[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix F. Data on Employment, Earnings, and Unemployment]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[1998 Green Book] APPENDIX F. DATA ON EMPLOYMENT, EARNINGS, AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    The following tables and charts provide additional data on 
unemployment and the Unemployment Compensation Program.

                                           TABLE F-1.--SEASONALLY ADJUSTED MONTHLY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, 1970-96                                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Year                         Jan.    Feb.    Mar.    Apr.     May    June    July    Aug.    Sept.   Oct.    Nov.    Dec.    Avg. 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1970............................................     3.9     4.2     4.4     4.6     4.8     4.9     5.0     5.1     5.4     5.5     5.9     6.1     4.9
1971............................................     5.9     5.9     6.0     5.9     5.9     5.9     6.0     6.1     6.0     5.8     6.0     6.0     5.9
1972............................................     5.8     5.7     5.8     5.7     5.7     5.7     5.6     5.6     5.5     5.6     5.3     5.2     5.6
1973............................................     4.9     5.0     4.9     5.0     4.9     4.9     4.8     4.8     4.8     4.6     4.8     4.9     4.9
1974............................................     5.1     5.2     5.1     5.1     5.1     5.4     5.5     5.5     5.9     6.0     6.6     7.2     5.6
1975............................................     8.1     8.1     8.6     8.8     9.0     8.8     8.6     8.4     8.4     8.4     8.3     8.2     8.5
1976............................................     7.9     7.7     7.6     7.7     7.4     7.6     7.8     7.8     7.6     7.7     7.8     7.8     7.7
1977............................................     7.5     7.6     7.4     7.2     7.0     7.2     6.9     7.0     6.8     6.8     6.8     6.4     7.1
1978............................................     6.4     6.3     6.3     6.1     6.0     5.9     6.2     5.9     6.0     5.8     5.9     6.0     6.1
1979............................................     5.9     5.9     5.8     5.8     5.6     5.7     5.7     6.0     5.9     6.0     5.9     6.0     5.8
1980............................................     6.3     6.3     6.3     6.9     7.5     7.6     7.8     7.7     7.5     7.5     7.5     7.2     7.1
1981............................................     7.5     7.4     7.4     7.2     7.5     7.5     7.2     7.4     7.6     7.9     8.3     8.5     7.6
1982............................................     8.6     8.9     9.0     9.3     9.4     9.6     9.8     9.8    10.1    10.4    10.8    10.8     9.7
1983............................................    10.4    10.4    10.3    10.2    10.1    10.1     9.4     9.5     9.2     8.8     8.5     8.3     9.6
1984............................................     8.0     7.8     7.8     7.7     7.4     7.2     7.5     7.5     7.3     7.4     7.2     7.3     7.5
1985............................................     7.3     7.2     7.2     7.3     7.2     7.4     7.4     7.1     7.1     7.1     7.0     7.0     7.2
1986............................................     6.7     7.2     7.2     7.1     7.2     7.2     7.0     6.9     7.0     7.0     6.9     6.6     7.0
1987............................................     6.6     6.6     6.6     6.3     6.3     6.2     6.1     6.0     5.9     6.0     5.8     5.7     6.2
1988............................................     5.7     5.7     5.7     5.4     5.6     5.4     5.4     5.6     5.4     5.4     5.3     5.3     5.5
1989............................................     5.4     5.2     5.0     5.2     5.2     5.3     5.2     5.2     5.3     5.3     5.4     5.4     5.3
1990............................................     5.4     5.3     5.2     5.4     5.4     5.2     5.5     5.7     5.9     5.9     6.2     6.3     5.6
1991............................................     6.4     6.6     6.8     6.7     6.9     6.9     6.8     6.9     6.9     7.0     7.0     7.3     6.8
1992............................................     7.3     7.4     7.4     7.4     7.6     7.8     7.7     7.6     7.6     7.3     7.4     7.4     7.5
1993............................................     7.3     7.1     7.0     7.1     7.1     7.0     6.9     6.8     6.7     6.8     6.6     6.5     6.9
1994............................................     6.7     6.6     6.5     6.4     6.0     6.1     6.1     6.1     5.9     5.8     5.6     5.4     6.1
1995............................................     5.6     5.5     5.4     5.7     5.6     5.6     5.7     5.7     5.7     5.5     5.6     5.6     5.6
1996............................................     5.7     5.5     5.5     5.5     5.5     5.3     5.4     5.2     5.2     5.2     5.3     5.3     5.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                                                           


