[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix K. Spending for Income-Tested Benefits, Fiscal Years 1968-94]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
[1996 Green Book] APPENDIX K. SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS, FISCAL YEARS 1968-94

                                CONTENTS

Overview
Trends in Spending
Spending Trends by Level of Government
  Federal Government
  State/Local Governments
Share of Federal Budget Used for Income-Tested Benefits
  Medical Aid
  Cash Aid
  Food Aid
  Housing Aid
  Education Aid
  Other Services
  Jobs and Training Aid
  Energy Aid
  Other Aid
List of Income-Tested Programs
References

                              OVERVIEW \1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ The Census Bureau (Tin, 1996), based on the Survey of Income 
and Program Participation, examines participation in several of the 
programs reviewed in this section. These include: Aid to Families with 
Dependent Children, General Assistance, food stamps, Supplemental 
Security Income, Medicaid, and housing assistance. The Census Bureau 
study provides measures of how many adults and children actually 
receive benefits from these programs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Congressional Research Service (CRS) has found that 
more than 80 benefit programs provide cash and noncash aid that 
is directed primarily to persons with limited income (Burke, 
1995). Such programs constitute the public ``welfare'' system, 
if welfare is defined as income-tested or need-based benefits 
(the programs are listed at the end of this chapter). This 
definition excludes social insurance programs, such as Social 
Security and Medicare.
    These income-tested benefit programs in fiscal year 1994 
cost $344.9 billion: $246.2 billion in Federal funds and $98.6 
billion in State-local funds. Total outlays by these programs 
amounted to 5.1 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 
the highest share in a quarter-century of records. Federal 
funds provided 71.4 percent of the total. These Federal welfare 
outlays accounted for 16.9 percent of the fiscal year 1994 
Federal budget.
    In fiscal year 1994, almost 47 percent of welfare funds 
were used for medical services. Cash relief, food benefits, and 
housing aid together accounted for 43 percent. Slightly more 
than 6 percent was invested in ``human capital'' programs, ones 
providing education, jobs, and training. The rest (4.2 percent) 
went for energy aid and other services. The composition of 
welfare spending differed by level of government. Medical aid 
consumed 68.2 percent of State-local welfare funds, but only 
38.1 percent of Federal welfare dollars.
    Most income-tested programs provide benefits, in the form 
of cash, goods, or services, to persons who make no payment and 
render no service in return. However, in the case of the job 
and training programs and some educational benefits, recipients 
must work or study. Further, the Aid to Families with Dependent 
Children (AFDC) and Food Stamp Programs require some able-
bodied recipients to engage in work or a work-related activity. 
Finally, the Earned Income Credit (EIC) is available only to 
workers.
    An unduplicated count of welfare beneficiaries is not 
available. Record large numbers of recipients were served by 
the four most costly programs in 1994: Medicaid, 34 million 
persons; AFDC, 14.2 million persons in 5 million families; 
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 6.4 million aged, blind, or 
disabled persons; and food stamps, 28.9 million persons (the 
last 3 numbers are monthly averages). The largest program, EIC, 
went to an estimated 54.2 million persons in 18.1 million 
families.

