[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Index]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]






 
                 [1996 Green Book] INDEX

AAPCC; see Adjusted average per capita costs 
Ability to work, 334-337 
Accelerated death benefits, tax benefits for, 797-799 
ACR; see Adjusted community rating 
ADC; see Aid to Families with Dependent Children 
Adjusted average per capita costs (AAPCC), 205; 207-209 
Adjusted community rating (ACR), 204-207 
Administrative law judge (ALJ), 45; (Table 1-21), 47 
Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), 
 743-745; 759-762 
Adoption assistance agreements (definition), 713-714 
ADOPTION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM, 712-718 
  Adoption subsidies, 713-714 
  AFCARS, 743-745; 759-762 
  Agreements, 713-714 
  CBO baseline projections, 694; (Table 12-4), 697 
  Data, 742-745; 751-753 
  Expenditures, 718 
  Interethnic adoptions; see Appendix L 
  Legislative history, 762-76 
    See also Appendix L 
  Medicaid coverage, 713 
  Nonrecurring adoption costs, 714 
  Payments, 713-714 
  ``Special needs'' child, 712-713 
  Tax provisions, 831 
Adoption subsidies, 713-714  
Adult Training Program (Title II-A), 928-930; (Table 17-34), 932 
AFCARS; see Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System  
AFDC; see Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program  
AFDC Child Care Program, 646-647; (Table 10-13), 656-658; (Table 
 10-14), 659-660 
  See also Appendix L 
AFDC Single Parent Program, 456; (Table 8-21), 458  
AFDC-UP, 394-396  
  Benefit payments (Table 8-21), 458; (Table 8-24), 463-465 
  JTPA, interaction with, 396 
AIDS, SSI interaction with, 269  
AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN, 383-527  
  Adolescent pregnancy and use of AFDC, 513-517 
  AFDC Child Care Program, 646-647; (Table 10-13), 656-658; 
   (Table 10-14), 659-660 
  Assistance unit, 388-389 
  Benefit levels, 435-454 
    Combined AFDC and Food Stamps, 436-438 
    Income eligibility limits, 450; (Table 8-17), 451-453 
    Maximum benefits, 435-436; (Table 8-15), 446-448 
    ``Special needs,'' 450; 454 
    State discretion in establishing, 385-388 
    Trends, 442-449 
  Caseload data, 456-471 
  Characteristics of AFDC families, 472-491 
  Child care, Title IV-A, 414 
    Costs, disregard of, 390 
    See also Child Care (Section 10) 
  CSE, interaction with, 398-400 
    Bankruptcy, 563-564 
AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN--Continued  
  CSE, interaction with--Continued 
    Collection of child support (Table 9-13), 600-601; (Table 
     9-15), 604-605 
    Eligibility, 530 
    Paternity establishment, 538-541 
    State requirements, 534-537 
  Demonstration projects, 434-435 
  Disregards, history of earned income, 389-391; (Table 8-31), 
   478 
  Duration of AFDC, 506-508 
  Earned income, treatment of, 389-391 
  EIC, treatment of, 391; 398 
  Eligibility criteria for benefits, 384-388 
  Emergency Assistance Program (EA), 428-434 
  Endings and beginnings of AFDC spells, 502-504 
  Error measurement, 492-493 
  Error tolerance level, 493 
  Exits and returns, 502 
  Fill-the-gap method of payment, 391 
  Food Stamp Program, interaction with, 397; 859; 873 
  Foster Care Program, interaction with, 706-712; 736-737 
    Exclusion from AFDC assistance units, 712 
  Funding, 454-456 
  Income, treatment of, 388-393 
  Intergenerational transmission of AFDC receipt, 510-513 
  JTPA, interaction with, 389; 401; 929 
  ``Kinship'' care, 739-740 
  Legislative history, 517-526 
    See also Appendix L 
  LIHEAP, interaction with, 401 
  Lump sum payments, treatment of, 389 
  Means-tested programs, 401-402; 854-855 
  Medicaid Program, interaction with, 396-397; 882 
  Monthly reporting, 394 
  ``Need standard,'' 436-439; (Table 8-14), 443-445 
  Out-of-wedlock childbearing and use of AFDC, 513-517 
  ``Payment standard,'' 436 
  Quality control system, 482; 492-500 
  Resources, treatment of, 394 
  School Lunch and Breakfast Programs eligibility, 401; 924 
  Section 1115 [of the Social Security Act], 434-435 
  Self-employment, 389-390 
  Social Security benefits, treatment of, 400-401 
  ``Special needs,'' 450; 454 
  Spells on AFDC, 502-504 
  SSI, interaction with, 271; 400-401 
  State AFDC guarantees, 435-436  
  State data, 482; 483-491  
  Tax provisions, 809-810  
  Teenage mothers, 513-517  
  Time on AFDC, length of, 505-506  
  Title IV-A Child Care, 414; (Tables 10-19 & 10-20), 670-674  
  Unearned income, treatment of, 389  
  Unemployed-Parent Program; see AFDC-UP  
  Waivers to States of Title IV-A requirements, 434-435  
  Welfare dependency, 508-510  
  WIC, interaction with, 401; 927  
  See also AFDC Child Care Program 
  See also AFDC Single Parent Program 
  See also AFDC-UP 
  See also Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program 
AIME; see Average indexed monthly earnings  
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant, 686  
Aliens; see Appendix J  
  See also Appendix L 
ALJ; see Administrative law judge  
Ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 190; 193-194; (Table 3-27), 
 195  
American Bar Association Child Support Project, 532  
American Samoa, 767-772  
``As charged'' basis, 947  
ASCs; see Ambulatory surgical centers  
Assignment rules (definition), 566  
Assistance unit (definition), 388-389  
ATP card; see Authorization-to-participate card  
At-Risk Child Care Program, 435; 648; (Tables 10-15 & 10-16), 661-
 665  
  AFDC, interaction with, 435 
  See also Appendix L 
Authorization-to-participate card (ATP), 868  
Automobiles, treatment of:  
  AFDC, 394 
  Food stamps, 865 
Availability for work, 334-337  
Average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU), 357  
AWIU; see Average weekly insured unemployment  

Base year, 361  
Bend points, 29  
Benefit year, 361-362  
Black lung benefits, 946  
  Tax exclusion of special benefits, 814-815 
Blind, additional personal tax exemptions for, 815-816  
Boren amendment, 888  
``Break-even point,'' 301  
Breakfast Program; see School Lunch and Breakfast Programs  

