[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Program Descriptions]
[Section 11. Title XX - Social Services Block Grant Program]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
[1996 Green Book] SECTION 11. TITLE XX SOCIAL SERVICES BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM *
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    * The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation 
Act of 1996 changed this program; see appendix L for details.
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                                CONTENTS

Overview, Allocation Formula, and Funding
Program Goals
Data on Services, Recipients, and Expenditures
Transfer of Funds Among Block Grants
Social Services in Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities
Legislative History
References

               OVERVIEW, ALLOCATION FORMULA, AND FUNDING

    Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as 
the Social Services Block Grant, is a capped $2.8 billion 
entitlement program. Block grant funds are given to States to 
help them achieve a wide range of social policy goals. Funds 
are allocated to the States on the basis of population. The 
allotments for Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands and the 
Northern Marianas from the national total are based on their 
allocation for fiscal year 1981 adjusted to reflect the new 
total funding level. OBRA 1987 (Public Law 100-203) extended 
eligibility for title XX funds to American Samoa. The Federal 
funds are available to States without a State matching 
requirement.
    Table 11-1 shows the title XX funding levels, in both 
nominal and real 1996 dollars, from fiscal years 1977 through 
1996 and future years. Over the 19-year period (1977-96), title 
XX funding has declined in real terms by $4,001 million, a 
reduction of 59 percent. Table 11-2 shows the total funds 
available to each State and territory under title XX in 
selected fiscal years from 1989 through 1996.

                             PROGRAM GOALS

    The purpose of the Title XX Social Services Block Grant 
Program is to provide assistance to States to enable them to 
furnish services directed at one or more of five broad goals:
  --Achieving or maintaining economic self-support to prevent, 
        reduce, or eliminate dependency;
  --Achieving or maintaining self-sufficiency, including 
        reduction or prevention of dependency;
  --Preventing or remedying neglect, abuse, or exploitation of 
        children and adults unable to protect their own 
        interests, or preserving, rehabilitating or reuniting 
        families;

 TABLE 11-1.--TITLE XX SOCIAL SERVICES BLOCK GRANT FUNDING LEVELS, 1977-
                                   96                                   
                        [In millions of dollars]                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Entitlement ceiling  
                                               -------------------------
                  Fiscal year                     Nominal        1996   
                                                  dollars      dollars  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1977..........................................    \1\ 2,796        6,801
1978..........................................    \1\ 2,791        6,325
1979..........................................    \1\ 2,991        6,237
1980..........................................    \2\ 2,791        5,279
1981..........................................    \2\ 2,991        5,140
1982..........................................    \3\ 2,400        3,853
1983..........................................    \4\ 2,675        4,095
1984..........................................        2,700        3,975
1985..........................................    \5\ 2,725        3,873
1986..........................................    \6\ 2,584        3,566
1987..........................................        2,700        3,627
1988..........................................        2,700        3,501
1989..........................................        2,700        3,354
1990..........................................    \7\ 2,762        3,289
1991..........................................        2,800        3,192
1992..........................................        2,800        3,088
1993..........................................        2,800        3,006
1994..........................................        2,800        2,936
1995..........................................        2,800        2,871
1996 and future years.........................        2,800        2,800
Change between 1977 and 1996:                                           
    Dollar amount.............................            4       -4,001
    Percentage change.........................            0        -58.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes $16 million for Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands   
  and $80 million in fiscal year 1977 and $75 million in fiscal years   
  1978 and 1979 for title XX staff training.                            
\2\ Includes $16.1 million for Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands and
  the Northern Marianas and $75 million for title XX staff training.    
\3\ Public Law 97-35 eliminated separate funding for title XX staff     
  training.                                                             
\4\ Includes $225 million appropriated in the emergency jobs bill       
  (Public Law 98-8).                                                    
\5\ Includes $25 million earmarked for training of day care providers,  
  licensing officials and parents including training in the prevention  
  of child abuse in child care settings.                                
\6\ The entitlement ceiling for fiscal year 1986 was $2.7 billion.      
  However, the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings legislation sequestration of funds 
  for fiscal year 1986 reduced the funding by $116 million to $2.584    
  billion.                                                              
\7\ The entitlement ceiling for fiscal year 1990 was $2.8 billion.      
  However, the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings legislation sequestration of funds 
  for fiscal year 1990 reduced the funding by $37.8 million to $2.762   
  billion.                                                              
                                                                        
