[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix A. Data on the Elderly]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
[1996 Green Book] APPENDIX A. DATA ON THE ELDERLY

    This appendix presents historical and current data on the 
demographic and economic characteristics of the elderly, 
including information on population, life expectancy, labor 
force participation, marital status, living arrangements, 
poverty rates, and income. Data sources are noted at the bottom 
of each table.
    The following definitions may be useful for reading the 
tables:
 1. ``Aged'' and ``elderly'' each refer to any person 65 years 
        old or older.
 2. ``OASDI'' and ``Social Security'' are used interchangeably.
 3. ``Supplemental security income'' is, at times, abbreviated 
        ``SSI.''
 4. The concepts ``unrelated individual'' and ``unit'' are used 
        many times throughout this appendix. ``Unrelated 
        individual'' refers to any individual living alone. 
        ``Unit'' refers to an individual living alone, a couple 
        living alone, or a family.

 TABLE A-1.--ELDERLY AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELDERLY BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS
                                                    1940-2025                                                   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           Year                                 
        Age and demographic group        -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            1940     1950     1960     1970     1980     1990     2000     2025 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Population 65 years and older (in                                                                               
 thousands).............................    9,556   12,807   17,268   20,920   26,148   31,974   35,371   61,093
Population age 65 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      6.8      8.0      9.1      9.7     11.1     12.3     12.4     18.2
Population age 75 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      2.0      2.5      3.1      3.8      4.4      5.2      5.9      7.5
Population age 85 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      0.3      0.4      0.5      0.7      1.0      1.3      1.6      1.9
Certain age and sex groupings as a                                                                              
 percent of the population 65 years and                                                                         
 older:                                                                                                         
      Total 65 years and older..........    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------
          Men 65 and older..............     48.4     46.8     44.5     41.5     40.3     40.6     41.4     44.4
          Men 65-74.....................     34.8     32.6     30.2     26.8     26.2     25.8     23.9     27.9
          Men 75-84.....................     11.9     12.2     12.2     12.3     11.3     12.0     14.0     13.3
          Men 85 and older..............      1.7      2.0      2.2      2.4      2.7      2.9      3.5      3.3
                                                                                                                
          Women 65 and older............     51.6     53.2     55.5     58.5     59.7     59.4     58.6     55.6
          Women 65-74...................     35.8     35.7     35.7     34.7     33.9     31.9     28.4     30.8
          Women 7-84....................     13.4     14.7     16.3     19.1     19.3     20.0     21.2     17.6
          Women 85 and older............      2.3      2.8      3.5      4.7      6.5      7.5      9.0      7.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Population figures are as of July 1, and include total U.S. plus the outlying areas covered under the    
  Social Security Program and an adjustment for census undercount.                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: Boards of Trustees, Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund (1996) and Federal Supplementary Medical      
  Insurance Trust Fund (1996), intermediate assumptions and unpublished estimates from the Office of the        
  Actuary, Social Security Administration.                                                                      


        TABLE A-2.--LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR MEN AND WOMEN, 1900-2070        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Life expectancy at    Life expectancy at 
                                      birth                age 65       
            Year             -------------------------------------------
                                 Male      Female      Male      Female 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Actual:                                                                 
                                                                        
    1900....................       46.4       49.0       11.4       11.7
    1910....................       50.1       53.6       11.4       12.1
    1920....................       54.5       56.3       11.8       12.3
    1930....................       58.0       61.3       11.8       12.9
    1940....................       61.4       65.7       11.9       13.4
    1950....................       65.6       71.1       12.8       15.1
    1960....................       66.7       73.2       12.9       15.9
    1970....................       67.1       74.9       13.1       17.1
    1980....................       69.9       77.5       14.0       18.4
    1990....................       71.8       78.8       15.0       19.0
                                                                        
Projected:                                                              
                                                                        
    2000....................       73.0       79.7       15.6       19.4
    2010....................       74.5       80.5       16.1       19.7
    2020....................       75.3       81.2       16.5       20.1
    2030....................       76.0       81.8       16.9       20.5
    2040....................       76.6       82.4       17.3       21.0
    2050....................       77.2       83.0       17.7       21.4
    2060....................       77.8       83.6       18.0       21.8
    2070....................       78.4       84.1       18.4       22.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--The life expectancy for any year is the average number of years  
  of life remaining for a person if that person were to experience the  
  death rates by age for that year.                                     
                                                                        
Source: Boards of Trustees, Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund (1996)
  and Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (1996),        
  intermediate assumptions and Social Security Administration (1992).   