CACFP; see Child and Adult Care Food Program  
Cafeteria plans, 793-795  
CAPTA; see Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act  
``Categorically needy,'' 879; (Table 17-17), 903-904  
``Categorical'' tests for eligibility, 860; 866  
CCDBG; see Child Care and Development Block Grant Program  
CDR; see Continuing disability review  
Cents-per-hour tax, 125  
Certified nurse midwife services, 184  
Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), 184  
``Change in circumstances,'' 544-545  
``Chargeable'' employer, 338  
Child abuse and neglect, 733-734  
  Fatalities, 734  
  Sexual abuse, 689-690  
  Substance abuse, 734-736  
  Substantiated cases, 733  
  Trends, 733  
  Types of maltreatment, 733-734  
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), 733  
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 652-654  
  See also Appendix L  
CHILD CARE, 625-677  
  Arrangements used by working mothers, 629-635  
  At-Risk Child Care Program, 435; 648; (Table 10-15), 661-663; 
  (Table 10-16), 664-665  
  Costs, 635-637  
  Costs, disregard of, 389-391  
  Data, 654-677  
  Dependent tax credit, 646; 810-812  
  Early childhood development, 639-640  
  Federal role, 639-645  
  Head Start, 654; 934-936  
  Labor force participation of mothers, 626-629  
  Latch-key children, 633  
  Marital status of mothers, 626-629  
  Providers, supply of, 638-639  
  Standards, 639; (Table 10-11), 641  
  State dependent planning and development grants, 652  
  Title IV-A, 414; 435; 646-648  
  See also AFDC Child Care Program  
CHILD CARE--Continued  
  See also Appendix L  
  See also At-Risk Child Care Program  
  See also Child and Adult Care Food Program  
  See also Child Care and Development Block Grant Program  
  See also Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program  
  See also Social Services Block Grant  
  See also Transitional Child Care Program  
Child Care and Development Block Grant Program (CCDBG), 648-651; 
 (Table 10-22), 677  
  See also Appendix L 
Childhood immunization, 895  
Child protection requirements, 724-732  
Child sexual abuse, interaction with Social Services Block Grant, 
 689-690  
Child Support Enforcement and Paternity Establishment Program; see 
 Child Support Enforcement Program 
CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM (CSE), 529-624  
  Administrative process, 541 
  AFDC Program, interaction with, 398-400 
    Bankruptcy, 563-564  
    Collection of child support (Table 9-13), 600-601; (Table 
     9-15), 604-605  
    Eligibility, 530  
    Paternity establishment, 538-541  
    State requirements, 534-537  
  American Bar Association Child Support Project, 532  
  Assignment rules, 566  
  Audits and financial penalties, 565  
  Authority, 534  
  Automated system, 564-565  
  Award rates, 544  
  Bankruptcy, 563-564  
  Bonds, securities and other guarantees, 555  
  ``Change in circumstances,'' 544-545  
  Collection of child support, 549-558; 563; (Tables 9-11 to 9-
   16), 595-605; (Tables 9-18 to 9-20), 610-615  
    Assignment of, 565-567 
    Collection methods, 563  
    Distribution of, 565-567 
  Commission on Interstate Child Support Enforcement, 561  
  ``Cost avoidance,'' 574  
  Credit Bureau Reporting, 556  
  Demographic trends, 531  
  Demonstration projects, 534  
  Distribution rules, 566-567  
  Effectiveness of program, 575-583  
  Evaluation, 534  
  Extradition, 558  
  Federal courts, 559-560  
  Federal criminal penalty for nonpayment of support, 562  
  Federal garnishment, 556-557  
  Federal matching rate, 567  
  Federal role, 532-534  
  Full faith and credit, 560-561  
  Funding of State programs, 567-575  
  Genetic tests, 540  
  ``Good cause'' regulations, 535  
  Impact on:  
    National child support payments, 576-583 
    Poverty, 576 
    Taxpayers, 575-576 
  Incentive payments, 568-569; 574  
  ``Income shares,'' 543  
  Income tax refund offset:  
    Federal, 553; (Table 9-19), 612-613 
    State, 553-554 
  Income withholding, 560; 561  
  Interstate enforcement, 558-563  
CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM (CSE)--Continued  
  IRS full collection process, 555-556  
  Legislative history, 583-593  
    See also Appendix L 
  Locating absent parents, 537-538 
  Long-arm statutes, 559 
  Medical support, 546-549 
    Health insurance coverage, 547-548; (Table 9-7), 579; 
     (Table 9-17), 608-609 
    State requirements, 536 
    See also Medicaid 
  Military allotments, 557 
  Orders: 
    Establishing, 541-544; (Table 9-17), 608-609 
    Reviewing and modifying orders, 544-546 
  Paternity establishment, 538-541; (Tables 9-21 and 9-22), 616-
   619 
  Processing of CSE, 537-563 
  Property liens, 554-555 
  Small business loans, 557 
  State Parent Locator Service, 537-538 
  State role, 534-537; (Table 9-11), 595-597 
    CSE Program savings (Table 9-23), 620-621 
  Statistical tables, 593-622 
  Trends, 531-532; (Table 9-1), 533 
  Unemployment compensation intercept, 554 
  Voluntary acknowledgement of paternity, 539 
  Wage withholding, 550-552 
Child Support Recovery Act, 562 
CHILD WELFARE 
  Federal programs, 693-724; (Table 12-1), 694 
    Funding (Table 12-2), 695 
    Participation data (Table 12-3), 696 
  Legislative history, 762-764 
    See also Appendix L 
  Trends, 732-759 
  See also Adoption Assistance Program 
  See also Child Welfare Services Program 
  See also Family Preservation and Support Program 
  See also Foster Care Program 
  See also Independent Living Program 
  See also Social Services Block Grant  
Child Welfare Services Program, 696-706  
  Funding: 
    Grants to States, 696; 698 
    State-by-State allocations, 698; (Table 12-5), 699-701 
Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), 34  
Clinical laboratory services, 185-186  
Clinical psychologists, 184-185  
COBRA; see Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act  
Commission on Interstate Child Support Enforcement, 561  
Commission on Railroad Retirement Reform, 129  
Community-based care services, 884  
Community supported living arrangements, 892  
Community Work Experience Program (CWEP), 410  
``Computation years,'' 22  
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA):  
  Continuation coverage paid by Medicaid, 892 
  Health care continuation rules, 796 
  RUC system, 367 
Consumer Price Index (CPI), 36-37  
Continuing disability review (CDR), 45-48  
  Periodic review, 41 
``Cost avoidance,'' 574  
Cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), 35-37  
CPI; see Consumer Price Index  
CRNA; see Certified registered nurse anesthetists  
CSE; see Child Support Enforcement Program  
CSRS; see Civil Service Retirement System  
``Currently insured,'' 13  
CWEP; see Community Work Experience Program  

Day care centers, child sexual abuse in, 689-690  
DDSs; see State Disability Determination Services  
Defined benefit plan (definition), 837-838  
Defined contribution plan (definition), 837-838  
Delayed retirement credits (DRC), 17-19; 28-29  
Dependency and indemnity compensation, 943  
Dependent care:  
  Employer-provided, tax exclusion for, 812-813 
  Tax credit, 646; 810-812 
DI; see Disability Insurance Program  
Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 165  
Disability compensation, 943  
Disability (definition), 13-14  
Disability Insurance Program (DI):  
  Adjudication process, 41  
  Appeals, 45-47  
  Attorneys' fees and representation, 44  
  Awards and recipients, 48-49  
  Characteristics of recipients, 50-54  
  Claims, 45-48  
    Pending claims, 49-50 
  Determinations, 40-44  
  Disability (definition), 13-14  
  Disabled widow(er), 15  
  Medical evidence, 43-44  
  Medical improvement standard, 43  
  Medical listings, 40-41  
  Medicare, 14-15  
  Nonacquiescence, 90  
  Offsets for other public benefits, 32-33  
  Preeffectuation review, 98  
  Representative payee, 91  
  State Disability Determination Services (DDSs), 45  
  Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 14  
  Trial work period (TWP), 14  
  Vocational grid, 41  
  Vocational rehabilitation, 44-45  
  Waiting period, 14  
  Work incentive provisions, 14-15  
  Workers' compensation:  
    Eligibility, 946  
    Offset, 33  
Disabled, tax credit for, 816-817  
Disproportionate share hospitals (DSH), 208-210  
  Medicaid, interaction with, 893; 895 
Disregards:  
  AFDC, 389-391; (Table 8-31), 478 
  Food Stamp Program, 862 
  Work Supplementation Program, 400-411 
Distress termination, 840  
Distribution rules (definition), 566-567  
DME; see Durable medical equipment  
DRC; see Delayed retirement credit  
DRG; see Diagnosis-related group  
``Dropout'' years, 23  
Drugs, 141; 195-196  
DSH; see Disproportionate share hospitals  
Dual Benefits Payments Account, 125  
Dual entitlement, 26  
Durable medical equipment (DME), 186  