Note.--Nominal dollars converted to constant 1996 dollars using the     
  composite deflator of the Office of Management and Budget (see        
  Executive Office of the President, 1996, table 1.3).                  
                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                   


  TABLE 11-2.--TITLE XX SOCIAL SERVICES BLOCK GRANT ALLOCATIONS BY STATE AND TERRITORY, SELECTED YEARS 1989-96  
                                          [In millions, by fiscal year]                                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  State                      1989        1991        1993        1994        1995        1996   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.................................       $45.1       $46.5       $46.2       $45.1       $45.1       $45.2
Alaska..................................         5.9         5.9         6.2         6.3         6.4         6.5
American Samoa..........................         0.2         0.2         0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1
Arizona.................................        36.5        39.9        41.0        41.4        41.8        42.5
Arkansas................................        26.4        27.1        28.3        26.2        26.2        26.2
                                                                                                                
California..............................       300.5       320.7       333.2       335.4       336.9       337.0
Colorado................................        36.4        37.4        38.9        37.3        37.9        38.5
Connecticut.............................        35.5        36.6        38.8        36.3        35.8        35.4
Delaware................................         7.1         7.5         7.5         7.5         7.5         7.6
District of Columbia....................         7.0         7.0         6.8         6.6         6.4         6.3
                                                                                                                
Florida.................................       130.0       139.7       144.8       146.6       147.2       147.7
Georgia.................................        68.0        71.8        72.5        73.1        73.7        74.7
Guam....................................         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5
Hawaii..................................        11.8        12.4        12.4        12.5        12.7        12.7
Idaho...................................        11.2        11.4        11.3        11.5        11.6        11.9
                                                                                                                
Illinois................................       128.7       131.6       128.0       127.4       127.0       126.3
Indiana.................................        61.3        62.9        62.1        61.9        61.8        61.7
Iowa....................................        31.8        32.1        31.1        30.9        30.7        30.4
Kansas..................................        27.4        28.3        27.7        27.5        27.5        27.3
Kentucky................................        41.5        42.2        41.3        41.0        41.0        40.9
                                                                                                                
Louisiana...............................        50.1        49.9        47.2        46.9        46.8        46.4
Maine...................................        13.1        13.7        13.7        13.6        13.5        13.4
Maryland................................        49.7        52.4        53.5        53.7        53.6        53.6
Massachusetts...........................        65.0        66.7        67.4        66.2        65.5        64.9
Michigan................................       101.9       104.7       104.1       103.4       103.0       102.3
Minnesota...............................        46.9        48.8        49.0        48.9        48.9        48.8
                                                                                                                
Mississippi.............................        29.2        29.7        28.8        26.6        28.5        28.5
Missouri................................        56.4        58.2        57.3        57.0        56.7        56.5
Montana.................................         9.1         9.1         8.9         8.9         9.0         9.1
Nebraska................................        17.8        18.1        17.7        17.6        17.5        17.3
Nevada..................................        10.7        11.9        13.5        14.2        14.5        15.0
                                                                                                                
New Hampshire...........................        11.4        12.3        12.4        12.2        12.1        12.1
New Jersey..............................        84.9        87.5        86.5        85.7        85.0        85.1
New Mexico..............................        16.5        17.1        17.0        17.1        17.3        17.4
New York................................       198.0       202.9       201.4       199.4       197.8       196.4
North Carolina..........................        70.5        73.5        74.2        74.4        74.7        75.0
                                                                                                                