                           TRENDS IN SPENDING

    The CRS data series provides annual spending figures for 22 
fiscal years (1968, 1973, and 1975-94). Total expenditures on 
cash and noncash welfare programs were 21 times as great in 
1994 as in 1968 (table 18-1). Even after allowance for price 
inflation, spending more than quintupled (rising 435 percent) 
over the 26 years, a period when the U.S. population rose 30 
percent. Trends shown in table 18-1 are consistent with those 
in a less inclusive data series maintained by the Social 
Security Administration (SSA). The SSA series, called public 
aid, is a category within SSA reports on social welfare 
expenditures. SSA data on public aid exclude income-tested 
child nutrition, subsidized housing, educational benefits, 
adoption assistance, foster care, some job training, and other 
programs covered in the CRS series. Public aid expenditures 
reported by SSA generally are about 30 percent below income-
tested outlays reported by CRS. Adjusted for price inflation, 
public aid outlays in the SSA series rose 371 percent, and 
income-tested outlays in the CRS series rose 379 percent, 
between 1968 and 1992. (For fiscal year 1992 public aid data of 
SSA, see Bixby, 1995.)
    The CRS data series is somewhat different from one 
presented in a recent study by Rector and Lauber (1995) of the 
Heritage Foundation. The list of 80 major programs included in 
their analysis (see their Appendix One, pp. 45ff) is similar to 
the CRS list. However, the Rector and Lauber list includes some 
programs (grants to local education authorities for 
educationally deprived children and programs of community 
development aid) not in the CRS series, which is restricted to 
programs that provide benefits to individuals or families who 
meet a needs test. Moreover, the Rector and Lauber study 
provides estimates for years (1965-67; 1969-72; and 1974) that 
are not covered in the CRS study.
    Even so, results from the two studies are similar. The most 
recent year for comparison of results is 1993. In that year, 
Rector and Lauber estimate total (Federal and State) welfare 
spending at $324.4 billion, as compared with $310.5 billion in 
the CRS analysis. Almost all of the diference between the two 
estimates is accounted for by the education and community 
development programs included in the Rector and Lauber 
analysis. For the period 1965-93, the Rector and Lauber study 
estimated that a total of $5.4 trillion in constant 1993 
dollars was spent by Federal and State governments on the 
programs included in their analysis. The total for the CRS 
series, which does not include all the programs and all the 
years used in the Rector and Lauber series, is $4.5 trillion in 
1994 dollars (see table 18-1).

                   TABLE 18-1.--EXPENDITURES FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS, FISCAL YEARS 1968-94                   
                                                  [In billions]                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                          Total spending        
                                                                                 -------------------------------
                      Fiscal year                         Federal    State/local    Current      Constant 1994  
                                                                                    dollars         dollars     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968..................................................      $11.406       $4.710      $16.116            $64.474
1973..................................................       26.876       10.054       36.930            119.075
1975..................................................       39.461       14.753       54.214            147.289
1976..................................................       49.954       16.990       66.944            170.410
1977..................................................       55.113       18.892       74.005            174.158
1978..................................................       63.964       20.151       84.115            184.828
1979..................................................       70.172       21.304       91.476            185.441
1980..................................................       80.043       24.633      104.676            192.401
1981..................................................       87.936       29.045      116.981            196.438
1982..................................................       88.977       31.706      120.683            190.397
1983..................................................       93.830       33.982      127.812            192.146
1984..................................................       99.151       36.191      135.342            195.248
1985..................................................      105.064       38.230      143.294            199.354
1986..................................................      107.775       40.811      148.586            199.562
1987..................................................      114.789       43.364      158.153            204.997
1988..................................................      125.047       46.580      171.627            213.270
1989..................................................      134.715       51.587      186.302            220.897
1990..................................................      151.478       59.339      210.817            238.365
1991..................................................      177.899       72.194      250.093            269.715
1992..................................................      208.211       87.094      295.305            308.712
1993..................................................      223.528       87.700      311.228            316.652
1994..................................................      246.240       98.621      344.861            344.861
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Burke, 1995.                                                                                            

    Measured in constant 1994 dollars (calculated by use of the 
implicit price deflators for personal consumption 
expenditures), the annual rate of growth in spending for 
income-tested benefits over the whole period, 1968-94, was 6.7 
percent in the CRS study. However, the growth pattern was 
uneven. During the first 8 years (1968-75) spending climbed at 
an annual rate of 12.9 percent; in the next 8 years (1976-83) 
the annual rate of increase dropped to 1.7 percent (in 1 year, 
1982, real spending declined, and it remained below the 1981 
level until 1985); in the last 11 years (1984-94) the annual 
growth rate rose to 5.8 percent.
    Total per capita welfare spending grew in constant 1994 
dollars from $321 in fiscal year 1968 to $854 in fiscal year 
1981, an increase of 166 percent. However, in fiscal year 1982, 
welfare spending failed to keep pace with inflation. In 1994 
dollars welfare outlays fell 3 percent ($6 billion), and per 
capita spending declined to $820. In fiscal year 1984 real per 
capita welfare spending increased, but it did not regain (and 
overtake) its 1981 level until 1988, when it reached $870. Each 
year since then real per capita welfare spending has set new 
records: 1989, $893; 1990, $954; 1991, $1,068; 1992, $1,218; 
1993, $1,232; and 1994, $1,325.