EA; see Emergency Assistance Program  
Early childhood development, 639-640  
Earned income credit (EIC):  
  AFDC, 391; 398 
Earned income credit (EIC)--Continued  
  Tax provisions, 804-809 
  See also Appendix L 
``Earned right,'' 5  
Earning disregards (definition), 388  
Earnings data; see Appendix F  
EB; see Extended Benefits Program  
EBT; see Electronic benefit transfer  
Economic data; see Appendix I  
Educational assistance for veterans, 943  
EIC; see Earned income credit  
Elderly:  
  Data; see Appendix A 
  Health care data; see Appendix B 
  Tax provisions, 815-817; 821-834 
Electronic benefit transfers (EBT), 868; 869  
Emergency Assistance Program (EA), 428-434  
Emergency Jobs bill, 689  
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program, 331; 337; 343-
 345  
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA):  
  IRA tax deductions, 786 
  PBGC established, 837 
Pension contributions and earnings, exclusion of, 776 
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), tax provisions, 780  
Employment data; see Appendix F  
Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA), 345  
Employment Service (ES), 356  
Empowerment Zone Program, 687-688  
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 166; 196-200  
``Enhanced'' administrative funding, 872  
Enterprise communities, 687-688  
ERISA; see Employee Retirement Income Security Act  
Error measurement, 492-493  
Error rate, 869-872  
Error tolerance level (definition), 493  
ES; see Employment Service  
ESAA; see Employment Security Administration Account  
ESOP; see Employee stock ownership plan  
ESRD; see End-Stage Renal Disease Program  
``Essential persons'' (definition), 276  
EUC; see Emergency Unemployment Compensation  
EUCA; see Extended Unemployment Compensation Account  
Extended Benefits Program (EB), 334-335; 337; 342  
``Extended period of eligibility,'' 14  
Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA), 343-345  

Families, data on; see Appendix G  
Family Preservation Programs, 740-742  
  Legislative history, 762-764 
Family Support Act of 1988:  
  AFDC, 388 
  Social Services Block Grant, 684 
  See also Family Preservation Programs 
FCS; see Food and Consumer Service  
FECA; see Federal Employees' Compensation Account  
Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act, 552  
Federal Employees' Compensation Account (FECA), 946  
Federal Employee's Retirement System (FERS), 34  
Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA), 946  
Federal garnishment, 556-557  
Federal Housing Assistance, 915-923  
  Budget authority, 920-921  
  Commitments, 918-919  
  Number of households receiving assistance (Table 16-26), 920  
  Outlays, 921-922  
  Tax provisions, 810  
Federal Housing Assistance--Continued  
  Types of housing assistance, 915-918  
    Traditional homeowner assistance, 917 
    Traditional rental assistance, 916-917 
Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), 5; 55-58  
  See also Social Security Financing 
Federally qualified health center (FQHC), 234  
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 534; 537-538  
Federal spending; see Appendix K  
Federal Unemployment Account (FUA), 345  
  State borrowing from, 350 
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 351-352  
FELA; see Federal Employers' Liability Act  
FERS; see Federal Employee's Retirement System  
FICA; see Federal Insurance Contributions Act  
Fill-the-gap method of payment, 391  
Fiscal data; see Appendix I  
Fitzgerald v. Fitzgerald, 542  
Food and Consumer Service (FCS), 857-858  
Food Stamp Program, 856-879  
  Administration, 857  
    Federal responsibilities, 857-858 
    State and local responsibilities, 858 
  AFDC, interaction with, 397; 859; 873  
  Application processing, 868  
  Assets, allowable, 864-865  
  Authorization-to-participate card (ATP), 868  
  Automatic eligibility, 857  
  Automobiles, treatment of, 865  
  Benefits, 867-869  
  Categorical eligibility rules, 860; 866-867  
  Deductions for expenses, 863  
  Demonstration projects, 859  
  Disregards, 862  
  Electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), 868; 869  
  Eligibility, 860-867  
  Employment requirements, 865-866  
  Funding, 860  
  Household (definition), 861-862  
  Income:  
    Basic (gross) monthly income (definition), 862 
    Counted (net) monthly income (definition), 862 
    Eligibility, 862-864 
  Institutional residents, 866  
  Interaction with other programs, 872-873  
  Issuing of food stamps, 868  
  JOBS, interaction with, 859  
  Legislative history, 877-879  
    See also Appendix L 
  Limitations, 866-867 
  Monthly allotments: 
    Maximum, 867; (Table 16-6), 868 
    Minimum, 867 
  Processing of benefits, 868 
  Program options for States, 859-860 
  Prorated benefits, 867  
  Quality control (QC), 869-872  
  Recipiency rates, 873-876  
  Residency, 860  
  Sales tax, 857  
  SSI, interaction with, 272; 284-287; 859; 873  
  Tax provisions, 810  
  Training requirements, 865-866  
  ``Trigger,'' 867  
  Using food stamps, 868-869  
  Welfare recipients, 857; 866-867; 872-873  
  WIC eligibility, 927  
  Work registration, 865-866  
FOSTER CARE PROGRAM, 706-712; 736-739 
  AFCARS, 743-745; 759-762  
  AFDC, interaction with, 706-712; 736-737  
    Exclusion from AFDC assistance units, 712 
  Caseloads, 736-739  
  CBO baseline projections, 694; (Table 12-4), 697  
  Costs, 753-759  
  CSE services eligibility, 530  
  CSE State enforcement requirements, 536  
  Data, 742-745  
  Expenditures, 707-709  
  ``Kinship'' care, 739-740  
  Legislative history, 762-764  
    See also Appendix L 
  Participation rates, 707  
  Payment rates, 707; (Table 12-8), 710-711  
  Protections for children in foster care, 724-732  
  Substance abuse, 734-736  
  See also Family Preservation Programs  
  See also Substitute care  
401(k) plans, tax provisions for, 776 
FPLS; see Federal Parent Locator Service 
Fraud: 
  Medicaid, 894 
  Medicare, 228 
Freedom of choice waiver, 889 
FUA; see Federal Unemployment Account 
Full Faith and Credit for Child Support Orders Act, 561 
FUTA; see Federal Unemployment Tax Act 

Genetic tests, 540  
GI Bill; see Montgomery GI bill  
GME; see Graduate medical education  
``Good cause'' regulations, 535  
Graduate medical education (GME), 208-210; 212-213  
Group health plans, 891  
  Tax provisions, 796-797 
Guam, 767-772 

``Hard'' social services (definition), 688 
HCD approach; see Human capital development approach 
Head Start, 934-936 
  Characteristics of children enrolled (Table 16-38), 936 
  Child care, 654 
  Federal funding, 935 
  Participation, 935 
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 133 
Health care of the elderly; see Appendix B 
Health Care Quality Improvement Initiative, 212 
Health insurance: 
  Continuation rules under COBRA, 796 
  CSE, interaction with, 547-548; (Table 9-7), 579; (Table 9-
   17), 608-609 
  Premiums, tax exclusion of employer contributions, 790-792 
  Self-employed individuals, tax deductions for, 801 
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 793; 796-798  
Health professions shortage areas (HPSAs), 213  
HIV, SSI interaction with, 269  
Home health care, 140; 141; 173-177; 884  
HOME Investment Partnerships Block Grant Program, 917  
Home Ownership & Opportunity for People Everywhere (HOPE) Program, 
 917  
HOPE Program; see Home Ownership & Opportunity for People 
 Everywhere Program  
Hospice care, 140; 177-182  
Hospital Market Basket Index (MBI), 165  
Hospitals:  
  Medicaid reimbursement, 888 
  Medicare reimbursement; see Appendix D 
  See also Medicare 
Household (definition): 
  Food stamp, 861-862 
  LIHEAP, 940 
Housing: 
  Tax provisions, 817-821 
  See also Federal Housing Assistance 
  See also Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program 
HPSAs; see Health professions shortage areas 
Human capital development (HCD) approach, 428 