North Dakota............................         7.6         7.6         7.2         7.0         6.9         6.9
Northern Mariana Islands................         0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1
Ohio....................................       119.8       123.0       121.4       120.8       120.2       119.7
Oklahoma................................        36.8        36.7        35.2        35.1        35.1        34.9
Oregon..................................        30.1        31.3        31.8        32.3        32.5        32.7
                                                                                                                
Pennsylvania............................       132.4       135.9       133.0       132.1       131.1       130.0
Puerto Rico.............................        14.0        14.5        14.5        14.5        14.5        14.5
Rhode Island............................        10.9        11.2        11.2        11.1        11.0        10.8
South Carolina..........................        37.6        39.3        39.0        39.3        39.3        39.3
South Dakota............................         7.9         8.1         7.8         7.8         7.8         7.7
                                                                                                                
Tennessee...............................        53.5        55.4        54.6        54.7        54.8        55.0
Texas...................................       185.8       190.7       190.2       191.5       192.7       194.7
Utah....................................        18.5        19.1        19.3        19.5        19.8        20.1
Vermont.................................         6.0         6.3         6.3         6.3         6.2         6.2
Virgin Islands..........................         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5         0.5
                                                                                                                
Virginia................................        64.5        68.1        69.3        69.4        69.6        70.1
Washington..............................        49.7        52.6        54.5        55.4        56.1        56.7
West Virginia...........................        21.4        21.3        20.1        19.9        19.8        19.6
Wisconsin...............................        53.3        55.0        54.8        54.7        54.7        54.4
Wyoming.................................         5.6         5.4         5.1         5.1         5.1         5.1
                                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...............................     2,700.0     2,800.0     2,800.0     2,800.0     2,800.0     2,800.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                 

  --Preventing or reducing inappropriate institutional care by 
        providing for community-based care, home-based care, or 
        other forms of less intensive care; and
  --Securing referral or admission for institutional care when 
        other forms of care are not appropriate, or providing 
        services to individuals in institutions.
    States are given wide discretion to determine the services 
to be provided and the groups that may be eligible for 
services, usually low income families and individuals. In 
addition to supporting social services, the law allows States 
to use their allotment for staff training, administration, 
planning, evaluation, and purchasing technical assistance in 
developing, implementing, or administering the State Social 
Service Program. States decide what amount of the Federal 
allotment to spend on services, training, and administration.
    Some restrictions are placed on the use of title XX funds. 
Funds cannot be used for the following: most medical care 
except family planning; rehabilitation and certain 
detoxification services; purchase of land, construction or 
major capital improvements; most room and board except 
emergency short-term services; educational services generally 
provided by public schools; most social services provided in 
and by employees of hospitals, nursing homes, and prisons; cash 
payments for subsistence; child day care services that do not 
meet State and local standards; and wages to individuals as a 
social service except wages of welfare recipients employed in 
child day care.

             DATA ON SERVICES, RECIPIENTS, AND EXPENDITURES

    To date, limited information has been available on the use 
of title XX funds by the States. Under the Title XX Social 
Services Block Grant Program, each State must submit a report 
to the Secretary of Health and Human Services on the intended 
use of its funds. These pre-expenditure reports are only 
required to include information about the types of activities 
to be funded and the characteristics of the individuals to be 
served.
    The Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-485) 
strengthened reporting requirements. That legislation required 
States to submit annual reports containing detailed information 
on the services actually funded and the individuals served 
through title XX funds. The Department of Health and Human 
Services published a final rule on November 15, 1993 
implementing the reporting requirements and providing uniform 
definitions of services. Although all States have now submitted 
these reports, HHS has not compiled them or released any 
summary information.
    Table 11-3 is a comparison of the primary services offered 
by the States taken from a Departmental summary of the pre-
expenditure reports for fiscal years 1983 through 1994. Based 
on these reports, at least 35 States use title XX funds for 
each of the following services: protective services for 
children; child day care; home-based services; foster care for 
children; adoption services; prevention/intervention services; 
adult protective services; and social support services.

