[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix A. Data on the Elderly]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[1998 Green Book] APPENDIX A. DATA ON THE ELDERLY

    This appendix presents historical, current, and projected 
data on the demographic and economic characteristics of the 
elderly, including information on population, life expectancy, 
labor force participation, marital status, living arrangements, 
poverty rates, and income. Data sources are noted at the bottom 
of each table.
    The following definitions may be useful for reading the 
tables:
 1. ``Aged'' and ``elderly'' each refer to any person 65 years 
        old or older.
 2. ``OASDI'' and ``Social Security'' are used interchangeably.
 3. ``Supplemental Security Income'' is, at times, abbreviated 
        ``SSI.''
 4. The concepts ``unrelated individual'' and ``unit'' are used 
        many times throughout this appendix. ``Unrelated 
        individual'' refers to any individual living alone. 
        ``Unit'' refers to an individual living alone, a couple 
        living alone, or a family.

 TABLE A-1.--ELDERLY AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELDERLY BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS
                                                    1940-2025                                                   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           Year                                 
        Age and demographic group        -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            1940     1950     1960     1970     1980     1990     2000     2025 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Population age 65 and older (in                                                                                 
 thousands).............................    9,556   12,752   17,250   20,919   26,148   31,978   35,407   61,395
Population age 65 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      6.8      8.0      9.1      9.7     11.1     12.3     12.4     18.2
Population age 75 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      2.0      2.5      3.1      3.8      4.4      5.2      5.9      7.6
Population age 85 and older as a percent                                                                        
 of total population....................      0.3      0.4      0.5      0.7      1.0      1.3      1.5      1.9
Certain age and sex groupings as a                                                                              
 percent of the population age 65 and                                                                           
 older:                                                                                                         
    Men 65 and older....................     48.4     46.8     44.5     41.5     40.3     40.6     41.6     44.7
    Men 65-74...........................     34.8     32.6     30.2     26.8     26.2     25.8     23.9     27.9
    Men 75-84...........................     11.9     12.2     12.2     12.3     11.3     12.0     14.1     13.5
    Men 85 and older....................      1.7      2.0      2.2      2.4      2.7      2.9      3.6      3.4
                                                                                                                
    Women 65 and older..................     51.6     53.2     55.5     58.5     59.7     59.4     58.4     55.3
    Women 65-74.........................     35.8     35.7     35.7     34.7     33.9     31.9     28.4     30.7
    Women 75-84.........................     13.4     14.7     16.3     19.1     19.3     20.0     21.1     17.6
    Women 85 and older..................      2.3      2.8      3.5      4.7      6.5      7.5      8.9      7.0
                                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total age 65 and older..........    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Population figures are as of July 1, and include total U.S. plus the outlying areas covered under the    
  Social Security Program and an adjustment for census undercount. Projections are based on the intermediate    
  assumptions of the 1997 OASDI Trustees' Report.                                                               
                                                                                                                
Source: Office of the Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration.                                            


        TABLE A-2.--LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR MEN AND WOMEN, 1900-2070        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Life expectancy at    Life expectancy at 
                                      birth                age 65       
            Year             -------------------------------------------
                                 Male      Female      Male      Female 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Actual:                                                                 
                                                                        
    1900....................       46.4       49.0       11.4       11.7
    1910....................       50.1       53.6       11.4       12.1
    1920....................       54.5       56.3       11.8       12.3
    1930....................       58.0       61.3       11.8       12.9
    1940....................       61.4       65.7       11.9       13.4
    1950....................       65.6       71.1       12.8       15.1
    1960....................       66.7       73.2       12.9       15.9
    1970....................       67.1       74.9       13.1       17.1
    1980....................       69.9       77.5       14.0       18.4
    1990....................       71.8       78.9       15.0       19.0
                                                                        
Projected:                                                              
                                                                        
    2000....................       73.2       79.7       15.8       19.3
    2010....................       74.7       80.5       16.2       19.6
    2020....................       75.5       81.1       16.6       20.0
    2030....................       76.2       81.8       17.0       20.4
    2040....................       76.8       82.4       17.5       20.9
    2050....................       77.5       82.9       17.8       21.3
    2060....................       78.1       83.5       18.2       21.7
    2070....................       78.6       84.0       18.6       22.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--The life expectancy for any year is the average number of years  
  of life remaining for a person if that person were to experience that 
  year's age-sex-specific death rates throughout the remainder of his or
  her life. Projections are based on the intermediate assumptions of the
  1997 OASDI Trustees' Report.                                          
                                                                        
Source: Office of the Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration.    