                 SPENDING TRENDS BY LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT
                           Federal Government

    Measured in constant 1994 dollars, Federal spending for 
income-tested benefits climbed from $45.6 billion in fiscal 
year 1968 to $246.2 billion in fiscal year 1994, an increase of 
440 percent (table 18-2). Cash aid was the leading form of 
Federal welfare until 1980, when it was overtaken in value by 
medical benefits. Two years later, in 1982, Federal welfare 
spending declined for all forms of aid except subsidized 
housing, in which case outlays reflected earlier commitments, 
and education benefits. In 1983, Federal spending declined 
further for medical benefits, cash aid, and energy aid.
    Between 1983 and 1994, real Federal welfare spending 
climbed $105 billion, or 75 percent. The increases were 
dominated by medical benefits ($58.5 billion) and cash aid ($28 
billion). Next came increases for food benefits ($9 billion), 
housing aid ($7 billion), education ($3 billion) and services 
($2.4 billion). Real Federal outlays for jobs/training benefits 
and energy aid spending declined.
    A comparison of 1983 and 1994 data shows a marked change in 
the composition of Federal income-tested spending. Shares of 
Federal welfare outlays: Medical benefits, 25 percent in 1983 
and 38 percent in 1994; cash benefits, 24 percent and 25 
percent, respectively; food benefits, 19 percent and 15 
percent; housing benefits, 13 percent and 10.5 percent; job/
training aid, 5 percent and 2 percent; and services, 3.5 
percent and 3 percent.

                        State/Local Governments

    Measured in constant 1994 dollars, State/local spending for 
income-tested benefits climbed from $18.8 billion in fiscal 
year 1968 to $98.6 billion in fiscal year 1994, an increase of 
423 percent (table 18-3). Cash aid was overtaken by medical 
benefits as the dominant form of State/local welfare spending 
in 1976. Unlike Federal welfare spending, which fell below 1981 
levels in real value in 1982-86, State-local spending rose 
steadily in all years except two, 1978 and 1993.