      TABLE 11-3.--COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF STATES \1\ OFFERING SELECTED SERVICES, FISCAL YEARS 1983-94      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Services                              1983   1986   1988   1990   1992   1993   1994
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adoption.......................................................     36     39     29     35     34     36     38
Case management \2\............................................  .....  .....     26     26     33     38     34
Counseling.....................................................     30     38     22     21     24     23     30
Day care--adults...............................................     37     31     23     26     28     27     28
Day care--children.............................................     50     52     51     45     47     49     45
Education/training.............................................     28     43     19     17     17     19     19
Emergency \3\..................................................  .....  .....     15     16     17     21     19
Employment \3\.................................................  .....  .....     21     23     22     23     16
Family planning................................................     35     30     26     26     26     23     19
Foster care--adults............................................     25     19     12     10     11     16     14
Foster care--children..........................................     34     31     29     30     31     37     41
Health-related.................................................     26     36     22     23     30     34     27
Home based \4\.................................................     51     55     45     46     46     45     46
Home delivered/congregate meals................................     23     28     20     20     22     20     18
Housing improvement............................................     14     18     10     16     14     14     14
Information and referral.......................................     36     34     23     25     27     26     26
Legal..........................................................     17     17     17     13     16     19     14
Placement......................................................     18     20     17     16     17     16     15
Prevention/intervention \5\....................................     11     35     33     27     31     36     36
Protective--adults.............................................     44     46     34     30     32     36     35
Protective--children...........................................     52     54     38     42     46     50     49
Residential care/treatment.....................................     19     29     21     25     29     27     31
Social support \6\.............................................      2     25     27     45     37     35     37
Special services for children..................................     19     28     27     19     18     22     15
Special services for the disabled..............................     36     41     39     34     38     38     34
Special services for juvenile delinquents \2\..................  .....  .....     16     14     18     17     16
Substance abuse services.......................................      7     13     10     11     15     12     13
Services for unmarried parents.................................     10     10     13     13     14     20     15
Transportation.................................................     25     33     30     25     27     30     27
Other \7\......................................................      5     36     20     19     19     13     18
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\1\ Includes 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the 5 eligible Insular areas.                             
\2\ Identified as separate service for the first time in 1987. This is not meant to imply that the service was  
  first available in 1987.                                                                                      
\3\ Identified as a separate service for the first time in 1988. This is not meant to imply that the service was
  first available in 1988.                                                                                      
\4\ Home based services include: homemaker, chore, home health, companionship, and home maintenance.            
\5\ Prevention/intervention services include: investigation/assessment, family centered early intervention, home
  evaluation and supervision, preventive and restorative.                                                       
\6\ Social support services include: socialization, recreation, camping, physical activity, living skills (money
  management), day treatment, family development, social adjustment, community living services, family          
  management, life skills education, personal and financial management.                                         
\7\ Other services include: social services in correctional facilities, services to Hispanics, homeless         
  services, Indian reservation services, and refugee minority programs.                                         
                                                                                                                
Source: Fiscal Year Pre-expenditure Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                      

