[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix G. Data on Families]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[1998 Green Book] APPENDIX G. DATA ON FAMILIES


                                  SELECTED INDICATORS OF THE STATUS OF CHILDREN                                 
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Teenage Pregnancy                               
                                                                                                                
Category                                    1973            1980            1985            1990            1991
Female population (ages 15-19).       10,193,000      10,381,000       9,174,000       8,645,000       8,371,000
Births.........................          604,096         552,161         467,485         521,826         520,000
Induced abortions..............          231,900         444,780         399,200         350,970         314,000
Estimated miscarriages.........          144,010         154,910         133,420         139,460         129,000
Pregnancies....................          980,000         151,850         100,110       1,012,260         963,000
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura et al. (1995a).                                                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       International Infant Mortality Rates (deaths per 1,000 live births)      
                                                                                                                
Country                                  1950-52         1970-72         1980-82         1986-88            1993
Japan..........................             55.9            12.4             7.1             5.0             4.3
Sweden.........................             20.9            11.0             6.9             6.0             5.8
United States (white)..........             26.0            17.1            10.5             8.7             6.8
Canada.........................             39.4            17.8             9.7             7.5             7.0
England and Wales..............             29.1            17.7            11.3             9.3             7.4
United States (total)..........             28.7            19.2            12.0            10.1             8.4
Hungary........................             77.0            34.7            21.4            17.4            13.1
United States (black)..........             45.1            30.9            20.3            17.8            16.5
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1993); U.S. Public Health Service (1996).                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Living Arrangements of Children Under Age 18 (in thousands)          
                                                                                                                
Group                                       1960            1970            1980            1990            1996
Total in population............           63,727          69,162          63,427          64,137          70,908
Living with one parent.........            5,829           8,199          12,466          15,867          19,752
    Percent of all children....              9.1            11.9            19.7            24.7            27.9
Living with never-married                                                                                       
 parent........................              243             557           1,820           4,853           7,202
    Percent of all children....              0.4             0.8             2.9             7.6            10.2
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Children Below Poverty (number in thousands/rate per 1,000)          
                                                                                                                
Ethnic Group                                1974            1979            1990            1992            1995
Total..........................    10,156 (15.4)   10,377 (16.4)   13,431 (20.6)   15,294 (22.3)   14,665 (20.8)
Black..........................     3,755 (39.8)    3,833 (41.2)    4,550 (44.8)    5,106 (46.6)    4,761 (41.9)
White..........................     6,223 (11.2)    6,193 (11.8)    8,232 (15.9)    9,399 (17.4)    8,981 (16.2)
Hispanic.......................          NA (NA)    1,535 (28.0)    2,865 (38.4)    3,637 (40.0)    4,080 (40.0)
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996a).                                                                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Educational Achievement                            
High school dropouts                                                                                            
 (percentage of status                                                                                          
 dropouts, ages 16-24)                      1970            1975            1985            1990            1996
    Total......................             15.0            13.9            12.6            12.1            11.1
    White......................             13.2            12.6            12.2            12.1            11.0
    Black......................             27.9            22.8            15.1            13.2            13.5
    Hispanic origin \1\........               NA            29.2            27.6            32.4            29.3
Average verbal SAT scores......              460             434             431             424             423
Average math SAT scores........              488             472             475             476             479
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1995); U.S. Bureau of the Census (1995).                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              


              TABLE G-1.--TOTAL NUMBER AND RATES OF MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-95              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Number (thousands)             Rate \1\        
                            Year                             ---------------------------------------------------
                                                               Marriages     Divorces    Marriages     Divorces 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950........................................................        1,667          385         11.1          2.6
1960........................................................        1,523          393          8.5          2.2
1970........................................................        2,159          708         10.6          3.5
1980........................................................        2,390        1,189         10.6          5.2
1985........................................................        2,413        1,190         10.1          5.0
1986........................................................        2,407        1,178         10.0          4.9
1987........................................................        2,421        1,157          9.9          4.8
1988........................................................        2,395        1,167          9.7          4.7
1989........................................................        2,404        1,163          9.7          4.7
1990........................................................        2,443        1,190          9.8          4.7
1991 \2\....................................................        2,371        1,187          9.4          4.7
1992 \2\....................................................        2,362        1,215          9.3          4.8
1993 \2\....................................................        2,334        1,187          9.0          4.6
1994 \2\....................................................        2,362        1,191          9.1          4.6
1995 \2\....................................................        2,336        1,169          8.9          4.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Per 1,000 population.                                                                                       
\2\ Provisional data.                                                                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Health Statistics.                                                                  


                    TABLE G-2.--PERCENT NEVER MARRIED BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS 1960-96                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Year                            
                   Age and sex                    --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995     1996 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women:                                                                                                          
    20-24........................................     28.4     35.8     50.2     62.8     65.7     66.7     68.5
    25-29........................................     10.5     10.5     20.9     31.1     33.2     35.3     37.6
    30-34........................................      6.9      6.2      9.5     16.4     18.8     19.0     20.5
Men:                                                                                                            
    20-24........................................     53.1     54.7     68.8     79.3     80.3     80.7     81.0
    25-29........................................     20.8     19.1     33.1     45.0     48.7     51.0     52.0
    30-34........................................     11.9      9.4     15.9     27.0     29.4     28.2     29.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1966; 1996b).                                                                


 TABLE G-3.--NUMBER AND RATE OF BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN, BY AGE AND RACE OF MOTHER, 1980, 1993, 1994, AND 1995
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Number of births        Rate per 1,000 unmarried
                                                        -------------------------------           women         
                     Age of mother                                                     -------------------------
                                                         All races    White     Black   All races               
                                                            \1\                            \1\     White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1980:                                                                                                           
    Under 15...........................................      9,024     3,166     5,691       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    262,777   130,417   126,278     27.6     18.5    87.9
        15-17..........................................    121,900    58,705    60,548     20.6     12.0    68.8
        18-19..........................................    140,877    71,712    65,728     39.0     24.1   118.2
    20-24..............................................    237,265   118,445   114,538     40.9     25.1   112.3
    25-29..............................................     99,583    46,722    47,594     34.0     21.5    81.4
    30-34..............................................     40,984    21,325    18,160     21.1     14.1    46.7
    35-39..............................................     13,187     7,298     5,338      9.7      7.1    19.0
    40 and over \2\....................................      2,927     1,611     1,202      2.6      1.8     5.5
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................    665,747   328,984   318,799     29.4     18.1    81.1
                                                        ========================================================
1993:                                                                                                           
    Under 15...........................................     11,467     4,868     6,293       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    357,432   213,080   133,031     44.5     33.6   102.4
        15-17..........................................    152,212    87,032    60,412     30.6     22.1    76.8
        18-19..........................................    205,220   126,048    72,619     66.9     52.4   141.6
    20-24..............................................    438,538   283,538   159,598     69.2     54.2   142.2
    25-29..............................................    233,776   139,905    84,604     57.1     46.7    94.5
    30-34..............................................    132,263    79,136    47,330     38.5     32.2    57.3
    35-39..............................................     55,570    34,283    18,526     19.0     16.4    25.9
    40 and over \2\....................................     11,126     7,319     3,094      4.4      3.9     5.8
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,240,172   742,129   452,476     45.3     35.9    84.0
                                                        ========================================================
1994:                                                                                                           
    Under 15...........................................     12,186     5,406     6,404       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    381,499   235,263   134,371     46.4     36.2   100.9
        15-17..........................................    164,135    97,969    61,174     32.0     24.1    75.1
        18-19..........................................    217,364   137,294    73,197     70.1     56.4   141.6
    20-24..............................................    449,246   277,364   156,304     72.2     58.1   138.1
    25-29..............................................    237,636   146,527    81,599     59.0     49.7    93.6
    30-34..............................................    136,991    83,870    47,044     40.1     34.2    57.2
    35-39..............................................     59,701    37,594    19,242     19.8     17.3    26.3
    40 and over \2\....................................     12,333     8,236     3,351      4.7      4.3     5.9
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,289,592   794,261   448,315     46.9     38.3    82.1
                                                        ========================================================
                                                                                                                
1995:                                                                                                           
    Under 15...........................................     11,441     5,196     5,876       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    375,738   236,546   127,241     44.4     35.5    92.8
        15-17..........................................    161,140    98,415    57,766     30.5     23.6    68.6
        18-19..........................................    214,598   138,131    69,475     67.6     55.4   131.2
    20-24..............................................    432,003   271,466   145,134     70.3     58.0   127.7
    25-29..............................................    228,614   143,006    75,815     56.1     48.7    84.8
    30-34..............................................    133,282    82,392    44,690     39.6     34.2    54.3
    35-39..............................................     60,234    37,931    19,271     19.5     16.9    25.6
    40 and over \2\....................................     12,664     8,455     3,462      4.7      4.2     6.0
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,253,976   784,992   421,489     45.1     37.5   75.9 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than black and white.                                                                  
\2\ Rates computed by relating births to unmarried mothers aged 40 years and over to unmarried women aged 40-44 
  years.                                                                                                        
\3\ Rates computed by relating all births to unmarried mothers, regardless of age of mother, to unmarried women 
  aged 15-44 years.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura et al. (1995).                                                                                  


                               TABLE G-4.--TWO-PARENT AND ONE-PARENT FAMILIES AS PROPORTIONS OF ALL FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN PRESENT BY RACE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-96                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year (all races)                                    Year (white)                          Year (black)           
                       Family type                       ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            1970      1980      1985      1988      1992      1996      1970      1988      1992      1996      1970     1988     1992     1996 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Numbers in thousands                                                         
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups................................    25,823    25,231    24,573    24,977    24,880    25,361    23,477    22,012    21,909    22,178    2,071    2,055    1,948    1,942
One-parent family groups................................     3,808     6,920     8,779     9,367    10,499    11,717     2,638     6,090     6,938     7,769    1,148    3,002    3,216    3,493
    Maintained by mother................................     3,415     6,230     7,737     8,146     9,028     9,855     2,330     5,100     5,753     6,329    1,063    2,812    2,994    3,171
        Never married...................................       248     1,063     2,208     2,707     3,284     3,721        73     1,050     1,391     1,712      173    1,605    1,799    1,884
        Spouse absent...................................     1,377     1,743     1,732     1,776     1,947     2,067       796     1,127     1,341     1,377      570      585      548      620
        Separated.......................................       962     1,483     1,524     1,499     1,658     1,718     1,168       941     1,146     1,168      479      515      482      503
        Divorced........................................     1,109     2,721     3,228     3,121     3,349     3,660       930     2,568     2,692     2,957      172      471      550      581
        Widowed.........................................       682       703       569       544       448       406       531       356       328       283      148      149       97       87
    Maintained by father................................       393       692     1,042     1,221     1,472     1,862       307       989     1,186     1,440       85      191      222      322
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children under 18......................    29,631    32,150    33,372    34,344    35,379    37,077    26,115    28,102    28,847    29,947    3,219    5,057    5,164    5,434
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Percent distribution                                                         
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups................................      87.1      78.5      73.6      72.7      70.3      68.4      89.9      78.3      75.9      74.1     64.3     40.6     37.7     35.7
One-parent family groups................................      12.9      21.5      26.3      27.3      29.7      31.6      10.1      21.7      24.1      25.9     35.7     59.4     62.3     64.3
    Maintained by mother................................      11.5      19.4      23.2      23.7      25.5      26.6       8.9      18.1      19.9      21.1     33.0     55.6     58.0     58.4
        Never married...................................       0.8       3.3       6.6       9.0       9.3      10.0       0.3       7.0       4.8       5.7      5.4     31.7     34.8     34.7
        Spouse absent...................................       4.6       5.4       5.2       5.2       5.5       5.6       3.0       4.0       4.6       4.6     17.7     11.6     10.6     11.4
        Separated.......................................       3.2       4.6       4.6       4.4       4.7       4.6       1.8       3.3       4.0       3.9     14.9     10.2      9.3      9.3
        Divorced........................................       3.7       8.5       9.7       9.1       9.5       9.9       3.6       9.1       9.3       9.9      5.3      9.3     10.7     10.7
        Widowed.........................................       2.3       2.2       1.7       1.6       1.3       1.1       2.0       1.3       1.1       0.9      4.6      2.9      1.9      1.6
    Maintained by father................................       1.3       2.2       3.1       3.6       4.2       5.0       1.2       3.5       4.1       4.8      2.6      3.8      4.3      5.9
                                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children under 18......................     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Family groups consist of family households, related subfamilies, and unrelated subfamilies. Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                                                                                                


               TABLE G-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS, SELECTED YEARS 1960-96               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Living arrangements of                                            Year                                       
 children and marital status -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          of parent              1960        1970        1980        1990        1992        1995        1996   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Numbers in thousands                               
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Living with:                                                                                                    
    Two parents.............      55,877      58,939      48,624      46,503      46,638      48,276      48,224
    One parent..............       5,829       8,199      12,466      15,867      17,578      18,938      19,752
        Mother only.........       5,105       7,452      11,406      13,874      15,396      16,477      16,993
        Father only.........         724         748       1,060       1,993       2,182       2,461       2,759
    Other relatives or                                                                                          
     nonrelatives only......       2,021       2,024       2,337       1,768       1,749       3,040       2,932
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total number of                                                                                     
             children.......      63,727      69,162      63,427      64,137      65,965      70,254      70,908
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Percent distribution                               
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Living with:                                                                                                    
    Two parents.............        87.7        85.2        76.7        72.5        70.7        68.7        68.0
    One parent..............         9.1        11.9        19.7        24.7        26.6        27.0        27.9
        Mother only.........         8.0        10.8        18.0        21.6        23.3        23.5        24.0
        Father only.........         1.1         1.1         1.7         3.1         3.3         3.5         3.9
    Other relatives or                                                                                          
     nonrelatives only......         3.2         2.9         3.7         2.8         2.6         4.3         4.1
                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Percent.........       100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


