[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix G. Data on Families]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
[1996 Green Book] APPENDIX G. DATA ON FAMILIES


                                  SELECTED INDICATORS OF THE STATUS OF CHILDREN                                 
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Teenage Pregnancy                               
                                                                                                                
Category                                    1973            1980            1985            1990            1991
Female population (ages 15-19).       10,193,000      10,381,000       9,174,000       8,645,000       8,371,000
Births.........................          604,096         552,161         467,485         521,826         520,000
Induced abortions..............          231,900         444,780         399,200         350,970         314,000
Estimated miscarriages.........          144,010         154,910         133,420         139,460         129,000
Pregnancies....................          980,000         151,850         100,110       1,012,260         963,000
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura et al. (1995a).                                                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       International Infant Mortality Rates (deaths per 1,000 live births)      
                                                                                                                
Country                                  1950-52         1970-72         1980-82         1986-88            1993
Japan..........................             55.9            12.4             7.1             5.0             4.3
Sweden.........................             20.9            11.0             6.9             6.0             5.8
United States (white)..........             26.0            17.1            10.5             8.7             6.8
Canada.........................             39.4            17.8             9.7             7.5             7.0
England and Wales..............             29.1            17.7            11.3             9.3             7.4
United States (total)..........             28.7            19.2            12.0            10.1             8.4
Hungary........................             77.0            34.7            21.4            17.4            13.1
United States (black)..........             45.1            30.9            20.3            17.8            16.5
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1993); U.S. Public Health Service (1996).                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Living Arrangements of Children Under Age 18 (in thousands)          
                                                                                                                
Group                                       1960            1970            1980            1990            1995
Total in population............           63,727          69,162          63,427          64,137          70,254
Living with one parent.........            5,829           8,199          12,466          15,867          18,938
    Percent of all children....              9.1            11.9            19.7            24.7            27.0
Living with never-married                                                                                       
 parent........................              243             557           1,820           4,853           6,558
    Percent of all children....              0.4             0.8             2.9             7.6             9.3
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Children Below Poverty (number in thousands/rate per 1,000)          
                                                                                                                
Ethnic Group                                1974            1979            1990            1992            1994
Total..........................    10,156 (15.4)   10,377 (16.4)   13,431 (20.6)   15,294 (22.3)   15,289 (21.8)
Black..........................     3,755 (39.8)    3,833 (41.2)    4,550 (44.8)    5,106 (46.6)    4,906 (43.8)
White..........................     6,223 (11.2)    6,193 (11.8)    8,232 (15.9)    9,399 (17.4)    9,346 (16.9)
Hispanic.......................          NA (NA)    1,535 (28.0)    2,865 (38.4)    3,637 (40.0)    4,075 (41.5)
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Educational Achievement                            
High school dropouts                                                                                            
 (percentage of status                                                                                          
 dropouts, ages 16-24)                  \1\ 1970            1975            1985            1990        \2\ 1994
    Total......................             15.0            13.9            12.6            12.1            10.5
    White......................             13.2            11.4            10.4             9.0             7.7
    Black......................             27.9            22.9            15.2            13.2            12.6
Average verbal SAT scores......              460             434             431             424             423
Average math SAT scores........              488             472             475             476             479
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1995); U.S. Bureau of the Census (1995).                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ White and black includes persons of Hispanic origin.                                                        
\2\ Because of changes in data collection procedures, data may not be comparable with figures for earlier years.
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              


              TABLE G-1.--TOTAL NUMBER AND RATES OF MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-94              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Number (thousands)             Rate \1\        
                            Year                             ---------------------------------------------------
                                                               Marriages     Divorces    Marriages     Divorces 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950........................................................        1,667          385         11.1          2.6
1960........................................................        1,523          393          8.5          2.2
1970........................................................        2,159          708         10.6          3.5
1980........................................................        2,390        1,189         10.6          5.2
1985........................................................        2,413        1,190         10.1          5.0
1986........................................................        2,407        1,178         10.0          4.9
1987........................................................        2,421        1,157          9.9          4.8
1988........................................................        2,395        1,167          9.7          4.7
1989........................................................        2,404        1,163          9.7          4.7
1990........................................................        2,443        1,190          9.8          4.7
1991 \2\....................................................        2,371        1,187          9.4          4.7
1992 \2\....................................................        2,362        1,215          9.3          4.8
1993 \2\....................................................        2,334        1,187          9.0          4.6
1994 \2\....................................................        2,362        1,191          9.1          4.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Per 1,000 population.                                                                                       
\2\ Provisional data.                                                                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Health Statistics.                                                                  


                    TABLE G-2.--PERCENT NEVER MARRIED BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS 1960-95                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year                        
                        Age and sex                        -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women:                                                                                                          
    Ages 20-24............................................     28.4     35.8     50.2     62.8     65.7     66.7
    Ages 25-29............................................     10.5     10.5     20.9     31.1     33.2     35.3
    Ages 30-34............................................      6.9      6.2      9.5     16.4     18.8     19.0
Men:                                                                                                            
    Ages 20-24............................................     53.1     54.7     68.8     79.3     80.3     80.7
    Ages 25-29............................................     20.8     19.1     33.1     45.0     48.7     51.0
    Ages 30-34............................................     11.9      9.4     15.9     27.0     29.4     28.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1966; 1996b).                                                                


    TABLE G-3.--NUMBER AND RATE OF BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN BY RACE \1\ AND AGE OF MOTHER, 1980, 1991, 1993    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Out-of-wedlock births      Rate per 1,000 unmarried
                                                        -------------------------------           women         
                          Age                                                          -------------------------
                                                         Total \1\    White     Black   Total \1\  White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                   1980                         
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
Under 15...............................................      9,024     3,166     5,691       NA       NA      NA
15-19..................................................    262,777   130,417   126,278     27.6     18.5    87.9
20-24..................................................    237,265   118,445   114,538     40.9     25.1   112.3
25-29..................................................     99,583    46,722    47,594     34.0     21.5    81.4
30-34..................................................     40,984    21,325    18,160     21.1     14.1    46.7
35-39..................................................     13,187     7,298     5,338      9.7      7.1    19.0
40 and over \2\........................................      2,927     1,611     1,202      2.6      1.8     5.5
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
    Total (ages 15-44) \3\.............................    665,747   328,984   318,799     29.4     18.1    81.1
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                   1991                         
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
Under 15...............................................     10,968     4,346     6,298       NA       NA      NA
15-19..................................................    357,483   207,035   139,325     44.8     32.8   108.5
20-24..................................................    429,094   251,228   163,532     68.0     51.5   147.5
25-29..................................................    234,593   136,727    89,198     56.5     44.6   100.9
30-34..................................................    123,901    72,484    46,370     38.1     31.1    60.1
35-39..................................................     48,353    29,607    16,357     18.0     15.2    25.6
40 and over \2\........................................      9,377     6,075     2,670      3.8      3.2     5.4
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
    Total (ages 15-44) \3\.............................  1,213,769   707,502   463,750     45.2     34.6    89.5
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                   1993                         
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
Under 15...............................................     11,467     4,868     6,293       NA       NA      NA
15-19..................................................    357,432   213,080   133,031     44.5     33.6   102.4
20-24..................................................    438,538   283,538   159,598     69.2     54.2   142.2
25-29..................................................    233,776   139,905    84,604     57.1     46.7    94.5
30-34..................................................    132,263    79,136    47,330     38.5     32.2    57.3
35-39..................................................     55,570    34,283    18,526     19.0     16.4    25.9
40 and over \2\........................................     11,126     7,319     3,094      4.4      3.9     5.8
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
    Total (ages 15-44) \3\.............................  1,240,172   742,129   452,476     45.3     35.9   84.0 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than black and white.                                                                  
\2\ Rates computed by relating all births to unmarried mothers, regardless of age of mother, to unmarried women 
  aged 15-44 years.                                                                                             
\3\ Rates computed by relating births to unmarried mothers aged 40 years and over to unmarried women aged 40-44 
  years.                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura et al. (1995a).                                                                                 


                               TABLE G-4.--TWO-PARENT AND ONE-PARENT FAMILIES AS PROPORTIONS OF ALL FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN PRESENT BY RACE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-95                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year (all races)                                    Year (white)                          Year (black)           
                       Family type                       ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            1970      1980      1985      1988      1992      1995      1970      1988      1992      1995      1970     1988     1992     1995 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Numbers in thousands                                                         
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups................................    25,823    25,231    24,573    24,977    24,880    25,640    23,477    22,012    21,909    22,320    2,071    2,055    1,948    1,962
One-parent family groups................................     3,808     6,920     8,779     9,367    10,499    11,527     2,638     6,090     6,938     7,525    1,148    3,002    3,216    3,529
    Maintained by mother................................     3,415     6,230     7,737     8,146     9,028     9,833     2,330     5,100     5,753     6,239    1,063    2,812    2,994    3,197
        Never married...................................       248     1,063     2,208     2,707     3,284     3,680        73     1,050     1,391     1,712      173    1,605    1,799    1,818
        Spouse absent...................................     1,377     1,743     1,732     1,776     1,947     2,050       796     1,127     1,341     1,346      570      585      548      596
        Separated.......................................       962     1,483     1,524     1,499     1,658     1,695       477       941     1,146     1,128      479      515      482      502
        Divorced........................................     1,109     2,721     3,228     3,121     3,349     3,674       930     2,568     2,692     2,900      172      471      550      664
        Widowed.........................................       682       703       569       544       448       430       531       356       328       281      148      149       97      118
    Maintained by father................................       393       692     1,042     1,221     1,472     1,694       307       989     1,186     1,286       85      191      222      332
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children under 18......................    29,631    32,150    33,372    34,344    35,379    37,168    26,115    28,102    28,847    29,846    3,219    5,057    5,164    5,491
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Percent distribution                                                         
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups................................      87.1      78.5      73.6      72.7      70.3      69.0      89.9      78.3      75.9      74.8     64.3     40.6     37.7     35.7
One-parent family groups................................      12.9      21.5      26.3      27.3      29.7      31.0      10.1      21.7      24.1      25.2     35.7     59.4     62.3     64.3
    Maintained by mother................................      11.5      19.4      23.2      23.7      25.5      26.5       8.9      18.1      19.9      20.9     33.0     55.6     58.0     58.2
        Never married...................................       0.8       3.3       6.6       9.0       9.3       9.9       0.3       7.0       4.8       5.7      5.4     31.7     34.8     33.1
        Spouse absent...................................       4.6       5.4       5.2       5.2       5.5       5.5       3.0       4.0       4.6       4.5     17.7     11.6     10.6     10.9
        Separated.......................................       3.2       4.6       4.6       4.4       4.7       4.6       1.8       3.3       4.0       3.8     14.9     10.2      9.3      9.1
        Divorced........................................       3.7       8.5       9.7       9.1       9.5       9.9       3.6       9.1       9.3       9.7      5.3      9.3     10.7     12.1
        Widowed.........................................       2.3       2.2       1.7       1.6       1.3       1.2       2.0       1.3       1.1       0.9      4.6      2.9      1.9      2.1
    Maintained by father................................       1.3       2.2       3.1       3.6       4.2       4.6       1.2       3.5       4.1       4.3      2.6      3.8      4.3      6.0
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children under 18......................     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Family groups consist of family households, related subfamilies, and unrelated subfamilies. Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                                                                                                


               TABLE G-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS, SELECTED YEARS 1960-95               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year                        
   Living arrangements of children and marital status of   -----------------------------------------------------
                          parent                              1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Numbers in thousands                
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Living with:                                                                                                    
    Two parents...........................................   55,877   58,939   48,624   46,503   46,638   48,276
    One parent............................................    5,829    8,199   12,466   15,867   17,578   18,938
        Mother only.......................................    5,105    7,452   11,406   13,874   15,396   16,477
        Father only.......................................      724      748    1,060    1,993    2,182    2,461
    Other relatives or nonrelatives only..................    2,021    2,024    2,337    1,768    1,749    3,040
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Total number of children..................................   63,727   69,162   63,427   64,137   65,965   70,254
                                                                                                                
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Percent distribution                
                                                                                                                
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Living with:                                                                                                    
    Two parents...........................................     87.7     85.2     76.7     72.5     70.7     68.7
    One parent............................................      9.1     11.9     19.7     24.7     26.6     27.0
        Mother only.......................................      8.0     10.8     18.0     21.6     23.3     23.5
        Father only.......................................      1.1      1.1      1.7      3.1      3.3      3.5
    Other relatives or nonrelatives only..................      3.2      2.9      3.7      2.8      2.6      4.3
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Percent...................................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


    TABLE G-6.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS LIVING WITH ONE PARENT, SELECTED YEARS 1960-95   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              Year                              
  Living arrangements of children and marital  -----------------------------------------------------------------
               status of parent                    1960       1970       1980       1990       1992       1995  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Numbers in thousands                      
                                                                                                                