    In addition to the pre-expenditure reports, another source 
of data on title XX is the Voluntary Cooperative Information 
System (VCIS) of the American Public Welfare Association (1994) 
funded by the Department of Health and Human Services. VCIS is 
a national data base comprised of aggregate State program 
statistics. A total of 33 State or territorial agencies 
participated in the data gathering activity for fiscal year 
1990, which is the most recent conducted by APWA. The annual 
VCIS report cautions that the data base is incomplete even for 
these States, since a number of States were able to provide 
only partial data or their data could not be used due to lack 
of conformity with the reporting guidelines. Furthermore, the 
VCIS data base is comprised of both estimated and actual 
service and expenditure data. Until the reporting system 
required by the Family Support Act is in place, VCIS provides 
the only available information that describes the 
characteristics of recipients and the services and expenditures 
by States. Moreover, without the application of an appropriate 
sampling technology, it is not possible to determine the extent 
to which the data can be generalized to the Nation as a whole.
    VCIS data from 31 States show that the Federal title XX 
social services block grant dollars combined with other Federal 
dollars (e.g., title IV-B) accounted for 46 percent of total 
social services expenditures in the 31 States during fiscal 
year 1990. State dollars accounted for 41 percent of the total. 
Local dollars and private contributions accounted for the 
remaining 13 percent.
    VCIS data from 28 States for 1990 show that 10 services 
accounted for almost three-quarters of all services provided 
under the title XX social services block grant, as measured by 
recipient counts. These services are: protective services for 
children (18 percent); information and referral services (12 
percent); child day care services (8 percent); homemaker/home 
management/chore services (7 percent); counseling services (6 
percent); preventive services for children and their families 
(5 percent); family planning services (5 percent); substitute 
care and placement services for children (5 percent); 
protective services for adults/elderly (4 percent); and 
services to status offenders and juvenile delinquents (3 
percent).
    Data from 23 States show that five services accounted for 
over two-thirds of the expenditures under the block grant in 
fiscal year 1990. These services include homemaker/home 
management/chore services (25 percent); child day care services 
(16 percent); protective services for children (12 percent); 
substitute care and placement services for children (12 
percent); and services for disabled/handicapped persons (6 
percent).

                  TRANSFER OF FUNDS AMONG BLOCK GRANTS

    Public Law 97-35, which created the title XX block grant, 
gave States the authority to transfer up to 10 percent of their 
annual allotment to one or any combination of the three health 
care block grants and the low-income home energy assistance 
block grant. (The three health care block grants are: the 
Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant; the Maternal 
and Child Health Services Block Grant; and the Alcohol, Drug 
Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant.) In turn, most 
other block grant statutes allow States to transfer funds to 
the title XX program.
    According to the fiscal year 1993 pre-expenditure reports 
submitted to HHS by States, two States planned to transfer 
title XX funds to other programs. Florida planned to transfer 
funds to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services 
Administration Block Grant Program, and North Carolina planned 
to transfer funds to the Maternal and Child Health Services 
Block Grant and the Preventive Health and Health Services Block 
Grant Programs. Sixteen States planned to transfer funds from 
the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Block Grant to supplement 
title XX funds. However, the Augustus F. Hawkins Human Services 
Reauthorization Act of 1990 eliminated the authority to 
transfer LIHEAP funds to other block grants, beginning for 
fiscal year 1994.