                                         TABLE A-3.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1950-96                                        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                      Year                                              
                  Sex and age group                   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         1950     1955     1960     1965     1970     1975     1980     1985     1990     1995     1996 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:                                                                                                                                                    
    55-64............................................     86.9     87.9     86.8     84.6     83.0     75.8     72.3     67.9     67.8     66.0     67.0
    55-59............................................    (\2\)     92.5     91.6     90.2     89.5     84.4     81.9     79.6     79.9     77.4     77.9
    60-64............................................    (\2\)     82.5     81.1     78.0     75.0     65.7     61.0     55.6     55.5     53.2     54.3
    60-61............................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     84.8     82.6     75.2     71.8     68.9     68.8     65.6     66.3
    62-64............................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     73.2     69.4     58.8     52.8     46.1     46.5     45.0     45.7
    65 and over......................................     45.8     39.6     33.1     27.9     26.8     21.7     19.1     15.8     16.3     16.8     16.9
Women:                                                                                                                                                  
    55-64............................................     27.0     32.5     37.2     41.4     43.0     41.0     41.5     42.0     45.2     49.2     49.6
    55-59............................................    (\2\)     35.6     42.2     47.1     50.4     47.9     48.6     50.3     55.3     59.5     59.8
    60-64............................................    (\2\)     29.0     31.4     34.0     36.1     33.3     33.3     33.4     35.5     38.0     38.2
    60-61............................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     40.4     41.4     39.5     39.8     40.3     42.9     46.1     47.2
    62-64............................................    (\2\)    (\2\)    (\2\)     29.5     32.3     29.0     28.6     28.7     30.7     32.6     31.8
    65 and over......................................      9.7     10.6     10.8     10.0      9.7      8.3      8.1      7.3      8.6      8.8      8.6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian labor force as percent of civilian noninstitutional population aged 16 or older.                                                           
\2\ Data not available.                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                                                                                     


                                       TABLE A-4.--MARITAL STATUS OF AGED INDIVIDUALS, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1960-96                                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    1960 \2\          1970 \3\            1980              1990              1996      
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Demographic group                                  75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and
                                                                 65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over    65-74     over 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:                                                                                                                                                    
    Married...................................................     78.9     59.1     77.6     79.7     81.6     69.4     80.2     69.9     79.0     69.8
    Widowed...................................................     12.7     31.6     11.0     30.4      8.5     24.0      9.2     23.7      9.6     22.9
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.5      2.9      1.5      4.4      2.2      6.0      3.1      7.0      4.0
    Never married.............................................      6.7      7.8      8.5      6.6      5.4      4.2      4.1      3.4      4.4      3.3
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total percent.........................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               =========================================================================================
        Number (in thousands).................................    4,778    2,280    5,333    3,031    6,459    3,234    8,013    4,320    8,213    5,048
                                                               =========================================================================================
Women:                                                                                                                                                  
    Married...................................................     45.6     21.8     45.4     20.8     50.1     23.3     53.2     25.4     54.8     27.4
    Widowed...................................................     44.4     68.3     43.7     70.5     40.3     68.0     36.1     65.6     32.8     63.6
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.2      3.0      1.3      4.0      2.3      6.2      3.6      8.5      4.5
    Never married \4\.........................................      8.4      8.6      7.9      7.4      5.6      6.4      4.6      5.4      3.8      4.4
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total percent.........................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               =========================================================================================
        Number (in thousands).................................    5,529    3,054    6,741    4,608    8,549    5,411    9,966    7,267   10,057    8,341
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian noninstitutional population only.                                                                                                          
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1960 Decennial Census.                                                                                  
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 Decennial Census.                                                                                  
\4\ Never married was reported as ``single'' for 1960.                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20 (various years).                                                                                         