        TABLE F-2.--STATE INSURED UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNDER THE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM, 1990-96       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         Year                  1996, by quarter 
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                          1990  1991  1992  1993  1994  1995   I    II  III   IV
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.................................................   2.4   2.7   2.5   2.1   1.9   1.9  2.4  1.9  1.9  1.7
Alaska..................................................   5.5   6.2   6.4   5.5   6.0   5.5  7.5  5.7  3.8  5.1
Arizona.................................................   1.9   2.3   2.3   1.9   1.8   1.5  1.4  1.6  1.6  1.2
Arkansas................................................   3.1   3.6   3.6   3.0   2.6   2.7  3.7  2.7  2.4  2.7
                                                                                                                
California..............................................   3.0   4.1   4.5   3.9   4.0   3.7  4.2  3.5  3.2  3.4
Colorado................................................   1.5   1.8   1.8   1.6   1.5   1.3  1.6  1.4  1.1  1.1
Connecticut.............................................   2.8   3.8   3.8   3.3   3.2   3.0  3.6  2.6  2.5  2.2
 Delaware...............................................   1.4   2.3   2.4   2.1   1.9   1.9  2.9  1.8  2.1  2.2
                                                                                                                
 District of Columbia...................................   1.9   2.7   2.5   2.3   2.1   2.1  2.0  1.7  2.0  1.8
Florida.................................................   1.5   2.3   2.4   2.3   1.8   1.6  1.4  1.4  1.7  1.4
Georgia.................................................   1.7   2.3   2.0   1.6   1.3   1.3  1.4  1.0  1.2  1.2
Hawaii..................................................   1.2   1.6   2.3   2.5   2.9   3.0  3.2  3.0  3.1  2.7
                                                                                                                
Idaho...................................................   3.2   3.8   3.7   3.3   3.1   3.2  4.7  3.0  2.0  2.5
Illinois................................................   2.4   3.1   3.1   2.7   2.3   2.3  3.2  2.4  2.1  2.0
Indiana.................................................   1.4   2.0   1.8   1.4   1.2   1.2  1.9  1.2  1.0  1.1
Iowa....................................................   1.7   2.1   2.1   1.9   1.5   1.5  2.5  1.5  1.2  1.4
                                                                                                                
Kansas..................................................   1.9   2.2   2.2   1.9   1.7   1.5  1.8  1.3  1.3  1.3
Kentucky................................................   2.3   3.0   2.5   2.1   2.2   1.9  2.8  1.8  1.6  1.6
Louisiana...............................................   2.1   2.3   2.7   2.1   1.9   1.7  1.8  1.6  1.5  1.4
Maine...................................................   3.4   5.0   4.0   2.9   3.1   3.0  4.1  3.0  2.1  2.2
                                                                                                                
Maryland................................................   1.9   3.2   3.1   2.5   2.4   2.2  2.9  2.2  1.8  1.7
Massachusetts...........................................   3.8   4.4   3.7   2.9   2.9   2.6  3.3  2.4  2.2  2.0
Michigan................................................   3.2   4.1   3.6   2.9   2.4   2.2  3.4  2.3  1.9  2.0
Minnesota...............................................   2.1   2.4   2.2   1.9   1.7   1.6  2.4  1.6  1.1  1.3
                                                                                                                
Mississippi.............................................   2.7   3.2   3.1   2.2   2.0   2.1  2.7  2.2  2.2  2.1
Missouri................................................   2.4   3.0   2.8   2.3   2.1   1.8  2.5  1.6  1.7  1.6
Montana.................................................   2.8   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.2   3.0  4.5  2.9  2.0  2.6
Nebraska................................................   1.1   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.0   0.9  1.4  0.9  0.8  0.9
                                                                                                                
Nevada..................................................   2.1   3.3   3.3   2.9   2.4   2.3  2.6  2.1  1.9  1.9
New Hampshire...........................................   2.2   3.0   2.3   1.5   1.4   1.1  1.4  1.1  1.1  0.9
New Jersey..............................................   3.0   3.9   4.0   3.3   3.2   3.2  4.0  3.1  3.1  2.8
New Mexico..............................................   2.0   2.4   2.5   2.2   2.0   1.8  2.2  2.0  1.7  1.6
                                                                                                                