    TABLE G-6.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS LIVING WITH ONE PARENT, SELECTED YEARS 1960-96   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         Year                                   
Living arrangements of children and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      marital status of parent          1960       1970       1980       1990       1992       1995       1996  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Numbers in thousands                           
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Never married......................        243        557      1,820      4,853      6,258      6,558      7,202
Married, spouse absent.............      2,700      3,521      3,898      3,767      4,214      4,348      4,453
    Separated......................      1,608      2,484      3,327      3,222      3,605      3,621      3,606
Widowed............................      1,543      1,649      1,469      1,125        763        830        782
Divorced...........................      1,343      2,473      5,281      6,122      6,637      7,201      7,315
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total children living with                                                                              
         one parent................      5,829      8,199     12,466     15,867     17,872     18,938     19,752
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Percent distribution                           
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Never married......................        4.2        6.8       14.6       30.6       35.0       34.6       36.5
Married, spouse absent.............       46.3       42.9       31.3       23.7       23.6       23.0       22.5
    Separated......................       27.6       30.3       26.7       20.3       20.2       19.1       18.3
Widowed............................       26.5       20.1       11.8        7.1        4.3        4.4        4.0
Divorced...........................       23.0       30.2       42.4       38.6       37.1       38.0       37.0
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Percent....................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


         TABLE G-7.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF WHITE CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-96        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Year                            
                   Family type                    --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995     1996 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                All children (numbers in thousands)             
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................   50,082   52,624   43,200   40,593   46,735   41,946   41,609
One parent.......................................    3,932    5,109    7,901    9,870   10,971   11,719   12,335
    Mother only..................................    3,381    4,581    7,059    8,321    9,250    9,827   10,239
    Father only..................................      551      528      842    1,549    1,721    1,892    2,096
Other relatives or nonrelatives..................    1,062    1,058    1,141      928      886    1,662    1,770
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................   55,077   58,790   52,242   51,390   52,493   55,327   55,714
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       All children (percent)                   
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................     90.9     89.5     82.7     79.0     77.4     75.8     74.7
One parent.......................................      7.1      8.7     15.1     19.2     20.9     21.2     22.1
    Mother only..................................      6.1      7.8     13.5     16.2     17.6     17.8     18.4
    Father only..................................      1.0      0.9      1.6      3.0      3.3      3.4      3.8
Other relatives or nonrelatives..................      1.9      1.8      2.2      1.8      1.7      3.0      3.2
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Children in single-parent families (numbers in thousands)  
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married................................       61      131      552    1,894    2,449    2,760    3,101
    Married, spouse absent.......................    1,615    1,822    2,243    2,356    2,837    2,797    2,915
        Separated................................      779    1,111    1,817    1,982    2,425    2,362    2,423
    Widowed......................................    1,139    1,160    1,000      774      624      530      518
    Divorced.....................................    1,118    1,997    4,106    4,847    5,061    5,631    5,801
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................    3,932    5,110    7,901    9,869   10,971   11,719   12,335
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Children in single-parent families (percent)        
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married................................      1.6      2.6      7.0     19.2     22.3     23.6     25.1
    Married, spouse absent.......................     41.1     35.7     28.4     23.9     25.9     23.9     23.6
        Separated................................     19.8     21.7     23.0     20.1     22.1     20.2     19.6
    Widowed......................................     29.0     22.7     12.7      7.8      5.7      4.5      4.2
    Divorced.....................................     28.4     39.1     52.0     49.1     46.1     48.1     47.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or family groups.                            
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


         TABLE G-8.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF BLACK CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-96        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Year                            
                   Family type                    --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1995     1996 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                All children (numbers in thousands)             
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................    5,795    5,508    3,956    3,781    3,714    3,746    3,816
One parent.......................................    1,897    2,996    4,297    5,485    5,934    6,339    6,560
    Mother only..................................    1,723    2,783    4,117    5,132    5,607    5,881    6,056
    Father only..................................      173      213      180      353      327      458      504
Other relatives or nonrelatives only.............      959      917    1,122      752      779    1,216    1,058
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................    8,650    9,422    9,375   10,018   10,427   11,301   11,434
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       All children (percent)                   
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................     67.0     58.5     42.2     37.7     35.6     33.1     33.4
One parent.......................................     21.9     31.8     45.8     54.8     56.9     56.1     57.4
    Mother only..................................     19.9     29.5     43.9     51.2     53.8     52.0     53.0
    Father only..................................      2.0      2.3      1.9      3.5      3.1      4.1      4.4
Other relatives or nonrelatives only.............     11.1      9.7     12.0      7.5      7.5     10.8      9.3
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Children in single-parent families (numbers in thousands)  
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married................................      182      423    1,235    2,839    3,314    3,466    3,792
    Married spouse absent........................    1,085    1,651    1,573    1,251    1,290    1,327    1,372
        Separated................................      829    1,343    1,463    1,125    1,156    1,122    1,073
    Widowed......................................      405      482      411      278      194      245      199
    Divorced.....................................      225      438    1,078    1,117    1,136    1,301    1,197
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................    1,897    2,995    4,297    5,484    5,934    6,339    6,560
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Children in single-parent families (percent)        
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married................................      9.6     14.1     28.7     51.8     55.9     54.7     57.8
    Married spouse absent........................     57.2     55.1     36.6     22.8     21.7     20.9     20.9
        Separated................................     43.7     44.8     34.0     20.5     19.5     17.7     16.4
    Widowed......................................     21.3     16.1      9.6      5.1      3.3      3.9      3.0
    Divorced.....................................     11.9     14.6     25.1     20.4     19.1     20.5     18.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Black children include nonwhite in 1960. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or  
  family groups.                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1996b).                                                                


       TABLE G-9.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF HISPANIC CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-96       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year                        
                        Family type                        -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              1970     1980     1990     1992     1995     1996 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     All children (numbers in thousands)        
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................    3,111    4,116    4,789    4,935    6,191    6,381
One parent................................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,215    3,321
    Mother only...........................................       NA    1,069    1,943    2,168    2,798    2,937
    Father only...........................................       NA       83      211      279      417      384
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................       NA      191      231      237      438      549
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total children....................................    4,006    5,459    7,174    7,619    9,843   10,251
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                           All children (percent)               
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................     77.7     75.4     66.8     64.8     62.9     62.2
One parent................................................       NA     21.1     30.0     32.1     32.7     32.4
    Mother only...........................................       NA     19.6     27.1     28.5     28.4     28.7
    Father only...........................................       NA      1.5      2.9      3.7      4.2      3.7
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................       NA      3.5      3.2      3.1      4.4      5.4
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                               Children in single-parent families (numbers in   
                                                                                 thousands)                     
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................       NA      228      703      872    1,200    1,336
    Married, spouse absent................................       NA      468      728      739      968      990
        Separated.........................................       NA      400      577      600      803      786
    Widowed...............................................       NA      103      149      137      146      114
    Divorced..............................................       NA      353      574      699      901      881
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,215    3,321
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                Children in single-parent families (percent)    
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:                                                                                       
    Never married.........................................       NA     19.8     32.6     35.6     37.3     40.2
    Married, spouse absent................................       NA     40.6     33.8     30.2     30.1     29.8
        Separated.........................................       NA     34.7     26.8     24.5     25.0     23.7
    Widowed...............................................       NA      8.9      6.9      5.6      4.5      3.4
    Divorced..............................................       NA     30.6     26.6     28.6     28.0     26.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain          
  households or family groups; numbers in thousands.                                                            
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1964, 1973, 1996b).                                                          


TABLE G-10.--CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE LIVING WITH BIOLOGICAL, STEP, AND ADOPTIVE MARRIED-COUPLE PARENTS BY
                                          RACE OF MOTHER, 1980 AND 1990                                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           1980                    1990         
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                            Category                                 Number                  Number             
                                                                  (thousands)   Percent   (thousands)   Percent 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races:                                                                                                      
    Biological mother and father................................      39,523        83.7      37,026        81.5
    Biological mother-stepfather................................       5,355        11.3       6,643        14.6
    Stepmother-biological father................................         727         1.5         608         1.3
    Adoptive mother and father..................................       1,350         2.9         974         2.1
    Unknown mother or father....................................         293         0.6         197         0.4
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
        Total own children under 18 years.......................      47,248       100.0      45,448       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
White:                                                                                                          
    Biological mother and father................................      35,852        84.7      32,975        83.0
    Biological mother-stepfather................................       4,362        10.3       5,258        13.2
    Stepmother-biological father................................         664         1.6         549         1.4
    Adoptive mother and father..................................       1,209         2.9         815         2.1
    Unknown mother or father....................................         242         0.6         135         0.3
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
        Total own children under 18 years.......................      42,329       100.0      39,732       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
Black:                                                                                                          
    Biological mother and father................................       2,698        71.5       2,336        63.6
    Biological mother-stepfather................................         877        23.2       1,149        31.3
    Stepmother-biological father................................          46         1.2          38         1.0
    Adoptive mother and father..................................         119         3.1          97         2.6
    Unknown mother or father....................................          35         0.9          51         1.4
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
        Total own children under 18 years.......................       3,775       100.0       3,671       100.0
                                                                 ===============================================
Hispanic origin: \1\                                                                                            
    Biological mother and father................................          NA          NA       3,703        81.1
    Biological mother-stepfather................................          NA          NA         699        15.3
    Stepmother-biological father................................          NA          NA          38         0.8
    Adoptive mother and father..................................          NA          NA         101         2.2
    Unknown mother or father....................................          NA          NA          27         0.6
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
        Total own children under 18 years.......................          NA          NA       4,568       100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1992).                                                                       


 TABLE G-11.--PERSONS LIVING IN MOTHER-ONLY FAMILIES BY MOTHER'S MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND 
                                         FAMILY POVERTY STATUS, 1995 \1\                                        
                                                 [In thousands]                                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Family living arrangement           
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
   Family type defined by mother's marital status       Total   Independent  Extended                  Unrelated
                                                                  families   families  Cohabiting \2\   families
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of persons:                                                                                              
    Never married...................................    10,572       6,084      2,850        1,100           538
    Separated/other.................................     6,587       4,880      1,206          259           242
    Divorced........................................    10,456       7,579        958        1,081           838
    Widowed.........................................     1,286       1,038        117           53            78
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    28,901      19,581      5,131        2,493         1,696
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of poor persons:                                                                                         
    Never married...................................     6,236       4,128      1,123          722           264
    Separated/other.................................     3,304       2,684        360          156           104
    Divorced........................................     2,984       2,127        208          424           225
    Widowed.........................................       334         274         29           12            20
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    12,858       9,212      1,719        1,315           612
                                                     ===========================================================
Poverty rate (percent poor):                                                                                    
    Never married...................................      59.0        67.8       39.4         65.6          49.0
    Separated/other.................................      50.2        55.0       29.9         60.4          42.8
    Divorced........................................      28.5        28.1       21.7         39.3          26.9
    Widowed.........................................      26.0        26.4       24.4         22.9          25.5
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................      44.5        47.0       33.5         52.7          36.1
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of families:                                                                                             
    Never married...................................     3,721       1,932      1,184          419           185
    Separated/other.................................     2,068       1,459        432          103            74
    Divorced........................................     3,660       2,592        369          408           291
    Widowed.........................................       406         312         46           17            31
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................     9,855       6,295      2,030          948           581
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The Current Population Survey (CPS) defines families on the basis of marital and blood relations, and treats
  families as a basic economic unit in its measures of family poverty and income. Under such definitions, an    
  unmarried, cohabiting, couple would be viewed as two distinct economic units; either as two unrelated         
  individuals, if no child dependents were involved, or as one or two single-parent families, if one or both    
  members of the couple had children residing in the household. Cohabiting couples are identifiable on the CPS  
  only by inference. The Census Bureau identifies such families as unmarried couple households--a household with
  only two adults who are unrelated and of the opposite sex (one of whom is the householder) with or without the
  presence of children under the age of 15. The CPS assigns a residing child to only one of the two adult       
  members of the unmarried couple, even though the child may be the couple's offspring.                         
\2\ Single female-headed families (either primary or unrelated subfamilies) with children, living in a household
  with either an unrelated single adult male, or with an unrelated family headed by a single adult male.        
                                                                                                                
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Numbers are estimates subject to sampling error. Caution  
  should be exercised in interpreting differences based on small cell sizes. Marital status and family living   
  arrangements are for the family head, as of March 1996. Poverty status is based on family income in the prior 
  year (1995).                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service, based on analysis of the March 1996 Current Population
  Survey microdata files.                                                                                       