                    TABLE A-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ELDERLY,\1\ SELECTED YEARS 1970-96                   
                         [Civilian noninstitutionalized population, number in thousands]                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Total 65 and      Widowed men     Widowed women 
                                                                    over       ---------------------------------
                 Living arrangement and year                 ------------------                                 
                                                               Number  Percent  Number  Percent  Number  Percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In families:                                                                                                    
    1970 \2\................................................   13,347     70.0     499     37.4   2,386     40.1
    1980 \3\................................................   16,355     67.6     385     28.7   2,194     30.1
    1990....................................................   19,737     66.8     525     29.9   2,202     26.3
    1992....................................................   20,351     66.5     536     28.0   2,305     26.8
    1995....................................................   20,828     66.6     466     26.6   2,363     27.4
    1996....................................................   21,092     66.6     527     27.1   2,427     28.2
Living alone:                                                                                                   
    1970 \2\................................................    5,071     26.6     708     53.1   3,309     55.7
    1980 \3\................................................    7,328     30.3     893     66.5   4,916     67.4
    1990....................................................    9,176     31.0   1,117     63.6   5,946     71.1
    1992....................................................    9,523     31.1   1,241     64.7   6,070     70.6
    1995....................................................    9,862     31.5   1,201     68.4   6,092     70.5
    1996....................................................    9,841     31.1   1,259     64.8   5,963     69.3
Other:                                                                                                          
    1970 \2\................................................      645      3.4     124      9.3     251      4.2
    1980 \3\................................................      511      2.1      65      4.8     186      2.5
    1990....................................................      653      2.2     113      6.4     220      2.6
    1992....................................................      716      2.3     142      7.4     227      2.6
    1995....................................................      577      1.8      88      5.0     182      2.1
    1996....................................................      725      2.3     158      8.1     217      2.5
                                                             ---------------------------------------------------
    Total:                                                                                                      
      1970 \2\..............................................   19,061    100.0   1,333    100.0   5,946    100.0
      1980 \3\..............................................   24,194    100.0   1,342    100.0   7,295    100.0
      1990..................................................   29,566    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,367    100.0
      1992..................................................   30,590    100.0   1,917    100.0   8,601    100.0
      1995..................................................   31,267    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,637    100.0
      1996..................................................   31,658    100.0   1,944    100.0   8,607    100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Excludes persons in institutions (nursing homes, etc.). The number of such persons age 65 years and over was
  estimated to be 0.8 million in 1970, and 1.6 million in 1989.                                                 
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 Decennial Census.                                          
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1980 Decennial Census.                                          
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20 (various years).                                                 


 TABLE A-6.--POVERTY STATUS OF ALL PERSONS AND ELDERLY BY SEX, ETHNICITY, AND LIVING ARRANGEMENT, SELECTED YEARS
                                                     1959-95                                                    
                                        [Percent below the poverty level]                                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Year                                      
                              ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 1959     1966     1970   1973 \1\    1980     1990   1992 \2\    1994     1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All persons..................     22.4     14.7     12.6      11.1     13.0     13.5      14.8     14.5     13.8
Persons 65 years old and over     35.2     28.5     24.5      16.3     15.7     12.2      12.9     11.7     10.5
    Both sexes:                                                                                                 
        Living arrangement:                                                                                     
            Living in                                                                                           
             families........       NA       NA     14.7       9.4      8.5      5.8       7.1      6.0      5.0
            Unrelated                                                                                           
             individuals.....       NA       NA     47.1      32.0     30.6     24.7      24.9     23.1     21.4
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                         
            Black............       NA       NA     48.0      37.1     38.1     33.8      33.5     27.4     25.4
            Hispanic \3\.....       NA       NA       NA      24.9     30.8     22.5      22.1     22.6     23.5
            White............       NA       NA     22.5      14.4     13.6     10.1      11.0     10.2      9.0
    Men......................       NA       NA     19.0      12.4     10.9      7.6       8.8      7.2      6.2
        Living arrangement:                                                                                     
            Living in                                                                                           
             families........       NA       NA     14.9       9.4      8.2      5.4       6.7      5.1      4.2
            Unrelated                                                                                           
             individuals.....       NA       NA     38.9      27.1     24.4     17.3      18.4     16.1     14.3
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                         
            Black............       NA       NA     41.3      32.4     31.4     27.8      26.9     20.6     15.4
            Hispanic \3\.....       NA       NA       NA      22.0     27.0     18.6      17.4     15.4     16.0
            White............       NA       NA     17.0      10.4      9.0      5.6       7.1      5.9      5.4
    Women....................       NA       NA     28.5      19.0     19.0     15.4      15.8     14.9     13.6
        Living arrangement:                                                                                     
            Living in                                                                                           
             families........       NA       NA     14.5       9.3      8.8      6.3       7.5      7.0      5.9
            Unrelated                                                                                           
             individuals.....       NA       NA     49.7      33.5     32.3     26.9      26.8     25.3     23.8
        Race/ethnicity:                                                                                         
            Black............       NA       NA     53.2      40.5     42.6     37.9      37.8     31.7     31.1
            Hispanic \3\.....       NA       NA       NA      24.7     34.3     25.3      25.4     28.4     28.9
            White............       NA       NA     26.5      17.2     16.8     13.2      13.7     13.3     11.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ First year in which Hispanic data are available.                                                            
\2\ 1992 figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                                  
\3\ Hispanics may be of any race.                                                                               
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports Series P-60.                                      