ICH; see Interagency Council on Homelessness  
IFA; see ``Individualized functional assessment''  
Illegal aliens; see Appendix J  
  See also Appendix L 
IME; see Indirect medical education  
IMG; see International medical graduates  
Immigration policy; see Appendix J  
  See also Appendix L 
Incentive payments, 568-569; 574  
Income:  
  Data; see Appendix I 
  Definition, 775 
``Income shares,'' 543  
Income-tested benefits; see Appendix K  
Independent Living Program, 718; 722-724  
  Legislative history, 762-764 
``Indexing year,'' 20  
Indirect medical education (IME), 208-210; 212  
``Individualized functional assessment'' (IFA), 263; 298  
  ``Age-appropriate'' activities, 263 
Individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), tax provisions for, 
 786-789  
``Industrial commissions,'' 945-946  
Inherent reasonableness, 188-189  
Institutionalized persons,  
  Food Stamp Program, 866 
  Medicaid eligibility, 884-885 
``Insured for disability,'' 13  
Insured unemployment rate (IUR), 342-343  
Interagency Council on Homelessness (ICH), 300  
Interethnic adoptions; see Appendix L  
International medical graduates (IMG), 3(83)  
Interstate enforcement of child support, 558-563  
Involuntary terminations, 840  
IRA; see Individual retirement arrangements  
IRS full collection process, 555-556  
IUR; see Insured unemployment rate  

Job-attached workers, 343-344  
Job Corps, 933-934  
Job losers, 333  
Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS), 402-
 428  
  Administration, 402-403  
  Assessment and employability plan under, 403-408  
  Case management under, 403-408  
  Child care, interaction with Title IV-A (Table 10-17), 666-
   667; (Table 10-18), 668-669  
    Child care guaranteed under, 413; 414  
  Educational requirements of, 411-412  
  Food Stamp Program, interaction with, 859  
  Funding of, 413-427  
  Indian tribes, 414  
  Job search, requirements for, 409  
  Orientation required by, 403-408  
  Participant (definition), 412; (Table 8-6), 418-419; (Table 8-
   9), 425-427  
Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS)--
 Continued  
  Participation requirements, 411-412  
  Purpose, 402-403  
  Quality control system, interaction with, 496  
  Services and activities under, 409-411  
  State-level data (Tables 8-4 to 8-9), 404-427  
  Supportive services under, 413-427  
    See also Child Care (Section 10) 
  Targeting of funds under, 413 
  Welfare-to-work, 428 
  See also Appendix L 
JOBS; see Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program 
Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 928-934 
  Adult Training Program, 929-930; (Table 16-34), 932 
  AFDC, interaction with, 389; 401; 929 
  AFDC-UP, interaction with, 396 
  Economically disadvantaged, 929 
  Job Corps, 933-934 
  Summer Youth Employment and Training Program, 928; 930; 931-
   933 
  Youth Training Program, 928; 929; (Table 16-34), 932 
JTPA; see Job Training Partnership Act 
Judgement (definition), 562-563 
``Judge surrogate,'' 541-542 
Judicial process, 541 
  Expedited, 542 

``Kinship'' care, 739-740  

Labor force attachment (LFA) approach, 428  
Latch-key children, 633  
LFA; see Labor force attachment approach  
LHWCA; see Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act  
LIHEAP; see Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program  
``Listing of impairments,'' 263  
Long-arm statutes, 559  
Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA), 946  
Long-term care and Medicaid, 884-885; 892; 894  
Long-term care insurance, tax benefits for, 797-801  
Lost ``spendable'' earnings, 947  
Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), 936-942  
  Administration, 942  
  AFDC, interaction with, 401  
  Authorization, 936  
  Eligibility, 940-942  
  Heating assistance (Table 16-40), 941-942  
  Program components, 937  
  State allotments, 937-939  
  Transfer of funds with Social Services Block Grant, 687  
  Types of assistance, 940-942  
  See also Appendix L  

