[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Front Matter]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]




106th Congress                                                  WMCP:
 2d Session                 COMMITTEE PRINT                    106-14
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     


                      COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS

                     U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                               __________

                            2000 GREEN BOOK

BACKGROUND MATERIAL AND DATA ON PROGRAMS WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF THE 
                      COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS

                                     
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED]CONGRESS.#13

                                     

                            OCTOBER 6, 2000

 Prepared for the use of Members of the Committee on Ways and Means by 
members of its staff. This document has not been officially approved by 
       the Committee and may not reflect the views of its Members


                      COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS

                     U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                              ----------                              


                       ONE HUNDRED SIXTH CONGRESS

                      BILL ARCHER, Texas, Chairman

                              ----------                              


                     A.L. Singleton, Chief of Staff

    This document was prepared by the majority staff of the 
Committee on Ways and Means and is issued under the authority 
of Chairman Bill Archer. This document has not been reviewed or 
officially approved by the Members of the Committee.



                         LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

                              ----------                              


                     U.S. House of Representatives,
                               Committee on Ways and Means,
                                 Washington, DC, September 13, 2000

Hon. Bill Archer,
Chairman, Committee on Ways and Means,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Chairman Archer: Since 1981, the Committee on Ways and 
Means has published the Green Book which presents background 
material and statistical data on the major entitlement programs 
and other activities within the Committee's jurisdiction. 
Information on major social programs outside the Committee's 
jurisdiction is also included.
     Since its inception 19 years ago, the Green Book has 
become a valuable resource for Members of the Committee, other 
Members of Congress, analysts in the various legislative 
agencies, officials in the executive departments, scholars who 
study these programs, and citizens interested in government 
social programs.
     On behalf of all those who worked on this, the 17th 
edition, I am pleased to transmit to you and other Members of 
the Committee on Ways and Means the 2000 Green Book.
     The Committee staff who worked on the 2000 Green Book wish 
to call to your attention, and to the attention of Green Book 
users, the superb help we have received from many individuals 
and organizations. These include:


The Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress:
David Koitz, Coordinator
Jennifer O'Sullivan, Coordinator (Health Programs)

Craig W. Abbey           Frances Larkins          Richard Rimkunas
 Evelyne Baumrucker      Ann Lordeman             Alix Salinas
Vee Burke                Bob Lyke                 Gary Sidor
Alice Butler             Carolyn Merck            Madeleine Smith
Hinda Chaikind           Paulette C. Morgan       Pam Smith
Christine Devere         Dawn Nuschler            Denny Snook
Gene Falk                Carol                    Carmen Solomon-
Celinda Franco             O'Shaughnessy            Fears
Thomas P. Gabe           Richard Price             Karen Spar
Melinda Gish             Pat Purcell              Emilie Stoltzfus
Shannon Harper           Edward Rappaport         James Storey
Jean Hearne              Bernice                  Sibyl Tilson
Lisa Herz                  Reyes-Akinbileje       Ruth Ellen Wasem
Rachel Kelly             Joe Richardson           Heidi Yacker
Geoffrey Kollmann


The Congressional Budget Office:
Bruce Vavrichek, Coordinator

Charles Betley           Cyndi Dudzinski          Christi Hawley
Michael Birmbaum         Carol Frost                Sadoti
Tom Bradley              Susan Labovich           William Terry
Julia Christensen        Taman Morris             Chris Topoleski
Sandy Christensen        Carla Pedone             David Weiner
Paul Cullinan            John Peterson            Roberton Williams
Jeanne De Sa             Eric Rollins             Dorothy Rosenbaum



The Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce:
Charles T. Nelson, Coordinator

Joseph Dalaker           Jack McNeil              Bernadette Proctor
Tim Grall                Martin O'Connell         Kristin Smith
Diana Marz