                            TABLE 18-2.--FEDERAL SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FORM OF BENEFIT, FISCAL YEARS 1968-94                           
                                                     [Millions of constant fiscal year 1994 dollars]                                                    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                Jobs/                                   
                     Fiscal year                        Medical    Cash aid     Food     Housing   Education   training  Services/    Energy     Total  
                                                        benefits              benefits   benefits   benefits     aid     other \1\     aid              
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968.................................................    $10,966    $20,151     $3,573     $3,133     $3,441     $2,836     $1,532         $0    $45,631
1973.................................................     21,471     27,649     12,430     10,827      5,872      2,976      5,433          0     86,658
1975.................................................     26,041     34,609     17,493     11,775      5,923      5,838      5,529          0    107,208
1976.................................................     27,862     37,983     19,670     13,517      9,404     11,725      6,932         71    127,161
1977.................................................     31,017     36,940     18,252     14,214      8,183     12,762      7,620        711    129,699
1978.................................................     32,006     35,260     18,697     16,131      8,936     21,314      7,605        600    140,549
1979.................................................     33,268     34,325     21,036     17,148      9,753     18,784      7,405        533    142,253
1980.................................................     35,657     34,883     24,058     17,656      8,988     15,853      6,865      3,163    147,124
1981.................................................     37,368     35,197     26,345     18,235      8,038     12,621      6,487      3,374    147,665
1982.................................................     36,349     34,038     24,728     18,590     12,282      6,293      4,895      3,199    140,375
1983.................................................     35,440     33,677     27,205     18,760     11,159      6,776      4,967      3,076    141,060
1984.................................................     35,841     34,310     27,000     18,516     11,557      7,757      4,961      3,096    143,038
1985.................................................     38,787     34,066     26,937     19,634     13,239      5,419      4,940      3,146    146,168
1986.................................................     39,989     35,360     25,709     17,816     13,505      4,870      4,553      2,948    144,750
1987.................................................     45,494     35,592     25,785     17,124     12,661      4,902      4,675      2,555    148,789
1988.................................................     47,976     37,669     25,121     18,268     13,852      4,657      5,578      2,267    155,388
1989.................................................     50,265     39,321     24,704     18,882     14,802      4,523      5,301      1,931    159,730
1990.................................................     56,748     41,207     26,990     19,841     15,559      4,494      4,618      1,814    171,272
1991.................................................     67,293     45,589     30,202     20,449     16,029      4,733      5,614      1,948    191,857
1992.................................................     82,187     50,928     34,299     22,917     14,220      5,246      6,106      1,762    217,664
1993.................................................     86,466     54,280     35,378     24,373     14,562      4,854      5,950      1,561    227,424
1994.................................................     93,892     61,477     36,233     25,738     14,804      4,870      7,389      1,837    246,240
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ ``Other'' represents State Legalization Impact Assistance Grants, first available in fiscal year 1988, which fund medical, cash, educational, and   
  other benefits.                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Burke, 1995.                                                                                                                                    


                        TABLE 18-3.--STATE/LOCAL SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FORM OF BENEFIT, FISCAL YEARS 1968-94 \1\                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                Jobs/                                   
                     Fiscal year                        Medical    Cash aid     Food     Housing   Education   training  Services/    Energy     Total  
                                                        benefits              benefits   benefits   benefits     aid     other \2\     aid              
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968.................................................     $8,245     $9,962         $0         NA         $0       $172       $464         $0    $18,843
1973.................................................     13,429     17,079          0         NA          0        181      1,728          0     32,418
1975.................................................     17,961     18,341      1,519         NA        389        106      1,766          0     40,081
1976.................................................     19,866     19,525      1,611         NA        397         99      1,751          0     43,249
1977.................................................     20,919     19,238      1,913         NA        435        134      1,819          0     44,459
1978.................................................     21,448     18,462      1,918         NA        521        138      1,791          0     44,278
1979.................................................     22,575     17,381        801         NA        509        158      1,764          0     43,188
1980.................................................     24,262     17,914        840         NA        526        149      1,586          0     45,277
1981.................................................     26,246     18,467        974         NA        490        141      2,455          0     48,773
1982.................................................     27,697     17,626      1,134         NA        424        118      2,998         24     50,021
1983.................................................     28,388     17,755      1,177         NA        454        119      3,157         38     51,087
1984.................................................     29,619     17,870      1,370         NA        436        113      2,741         62     52,210
1985.................................................     29,995     18,295      1,432         NA        632        113      2,678         43     53,187
1986.................................................     30,982     18,967      1,481         NA        665         98      2,552         67     54,812
1987.................................................     31,895     19,210      1,513         NA        662         92      2,566        270     56,208
1988.................................................     33,744     19,128      1,415         NA        676         89      2,610        220     57,882
1989.................................................     36,773     19,551      1,378         NA        646        115      2,490        213     61,166
1990.................................................     41,377     20,137      1,396         NA        711        302      3,029        140     67,093
1991.................................................     51,183     20,869      1,415         NA        590        473      3,206        122     77,858
1992.................................................     59,753     22,065      1,509     $2,404        642        498      4,085         92     91,048
1993.................................................     59,016     21,825      1,593      1,353        779        572      4,018         72     89,228
1994.................................................     67,247     22,272      1,867        392        903        661      5,245         34     98,621
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In millions of constant fiscal year 1994 dollars.    \2\ The spending ``decline'' in 1979 represents a change in accounting. Data for 1975-78       
  include estimated State-local funds used for free and reduced price school lunches. For subsequent years these estimates could not be made.           
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Burke, 1995.                                                                                                                                    