Managed care:  
  Medicaid, 889-891  
  Medicare, 200-210  
  Workers' compensation, 947  
Marshall Islands and Micronesia, 767-772  
Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, 686-687  
MBI; see Hospital Market Basket Index  
Means-tested programs, 401-402; 854-855  
  See also Appendix K  
Medicaid Program, 879-914  
  Administration, 889  
  Adoption Assistance Program, interaction with, 713  
  AFDC, interaction with, 396-397; 882  
  AFDC-UP Program, eligibility, 397  
  Boren amendment, 888  
  ``Categorically needy,'' 879; (Table 17-17), 903-904  
  Childhood immunizations, 895  
Medicaid Program--Continued  
  Community-based care services, 884  
  Community supported living arrangements, 892  
  Costs (Table 16-13), 896; (Table 16-16), 901-902; (Table 16-
   23), 912-913  
  CSE, interaction with, 547-549; 894-895  
    Services eligibility, 530 
    State requirements, 536 
  Disproportionate share hospitals (DSH), 893; 895  
  Eligibility, 879; (Table 16-14), 897-898; (Table 16-15), 899-
   900  
    AFDC-related groups, 882 
    Institutionalized persons and related groups, 884-885 
    Medically needy, 879; 885 
    Non-AFDC pregnant women and children, 882-883 
    Poor, 885-887 
    Qualified Medicare beneficiaries and related groups, 884 
    SSI-related groups, 883-884 
  Financing, 888  
  Fraud control units, 894  
  Home health care, 884  
  Legislative history, 891-895  
    See also Appendix L 
  Managed care, 889-891  
  Medically needy, 879; 885  
  Medicare, interaction with, 884  
  Oregon's Health Plan demonstration, 890-891  
  Physician referrals, 895  
  Prescription drug formularies, 894  
  Prescription drug rebates, 888-889; 891  
  Program data, 895-914  
  Provider taxes, 893  
  Reimbursement policy, 888-889  
  ``Ribicoff children,'' 882  
  Services, 887-888; (Table 16-20), 908; (Table 16-21), 910  
  ``Spenddown,'' 883  
  SSI, interaction with, 266; 269; 271-272; 275-276; 301-302; 
   883-884  
  Tax provisions, 810  
  TennCare Program, 891  
  Transfer of assets, 894  
  Transitional benefits, 396  
  Tuberculosis-related services, 895  
  Voluntary contributions, 893  
  Waivers, 884  
  WIC eligibility, 927  
  ``Wraparound,'' 396-397  
Medical care: 
  Tax exclusion of employer contributions, 790-792  
  Veterans, 943-944  
  See also Appendix B  
  See also Appendix C  
  See also Health . . .  
  See also Medicaid  
  See also Medicare  
Medical equipment, requirements for Medicare participation, 189 
Medical expenses: 
  Deductibility of, 801-804  
  Workers' compensation, 946-947  
Medical improvement standard, 43 
Medically needy, 879; 885; (Table 16-17), 903-904 
Medical savings accounts (MSAs), 793 
Medical support: 
  CSE, interaction with, 536; 546-549; (Table 9-7), 579; (Table 
   9-17), 608-609  
  See also Medicaid 
MEDICARE, 131-256 
  Accelerated death benefits, interaction with, 798  
  Adjusted average per capita costs (AAPCC), 205; 207-209  
  Adjusted community rating (ACR), 204-207  
MEDICARE--Continued 
  Administration, 133  
  Aged, definition of covered population, 139  
  Ambulance services, 196  
  Ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 190; 193-194; (Table 3-
   27), 195  
  Assignment, 183  
  Balance billing, 183  
  Beneficiaries, number of, 140  
  Benefits, 132; (Table 3-3), 137; (Table 3-4), 138-139; 140-141  
  Buy-in agreements, 220  
  Certified nurse midwife services, 184  
  Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), 184  
  Clinical laboratory services, 185-186  
  Clinical psychologists, 184-185  
  Composite rate, 200  
  Cost-sharing,  
    History of, 140-141 
    Managed care, 207 
  Data, historical, 236-255  
  Default formula, 183  
  Demonstration projects:  
    Managed care, 201 
    Medicare Select, 216-218 
    SNFs, 173 
  DI, interaction with, 14-15  
  Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 165  
  Disabled, definition of covered population, 140  
  Disproportionate share hospitals (DSH), 208-210  
  Drugs, 141; 195-196  
  Durable medical equipment (DME), 186  
  Eligibility, 139-140  
  End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 166; 196-200  
  Federally qualified health center (FQHC), 234  
  Financing, 133; 141; 145-164; (Table 3-15), 165  
  Fraud and abuse, 228  
  Graduate medical education (GME), 208-210; 212-213  
  Health professions shortage areas (HPSAs), 213  
  Home health care, 140; 141; 173-177  
  Hospice care, 140; 177-182  
  Hospital Insurance (HI) Program:  
    Financial status, 147-157  
    Payroll tax, 145  
    Program  
      Aged, 139  
      Benefits and beneficiary cost-sharing, 140-144  
      Coverage and payments, 164-196  
      Disabled, 140  
    Trust Fund, 141-147  
      Financial status, 147-157  
  Hospital market basket index (MBI), 165  
  Hospital services:  
    Inpatient hospital care, 140; 164-166; (Table 3-37), 209  
    Outpatient department services (OPD), 189-193  
  Legislative history (1980-1993), 222-236  
  Long-term care insurance, interaction with, 800  
  Medicaid, interaction with, 884  
  Nurse practitioners, 184  
  Occupational therapists, 185  
  Outlays, 133-134  
  Part A; see Hospital Insurance (HI) Program  
  Part B; see Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program  
  Participating physicians, 183-184  
  Peer review organizations (PROs), 210-212  
  Physical therapists, 185  
  Physician assistants, 184  
  Preventive services, 141; 194  
  Prospective Payment System (PPS):  
    ESRD, 196-200 
MEDICARE--Continued 
  Prospective Payment System--Continued  
    Home health services, 173-177 
    Hospice care, 177-182 
    Hospital Outpatient Department services, 189-193 
    Inpatient hospital services, 164-166 
  Prosthetic devices (definition), 186  
  Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals (QDWIs), 220  
  Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMBs), 218-220  
  Regional referral centers (RRCs), 166  
  Reimbursement to hospitals; see Appendix D  
  Reimbursement to physicians; see Appendix E  
  Resource utilization groups (RUGs), 172  
  Risk-Contracting program, 200-210  
  Skilled nursing facility (SNF), 140; 166-173  
  Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary Program (SLIMB), 
   218; 220; 221  
  Supplementary coverage, 217-218  
    Medigap, 214; 216 
  Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program: 
    Aged, 139  
    Benefits and beneficiary cost-sharing, 141-143  
    Coverage and payments, 183-196  
    Disabled, 140  
  Trust Fund, 141; 147  
    Financial status, 157-159  
    Tax exclusion of benefits, 801  
  Uninsured persons, reimbursement for, 146  
  Vaccines, 141; 195-196  
Medicare and Medicaid Patient Program Act, 690  
Medicare Economic Index (MEI), 183  
Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) Program, 213-214; (Table 3-39), 215  
  Medicare Select, 216-218  
Medicare Volume Performance Standard (MVPS), 183  
Medigap, 214; 216  
MEI; see Medicare Economic Index  
``Melson-Delaware,'' 543-544  
MGIB; see Montgomery GI bill  
Miscellaneous Revenue Act, 338  
Model Child Care Standards Act, 690  
Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 943  
MPPAA; see Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act  
MSP; see Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) Program  
Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act (MPPAA), 842-843  
Multiemployer plan (definition), 838  
  Insolvency protections, 842-843  
  Insurance benefits limits, 842-843  
  Legislative history, 851-852  
  Premiums, 846  
MVPS; see Medicare Volume Performance Standard  

NAFTA Worker Security Act, 377-378  
National Child Support Enforcement Reference Center, 532  
National Commission on Childhood Disability, 297  
Need-based benefits; see Appendix K  
``Need standard'' (definition), 436-437; (Table 8-14), 443-445  
Noncitizens; see Appendix J  
  See also Appendix L 
Northern Marianas, 767-772  
``Notice,'' 541  
NSLP; see School Lunch and Breakfast Programs  
Nurse practitioners, 184  
Nursing facilities, assets and trust provisions under Medicaid, 
 894  
Nursing home care for veterans, 943-944  
  See also Skilled Nursing Facilities 

OASDI; see Social Security  
OASI; see Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program  
Obligation (definition), 541  
Obligor (definition), 550  
Occupational therapists, 185  
OCSE; see Office of Child Support Enforcement  
Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), 532  
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program (OASI):  
  Actuarial reduction, 26-28  
  Delayed retirement credit (DRC), 17-19; 28-29  
  Early retirement, 26  
  Earnings limit, 29-32; (Table 1-14a), 33  
  ``Full retirement age,'' 17-18  
  Lump-sum death benefit, 16  
  Payback times, illustrations, 105-114  
  Retirement age, trends, 20; (Table 1-10), 21  
Oregon's Health Plan demonstration, 890-891 
OUTLYING AREAS, 767-772 
Out-of-wedlock childbearing: 
  AFDC, use of, 513-517  
  Paternity establishment (Table 9-22), 618-619  
  See also Appendix L  

Palau, 767-772 
Parent Locator Service: 
  See Federal Parent Locator Service 
  See State Parent Locator Service 
PASS; see Plan to Achieve Self-Support  
``Pass through,'' 566; 568; (Table 9-10), 593-594  
Paternity establishment, 538-541; (Tables 9-21 to 9-22), 616-619  
``Payment standard,'' 436  
PBGC; see Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation  
Peer review organizations (PROs), 210-212  
PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION, 837-852  
  Administration of, 837  
  Budgetary treatment of, 846-847; (Table 15-3), 848  
  Defined benefit plan, 837-838  
  Defined contribution plan, 837-838  
  Distress termination, 840  
  Employer liability, 841; 846  
  Financial condition of, 843-846  
    Future, 847-850  
  Financing, 844-846 
  Legislative history, 850-852 
  Losses, 843-844 
  Multiemployer plan (definition), 838  
    Insolvency protections, 842-843 
    Insurance benefits limits, 842-843 
    Legislative history, 851-852 
    Premiums, 846 
  Plan termination, 839-843  
  Plan termination insurance, 837-839  
    Premiums, 844-846 
  Section 401 [of the Internal Revenue Code], 839  
  Single-employer plan (definition), 839; 844  
    Insurance benefit limits, 841-842 
    Legislative history, 850-851 
    Premiums, 844-846 
    Terminations, 839-842; (Table 15-2), 845  
  Trusteeship, 840-841  
Pension Protection Act, 840 
Pensions: 
  Tax exclusion of pension contributions and earnings, 776-786  
  UC offset, 338  
  Veterans, 943  
  See also Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 
``Percentage of income,'' 543  
``Percent of taxable payroll,'' 67  
Personal needs allowance (PNA), 267; 275  
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 
 1996; see Appendix L  
Physical therapists, 185  
Physician assistants, 184  
Physician referrals, Medicaid, 895  
Physicians, Medicare reimbursement to; see Appendix E  
PIA; see Primary insurance amount  
Plan to Achieve Self-Support (PASS) (definition), 264  
PNA; see Personal needs allowance  
Poor, effect of tax provisions on the income and taxes of, 821-834  
Population data; see Appendix I  
Poverty:  
  CSE impact on, 576 
  Data; see Appendix H 
PPA; see Pension Protection Act  
Preexpenditure reports, 684  
Prescription drug formularies and Medicaid, 894  
Prescription drugs, Medicaid rebates for, 888-889; 891  
Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant, 686-687  
Primary insurance amount (PIA), 17; 23-25  
``Primary support obligation,'' 543  
Probability of exclusion tests, 540  
Probability of paternity tests, 540  
Project Head Start; see Head Start  
Project 1099, 538  
Property liens, 554-555  
PROs; see Peer review organizations  
Prospective Payment System (PPS):  
  ESRD, 196-200 
  Home health services, 173-177  
  Hospice care, 177-182  
  Hospital Outpatient Department services, 189-193  
  Inpatient hospital services, 164-166  
Protections for children in foster care, 724-732 
Protective payment, 535 
Puerto Rico, 767-772 