    SOCIAL SERVICES IN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 makes $1 
billion available on an entitlement basis under title XX for 
the Secretary of HHS to make grants to States for social 
services in qualified empowerment zones and enterprise 
communities (the legislation also provides certain tax 
incentives for zones and communities). On December 21, 1994, 
President Clinton selected 105 designees to participate in this 
program (6 urban and 3 rural empowerment zones, 60 urban and 30 
rural enterprise communities, 2 supplemental empowerment zones 
and 4 enhanced enterprise communities).
    An empowerment zone or enterprise community is qualified 
for purposes of the title XX grant if it has been designated a 
zone or community under part I, subchapter U, chapter I of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and if its strategic plan 
(required in an application for designation under the Internal 
Revenue Code) is qualified.
    A qualified plan is a plan that: (1) includes a detailed 
description of the activities proposed for the area that are to 
be funded with the grant; (2) contains a commitment that the 
funds provided will not be used to supplant Federal or non-
Federal funds for services and activities which promote the 
purposes of the grant; (3) to the extent a State does not use 
the funds on certain program options, explains the reasons why 
not; and (4) was developed in cooperation with the local 
government or governments with jurisdiction over the zone or 
community.
    With respect to each empowerment zone, the Secretary was 
required to make one grant ($50 million if urban, $20 million 
if rural) to each State in which the zone lies on the date of 
its designation, and a second grant of the same amount on the 
first day of the following fiscal year. With respect to each 
enterprise community, the Secretary made one grant of up to $3 
million to each State in which the community lies on the date 
of its designation. States have up to 10 years from the date of 
their designation in which to expend these additional title XX 
funds, although they must be obligated within the first 2 
years.
    States, in conjunction with the local governments with 
jurisdiction over the zone or community, have broad discretion 
in the use of grant funds. Funds must be used for social 
services directed at three goals of the basic title XX grant 
program: achieving or maintaining economic self-support to 
prevent, reduce or eliminate dependency; achieving or 
maintaining self-sufficiency, including reduction or prevention 
of dependency; or preventing or remedying neglect, abuse, or 
exploitation of children and adults unable to protect their own 
interests, or preserving, rehabilitating or reuniting families. 
The funds also must be used in accordance with the strategic 
plan and on activities that benefit residents of the zone or 
community.
    Despite the similar purposes for which funds may be used, 
the range of allowable services is narrower in some respects, 
and broader in others, under the title XX empowerment zone 
provisions relative to the basic title XX program. For example, 
the basic title XX program includes a broader range of purposes 
than those outlined above for the empowerment zone program. On 
the other hand, certain restrictions of the basic title XX 
program (e.g., restrictions that limit drug treatment services 
to initial detoxification, and restrictions on the use of funds 
for the payment of wages) are waived under the empowerment zone 
program, in order to carry out certain specified program 
options.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    Social services for recipients of public aid were not 
funded under the original Social Security Act of 1935, although 
it was later argued that cash alone would not address the needs 
of the poor. State social services expenditures for welfare 
recipients became eligible for 50 percent Federal funding in 
1956, but many States chose not to participate. In 1962, States 
were given additional incentive to provide social services, 
especially preventive and rehabilitative services, to poor 
families when Congress increased the Federal matching rate to 
75 percent. The 1962 amendments also expanded eligibility for 
social services to both former and potential welfare 
recipients. No limit was placed on the Federal expenditure 
level (Spar, 1981).
    In 1967, the Social Security Act again was amended to 
authorize funding for so-called ``hard'' social services, such 
as job training and child care, in a more aggressive effort to 
move people from welfare to work. The new legislation also 
required States to establish a single organizational unit in 
the State agency responsible for administering social services, 
and provided an enhanced match of 85 percent for social 
services provided during the first year after the law took 
effect.
    Administration of the Federal Social Services Program was 
formally separated from administration of the Federal Cash 
Assistance Program in 1967, as part of a reorganization within 
the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In 1972, 
States were required by regulation to separate the 
administration of cash assistance and social services.
    Federal spending for social services increased from $281.6 
million in fiscal year 1967 to $1.688 billion in fiscal year 
1972, prompting legislation (Public Law 92-512) which placed a 
ceiling on Federal expenditures for social services of $2.5 