New York................................................   2.7   3.7   3.7   3.0   3.0   3.0  3.5  2.7  2.5  2.4
North Carolina..........................................   1.9   2.7   2.0   1.4   1.4   1.5  2.2  1.5  1.4  1.4
North Dakota............................................   1.7   2.0   2.0   1.7   1.5   1.5  2.5  1.3  0.9  1.1
Ohio....................................................   2.1   2.8   2.8   2.1   1.8   1.7  2.5  1.6  1.3  1.4
                                                                                                                
Oklahoma................................................   1.6   1.9   2.0   1.6   1.4   1.3  1.4  1.1  1.1  1.1
Oregon..................................................   3.2   4.2   4.3   3.8   3.6   3.3  4.2  3.3  2.9  3.0
Pennsylvania............................................   3.1   4.1   4.1   3.4   3.5   3.4  4.5  3.3  3.0  2.7
Puerto Rico.............................................   5.1   5.9   6.4   6.6   7.0   6.2  6.2  5.9  6.1  5.3
                                                                                                                
Rhode Island............................................   4.5   5.5   5.0   4.0   4.6   4.6  5.8  4.4  3.9  3.4
South Carolina..........................................   1.9   2.8   2.6   2.1   2.0   1.8  2.3  1.7  1.8  1.7
South Dakota............................................   0.8   0.9   0.9   0.9   0.7   0.7  1.3  0.7  0.6  0.6
Tennessee...............................................   2.5   3.0   2.7   2.0   1.9   1.8  2.7  1.8  1.8  1.7
                                                                                                                
Texas...................................................   1.7   2.0   2.2   2.0   1.8   1.7  1.8  1.5  1.5  1.5
Utah....................................................   1.3   1.6   1.6   1.4   1.1   1.0  1.4  0.9  0.8  0.9
Vermont.................................................   3.2   4.3   4.0   3.3   3.1   2.9  3.8  3.0  2.0  2.3
Virginia................................................   1.1   1.7   1.6   1.2   1.2   1.1  1.4  0.9  0.8  0.8
                                                                                                                
Virgin Islands..........................................   1.2   1.2   1.9   1.9   3.2   2.7  4.0  2.0  1.6  2.0
Washington..............................................   3.1   3.9   4.0   3.9   4.3   4.0  4.8  3.6  3.1  3.3
West Virginia...........................................   2.9   3.9   3.7   3.2   3.0   3.0  4.4  2.9  2.3  2.5
Wisconsin...............................................   2.3   3.0   2.8   2.4   2.2   2.2  3.5  2.2  1.8  1.9
Wyoming.................................................   1.7   2.0   2.3   1.9   1.9   2.0  3.0  2.1  1.3  1.7
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
    United States.......................................   2.4   3.1   3.1   2.6   2.5   2.3  2.9  2.2  2.1  2.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.                                       