                                         TABLE A-3.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1950-95                                        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                          Year                                          
                       Sex and age group                       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  1950     1955     1960     1965     1970     1975     1980     1985     1990     1995 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:                                                                                                                                                    
    55-64.....................................................     86.9     87.9     86.8     84.6     83.0     75.8     72.3     67.9     67.7     66.0
    55-59.....................................................    (\2\)     92.5     91.6     90.2     89.5     84.4     81.9     79.6     79.8     77.4
    60-64.....................................................    (\2\)     82.5     81.1     78.0     75.0     65.7     61.0     55.6     55.5     53.2
    60-61.....................................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     84.8     82.6     75.2     71.8     68.9     68.8     65.6
    62-64.....................................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     73.2     69.4     58.8     52.8     46.1     46.4     45.0
    65 and over...............................................     45.8     39.6     33.1     27.9     26.8     21.7     19.1     15.8     16.4     16.8
Women:                                                                                                                                                  
    55-64.....................................................     27.0     32.5     37.2     41.4     43.0     41.0     41.5     42.0     45.3     49.2
    55-59.....................................................    (\2\)     35.6     42.2     47.1     50.4     47.9     48.6     50.3     55.3     59.5
    60-64.....................................................    (\2\)     29.0     31.4     34.0     36.1     33.3     33.3     33.4     35.5     38.0
    60-61.....................................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     40.4     41.4     39.5     39.8     40.3     42.9     46.1
    62-64.....................................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     29.5     32.3     29.0     28.6     28.7     30.7     32.5
    65 and over...............................................      9.7     10.6     10.8     10.0      9.7      8.3      8.1      7.3      8.7      8.8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian labor force as percent of civilian noninstitutional population aged 16 or older.                                                           
\2\ Data not available.                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                                                                                     


                                       TABLE A-4.--MARITAL STATUS OF AGED INDIVIDUALS, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1960-95                                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      1960            1970 \2\          1980 \3\            1990              1995      
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Demographic group                                  75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and
                                                                 65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:                                                                                                                                                    
  Number (in thousands).......................................    4,778    2,280    5,333    3,031    6,459    3,234    8,013    4,320    8,097    4,906
  Percent.....................................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Married...................................................     78.9     59.1     77.6     79.7     81.6     69.4     80.2     69.9     80.9     70.8
    Widowed...................................................     12.7     31.6     11.0     30.4      8.5     24.0      9.2     23.7      8.6     21.6
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.5      2.9      1.5      4.4      2.2      6.0      3.1      6.3      3.4
    Never married.............................................      6.7      7.8      8.5      6.6      5.4      4.2      4.1      3.4      4.2      4.1
                                                               =========================================================================================
Women:                                                                                                                                                  
  Number (in thousands).......................................    5,529    3,054    6,741    4,608    8,549    5,411    9,966    7,267   10,117    8,147
  Percent.....................................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Married...................................................     45.6     21.8     45.4     20.8     50.1     23.3     53.2     25.4     55.1     27.0
    Widowed...................................................     44.4     68.3     43.7     70.5     40.3     68.0     36.1     65.6     33.1     64.9
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.2      3.0      1.3      4.0      2.3      6.2      3.6      7.8      3.7
    Never married \4\.........................................      8.4      8.6      7.9      7.4      5.6      6.4      4.6      5.4      4.0      4.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian noninstitutional population only.                                                                                                          
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1960 decennial census.                                                                                  
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 decennial census.                                                                                  
\4\ Never married was reported as ``single'' for 1960.                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20 (various years).                                                                                         