billion and directed that funds be divided among States 
according to their relative populations. The law also limited 
to 10 percent the amount of funds that could be spent on 
services to former or potential welfare recipients.
    Legislation signed into law on January 4, 1975 established 
title XX of the Social Security Act. Under title XX, the $2.5 
billion ceiling on Federal social services expenditures was 
retained, along with the population-based allocation formula. 
The legislation was designed to give maximum flexibility to the 
States in designing their social services programs, but 
included public participation planning requirements, 
limitations on the use of funds for certain activities, and 
certain eligibility requirements.
    By fiscal year 1981, the entitlement ceiling for the Title 
XX Social Services Program was $2.9 billion. An additional 
$16.1 million was available apart from title XX for social 
services expenditures by the territories, and $75 million was 
available to the States for staff training costs related to 
title XX activities, bringing the total for all Federal social 
services expenditures to $2.991 billion. Under Public Law 96-
272, enacted in 1980, the title XX entitlement ceiling was 
scheduled to increase to $3 billion for fiscal year 1982, and 
by $100 million a year until it reached $3.3 billion in fiscal 
year 1985.
    However, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 
1981 (Public Law 97-35) amended title XX to establish a block 
grant, under which funding for social services and for staff 
training for those providing social services were combined. The 
legislation also reduced the title XX entitlement ceiling to 
$2.4 billion for fiscal year 1982 and provided for increases to 
$2.45 billion for fiscal year 1983, $2.5 billion for fiscal 
year 1984, $2.6 billion for fiscal year 1985 and $2.7 billion 
for fiscal year 1986 and years thereafter. The law also 
eliminated Federal mandates regarding priority recipients, and 
eliminated provisions relating to the targeting of services to 
low-income individuals and families.
    The emergency jobs bill (Public Law 98-8), enacted in March 
1983, appropriated an additional $225 million for the title XX 
block grant for fiscal years 1983-84. These additional funds 
were allocated to the States on the basis of a formula intended 
to respond to the needs of the unemployed served by the jobs 
bill. Half of the funds were allocated on the basis of 
population; one-third based on the number of unemployed 
individuals in the State; and one-sixth among States with an 
average unadjusted unemployment rate from June 1982 through 
November 1982 of 9.4 percent or higher. In October 1983, as 
part of legislation to extend the Federal Supplemental 
Compensation Program (Public Law 98-135), the title XX ceiling 
was increased by $200 million for fiscal year 1984 to $2.7 
billion and by $100 million for fiscal year 1985 to $2.8 
billion.
    Because of Congressional concern about reports of child 
sexual abuse in day care centers, a $25 million increase in 
title XX funding for fiscal year 1985 was appropriated for use 
by the States in providing training of child day care staff, 
State licensing and enforcement officials, and the parents of 
children in child day care. The earmarked funds were included 
in the continuing resolution for fiscal year 1985 (Public Law 
98-473). States were required to have in effect by September 
30, 1985, procedures for screening and conducting background 
and criminal history checks of child care staff, or one-half of 
the day care training allotment was to be deducted from the 
regular State title XX allocation in fiscal year 1986 or 1987. 
According to HHS, only six States enacted such procedures by 
the required date. As required by Public Law 98-473, in January 
1985, the Secretary of HHS distributed to States a Model Child 
Care Standards Act that addressed staff training and 
supervision, employment history checks, and parent visitation.
    The 1987 Budget Reconciliation Act (Public Law 100-203) 
included a $50 million increase in the title XX entitlement 
ceiling for fiscal year 1988, but these funds were not 
appropriated.
    The Medicare and Medicaid Patient and Program Protection 
Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-93) amended title XX to exclude 
individuals and entities that committed acts of fraud or abuse 
under the Medicaid, Medicare, Maternal and Child Health, or the 
Title XX Programs from receiving title XX funds.
    OBRA 1989 (Public Law 101-239) included a permanent $100 
million increase in the title XX entitlement ceiling to $2.8 
billion, beginning for fiscal year 1990.
    OBRA 1993 (Public Law 103-66) made $1 billion available to 
states under title XX for those places designated as qualified 
empowerment zones or enterprise communities.

                               REFERENCES

American Public Welfare Association. (1994, January). A 
        statistical summary of the VCIS Social Services Block 
        Grant (SSBG) data for fiscal year 1990. Washington, DC: 
        Author.
Executive Office of the President. (1996). Budget of the United 
        States Government, fiscal year 1997 (Historical Tables 
        volume). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing 
        Office.
Spar, K. (1981). Title XX of the Social Security Act: Program 
        description, current issues (81-58 EPW). Washington, 
        DC: Congressional Research Service.