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
Never married.................................        243        557      1,820      4,853      6,258      6,558
Married, spouse absent........................      2,700      3,521      3,898      3,767      4,214      4,348
    Separated.................................      1,608      2,484      3,327      3,222      3,605      3,621
Widowed.......................................      1,543      1,649      1,469      1,125        763        830
Divorced......................................      1,343      2,473      5,281      6,122      6,637      7,201
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Total children living with one parent.      5,829      8,199     12,466     15,867     17,872     18,938
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Percent distribution                      
                                                                                                                
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
Never married.................................        4.2        6.8       14.6       30.6       35.0       34.6
Married, spouse absent........................       46.3       42.9       31.3       23.7       23.6       23.0
    Separated.................................       27.6       30.3       26.7       20.3       20.2       19.1
Widowed.......................................       26.5       20.1       11.8        7.1        4.3        4.4
Divorced......................................       23.0       30.2       42.4       38.6       37.1       38.0
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Percent...............................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


         TABLE G-7.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF WHITE CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-95        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year                        
                        Family type                        -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     All children (numbers in thousands)        
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................   50,082   52,624   43,200   40,593   46,735   41,946
One parent................................................    3,932    5,109    7,901    9,870   10,971   11,719
    Mother only...........................................    3,381    4,581    7,059    8,321    9,250    9,827
    Father only...........................................      551      528      842    1,549    1,721    1,892
Other relatives or nonrelatives...........................    1,062    1,058    1,141      928      886    1,662
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................   55,077   58,790   52,242   51,390   52,493   55,327
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                           All children (percent)               
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................     90.9     89.5     82.7     79.0     77.4     75.8
One parent................................................      7.1      8.7     15.1     19.2     20.9     21.2
    Mother only...........................................      6.1      7.8     13.5     16.2     17.6     17.8
    Father only...........................................      1.0      0.9      1.6      3.0      3.3      3.4
Other relatives or nonrelatives...........................      1.9      1.8      2.2      1.8      1.7      3.0
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                               Children in single-parent families (numbers in   
                                                                                 thousands)                     
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................       61      131      552    1,894    2,449    2,760
    Married, spouse absent................................    1,615    1,822    2,243    2,356    2,837    2,797
        Separated.........................................      779    1,111    1,817    1,982    2,425    2,362
    Widowed...............................................    1,139    1,160    1,000      774      624      530
    Divorced..............................................    1,118    1,997    4,106    4,847    5,061    5,631
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................    3,932    5,110    7,901    9,869   10,971   11,719
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                Children in single-parent families (percent)    
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................      1.6      2.6      7.0     19.2     22.3     23.6
    Married, spouse absent................................     41.1     35.7     28.4     23.9     25.9     23.9
        Separated.........................................     19.8     21.7     23.0     20.1     22.1     20.2
    Widowed...............................................     29.0     22.7     12.7      7.8      5.7      4.5
    Divorced..............................................     28.4     39.1     52.0     49.1     46.1     48.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or family groups.                            
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


         TABLE G-8.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF BLACK CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-95        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year                        
                        Family type                        -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     All children (numbers in thousands)        
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................    5,795    5,508    3,956    3,781    3,714    3,746
One parent................................................    1,897    2,996    4,297    5,485    5,934    6,339
    Mother only...........................................    1,723    2,783    4,117    5,132    5,607    5,881
    Father only...........................................      173      213      180      353      327      458
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................      959      917    1,122      752      779    1,216
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................    8,650    9,422    9,375   10,018   10,427   11,301
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                           All children (percent)               
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................     67.0     58.5     42.2     37.7     35.6     33.1
One parent................................................     21.9     31.8     45.8     54.8     56.9     56.1
    Mother only...........................................     19.9     29.5     43.9     51.2     53.8     52.0
    Father only...........................................      2.0      2.3      1.9      3.5      3.1      4.1
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................     11.1      9.7     12.0      7.5      7.5     10.8
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                               Children in single-parent families (numbers in   
                                                                                 thousands)                     
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................      182      423    1,235    2,839    3,314    3,466
    Married spouse absent.................................    1,085    1,651    1,573    1,251    1,290    1,327
        Separated.........................................      829    1,343    1,463    1,125    1,156    1,122
    Widowed...............................................      405      482      411      278      194      245
    Divorced..............................................      225      438    1,078    1,117    1,136    1,301
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................    1,897    2,995    4,297    5,484    5,934    6,339
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                Children in single-parent families (percent)    
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................      9.6     14.1     28.7     51.8     55.9     54.7
    Married spouse absent.................................     57.2     55.1     36.6     22.8     21.7     20.9
        Separated.........................................     43.7     44.8     34.0     20.5     19.5     17.7
    Widowed...............................................     21.3     16.1      9.6      5.1      3.3      3.9
    Divorced..............................................     11.9     14.6     25.1     20.4     19.1     20.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Black children include nonwhite in 1960. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or  
  family groups.                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


       TABLE G-9.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF HISPANIC CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-95       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                         Year                   
                            Family type                             --------------------------------------------
                                                                       1970     1980     1990     1992     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         All children (numbers in thousands)    
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
Two parents........................................................    3,111    4,116    4,789    4,935    6,191
One parent.........................................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,215
    Mother only....................................................       NA    1,069    1,943    2,168    2,798
    Father only....................................................       NA       83      211      279      417
Other relatives or nonrelatives only...............................       NA      191      231      237      438
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
        Total children.............................................    4,006    5,459    7,174    7,619    9,843
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
                                                                                All children (percent)          
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
Two parents........................................................     77.7     75.4     66.8     64.8     62.9
One parent.........................................................       NA     21.1     30.0     32.1     32.7
    Mother only....................................................       NA     19.6     27.1     28.5     28.4
    Father only....................................................       NA      1.5      2.9      3.7      4.2
Other relatives or nonrelatives only...............................       NA      3.5      3.2      3.1      4.4
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
                                                                     Children in single-parent families (numbers
                                                                                    in thousands)               
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married..................................................       NA      228      703      872    1,200
    Married, spouse absent.........................................       NA      468      728      739      968
        Separated..................................................       NA      400      577      600      803
    Widowed........................................................       NA      103      149      137      146
    Divorced.......................................................       NA      353      574      699      901
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
        Total......................................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,215
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
                                                                          Children in single-parent families    
                                                                                      (percent)                 
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married..................................................       NA     19.8     32.6     35.6     37.3
    Married, spouse absent.........................................       NA     40.6     33.8     30.2     30.1
        Separated..................................................       NA     34.7     26.8     24.5     25.0
    Widowed........................................................       NA      8.9      6.9      5.6      4.5
    Divorced.......................................................       NA     30.6     26.6     28.6     28.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups; numbers in thousands.                                                            
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1973, 1996b).                                                          


TABLE G-10.--CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE LIVING WITH BIOLOGICAL, STEP, AND ADOPTIVE MARRIED-COUPLE PARENTS BY
                                          RACE OF MOTHER, 1980 AND 1990                                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           1980                    1990         
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                            Category                                 Number                  Number             
                                                                  (thousands)   Percent   (thousands)   Percent 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races:                                                                                                      
Biological mother and father....................................      39,523        83.7      37,026        81.5
Biological mother-stepfather....................................       5,355        11.3       6,643        14.6
Stepmother-biological father....................................         727         1.5         608         1.3
Adoptive mother and father......................................       1,350         2.9         974         2.1
Unknown mother or father........................................         293         0.6         197         0.4
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total own children under 18 years.........................      47,248       100.0      45,448       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
                                                                                                                
White:                                                                                                          
Biological mother and father....................................      35,852        84.7      32,975        83.0
Biological mother-stepfather....................................       4,362        10.3       5,258        13.2
Stepmother-biological father....................................         664         1.6         549         1.4
Adoptive mother and father......................................       1,209         2.9         815         2.1
Unknown mother or father........................................         242         0.6         135         0.3
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total own children under 18 years.........................      42,329       100.0      39,732       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
                                                                                                                
Black:                                                                                                          
Biological mother and father....................................       2,698        71.5       2,336        63.6
Biological mother-stepfather....................................         877        23.2       1,149        31.3
Stepmother-biological father....................................          46         1.2          38         1.0
Adoptive mother and father......................................         119         3.1          97         2.6
Unknown mother or father........................................          35         0.9          51         1.4
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total own children under 18 years.........................       3,775       100.0       3,671       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
                                                                                                                
Hispanic origin: \1\                                                                                            
Biological mother and father....................................          NA          NA       3,703        81.1
Biological mother-stepfather....................................          NA          NA         699        15.3
Stepmother-biological father....................................          NA          NA          38         0.8
Adoptive mother and father......................................          NA          NA         101         2.2
Unknown mother or father........................................          NA          NA          27         0.6
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total own children under 18 years.........................          NA          NA       4,568       100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1992).                                                                       


 TABLE G-11.--PERSONS LIVING IN MOTHER-ONLY FAMILIES BY MOTHER'S MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND 
                                         FAMILY POVERTY STATUS, 1994 \1\                                        
                                                 [In thousands]                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Family living arrangement           
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
   Family type defined by mother's marital status       Total   Independent  Extended                  Unrelated
                                                                  families   families  Cohabiting \1\   families
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of persons:                                                                                              
    Never-married...................................     9,994       5,724      2,722          990           558
    Separated/other.................................     6,474       4,814      1,125          250           285
    Divorced........................................    10,482       7,727        878        1,084           794
    Widowed.........................................     1,312         943        202           84            82
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    28,262      19,208      4,928        2,409         1,717
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of poor persons:                                                                                         
    Never-married...................................     5,824       3,849        999          678           298
    Separated/other.................................     3,384       2,777        367          130           110
    Divorced........................................     3,600       2,668        188          494           249
    Widowed.........................................       375         240         95           15            24
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    13,183       9,534      1,650        1,318           681
                                                     ===========================================================
Poverty rate (percent poor):                                                                                    
    Never-married...................................      58.3        67.2       36.7         68.4          53.4
    Separated/other.................................      52.3        57.7       32.6         52.2          38.5
    Divorced........................................      34.3        34.5       21.4         45.6          31.5
    Widowed.........................................      28.6        25.5       47.1         18.3          29.0
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................      46.6        49.6       33.5         54.7          39.6
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of families:                                                                                             
    Never-married...................................     3,680       1,950      1,151          377           201
    Separated/other.................................     2,047       1,454        393          100           101
    Divorced........................................     3,671       2,629        349          407           286
    Widowed.........................................       427         298         73           30            26
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................     9,825       6,332      1,966          914           614
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The Current Population Survey (CPS) defines families on the basis of marital and blood relations, and treats
  families as a basic economic unit in its measures of family poverty and income. Under such definitions, an    
  unmarried, cohabiting, couple would be viewed as two distinct economic units; either as two unrelated         
  individuals, if no child dependents were involved, or as one or two single-parent families, if one or both    
  members of the couple had children residing in the household. Cohabiting couples are identifiable on the CPS  
  only by inference. The Census Bureau identifies such families as unmarried couple households--a household with
  only two adults who are unrelated and of the opposite sex (one of whom is the householder) with or without the
  presence of children under the age of 15. The CPS assigns a residing child to only one of the two adult       
  members of the unmarried couple, even though the child may be the couple's offspring.                         
\2\ Single female-headed families (either primary or unrelated subfamilies) with children, living in a household
  with either an unrelated single adult male, or with an unrelated family headed by a single adult male.        
                                                                                                                
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Numbers are estimates subject to sampling error. Caution  
  should be exercised in interpreting differences based on small cell sizes. Marital status and family living   
  arrangements are for the family head, as of March 1995. Poverty status is based on family income in the prior 
  year (1994).                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service, based on analysis of the March 1995 Current Population
  Survey microdata files.                                                                                       


