[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Program Descriptions]
[Section 13. Federal Social Welfare Programs in Outlying Areas]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
[1996 Green Book] SECTION 13. FEDERAL SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS IN OUTLYING AREAS

    Table 13-1 shows the outlying areas in which the major 
Federal social welfare programs are in effect and those areas 
in which they are not in effect.
    The word ``yes'' in the column headed ``covered'' under 
each outlying area designates that Federal law permits the 
program to operate in that area. The column headed ``special 
rules'' notes whether the program operates in that area 
according to the same rules that apply in the States or 
according to different rules. The notes to the table explain 
the nature of any special rules.
    The programs included in the table are:
  --Aid to families with dependent children (AFDC)
  --Aid to the aged, blind, or disabled (AABD)
  --Supplemental security income (SSI)
  --Food stamps
  --Medicaid
  --Medicare
  --Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI)
  --Unemployment compensation
  --Earned income tax credit (EITC)
  --Maternal and child health (MCH) block grant
  --Title IV-B child welfare services
  --Title IV-E foster care and adoption assistance
  --Title XX social services
  --School lunch and school breakfast
  --Special supplemental food program for women, infants, and 
        children (WIC)
  --Summer food service
  --Child care food
    In general, extension of these programs to jurisdictions 
other than States requires that the law authorizing the program 
specify the area as eligible to participate. Thus, where the 
table indicates that the area is not covered (``no'' under the 
column headed ``covered''), the program cannot be implemented 
without a change in Federal law.
    In some cases, a program is available to outlying areas by 
law, but the jurisdiction has not implemented it (these 
programs are noted by footnotes ``2'', ``3'' or ``14''). In 
addition, all programs administered by the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture may be extended to outlying areas at the discretion 
of the Secretary of Agriculture, even though the area is not 
specifically mentioned in the authorizing legislation. (These 
programs are noted by footnote ``7''.) Where such programs have 
not been implemented, they could be if the Secretary were to 
authorize operation.