                     TABLE A-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ELDERLY, SELECTED YEARS 1970-95                     
                         [Civilian noninstitutionalized population, number in thousands]                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Total 65 and      Widowed men     Widowed women 
                                                                    over       ---------------------------------
                 Living arrangement and year                 ------------------                                 
                                                               Number  Percent  Number  Percent  Number  Percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In families:                                                                                                    
    1970 \2\................................................   13,347     70.0     499     37.4   2,386     40.1
    1980 \3\................................................   16,355     67.6     385     28.7   2,194     30.1
    1990....................................................   19,737     66.8     525     29.9   2,202     26.3
    1992....................................................   20,351     66.5     536     28.0   2,305     26.8
    1995....................................................   20,828     66.6     466     26.6   2,363     27.4
Living alone:                                                                                                   
    1970 \2\................................................    5,071     26.6     708     53.1   3,309     55.7
    1980 \3\................................................    7,328     30.3     893     66.5   4,916     67.4
    1990....................................................    9,176     31.0   1,117     63.6   5,946     71.1
    1992....................................................    9,523     31.1   1,241     64.7   6,070     70.6
    1995....................................................    9,862     31.5   1,201     68.4   6,092     70.5
Other:                                                                                                          
    1970 \2\................................................      645      3.4     124      9.3     251      4.2
    1980 \3\................................................      511      2.1      65      4.8     186      2.5
    1990....................................................      653      2.2     113      6.4     220      2.6
    1992....................................................      716      2.3     142      7.4     227      2.6
    1995....................................................      577      1.8      88      5.0     182      2.1
                                                             ---------------------------------------------------
    Total:                                                                                                      
      1970 \2\..............................................   19,061    100.0   1,333    100.0   5,946    100.0
      1980 \3\..............................................   24,194    100.0   1,342    100.0   7,295    100.0
      1990..................................................   29,566    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,367    100.0
      1992..................................................   30,590    100.0   1,917    100.0   8,601    100.0
      1995..................................................   31,267    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,637    100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Excludes persons in institutions (nursing homes, etc.). The number of such persons age 65 years and over was
  estimated to be 0.8 million in 1970, and 1.6 million in 1989.                                                 
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 decennial census.                                          
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1980 decennial census.                                          
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20 (various years).                                                 


                 TABLE A-6.--POVERTY STATUS OF ALL PERSONS AND ELDERLY BY SEX, ETHNICITY, AND LIVING ARRANGEMENT, SELECTED YEARS 1959-94                
                                                            [Percent below the poverty level]                                                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Year                                         
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     1959       1966       1970     1973 \1\     1980       1990       1992       1994  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All persons.....................................................       22.4       14.7       12.6       11.1       13.0       13.5       14.8       14.5
Persons 65 years old and over...................................       35.2       28.5       24.5       16.3       15.7       12.2       12.9       11.7
    Both sexes:                                                                                                                                         
        Living arrangement:                                                                                                                             
            Living in families..................................         NA         NA       14.7        9.4        8.5        5.8        7.1        6.0
            Unrelated individuals...............................         NA         NA       47.1       32.0       30.6       24.7       24.9       23.1
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                                                                 
            Black...............................................         NA         NA       48.0       37.1       38.1       33.8       33.5       27.4
            Hispanic \2\........................................         NA         NA         NA       24.9       30.8       22.5       22.1       22.6
            White...............................................         NA         NA       22.5       14.4       13.6       10.1       11.0       10.2
    Men.........................................................         NA         NA       19.0       12.4       10.9        7.6        8.8        7.2
        Living arrangement:                                                                                                                             
            Living in families..................................         NA         NA       14.9        9.4        8.2        5.4        6.7        5.1
            Unrelated individuals...............................         NA         NA       38.9       27.1       24.4       17.3       18.4       16.1
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                                                                 
            Black...............................................         NA         NA       41.3       32.4       31.4       27.8       26.9       20.6
            Hispanic \2\........................................         NA         NA         NA       22.0       27.0       18.6       17.4       15.4
            White...............................................         NA         NA       17.0       10.4        9.0        5.6        7.1        5.9
    Women.......................................................         NA         NA       28.5       19.0       19.0       15.4       15.8       14.9
        Living arrangement:                                                                                                                             
            Living in families..................................         NA         NA       14.5        9.3        8.8        6.3        7.5        7.0
            Unrelated individuals...............................         NA         NA       49.7       33.5       32.3       26.9       26.8       25.3
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                                                                 
            Black...............................................         NA         NA       53.2       40.5       42.6       37.9       37.8       31.7
            Hispanic \2\........................................         NA         NA         NA       24.7       34.3       25.3       25.4       28.4
            White...............................................         NA         NA       26.5       17.2       16.8       13.2       13.7       13.3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ First year in which Hispanic data are available.    \2\ Hispanics may be of any race.    NA--Not available.    Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census,   
  Series P-60 (various years).                                                                                                                          