                                   TABLE G-12.--BIRTHS AND FERTILITY RATES, BY RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS 1940-95                                   
                                              [Fertility rates are births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years]                                             
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Number of births                                              Fertility rate                  
                              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Year                                                                          Asian or                                             Asian or
                               All births \1\       White         Black       American     Pacific    All births   White    Black    American    Pacific
                                                                             Indian \2\    Islander       \1\                       Indian \2\  Islander
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1940 \3\.....................       2,559,000       2,199,000           NA           NA           NA       79.9      77.1       NA         NA         NA
1950 \3\.....................       3,632,000       3,108,000           NA           NA           NA      106.2     102.3       NA         NA         NA
1960 \3\.....................       4,257,850       3,600,744      602,264       21,114           NA      118.0     113.2    153.5         NA         NA
1970 \3\.....................       3,731,386       3,091,264      572,362       25,864           NA       87.9      84.1    115.4         NA         NA
1975 \3\.....................       3,144,198       2,551,996      511,581       27,546           NA       66.0      62.5     87.9         NA         NA
1980.........................       3,612,258       2,936,351      568,080       29,389       74,355       68.4      65.6     84.7       82.7       73.2
1985.........................       3,760,561       3,037,913      581,824       34,037      104,606       66.3      64.1     78.8       78.6       68.4
1986.........................       3,756,547       3,019,175      592,910       34,169      107,797       65.4      63.1     78.9       75.9       66.0
1987.........................       3,809,394       3,043,828      611,173       35,322      116,560       65.8      63.3     80.1       75.6       67.1
1988.........................       3,909,510       3,102,083      638,562       37,088      129,035       67.3      64.5     82.6       76.8       70.2
1989.........................       4,040,958       3,192,355      673,124       39,478      133,075       69.2      66.4     86.2       79.0       68.2
1990.........................       4,158,212       3,290,273      684,336       39,051      141,635       70.9      68.3     86.8       76.2       69.6
1991.........................       4,110,907       3,241,273      682,602       38,841      145,372       69.6      67.0     85.2       75.1       67.6
1992.........................       4,065,014       3,201,678      673,633       39,453      150,250       68.9      66.5     83.2       75.4       67.2
1993.........................       4,000,240       3,149,833      658,875       38,732      152,800       67.6      65.4     80.5       73.4       66.7
1994.........................       3,952,767       3,121,004      636,391       37,740      157,632       66.7      64.9     76.9       70.9       66.8
1995.........................       3,899,589       3,098,885      603,139       37,278      160,287       65.6      64.4     72.3       69.1       66.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1940-91 includes births to races not shown separately.                                                                                          
\2\ Includes births to Aleuts and Eskimos.                                                                                                              
\3\ Data are by race of child; see source below for more information.                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Ventura et al., 1997.                                                                                                                           


                     TABLE G-13.--NUMBERS AND RATES OF BIRTHS, ABORTIONS, AND PREGNANCIES, BY AGE AT PREGNANCY OUTCOME, \1\ 1976-95                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Female                Total number (in thousands)                      Rate per 1,000 females       
                                                  population -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Age group and year                     (in                   Induced      Fetal                                                          
                                                  thousands)    Births     abortions  losses \1\  Pregnancies \2\     Birth     Abortion   Pregnancy \2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women aged 15-19:                                                                                                                                       
    1976........................................      10,582         559         363         151          1,072          52.8        34.3         101.3 
    1977........................................      10,581         559         397         152          1,108          52.8        37.5         104.7 
    1978........................................      10,555         543         419         147          1,109          51.5        39.7         105.1 
    1979........................................      10,498         549         445         148          1,142          52.3        42.4         108.8 
    1980........................................      10,413         552         445         149          1,146          53.0        42.7         110.0 
    1981........................................      10,096         527         433         142          1,103          52.2        42.9         109.2 
    1982........................................       9,809         514         419         125          1,058          52.4        42.7         107.8 
    1983........................................       9,515         489         411         119          1,020          51.4        43.2         107.2 
    1984........................................       9,287         470         399         114            983          50.6        42.9         105.8 
    1985........................................       9,174         467         399         114            981          51.0        43.5         106.9 
    1986........................................       9,206         462         389         113            964          50.2        42.3         104.7 
    1987........................................       9,139         462         382         113            957          50.6        41.8         104.8 
    1988........................................       9,029         478         393         117            988          53.0        43.5         109.4 
    1989........................................       8,840         507         371         123          1,001          57.3        42.0         113.2 
    1990........................................       8,709         522         351         129          1,002          59.9        40.3         115.0 
    1991........................................       8,371         520         314         129            963          62.1        37.6         115.0 
    1992........................................       8,324         505         295         126            927          60.7        35.5         111.3 
    1993........................................       8,410         501          NA          NA             NA          59.6          NA            NA 
    1994........................................       8,580         505          NA          NA             NA          58.9          NA            NA 
    1995........................................       8,799         500          NA          NA             NA          56.8          NA            NA 
Women under age 15: \3\                                                                                                                                 
    1976........................................       2,080          12          16           4             32           5.7         7.6          15.3 
    1977........................................       2,048          11          16           4             31           5.6         7.6          15.2 
    1978........................................       2,020          11          15           4             30           5.3         7.5          14.8 
    1979........................................       1,944          11          16           3             30           5.5         8.3          15.4 
    1980........................................       1,850          10          15           3             29           5.5         8.3          15.6 
    1981........................................       1,787          10          15           3             28           5.4         8.5          15.7 
    1982........................................       1,748          10          15           3             27           5.6         8.3          15.6 
    1983........................................       1,781          10          16           3             29           5.5         9.2          16.3 
    1984........................................       1,819          10          17           3             30           5.5         9.3          16.4 
    1985........................................       1,853          10          17           3             30           5.5         9.2          16.4 
    1986........................................       1,706          10          16           3             29           6.0         9.2          17.0 
    1987........................................       1,613          10          14           3             28           6.4         8.8          17.2 
    1988........................................       1,573          11          14           3             27           6.7         8.7          17.5 
    1989........................................       1,608          11          13           3             28           7.1         7.9          17.2 
    1990........................................       1,593          12          13           3             27           7.3         7.9          17.2 
    1991........................................       1,661          12          12           3             28           7.2         7.4          16.6 
    1992........................................       1,679          12          13           3             28           7.3         7.7          16.9 
    1993........................................       1,735          13          NA          NA             NA           7.2          NA            NA 
    1994........................................       1,828          13          NA          NA             NA           7.1          NA            NA 
    1995........................................       1,829          12          NA          NA             NA           6.7          NA            NA 
Women aged 15-17:                                                                                                                                       
    1976........................................       6,319         215         153          70            439          34.1        24.2          69.4 
    1977........................................       6,310         214         166          70            449          33.9        26.2          71.2 
    1978........................................       6,286         203         169          66            438          32.2        26.9          69.7 
    1979........................................       6,200         200         179          65            444          32.3        28.8          71.6 
    1980........................................       6,100         198         183          65            446          32.5        30.1          73.2 
    1981........................................       5,848         187         176          61            424          32.0        30.1          72.6 
    1982........................................       5,617         181         168          55            405          32.3        30.0          72.1 
    1983........................................       5,424         173         166          53            392          31.8        30.7          72.2 
    1984........................................       5,373         167         161          51            378          31.0        29.9          70.4 
    1985........................................       5,410         168         166          51            385          31.0        30.6          71.1 
    1986........................................       5,520         169         165          51            385          30.5        29.9          69.8 
    1987........................................       5,450         173         161          53            386          31.7        29.6          70.9 
    1988........................................       5,251         177         158          54            389          33.6        30.2          74.0 
    1989........................................       4,975         181         139          55            375          36.4        28.0          75.4 
    1990........................................       4,890         183         130          56            369          37.5        26.5          75.5 
    1991........................................       4,861         188         118          56            362          38.7        24.3          74.6 
    1992........................................       4,959         188         114          60            362          37.8        23.1          72.9 
    1993........................................       5,037         191          NA          NA             NA          37.8          NA            NA 
    1994........................................       5,188         195          NA          NA             NA          37.6          NA            NA 
    1995........................................       5,351         193          NA          NA             NA          36.0          NA            NA 
Women aged 18-19:                                                                                                                                       
    1976........................................       4,263         343         210          82            635          80.5        49.3         148.9 
    1977........................................       4,263         345         231          82            658          80.9        54.1         154.2 
    1978........................................       4,269         341         250          81            671          79.8        58.4         157.2 
    1979........................................       4,297         349         266          83            698          81.3        61.9         162.5 
    1980........................................       4,313         354         261          84            699          82.1        60.6         162.2 
    1981........................................       4,248         340         257          81            678          80.0        60.6         159.6 
    1982........................................       4,191         333         250          70            653          79.4        59.7         155.7 
    1983........................................       4,091         317         245          66            628          77.4        59.9         153.5 
    1984........................................       3,914         303         238          64            605          77.4        60.8         154.4 
    1985........................................       3,765         300         234          63            596          79.6        62.0         158.3 
    1986........................................       3,685         293         224          62            579          79.6        60.8         157.1 
    1987........................................       3,689         290         221          61            571          78.5        59.8         154.5 
    1988........................................       3,778         302         234          63            599          79.9        62.0         158.7 
    1989........................................       3,866         325         232          68            626          84.2        60.0         161.8 
    1990........................................       3,819         338         221          73            632          88.6        57.9         165.6 
    1991........................................       3,510         331         196          73            600          94.4        55.9         171.0 
    1992........................................       3,365         318         181          66            565          94.5        53.8         167.9 
    1993........................................       3,372         311          NA          NA             NA          92.1          NA            NA 
    1994........................................       3,392         310          NA          NA             NA          91.5          NA            NA 
    1995........................................       3,448         307          NA          NA             NA          89.1          NA           NA  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Spontaneous fetal losses from recognized pregnancies of all gestational periods as reported to women in the 1982 and 1988 National Survey of Family 
  Growth conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. The rate of pregnancy loss depends on the degree to which losses at very early         
  gestations are detected.                                                                                                                              
\2\ Sum of births, induced abortions, and fetal losses.                                                                                                 
\3\ Population is women aged 14 years.                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Ventura et al. (1995a).                                                                                                                         


TABLE G-14.--NUMBER OF BIRTHS AND BIRTH RATES FOR WOMEN AGES 15-19 BY RACE OF CHILD AND RACE OF MOTHER,\1\ 1960-
                                                       95                                                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Number of births,                    Birth rate \2\                
                                            all women under 20  ------------------------------------------------
                   Year                   ---------------------- All women 15-19       15-17           18-19    
                                                                ------------------------------------------------
                                             White      Black     White    Black   White   Black   White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1960.....................................    460,654    122,260     79.4   156.1  ......  ......  ......  ......
1961.....................................    474,514  .........     79.2   155.2  ......  ......  ......  ......
1962.....................................    462,522  .........     73.2   147.1  ......  ......  ......  ......
1963.....................................    445,892  .........     68.2   142.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
1964.....................................    447,034    140,422     63.4   147.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
1965.....................................    446,198    146,268     60.6   144.6  ......  ......  ......  ......
1966.....................................    467,778    155,110     60.4   142.7    26.6    97.9   108.2   219.2
1967.....................................    438,000    160,285     58.9   141.8    25.7    99.5   104.0   213.4
1968.....................................    429,616    163,892     54.9   138.7    25.6    98.2   100.5   206.1
1969.....................................    437,958    168,588     54.7   137.0    26.4    96.9    99.2   202.5
1970.....................................    467,928    179,100     57.4   140.7    29.2   101.4   101.5   204.9
1971.....................................    450,856    178,948     53.6   134.5    28.5    99.4    92.3   192.6
1972.....................................    438,559    179,712     51.0   129.8    29.3    99.5    84.3   179.5
1973.....................................    429,740    176,551     49.0   123.1    29.2    96.0    79.3   166.6
1974.....................................    425,205    171,721     47.9   116.5    28.7    90.0    77.3   158.7
1975.....................................    415,202    168,359     46.4   111.8    28.0    85.6    74.0   152.4
1976.....................................    389,329    160,597     44.1   104.9    26.3    80.3    70.2   142.5
1977.....................................    396,854    161,772     44.1   104.7    26.1    79.6    70.5   142.9
1978.....................................    384,572    157,069     42.9   100.9    24.9    75.0    69.4   139.7
1979.....................................    388,209    158,944     43.7   101.7    24.7    75.7    71.0   140.4
1980.....................................    397,764    153,151     45.4    97.8    25.5    72.5    73.2   135.1
1981.....................................    379,472    145,724     44.9    94.5    25.4    69.3    71.5   131.0
1982.....................................    367,951    142,813     45.0    94.3    25.5    69.7    70.8   128.9
1983.....................................    347,288    139,357     43.9    93.9    25.0    69.6    68.8   127.1
1984.....................................    330,334    137,177     42.9    94.1    24.3    69.2    68.4   128.1
1985.....................................    328,752    136,682     43.3    95.4    24.4    69.3    70.4   132.4
1986.....................................    322,060    137,413     42.3    95.8    23.8    69.3    70.1   135.1
1987.....................................    319,560    139,967     42.5    97.6    24.6    72.1    68.9   135.8
1988.....................................    327,986    146,733     44.4   102.7    26.0    75.7    69.6   142.7
1989.....................................    345,102    157,259     47.9   111.5    28.1    81.9    72.9   151.9
1990.....................................    359,456    157,951     50.8   112.8    29.5    82.3    78.0   152.9
1991.....................................    357,548    157,375     52.8   115.5    30.7    84.1    83.5   158.6
1992.....................................    348,106    153,248     51.8   112.4    30.1    81.3    83.8   157.9
1993.....................................    347,572    149,570     51.1   108.6    30.3    79.8    82.1   151.9
1994.....................................    354,059    147,433     51.1   104.5    30.7    76.3    82.1   148.3
1995.....................................    355,489    139,621     50.1    96.1    30.0    69.7    81.2   137.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Births are tabulated by race of child through 1979, and by race of mother for 1980-95.                      
\2\ Births per 1,000 women in specified group.                                                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1995); Ventura et al. (1995b).                                   


