734       84,744       84,744
Utah.............................        8,378        8,671        8,671
Vermont..........................        1,521        1,598        1,598
Virginia.........................       16,565       17,662       17,662
Washington.......................       14,342       14,686       14,686
West Virginia....................        6,865        6,993        6,993
Wisconsin........................       13,790       14,007       14,007
Wyoming..........................        1,594        1,527        1,527
Puerto Rico......................       23,803       23,765       23,765
                                  --------------------------------------
      Subtotal...................      859,312      899,688      899,688
Territories......................        4,452        4,662        4,662
Tribes...........................       26,714       27,970       27,970
Discretionary....................        2,232        2,337        2,337
                                  --------------------------------------
      Total......................      892,641      934,642      934,642
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of    
  Health and Human Services.                                            

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