QC; see Quality Control System  
QDWIs; see Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals  
QMBs; see Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries  
Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals (QDWIs), 220  
Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMBs), 218-220  
  Medicaid eligibility, 884  
Quality control system (QC):  
  AFDC, 482; 492-500  
  Food stamps, 869-872  
  JOBS, 496  
Quern v. Mandley, 429  

RAILROAD RETIREMENT, 117-130  
  Annuity structure, 118-120  
  Benefits, 120; (Table 2-2), 121; (Table 2-3), 122  
  Cash benefits (Table 2-1),118  
  Cents-per-hour tax, 125  
  Debt to Railroad Retirement Account, 366-367  
  Dual benefit payments, 119  
  Employment levels, 126-127  
  Financial interchange, 121-124  
  Financial status, 126-127  
  Financing, 120-125  
  General revenue appropriations, 124-125  
  Investment income, 125  
  Jurisdiction, 117-118  
  Legislative history, 127-129 
  Lump-sum death benefits, 120  
  Payroll taxes, 120-121  
  Program data, 120  
  Residual lump-sum payment, 120  
RAILROAD RETIREMENT--Continued  
  Retired employees, 117; (Table 2-1), 118  
  Social Security, interaction with, 121-124  
  Spouse annuitants, 117; (Table 2-1), 118  
  Supplemental annuities, 119  
  Supplemental annuity benefit, 125  
  Taxation of benefits, 125-126  
  Tax exclusion of benefits, 789-790  
  Tier I benefits, 118-119; 120-121; (Table 2-4), 123; 125-126  
  Tier II benefits, 119; 120-121; (Table 2-4), 123; 125-126  
Railroad Retirement Act, 117  
  See also Railroad Retirement System  
Railroad Retirement Solvency Act of 1983, 128; 367  
RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION [RUC], 361-368  
  Balanced Budget and Emergency Control Act, 362  
  Base year, 361  
  Benefits, 361-366  
  Benefit year, 361-362  
  Eligibility requirements, 361-366  
  Financing, 366  
  Program statistics (Table 6-1), 363-364  
  Taxes, 366-368  
Railroad Unemployment Compensation Committee, 367  
Railroad Unemployment Insurance Account, 366-367  
Railroad Unemployment Insurance Administration Account, 366  
Railroad Unemployment Trust Fund, 366  
RCCI; see Residential child care institutions  
REACH; see Residential Energy Assistance Challenge  
Readjustment benefits for veterans, 942  
``Reasonable efforts,'' 725-728  
``Rebuttable presumption,'' 542; 545  
Refugees; see Appendix J  
  See also Appendix L  
Regional referral centers (RRCs), 166  
Replacement rates, 25-26  
``Representative payee,'' 91; 298  
Reserve ratio, 350  
Residential child care institutions (RCCI), 923  
Residential Energy Assistance Challenge (REACH), 940  
Resource utilization groups (RUGs), 172  
Retirement Protection Act of 1994, 845-846  
``Ribicoff children'' (definition), 882  
Risk-related premium; see Variable rate premium  
RPA; see Retirement Protection Act  
RRA; see Railroad Retirement Account  
RRCs; see Regional referral centers  
RUC; see Railroad Unemployment Compensation System  
RUGs; see Resource utilization groups  