    TABLE G-15.--BIRTH RATES FOR UNMARRIED WOMEN AGES 15-17 AND 18-19 BY RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN OF MOTHER,    
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1970-95                                             
                              [Births per 1,000 unmarried women in specified group]                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        White                 Black             Hispanic \1\    
                     Year                      -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1970 \2\......................................        7.5       17.6       77.9      136.4         NA         NA
1975 \2\......................................        9.6       16.5       76.8      123.8         NA         NA
1980..........................................       12.0       24.1       68.8      118.2         NA         NA
1985..........................................       14.5       31.2       66.8      117.9         NA         NA
1986..........................................       14.9       33.5       67.0      121.1         NA         NA
1987..........................................       16.2       34.5       69.9      123.0         NA         NA
1988..........................................       17.6       36.8       73.5      130.5         NA         NA
1989..........................................       19.3       40.2       78.9      140.9         NA         NA
1990..........................................       20.4       44.9       78.8      143.7       45.9       98.9
1991..........................................       21.8       49.6       80.4      148.7       50.5      109.6
1992..........................................       21.6       51.5       78.0      147.8       51.0      110.5
1993..........................................       22.1       52.4       76.8      141.6       51.9      114.6
1994..........................................       24.1       56.4       75.1      141.6       59.0      123.6
1995..........................................       23.6       55.4       68.6      131.2       56.3      117.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Hispanic ethnicity is independent of race; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                   
\2\ Rates are by race of child; see sources below for additional information.                                   
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--For 1966-75, births to unmarried women are estimated for the United States from the data for registration
  areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Beginning 1980, data for States in which marital status 
  was not reported have been inferred and included with data from the remaining States. Race is determined by   
  race of the child for 1966-89 and by race of the mother for 1990-93.                                          
                                                                                                                
Source: Ventura (1995); Ventura et al. (1995b).                                                                 


                     TABLE G-16.--ESTIMATED PREGNANCIES \1\ PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, AND 1992                    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               1980                        1985                          1990                           1992            
               State               ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White  Nonwhite  Total \1\    White   Nonwhite  Total \1\    White   Nonwhite
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama...........................       117       NA      NA       112       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA       93.2      73.4     134.7
Alaska............................       124       NA      NA       144       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Arizona...........................       123      115     195       128      124      150       101.8      99.9     153.5      103.5     102.3     150.6
Arkansas..........................       117      104     168       111       99      150        98.4      92.7     157.2       90.7      76.7     142.6
                                                                                                                                                        
California........................       140      127     272       151       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Colorado..........................       114      105     192       112      107      187        82.3        NA        NA       79.8        NA        NA
Connecticut.......................        81       NA      NA        96       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA       78.7        NA        NA
Delaware..........................       106       NA      NA       101       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
District of Columbia \1\..........       200       NA      NA       211       NA       NA       255.2        NA        NA      209.4        NA        NA
Florida...........................       131       NA      NA       126       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Georgia...........................       131      111     172       132      115      160       110.8      88.2     162.5      106.9      79.6     162.9
Hawaii............................       106       81      NA       125       97      137        88.2        NA        NA       88.4      64.7        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Idaho.............................        96       96      NA        78       77       NA        68.8      56.6        NA       59.7      59.4        NA
Illinois..........................       101       78     190       103       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Indiana...........................       102       92     193        87       77      170        74.3      65.5     158.0       72.2      62.9     156.7
Iowa..............................        79       NA      NA        67       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Kansas............................       101       93     199        84       78      150        81.1      74.5     181.1       87.0      77.8     211.9
Kentucky..........................       111       NA      NA        92       NA       NA        91.0      84.3     164.1       81.7      75.5     149.9
Louisiana.........................       118       93     163       109       88      142        92.1      68.7     128.8       92.6      65.3     133.7
Maine.............................        87       86      NA        92       91       NA        88.4      87.6        NA       55.2      64.9        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Maryland..........................       123      103     174       121       94      184        84.7      61.5     141.8       76.9      51.0     137.1
Massachusetts.....................        86       NA      NA        97       NA       NA        71.1        NA        NA       69.5        NA        NA
Michigan..........................       102       NA      NA       107       NA       NA        85.2        NA        NA       79.7        NA        NA
Minnesota.........................        77       73     240        62       55      222        62.0      55.3     219.4       55.2      47.3     218.1
                                                                                                                                                        
Mississippi.......................       125       97     162       113       90      138        97.8      71.6     130.5      100.8      71.9     135.1
Missouri..........................       106       92     205        95       79      195        82.6      64.8     197.5       78.0      60.9     188.0
Montana...........................        93       85      NA        82       74       NA        81.7        NA        NA       70.2      61.8        NA
Nebraska..........................        81       NA      NA        75       NA       NA        74.2        NA        NA       83.4        NA        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Nevada............................       144      134     226       125      118      168       107.5     105.8     158.8      108.0     101.9     171.2
New Hampshire.....................        81       NA      NA        89       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
New Jersey........................        96       74     210       113       70      296        75.3      52.7     181.6       69.7      41.2     179.7
New Mexico........................       126      118      NA       116      115      126       100.4      99.8     115.5      101.8     102.2     100.8
                                                                                                                                                        
New York..........................       101       78     207       117       89      225        92.9      76.3     166.4       96.6      77.3     175.9
North Carolina....................       110       92     153       114       97      152       106.4      88.3     157.3      104.5      83.3     155.3
North Dakota......................        75       68      NA        60       53       NA        56.4      50.4        NA       54.2      47.8        NA
Ohio..............................       101       88     190        96       83      177        74.6      80.5     170.1       74.5        NA        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Oklahoma..........................       120      107     187       113       NA       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
Oregon............................       119      112      NA        95       94      119        89.2      88.7     178.0       81.0      79.4     181.7
Pennsylvania......................        90       NA      NA        87       NA       NA        74.0        NA        NA       71.7      53.5     211.5
Rhode Island......................        83       NA      NA        89       NA       NA        87.7      80.4     198.9       88.1      78.0     211.8
                                                                                                                                                        
South Carolina....................       114       98     140       102       92      117        95.0      76.6     127.0       88.0      68.6     119.6
South Dakota......................        86       74      NA        70       57       NA        56.9      48.0        NA       59.4      48.5        NA
Tennessee.........................       113      102     157       104       95      134       101.8      88.3     165.6       94.0      77.4     162.4
Texas.............................       137       NA      NA       131       NA       NA       102.8      96.1     153.6      103.7      98.2     148.8
                                                                                                                                                        
Utah..............................        95       94      NA        75       73       NA        63.0      62.2        NA       55.6      54.2        NA
Vermont...........................        95       94      NA        82       83       NA        72.1      72.7        NA       68.7      68.4        NA
Virginia..........................       107       94     152       106       93      141        86.5      70.4     149.1       79.0      62.9     139.4
Washington........................       122       NA      NA       103       97      165        95.4        NA        NA       85.1        NA        NA
                                                                                                                                                        
West Virginia.....................       104       NA      NA        87       NA       NA        67.4      66.4     103.9       66.1      64.6     110.5
Wisconsin \2\.....................        85       NA      NA        73       NA       NA        66.6        NA        NA       60.8      45.3     226.9
Wyoming...........................       127       NA      NA        98       NA       NA        62.2        NA        NA       53.7        NA        NA
                                   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total.........................       111       NA      NA       110       93       NA          NA        NA        NA         NA        NA        NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
\2\ Data for 1992 include residents only.                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995).                                                                                                        


                          TABLE G-17.--BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 YEARS, BY RACE AND STATE, 1990-92, 1994, AND 1995                         
                                                       [Births per 1,000 women in specified group]                                                      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 1990                       1991                       1992                       1994                  
                State                ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  1995 
                                      Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black   Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.............................        71       55     105        74       56     111        73       55     109        72       55     108      70
Alaska..............................        65       54      NA        65       53      NA        64       50      NA        55       45      79      50
Arizona.............................        76       72     115        81       77     131        82       80     112        79       77     100      76
Arkansas............................        80       66     132        80       67     128        76       63     122        76       64     120      73
California..........................        71       74     101        75       79     100        74       79      95        71       77      89      68
Colorado............................        55       52     106        58       55     121        58       56     108        54       52      97      51
Connecticut.........................        39       31     103        40       33      98        39       32      95        40       33      94      39
Delaware............................        55       37     120        61       41     137        60       41     123        60       43     115      57
District of Columbia................        93       12     121       114        9     150       116       26     131       115       17     139     107
Florida.............................        69       53     135        69       52     135        66       51     127        64       51     113      62
Georgia.............................        76       57     116        76       56     119        75       55     115        72       54     107      71
Hawaii..............................        61       42      NA        59       41      NA        54       33      NA        53       33      NA      48
Idaho...............................        51       50      NA        54       54      NA        52       51      NA        47       46      NA      49
Illinois............................        63       44     144        65       46     145        64       45     145        63       46     139      60
Indiana.............................        59       52     122        61       53     128        59       51     126        58       52     115      57
Iowa................................        41       39     119        43       40     136        41       38     138        40       38     117      39
Kansas..............................        56       51     132        55       50     127        56       50     137        53       49     116      52
Kentucky............................        68       64     116        69       65     114        65       61     112        65       60     114      63
Louisiana...........................        74       52     109        76       52     117        77       51     118        75       49     115      70
Maine...............................        43       43      NA        44       43      NA        40       40      NA        36       35      NA      34
Maryland............................        53       36      96        54       36      97        51       32      96        50       32      89      48
Massachusetts.......................        35       31      90        38       33      98        38       33      97        37       33      90      34
Michigan............................        59       43     131        59       43     129        57       42     125        52       40     110      49
Minnesota...........................        36       31     152        37       31     161        36       30     163        34       29     132      32
Mississippi.........................        81       56     113        86       59     118        84       57     116        83       57     114      81
Missouri............................        63       50     144        65       52     146        63       51     144        59       49     123      56
Montana.............................        48       40      NA        47       40      NA        46       38      NA        41       35      NA      42
Nebraska............................        42       37     135        42       37     130        41       36     126        43       38     119      38
Nevada..............................        73       69     129        75       70     138        71       66     137        74       71     111      73
New Hampshire.......................        33       33      NA        33       34      NA        31       31      NA        30       30      NA      31
New Jersey..........................        41       28     100        42       29     102        39       26     103        39       27     100      38
New Mexico..........................        78       76      95        80       78     103        80       80      76        77       76      66      75
New York............................        44       37      76        46       39      78        45       39      74        46       40      73      44
North Carolina......................        68       52     107        71       54     111        70       53     108        66       52      98      64
North Dakota........................        35       29      NA        36       29      NA        37       31      NA        35       29      NA      33
Ohio................................        58       48     129        61       50     133        58       47     132        55       46     116      53
Oklahoma............................        67       60     116        72       63     128        70       63     116        66       59     105      64
Oregon..............................        55       54     108        55       54     117        53       52     114        51       50     102      51
Pennsylvania........................        45       35     125        47       36     131        45       35     127        44       34     118      42
Rhode Island........................        44       39     114        45       39     130        48       40     131        48       41     120      43
South Carolina......................        71       54     101        73       55     104        70       52     100        66       50      92      65
South Dakota........................        47       35      NA        48       36      NA        48       35      NA        43       33      NA      40
Tennessee...........................        72       60     121        75       62     128        71       59     124        71       59     120      68
Texas...............................        75       71     114        79       75     116        79       75     113        78       76     100      76
Utah................................        49       48      NA        48       48      NA        46       45      NA        43       42      NA      42
Vermont.............................        34       34      NA        39       39      NA        36       36      NA        33       33      NA      29
Virginia............................        53       41      99        54       42      98        52       40      98        51       41      88      49
Washington..........................        53       52      94        54       53      96        51       49      92        48       47      81      48
West Virginia.......................        57       57      74        58       57      80        56       56      77        54       54      81      53
Wisconsin...........................        43       31     175        44       32     178        42       30     167        39       29     142      38
Wyoming.............................        56       55      NA        54       52      NA        50       48      NA        48       48      NA      47
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995).                                                                                                        


 TABLE G-18.--PERCENTAGE OF BABIES BORN TO WOMEN RECEIVING EARLY CARE, OR LATE OR NO CARE, BY RACE OF CHILD AND 
                                     RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS, 1970-95                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Percent born to women        Percent born to women   
                                                          beginning care in first      beginning care in third  
                         Year                                    trimester           trimester or having no care
                                                       ---------------------------------------------------------
                                                         White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1970 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     72.4     44.4      68.0       6.2     16.6       7.9 
1975 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     75.9     55.8      72.4       5.0     10.5       6.0 
1980 \3\..............................................     79.2     62.4      76.3       4.3      8.9       5.1 
1981 \3\..............................................     79.3     62.1      76.3       4.3      9.2       5.2 
1982 \3\..............................................     79.2     61.1      76.1       4.5      9.7       5.5 
1983 \3\..............................................     79.3     61.2      76.2       4.6      9.8       5.6 
1984 \3\..............................................     79.6     61.9      76.5       4.7      9.7       5.6 
1985..................................................     79.3     61.5      76.2       4.8     10.2       5.7 
1986..................................................     79.1     61.2      75.9       5.0     10.7       6.0 
1987..................................................     79.3     60.8      76.0       5.0     11.2       6.1 
1988..................................................     79.3     60.7      75.9       5.0     11.0       6.1 
1989..................................................     78.9     60.0      75.5       5.2     11.9       6.4 
1990..................................................     79.2     60.6      75.8       4.9     11.3       6.1 
1991..................................................     79.5     61.9      76.2       4.7     10.7       5.8 
1992..................................................     80.8     63.9      77.7       4.2      9.9       5.2 
1993..................................................     81.8     66.0      78.9       3.9      9.0       4.8 
1994..................................................     82.8     68.3      80.2       3.6      8.2       4.4 
1995..................................................     83.6     70.4      81.3       3.5      7.6       4.2 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                  
\2\ Figures are by race of child.                                                                               
\3\ Based on 100 percent of births in selected States and on a 50-percent sample of births in all other States. 
\4\ Based on data for 39 States and the District of Columbia in 1970, and based on data for 42 States and the   
  District of Columbia in 1975.                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
Source: Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996); National Center for Health Statistics (1975, 1978).                    