    Between 1983 and 1994, State-local spending for income-
tested benefits almost doubled in real value, rising by $47.5 
billion. More than four out of five of these extra dollars 
($38.9 billion in all) were spent on medical benefits. Other 
sizable increases: cash aid, up $4.5 billion; and services, up 
$2 billion. In both years medical benefits and cash aid 
together consumed 90 percent of state-local welfare dollars, 
but their shares were drastically changed. The share spent on 
medical aid climbed by almost 13 percentage points (to 68.2 
cents out of the benefit dollar); the share spent on cash aid 
declined by 12 percentage points (to 22.6 cents out of the 
benefit dollar).

        SHARE OF FEDERAL BUDGET USED FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS

    The share of the Federal budget used for income-tested 
benefits climbed from 6.4 percent in fiscal year 1968 to 16.9 
percent in fiscal year 1994 (table 18-4). Most of the increase 
of 10.5 percentage points was accounted for by medical benefits 
(4.9 percentage point gain). Measured in percentage points, 
increases for other forms of aid are: cash benefits, 1.5; food 
aid, 2; housing benefits, 1.3; education, 0.5; services, 0.3; 
energy aid, 0.1. Federal spending for income-tested jobs/
training benefits declined as a percent of the budget (down 0.1 
percentage point).

 TABLE 18-4.--SHARE OF FEDERAL BUDGET USED FOR INCOME-TESTED AID, BY FORM OF AID, SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1968-94 
                                                  [In percent]                                                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Medical   Cash    Food   Housing  Education    Jobs/                   
              Fiscal year                  aid      aid     aid     aid       aid     training  Energy  Services
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968...................................     1.54    2.83    0.50     0.44      0.48      0.40     0.00     0.22 
1973...................................     2.71    3.49    1.57     1.37      0.74      0.38     0.00     0.69 
1978...................................     3.18    3.50    1.85     1.60      0.89   \1\ 2.11    0.06     0.75 
1983...................................     2.92    2.77    2.24     1.54      0.92      0.56     0.25     0.41 
1988...................................     3.63    2.85    1.90     1.38      1.05      0.35     0.17     0.42 
1990...................................     4.01    2.91    1.91     1.40      1.10      0.32     0.13     0.33 
1991...................................     4.71    3.19    2.12     1.43      1.12      0.33     0.14     0.39 
1992...................................     5.69    3.53    2.38     1.59      0.99      0.36     0.12     0.42 
1993...................................     6.03    3.79    2.47     1.70      1.02      0.34     0.11     0.42 
1994...................................     6.43    4.21    2.48     1.76      1.01      0.33     0.13     0.51 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In fiscal year 1978, jobs and training benefit outlays were $9.7 billion of this total; $5.8 billion        
  represented public service employment and $2 billion employment and training services.                        
                                                                                                                
Source: Burke, 1995.                                                                                            

                     LIST OF INCOME-TESTED PROGRAMS

    Below is the list of programs providing income-tested 
benefits. Within each category, the programs are listed in the 
order of their total cost (fiscal year 1994, in millions of 
dollars) to Federal and State/local governments.