 TABLE G-12.--PERSONS LIVING IN MOTHER-ONLY FAMILIES BY MOTHER'S MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY LIVING ARRANGEMENTS, AND
                                           FAMILY POVERTY STATUS, 1987                                          
                                                 [In thousands]                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Family living arrangement                 
                                                               --------------------------------------- Unrelated
   Family type defined by mother's marital status       Total   Independent  Extended                   families
                                                                  families   families  Cohabiting \1\           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of persons:                                                                                              
    Never-married...................................     7,210       4,116      2,325          485           284
    Separated/other.................................     5,607       4,333        894          190           191
    Divorced........................................     8,808       6,699        840          747           521
    Widowed.........................................     1,872       1,507        221           80            65
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    23,497      16,655      4,279        1,502         1,061
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of poor persons:                                                                                         
    Never-married...................................     4,553       3,052      1,005          319           178
    Separated/other.................................     3,283       2,675        347          121           141
    Divorced........................................     2,913       2,232        167          341           173
    Widowed.........................................       610         478         82           32            18
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    11,360       8,437      1,600          813           510
                                                     ===========================================================
Poverty rate (percent poor):                                                                                    
    Never-married...................................      63.1        74.2       43.2         65.7          62.4
    Separated/other.................................      58.6        61.7       38.8         63.8          73.8
    Divorced........................................      33.1        33.3       19.8         45.7          33.3
    Widowed.........................................      32.6        31.7       37.2         40.0           (2)
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................      48.3        50.7       37.4         54.1          48.1
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of families:                                                                                             
    Never-married...................................     2,689       1,391        979          203           116
    Separated/other.................................     1,786       1,334        320           69            64
    Divorced........................................     3,127       2,322        331          290           184
    Widowed.........................................       588         462         73           29            24
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................     8,190       5,509      1,702          590           388
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Single female-headed families (either primary or unrelated subfamilies) with children, living in a household
  with either an unrelated single adult male, or with an unrelated family headed by a single adult male.        
\2\ Base of estimate less than 75,000. Estimate deemed to be unreliable.                                        
                                                                                                                
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Numbers are estimates subject to sampling error. Caution  
  should be exercised in interpreting differences based on small cell sizes. Percentages with a base of less    
  than 75,000 are suppressed due to large sampling error. Marital status and family living arrangements are for 
  the family head, as of March 1988. Poverty status is based on family income in the prior year (1987).         
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on analysis of the March 1988 Current Population 
  Survey microdata files.                                                                                       


                                      TABLE G-13.--BIRTHS AND BIRTH RATES BY RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS 1940-93                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Number of births                                              Fertility rate                  
                              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Year                                                                          Asian or                                             Asian or
                               All births \1\       White         Black       American     Pacific    All births   White    Black    American    Pacific
                                                                             Indian \2\    Islander       \1\                       Indian \2\  Islander
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1940 \3\.....................       2,559,000       2,199,000           NA           NA           NA       79.9      77.1       NA         NA         NA
1950 \3\.....................       3,632,000       3,108,000           NA           NA           NA      106.2     102.3       NA         NA         NA
1960 \3\.....................       4,257,850       3,600,744      602,264       21,114           NA      118.0     113.2    153.5         NA         NA
1970 \3\.....................       3,731,386       3,091,264      572,362       25,864           NA       87.9      84.1    115.4         NA         NA
1975 \3\.....................       3,144,198       2,551,996      511,581       27,546           NA       66.0      62.5     87.9         NA         NA
1980.........................       3,612,258       2,936,351      568,080       29,389       74,355       68.4      65.6     84.7       82.7       73.2
1985.........................       3,760,561       3,037,913      581,824       34,037      104,606       66.3      64.1     78.8       78.6       68.4
1986.........................       3,756,547       3,019,175      592,910       34,169      107,797       65.4      63.1     78.9       75.9       66.0
1987.........................       3,809,510       3,043,828      611,173       35,322      116,560       65.8      63.3     80.1       75.6       67.1
1988.........................       3,909,510       3,102,083      638,562       37,088      129,035       67.3      64.5     82.6       76.8       70.2
1989.........................       4,040,958       3,192,355      673,124       39,478      133,075       69.2      66.4     86.2       79.0       68.2
1990.........................       4,158,212       3,290,273      684,336       39,051      141,635       70.9      68.3     86.8       76.2       69.6
1991.........................       4,110,907       3,241,273      682,602       38,841      145,372       69.6      67.0     85.2       75.1       67.6
1992.........................       4,065,014       3,201,678      673,633       39,453      150,250       68.9      66.5     83.2       75.4       67.2
1993.........................       4,000,240       3,149,833      658,875       38,732      152,800       67.6      65.4     80.5       73.4       66.7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1940-91 includes births to races not shown separately.                                                                                          
\2\ Includes births to Aleuts and Eskimos.                                                                                                              
\3\ Data are by race of child; see source for more information.                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Ventura et al. (1995b).                                                                                                                         


                      TABLE G-14.--NUMBERS AND RATES OF BIRTHS, ABORTIONS, AND PREGNANCIES BY AGE AT PREGNANCY OUTCOME, \1\ 1972-93                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Female                        Total number (thousands)                            Rate (per 1,000 females)        
                                    population  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Age group and year         in age group                   Induced        Estimated                                                              
                                    (thousands)     Births       abortions   miscarriages \2\  Pregnancies \3\      Birth       Abortion      Pregnancy 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women ages 15-19:                                                                                                                                       
    1993.........................         8,410           501            NA              NA                NA           59.6            NA            NA
    1992.........................         8,324           505            NA              NA                NA           60.7            NA            NA
    1991.........................         8,371           520           314             129               963           62.1          37.5         115.0
    1990.........................         8,645           522           351             139             1,012           60.4          40.6         117.1
    1989.........................         8,840           507           371             136             1,016           57.3          42.0         114.9
    1988.........................         9,029           478           393             135             1,006           53.0          43.5          11.4
    1987.........................         9,139           462           382             131               975           50.6          41.8         106.6
    1986.........................         9,206           462           389             131               982           50.2          42.3         106.7
    1985.........................         9,174           467           399             133               100           51.0          43.5         109.0
    1984.........................         9,287           470           399             134             1,002           50.6          42.9         107.9
    1983.........................         9,515           489           411             139             1,040           51.4          43.2         109.3
    1982.........................         9,809           514           419             145             1,077           52.4          42.7         109.8
    1981.........................        10,096           527           433             149             1,110           52.2          42.9         109.9
    1980.........................        10,381           552           445             155             1,152           53.2          42.8         111.0
    1979.........................        10,497           549           445             154             1,146           52.3          42.4         109.4
    1978.........................        10,555           543           419             151             1,113           51.5          39.7         105.4
    1977.........................        10,581           559           397             152             1,107           52.8          37.5         104.6
    1976.........................        10,582           559           363             148             1,069           52.8          34.3         101.1
    1975.........................        10,466           582           327             149             1,058           55.6          31.2         101.1
    1974.........................        10,350           595           280             147             1,022           57.5          27.0          98.8
    1973.........................        10,193           604           232             144               980           59.3          22.8          96.1
    1972.........................         9,988           616           191             142               950           61.7          19.1          95.1
Women under age 15: \4\                                                                                                                                 
    1993.........................         1,735            13            NA              NA                NA            7.2            NA            NA
    1992.........................         1,679            12            NA              NA                NA            7.3            NA            NA
    1991.........................         1,661            12            12               3                28            7.2           7.4          15.6
    1990.........................         1,593            12            13               4                28            7.3           7.9          17.5
    1989.........................         1,608            11            13               4                28            7.1           7.9          17.3
    1988.........................         1,573            11            14               3                28            6.7           8.7          17.6
    1987.........................         1,613            10            14               3                28            6.4           8.8          17.4
    1986.........................         1,706            10            16               4                29            6.0           9.2          17.3
    1985.........................         1,853            10            17               4                31            5.5           9.2          16.7
    1984.........................         1,819            10            17               4                31            5.5           9.3          16.8
    1983.........................         1,781            10            16               4                30            5.5           9.2          16.7
    1982.........................         1,748            10            15               3                28            5.6           8.3          15.9
    1981.........................         1,787            10            15               3                28            5.4           8.5          15.8
    1980.........................         1,850            10            15               4                29            5.5           8.4          15.9
    1979.........................         1,944            11            16               4                31            5.5           8.3          15.8
    1978.........................         2,020            11            15               4                30            5.3           7.5          14.6
    1977.........................         2,048            11            16               4                31            5.6           7.6          15.1
    1976.........................         2,080            12            16               4                32            5.7           7.6          15.2
    1975.........................         2,118            13            16               4                32            6.0           7.2          15.1
    1974.........................         2,086            13            13               4                30            6.0           6.4          14.3
    1973.........................         2,094            13            12               4                28            6.1           5.6          13.5
    1972.........................         2,093            12            NA              NA                NA            5.8            NA            NA
Women ages 15-17:                                                                                                                                       
    1993.........................         5,037           191            NA              NA                NA           37.8            NA            NA
    1992.........................         4,958           188            NA              NA                NA           37.8            NA            NA
    1991.........................         4,860           188           118              56               362           38.7          24.3          74.5
    1990.........................         4,881           183           130              50               363           37.6          26.6          74.3
    1989.........................         4,974           181           139              50               370           36.4          26.0          74.4
    1988.........................         5,251           177           158              51               386           33.6          30.2          73.5
    1987.........................         5,450           173           161              51               384           31.7          29.6          70.5
    1986.........................         5,520           169           165              50               384           30.5          29.9          69.6
    1985.........................         5,409           168           166              50               384           31.0          30.6          70.9
    1984.........................         5,373           167           161              49               377           31.0          29.9          70.2
    1983.........................         5,424           173           166              51               390           31.8          30.7          72.0
    1982.........................         5,618           181           168              53               403           32.2          30.0          71.7
    1981.........................         5,848           187           176              55               418           32.0          30.1          71.5
    1980.........................         6,063           198           183              58               440           32.7          30.2          72.5
    1979.........................         6,200           200           179              58               437           32.3          28.8          70.4
    1978.........................         6,286           203           169              57               429           32.2          26.9          68.3
    1977.........................         6,310           214           166              59               439           33.9          26.2          69.5
    1976.........................         6,319           215           153              58               427           34.1          24.2          67.5
    1975.........................         6,288           238           152              61               440           36.1          24.1          69.9
    1974.........................         6,276           234           140              61               435           37.3          22.3          69.3
    1973.........................         6,185           238           116              59               414           38.5          18.7          66.9
    1972.........................         6,071           237            96              57               389           39.0          15.7          64.1
Women ages 18-19:                                                                                                                                       
    1993.........................         3,372           311            NA              NA                NA           92.1            NA            NA
    1992.........................         3,365           318            NA              NA                NA           94.5            NA            NA
    1991.........................         3,510           331           196              73               600           94.4          55.8         171.0
    1990.........................         3,762           338           221              90               649           90.0          58.8         172.6
    1989.........................         3,865           325           232              88               646           84.2          60.0         167.0
    1988.........................         3,778           302           234              84               620           79.9          62.0         164.1
    1987.........................         3,689           290           221              80               590           78.5          59.8         160.0
    1986.........................         3,686           293           224              81               598           79.6          60.8         162.3
    1985.........................         3,765           300           234              83               617           79.6          62.0         163.8
    1984.........................         3,914           303           238              84               625           77.4          60.8         159.8
    1983.........................         4,092           317           245              88               649           77.4          59.8         158.7
    1982.........................         4,191           333           250              92               674           79.4          59.7         160.9
    1981.........................         4,248           340           257              94               691           80.0          60.6         162.7
    1980.........................         4,313           354           261              97               712           81.9          60.5         164.9
    1979.........................         4,297           349           266              96               712           81.3          61.9         165.7
    1978.........................         4,269           341           250              93               683           79.8          58.4         160.1
    1977.........................         4,271           345           231              92               669           80.9          54.1         156.5
    1976.........................         4,263           343           210              90               643           80.5          49.3         150.8
    1975.........................         4,178           355           175              89               619           85.0          41.9         148.1
    1974.........................         4,074           361           140              86               587           88.7          34.3         144.2
    1973.........................         4,008           366           116              85               566           91.2          28.9         141.3
    1972.........................         3,917           380            96              85               561           96.9          24.4         143.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Women's age is determined by the time the pregnancy ended. More pregnancies were experienced by teenagers than are reported here because most of the
  19-year-olds who became pregnant had their births or abortions at age 20 and thus were not counted.                                                   
\2\ Calculated as 20 percent of births and 10 percent of abortions.                                                                                     
\3\ Sum of births, abortions and miscarriages.                                                                                                          
\4\ Population is women aged 14.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Ventura et al. (1995a).                                                                                                                         


  TABLE G-15.--NUMBER OF BIRTHS AND BIRTH RATES TO WOMEN AGES 15-19 BY RACE OF CHILD AND BY RACE OF MOTHER, \1\ 
                                                     1960-93                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Number of births,                    Birth rate \2\                
                                            all women under 20  ------------------------------------------------
                   Year                   ---------------------- All women 15-19       15-17           18-19    
                                                                ------------------------------------------------
                                             White      Black     White    Black   White   Black   White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1960.....................................    460,654    122,260     79.4   156.1  ......  ......  ......  ......
1961.....................................    474,514  .........     79.2   155.2  ......  ......  ......  ......
1962.....................................    462,522  .........     73.2   147.1  ......  ......  ......  ......
1963.....................................    445,892  .........     68.2   142.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
1964.....................................    447,034    140,422     63.4   147.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
                                                                                                                