                             TABLE G-19.--ABORTIONS PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, AND 1992                            
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1980                       1985                        1990                         1992           
                  State                  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.................................        32       NA      NA        32       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      20.7      18.2     25.8
Alaska..................................        43       NA      NA        59       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Arizona.................................        41       39      41        43       46      27      26.3      27.6     38.4      21.5      22.4     38.5
Arkansas................................        25       26      23        23       23      21      18.3      16.6     25.2      15.3      13.9     20.6
                                                                                                                                                        
California..............................        69       60     150        79       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Colorado................................        49       43      76        51       49      84      27.7        NA       NA      21.4        NA       NA
Connecticut.............................        40       NA      NA        52       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      39.3        NA       NA
Delaware................................        40       NA      NA        37       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
District of Columbia \2\................       114       NA      NA       113       NA      NA     162.1        NA       NA      92.3        NA       NA
Florida.................................        55       NA      NA        51       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Georgia.................................        41       42      36        44       42      46      35.3      29.6     46.3      32.3      24.7     47.7
Hawaii..................................        41       40      NA        61       59      62      27.0        NA       NA      32.9      31.9       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Idaho...................................        23       23      NA        21       21      NA       8.2       8.2       NA       8.0       8.0       NA
Illinois................................        31       25      40        38       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Indiana.................................        30       27      53        24       21      47      15.7      13.6     35.6      13.5      11.6     30.8
Iowa....................................        25       NA      NA        25       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Kansas..................................        30       29      44        23       23      28      25.0      23.7     49.2      31.3      20.1     74.5
Kentucky................................        22       NA      NA        16       NA      NA      23.4      20.8     48.3      17.0      14.8     37.8
Louisiana...............................        24       22      28        22       21      24      17.8      16.7     19.6      16.1      14.0     20.2
Maine...................................        27       27      NA        36       36      NA      25.4      24.9       NA      15.3      15.0       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Maryland................................        64       59      76        59       51      77      31.4      25.4     46.3      28.2      19.0     41.6
Massachusetts...........................        47       NA      NA        45       NA      NA      36.0        NA       NA      31.5        NA       NA
Michigan................................        44       NA      NA        50       NA      NA      26.1        NA       NA      23.1        NA       NA
Minnesota...............................        31       31      81        24       23      47      25.7      24.7     67.7      19.2      17.8     55.6
                                                                                                                                                        
Mississippi.............................        22       27      16        19       22      15      16.8      16.1     17.8      16.6      14.7     19.0
Missouri................................        34       29      61        29       25      55      19.7      14.5     53.6      14.8      10.4     42.1
Montana.................................        32       32      NA        28       29      NA      33.3        NA       NA      24.0      23.8       NA
Nebraska................................        24       NA      NA        27       NA      NA      31.9        NA       NA      22.2        NA       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Nevada..................................        67       67      66        57       58      45      34.2      36.9     27.5      34.7      36.3     34.0
New Hampshire...........................        37       NA      NA        46       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
New Jersey..............................        49       41      85        63       38     170      34.6      24.6     82.0      30.5      15.2     78.5
New Mexico..............................        36       35      NA        30       33      12      22.3      24.0     20.9      21.5      22.7     25.2
                                                                                                                                                        
New York................................        54       42     107        64       49     120      49.3      38.7     90.8      51.3      38.3    102.1
North Carolina..........................        38       35      43        41       38      48      38.8      34.3     60.7      35.1      29.9     47.6
North Dakota............................        23       22      NA        17       18      NA      21.0      21.2       NA      16.0      17.2       NA
Ohio....................................        35       30      64        33       28      59      16.6      12.9     40.6      16.7        NA       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
Oklahoma................................        27       27      32        29       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
Oregon..................................        52       49      NA        41       41      37      34.6      34.7     70.0      27.8      27.2     68.1
Pennsylvania............................        38       NA      NA        35       NA      NA      29.7        NA       NA      28.5      18.9     84.2
Rhode Island............................        40       NA      NA        40       NA      NA      43.8      41.7     84.6      40.6      37.9     80.7
                                                                                                                                                        
South Carolina..........................        33       36      27        26       30      20      23.6      22.3     25.9      17.7      16.3     19.9
South Dakota............................        21       20      NA        18       18      NA      10.1      11.0       NA      11.1      11.5       NA
Tennessee...............................        33       33      33        29       29      31      29.5      25.0     44.4      22.7      18.9     38.3
Texas...................................        44       NA      NA        39       NA      NA      27.4      25.5     39.6      24.8      23.2     35.4
                                                                                                                                                        
Utah....................................        15       14      NA        15       14      NA      14.5      14.4       NA       9.4       8.8       NA
Vermont.................................        43       43      NA        36       36      NA      38.0      36.4       NA      33.0      32.8       NA
Virginia................................        45       44      48        45       43      49      33.6      29.3     50.6      27.3      23.4     41.8
Washington..............................        60       NA      NA        46       44      62      42.2        NA       NA      34.2        NA       NA
                                                                                                                                                        
West Virginia...........................        20       NA      NA        19       NA      NA      10.0       9.4     29.5      10.2       9.1     39.0
Wisconsin \2\...........................        34       NA      NA        25       NA      NA      24.0        NA       NA      18.7      15.5     59.8
Wyoming.................................        29       NA      NA        30       NA      NA       5.9        NA       NA       4.1        NA       NA
                                         ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...............................        43       38      NA        44       38      71        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.                                                                                                          
\2\ Data for 1992 include residents only.                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Legal induced abortion data are by State of occurrence because abortion data by State of residence are not available for all States. Caution     
  should therefore be exercised when comparing rates from State to State and over time. Rates are not available for 10 States in 1990 and 8 States in   
  1992 because age-specific abortion data were not available. Rates by race are not available for States that did not report abortion information by    
  race. Rates were not computed if age or race information for more than 15 percent of the abortions was not reported, or if there were fewer than 20   
  abortions or fewer than 1,000 women in the group.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995); Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996).                                                                       


      TABLE G-20.--INFANT, NEONATAL, AND POSTNEONATAL MORTALITY RATES, BY RACE,\1\ SELECTED YEARS, 1940-95      
                                     [Mortality rates per 1,000 live births]                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                All other       
                            Year                               All races      White    -------------------------
                                                                                           Total        Black   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Infant mortality rate: \2\                                                                                      
    1940....................................................         47.0         43.2         73.8         72.9
    1950....................................................         29.2         26.8         44.5         43.9
    1960....................................................         26.0         22.9         43.2         44.3
    1970....................................................         20.0         17.8         30.9         32.6
    1980....................................................         12.6         10.9         20.2         22.2
    1985....................................................         10.6          9.2         16.8         19.0
    1986....................................................         10.4          8.8         16.7         18.9
    1987....................................................         10.1          8.5         16.5         18.8
    1988....................................................         10.0          8.4         16.1         18.5
    1989....................................................          9.8          8.1         16.3         18.6
    1990....................................................          9.2          7.6         15.5         18.0
    1991....................................................          8.9          7.3         15.1         17.6
    1992....................................................          8.5          6.9         14.4         16.8
    1993....................................................          8.4          6.8         14.1         16.5
    1994....................................................          8.0          6.6         13.5         15.8
    1995 \3\................................................          7.5          6.3  ...........         14.9
Neonatal mortality rate: \4\                                                                                    
    1940....................................................         28.8         27.2         39.7         39.9
    1950....................................................         20.5         19.4         27.5         27.8
    1960....................................................         18.7         17.2         26.9         27.8
    1970....................................................         15.1         13.8         21.4         22.8
    1980....................................................          8.5          7.4         13.2         14.6
    1985....................................................          7.0          6.0         11.0         12.6
    1986....................................................          6.7          5.7         10.8         12.3
    1987....................................................          6.5          5.4         10.7         12.3
    1988....................................................          6.3          5.3         10.3         12.1
    1989....................................................          6.2          5.1         10.3         11.9
    1990....................................................          5.8          4.8          9.9         11.6
    1991....................................................          5.6          4.5          9.5         11.2
    1992....................................................          5.4          4.3          9.2         10.8
    1993....................................................          5.3          4.3          9.0         10.7
    1994....................................................          5.1          4.2          8.6         10.2
    1995....................................................          4.8          4.0  ...........          9.6
Postneonatal mortality rate: \5\                                                                                
    1940....................................................         18.3         16.0         34.1         33.0
    1950....................................................          8.7          7.4         16.9         16.1
    1960....................................................          7.3          5.7         16.4         16.5
    1970....................................................          4.9          4.0          9.5          9.9
    1980....................................................          4.1          3.5          7.0          7.6
    1985....................................................          3.7          3.2          5.8          6.4
    1986....................................................          3.6          3.1          5.9          6.6
    1987....................................................          3.6          3.1          5.8          6.4
    1988....................................................          3.6          3.1          5.7          6.5
    1989....................................................          3.6          2.9          6.0          6.7
    1990....................................................          3.4          2.8          5.7          6.4
    1991....................................................          3.4          2.8          5.6          6.3
    1992....................................................          3.1          2.6          5.2          6.0
    1993....................................................          3.1          2.5          5.1          5.8
    1994....................................................          2.9          2.4          4.9          5.6
    1995 \3\................................................          2.7          2.2  ...........          5.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ As of 1989, race for live births (the denominator of infant mortality rates) is tabulated according to race 
  of mother. For all prior years, race is tabulated according to race of child.                                 
\2\ Deaths before the age of one.                                                                               
\3\ Based on preliminary data.                                                                                  
\4\ Deaths under 28 days.                                                                                       
\5\ Deaths from 28 days to 11 months.                                                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: Gardner & Hudson (1996).                                                                                