                                        TABLE F-3.--UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY SEX, AGE, RACE, AND EXPERIENCE, 1976-96                                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By sex and age                    By race                      By selected groups        
                                                Total  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                (all                          Both                                   Experienced    Married             
                   Period                     civilian   Men 20   Women 20  sexes 16-                     Black and    wage and      men,      Women who
                                              workers)    years     years   19 years    White     Black   other \1\     salary      spouse     maintain 
                                                        and over  and over                                             workers      present    families 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1976........................................       7.7       5.9       7.4      19.0       7.0      14.0       13.1          7.3         4.2        10.1
1977........................................       7.1       5.2       7.0      17.8       6.2      14.0       13.1          6.6         3.6         9.4
1978........................................       6.1       4.3       6.0      16.4       5.2      12.8       11.9          5.6         2.8         8.5
1979........................................       5.8       4.2       5.7      16.1       5.1      12.3       11.3          5.5         2.8         8.3
1980........................................       7.1       5.9       6.4      17.8       6.3      14.3       13.1          6.9         4.2         9.2
1981........................................       7.6       6.3       6.8      19.6       6.7      15.6       14.2          7.3         4.3        10.4
1982........................................       9.7       8.8       8.3      23.2       8.6      18.9       17.3          9.3         6.5        11.7
1983........................................       9.6       8.9       8.1      22.4       8.4      19.5       17.8          9.2         6.5        12.2
1984........................................       7.5       6.6       6.8      18.9       6.5      15.9       14.4          7.1         4.6        10.3
1985........................................       7.2       6.2       6.6      18.6       6.2      15.1       13.7          6.8         4.3        10.4
1986........................................       7.0       6.1       6.2      18.3       6.0      14.5       13.1          6.6         4.4         9.8
1987........................................       6.2       5.4       5.4      16.9       5.3      13.0       11.6          5.8         3.9         9.2
1988........................................       5.5       4.8       4.9      15.3       4.7      11.7       10.4          5.2         3.3         8.1
1989........................................       5.3       4.5       4.7      15.0       4.5      11.4       10.0          5.0         3.0         8.1
1990........................................       5.6       5.0       4.9      15.5       4.8      11.4       10.1          5.3         3.4         8.3
1991........................................       6.8       6.4       5.7      18.7       6.1      12.5       11.1          6.6         4.4         9.3
1992........................................       7.5       7.1       6.3      20.1       6.6      14.2       12.7          7.2         5.1        10.0
1993........................................       6.9       6.4       5.9      19.0       6.1      13.0       11.7          6.6         4.4         9.7
1994........................................       6.1       5.4       5.4      17.6       5.3      11.5       10.5          5.9         3.7         8.9
1995........................................       5.6       4.8       4.9      17.3       4.9      10.4        9.6          5.4         3.3         8.0
1996........................................       5.4       4.6       4.8      16.7       4.7      10.5        9.3          5.2         3.0         8.2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ ``Other'' includes: American Samoans, Native Americans, Asians, and Black Hispanics.                                                                
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.                                                                                           


                                   TABLE F-4.--UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY DURATION OF AND REASON FOR UNEMPLOYMENT, 1977-95                                   
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   Percent distribution of unemployment by     Percent distribution of unemployment by  
                                                                                duration \1\                                  reason \1\                
                                                   Unemployment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Period                        (thousands)     Less                                                                                
                                                                   than 5      5-14      15-26     27 weeks     Job        Job     Reentrants     New   
                                                                   weeks      weeks      weeks     and over    losers    leavers                entrants
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1977.............................................        6,991        41.8       30.5       13.1       14.7       45.3       13.0        28.1       13.6
1978.............................................        6,202        46.2       31.0       12.4       10.4       41.7       14.1        29.9       14.3
1979.............................................        6,137        48.1       31.7       11.5        8.7       42.9       14.3        29.4       13.3
1980.............................................        7,637        43.1       32.3       13.8       10.7       51.7       11.7        25.2       11.4
1981.............................................        8,273        41.7       30.7       13.6       14.0       51.6       11.2        25.4       11.9
1982.............................................       10,678        36.4       31.0       16.0       16.6       58.7        7.9        22.3       11.1
1983.............................................       10,717        33.3       27.4       15.4       23.9       58.4        7.7        22.5       11.3
1984.............................................        8,539        39.2       28.7       12.9       19.1       51.8        9.6        25.6       13.0
1985.............................................        8,312        42.1       30.2       12.3       15.4       49.8       10.6        27.1       12.5
1986.............................................        8,237        41.0       32.0       12.4       14.5       49.0       13.0        25.7       13.4
1987.............................................        7,425        43.7       29.6       12.7       14.0       48.0       13.0        26.6       12.4
1988.............................................        6,701        46.0       30.0       12.0       12.1       46.1       14.7        27.0       12.2
1989.............................................        6,528        48.6       30.3       11.2        9.9       45.7       15.7        28.2       10.4
1990.............................................        7,047        46.3       32.0       11.7       10.0       48.1       14.8        27.4        9.8
1991.............................................        8,628        40.3       32.3       14.4       12.9       54.4       11.6        24.8        9.1
1992.............................................        9,613        35.1       29.4       15.1       20.3       56.1       10.4        23.8        9.7
1993.............................................        8,940        36.5       28.9       14.5       20.1       54.2       10.9        24.6       10.3
1994.............................................        7,996        34.1       30.1       15.5       20.3       47.7        9.9        34.8        7.6
1995.............................................        7,404        36.5       31.6       14.7       17.3       46.9       11.1        34.1        7.8
1996.............................................        7,236        36.4       31.6       14.6       17.4       46.6       10.7        34.7        8.0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Detail may not add to 100 percent because of rounding.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Office of the President (1997). Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.                              