1965.....................................    446,198    146,268     60.6   144.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
1966.....................................    467,778    155,110     60.4   142.7    26.6    97.9   108.2   219.2
1967.....................................    438,000    160,285     58.9   141.8    25.7    99.5   104.0   213.4
1968.....................................    429,616    163,892     54.9   138.7    25.6    98.2   100.5   206.1
1969.....................................    437,958    168,588     54.7   137.0    26.4    96.9    99.2   202.5
                                                                                                                
1970.....................................    467,928    179,100     57.4   140.7    29.2   101.4   101.5   204.9
1971.....................................    450,856    178,948     53.6   134.5    28.5    99.4    92.3   192.6
1972.....................................    438,559    179,712     51.0   129.8    29.3    99.5    84.3   179.5
1973.....................................    429,740    176,551     49.0   123.1    29.2    96.0    79.3   166.6
1974.....................................    425,205    171,721     47.9   116.5    28.7    90.0    77.3   158.7
                                                                                                                
1975.....................................    415,202    168,359     46.4   111.8    28.0    85.6    74.0   152.4
1976.....................................    389,329    160,597     44.1   104.9    26.3    80.3    70.2   142.5
1977.....................................    396,854    161,772     44.1   104.7    26.1    79.6    70.5   142.9
1978.....................................    384,572    157,069     42.9   100.9    24.9    75.0    69.4   139.7
1979.....................................    388,209    158,944     43.7   101.7    24.7    75.7    71.0   140.4
                                                                                                                
1980.....................................    397,764    153,151     45.4    97.8    25.5    72.5    73.2   135.1
1981.....................................    379,472    145,724     44.9    94.5    25.4    69.3    71.5   131.0
1982.....................................    367,951    142,813     45.0    94.3    25.5    69.7    70.8   128.9
1983.....................................    347,288    139,357     43.9    93.9    25.0    69.6    68.8   127.1
1984.....................................    330,334    137,177     42.9    94.1    24.3    69.2    68.4   128.1
                                                                                                                
1985.....................................    328,752    136,682     43.3    95.4    24.4    69.3    70.4   132.4
1986.....................................    322,060    137,413     42.3    95.8    23.8    69.3    70.1   135.1
1987.....................................    319,560    139,967     42.5    97.6    24.6    72.1    68.9   135.8
1988.....................................    327,986    146,733     44.4   102.7    26.0    75.7    69.6   142.7
1989.....................................    345,102    157,259     47.9   111.5    28.1    81.9    72.9   151.9
1990.....................................    359,456    157,951     50.8   112.8    29.5    82.3    78.0   152.9
                                                                                                                
1991.....................................    357,548    157,375     52.8   115.5    30.7    84.1    83.5   158.6
1992.....................................    348,106    153,248     51.8   112.4    30.1    81.3    83.8   157.9
1993.....................................    347,572    149,570     51.1   108.6    30.3    79.8    82.1   151.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Births are tabulated by race of child through 1979, and by race of mother for 1980-93.                      
\2\ Births per 1,000 women in specified group.                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1995); Ventura et al. (1995b).                                   


  TABLE G-16.--ESTIMATED BIRTH RATES FOR UNMARRIED WOMEN AGES 15-17 AND 18-19 BY RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS 
                                                     1966-93                                                    
                                            [Births per 1,000 women]                                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        White                 Black             Hispanic \1\    
                     Year                      -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966..........................................        5.4       14.1         NA         NA         NA         NA
1970..........................................        7.5       17.6       77.9      136.4         NA         NA
1975..........................................        9.6       16.5       76.8      123.8         NA         NA
1980..........................................       12.0       24.1       68.8      118.2         NA         NA
1985..........................................       14.5       31.2       66.8      117.9         NA         NA
1986..........................................       14.9       33.5       67.0      121.1         NA         NA
1987..........................................       16.2       34.5       69.9      123.0         NA         NA
1988..........................................       17.6       36.8       73.5      130.5         NA         NA
1989..........................................       19.3       40.2       78.9      140.9         NA         NA
1990..........................................       20.4       44.9       78.8      143.7       45.9       98.9
1991..........................................       21.8       49.6       80.4      148.7       50.5      109.6
1992..........................................       21.6       51.5       78.0      147.8       51.0      110.5
1993..........................................       22.1       52.4       76.8      141.6       51.9      114.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Hispanic ethnicity is independent of race; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                   
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--For 1966-75, births to unmarried women are estimated for the United States from the data for registration
  areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Beginning 1980, data for States in which marital status 
  was not reported have been inferred and included with data from the remaining States. Race is determined by   
  race of the child for 1966-89 and by race of the mother for 1990-93.                                          
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura (1995); Ventura et al. (1995b).                                                                 


                     TABLE G-17.--ESTIMATED PREGNANCIES \1\ PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, AND 1992                    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             1980                         1985                           1990                           1992            
             State              ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White   Nonwhite  Total \1\    White   Nonwhite  Total \1\    White   Nonwhite
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama........................       117        NA       NA       112        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA       93.2      73.4     134.7
Alaska.........................       124        NA       NA       144        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Arizona........................       123       115      195       128       124       150      101.8      99.9     153.5      103.5     102.3     150.6
Arkansas.......................       117       104      168       111        99       150       98.4      92.7     157.2       90.7      76.7     142.6
California.....................       140       127      272       151        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Colorado.......................       114       105      192       112       107       187       82.3        NA        NA       79.8        NA        NA
Connecticut....................        81        NA       NA        96        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA       78.7        NA        NA
Delaware.......................       106        NA       NA       101        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
District of Columbia \1\.......       200        NA       NA       211        NA        NA      255.2        NA        NA      209.4        NA        NA
Florida........................       131        NA       NA       126        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Georgia........................       131       111      172       132       115       160      110.8      88.2     162.5      106.9      79.6     162.9
Hawaii.........................       106        81       NA       125        97       137       88.2        NA        NA       88.4      64.7        NA
Idaho..........................        96        96       NA        78        77        NA       68.8      56.6        NA       59.7      59.4        NA
Illinois.......................       101        78      190       103        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Indiana........................       102        92      193        87        77       170       74.3      65.5     158.0       72.2      62.9     156.7
Iowa...........................        79        NA       NA        67        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Kansas.........................       101        93      199        84        78       150       81.1      74.5     181.1       87.0      77.8     211.9
Kentucky.......................       111        NA       NA        92        NA        NA       91.0      84.3     164.1       81.7      75.5     149.9
Louisiana......................       118        93      163       109        88       142       92.1      68.7     128.8       92.6      65.3     133.7
Maine..........................        87        86       NA        92        91        NA       88.4      87.6        NA       55.2      64.9        NA
Maryland.......................       123       103      174       121        94       184       84.7      61.5     141.8       76.9      51.0     137.1
Massachusetts..................        86        NA       NA        97        NA        NA       71.1        NA        NA       69.5        NA        NA
Michigan.......................       102        NA       NA       107        NA        NA       85.2        NA        NA       79.7        NA        NA
Minnesota......................        77        73      240        62        55       222       62.0      55.3     219.4       55.2      47.3     218.1
Mississippi....................       125        97      162       113        90       138       97.8      71.6     130.5      100.8      71.9     135.1
Missouri.......................       106        92      205        95        79       195       82.6      64.8     197.5       78.0      60.9     188.0
Montana........................        93        85       NA        82        74        NA       81.7        NA        NA       70.2      61.8        NA
Nebraska.......................        81        NA       NA        75        NA        NA       74.2        NA        NA       83.4        NA        NA
Nevada.........................       144       134      226       125       118       168      107.5     105.8     158.8      108.0     101.9     171.2
New Hampshire..................        81        NA       NA        89        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
New Jersey.....................        96        74      210       113        70       296       75.3      52.7     181.6       69.7      41.2     179.7
New Mexico.....................       126       118       NA       116       115       126      100.4      99.8     115.5      101.8     102.2     100.8
New York.......................       101        78      207       117        89       225       92.9      76.3     166.4       96.6      77.3     175.9
North Carolina.................       110        92      153       114        97       152      106.4      88.3     157.3      104.5      83.3     155.3
North Dakota...................        75        68       NA        60        53        NA       56.4      50.4        NA       54.2      47.8        NA
Ohio...........................       101        88      190        96        83       177       74.6      80.5     170.1       74.5        NA        NA
Oklahoma.......................       120       107      187       113        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Oregon.........................       119       112       NA        95        94       119       89.2      88.7     178.0       81.0      79.4     181.7
Pennsylvania...................        90        NA       NA        87        NA        NA       74.0        NA        NA       71.7      53.5     211.5
Rhode Island...................        83        NA       NA        89        NA        NA       87.7      80.4     198.9       88.1      78.0     211.8
South Carolina.................       114        98      140       102        92       117       95.0      76.6     127.0       88.0      68.6     119.6
South Dakota...................        86        74       NA        70        57        NA       56.9      48.0        NA       59.4      48.5        NA
Tennessee......................       113       102      157       104        95       134      101.8      88.3     165.6       94.0      77.4     162.4
Texas..........................       137        NA       NA       131        NA        NA      102.8      96.1     153.6      103.7      98.2     148.8
Utah...........................        95        94       NA        75        73        NA       63.0      62.2        NA       55.6      54.2        NA
Vermont........................        95        94       NA        82        83        NA       72.1      72.7        NA       68.7      68.4        NA
Virginia.......................       107        94      152       106        93       141       86.5      70.4     149.1       79.0      62.9     139.4
Washington.....................       122        NA       NA       103        97       165       95.4        NA        NA       85.1        NA        NA
West Virginia..................       104        NA       NA        87        NA        NA       67.4      66.4     103.9       66.1      64.6     110.5
Wisconsin \2\..................        85        NA       NA        73        NA        NA       66.6        NA        NA       60.8      45.3     226.9
Wyoming........................       127        NA       NA        98        NA        NA       62.2        NA        NA       53.7        NA        NA
                                ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total......................       111        NA       NA       110        93        NA         NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
\2\ Data for 1992 include residents only.                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995).                                                                                                        


                            TABLE G-18.--BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, AND 1992                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         1980                       1985                       1990                       1992          
                                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.....................................        68       53     103        64       51      94        71       55     105        73       56     109
Alaska......................................        64       48     123        56       42      82        65       64      NA        63       50      NA
Arizona.....................................        66       60     124        67       61     122        76       72     116        82       80     112
Arkansas....................................        75       63     118        73       61     120        80       66     132        76       62     122
California..................................        53       51      89        53       50      93        71       74     101        74       78      95
Colorado....................................        50       48      91        48       46      88        55       52     106        58       56     108
Connecticut.................................        31       24      90        31       24      93        39       31     103        39       32      95
Delaware....................................        51       37     110        51       36     116        55       37     128        60       41     123
District of Columbia........................        62       16      74        72       17      89        93       12     121       116       28     131
Florida.....................................        59       43     126        58       43     121        89       62     136        88       60     127
Georgia.....................................        72       54     110        68       53      98        77       57     110        75       55     116
Hawaii......................................        51       31     143        48       27     107        51       42      NA        54       33      NA
Idaho.......................................        60       59      NA        47       45      65        51       51      NA        52       51      NA
Illinois....................................        56       41     122        51       35     119        63       44     144        64       45     145
Indiana.....................................        58       52     112        52       46     110        59       52     122        59       51     126
Iowa........................................        43       41     126        35       33     101        41       39     119        41       38     138
Kansas......................................        57       51     125        52       47     112        56       51     132        56       50     137
Kentucky....................................        72       69     107        63       61      91        68       84     116        65       61     112
Louisiana...................................        76       58     110        72       53     108        74       52     109        77       51     118
Maine.......................................        47       47      NA        42       42      54        43       43      NA        40       40      NA
Maryland....................................        43       31      76        46       32      82        62       38      97        51       32      97
Massachusetts...............................        28       26      74        29       26      76        36       31      89        38       31      97
Michigan....................................        45       37      92        43       35      86        59       43     131        59       42     125
Minnesota...................................        35       33     126        31       27     129        38       31     152        38       21     163
Mississippi.................................        84       56     120        76       52     109        81       56     113        84       57     116
Missouri....................................        58       50     115        54       45     119        63       50     144        63       51     144
Montana.....................................        49       42      NA        44       35     114        48       40      NA        46       38      NA
Nebraska....................................        45       41     117        40       34     129        42       37     138        41       36     121
Nevada......................................        59       50     128        55       47     122        73       69     129        71       69     137
New Hampshire...............................        34       33      NA        32       33      26        33       33      NA        31       31      NA
New Jersey..................................        35       23      97        34       22      94        41       28     100        39       26     103
New Mexico..................................        72       66     107        73       68     104        78       76      95        80       80      77
New York....................................        35       26      74        36       28      74        44       37      77        46       39      74
North Carolina..............................        58       45      88        57       45      85        68       52     107        70       53     108
North Dakota................................        42       36      NA        36       30      92        35       29      NA        37       29      NA
Ohio........................................        53       46     100        50       42     104        58       48     129        58       47     132
Oklahoma....................................        75       64     126        69       60     113        67       80     116        69       63     116
Oregon......................................        51       49     114        43       42      95        55       64     108        53       52     114
Pennsylvania................................        41       35      91        40       32     106        45       36     125        46       35     127
Rhode Island................................        33       30      96        36       31     116        44       39     114        48       40     131
South Carolina..............................        65       49      92        63       47      91        71       64     101        70       52     100
South Dakota................................        53       43      NA        46       34     156        47       36      NA        48       35      NA
Tennessee...................................        64       55     100        61       52     100        72       60     121        71       69     124
Texas.......................................        74       68     112        72       68     104        76       71     114        79       75     113
Utah........................................        65       65      97        50       49     110        49       48      NA        46       46      NA
Vermont.....................................        40       40      NA        36       36      11        34       34      NA        37       37      NA
Virginia....................................        48       38      82        46       36      82        53       41      99        51       39      38
Washington..................................        47       44      97        45       41     102        53       52      94        51       49      91
West Virginia...............................        68       67      80        54       54      67        57       57      74        56       57      77
Wisconsin...................................        40       35     128        39       31     148        43       31     175        42       30     167
Wyoming.....................................        79       77      NA        59       56     138        56       67      NA        50       48      NA
                                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...................................      53.0       45     100      51.0       NA      NA        NA       NA      NA        NA       NA      NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995).                                                                                                        