  TABLE G-21.--ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) CASES, ACCORDING TO AGE AT DIAGNOSIS, SEX, DETAILED RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN, SELECTED YEARS  
                                                                         1985-96                                                                        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         All years                                         Number, by year of report                                    
                                            \1\                -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 month
   Age at diagnosis, sex, race, and   -------------- All years                                                                         Jan. to   ending 
           Hispanic origin                Percent       \1\       1985      1990      1991      1992      1993      1994      1995      June    June 30,
                                       distribution                                                                                     1996    1996 \2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races............................       (\5\)      530,397     8,167    41,612    43,601    45,806   102,412    77,388    71,293    34,278      26.7
Male:                                                                                                                                                   
  All males, 13 years and over.......       100.0      448,470     7,517    36,350    37,589    39,097    85,575    63,069    57,439    27,257      54.7
    White, non-Hispanic..............        52.7      236,391     4,763    20,925    20,606    20,840    43,479    29,630    26,377    12,180      32.5
    Black, non-Hispanic..............        31.5      141,391     1,707    10,267    11,121    12,150    28,376    22,515    21,093    10,233     186.3
    Hispanic.........................        14.6       65,473       988     4,760     5,446     5,626    12,655    10,129     9,203     4,490      94.5
    American Indian \3\..............         0.3        1,202         7        80        86       104       306       200       198        74      24.5
    Asian or Pacific Islander \4\....         0.8        3,370        49       263       258       294       657       522       483       235      14.7
  13-19 years........................         0.4        1,575        28       108       103        91       365       230       234       104       1.5
  20-29 years........................        17.2       77,188     1,507     6,962     6,564     6,492    14,677     9,703     8,445     3,664      42.4
  30-39 years........................          46      206,196     3,589    16,739    17,356    17,900    39,036    29,045    25,987    12,333     114.3
  40-49 years........................        25.9      116,276     1,636     8,878     9,559    10,307    22,942    17,294    16,417     8,108      88.7
  50-59 years........................         7.8       34,845       597     2,653     2,899     3,072     6,451     5,089     4,770     2,241      38.9
  60 years and over..................         2.8       12,390       160     1,010     1,108     1,235     2,104     1,708     1,586       807       8.6
Female:                                                                                                                                                 
  All females, 13 years and over.....         100       74.984       522     4,537     5,345     5,961    15,969    13,344    13,109     6,681      12.3
    White, non-Hispanic..............        24.9       18,650       141     1,223     1,340     1,478     4,058     3,105     3,075     1,497       3.8
    Black, non-Hispanic..............        57.7       43,253       280     2,543     3,105     3,402     9,109     7,865     7,671     4,071      61.9
    Hispanic.........................        16.5       12,374        98       733       854     1,010     2,627     2,279     2,236     1,055      23.0
    American Indian \3\..............         0.3          215         2         9        11        18        58        40        39        17       5.7
    Asian or Pacific Islander \4\....         0.5          395         1        19        24        40        99        49        74        30       1.9
  13-19 years........................         1.2          888         4        65        54        56       198       176       154        97       1.4
  20-29 years........................          23       17,226       176     1,120     1,228     1,388     3,728     2,948     2,681     1,352      15.1
  30-39 years........................        46.2       34,613       233     2,077     2,521     2,732     7,539     6,010     6,013     2,985      27.3
  40-49 years........................        20.6       15,435        45       783       986     1,235     3,218     3,090     3,107     1,652      17.3
  50-59 years........................         5.8        4,312        26       273       338       340       854       775       815       424       6.7
  60 years and over..................         3.3        2,510        38       219       218       210       432       345       339       171       1.3
Children:                                                                                                                                               
  All children, under 13 years.......         100        6,943       128       725       667       748       868       975       745       340       1.4
    White, non-Hispanic..............        18.9        1,313        26       160       143       129       150       142       118        43       0.3
    Black, non-Hispanic..............        60.4        4,196        84       387       406       483       533       636       482       223       6.0
    Hispanic.........................        19.5        1,356        18       169       111       129       175       182       134        72       1.7
    American Indian \3\..............         0.3           22       099         5         2         3         3         2         2       099       0.2
    Asian or Pacific Islander \4\....         0.6           40       099         4         4         1         4        11         5         1       0.1
  Under 1 year.......................          41        2,844        63       316       267       328       348       352       269       120       6.0
  1-12 years.........................          59        4,099        65       409       400       420       520       623       476       220       1.0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes cases prior to 1985.                                                                                                                       
\2\ Computed using resident population estimates for 1995 based on extrapolation from 1990 census counts from the U.S. Bureau of the Census; data       
  presented is cases per 100,000 population.                                                                                                            
\3\ Includes Aleut and Eskimo.                                                                                                                          
\4\ Includes Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian and part Hawaiian, and other Asian or Pacific Islander.                                              
\5\ Category not applicable.                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--The AIDS case definition as changed in September 1987 to allow for the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions and to   
  expand the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territories. Data are updated  
  periodically because of reporting delays. Data for all years have been updated through June 30, 1995. Data are based on reporting by State health     
  departments.                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1996).                                                                                                   


    TABLE G-22.--TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, AND DRUG USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS BY SUBSTANCE AND FREQUENCY OF USE,    
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1975-95                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Class of                           
         Substance and frequency of use          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1975    1980    1985    1989    1992    1993    1994    1995 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Percentage reporting having ever used drugs          
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
Cigarettes......................................    73.6    71.0    68.8    65.7    61.8    61.9    62.0    64.2
Alcohol \1\.....................................    90.4    93.2    92.2    90.7    87.5    80.0    80.4    80.7
Any illicit drug................................    55.2    65.4    60.6    50.9    40.7    42.9    45.6    48.4
    Marijuana only..............................    19.0    26.7    20.9    19.5    15.6    16.2    18.0    20.3
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...    36.2    38.7    39.7    31.4    25.1    26.7    27.6    28.1
Selected illicit drugs:                                                                                         
    Cocaine.....................................     9.0    15.7    17.3    10.3     6.1     6.1     5.9     6.0
    Heroin......................................     2.2     1.1     1.2     1.3     1.2     1.1     1.2     1.6
    LSD.........................................    11.3     9.3     7.5     8.3     8.6    10.3    10.5    11.7
    Marijuana/hashish...........................    47.3    60.3    54.2    43.7    32.6    35.3    38.2    41.7
    PCP.........................................      NA     9.6     4.9     3.9     2.4     2.9     2.8     2.7
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Percentage reporting use of drugs in the previous 30 days   
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
Cigarettes......................................    36.7    30.5    30.1    28.6    27.8    29.9    31.2    33.5
Alcohol \1\.....................................    68.2    72.0    65.9    60.0    51.3    48.6    50.1    51.3
Any illicit drug................................    30.7    37.2    29.7    19.7    14.4    18.3    21.9    23.8
    Marijuana only..............................    15.3    18.8    14.8    10.6     8.1    10.4    13.1    13.8
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...    15.4    18.4    14.9     9.1     6.3     7.9     8.8    10.0
Selected illicit drugs:                                                                                         
    Cocaine.....................................     1.9     5.2     6.7     2.8     1.3     1.3     1.5     1.8
    Heroin......................................     0.4     0.2     0.3     0.3     0.3     0.2     0.3     0.6
    LSD.........................................     2.3     2.3     1.6     1.8     2.0     2.4     2.6     4.0
    Marijuana/hashish...........................    27.1    33.7    25.7    16.7    11.9    15.5    19.0    21.2
    PCP.........................................      NA     1.4     1.6     1.4     0.6     1.0     0.7     0.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In 1993, the question text was changed slightly in three of six forms to indicate that a ``drink'' meant    
  ``more than a few sips.'' Data for 1993 and years after are based on all six forms which include this change. 
\2\ Other illicit drugs include hallucinogens, cocaine, and heroin, or any other opiates, stimulants, sedatives,
  or tranquilizers not prescribed by a doctor.                                                                  
                                                                                                                
 NA-- Not available.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
 Note.--A revised questionnaire was used in 1982 and later years to reduce the inappropriate reporting of       
  nonprescription stimulants. This slightly reduced the positive responses for some types of drug use.          
                                                                                                                
Source: Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman (1996).                                                                   


 TABLE G-23.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25, SELECTED YEARS 
                                                     1950-93                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Sex, race and age           1950      1960      1970      1980      1990      1991      1992      1993  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races:                                                                                                      
    Under 1 year................   3,299.2   2,696.4   2,142.4   1,288.3     971.9     916.6     865.7     854.4
    1-4 years...................     139.4     109.1      84.5      63.9      46.8      47.4      43.6      44.8
    5-14 years..................      60.1      46.6      41.3      30.6      24.0      23.6      22.5      23.4
    15-24 years.................     128.1     106.3     127.7     115.4      99.2     100.1      95.6      98.5
White males:                                                                                                    
    Under 1 year................   3,400.5   2,694.1   2,113.2   1,230.3     896.1     860.3     780.9     773.0
    1-4 years...................     135.5     104.9      83.6      66.1      45.9      45.5      42.6      42.9
    5-14 years..................      67.2      52.7      48.0      35.0      26.4      26.5      24.7      25.2
    15-24 years.................     152.4     143.7     170.8     167.0     131.3     128.2     121.5     123.0
Black males:                                                                                                    
    Under 1 year................  ........   5,306.8   4,298.9   2,586.7   2,112.4   1,957.4   1,957.9   1,922.2
    1-4 years...................  ........     208.5     150.5     110.5      85.8      88.4      77.6      86.1
    5-14 years..................      95.1      75.1      67.1      47.4      41.7      42.4      41.2      40.5
    15-24 years.................     289.7     212.0     320.6     209.1     252.2     278.1     269.4     289.4
White females:                                                                                                  
    Under 1 year................   2,566.8   2,007.7   1,614.6     962.5     690.0     659.2     618.7     617.5
    1-4 years...................     112.2      85.2      66.1      49.3      36.1      37.6      33.3      33.6
    5-14 years..................      45.1      34.7      29.9      22.9      17.9      17.2      16.2      17.3
    15-24 years.................      71.5      54.9      61.6      55.5      45.9      46.6      43.9      44.4
Black females:                                                                                                  
    Under 1 year................  ........   4,162.2   3,368.8   2,123.7   1,735.5   1,580.8   1,609.7   1,543.2
    1-4 years...................  ........     173.3     129.4      84.4      67.6      70.8      68.7      71.9
    5-14 years..................      72.2      53.8      43.8      30.5      27.5      25.8      26.0      29.5
    15-24 years.................     213.1     107.5     111.9      70.5      68.7      72.6      67.8      73.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Death rates under 1 year (based on population estimates) differ from infant mortality rates (based on    
  live births).                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


  TABLE G-24. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25, 
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1950-93                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year                           
                 Sex, race and age                  ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      1950   1960   1970    1980   1990    1991    1992    1993 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:                                                                                                            
  Under 1 year.....................................    8.4    8.1     9.8    7.0     4.9     4.3     4.8     4.9
  1-4 years........................................   11.5   10.0    11.5    9.2     6.3     5.9     5.5     5.6
  5-14 years.......................................    8.8    7.9    10.2    7.9     5.9     5.6     5.2     5.3
  15-24 years......................................   34.4   38.0    47.2   44.8    34.1    32.0    28.5    29.1
                                                                                                                
Race and sex (15-24 years):                                                                                     
  White male.......................................   58.3   62.7    75.2   73.8    52.5    48.3    42.3    43.8
  Black male.......................................   41.6   46.4    58.1   34.9    36.1    35.0    32.4    34.3
  White female.....................................   12.6   15.6    22.7   23.0    19.5    19.6    17.7    17.1
  Black female.....................................   11.5    9.9    13.4    8.0     9.9    10.0     9.5    10.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service.                                                                         


  TABLE G-25. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 FOR HOMICIDE AND LEGAL INTERVENTION ACCORDING TO SEX, RACE AND AGE IN THE 
                                      UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-94                                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year                           
                 Sex, race, and age                 ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      1950   1960   1970    1980   1990    1992    1993    1994 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:                                                                                                            
  5-14 years.......................................    0.5    0.5     0.9    1.2     1.5     1.6     1.8     1.5
  15-24 years......................................    6.3    5.9    11.7   15.6    19.9    22.2    23.4    22.6
                                                                                                                
Race and sex (15-24 years):                                                                                     
  White male.......................................    3.7    4.4     7.9   15.5    15.4    17.5    17.1    17.4
  Black male.......................................   58.9   46.4   102.5   84.3   138.3   154.4   167.0   157.6
  White female.....................................    1.3    1.5     2.7    4.7     4.0     4.1     4.2     3.9
  Black female.....................................   16.5   11.9    17.7   18.4    18.9    18.4    22.0    18.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service and U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997, p. 98.                              


TABLE G-26.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY SUICIDE BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE IN THE UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-
                                                       94                                                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Year                                     
       Sex, race and age        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   1950     1960     1970     1980     1990     1991     1992     1993     1994 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:                                                                                                            
    5-14 years.................      0.2      0.3      0.3      0.4      0.8      0.7      0.9      0.9      0.9
    15-24 years................      4.5      5.2      8.8     12.3     13.2     13.1     13.0     13.5     13.8
Race and sex (15-24 years):                                                                                     
    White male.................      6.6      8.6     13.9     21.4     23.2     23.0     22.7     23.1     24.1
    Black male.................      4.9      4.1     10.5     12.3     15.1     16.4     18.0     20.1     20.6
    White female...............      2.7      2.3      4.2      4.6      4.2      4.2      3.8      4.3      3.8
    Black female...............      1.8      1.3      3.8      2.3      2.3      1.6      2.2      2.7      2.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Congressional Research Service and U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997, p. 98.                              