    TABLE A-7.--POVERTY RATES OF THE ELDERLY BY AGE, SEX, AND MARITAL   
                              STATUS, 1995                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Age group            
                                     -----------------------------------
       Sex and marital status          65 and                     85 and
                                        over    65-74    75-84     over 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Male:                                                                   
    Married.........................      4.2      3.8      4.7      7.3
    Widowed.........................      9.3      8.9     11.0      6.4
    Divorced/separated/never married     15.7     14.2     18.2       NA
                                     -----------------------------------
        Total.......................      6.2      5.6      7.0      8.5
                                     ===================================
Female:                                                                 
    Married.........................      4.2      3.9      4.5       NA
    Widowed.........................     19.2     17.8     20.3     19.7
    Divorced/separated/never married     23.8     23.1     25.3       NA
                                     -----------------------------------
        Total.......................     13.6     11.1     15.8     19.0
                                     ===================================
            All elderly.............     10.5      8.6     12.3    15.7 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available due to unreliability of estimate; percentage base     
  represents fewer than 250,000 persons.                                
                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 
  1996 Current Population Survey.                                       


  TABLE A-8.--AMOUNT OF INCOME FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN SOCIAL SECURITY, 
       AMONG SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFICIARIES, AGE 65 AND OVER, 1995       
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Married   Nonmarried
Unit income other than Social Security  All units   couples     persons 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 None.................................        0.1        0.2         0.1
 Loss or $1-$1,999....................       28.9       16.2        39.1
 $2,000-$3,999........................        8.7        5.8        11.0
 $4,000-$5,999........................        6.7        5.7         7.6
 $6,000-$7,999........................        6.4        5.6         7.1
 $8,000-$9,999........................        4.6        4.2         5.0
 $10,000-$14,999......................        9.4       10.2         8.7
 $15,000-$19,999......................        7.4        9.6         5.5
 $20,000-$29,999......................        9.9       13.2         7.1
 $30,000-$39,999......................        6.1        9.0         3.7
 $40,000-$49,999......................        3.5        5.2         2.2
 $50,000-$74,999......................        4.6        7.9         2.0
 $75,000-$99,999......................        2.0        3.9         0.4
 $100,000 or more.....................        1.7        3.2         0.5
                                       ---------------------------------
   Number (in thousands)..............     21,934      9,803      12,132
   Median income other than Social                                      
   Security...........................     $7,733    $16,050      $3,958
   Median Social Security income......     $9,818    $13,548     $8,245 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Units are families (primary families, related, and unrelated     
  subfamilies) and unrelated individuals with any member age 65 or      
  older.                                                                
                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 
  1996 Current Population Survey.                                       


                                                  TABLE A-9.--TOTAL MONEY INCOME OF ELDERLY UNITS, 1995                                                 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  All units                     Married couples                 Nonmarried persons      
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Amount of income                      Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85 
                                                        and over  Age 65-69   and over   and over  Age 65-69   and over   and over  Age 65-69   and over
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Under $5,000........................................        3.7        3.1        5.9        1.3        1.3        0.8        5.7        5.3        7.3
 $5,000-$9,999.......................................       17.8       13.3       27.1        3.3        3.1        6.1       29.6       26.7       33.0
 $10,000-$14,999.....................................       16.5       11.6       20.6        9.6        6.5       15.6       22.1       18.2       22.0
 $15,000-$19,999.....................................       13.3       12.6       12.4       13.0       11.4       11.3       13.6       14.3       12.8
 $20,000-$29,999.....................................       17.3       18.7       12.5       23.0       21.6       18.8       12.7       14.8       10.7
 $30,000-$39,999.....................................       10.7       13.4        7.0       15.0       16.5       10.4        7.2        9.4        6.0
 $40,000-$49,999.....................................        6.4        8.2        3.9        9.8       10.8        6.8        3.7        4.8        3.0
 $50,000-$74,999.....................................        7.9       10.0        5.3       12.8       14.3       11.4        3.8        4.3        3.6
 $75,000-$99,999.....................................        2.9        3.8        2.6        5.4        6.0        9.8        0.8        1.0        0.6
 $100,000 or more....................................        3.5        5.3        2.7        6.8        8.4        9.0        0.8        1.3        1.0
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Total percent...............................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
                                                      ==================================================================================================
     Number (in thousands)...........................     24,015      7,136      2,388     10,793      4,054        522     13,222      3,082      1,866
     Median..........................................    $19,405    $25,106    $14,084    $30,092    $33,100    $28,750    $13,074    $14,967    $11,569
    Mean.............................................    $29,394    $35,991    $23,431    $42,415    $47,156    $44,228    $18,764    $21,304    $17,610
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Units are families (primary families, related, and unrelated subfamilies) and unrelated individuals with any member age 65 or older. Unit's age  
  is the age of the head of the unit, if age 65 or older. If the head of the unit is under age 65, the unit's age is based on the age of the spouse, if 
  the spouse is age 65 or older; otherwise the unit's age is based on the age of the oldest person age 65 or older in the unit.                         
                                                                                                                                                        
 Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on March 1996 Current Population Survey.                                            


 TABLE A-10.--PERCENT OF UNITS \1\ WITH ANY MEMBER AGE 65 OR OVER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND PERCENT 
                        OF TOTAL UNIT INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE BY POVERTY \2\ STATUS, 1995                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Percent of units with     Percent unit income  
                                                                income from each source      from each source   
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
                                                                Total    Poor   Nonpoor   Total   Poor   Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of units (in thousands)...............................   23,996   3,040   20,956      NA      NA       NA
Number of aged individuals (in thousands)....................   31,658   3,318   28,340      NA      NA       NA
Percent of units.............................................    100.0    12.7     87.3      NA      NA       NA
                                                                                                                
Earnings \3\.................................................     33.4     8.7     37.0    32.9     5.7     33.7
OASDI, railroad retirement...................................     92.2    81.0     93.8    32.8    67.3     31.9
Pensions.....................................................     42.8     6.9     48.0    15.2     2.6     15.5
Veterans, UC, and other compensation.........................      7.4     3.2      8.0     1.3     0.8      1.3
AFDC, SSI, general assistance................................      6.8    23.2      4.4     0.8    10.7      0.6
Child support, alimony.......................................      5.1     3.0      5.4     1.0     0.8      1.0
Interest, dividends \3\......................................     69.3    30.0     75.0    15.4     3.1     15.8
Food stamps \4\..............................................      5.4    23.7      2.8     0.2     3.6      0.1
Housing assistance \4\.......................................      5.5    15.3      4.1     0.3     5.5     0.2 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes both families and unrelated individuals.                                                           
\2\ Based on census (``Orshansky'') poverty levels.                                                             
\3\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                 
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their cash values are       
  included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of unit income from these sources.        
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.                                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1996 Current Population Survey.         


  TABLE A-11.--PERCENT OF MARRIED COUPLES WITH ALL MEMBERS AGE 65 OR OVER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND 
                   PERCENT OF TOTAL FAMILY INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE, BY POVERTY STATUS,\1\ 1995                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Percent of couples      Percent of family  
                                                                    with income from each     income from each  
                                                                           source                  source       
                                                                  ----------------------------------------------
                                                                    Total   Poor  Nonpoor  Total   Poor  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of married couples (in thousands).........................   6,216    202   6,014      NA     NA      NA 
Percent of married couples.......................................   100.0    3.2    96.8      NA     NA      NA 
                                                                                                                
Earnings \2\.....................................................    22.8    4.4    23.4    15.2    2.0    15.3 
OASDI, railroad retirement.......................................    96.6   60.7    97.8    41.0   70.3    40.9 
Pensions.........................................................    56.6    8.1    58.2    20.7    4.3    20.8 
Veterans, UC, and other compensation.............................     6.9    2.1     7.0     1.1    0.5     1.1 
AFDC, SSI, general assistance....................................     1.3   12.1     1.0     0.2    9.6     0.2 
Child support, alimony...........................................     2.6    1.6     2.6     0.8    0.3     0.8 
Interest, dividends \2\..........................................    82.2   38.5    83.7    20.8    7.9    20.9 
Food stamps \3\..................................................     0.9    9.3     0.6     0.0    2.7     0.0 
Housing assistance \3\...........................................     1.4    4.8     1.3     0.0    2.2    0.0  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on census (``Orshansky'') poverty levels.                                                             
\2\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                 
\3\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their cash values are       
  included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of family income from these sources.      
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1996 Current Population Survey.         