  TABLE G-19.--PERCENTAGE OF BABIES BORN TO WOMEN OBTAINING EARLY CARE OR LATE OR NO CARE BY RACE OF CHILD AND  
                                     RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS 1970-93                                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Percent born to women        Percent born to women   
                                                            obtaining early care      obtaining late or no care 
                         Year                          ---------------------------------------------------------
                                                         White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1970 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     72.4     44.4      68.0       6.2     16.6       7.9 
1975 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     75.9     55.8      72.4       5.0     10.5       6.0 
1980 \3\..............................................     79.2     62.4      76.3       4.3      8.9       5.1 
1981 \3\..............................................     79.3     62.1      76.3       4.3      9.2       5.2 
1982 \3\..............................................     79.2     61.1      76.1       4.5      9.7       5.5 
1983 \3\..............................................     79.3     61.2      76.2       4.6      9.8       5.6 
1984 \3\..............................................     79.6     61.9      76.5       4.7      9.7       5.6 
1985..................................................     79.3     61.5      76.2       4.8     10.2       5.7 
1986..................................................     79.1     61.2      75.9       5.0     10.7       6.0 
1987..................................................     79.3     60.8      76.0       5.0     11.2       6.1 
1988..................................................     79.3     60.7      75.9       5.0     11.0       6.1 
1989..................................................     78.9     60.6      75.5       5.2     11.9       6.4 
1990..................................................     79.2     60.6      75.8       4.9     11.3       6.1 
1991..................................................     79.5     61.9      76.2       4.7     10.7       5.8 
1992..................................................     80.8     63.9      77.7       4.2      9.9       5.2 
1993..................................................     81.8     66.0      78.9       3.9      9.0       4.8 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                  
\2\ Figures are by race of child.                                                                               
\3\ Based on 100 percent of births in selected States and on a 50-percent sample of births in other States.     
\4\ Based on data for 39 States and the District of Columbia in 1970, and based on data for 42 States and the   
  District of Columbia in 1975.                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
Source: Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996); National Center for Health Statistics (1975, 1978).                    


                             TABLE G-20.--ABORTIONS PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, AND 1992                            
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1980                       1985                        1990                         1992           
                  State                  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.................................        32       NA      NA        32       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      20.7      18.2     25.8
Alaska..................................        43       NA      NA        59       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Arizona.................................        41       39      41        43       46      27      26.3      27.6     38.4      21.5      22.4     38.5
Arkansas................................        25       26      23        23       23      21      18.3      16.6     25.2      15.3      13.9     20.6
California..............................        69       60     150        79       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Colorado................................        49       43      76        51       49      84      27.7        NA       NA      21.4        NA       NA
Connecticut.............................        40       NA      NA        52       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      39.3        NA       NA
Delaware................................        40       NA      NA        37       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
District of Columbia \2\................       114       NA      NA       113       NA      NA     162.1        NA       NA      92.3        NA       NA
Florida.................................        55       NA      NA        51       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Georgia.................................        41       42      36        44       42      46      35.3      29.6     46.3      32.3      24.7     47.7
Hawaii..................................        41       40      NA        61       59      62      27.0        NA       NA      32.9      31.9       NA
Idaho...................................        23       23      NA        21       21      NA       8.2       8.2       NA       8.0       8.0       NA
Illinois................................        31       25      40        38       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Indiana.................................        30       27      53        24       21      47      15.7      13.6     35.6      13.5      11.6     30.8
Iowa....................................        25       NA      NA        25       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Kansas..................................        30       29      44        23       23      28      25.0      23.7     49.2      31.3      20.1     74.5
Kentucky................................        22       NA      NA        16       NA      NA      23.4      20.8     48.3      17.0      14.8     37.8
Louisiana...............................        24       22      28        22       21      24      17.8      16.7     19.6      16.1      14.0     20.2
Maine...................................        27       27      NA        36       36      NA      25.4      24.9       NA      15.3      15.0       NA
Maryland................................        64       59      76        59       51      77      31.4      25.4     46.3      28.2      19.0     41.6
Massachusetts...........................        47       NA      NA        45       NA      NA      36.0        NA       NA      31.5        NA       NA
Michigan................................        44       NA      NA        50       NA      NA      26.1        NA       NA      23.1        NA       NA
Minnesota...............................        31       31      81        24       23      47      25.7      24.7     67.7      19.2      17.8     55.6
Mississippi.............................        22       27      16        19       22      15      16.8      16.1     17.8      16.6      14.7     19.0
Missouri................................        34       29      61        29       25      55      19.7      14.5     53.6      14.8      10.4     42.1
Montana.................................        32       32      NA        28       29      NA      33.3        NA       NA      24.0      23.8       NA
Nebraska................................        24       NA      NA        27       NA      NA      31.9        NA       NA      22.2        NA       NA
Nevada..................................        67       67      66        57       58      45      34.2      36.9     27.5      34.7      36.3     34.0
New Hampshire...........................        37       NA      NA        46       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
New Jersey..............................        49       41      85        63       38     170      34.6      24.6     82.0      30.5      15.2     78.5
New Mexico..............................        36       35      NA        30       33      12      22.3      24.0     20.9      21.5      22.7     25.2
New York................................        54       42     107        64       49     120      49.3      38.7     90.8      51.3      38.3    102.1
North Carolina..........................        38       35      43        41       38      48      38.8      34.3     60.7      35.1      29.9     47.6
North Dakota............................        23       22      NA        17       18      NA      21.0      21.2       NA      16.0      17.2       NA
Ohio....................................        35       30      64        33       28      59      16.6      12.9     40.6      16.7        NA       NA
Oklahoma................................        27       27      32        29       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Oregon..................................        52       49      NA        41       41      37      34.6      34.7     70.0      27.8      27.2     68.1
Pennsylvania............................        38       NA      NA        35       NA      NA      29.7        NA       NA      28.5      18.9     84.2
Rhode Island............................        40       NA      NA        40       NA      NA      43.8      41.7     84.6      40.6      37.9     80.7
South Carolina..........................        33       36      27        26       30      20      23.6      22.3     25.9      17.7      16.3     19.9
South Dakota............................        21       20      NA        18       18      NA      10.1      11.0       NA      11.1      11.5       NA
Tennessee...............................        33       33      33        29       29      31      29.5      25.0     44.4      22.7      18.9     38.3
Texas...................................        44       NA      NA        39       NA      NA      27.4      25.5     39.6      24.8      23.2     35.4
Utah....................................        15       14      NA        15       14      NA      14.5      14.4       NA       9.4       8.8       NA
Vermont.................................        43       43      NA        36       36      NA      38.0      36.4       NA      33.0      32.8       NA
Virginia................................        45       44      48        45       43      49      33.6      29.3     50.6      27.3      23.4     41.8
Washington..............................        60       NA      NA        46       44      62      42.2        NA       NA      34.2        NA       NA
West Virginia...........................        20       NA      NA        19       NA      NA      10.0       9.4     29.5      10.2       9.1     39.0
Wisconsin \2\...........................        34       NA      NA        25       NA      NA      24.0        NA       NA      18.7      15.5     59.8
Wyoming.................................        29       NA      NA        30       NA      NA       5.9        NA       NA       4.1        NA       NA
                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...............................        43       38      NA        44       38      71        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
\2\ Data for 1992 include residents only.                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Legal induced abortion data are by State of occurrence because abortion data by State of residence are not available for all States. Caution     
  should therefore be exercised when comparing rates from State to State and over time. Rates are not available for 10 States in 1990 and 8 States in   
  1992 because age-specific abortion data were not available. Rates by race are not available for States that did not report abortion information by    
  race. Rates were not computed if age or race information for more than 15 percent of the abortions was not reported, or if there were fewer than 20   
  abortions or fewer than 1,000 women in the group.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995); Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996).                                                                       


       TABLE G-21.--INFANT, NEONATAL, AND POSTNEONATAL MORTALITY RATES BY RACE, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1940-93      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                All other       
                            Year                               All races      White    -------------------------
                                                                                           Total        Black   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Infant Mortality Rate \2\                                                                     
1940........................................................         47.0         43.2         73.8         72.9
1950........................................................         29.2         26.8         44.5         43.9
1960........................................................         26.0         22.9         43.2         44.3
1970........................................................         20.0         17.8         30.9         32.6
1980........................................................         12.6         11.0         19.1         21.4
1985........................................................         10.6          9.3         15.8         18.2
1986........................................................         10.4          8.9         15.7         18.0
1987........................................................         10.1          8.6         15.4         17.9
1988........................................................         10.0          8.5         15.0         17.6
1989........................................................          9.8          8.1         16.3         18.6
1990........................................................          9.2          7.6         15.5         18.0
1991........................................................          8.9          7.3         15.1         17.6
1992........................................................          8.5          6.9         14.4         16.8
1993........................................................          8.4          6.8         14.1         16.5
                 Neonatal Mortality Rate \3\                                                                    
1940........................................................         28.8         27.2         39.7         39.9
1950........................................................         20.5         19.4         27.5         27.8
1960........................................................         18.7         17.2         26.9         27.8
1970........................................................         15.1         13.8         21.4         22.8
1980........................................................          8.5          7.5         12.5         14.1
1985........................................................          7.0          6.1         10.3         12.1
1986........................................................          6.7          5.8         10.1         11.7
1987........................................................          6.5          5.5         10.0         11.7
1988........................................................          6.3          5.4          9.7         11.5
1989........................................................          6.2          5.1         10.3         11.9
1990........................................................          5.8          4.8          9.9         11.6
1991........................................................          5.6          4.5          9.5         11.2
1992........................................................          5.4          4.3          9.2         10.8
1993........................................................          5.3          4.3          9.0         10.7
               Postneonatal Mortality Rate \4\                                                                  
1940........................................................         18.3         16.0         34.1         33.0
1950........................................................          8.7          7.4         16.9         16.1
1960........................................................          7.3          5.7         16.4         16.5
1970........................................................          4.9          4.0          9.5          9.9
1980........................................................          4.1          3.5          6.6          7.3
1985........................................................          3.7          3.2          5.5          6.1
1986........................................................          3.6          3.1          5.6          6.3
1987........................................................          3.6          3.1          5.4          6.1
1988........................................................          3.6          3.1          5.4          6.2
1989........................................................          3.6          2.9          6.0          6.7
1990........................................................          3.4          2.8          5.7          6.4
1991........................................................          3.4          2.8          5.6          6.3
1992........................................................          3.1          2.6          5.2          6.0
1993........................................................          3.1          2.5          5.1          5.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ As of 1989, race for live births (the denominator of infant mortality rates) is tabulated according to race 
  of mother. For all prior years, race is tabulated according to race of child.    \2\ Deaths before the age of 
  one.    \3\ Deaths under 28 days.    \4\ Deaths from 28 days to 11 months.                                    
                                                                                                                
Source: Gardner & Hudson (1996).                                                                                