                              Medical Aid

 1. Medicaid (143,593)
 2. Medical care for veterans without service-connected 
        disability (8,162)
 3. General assistance (medical care component) (5,370)
 4. Indian health services (1,943)
 5. Maternal and child health services block grant (1,118)
 6. Community health centers (604)
 7. Title X family planning services (181)
 8. Medical assistance to refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants 
        (109)
 9. Migrant health centers (59)

                                Cash Aid

10. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (27,310)
11. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (25,920)
12. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) (16,549)
13. Foster care (5,159)
14. General assistance (nonmedical care component) (3,250)
15. Pensions for needy veterans, their dependents, and 
        survivors (3,159)
16. Emergency assistance (EA) to needy families with children 
        (1,564)
17. Adoption assistance (629)
18. General assistance to Indians (84)
19. Cash assistance to refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants (70)
20. Dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC) and death 
        compensation for parents of veterans (54.5)

                                Food Aid

21. Food stamps (27,396)
22. School lunch program (free and reduced price segments) 
        (4,438)
23. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, 
        and Children (WIC) (3,309)
24. School breakfast program (free and reduced price segments) 
        (936)
25. Child and adult care food program (774)
26. Nutrition program for the elderly (689)
27. Summer food service program for children (243)
28. The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) (169)
29. Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) (90)
30. Food distribution program on Indian reservations (55)
31. Special milk program (free segment) (1)

                              Housing Aid

32. Section 8 low-income housing assistance (14,576)
33. Low-rent public housing (6,609)
34. Rural housing loans (section 502) (2,384)
35. Section 236 interest reduction payments (659)
36. Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) (595)
37. Rural rental housing loans (section 515) (512)
38. Rural rental assistance payments (section 521) (445)
39. Home Ownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere (HOPE) 
        Programs (81)
40. Farm labor housing loans (section 514) and grants (section 
        516) (59)
41. Section 101 rent supplements (56)
42. Rural housing repair loans and grants (section 504) (53)
43. Section 235 home ownership assistance for low-income 
        families (46)
44. Rural housing preservation grants (section 533) (23)
45. Indian housing improvement grants (20)
46. Rural housing self-help technical assistance grants 
        (section 523) and rural housing site loans (sections 
        523 and 524) (13)

                             Education Aid

47. Federal Pell grants (6,459)
48. Head Start (4,156)
49. Subsidized Federal Stafford loans (2,757)
50. Federal work-study program (617)
51. Supplemental educational opportunity grants (584)
52. Federal trio programs (388)
53. Chapter 1 Migrant Education Program (303)
54. Perkins loans (166)
55. State Student Incentive Grant (SSIG) Program (145)
56. Fellowships for graduate and professional study (65)
57. Health professions student loans and scholarships (43)
58. Follow through (9)
59. Migrant High School Equivalency Program (HEP) (8)
60. Ellender fellowships (4)
61. College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) (2)
62. Child Development Associate Scholarship Program (1)

                             Other Services

63. Social services block grant (Title XX) (8,322)
64. Child care for recipients (and ex-recipients) of AFDC 
        (1,199)
65. Child Care and Development Block Grant (893)
66. ``At risk'' child care (to avert eligibility for AFDC) 
        (505)
67. Community services block grant (464)
68. Legal services (400)
69. Emergency Food and Shelter Program (130)
70. Social services for refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants 
        (69)

                         Jobs and Training Aid

71. Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS) 
        (1,417)
72. Job corps (1,040)
73. Adult training (988)
74. Summer Youth Employment and Training Program (877)
75. Youth training (609)
76. Senior Community Service Employment Program (456)
77. Foster grandparents (97)
78. Senior companions (48)

                               Energy Aid

79. Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) (1,731)
80. Weatherization assistance (140)

                               Other Aid

81. State legalization impact assistance grants (652)

                               REFERENCES

Bixby, A.K. (1995). Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal 
        Year 1992. Social Security Bulletin, 58(2), pp. 65-73.
Burke, V. (1995). Cash and noncash benefits for persons with 
        limited income: Eligibility rules, recipient and 
        expenditure data, fiscal years 1992-1994 (96-159 EPW). 
        Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Rector, R., & Lauber, W.F. (1995). America's failed $5.4 
        trillion war on poverty. Washington, DC: Heritage 
        Foundation.
Tin J. (1996, July). Who gets assistance? Current Population 
        Reports (Household Economic Studies, P70-58). 
        Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census.