                           TABLE F-5.--STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM EXHAUSTIONS BY MONTH--REGULAR BENEFITS, 1975-96                          
                                                                     [In thousands]                                                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Jan.     Feb.     Mar.     Apr.     May      June     July     Aug.    Sept.     Oct.     Nov.     Dec.      Total   
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1975...........................      229      230      278      369      406      438      487      413      370      350      291      336        4,195
1976...........................      332      295      326      305      273      282      263      254      239      212      231      251        3,262
1977...........................      261      251      290      265      242      254      215      234      198      183      192      192        2,776
1978...........................      211      184      201      192      193      176      151      158      138      133      144      149        2,030
1979...........................      184      160      193      185      195      162      169      166      140      161      159      162        2,037
1980...........................      215      201      220      259      251      246      298      256      254      292      259      319        3,072
1981...........................      309      275      291      289      246      244      247      215      207      200      201      265        2,989
1982...........................      258      267      341      362      338      378      360      365      351      347      384      424        4,175
1983...........................      421      394      470      431      398      383      336      341      264      244      249      248        4,180
1984...........................      269      245      251      245      243      198      213      212      163      197      183      188        2,607
1985...........................      238      207      228      253      235      194      235      205      182      208      180      214        2,579
1986...........................      290      208     2231      256      233      214      245      212      210      223      183      241        2,746
1987...........................      230      220      245      244      206      204      212      179      170      160      183      184        2,408
1988...........................      176      170      198      183      174      162      161      173      148      152      156      154        1,979
1989...........................      168      150     1761      166      174      162      161      173      148      152      156      154        1,940
1990...........................      203      169      191      197      208      184      208      202      169      198      190      205        2,324
1991...........................      265      228      261      306      314      277      350      316      276      303      260      314        3,472
1992...........................      359      303      343      366      326      335      358      312      295      278      256      306        3,838
1993...........................      293      265      305      289      249      269      270      268      252      237      245      262        3,204
1994...........................      270      240      282      268      265      261      252      262      217      215      226      220        2,977
1995...........................      251      209      240      227      237      217      227      230      190      212      212      209        2,662
1996...........................      267      224      230      267      243      207      259      215      195      212      185      233        2,739
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.                                                                               


                          TABLE F-6.--STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM EXHAUSTIONS BY MONTH--EXTENDED BENEFITS, 1975-95                          
                                                                     [In thousands]                                                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     Jan.     Feb.     Mar.     Apr.     May      June     July     Aug.    Sept.     Oct.     Nov.     Dec.     Total  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1975.............................       52       40      100      161      207      228      245      245      271      294      258      286      2,398
1976.............................      366      215      244      253      190      197      175      178      180      174      187      178      2,536
1977.............................      177      166      187      177      159      170      141       92       94      137      137      137      1,774
1978.............................      126       66       50       45       49       49       50       38       23       30       12       10        549
1979.............................       11       10       13       15       31       19       13       12       11       14       12       11        172
1980.............................       24       15       18       28       74       66       67       64      139      208      147      189      1,039
1981.............................      169      128      134      117       95       90       48       21       23       15       14       11        862
1982.............................        9       14       38      114      134      193      128      121      126      126       93       94      1,188
1983.............................       91       95      128      153      156      120       44       23       11        7        6        6        840
1984.............................        7        6        7        6       12        3        1    (\1\)    (\1\)        1        3        4         50
1985.............................        4        4    (\1\)        7        9        5        5        6        5        4        3    (\1\)         52
1986.............................        5        6        5        5        4        3        8       14        8        8        7       13         86
1987.............................        9        0        5        1        2        2        1        1        0        0        0        0         21
1988.............................        0    (\1\)    (\1\)        1        1    (\1\)    (\1\)        0        0        0        0        0          2
1989.............................    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)        1    (\1\)    (\1\)        0    (\1\)        0        0        0          1
1990.............................    (\1\)    (\1\)        2        3    (\1\)        1        1    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)        2          9
1991.............................        2    (\1\)    (\1\)        3       13       39       16        5        3        4        1    (\1\)         86
1992.............................    (\1\)    (\1\)        1        1        5        4        4        1    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)         17
1993.............................    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)          1
1994.............................       18       12        5        5        5        6        6       15        4        4        4        4         86
1995.............................        3        3        3        4        5        5        5        3        3        3        3        3         43
1996.............................        3        2    (\1\)        1        1        1        1        2    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)    (\1\)         11
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Less than 500.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.                                                                               