                                    TABLE G-22.--ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) CASES BY AGE AT DIAGNOSIS, SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN, 1985-94                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             All years                                                             Year of report                                               
                                                                \1\                -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Age at diagnosis, sex, race, and Hispanic origin     -------------- All years                                                                                                              
                                                              Percent       \1\        1985       1986       1987       1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994  
                                                           distribution                                                                                                                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Male                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                
All males, 13 years and over \2\.........................         100,0    393,448      7,521     12,002     19,082     27,108     29,622     36,381     37,644     39,129     85,894     63,361
White, not Hispanic......................................          53.8    211,776      4,766      7,527     12,332     16,060     17,523     20,949     20,639     20,856     43,654     29,785
Black, not Hispanic......................................          30.7    120,921      1,706      2,760      4,321      7,159      8,035     10,266     11,113     12,170     28,450     22,627
Hispanic.................................................          14.3     56,229        989      1,608      2,242      3,648      3,735      4,766      5,447      5,616     12,724     10,160
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                          Female                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                
All females, 13 years and over \2\.......................         100.0     61,653        520        962      1,684      3,040      3,367      4,538      5,348      5,953     16,013     13,423
White, not Hispanic......................................          25.2     15,585        141        268        545        853        943      1,223      1,347      1,476      4,068      3,109
Black, not Hispanic......................................          57.3     35,332        279        523        896      1,655      1,894      2,546      3,101      3,391      9,140      7,920
Hispanic.................................................          16.5     10,173         97        160        229        500        496        731        852      1,017      2,633      2,295
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                         Children                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                
All children under 13 years \2\..........................         100.0      6,282        128        183        322        571        587        723        668        751        873        983
White, not Hispanic......................................          19.3      1,215         26         42         85        150        111        150        143        127        149        145
Black, not Hispanic......................................          59.8      3,755         84        105        162        304        335        387        406        486        533        639
Hispanic.................................................          19.8      1,241         18         35         72        112        134        168        112        131        180        184
Under 1 year.............................................          39.4      2,476         54         78        141        193        241        296        255        314        329        334
1-12 years...............................................          60.6      3,806         74        105        181        378        346        427        413        437        544        649
                                                          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total \2\..........................................  ............    461,383      8,189     13,147     21,088     30,719     33,676     41,642     43,660     45,833    102,760     77,787
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes cases prior to 1985.                                                                                                                                                               
\2\ Includes all other races not shown separately.                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                
Note.--The AIDS case definition as changed in September 1987 to allow for the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions and to expand the spectrum of human              
  immunodeficiency virus-associated diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territories. Data are updated periodically because of reporting delays. Data for all years have been
  updated through June 30, 1995. Data are based on reporting by State health departments.                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1996).                                                                                                                                           


    TABLE G-23.--TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, AND DRUG USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS BY SUBSTANCE AND FREQUENCY OF USE,    
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1975-95                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Class of                           
         Substance and frequency of use          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1975    1980    1985    1989    1992    1993    1994    1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
                                                           Percentage reporting having ever used drugs          
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
Cigarettes......................................    73.6    71.0    68.8    65.7    61.8    61.9    62.0    64.2
Alcohol \1\.....................................    90.4    93.2    92.2    90.7    87.5    80.0    80.4    80.7
Any illicit drug................................    55.2    65.4    60.6    50.9    40.7    42.9    45.6    48.4
    Marijuana only..............................    19.0    26.7    20.9    19.5    15.6    16.2    18.0    20.3
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...    36.2    38.7    39.7    31.4    25.1    26.7    27.6    28.1
Selected illicit drugs:                                                                                         
    Cocaine.....................................     9.0    15.7    17.3    10.3     6.1     6.1     5.9     6.0
    Heroin......................................     2.2     1.1     1.2     1.3     1.2     1.1     1.2     1.6
    LSD.........................................    11.3     9.3     7.5     8.3     8.6    10.3    10.5    11.7
    Marijuana/hashish...........................    47.3    60.3    54.2    43.7    32.6    35.3    38.2    41.7
    PCP.........................................      NA     9.6     4.9     3.9     2.4     2.9     2.8     2.7
                                                                                                                
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Percentage reporting use of drugs in the previous 30 days   
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                
Cigarettes......................................    36.7    30.5    30.1    28.6    27.8    29.9    31.2    33.5
Alcohol \1\.....................................    68.2    72.0    65.9    60.0    51.3    48.6    50.1    51.3
Any illicit drug................................    30.7    37.2    29.7    19.7    14.4    18.3    21.9    23.8
    Marijuana only..............................    15.3    18.8    14.8    10.6     8.1    10.4    13.1    13.8
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...    15.4    18.4    14.9     9.1     6.3     7.9     8.8    10.0
Selected illicit drugs:                                                                                         
    Cocaine.....................................     1.9     5.2     6.7     2.8     1.3     1.3     1.5     1.8
    Heroin......................................     0.4     0.2     0.3     0.3     0.3     0.2     0.3     0.6
    LSD.........................................     2.3     2.3     1.6     1.8     2.0     2.4     2.6     4.0
    Marijuana/hashish...........................    27.1    33.7    25.7    16.7    11.9    15.5    19.0    21.2
    PCP.........................................      NA     1.4     1.6     1.4     0.6     1.0     0.7     0.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In 1993, the question text was changed slightly in three of six forms to indicate that a ``drink'' meant    
  ``more than a few sips.'' Data for 1993 and years after are based on all six forms which include this change. 
\2\ Other illicit drugs include hallucinogens, cocaine, and heroin, or any other opiates, stimulants, sedatives,
  or tranquilizers not prescribed by a doctor.                                                                  
                                                                                                                
 NA-- Not available.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
 Note.--A revised questionnaire was used in 1982 and later years to reduce the inappropriate reporting of       
  nonprescription stimulants. This slightly reduced the positive responses for some types of drug use.          
                                                                                                                
Source: Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman (1996).                                                                   


 TABLE G-24.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25, SELECTED YEARS 
                                                     1950-93                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Sex, race and age           1950      1960      1970      1980      1990      1991      1992      1993  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races:                                                                                                      
    Under 1 year................   3,299.2   2,696.4   2,142.4   1,288.3     971.9     916.6     865.7     854.4
    1-4 years...................     139.4     109.1      84.5      63.9      46.8      47.4      43.6      44.8
    5-14 years..................      60.1      46.6      41.3      30.6      24.0      23.6      22.5      23.4
    15-24 years.................     128.1     106.3     127.7     115.4      99.2     100.1      95.6      98.5
White males:                                                                                                    
    Under 1 year................   3,400.5   2,694.1   2,113.2   1,230.3     896.1     860.3     780.9     773.0
    1-4 years...................     135.5     104.9      83.6      66.1      45.9      45.5      42.6      42.9
    5-14 years..................      67.2      52.7      48.0      35.0      26.4      26.5      24.7      25.2
    15-24 years.................     152.4     143.7     170.8     167.0     131.3     128.2     121.5     123.0
Black males:                                                                                                    
    Under 1 year................  ........   5,306.8   4,298.9   2,586.7   2,112.4   1,957.4   1,957.9   1,922.2
    1-4 years...................  ........     208.5     150.5     110.5      85.8      88.4      77.6      86.1
    5-14 years..................      95.1      75.1      67.1      47.4      41.7      42.4      41.2      40.5
    15-24 years.................     289.7     212.0     320.6     209.1     252.2     278.1     269.4     289.4
White females:                                                                                                  
    Under 1 year................   2,566.8   2,007.7   1,614.6     962.5     690.0     659.2     618.7     617.5
    1-4 years...................     112.2      85.2      66.1      49.3      36.1      37.6      33.3      33.6
    5-14 years..................      45.1      34.7      29.9      22.9      17.9      17.2      16.2      17.3
    15-24 years.................      71.5      54.9      61.6      55.5      45.9      46.6      43.9      44.4
Black females:                                                                                                  
    Under 1 year................  ........   4,162.2   3,368.8   2,123.7   1,735.5   1,580.8   1,609.7   1,543.2
    1-4 years...................  ........     173.3     129.4      84.4      67.6      70.8      68.7      71.9
    5-14 years..................      72.2      53.8      43.8      30.5      27.5      25.8      26.0      29.5
    15-24 years.................     213.1     107.5     111.9      70.5      68.7      72.6      67.8      73.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Death rates under 1 year (based on population estimates) differ from infant mortality rates (based on    
  live births).                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


  TABLE G-25. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25, 
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1950-93                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year                             
                Sex, race and age                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1950    1960    1970    1980    1990    1991    1992    1993 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Age                                                                                      
                                                                                                                
Under 1 year....................................     8.4     8.1     9.8     7.0     4.9     4.3     4.8     4.9
1-4 years.......................................    11.5    10.0    11.5     9.2     6.3     5.9     5.5     5.6
5-14 years......................................     8.8     7.9    10.2     7.9     5.9     5.6     5.2     5.3
15-24 years.....................................    34.4    38.0    47.2    44.8    34.1    32.0    28.5    29.1
                                                                                                                
                  Race and sex                                                                                  
                  (15-24 years)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
White male......................................    58.3    62.7    75.2    73.8    52.5    48.3    42.3    43.8
Black male......................................    41.6    46.4    58.1    34.9    36.1    35.0    32.4    34.3
White female....................................    12.6    15.6    22.7    23.0    19.5    19.6    17.7    17.1
Black female....................................    11.5     9.9    13.4     8.0     9.9    10.0     9.5    10.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


  TABLE G-26. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 FOR HOMICIDE AND LEGAL INTERVENTION ACCORDING TO SEX, RACE AND AGE IN THE 
                                      UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-93                                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year                             
               Sex, race, and age                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1950    1960    1970    1980    1990    1991    1992    1993 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Age                                                                                      
                                                                                                                
5-14 years......................................     0.5     0.5     0.9     1.2     1.5     1.4     1.6     1.8
15-24 years.....................................     6.3     5.9    11.7    15.6    19.9    22.4    22.2    23.4
                                                                                                                
                  Race and sex                                                                                  
                  (15-24 years)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
White male......................................     3.7     4.4     7.9    15.5    15.4    16.9    17.5    17.1
Black male......................................    58.9    46.4   102.5    84.3   138.3   158.9   154.4   167.0
White female....................................     1.3     1.5     2.7     4.7     4.0     4.4     4.1     4.2
Black female....................................    16.5    11.9    17.7    18.4    18.9    21.6    18.4    22.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


TABLE G-27.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY SUICIDE BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE IN THE UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-
                                                       93                                                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           Year                                 
            Sex, race and age            -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            1950     1960     1970     1980     1990     1991     1992     1993 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Age                                                                                          
                                                                                                                
5-14 years..............................      0.2      0.3      0.3      0.4      0.8      0.7      0.9      0.9
15-24 years.............................      4.5      5.2      8.8     12.3     13.2     13.1     13.0     13.5
                                                                                                                
              Race and sex                                                                                      
              (15-24 years)                                                                                     
                                                                                                                
White male..............................      6.6      8.6     13.9     21.4     23.2     23.0     22.7     23.1
Black male..............................      4.9      4.1     10.5     12.3     15.1     16.4     18.0     20.1
White female............................      2.7      2.3      4.2      4.6      4.2      4.2      3.8      4.3
Black female............................      1.8      1.3      3.8      2.3      2.3      1.6      2.2      2.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


                         TABLE G-28.--MEAN SAT SCORES FOR COLLEGE-BOUND SENIORS, 1967-94                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Verbal                      Math          
                           Year                            -----------------------------------------------------
                                                             Males   Females   Total    Males   Females   Total 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1967 \1\..................................................      463      468      466      514      467      492
1968 \1\..................................................      464      466      466      512      470      492
1969 \1\..................................................      459      466      463      513      470      493
1970 \1\..................................................      459      461      460      509      465      488
1971 \1\..................................................      454      457      455      507      466      488
1972......................................................      454      452      453      505      461      484
1973......................................................      446      443      445      502      460      481
1974......................................................      447      442      444      501      459      480
1975......................................................      437      431      434      495      449      472
1976......................................................      433      430      431      497      446      472
1977......................................................      431      427      429      497      445      470
1978......................................................      433      425      429      494      444      468
1979......................................................      431      423      427      493      443      467
1980......................................................      428      420      424      491      443      466
1981......................................................      430      418      424      492      443      466
1982......................................................      431      421      426      493      443      467
1983......................................................      430      420      425      493      445      468
1984......................................................      433      420      426      495      449      471
1985......................................................      437      425      431      499      452      475
1986......................................................      437      426      431      501      451      475
1987......................................................      435      425      430      500      453      476
1988......................................................      435      422      428      498      455      476
1989......................................................      434      421      427      500      454      476
1990......................................................      429      419      424      499      455      476
1991......................................................      426      418      422      497      453      474
1992......................................................      428      419      423      499      456      476
1993......................................................      428      420      424      502      457      478
1994......................................................      425      421      423      501      460      479
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The averages for 1967-71 are estimates. College-bound seniors' reports were not prepared in those years.    
                                                                                                                
Source: College Board (1995).                                                                                   