    TABLE A-7.--POVERTY RATES OF THE ELDERLY BY AGE, SEX, AND MARITAL   
                              STATUS, 1994                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Age group            
                                     -----------------------------------
       Sex and marital status          65 and                     85 and
                                        over    65-74    75-84     over 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Male total..........................      7.2      6.8      6.8     12.8
    Married.........................      4.8      4.8      4.3      8.2
    Widowed.........................     12.1     11.1     11.7     14.8
    Divorced/separated/never married     18.7     17.6     18.9       NA
Female total........................     14.9     12.7     16.8     20.2
    Married.........................      5.6      5.1      6.3       NA
    Widowed.........................     20.2     19.7     20.3     21.1
    Divorced/separated/never married     27.4     26.6     30.1       NA
Total...............................     11.7     10.1     12.8     18.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available due to unreliability of estimate; percentage base     
  represents fewer than 250,000 persons.                                
                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 
  1995 Current Population Survey.                                       


  TABLE A-8.--AMOUNT OF INCOME FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN SOCIAL SECURITY, 
       AMONG SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFICIARIES, AGE 65 AND OVER, 1994       
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Married   Nonmarried
Unit income other than Social Security  All units   couples     persons 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
None..................................       15.4        8.2        21.0
Loss or $1-$1,999.....................       21.0       12.9        27.2
$2,000-$3,999.........................        9.8        7.9        11.3
$4,000-$5,999.........................        7.6        6.7         8.3
$6,000-$7,999.........................        6.2        6.0         6.3
$8,000-$9,999.........................        5.1        5.5         4.8
$10,000-$14,999.......................       10.0       11.9         8.5
$15,000-$19,999.......................        6.2        9.0         4.1
$20,000-$29,999.......................        7.5       11.7         4.2
$30,000-$39,999.......................        4.0        6.7         1.9
$40,000-$74,999.......................        5.1        9.4         1.8
$75,000-$99,999.......................        1.0        2.0         0.3
$100,000-$199,999.....................        1.1        2.0         0.4
$200,000 or more......................        0.1        0.2         0.1
                                       ---------------------------------
  Median income other than Social                                       
   Security...........................     $4,714    $10,662      $2,078
  Median Social Security income.......      9,171     13,000       7,693
                                       ---------------------------------
  Number (in thousands)...............     22,063      9,595      12,468
    Total percent.....................      100.0      100.0       100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: March 1995 Current Population Survey, tabulated by the          
  Congressional Budget Office.                                          


                                                  TABLE A-9.--TOTAL MONEY INCOME OF ELDERLY UNITS, 1994                                                 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  All units                     Married couples                 Nonmarried persons      
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Amount of income                      Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85 
                                                        and over  Age 65-69   and over   and over  Age 65-69   and over   and over  Age 65-69   and over
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0-$4,999.............................................        7.1        6.4       12.2        2.6        2.8        6.2       10.4       10.5       13.6
$5,000-$9,999........................................       23.6       17.2       36.3        6.2        5.6       12.4       36.8       30.6       42.1
$10,000-$14,999......................................       18.5       14.5       22.9       12.9       11.1       22.0       22.8       18.3       23.1
$15,000-$19,999......................................       13.2       12.8       10.9       15.4       12.2       17.3       11.5       13.6        9.3
$20,000-$29,999......................................       16.0       17.8        9.1       24.4       21.4       19.0        9.7       13.7        6.7
$30,000-$39,999......................................        8.6       11.3        3.1       14.4       15.7        6.4        4.2        6.3        2.3
$40,000-$49,999......................................        4.2        5.7        2.1        7.6        8.9        7.7        1.5        2.0        0.8
$50,000-$74,999......................................        5.0        7.9        2.2        9.0       12.0        4.8        2.0        3.3        1.5
$75,000-$99,999......................................        1.8        3.0        0.6        3.7        5.1        2.4        0.4        0.6        0.2
$100,000-$149,999....................................        1.5        2.2        0.6        2.9        3.7        1.9        0.4        0.6        0.2
$150,000-$199,999....................................        0.4        0.8        0.0        0.7        1.2        0.0        0.2        0.4        0.0
$200,000ormore.......................................        0.2        0.3        0.2        0.3        0.5        0.0        0.1        0.1        0.2
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Median...........................................    $15,031    $19,545    $10,073    $24,377    $28,513    $16,796    $10,223    $11,676     $8,833
    Mean.............................................     22,611     28,317     14,588     33,077     37,807     24,253     14,656     17,423     12,271
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Number (in thousands)............................     24,233      6,729      2,735     10,465      3,596        529     13,768      3,133      2,206
        Total percent................................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: March 1995 Current Population Survey, tabulated by the Congressional Budget Office.                                                             