 TABLE F-7.--U.S. AVERAGE WAGE REPLACEMENT RATE: RATIO OF AVERAGE WEEKLY BENEFIT AMOUNT TO AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGE, 
                                                     1971-96                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  First    Second     Third    Fourth           
                             Year                                quarter   quarter   quarter   quarter   Average
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1971..........................................................        NA        NA        NA        NA     0.365
1972..........................................................        NA        NA        NA        NA     0.361
1973..........................................................        NA        NA        NA        NA     0.361
1974..........................................................        NA        NA        NA        NA     0.365
1975..........................................................     0.377     0.375     0.381     0.368     0.375
                                                                                                                
1976..........................................................     0.390     0.374     0.368     0.359     0.373
1977..........................................................     0.384     0.361     0.356     0.361     0.365
1978..........................................................     0.383     0.360     0.359     0.359     0.365
1979..........................................................     0.372     0.357     0.361     0.362     0.363
1980..........................................................     0.376     0.376     0.373     0.350     0.369
                                                                                                                
1981..........................................................     0.372     0.359     0.363     0.358     0.363
1982..........................................................     0.381     0.378     0.383     0.373     0.379
1983..........................................................     0.384     0.378     0.364     0.360     0.372
1984..........................................................     0.358     0.355     0.358     0.352     0.356
1985..........................................................     0.354     0.352     0.362     0.352     0.355
                                                                                                                
1986..........................................................     0.356     0.361     0.369     0.353     0.360
1987..........................................................     0.359     0.362     0.363     0.342     0.357
1988..........................................................     0.357     0.357     0.351     0.333     0.350
1989..........................................................     0.356     0.361     0.365     0.343     0.356
1990..........................................................     0.361     0.370     0.373     0.346     0.362
                                                                                                                
1991..........................................................     0.374     0.374     0.375     0.343     0.367
1992..........................................................     0.371     0.372     0.368     0.369     0.370
1993..........................................................     0.374     0.367     0.366     0.365     0.368
1994..........................................................     0.368     0.366     0.356     0.360     0.362
1995..........................................................     0.368     0.368     0.357     0.359     0.363
1996..........................................................     0.369     0.359     0.343     0.355     0.357
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Wage replacement rate is defined as the average weekly unemployment benefit divided by the average weekly
  wage for unemployed workers.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.                                       


  TABLE F-8.--INDIVIDUALS UNEMPLOYED 27 WEEKS OR LONGER AS A PERCENT OF 
                         ALL UNEMPLOYED, 1971-96                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    First    Second     Third    Fourth 
              Year                 quarter   quarter   quarter   quarter
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1971............................       8.7      11.1      11.0      10.8
1972............................      12.1      13.5      10.8       9.8
1973............................       8.6       8.5       7.0       7.4
1974............................       6.8       8.3       7.5       7.1
1975............................       8.7      14.8      18.7      19.1
                                                                        
1976............................      19.7      20.1      16.7      16.3
1977............................      15.5      16.5      13.6      12.9
1978............................      11.1      11.8      10.1       8.7
1979............................       9.0       9.5       8.1       8.3
1980............................       8.3       9.9      11.1      13.5
                                                                        
1981............................      15.3      15.0      13.7      12.3
1982............................      13.0      16.7      17.1      19.4
1983............................      23.2      26.3      23.8      21.9
1984............................      21.0      21.0      17.7      16.5
1985............................      15.8      16.4      14.7      14.7
                                                                        
1986............................      13.8      15.0      14.6      14.2
1987............................      14.0      15.1      13.9      12.9
1988............................      12.3      12.9      11.7      11.1
1989............................      10.4      10.5       9.0       9.6
1990............................       9.5      10.2      10.4      10.2
                                                                        
1991............................      10.8      12.9      13.6      14.9
1992............................      17.9      21.4      21.8      21.4
1993............................      20.4      20.2      20.3      20.7
1994............................      20.8      20.5      19.8      20.0
1995............................      18.2      17.3      16.7      16.9
1996............................      17.0      18.0      18.0      16.7
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Office of the President (various years).                        