                 TABLE G-29.--EVENT DROPOUT RATES FROM GRADES 10-12 BY SEX AND RACE, 1973-94 \1\                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             White               Black           Hispanic \2\   
                        Year                         -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1973................................................       6.1       5.3      12.0       8.4       7.9      12.0
1974................................................       7.0       5.1      10.8      12.2      12.5       7.2
1975................................................       5.0       5.8       8.3       9.0      10.1      11.6
1976................................................       6.3       5.0       8.5       6.2       7.3       6.8
1977................................................       6.9       5.6       8.3       9.0      10.3       5.2
1978................................................       6.9       5.3      11.0       9.7      15.6       8.5
1979................................................       6.6       5.8       7.5      11.5      10.2       9.1
1980................................................       6.4       4.9       8.0       8.5      16.9       6.9
1981................................................       5.6       4.9       9.4      10.2      10.6      10.9
1982................................................       5.3       4.9       9.0       6.5       9.5       9.0
1983................................................       5.4       4.2       7.0       6.8      13.7       6.2
1984................................................       5.3       4.6       6.2       5.3      12.2      10.1
1985................................................       4.9       4.7       8.3       7.2       9.3       9.8
1986 \3\............................................       4.2       4.1       5.0       4.6      11.7      12.4
1987 \3\............................................       4.1       3.4       6.2       6.4       5.0       6.2
1988 \3\............................................       5.1       4.3       6.7       6.0      12.3       8.4
1989 \3\............................................       4.1       3.8       6.9       8.6       7.6       7.7
1990 \3\............................................       4.1       3.5       4.1       6.0       8.7       7.2
1991 \3\............................................       3.6       3.8       5.5       7.0      10.4       4.8
1992 \3\............................................       3.8       4.4       3.3       6.7       5.8       8.6
1993 \3\............................................       4.1       4.1       5.7       5.0       4.8       7.7
1994 \4\............................................       4.6       4.9       6.5       5.7       8.4      10.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Event dropout rates measure the percentage of students who leave high school in a single year, without      
  having completed a high school diploma.                                                                       
\2\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new editing procedures by the Bureau of the Census for cases with missing   
  data on school enrollment items.                                                                              
\4\ The computer assisted survey instrument improved response rates. It was first used for the full sample in   
  1994.                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996c).                                                                      


 TABLE G-30.--HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATES FOR 18-24 YEAR OLDS, BY RACE/
                           ETHNICITY, 1972-94                           
                              [In percent]                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Race/ethnicity \1\      
                                        --------------------------------
            Year                Total    White non- Black non-          
                                          Hispanic   Hispanic   Hispanic
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1972........................       82.8       86.0       72.1       56.2
1973........................       83.7       87.0       71.6       58.7
1974........................       83.6       86.7       73.0       60.1
1975........................       83.8       87.2       70.2       62.2
1976........................       83.5       86.4       73.5       60.3
1977........................       83.6       86.7       73.9       58.6
1978........................       83.6       86.9       73.4       58.8
1979........................       83.1       86.6       72.6       58.5
1980........................       83.9       87.5       75.2       57.1
1981........................       83.8       87.1       76.7       59.1
1982........................       83.8       87.0       76.4       60.9
1983........................       83.9       87.4       76.8       59.4
1984........................       84.7       87.5       80.3       63.7
1985........................       85.4       88.2       81.0       66.6
1986........................       85.5       88.8       81.8       63.5
1987 \2\....................       84.7       87.7       81.9       65.1
1988 \2\....................       84.5       88.7       80.9       58.2
1989 \2\....................       84.7       89.0       81.9       59.4
1990 \2\....................       85.6       89.6       83.2       59.1
1991 \2\....................       84.9       89.4       82.5       56.5
1992 \2\ \3\................       86.4       90.7       82.0       62.1
1993 \2\ \3\................       86.2       90.1       81.9       64.4
1994 \2\ \3\ \4\............       85.8       90.7       83.3       61.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Not shown separately are non-Hispanics who are neither black nor    
  white, but who are included in the total.                             
\2\ Revisions in edits were instituted by the Bureau of the Census this 
  year for cases with missing data on school enrollment items.          
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new wording of the educational      
  attainment item in the Current Population Survey (CPS).               
\4\ Numbers in this year may reflect changes in CPS due to newly        
  instituted computer assisted interviewing and/or due to the change in 
  the population controls used this year to adjust for the 1990 Census- 
  based estimates.                                                      
                                                                        
Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1996).                


         TABLE G-31.--TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND INCOME COMPOSITION OF FEMALE-HEADED FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN, 1979, 1989, AND 1994        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Poor \1\                   Nonpoor \1\                        Total             
                           Category                           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 1979     1989     1994     1979      1989       1994       1979       1989       1994  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in thousands)............................    2,458    3,434    4,105    3,729      4,431      5,110      6,187      7,865      9,215
Family characteristics:                                                                                                                                 
    Percent never-married....................................     26.0     37.3     41.6     10.2       17.6       21.3       16.5       26.2       30.3
    Percent with head age 15-19..............................      3.9      2.9      3.4      0.4        0.3        0.4        1.8        1.5        1.7
    Percent with head age 20-29..............................     36.4     37.3     34.2     21.7       17.3       16.0       27.6       26.0       24.1
    Percent with head 30 and over............................     59.6     59.8     62.4     77.8       82.3       83.6       70.6       72.5       74.1
    Percent white non-Hispanic \2\...........................     43.1     42.6     42.7     69.4       64.1       63.3       59.0       54.7       54.1
    Percent black non-Hispanic...............................     44.9     42.0     39.1     24.7       27.6       26.6       32.7       33.9       32.2
    Percent Hispanic.........................................     12.0     15.4     18.2      5.9        8.4       10.1        8.3       11.4       13.7
    Average family size......................................      3.7      3.4      3.4      3.2        3.0        3.0        3.4        3.2        3.2
Percent with income from:                                                                                                                               
    Earnings \3\.............................................     49.7     49.0     52.6     94.8       96.2       95.3       76.9       75.6       76.3
    OASDI, railroad retirement...............................     12.6     10.8      9.9     21.5       16.3       16.3       18.0       13.9       13.4
    Pensions.................................................      1.1      1.7      1.0      4.4        5.8        4.3        3.0        4.0        2.8
    UC and other compensation................................      6.3      4.7      6.3     14.9       11.3       10.9       11.5        8.4        8.9
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance............................     65.0     60.9     61.8     18.2       11.0       15.4       36.8       32.8       36.1
    Child support, alimony...................................     18.6     26.9     29.0     44.0       45.5       47.8       33.9       37.4       39.4
    Interest, dividends \3\..................................     13.4     11.2     11.3     53.6       53.5       52.1       37.6       35.0       33.9
    Food stamps..............................................     67.2     66.5     70.9     16.6       10.4       16.6       36.7       34.9       40.8
    Housing assistance.......................................     21.6     29.9     30.8      6.0        6.0        7.3       12.2       16.4       17.8
Percent of total income from:                                                                                                                           
    Earnings \3\.............................................     24.8     27.8     29.0     74.2       79.1       78.7       64.9       69.7       68.8
    OASDI, railroad retirement...............................      5.7      5.9      5.4      6.8        4.6        4.8        6.6        4.8        4.9
    Pensions.................................................      0.4      0.6      0.4      1.2        1.5        1.3        1.1        1.3        1.1
    UC and other compensation................................      1.5      1.0      1.3      1.5        1.2        1.3        1.5        1.1        1.3
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance............................     38.1     32.9     30.1      3.8        1.5        2.7       10.2        7.3        8.1
    Child support, alimony...................................      4.8      5.8      6.3      8.1        8.1        8.1        7.5        7.7        7.7
    Interest, dividends \3\..................................      0.3      0.3      0.3      2.9        3.4        2.1        2.4        2.9        1.7
    Food stamps \4\..........................................     16.5     16.5     18.4      0.9        0.4        0.9        3.8        3.4        4.3
    Housing assistance \4\...................................      8.0      9.2      8.9      0.7        0.2        0.3        2.1        1.9        2.0
Mean income per family member \5\ (1994 dollars).............   $2,758   $2,646   $2,729   $9,133    $10,393    $10,185     $6,387     $6,826     $6,575
Percent with 50 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\..............................................     58.8     55.2     56.2      4.5        1.6        3.0       26.1       25.0       26.7
Percent with 90 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\..............................................     39.0     37.4     34.4      1.3        0.4        0.5       16.3       16.6      15.6 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                                                                     
\2\ Includes ``other races.''                                                                                                                           
\3\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                                                        
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for
  purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage 
  share of total income.                                                                                                                                
\5\ Includes cash values of food stamps and housing assistance and includes negative incomes (i.e., losses). Mean income converted to 1992 dollars using
  the CPI-X price index.                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on data from annual March Current Population Surveys.                                    


         TABLE G-32.--TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND INCOME COMPOSITION OF MALE-PRESENT FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN, 1979, 1989, AND 1994         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Poor \1\                      Nonpoor \1\                         Total             
                        Category                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            1979      1989      1994       1979       1989       1994       1979       1989       1994  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in thousands).......................     1,663     2,142     2,614     24,315     24,761     25,583     25,978     26,903     28,198
Family characteristics:                                                                                                                                 
    Percent with head age 15-19.........................       1.1       1.3       1.4        0.3        0.2        0.2        0.4        0.3        0.3
    Percent with head age 20-29.........................      25.4      26.7      24.7       19.3       15.1       12.5       19.6       16.0       13.6
    Percent with head 30 and over.......................      73.6      72.0      73.9       80.4       84.8       87.4       80.0       83.8       86.1
    Percent white non-Hispanic \2\......................      66.2      59.4      55.5       86.1       83.9       82.4       84.8       81.9       79.6
    Percent black non-Hispanic..........................      18.0      17.0      13.9        7.7        8.1        8.2        8.3        8.8        8.7
    Percent Hispanic....................................      15.8      23.6      30.7        6.2        8.0        9.4        6.8        9.2       11.4
    Average family size.................................       4.8       4.6       4.5        4.2        4.1        4.1        4.3        4.1        4.1
Percent with income from:                                                                                                                               
    Earnings \3\........................................      82.3      83.7      79.1       99.4       99.1       99.1       98.3       97.9       97.3
    OASDI, railroad retirement..........................      14.3       8.7       8.5        5.9        5.6        6.0        6.4        5.9        6.2
    Pensions............................................       2.1       1.7       1.5        4.1        4.7        4.1        4.0        4.4        3.8
    UC and other compensation...........................      16.8      15.7      14.5       17.2       12.9       14.1       17.2       13.2       14.2
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance.......................      24.3      25.0      25.2        3.2        2.7        3.4        4.5        4.5        5.4
    Child support, alimony..............................       7.4      12.0      13.6       11.3       15.3       16.6       11.0       15.0       16.3
    Interest, dividends \3\.............................      27.4      20.4      23.2       73.9       73.3       73.8       71.0       69.1       69.1
    Food stamps.........................................      41.8      42.2      47.3        3.5        2.5        3.8        6.0        5.6        7.8
    Housing assistance..................................       7.3      10.2      11.7        1.1        0.8        1.2        1.5        1.5        2.1
Percent of total income from:                                                                                                                           
    Earnings \3\........................................      62.5      66.8      64.4       93.2       92.7       92.5       92.7       92.2       91.9
    OASDI, railroad retirement..........................       8.1       5.3       5.0        1.0        0.9        1.0        1.1        1.0        1.1
    Pensions............................................       0.7       0.6       0.4        0.9        0.9        0.8        1.1        0.9        0.7
    UC and other compensation...........................       4.4       3.5       3.2        1.0        0.9        1.0        1.1        0.9        1.0
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance.......................      10.3      10.8      11.4        0.3        0.2        0.3        0.4        0.4        0.5
    Child support, alimony..............................       1.5       2.2       3.0        0.7        0.9        1.2        0.7        0.9        1.3
    Interest, dividends \3\.............................       1.7       1.3       0.9        2.8        3.5        3.1        2.8        3.5        3.0
    Food stamps \4\.....................................       8.7       7.7       9.4        0.1        0.1        0.1        0.2        0.2        0.3
    Housing assistance \4\..............................       2.3       1.8       2.4        0.1        0.0        0.0        0.1        0.1        0.1
Mean income per family member \5\ (1994 dollars)........    $2,361    $2,555    $2,472    $12,295    $13,922    $13,996    $11,633    $12,905    $12,834
Percent with 50 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\.........................................      15.3      16.5      19.0        0.2        0.2        0.4        1.2        1.5        2.1
Percent with 90 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\.........................................       7.1       8.9      10.4        0.0        0.1        0.1        0.5        0.8       1.1 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                                                                     
\2\ Includes ``other races.''                                                                                                                           
\3\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                                                        
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for
  purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage 
  share of total income.                                                                                                                                
\5\ Includes cash values of food stamps and housing assistance, and includes negative incomes (i.e., losses). 1979 and 1989 income converted to 1994    
  dollars using the CPI-X price index.                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on data from annual March Current Population Surveys.                                    