                         TABLE G-27.--MEAN SAT SCORES FOR COLLEGE-BOUND SENIORS, 1967-96                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Verbal                      Math          
                           Year                            -----------------------------------------------------
                                                             Males   Females   Total    Males   Females   Total 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1967 \1\..................................................      463      468      466      514      467      492
1968 \1\..................................................      464      466      466      512      470      492
1969 \1\..................................................      459      466      463      513      470      493
1970 \1\..................................................      459      461      460      509      465      488
1971 \1\..................................................      454      457      455      507      466      488
1972......................................................      454      452      453      505      461      484
1973......................................................      446      443      445      502      460      481
1974......................................................      447      442      444      501      459      480
1975......................................................      437      431      434      495      449      472
1976......................................................      433      430      431      497      446      472
1977......................................................      431      427      429      497      445      470
1978......................................................      433      425      429      494      444      468
1979......................................................      431      423      427      493      443      467
1980......................................................      428      420      424      491      443      466
1981......................................................      430      418      424      492      443      466
1982......................................................      431      421      426      493      443      467
1983......................................................      430      420      425      493      445      468
1984......................................................      433      420      426      495      449      471
1985......................................................      437      425      431      499      452      475
1986......................................................      437      426      431      501      451      475
1987......................................................      435      425      430      500      453      476
1988......................................................      435      422      428      498      455      476
1989......................................................      434      421      427      500      454      476
1990......................................................      429      419      424      499      455      476
1991......................................................      426      418      422      497      453      474
1992......................................................      428      419      423      499      456      476
1993......................................................      428      420      424      502      457      478
1994......................................................      425      421      423      501      460      479
1995 \2\..................................................      505      502      504      525      490      506
1996......................................................      507      503      505      527      492      508
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The averages for 1967-71 are estimates. College-bound seniors' reports were not prepared in those years.    
\2\ In 1995 the College Board changed its method of weighting scores.                                           
                                                                                                                
Source: College Board (1995).                                                                                   


                 TABLE G-28.--EVENT DROPOUT RATES FROM GRADES 10-12 BY SEX AND RACE, 1973-96 \1\                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             White               Black           Hispanic \2\   
                        Year                         -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1973................................................       6.1       5.3      12.0       8.4       7.9      12.0
1974................................................       7.0       5.1      10.8      12.2      12.5       7.2
1975................................................       5.0       5.8       8.3       9.0      10.1      11.6
1976................................................       6.3       5.0       8.5       6.2       7.3       6.8
1977................................................       6.9       5.6       8.3       9.0      10.3       5.2
1978................................................       6.9       5.3      11.0       9.7      15.6       8.5
1979................................................       6.6       5.8       7.5      11.5      10.2       9.1
1980................................................       6.4       4.9       8.0       8.5      16.9       6.9
1981................................................       5.6       4.9       9.4      10.2      10.6      10.9
1982................................................       5.3       4.9       9.0       6.5       9.5       9.0
1983................................................       5.4       4.2       7.0       6.8      13.7       6.2
1984................................................       5.3       4.6       6.2       5.3      12.2      10.1
1985................................................       4.9       4.7       8.3       7.2       9.3       9.8
1986 \3\............................................       4.2       4.1       5.0       4.6      11.7      12.4
1987 \3\............................................       4.1       3.4       6.2       6.4       5.0       6.2
1988 \3\............................................       5.1       4.3       6.7       6.0      12.3       8.4
1989 \3\............................................       4.1       3.8       6.9       8.6       7.6       7.7
1990 \3\............................................       4.1       3.5       4.1       6.0       8.7       7.2
1991 \3\............................................       3.6       3.8       5.5       7.0      10.4       4.8
1992 \3\............................................       3.8       4.4       3.3       6.7       5.8       8.6
1993 \3\............................................       4.1       4.1       5.7       5.0       4.8       7.7
1994 \4\............................................       4.6       4.9       6.5       5.7       8.4      10.1
1995................................................       5.4       4.8       7.9       4.4      10.9      12.5
1996................................................       4.8       4.1       4.6       7.8       9.2       7.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Event dropout rates measure the percentage of students who leave high school in a single year, without      
  having completed a high school diploma.                                                                       
\2\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new editing procedures by the Bureau of the Census for cases with missing   
  data on school enrollment items.                                                                              
\4\ The computer assisted survey instrument improved response rates. It was first used for the full sample in   
  1994.                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996c).                                                                      


 TABLE G-29.--HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATES FOR 18-24 YEAR OLDS, BY RACE/
                           ETHNICITY, 1972-95                           
                              [In percent]                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Race/ethnicity \1\      
                                        --------------------------------
            Year                Total    White non- Black non-          
                                          Hispanic   Hispanic   Hispanic
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1972........................       82.8       86.0       72.1       56.2
1973........................       83.7       87.0       71.6       58.7
1974........................       83.6       86.7       73.0       60.1
1975........................       83.8       87.2       70.2       62.2
1976........................       83.5       86.4       73.5       60.3
1977........................       83.6       86.7       73.9       58.6
1978........................       83.6       86.9       73.4       58.8
1979........................       83.1       86.6       72.6       58.5
1980........................       83.9       87.5       75.2       57.1
1981........................       83.8       87.1       76.7       59.1
1982........................       83.8       87.0       76.4       60.9
1983........................       83.9       87.4       76.8       59.4
1984........................       84.7       87.5       80.3       63.7
1985........................       85.4       88.2       81.0       66.6
1986........................       85.5       88.8       81.8       63.5
1987 \2\....................       84.7       87.7       81.9       65.1
1988 \2\....................       84.5       88.7       80.9       58.2
1989 \2\....................       84.7       89.0       81.9       59.4
1990 \2\....................       85.6       89.6       83.2       59.1
1991 \2\....................       84.9       89.4       82.5       56.5
1992 \2\ \3\................       86.4       90.7       82.0       62.1
1993 \2\ \3\................       86.2       90.1       81.9       64.4
1994 \2\ \3\ \4\............       85.8       90.7       83.3       61.8
1995........................       85.3       89.8       84.5       62.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Not shown separately are non-Hispanics who are neither black nor    
  white, but who are included in the total.                             
\2\ Revisions in edits were instituted by the Bureau of the Census this 
  year for cases with missing data on school enrollment items.          
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new wording of the educational      
  attainment item in the Current Population Survey (CPS).               
\4\ Numbers in this year may reflect changes in CPS due to newly        
  instituted computer assisted interviewing and/or due to the change in 
  the population controls used this year to adjust for the 1990 Census- 
  based estimates.                                                      
                                                                        
Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1996) and U.S. Bureau 
  of the Census, unpublished data.                                      


         TABLE G-30.--TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND INCOME COMPOSITION OF FEMALE-HEADED FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN, 1979, 1989, AND 1995        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Poor \1\                   Nonpoor \1\                        Total             
                           Category                           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 1979     1989     1995     1979      1989       1995       1979       1989       1995  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in thousands)............................    2,458    3,434    3,874    3,729      4,431      5,370      6,187      7,865      9,244
Family characteristics:                                                                                                                                 
    Percent never-married....................................     26.0     37.3     43.1     10.2       17.6       22.0       16.5       26.2       30.8
    Percent with head age 15-19..............................      3.9      2.9      2.2      0.4        0.3        1.1        1.8        1.5        1.6
    Percent with head age 20-29..............................     36.4     37.3     34.2     21.7       17.3       16.0       27.6       26.0       23.7
    Percent with head 30 and over............................     59.6     59.8     63.6     77.8       82.3       82.9       70.6       72.5       74.8
    Percent white non-Hispanic \2\...........................     43.1     42.6     40.3     69.4       64.1       64.2       59.0       54.7       54.2
    Percent black non-Hispanic...............................     44.9     42.0     39.8     24.7       27.6       25.0       32.7       33.9       31.2
    Percent Hispanic.........................................     12.0     15.4     20.0      5.9        8.4       10.7        8.3       11.4       14.6
    Average family size......................................      3.7      3.4      3.5      3.2        3.0        3.0        3.4        3.2        3.2
Percent with income from:                                                                                                                               
    Earnings \3\.............................................     49.7     49.0     55.3     94.8       96.2       95.9       76.9       75.6       78.9
    OASDI, railroad retirement...............................     12.6     10.8     11.0     21.5       16.3       14.7       18.0       13.9       13.2
    Pensions.................................................      1.1      1.7      0.9      4.4        5.8        4.7        3.0        4.0        3.1
    UC and other compensation................................      6.3      4.7      5.8     14.9       11.3        9.4       11.5        8.4        7.9
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance............................     65.0     60.9     59.1     18.2       11.0       14.4       36.8       32.8       33.2
    Child support, alimony...................................     18.6     26.9     31.9     44.0       45.5       48.2       33.9       37.4       41.4
    Interest, dividends \3\..................................     13.4     11.2     13.1     53.6       53.5       52.5       37.6       35.0       36.0
    Food stamps..............................................     67.2     66.5     68.0     16.6       10.4       14.9       36.7       34.9       37.1
    Housing assistance.......................................     21.6     29.9     32.4      6.0        6.0        7.5       12.2       16.4       17.9
Percent of total income from:                                                                                                                           
    Earnings \3\.............................................     24.8     27.8     32.0     74.2       79.1       78.8       64.9       69.7       70.4
    OASDI, railroad retirement...............................      5.7      5.9      5.8      6.8        4.6        4.1        6.6        4.8        4.4
    Pensions.................................................      0.4      0.6      0.3      1.2        1.5        1.8        1.1        1.3        1.5
    UC and other compensation................................      1.5      1.0      1.3      1.5        1.2        1.1        1.5        1.1        1.1
    AFDC, SSI, general assistance............................     38.1     32.9     27.5      3.8        1.5        2.5       10.2        7.3        7.1
    Child support, alimony...................................      4.8      5.8      6.8      8.1        8.1        7.7        7.5        7.7        7.5
    Interest, dividends \3\..................................      0.3      0.3      0.5      2.9        3.4        3.0        2.4        2.9        2.5
    Food stamps \4\..........................................     16.5     16.5     17.0      0.9        0.4        0.7        3.8        3.4        3.7
    Housing assistance \4\...................................      8.0      9.2      8.8      0.7        0.2        0.3        2.1        1.9        1.8
Mean income per family member \5\ (1994 dollars).............   $2,758   $2,646   $2,842   $9,133    $10,393    $10,781     $6,387     $6,826     $7,114
Percent with 50 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\..............................................     58.8     55.2     51.6      4.5        1.6        3.1       26.1       25.0       23.4
Percent with 90 percent or more of income from public                                                                                                   
 assistance \5\..............................................     39.0     37.4     30.5      1.3        0.4        0.7       16.3       16.6      13.2 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                                                                     
\2\ Includes ``other races.''                                                                                                                           
\3\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                                                        
\4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were estimated using their market values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for
  purposes of determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps and housing assistance are included in total income for calculating the percentage 
  share of total income.                                                                                                                                
\5\ Includes cash values of food stamps and housing assistance and includes negative incomes (i.e., losses). Mean income converted to 1992 dollars using
  the CPI-X price index.                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on data from annual March Current Population Surveys.                                    


 TABLE G-31.--PERCENT OF MALE-PRESENT FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, BY THE RATIO OF TOTAL INCOME TO THE POVERTY THRESHOLD,\1\
                                                                          1995                                                                          
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Ratio of total income to poverty threshold                                              
                                           -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------                          
                                                                                                                        3.00     Poor   Nonpoor   Total 
                                             Under  0.50-0.74  0.75-0.99  1.00-1.24  1.25-1.49  1.50-1.99  2.00-2.99    and                             
                                             0.50                                                                       over                            
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in thousands).........     630       821        906      1,085      1,304      2,813      5,830    14,644    2,357   25,676   28,033
Earnings \2\..............................    68.5      82.4       91.8       94.9       96.9       98.4       99.5      99.8     82.3     99.2     97.8
OASDI, railroad retirement................     5.3      12.4       10.0       11.6       10.3        9.0        7.6       4.8      9.6      6.5      6.7
Pensions..................................     1.4       2.0        0.5        1.5        3.2        3.6        4.1       4.7      1.3      4.2      4.0
Unemployment compensation, workers'                                                                                                                     
 compensation, veterans payments..........     9.6      13.9       13.9       16.5       17.6       15.1       13.3      11.0     12.8     12.6     12.6
AFDC, SSI, general assistance.............    27.0      31.2       16.9       16.7       11.5        8.2        4.6       1.2     24.6      3.9      5.7
Child support, alimony....................     7.5      12.5       13.7       17.0       16.5       16.0       16.2      15.6     11.6     15.9     15.5
Interest, dividends \2\...................    16.2      18.1       24.2       30.7       38.2       48.5       63.0      86.3     19.9     72.1     67.7
Food stamps...............................    42.5      52.9       34.0       28.4       17.0        8.3        3.0       0.5     42.8      3.9      7.2
Housing assistance........................    11.2      11.3        6.8        7.9        4.0        3.0        1.5       0.2      9.6      1.3      2.0
Family characteristics:                                                                                                                                 
    Percent with head age 15-19...........     1.9       1.2        0.8        0.9        0.7        0.2        0.1       0.1      1.2      0.2      0.3
    Percent with head age 20-29...........    21.4      24.5       27.9       24.6       21.8       19.9       15.7       7.2     25.0     12.0     13.1
    Percent with head age 30 and over.....    76.7      74.3       71.4       74.4       77.5       80.0       84.2      92.7     73.8     87.8     86.7
    Percent white non-Hispanic............    55.5      57.4       57.9       60.4       61.8       72.5       81.0      88.3     57.1     82.4     80.2
    Percent black non-Hispanic............    12.6      12.2       10.5       14.8       11.6       10.0        9.3       6.7     11.6      8.3      8.5
    Percent Hispanic......................    31.9      30.5       31.7       24.8       26.6       17.5        9.8       5.0     31.3      9.4     11.2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official Census Bureau poverty levels.                                                                                                     
\2\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.                                                                                                        
\3\ Includes ``other races.''                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                        
Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on data from annual March Current Population Surveys.                                    