            TABLE A-10.--INCOME SOURCES OF ELDERLY UNITS \1\ AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES, 1994           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percent of units with    Percent of aggregate unit
                                                             income from each source    income from each source 
                      Income source                       ------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Total   Poor \2\  Nonpoor   Total  Poor \2\  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of units (in thousands)...........................   23,705    3,328    20,377      NA       NA        NA
Number of aged individuals (in thousands)................   31,267    3,663    27,604      NA       NA        NA
Percent of units.........................................    100.0     14.0      86.0      NA       NA        NA
                                                                                                                
Earnings \3\.............................................     32.5      8.9      36.4    30.4      5.6      31.2
OASDI, railroad retirement...............................     92.2     80.9      94.0    34.9     66.1      33.8
Pensions.................................................     43.6      8.2      49.4    16.0      2.9      16.4
Unemployment compensation, workers compensation, veterans                                                       
 payments................................................      8.4      5.1       8.9     1.5      1.2       1.6
AFDC, SSI, general assistance............................      7.4     23.5       4.8     0.9     10.4       0.6
Child support, alimony...................................      5.2      3.4       5.4     0.9      1.1       0.9
Interest, dividends \3\..................................     70.0     33.2      76.0    14.8      2.9      15.2
Food stamps \4\..........................................      5.8     24.1       2.8     0.2      3.5       0.1
Housing assistance \4\...................................      6.2     18.0       4.3     0.4      6.2       0.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Families and unrelated individuals with any member age 65 or older.                                         
\2\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                             
\3\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                 
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps  
  and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage share of total income.     
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.                                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1995 Current Population Survey.         


         TABLE A-11.--INCOME SOURCES OF ELDERLY MARRIED COUPLES AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES, 1994        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percent of couples with     Percent of aggregate  
                                                              income from each source    total income from each 
                       Income source                        ---------------------------          source         
                                                                                       -------------------------
                                                              Total  Poor \2\  Nonpoor  Total  Poor \2\  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of married couples (in thousands)...................   6,187      257    5,930      NA       NA       NA 
Percent of married couples.................................   100.0      4.2     95.8      NA       NA       NA 
                                                                                                                
Earnings \3\...............................................    23.1      4.5     23.9    12.7      0.4     12.8 
OASDI, railroad retirement.................................    96.7     62.2     98.2    43.6     71.7     43.4 
Pensions...................................................    57.9     15.5     59.8    22.5     10.0     22.6 
Veterans, UC, and other compensation.......................     8.0      1.7      8.3     1.7      0.1      1.8 
AFDC, SSI, general assistance..............................     1.9     10.4      1.5     0.3      5.5      0.3 
Child support, alimony.....................................     2.8      2.1      2.8     0.4      1.2      0.4 
Interest, dividends \3\....................................    82.0     50.1     83.4    18.6      7.2     18.7 
Food stamps \4\............................................     1.3      9.6      1.0     0.0      2.4      0.0 
Housing assistance \4\.....................................     1.1      3.0      1.0     0.0      1.2      0.0 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Both members age 65 or over.                                                                                
\2\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                             
\3\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps  
  and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage share of total income.     
                                                                                                                
 NA--Not applicable.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1995 Current Population Survey.         