       TABLE G-33.--NUMBER, PERCENT COMPOSITION, AND RATES OF CHILDREN BELOW POVERTY, \1\ BY RACE, 1974-94      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Number                                    Rate                 
             Year              ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Total    Black    White   Hispanic \2\   Total    Black    White   Hispanic \2\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1974..........................   10,156    3,755    6,223          NA       15.4     39.8     11.2          NA  
1975..........................   11,104    3,925    6,927          NA       17.1     41.7     12.7          NA  
1976..........................   10,273    3,787    6,189       1,443       16.0     40.6     11.6        30.2  
1977..........................   10,288    3,888    6,097       1,422       16.2     41.8     11.6        28.3  
1978..........................    9,931    3,830    5,831       1,384       15.9     41.5     11.3        27.6  
1979..........................   10,377    3,833    6,193       1,535       16.4     41.2     11.8        28.0  
1980..........................   11,543    3,961    7,181       1,749       18.3     42.3     13.9        33.2  
1981..........................   12,505    4,237    7,785       1,925       20.0     45.2     15.2        35.8  
1982..........................   13,647    4,472    8,678       2,181       21.9     47.6     17.0        39.4  
1983..........................   13,911    4,398    8,862       2,312       22.3     46.7     17.5        38.1  
1984..........................   13,420    4,413    8,472       2,376       21.5     46.5     16.7        39.2  
1985..........................   13,010    4,157    8,253       2,606       20.7     43.6     16.2        40.3  
1986..........................   12,876    4,148    8,209       2,507       20.5     43.1     16.1        37.7  
1987 \3\......................   12,843    4,385    7,788       2,670       20.3     45.1     15.3        39.3  
1988..........................   12,455    4,296    7,435       2,631       19.5     43.5     14.5        37.6  
1989..........................   12,590    4,375    7,599       2,603       19.6     43.7     14.8        36.2  
1990..........................   13,431    4,550    8,232       2,865       20.6     44.8     15.9        38.4  
1991..........................   14,341    4,755    8,848       3,094       21.8     45.9     16.8        40.4  
1992 \4\......................   15,294    5,106    9,399       3,637       22.3     46.6     17.4        40.0  
1993..........................   15,727    5,125    9,752       3,873       22.7     46.1     17.8        40.9  
1994..........................   15,289    4,906    9,346       4,075       21.8     43.8     16.9        41.5  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes all persons under 18 below the poverty level, including unrelated children.    \2\ Hispanic origin 
  may be of any race; this category is not exclusive.    \3\ The 1987 numbers have been revised.    \4\ For     
  1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                                   
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                      


                                  TABLE G-34.--COMPOSITION OF CHILD POVERTY POPULATION BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-94                                 
                                                                     [In thousands]                                                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Female head               Percent               Male present               Percent
                     Year                       Total  ----------------------------------------    of   ----------------------------------------    of  
                                                 poor   Nonwhite   White  Hispanic \1\   Total   total   Nonwhite   White  Hispanic \1\   Total   total 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966.........................................   12,146    2,150    2,112         NA      4,262    35.1     2,792    5,092         NA      7,884    64.9 
1967.........................................   11,427    2,316    1,930         NA      4,246    37.2     2,382    4,799         NA      7,181    62.8 
1968.........................................   10,739    2,334    2,075         NA      4,409    41.1     2,032    4,298         NA      6,330    58.9 
1969.........................................    9,500    2,179    2,068         NA      4,247    44.7     1,655    3,598         NA      5,253    55.3 
1970.........................................   10,235    2,442    2,247         NA      4,689    45.8     1,651    3,891         NA      5,546    54.2 
1971.........................................   10,344    2,398    2,452         NA      4,850    46.9     1,605    3,889         NA      5,494    53.1 
1972.........................................   10,082    2,821    2,273         NA      5,094    50.5     1,477    3,511         NA      4,988    49.5 
1973.........................................    9,453    2,710    2,461        606      5,171    54.7     1,281    3,001        758      4,282    45.3 
1974.........................................    9,966    2,678    2,683        621      5,361    53.8     1,209    3,396        793      4,605    46.2 
1975.........................................   10,881    2,784    2,813        694      5,597    51.4     1,350    3,394        925      5,284    48.6 
1976.........................................   10,080    2,870    2,713        636      5,583    55.4     1,176    3,321        789      4,497    44.6 
1977.........................................   10,029    2,965    2,693        686      5,658    56.4     1,121    3,250        716      4,371    43.6 
1978.........................................    9,722    3,060    2,627        663      5,687    58.5       988    3,047        692      4,035    41.5 
1979.........................................    9,993    3,006    2,629        668      5,635    56.4     1,079    3,279        837      4,358    43.6 
1980.........................................   11,114    3,053    2,813        809      5,866    52.8     1,244    4,004        909      5,248    47.2 
1981.........................................   12,069    3,185    3,120        909      6,305    52.2     1,455    4,309        966      5,764    47.8 
1982.........................................   13,139    3,447    3,249        990      6,696    51.0     1,411    5,032      1,127      6,443    49.0 
1983.........................................   13,427    3,359    3,388      1,018      6,747    50.2     1,534    5,146      1,233      6,680    49.8 
1984.........................................   12,929    3,395    3,377      1,093      6,772    52.4     1,448    4,709      1,223      6,157    47.6 
1985.........................................   12,483    3,344    3,372      1,247      6,716    53.8     1,300    4,467      1,266      5,767    46.2 
1986.........................................   12,257    3,421    3,522      1,194      6,943    56.6     1,121    4,192      1,219      5,313    43.3 
1987.........................................   12,435    3,600    3,474      1,241      7,074    56.9     1,285    4,076      1,390      5,361    43.1 
1987 \2\.....................................   12,275    3,586    3,433      1,250      7,019    57.2     1,291    3,966      1,356      5,257    42.8 
1988.........................................   11,935    3,530    3,424      1,294      6,954    58.3     1,310    3,671      1,282      4,981    41.7 
1989.........................................   12,001    3,553    3,255      1,158      6,808    56.7     1,285    3,908      1,338      5,193    43.3 
1990.........................................   12,715    3,766    3,597      1,314      7,363    57.9     1,253    4,098      1,437      5,352    42.1 
1991.........................................   13,658    4,125    3,941      1,398      8,065    59.1     1,217    4,376      1,579      5,593    40.9 
1992 \3\.....................................   14,521    4,408    3,960      1,504      8,368    57.6     1,361    4,792      1,936      6,153    42.4 
1993.........................................   14,961    4,401    4,102      1,673      8,503    56.8     1,437    5,021      1,993      6,458    43.2 
1994.........................................   14,610    4,328    4,099      1,804      8,427    57.7     1,456    4,727      2,152      6,183    42.3 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                                                                      
\2\ Revised.                                                                                                                                            
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Includes only related children in families. 1987 revised through 1991 estimates are not comparable to prior years due to processing changes in   
  the CPS.                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                        
 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                                                             


                     TABLE G-35.--POVERTY RATE OF CHILDREN BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-94                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Female head                          Male present            
            Year               Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total   Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966........................    17.4    76.6    46.9         NA       58.2    39.9     9.2         NA       12.6
1967........................    16.3    72.4    42.1         NA       54.3    35.3     8.7         NA       11.5
1968........................    15.3    70.5    44.4         NA       55.2    29.8     7.8         NA       10.2
1969........................    13.8    68.2    45.2         NA       54.4    25.0     6.7         NA        8.6
1970........................    14.9    67.7    43.1         NA       53.0    26.0     7.3         NA        9.2
1971........................    15.1    66.6    44.6         NA       53.1    25.5     7.4         NA        9.3
1972........................    14.9    69.5    41.1         NA       53.1    24.1     6.8         NA        8.6
1973........................    14.2    67.2    42.1       68.7       52.1    21.7     6.0       18.8        7.6
1974........................    15.1    65.0    42.9       64.3       51.5    20.0     6.9       20.0        8.7
1975........................    16.8    66.0    44.2       68.4       52.7    22.1     8.2       23.8        9.8
1976........................    15.8    65.6    42.7       67.3       52.0    19.4     7.1       20.8        8.5
1977........................    16.0    65.7    40.3       68.6       50.3    19.9     7.1       17.9        8.5
1978........................    15.7    66.4    39.9       68.9       50.6    17.6     6.8       17.2        7.9
1979........................    16.0    63.1    38.6       62.2       48.6    18.7     7.3       19.2        8.5
1980........................    17.9    64.8    41.6       65.0       50.8    20.3     9.0       22.9       10.4
1981........................    19.5    67.7    42.8       67.3       52.3    23.4    10.0       24.5       11.6
1982........................    21.3    70.7    46.5       71.8       56.0    24.1    11.6       27.8       13.0
1983........................    21.8    68.3    47.1       70.6       55.4    23.7    12.0       27.2       13.5
1984........................    21.0    66.2    45.9       71.0       54.0    24.3    11.0       27.5       12.5
1985........................    20.1    66.9    45.2       72.4       53.6    18.8    10.4       27.4       11.7
1986........................    19.8    67.1    46.3       66.7       54.4    17.0     9.8       25.8       10.8
1987........................    20.0    68.3    45.8       70.1       54.7    19.8     9.5       28.3       10.9
1987 \2\....................    19.7    66.9    45.0       69.8       53.7    19.1     9.3       27.7       10.6
1988........................    19.0    64.7    44.9       69.6       52.9    18.7     8.5       25.4       10.0
1989........................    19.0    63.1    42.5       64.3       51.1    20.3     9.1       25.5       10.4
1990........................    19.9    64.7    45.9       68.4       53.4    19.3     9.5       26.7       10.7
1991........................    21.1    68.2    47.1       68.6       55.5    17.3    10.1       29.1       11.1
1992 \3\....................    21.6    67.1    45.9       65.9       54.6    19.4    10.3       29.6       11.8
1993........................    22.0    65.9    45.6       66.1       53.7    19.5    11.3       29.9       12.4
1994........................    21.2    63.2    45.7       68.3       52.9    17.7    10.4       30.8       11.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
\2\ Revised.                                                                                                    
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                             
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Data are number per 100. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                      


      TABLE G-36.--NUMBER OF POOR CHILDREN UNDER 6 AND FROM 6 TO 17 YEARS AND THEIR POVERTY RATES, 1966-94      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Total                  Total              
                                            Total        Total      number of    Poverty   number of    Poverty 
                                          number of      number        poor      rate of      poor      rate of 
                  Year                     children     under 6      children   children  children 6-   children
                                           under 18   (thousands)    under 6     under 6    17 years      6-17  
                                         (thousands)               (thousands)            (thousands)    years  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966...................................      70,218       23,779        4,304       18.1       8,085        17.4
1967...................................      70,408       23,171        4,055       17.5       7,601        16.1
1968...................................      70,385       22,249        3,659       16.6       7,295        15.2
1969...................................      69,090       21,681        3,361       15.5       6,330        13.4
1970...................................      69,159       21,556        3,601       16.7       6,839        14.4
1971...................................      68,816       20,898        3,579       17.1       6,972        14.5
1972...................................      67,930       20,510        3,388       16.5       6,896        14.5
1973...................................      66,959       20,043        3,204       16.0       6,438        13.7
1974...................................      66,134       19,887        3,361       16.9       6,795        14.7
1975...................................      65,079       19,353        3,522       18.2       7,582        16.6
1976...................................      64,028       18,971        3,358       17.7       6,915        15.3
1977...................................      63,137       18,518        3,426       18.5       6,862        15.4
1978...................................      62,311       18,789        3,344       17.8       6,587        15.1
1979...................................      63,375       19,012        3,479       18.3       6,898        15.5
1980...................................      62,914       19,974        4,054       20.3       7,489        17.4
1981...................................      62,449       20,396        4,487       22.0       8,018        19.1
1982...................................      62,345       20,789        4,899       23.6       8,748        21.1
1983...................................      62,334       21,039        5,302       25.0       8,609        20.8
1984...................................      62,447       21,196        5,066       23.9       8,354        20.3
1985...................................      62,876       21,526        4,951       23.0       8,059        19.5
1986...................................      62,948       21,656        4,796       22.1       8,080        19.6
1987...................................      63,290       21,860        4,984       22.8       7,979        19.3
1988 (revised).........................      63,747       22,232        4,957       22.3       7,499        18.1
1989...................................      64,144       22,505        5,071       22.5       7,518        18.1
1990...................................      65,049       22,937        5,412       23.6       8,019        19.0
1991...................................      65,918       23,206        5,702       24.6       8,639        20.2
1992 \1\...............................      68,440       24,070        6,360       26.4       8,934        20.1
1993...................................      69,929       24,219        6,352       26.5       9,375        20.8
1994...................................      70,020       24,265        6,093       25.1       9,196        20.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                             
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                      

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