                                                                                                       TABLE 13-1.--FEDERAL SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS IN THE OUTLYING AREAS                                                                                                       
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                                             Puerto Rico                       Virgin Islands                           Guam                          Northern Marianas                    American Samoa             Marshall Islands and Micronesia             Palau         
                                ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Special
                                      Covered        Special rules        Covered        Special rules        Covered        Special rules        Covered        Special rules        Covered        Special rules        Covered       Special rules       Covered       rules 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AFDC...........................  Yes.............  Yes \1\.........  Yes.............  Yes \1\.........  Yes.............  Yes \1\.........  Yes \2\.........  Yes \2\.........  Yes \3\.........  Yes \3\.........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
AABD...........................  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  No \2\..........  ................  No..............  ................  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
SSI............................  No..............  ................  No..............  ................  No..............  ................  Yes.............  No..............  No..............  ................  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Food stamps....................  Yes \4\.........  Yes \4\.........  Yes.............  Yes \5\.........  Yes.............  Yes \5\.........  Yes.............  Yes \6\.........  No \7\..........  ................  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Medicaid.......................  Yes.............  Yes \8\.........  Yes.............  Yes \8\.........  Yes.............  Yes \8\.........  Yes.............  Yes \8\.........  Yes.............  Yes \8\.........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Medicare.......................  Yes.............  Yes \9\.........  Yes.............  Yes \10\........  Yes.............  Yes \10\........  Yes.............  Yes \10\........  Yes.............  Yes \10\........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
OASDI..........................  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No \11\.........  Yes.............  No..............  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Unemployment compensation......  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  No..............  ................  No..............  ................  No..............  ................  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
EITC...........................  No \12\.........  ................  No \12\.........  ................  No \12\.........  ................  No \12\.........  ................  No \12\.........  ................  No \12\.........  ...............  No \12\........  .......
Maternal/child health..........  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No.............  Yes............   No    
Child welfare..................  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Foster care/adoption...........  Yes \14\........  Yes \13\........  Yes \14\........  Yes \13\........  Yes \14\........  Yes \13\........  Yes \14\........  Yes \13\........  Yes \3\.........  Yes \3\.........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
Social services................  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  Yes \14\........  Yes \13\........  Yes.............  Yes \13\........  No..............  ...............  No.............  .......
School lunch/breakfast.........  Yes \15\........  Yes \17\........  Yes.............  Yes \17\........  Yes.............  Yes \17\........  Yes.............  Yes \17\........  Yes.............  Yes \16\........  No..............  ...............  Yes............  Yes \18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             \  
WIC............................  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  No..............  ...............  Yes \14\.......   No    
Summer food service............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  No..............  ...............  Yes \14\.......   Yes   
Child care food................  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes.............  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  Yes \14\........  No..............  No..............  ...............  Yes \14\.......  Yes    
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\1\ The Federal matching rate is 75 percent rather than a rate based on per capita income. However, the Social Security Act sets a dollar maximum on Federal payments for AFDC, emergency assistance, AABD, and foster care and adoption assistance, combined.                  
\2\ The Northern Mariana Islands do not operate an AFDC or an AABD Program. However, section 502 of Public Law 94-241 specifies that all Federal services and financial assistance programs applicable to Guam shall be applicable to the Northern Marianas. Nevertheless, this 
  provision is irrelevant with respect to the AABD Program because the Northern Marianas operate the SSI Program which replaces AABD.                                                                                                                                           
\3\ Since October 1, 1988, American Samoa has been eligible to participate, but has not implemented this program. If the program were implemented, the Federal matching rate would be 75 percent. However, the Social Security Act sets a dollar maximum on Federal payments for
  both AFDC and foster care and adoption assistance, combined.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
\4\ Puerto Rico receives a block grant of Federal funds with which it operates a cash Nutrition Assistance Program for needy households under rules similar to food stamps.                                                                                                     
\5\ The regular Food Stamp Program operates in the Virgin Islands and Guam, except that benefit levels differ from those for the 48 contiguous States (recognizing substantially higher food prices), and the degree to which recipients' income is ``disregarded'' for         
  excessively high nonfood living expenses differs from the 48 States (recognizing significant differences in costs of living). Similar adjustments also are made for Alaska and Hawaii.                                                                                        
\6\ Under the terms of the 1976 covenant with the Commonwealth and Public Law 96-597, a variant of the regular Food Stamp Program operates in the Northern Marianas. The Commonwealth is eligible for an annual grant of up to $3.7 million for food-stamp-like benefits and    
  administration, but unused amounts may be carried over from year to year.                                                                                                                                                                                                     
\7\ Section 24 of the Food Stamp Act requires the annual payment of up to $5.3 million to American Samoa to operate a variant of the regular Food Stamp Program. Food stamps were first extended to American Samoa in fiscal year 1994, under the Secretary of Agriculture's    
  discretionary authority to extend the Food Stamp Program (and other Agriculture Department programs) to American Samoa, with any special rules he might specify.                                                                                                              
\8\ The Federal matching rate is 50 percent rather than a rate based on per capita income; Sec. 1108(c) of the Social Security Act sets a dollar maximum on Federal Medicaid payments to the territories.                                                                       
\9\ Hospital reimbursement rates under the prospective payment system in Puerto Rico are lower than in the States.                                                                                                                                                              
\10\ Hospital prospective payment system is not applicable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
\11\ Currently operating under transitional rules until coverage is complete.                                                                                                                                                                                                   
\12\ Some U.S. Government employees who are subject to the U.S. income tax while assigned to work in a U.S. territory might be eligible for EITC, but the general population would not be eligible.                                                                             
\13\ Special rules govern how funding allocations are made to these jurisdictions (or would govern if the jurisdiction elected to implement the program), as distinct from the way allocations are made to States.                                                              
\14\ Jurisdiction is eligible to participate, but has chosen not to implement this program.                                                                                                                                                                                     
\15\ Definition of ``school'' includes nonprofit child care centers in Puerto Rico.                                                                                                                                                                                             
\16\ American Samoa receives an annual grant to operate its school food service programs.                                                                                                                                                                                       
\17\ Different payment rates for meals served apply to Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Marianas.                                                                                                                                                        
\18\ Palau receives an annual grant to operate its school food service and other child nutrition programs. In fiscal year 1994, it received $1.1 million under this grant. Under the terms of its 1994 Covenant, Palau's annual child nutrition grant is to be phased in over   
  fiscal years 1997-99.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

    Table 13-2 shows the benefit expenditures for the 
territories for the programs of old-age assistance, aid to the 
blind, aid to the permanently and totally disabled, aid to 
families with dependent children (AFDC), supplemental security 
income (SSI), food stamps, child nutrition, and special 
supplemental food program for women, infants, and children 
(WIC) for fiscal years 1970-94. As can be seen in the table, 
total expenditures for the nutrition programs, including food 
stamps and programs such as school lunch and school breakfast, 
overwhelm the amount of money spent on programs such as AFDC. 
This variation exists because AFDC and other cash assistance 
programs are capped at significantly lower levels than the 
nutrition programs.