    TABLE A-12. INCOME SOURCES OF ELDERLY UNRELATED INDIVIDUALS \1\ AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES, 1994    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Percent of units with      Percent of aggregate  
                                                              income from each source    total income from each 
                       Income source                       ----------------------------          source         
                                                                                       -------------------------
                                                             Total   Poor \2\  Nonpoor  Total  Poor \2\  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of individuals (in thousands)......................   10,430    2,409    8,020      NA       NA       NA 
Percent of individuals....................................    100.0     23.1     76.9      NA       NA       NA 
                                                                                                                
Earnings \3\..............................................     12.5      2.4     15.6    10.6      0.5     11.4 
OASDI, Railroad retirement................................     93.3     85.1     95.8    47.1     73.2     44.8 
Pensions..................................................     37.0      6.5     46.2    17.0      1.9     18.3 
Veterans, UC, and other compensation......................      4.9      4.6      5.0     1.3      1.2      1.3 
AFDC, SSI, general assistance.............................      7.7     22.6      3.2     1.3      9.0      0.6 
Child support, alimony....................................      3.2      1.9      3.6     0.8      0.4      0.8 
Interest, dividends \3\...................................     64.0     32.6     73.5    20.3      2.8     21.9 
Food stamps \4\...........................................      7.4     24.5      2.3     0.2      2.5      0.1 
Housing assistance \4\....................................     12.2     22.2      9.3     1.4      8.5      0.7 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Age 65 and over living alone.                                                                               
\2\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                             
\3\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps  
  and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage share of total income.     
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
 Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1995 Current Population Survey.        


 TABLE A-13.--RECEIPT OF SOCIAL SECURITY, SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME, 
      AND FOOD STAMPS BY POOR AND NEAR-POOR ELDERLY UNITS, \1\ 1994     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Units with income   Units with income of
                              below 100 percent of  100-149.9 percent of
                                poverty threshold     poverty threshold 
  Type of benefit received   -------------------------------------------
                              Number (in            Number (in          
                              thousands)   Percent  thousands)   Percent
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total.......................       3,142     100.0       3,656     100.0
Social Security \2\.........       2,581      82.1       3,518      96.2
SSI.........................         678      21.6         348       9.5
Food stamps.................         754      24.0         293       8.0
Social Security only \3\....       1,793      57.1       3,087      84.4
SSI only \3\................          71       2.3          48       1.3
Food stamps only \3\........          23       0.7           0       0.0
Social Security and food                                                
 stamps \4\.................         291       9.3         150       4.1
Social Security and SSI \4\.         167       5.3         157       4.3
SSI and food stamps \4\.....         111       3.5          18       0.5
All three income sources....         329      10.5         125       3.4
No Social Security, SSI, or                                             
 food stamps................         356      11.3          72       2.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes couples with an elderly head and unrelated individuals.    
\2\ Includes railroad retirement.                                       
\3\ This row, which is labeled ``Social Security only,'' means the      
  family receives only Social Security and does not receive SSI or food 
  stamps. The family could be receiving other types of income. The same 
  is true of the following two rows.                                    
\4\ Family receives only the two types of income specified but not the  
  third. The family could be receiving other sources of income than the 
  three mentioned.                                                      
                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 
  1995 Current Population Survey.                                       

                               REFERENCES

Board of Trustees, Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. 
        (1996, June). The 1996 Annual Report of the Board of 
        Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund 
        (U.S. House of Representatives Document 104-227). 
        Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Board of Trustees, Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance 
        Trust Fund. (1996, June). The 1996 Annual Report of the 
        Board of Trustees of the Federal Supplementary Medical 
        Insurance Trust Fund (U.S. House of Representatives 
        Document 104-226). Washington, DC: U.S. Government 
        Printing Office.
Social Security Administration. (1992, August). Life tables for 
        the United States Social Security area 1900-2080 
        (Actuarial Study No. 107). Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (various years). Marital status and 
        living arrangements. Current Population Reports, Series 
        P-20. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (various years). Poverty in the 
        United States. Current Population Reports (Series P-
        60). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.