                   TABLE F-9.--RATIO OF INSURED UNEMPLOYED WORKERS TO ALL JOB LOSERS,  1968-95                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Insured unemployment      Ratio: Insured  
                                                                   --------------------------   unemployment to 
                                                        Job losers                                job losers    
                         Year                          (thousands)      All        Regular   -------------------
                                                                      programs     programs      All     Regular
                                                                    (thousands)  (thousands)  programs  programs
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968.................................................       1,070        1,187        1,111      110.9     103.8
1969.................................................       1,017        1,177        1,101      115.7     108.3
1970.................................................       1,811        2,070        1,805      114.3      99.7
1971.................................................       2,323        2,608        2,150      112.3      92.6
1972.................................................       2,108        2,192        1,848      104.0      87.7
1973.................................................       1,694        1,793        1,632      105.8      96.3
1974.................................................       2,242        2,558        2,262      114.1     100.9
1975.................................................       4,386        4,937        3,986      112.6      90.9
1976.................................................       3,679        3,846        2,991      104.5      81.3
1977.................................................       3,166        3,308        2,655      104.5      83.9
1978.................................................       2,585        2,645        2,359      102.3      91.3
1979.................................................       2,635        2,592        2,434       98.4      92.4
1980.................................................       3,947        3,837        3,350       97.2      84.9
1981.................................................       4,267        3,410        3,047       79.9      71.4
1982.................................................       6,268        4,592        4,059       73.3      64.8
1983.................................................       6,258        3,774        3,395       60.3      54.3
1984.................................................       4,421        2,560        2,475       57.9      56.0
1985.................................................       4,139        2,699        2,617       65.2      63.2
1986.................................................       4,033        2,739        2,643       67.9      65.5
1987.................................................       3,566        2,369        2,300       66.4      64.5
1988.................................................       3,092        2,135        2,081       69.0      67.3
1989.................................................       2,983        2,205        2,158       73.9      72.3
1990.................................................       3,387        2,575        2,522       76.0      74.5
1991.................................................       4,694        3,406        3,342       72.6      71.2
1992.................................................       5,389        3,348        3,245       62.1      60.2
1993.................................................       4,848        2,845        2,751       58.7      56.7
1994.................................................       3,815        2,746        2,670       72.0      70.0
1995.................................................       3,476        2,641        2,575       76.0      74.1
1996.................................................       3,370        2,654        2,594       78.8      77.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Office of the President (1997). Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Government       
  Printing Office.                                                                                              


   TABLE F-10.--NET BALANCES IN STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACCOUNTS,  
                                 1960-96                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Balance (in billions) 
                                               -------------------------
             End of calendar year                 Current        1996   
                                                  dollars    dollars \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1960..........................................         $6.4        $29.6
1961..........................................          5.6         25.6
1962..........................................          6.0         27.1
1963..........................................          6.4         28.6
1964..........................................          7.1         31.3
1965..........................................          8.2         35.4
1966..........................................          9.7         40.7
1967..........................................         10.7         43.5
1968..........................................         11.7         45.6
1969..........................................         12.6         46.9
1970..........................................         11.9         42.1
1971..........................................          9.7         32.6
1972..........................................          9.4         30.3
1973..........................................         10.9         33.3
1974..........................................         10.5         29.4
1975..........................................          3.1          7.9
1976..........................................          0.9          2.2
1977..........................................          1.0          2.3
1978..........................................          4.6          9.7
1979..........................................          8.6         16.8
1980..........................................          6.6         11.8
1981..........................................          5.7          9.3
1982..........................................         -2.6         -4.0
1983..........................................         -5.8         -8.5
1984..........................................          2.2          3.1
1985..........................................         10.1         13.9
1986..........................................         15.4         20.6
1987..........................................         23.2         30.1
1988..........................................         31.1         38.9
1989..........................................         36.9         44.3
1990..........................................         37.9         43.6
1991..........................................         30.2         33.4
1992..........................................         25.8         27.8
1993..........................................         28.2         29.6
1994..........................................         31.3         32.1
1995..........................................         35.4         35.4
1996..........................................         38.6         37.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Adjusted to 1996 dollars using the implicit price deflator for gross
  domestic product from the Economic Report of the President (1998).    
                                                                        
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training               
  Administration.