   TABLE 13-2.--TOTAL BENEFIT EXPENDITURES BY THE TERRITORIES ON ADULT PROGRAMS, AFDC, SSI, FOOD STAMPS, CHILD  
                                   NUTRITION, AND WIC, SELECTED YEARS 1970-93                                   
                                            [In thousands of dollars]                                           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Fiscal year                                
             Territory             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       1970       1975       1980       1985       1990       1992       1994   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Guam:                                                                                                           
    Old-age assistance............       $191       $432       $645       $757     $1,425     $1,455      $2,859
    Aid to the blind..............          5          5         13          7          6          3           3
    Aid to permanently and totally                                                                              
     disabled.....................         37        113        213        308        323        222         243
    Aid to families with dependent                                                                              
     children.....................        708      1,728      3,324      2,683      5,047      7,800      12,063
    Supplemental security income..         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA          NA
    Food stamps...................         NA      3,540     14,581     18,316     14,522     28,230      21,815
    Child nutrition \1\...........    \3\ 380  \3\ 1,250      2,670      3,680      3,060      3,166       3,889
    WIC \2\.......................         NA         NA         NA      1,270      2,490      3,068       5,126
Puerto Rico:                                                                                                    
    Old-age assistance............      3,390      4,000      4,309      6,676      6,446      6,317       5,870
    Aid to the blind..............        116         73         58        118        135        128          99
    Aid to permanently and totally                                                                              
     disabled.....................      2,342      2,738      3,930      9,909     11,399     12,781      11,913
    Aid to families with dependent                                                                              
     children.....................     25,261     26,434     59,105     62,953     73,162     75,291      73,943
    Supplemental security income..         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA          NA
    Food stamps...................         NA    261,006    825,126    789,400    895,474    972,561   1,049,500
    Child nutrition \1\...........  \3\ 13,34                                                                   
                                            0  \3\ 44,14                                                        
                                                       0     84,200    131,350    137,860    149,609     159,700
    WIC \2\.......................         NA  \3\ 2,210     17,140     57,970     87,780    105,903     121,160
Virgin Islands:                                                                                                 
    Old-age assistance............        163        186        191        224        303        329         306
    Aid to the blind..............          4          5          4          3         13          6           7
    Aid to permanently and totally                                                                              
     disabled.....................         32         73        152        200        434        431         354
    Aid to families with dependent                                                                              
     children.....................        633      1,928      1,397      2,795      2,958      3,500       3,458
    Supplemental security income..         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA         NA          NA
    Food stamps...................         NA      5,916     18,951     23,061     18,355     18,517      22,547
    Child nutrition \1\...........    \3\ 380  \3\ 1,960      3,560      5,330      4,250      4,416       5,636
    WIC \2\.......................         NA    \3\ 610      1,120      3,980      4,780      5,223       5,754
Northern Marianas:                                                                                              
    Supplemental security income..         NA         NA      1,379      1,784      1,926      2,045       2,357
    Food stamps...................         NA         NA         NA      2,000      1,585      1,858       3,552
    Child nutrition \1\...........         NA         NA        270      2,000      2,540      2,746       2,778
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\1\ Child nutrition includes school lunch, school breakfast, child care food, summer service, nutrition         
  education and training, State administrative expenses, and special milk programs. Also includes the value of  
  commodities provided for meal service programs, except where otherwise noted.                                 
\2\ WIC amounts reflect the value of monthly food packages and costs for nutrition services and administration. 
\3\ Cash assistance only. Data not available on commodity donations for these years.                            
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--AFDC = Aid to Families with Dependent Children; SSI = Supplemental Security Income; WIC = Special        
  Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children.                                                   
                                                                                                                
Source: Congressional Research Service.