SACWIS; see Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information Systems  
SAVE; see Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlement (SAVE) 
 Program  
Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) retirement 
 plans, 782  
SBP; see School Lunch and Breakfast Programs  
School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, 923-925  
  AFDC, interaction with, 401; 924  
  See also Appendix L 
SCHs; see Sole community hospitals  
SECA; see Self-Employment Contributions Act  
Secondary Payer Program; see Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) 
 Program  
``Section 209(b),'' 271; 883  
Section 401 [of the Internal Revenue Code], 839  
``Section 427 protections,'' 724; 728-732  
Section 1115 [of the Social Security Act], 434-435  
Section 1115(a), [of the Social Security Act], 889; 890  
Section 1615(d) [of the Social Security Act], 272-273  
Section 1619 [of the Social Security Act], 270; 271; 301-302  
Section 1631(a)(4)(B) [of the Social Security Act], 269  
Section 1915(b) [of the Social Security Act], 889  
Section 4022(c) benefits, 842  
Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA), 5; 55-58  
  See also Social Security Financing  
SEPPAA; see Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act  
``Service of process,'' 541  
SGA; see Substantial gainful activity  
SIMPLE; see Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees  
Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act (SEPPAA), 840  
Single-employer plan (definition), 839; 844  
  Insurance benefit limits, 841-842  
  Legislative history, 850-851  
  Losses for PBGC, 844-845  
  Premiums, 844-846  
  Terminations, 839-842; (Table 15-2), 845  
Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF), 140; 166-173 
SLIMB; see Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary Program 
SNF; see Skilled Nursing Facility 
``Social'' insurance, 5; 103 
SOCIAL SECURITY, 1-115 
  Administrative law judge (ALJ), 45; (Table 1-21), 47 
  AFDC, interaction with, 400-401 
  Automatic benefit increase, 35-37 
  Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), 20-23 
  Bend points, 29 
  Benefit formula, 23-25 
  Benefits:  
    Amounts, 25 
    Computation of, 17-25 
    Eligibility, 12-17 
    Reduction and increase, 26-35 
    Relationship to taxes, 102-114 
    Replacement rates, 25-26 
  Budgetary treatment of, 77-80  
  Budget rules pertaining to, 78-79  
  Characteristics of recipients, 50-54  
  Child's benefit, 15  
  Continuing disability review (CDR), 45-48  
    Periodic review, 41 
  Cost-of-living adjustments (COLA), 35-37  
  Coverage, 6-11  
  Dependent, 15-16  
  Eligibility, 15-16  
  Employee contribution, 5-6  
  Employer contribution, 5-6  
  Father's benefit, 15  
  Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), 5; 55-58  
  Financing, 55-77  
    1996 Trustees Report, 63-66 
    OASI and DI Trust Funds, 58-75 
    Social Security surplus, 75-77 
  Financing mechanism, 5-6  
  ``Fully insured,'' 13  
  General information, 5-6  
    Brief history, 6 
  Insured status, 12-13  
  Legislative history, 80-101  
  Longevity, trends, 20; (Table 1-11), 21-22  
  Maximum family benefit, 29  
  Medicare, interaction with, 146  
  Mother's benefit, 15  
  Offsets, 32-35  
  Parent's benefit, 16  
  ``Present value'' method, 69  
  Primary insured amount (PIA), 17; 23-25 
  Prisoners, suspension of benefits to, 35 
  Procedural rules (House and Senate) pertaining to, 79-80  
  Public pension offset, 33-35  
SOCIAL SECURITY--Continued 
  Quarters of coverage, 12-13  
  Railroad Retirement System, interaction with, 121-124  
  Retired worker, earnings of, 32; (Table 1-15), 34  
  Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA), 5-6  
  Special minimum benefit, 25  
  Spouse's benefit, 15  
  SSI, interaction with, 270-271  
  Taxation of benefits, 37-40; (Table 1-19), 42; (Table 1-20), 
   43  
  Tax exclusion of benefits, 789-790  
  Trust funds, 58-75  
  Widow(er)'s benefit, 15  
  Windfall elimination provision, 34-35; (Table 1-16), 36  
  See also Disability Insurance Program 
  See also Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program 
SOCIAL SERVICES BLOCK GRANT, 679-690 
  Allocation formula, 679; (Table 11-2), 681-683  
  Child care, 651  
  Child sexual abuse in day care centers, 689-690  
  Empowerment Zone Program, 687-688  
  Enterprise communities, 687-688  
  Expenditures on social services, 684;686  
  Funding levels, 679  
  ``Hard'' social services, 688  
  Legislative history, 690  
    See also Appendix L 
  Preexpenditure reports, 684  
  Program goals, 679; 684  
  Recipients, 684; 686  
  Reporting requirements, 684; 686  
  Services provided, 684; 686  
  Transfer of funds to and from other grant programs, 686-687  
  Use of funds, 684  
  Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS), 686  
Sole community hospitals (SCHs), 166 
``Special needs'' (definition), 450; 454 
``Special needs'' child (definition), 712-713 
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and 
 Children (WIC), 925-928 
  AFDC eligibility, 401; 927  
  Food Stamp Program, 927  
Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary Program (SLIMB), 218; 
 220; 221  
``Spenddown'' (definition), 883  
SSI; see Supplemental Security Income Program  
SSP; see State Supplemental Payments  
Standard termination, 839-840  
State AFDC guarantees, 435-436  
State Disability Determination Services (DDSs), 45  
State Parent Locator Service, 537-538  
State Supplemental Payments (SSP):  
  Medicaid, 883 
  SSI, 289-300 
Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (SACWIS), 
 760-761 
Statutory ceiling, 841 
Subsidies, adoption, 713-714 
Substance abuse: 
  Child abuse and neglect, impact on, 734-736  
  Foster care placements, impact on, 734-736  
``Substantial gainful activity'' (SGA), 14 
Substitute care, 743-751 
  See also Foster Care Program  
``Suitable work,'' 334-336 
Sullivan v. Zebley, 263; 298 
Summer Youth Employment and Training Program (Title II-B), 928-934 
SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME SUPPORT PROGRAM (SSI), 257-326 
  Administrative fees, 278-279  
SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME SUPPORT PROGRAM (SSI)--Continued 
  AFDC, interaction with, 271; 400-401  
  AIDS and HIV, 269  
  Benefits, 273-289  
    Federal, 273; (Table 4-3), 274 
    Former recipients of State assistance, 276 
    Individuals living independently, 284-287  
    Persons living in a Medicaid institution, 275-276 
    Persons living in the household of another, 273-274; 
     (Table 4-4), 275 
   ``Break-even point,'' 301  
  Burial funds, 266  
  Categorical requirements, 262-263  
  Cents-per-hour tax, 125  
  Citizenship requirement, 263  
  Costs, 308-313  
  Countable income, 264-265  
  Countable resources, 265-267  
  Deeming for aliens, 268  
  Deeming of income and resources, 267-269  
  Drug addicts and alcoholics (DA&A), 298-300  
  Earned income disregards, 300-301  
  Eligibility, 262-270  
  ``Essential persons,'' 276  
  Federal benefit standard, 273; (Table 4-3), 274  
  Food Stamp Program, interaction with, 272; 284-287; 859; 873  
  Homeless, 300  
  ``Immediate payments,'' 276-277  
  Income exclusions, 264  
  Income requirement, 263-268  
  Legal immigrants (aliens), 300  
  Legislative history, 1972-1996, 314-326  
    See also Appendix L 
  Life insurance policies, 265-266  
  Living in the household of another, 273-274; (Table 4-4), 275  
  Means-tested programs, 854-855  
  Medicaid, interaction with, 266; 269; 271-272; 275-276; 301-
   302; 883-884  
  Medical institutionalization, 269-270  
  One-third reduction benefit standard, 273-274  
  Participation rates, 302-305  
  Personal needs allowance (PNA), 267; 275  
  Plan to Achieve Self-Support (PASS), 264  
  Population characteristics, 289-298  
  Poverty threshold comparison, 287-289  
  Presumptive eligibility, 269  
  Public institution requirement, 269-270  
  Recipiency rates, 302-305  
  Residency requirement, 263  
  Resource requirement, 265-267  
  Social Security, interaction with, 270-271  
  State Supplementary Payments (SSP), 277-283  
  Sullivan v. Zebley, 263; 298  
  Tax exclusion of benefits, 809-810  
  Tolerance level for resources, 266  
  Transfer of resources, 266  
  Trends, 259-262; 289-298  
  Vocational rehabilitation, 272-273  
  Work disincentives, 301  
  Working disabled, 300-302  
Support orders:  
  Amount determination, 542-544  
  Establishment, 541-544  
Survivor's benefit under PBGC, 841-842 
Suter v. Artist M., 726-727 