TABLE A-12. PERCENT OF UNRELATED INDIVIDUALS \1\ AGE 65 OR OVER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND PERCENT OF
                            TOTAL INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE, BY POVERTY STATUS,\2\ 1995                           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Percent of individuals   Percent of individual
                                                                   with income from each      income from each  
                                                                          source                   source       
                                                                ------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Total    Poor   Nonpoor  Total   Poor  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of individuals (in thousands)...........................   10,555   2,260   8,295      NA     NA      NA 
Percent of individuals.........................................    100.0    21.4    78.6      NA     NA      NA 
                                                                                                                
Earnings \3\...................................................     12.5     3.1    15.1    10.3    0.9    11.0 
OASDI, railroad retirement.....................................     93.6    85.9    95.7    48.2   74.7    46.0 
Pensions.......................................................     36.0     6.3    44.1    17.0    2.3    18.2 
Veterans, UC, and other compensation...........................      4.3     2.8     4.7     1.3    0.7     1.4 
AFDC, SSI, general assistance..................................      7.1    21.5     3.1     1.2    8.5     0.6 
Child support, alimony.........................................      3.6     2.2     3.9     1.1    0.7     1.2 
Interest, dividends \3\........................................     63.4    32.6    71.8    19.5    3.1    20.9 
Food stamps \4\................................................      6.9    22.4     2.7     0.2    2.2     0.1 
Housing assistance \4\.........................................     10.7    17.9     8.7     1.2    6.9    0.7  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Elderly living alone.                                                                                       
\2\ Based on census (``Orshansky'') poverty levels.                                                             
\3\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                 
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash  
  values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their cash values are       
  included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of individuals' income from these sources.
                                                                                                                
NA--Not applicable.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
 Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 1996 Current Population Survey.        


 TABLE A-13.--RECEIPT OF SOCIAL SECURITY, SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME, 
FOOD STAMPS, AND COMBINATIONS THEREOF, AMONG UNITS \1\ WITH AN AGED HEAD
CLASSIFIED BY FAMILY MONEY INCOME AS A PERCENT OF THE POVERTY THRESHOLD,
                                  1995                                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Less than 100     100-149.9 percent of
                               percent of poverty     poverty threshold 
                                    threshold      ---------------------
       Type of benefit       ----------------------                     
                              Number (in            Number (in   Percent
                              thousands)   Percent  thousands)          
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Social Security \2\.........       2,361      82.1       3,656      96.6
SSI.........................         594      20.6         320       8.5
Food stamps.................         677      23.5         282       7.4
Social Security only \3\....       1,657      57.6       3,199      84.5
SSI only \3\................          91       3.2          26       0.7
Food stamps only \3\........          43       1.5           0       0.0
Social Security and food                                                
 stamps \4\.................         280       9.7         177       4.7
Social Security and SSI \4\.         148       5.2         191       5.0
SSI and food stamps \4\.....          78       2.7          15       0.4
Social Security, SSI, and                                               
 food stamps................         276       9.6          89       2.4
No Social Security, SSI, or                                             
 food stamps................         304      10.6          90       2.4
                             -------------------------------------------
    Total...................       2,877     100.0       3,787    100.0 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes unrelated individuals and elderly individuals living alone.
\2\ Includes railroad retirement.                                       
\3\ Family receives only the one type of income specified but not the   
  other two. The family could be receiving other types of income.       
\4\ Family receives only the two types of income specified but not the  
  third. The family could be receiving other sources of income than the 
  three mentioned.                                                      
                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on March 
  1996 Current Population Survey.                                       

                               REFERENCES

Board of Trustees, Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. 
        (1997, April). The 1997 Annual Report of the Board of 
        Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund 
        (U.S. House of Representatives Document 105-73). 
        Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Board of Trustees, Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance 
        Trust Fund. (1997, April). The 1997 Annual Report of 
        the Board of Trustees of the Federal Supplementary 
        Medical Insurance Trust Fund (U.S. House of 
        Representatives Document 105-74). Washington, DC: U.S. 
        Government Printing Office.
Social Security Administration. (1992, August). Life tables for 
        the United States Social Security area 1900-2080 
        (Actuarial Study No. 107). Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (various years). Marital status and 
        living arrangements. Current Population Reports, Series 
        P-20. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (various years). Poverty in the 
        United States. Current Population Reports (Series P-
        60). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.