                          TABLE G-32.--NUMBERS, PERCENT COMPOSITION, AND RATES OF CHILDREN BELOW POVERTY, \1\ BY RACE, 1974-95                          
                                                                 [Numbers in thousands]                                                                 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Number                                          Rate                    
                           Year                            ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Total      Black      White    Hispanic \2\    Total      Black      White    Hispanic \2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1974......................................................     10,156      3,755      6,223           NA        15.4       39.8       11.2           NA 
1975......................................................     11,104      3,925      6,927           NA        17.1       41.7       12.7           NA 
1976......................................................     10,273      3,787      6,189        1,443        16.0       40.6       11.6         30.2 
1977......................................................     10,288      3,888      6,097        1,422        16.2       41.8       11.6         28.3 
                                                                                                                                                        
1978......................................................      9,931      3,830      5,831        1,384        15.9       41.5       11.3         27.6 
1979......................................................     10,377      3,833      6,193        1,535        16.4       41.2       11.8         28.0 
1980......................................................     11,543      3,961      7,181        1,749        18.3       42.3       13.9         33.2 
1981......................................................     12,505      4,237      7,785        1,925        20.0       45.2       15.2         35.8 
                                                                                                                                                        
1982......................................................     13,647      4,472      8,678        2,181        21.9       47.6       17.0         39.4 
1983......................................................     13,911      4,398      8,862        2,312        22.3       46.7       17.5         38.1 
1984......................................................     13,420      4,413      8,472        2,376        21.5       46.5       16.7         39.2 
1985......................................................     13,010      4,157      8,253        2,606        20.7       43.6       16.2         40.3 
                                                                                                                                                        
1986......................................................     12,876      4,148      8,209        2,507        20.5       43.1       16.1         37.7 
1987 \3\..................................................     12,843      4,385      7,788        2,670        20.3       45.1       15.3         39.3 
1988......................................................     12,455      4,296      7,435        2,631        19.5       43.5       14.5         37.6 
1989......................................................     12,590      4,375      7,599        2,603        19.6       43.7       14.8         36.2 
                                                                                                                                                        
1990......................................................     13,431      4,550      8,232        2,865        20.6       44.8       15.9         38.4 
1991......................................................     14,341      4,755      8,848        3,094        21.8       45.9       16.8         40.4 
1992 \4\..................................................     15,294      5,106      9,399        3,637        22.3       46.6       17.4         40.0 
1993......................................................     15,727      5,125      9,752        3,873        22.7       46.1       17.8         40.9 
                                                                                                                                                        
1994......................................................     15,289      4,906      9,346        4,075        21.8       43.8       16.9         41.5 
1995......................................................     14,665      4,761      8,981        4,080        20.8       41.9       16.2         40.0 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes all persons under 18 below the poverty level, including unrelated children.                                                                
\2\ Hispanic origin may be of any race; this category is not exclusive.                                                                                 
\3\ The 1987 numbers have been revised.                                                                                                                 
\4\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                        
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P-60.                                                                             


                                                      TABLE G-33.--COMPOSITION OF CHILD POVERTY POPULATION BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-95                                                     
                                                                                     [Numbers in thousands]                                                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                         Female head                                                  Male present                              
                          Year                            Total poor -------------------------------------------------- Percent of -------------------------------------------------- Percent of
                                                                       Nonwhite      White    Hispanic \1\     Total       total     Nonwhite      White    Hispanic \1\     Total       total  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966....................................................      12,146       2,150       2,112           NA        4,262        35.1       2,792       5,092           NA        7,884        64.9
1967....................................................      11,427       2,316       1,930           NA        4,246        37.2       2,382       4,799           NA        7,181        62.8
1968....................................................      10,739       2,334       2,075           NA        4,409        41.1       2,032       4,298           NA        6,330        58.9
1969....................................................       9,500       2,179       2,068           NA        4,247        44.7       1,655       3,598           NA        5,253        55.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1970....................................................      10,235       2,442       2,247           NA        4,689        45.8       1,651       3,891           NA        5,546        54.2
1971....................................................      10,344       2,398       2,452           NA        4,850        46.9       1,605       3,889           NA        5,494        53.1
1972....................................................      10,082       2,821       2,273           NA        5,094        50.5       1,477       3,511           NA        4,988        49.5
1973....................................................       9,453       2,710       2,461          606        5,171        54.7       1,281       3,001          758        4,282        45.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1974....................................................       9,966       2,678       2,683          621        5,361        53.8       1,209       3,396          793        4,605        46.2
1975....................................................      10,881       2,784       2,813          694        5,597        51.4       1,350       3,394          925        5,284        48.6
1976....................................................      10,080       2,870       2,713          636        5,583        55.4       1,176       3,321          789        4,497        44.6
1977....................................................      10,029       2,965       2,693          686        5,658        56.4       1,121       3,250          716        4,371        43.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1978....................................................       9,722       3,060       2,627          663        5,687        58.5         988       3,047          692        4,035        41.5
1979....................................................       9,993       3,006       2,629          668        5,635        56.4       1,079       3,279          837        4,358        43.6
1980....................................................      11,114       3,053       2,813          809        5,866        52.8       1,244       4,004          909        5,248        47.2
1981....................................................      12,069       3,185       3,120          909        6,305        52.2       1,455       4,309          966        5,764        47.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1982....................................................      13,139       3,447       3,249          990        6,696        51.0       1,411       5,032        1,127        6,443        49.0
1983....................................................      13,427       3,359       3,388        1,018        6,747        50.2       1,534       5,146        1,233        6,680        49.8
1984....................................................      12,929       3,395       3,377        1,093        6,772        52.4       1,448       4,709        1,223        6,157        47.6
1985....................................................      12,483       3,344       3,372        1,247        6,716        53.8       1,300       4,467        1,266        5,767        46.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1986....................................................      12,257       3,421       3,522        1,194        6,943        56.6       1,121       4,192        1,219        5,313        43.3
1987....................................................      12,435       3,600       3,474        1,241        7,074        56.9       1,285       4,076        1,390        5,361        43.1
1987 \2\................................................      12,275       3,586       3,433        1,250        7,019        57.2       1,291       3,966        1,356        5,257        42.8
1988....................................................      11,935       3,530       3,424        1,294        6,954        58.3       1,310       3,671        1,282        4,981        41.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1989....................................................      12,001       3,553       3,255        1,158        6,808        56.7       1,285       3,908        1,338        5,193        43.3
1990....................................................      12,715       3,766       3,597        1,314        7,363        57.9       1,253       4,098        1,437        5,352        42.1
1991....................................................      13,658       4,125       3,941        1,398        8,065        59.1       1,217       4,376        1,579        5,593        40.9
1992 \3\................................................      14,521       4,408       3,960        1,504        8,368        57.6       1,361       4,792        1,936        6,153        42.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                
1993....................................................      14,961       4,401       4,102        1,673        8,503        56.8       1,437       5,021        1,993        6,458        43.2
1994....................................................      14,610       4,328       4,099        1,804        8,427        57.7       1,456       4,727        2,152        6,183        42.3
1995....................................................      13,999       4,313       4,051        1,872        8,364        59.7       1,212       4,423        2,066        5,635        40.3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                                                                                                              
\2\ Revised.                                                                                                                                                                                    
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                
Note.--Includes only related children in families. 1987 revised through 1991 estimates are not comparable to prior years due to processing changes in the CPS.                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                
 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.                                                                                                                    


                     TABLE G-34.--POVERTY RATE OF CHILDREN BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-95                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Female head                          Male present            
            Year               Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total   Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966........................    17.4    76.6    46.9         NA       58.2    39.9     9.2         NA       12.6
1967........................    16.3    72.4    42.1         NA       54.3    35.3     8.7         NA       11.5
1968........................    15.3    70.5    44.4         NA       55.2    29.8     7.8         NA       10.2
1969........................    13.8    68.2    45.2         NA       54.4    25.0     6.7         NA        8.6
1970........................    14.9    67.7    43.1         NA       53.0    26.0     7.3         NA        9.2
1971........................    15.1    66.6    44.6         NA       53.1    25.5     7.4         NA        9.3
1972........................    14.9    69.5    41.1         NA       53.1    24.1     6.8         NA        8.6
1973........................    14.2    67.2    42.1       68.7       52.1    21.7     6.0       18.8        7.6
1974........................    15.1    65.0    42.9       64.3       51.5    20.0     6.9       20.0        8.7
1975........................    16.8    66.0    44.2       68.4       52.7    22.1     8.2       23.8        9.8
1976........................    15.8    65.6    42.7       67.3       52.0    19.4     7.1       20.8        8.5
1977........................    16.0    65.7    40.3       68.6       50.3    19.9     7.1       17.9        8.5
1978........................    15.7    66.4    39.9       68.9       50.6    17.6     6.8       17.2        7.9
1979........................    16.0    63.1    38.6       62.2       48.6    18.7     7.3       19.2        8.5
1980........................    17.9    64.8    41.6       65.0       50.8    20.3     9.0       22.9       10.4
1981........................    19.5    67.7    42.8       67.3       52.3    23.4    10.0       24.5       11.6
1982........................    21.3    70.7    46.5       71.8       56.0    24.1    11.6       27.8       13.0
1983........................    21.8    68.3    47.1       70.6       55.4    23.7    12.0       27.2       13.5
1984........................    21.0    66.2    45.9       71.0       54.0    24.3    11.0       27.5       12.5
1985........................    20.1    66.9    45.2       72.4       53.6    18.8    10.4       27.4       11.7
1986........................    19.8    67.1    46.3       66.7       54.4    17.0     9.8       25.8       10.8
1987........................    20.0    68.3    45.8       70.1       54.7    19.8     9.5       28.3       10.9
1987 \2\....................    19.7    66.9    45.0       69.8       53.7    19.1     9.3       27.7       10.6
1988........................    19.0    64.7    44.9       69.6       52.9    18.7     8.5       25.4       10.0
1989........................    19.0    63.1    42.5       64.3       51.1    20.3     9.1       25.5       10.4
1990........................    19.9    64.7    45.9       68.4       53.4    19.3     9.5       26.7       10.7
1991........................    21.1    68.2    47.1       68.6       55.5    17.3    10.1       29.1       11.1
1992 \3\....................    21.6    67.1    45.9       65.9       54.6    19.4    10.3       29.6       11.8
1993........................    22.0    65.9    45.6       66.1       53.7    19.5    11.3       29.9       12.4
1994........................    21.2    63.2    45.7       68.3       52.9    17.7    10.4       30.8       11.7
1995........................    20.2    61.6    42.5       65.7       50.3    14.4     9.8       28.8       10.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                                              
\2\ Revised.                                                                                                    
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                             
                                                                                                                
NA--Not available.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                
Note.--Data are number per 100. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.                                  
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.                                     


      TABLE G-35.--NUMBER OF POOR CHILDREN UNDER 6 AND FROM 6 TO 17 YEARS AND THEIR POVERTY RATES, 1966-95      
                                             [Numbers in thousands]                                             
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Total                  Total              
                                            Total        Total      number of    Poverty   number of    Poverty 
                                          number of      number        poor      rate of      poor      rate of 
                  Year                     children     under 6      children   children  children 6-   children
                                           under 18   (thousands)    under 6     under 6    17 years      6-17  
                                         (thousands)               (thousands)            (thousands)    years  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966...................................      70,218       23,779        4,304       18.1       8,085        17.4
1967...................................      70,408       23,171        4,055       17.5       7,601        16.1
1968...................................      70,385       22,249        3,659       16.6       7,295        15.2
1969...................................      69,090       21,681        3,361       15.5       6,330        13.4
1970...................................      69,159       21,556        3,601       16.7       6,839        14.4
1971...................................      68,816       20,898        3,579       17.1       6,972        14.5
1972...................................      67,930       20,510        3,388       16.5       6,896        14.5
1973...................................      66,959       20,043        3,204       16.0       6,438        13.7
1974...................................      66,134       19,887        3,361       16.9       6,795        14.7
1975...................................      65,079       19,353        3,522       18.2       7,582        16.6
1976...................................      64,028       18,971        3,358       17.7       6,915        15.3
1977...................................      63,137       18,518        3,426       18.5       6,862        15.4
1978...................................      62,311       18,789        3,344       17.8       6,587        15.1
1979...................................      63,375       19,012        3,479       18.3       6,898        15.5
1980...................................      62,914       19,974        4,054       20.3       7,489        17.4
1981...................................      62,449       20,396        4,487       22.0       8,018        19.1
1982...................................      62,345       20,789        4,899       23.6       8,748        21.1
1983...................................      62,334       21,039        5,302       25.0       8,609        20.8
1984...................................      62,447       21,196        5,066       23.9       8,354        20.3
1985...................................      62,876       21,526        4,951       23.0       8,059        19.5
1986...................................      62,948       21,656        4,796       22.1       8,080        19.6
1987...................................      63,290       21,860        4,984       22.8       7,979        19.3
1988 (revised).........................      63,747       22,232        4,957       22.3       7,499        18.1
1989...................................      64,144       22,505        5,071       22.5       7,518        18.1
1990...................................      65,049       22,937        5,412       23.6       8,019        19.0
1991...................................      65,918       23,206        5,702       24.6       8,639        20.2
1992 \1\...............................      68,440       24,070        6,360       26.4       8,934        20.1
1993...................................      69,292       24,219        6,352       26.5       9,375        20.8
1994...................................      70,020       24,265        6,093       25.1       9,196        20.1
1995...................................      70,566       24,184        5,821       24.1       8,844        19.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.                                             
                                                                                                                
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.                                     

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