TAA; see Trade Adjustment Assistance Programs 
Taxation: 
  Unemployment compensation, 339  
  Workers' compensation, 946 
TAX PROVISIONS, 773-835 
  Accelerated death benefits, tax benefits for, 797-799  
  Adoption, 831  
  AFDC, 809-810  
  Black lung, tax exclusion of special benefits, 814-815  
  Blind, additional personal tax exemptions for, 815-816  
  Cafeteria plans, 793-795  
  Dependent care:  
    Employer-provided, tax exclusion for, 812-813 
    Tax credit, 646; 810-812 
  Disabled, tax credit for, 816-817  
  Earned income credit, 804-809  
  Elderly:  
    Effect of tax provisions on the income and taxes of, 821-
     834 
    Personal exemptions, additional, 815-816 
    Tax credit, 816-817 
  Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 776; 786  
  Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), 780  
  Food stamps, 810  
  401(k) plans, 776  
  Group health plan requirements, 796-797  
  Health insurance:  
    Continuation rules under COBRA, 796 
    Premiums, tax exclusion of employer contributions, 790-792 
    Self-employed individuals, deduction for, 801 
  Housing, 810; 817-821  
  Income (definition), 775  
  Individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 786-789  
  Long-term care insurance, tax benefits for, 797-801  
  Medicaid, 810  
  Medical care, tax exclusion of employer contributions, 790-792  
  Medical expenses, deductibility of, 801-804  
  Medical savings accounts (MSAs), 793  
  Medicare, tax exclusion of benefits, 801  
  Pensions, tax exclusion of pension contributions and earnings, 
    776-786  
  Personal exemptions for the elderly and blind, 815-816  
  Poor, effect of tax provisions on the income and taxes of, 
   821-834  
  Public assistance, tax exclusion of benefits, 809-810  
  Railroad Retirement System, tax exclusion of benefits, 789-790  
  Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) retirement 
   plans, 782  
  Social Security, tax exclusion of benefits, 789-790  
  SSI, tax exclusion of benefits, 809-810  
  Workers' compensation, tax exclusion of benefits, 814-815  
  Work Opportunity Tax Credit, 813-814  
TCC; see Transitional Child Care Program  
Ted Weiss Child Support Enforcement Act, 556  
Teenage mothers and use of AFDC, 513-517  
TennCare Program, 891  
Tier I benefits [of Railroad Retirement Act], 118-119  
  Taxation, 120-121; (Table 2-4), 123; 125-126  
Tier II benefits [of Railroad Retirement Act], 119  
  Taxation, 120-121; (Table 2-4), 123; 125-126  
``Tilt,'' 119  
Title II-A [of the Job Training Partnership Act]; see Adult 
 Training Program  
Title II-B [of the Job Training Partnership Act]; see Summer Youth 
 Employment and Training Program  
Title II-C [of the Job Training Partnership Act]; see Youth 
 Training Program  
Title IV-A [of the Social Security Act]; see Aid to Families with 
 Dependent Children  
Title IV-A Child Care, participants receiving child care, 414; 
 435; 646-648; (Tables 10-17 & 10-18), 666-669; (Tables 10-19 & 
 10-20), 670-674  
Title IV-B [of the Social Security Act]:  
  See Child Welfare Services Program 
  See Family Preservation and Family Support Program 
Title IV-E [of the Social Security Act]:  
  See Adoption Assistance Program 
  See Foster Care Program  
  See Independent Living Program  
Title XVI [of the Social Security Act]; see Supplemental Security 
 Income Program  
Title XX [of the Social Security Act]; see Social Services Block 
 Grant  
``Tolerance level,'' 872  
Total unemployment rate (TUR), 342  
TRA; see Trade Readjustment Allowances  
TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (TAA), 380-381  
  See also Trade Adjustment Assistance Program for Firms  
  See also Trade Adjustment Assistance Program for Workers  
Trade Adjustment Assistance Program for Firms, 378-380  
  Benefits, 379-380  
  Funding, 380  
Trade Adjustment Assistance Program for Workers, 369-376  
  Cash benefit levels, 372-374  
  Certification requirements, 369-371  
  Duration, 372-374  
  Funding, 378  
  Job search allowances, 375-376  
  Outlays (Table 7-3), 374  
  Qualifying requirements, 371-372  
  Relocation allowances, 376  
  Training and employment services, 374-376  
  See also NAFTA Worker Security Act 
Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA), 371-376; 378 
Transfer of assets and Medicaid, 894 
Transitional Child Care Program (TCC), 647-648; (Table 10-13), 
 656-658; (Table 10-14), 659-660; (Table 10-21), 674-675 
Trial work period (TWP), 14 
Triggers, 339; 342; 343 
Trust funds:  
  DI and OASI, 58-75 
  Medicare: 
    HI, 141-147 
      Financial status, 147-157 
    SMI, 141; 147 
      Financial status, 157-159 
  Railroad unemployment, 366 
  Unemployment, 344-354 
Tuberculosis-related services under Medicaid, 895 
TUR; see Total unemployment rate 
209(b); see Section 209(b) 

UC; see Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program 
UEFJA; see Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgements Act 
UIFSA; see Uniform Interstate Family Support Act 
UIS; see Unemployment Insurance Service 
Unemployment: 
  Data; see Appendix F 
  Definition for AFDC-UP, 395  
Unemployment compensation intercept, 554 
UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION (UC) PROGRAM, 327-359 
  Ability to work, 334-337  
  Administrative financing and allocation, 354-358  
  Availability for work, 334-337  
  Average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU), 357  
  Base period wages, 338  
  Benefits:  
    Amount, 339-341 
    Coverage, 328-333 
    Duration, 339-341 
    Eligibility, 333-339 
    Exhaustion, 342-343 
    Extension, 342 
    Supplemental, 343-344 
UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION (UC) PROGRAM--Continued 
  Benefits--Continued  
    Taxation, 339 
  ``Chargeable'' employer, 338 
  Coverage, 328-333 
  CSE, interaction with, 554  
  Denial of benefits, 336-337  
  Disqualification, 337  
  Eligibility, 333-339  
    Monetary qualifications, 334; (Table 5-3), 335-336; 337 
  Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC), 331; 337; 343-345  
  Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA), 345  
  Employment Service (ES), 356  
  Exhaustion of benefits, 342-343  
  Ex-service members, 337-338  
  Extended benefits, 334-335; 337; 342  
  Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA), 333-335  
  Federal Employee Compensation Account (FECA), 345  
  Federal Unemployment Account (FUA), 345  
    State borrowing, 350 
  Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 351-352  
  ``High-cost multiple,'' (Table 5-8), 348-349; 350  
  Insured unemployment, 331-333  
  Insured unemployment rate (IUR), 342-343  
  Job losers, 333  
  Legislative history, 358-359  
  Pension offset, 338  
  Program statistics (Table 5-1), 329-330  
  Reserve ratio, 350  
  ``Suitable work,'' 334-336  
  Taxable wage base for unemployment taxes, 351-352  
  Taxation, 339  
  Total unemployment rate (TUR), 342  
  Triggers, 339; 342; 343  
  Trust Fund, 344-354  
Unemployment Insurance Service (UIS), 356 
Unemployment Trust Fund, 344-354 
  Financial condition, 347-351  
  See also Employment Security Administration Account  
  See also Extended Unemployment Compensation Account  
  See also Federal Employee Compensation Account  
  See also Federal Unemployment Account  
Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgements Act (UEFJA), 562-563 
Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA), 562 
Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement Support Act (URESA), 558-559 
URESA; see Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement Support Act (URESA) 

Variable rate premium (definition), 844 
VCIS; see Voluntary Cooperative Information System 
``Vested dual benefits,'' 119 
Veterans benefits and services, 942-945 
  Dependency and indemnity compensation, 942-943  
  Disability compensation, 942  
  Educational assistance, 943  
  Medical care, 943-944  
  Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 943  
  Pensions, 943  
  Readjustment benefits, 942  
  Vocational rehabilitation, 943  
Virgin Islands, 767-772 
Vocational rehabilitation: 
  DI, interaction with, 44-45  
  SSI, interaction with, 272-273  
Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS): 
  Adoption Assistance Program data, 742-745  
  Foster Care Program data, 742  
  Social Services Block Grant data, 686  

``Wage base'' (definition), 120 
Waivers: 
  AFDC, 434-435  
  Medicaid, 884  
Welfare dependency, 508-510 
Welfare dynamics, 500-513 
``Welfare hotels,'' 430 
Welfare, length of time, 505-506  
Welfare reform legislation; see Appendix L  
Welfare-to-work, 428  
WIC; see Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants 
 and Children  
Wilder v. Virginia Hospital Association, 888  
WIN; see Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program 
 (JOBS)  
``Windfall,'' 119  
Workers' compensation, 945-950  
  ``As charged'' basis, 947 
  Benefits, 945; (Table 16-44), 950  
  Black lung benefits, 946; 947  
  Cash compensation levels, 947  
  Coverage (definition), 947  
  Covered workers and payroll (Table 16-43), 949  
  DI, interaction with, 33  
  Employer costs, 948-949  
  Insurers by types, 948-949  
  Medical expenses, 946-947  
  Social security, 33  
  Taxation, 946  
  Tax exclusion of benefits (14)34-35  
Work Opportunity Tax Credit, 813-814  
Work Supplementation Program, 400-411  
``Wraparound,'' 396-397  

Youth Training Program (Title II-C), 929-932