The Department of Health and Human Services:
Julia Isaacs, Coordinator

Linda Adams              Paula Higger             Robert Pruim
Julie Alberino           Sean Hurley              James Rich
Karen Beebe              Renee Jackson            Mae Robinson
Lisa Bernhardt           Roger Keene              Howard Rolston
Sharon Brown             G. Wilson Kirby          Kathy Sagel
Roger Buchanan           John Klemm               Lou Schiro
Sue Castleberry          George D. Lintzeris      Clarence Small
Gil Crouse               Elizabeth Lower-         Stephen Smith
Maria Diacogiannis         Basch                  Reuben Snipper
Janice Drexler           Clare McFarland          Bill Surine
Denise Franz             Evelyne Mills            Craig Turner
Cindy Foltz              Audrey Mirsky-           Stephanie Ventura
Janet Fox                  Ashby                  John Wandishin
John Gaudiosi            Solomon Mussey           Carter Warfield
Betsy Hanczaryk          Charles Owen             Andrew Young
John Hargrove            Leo Porter



The Department of Labor:
John Colbert, Coordinator

Erica Cantor             Jim Giuliano             Bill Rabung
Gerri Fiala              Cheryl Kerr              Sherri Spencer



The Social Security Administration:
Webster Phillips, Coordinator

Ed Book                  Arthur Kahn              Karen McKenna
Alfreda Brooks           Lenna Kennedy            Shirley Queen
Mike Cronin              Jeff Kunkel              Rozzie Rosensweig
Terry Dodson             Charlie Lanak            Ed Ryan
Ruth Fell                Barbara Lingg            Cathy McDonald
Shirley Georgia-Solomon  Mary McKay




The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation:
Joseph Grant, Coordinator

Michael Rae


The Joint Committee on Taxation:
Joseph W. Nega, Coordinator

The Railroad Retirement Board Staff


     Many members of the Committee's majority staff made major 
contributions to the preparation and publication of this 
document. Ron Haskins, Staff Director of the Subcommittee on 
Human Resources, assisted by Cassie Statuto Bevan and Margo 
Smith of the Subcommittee staff, edited the 2000 Green Book. 
Mike Compson provided editorial assistance. Margaret Pratt 
coordinated our contacts with the agencies that participated in 
the preparation of sections and tables, typed and retyped much 
of the text and all the tables, assisted in preparation of the 
final manuscript, and generally handled the numerous details 
that accompany a major undertaking of this type. Suzanne Kayne 
spent endless hours preparing the final manuscript for 
printing. Alix Salinas, Angela Napili, and Victoria Agee (Agee 
Indexing Service) did an exemplary job of overseeing 
preparation of the index under serious time pressures. Other 
staff members who assisted with individual chapters or 
appendixes included: Dennis Chavarro, Nick Gwyn, Kim Hildred, 
Jennifer Hetzel, Malay Majmundar, Janice Mays, William (Mac) 
McKenney, Jeff McLynch, Chris Smith, Carl Taylor, Matt 
Weidinger, and Jennifer Whitson. In addition, useful comments 
on Appendix L were provided by: Richard Bavier, Peter Germanis, 
Mark Greenberg, Judy Gueron, Larry Mead, William Passero, 
Wendell Primus, and Julie Strawn.
            Sincerely,
                                   A.L. ``Pete'' Singleton,
                                                    Chief of Staff.



                             P R E F A C E

                              ----------                              

     After 16 previous editions, the Green Book has become a 
standard reference source on American social policy. It is 
widely used by Members of Congress and their staffs, analysts 
in congressional and administrative agencies, members of the 
media, scholars, and citizens interested in the Nation's social 
policy.
     This edition of the Green Book follows the basic pattern 
of previous editions. The volume is divided into two parts, 
Program Descriptions and Appendixes. In the Program Description 
part, separate sections are devoted to the major programs under 
jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Social 
Security; Medicare; Supplemental Security Income; Unemployment 
Compensation; Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees; Trade 
Adjustment Assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 
(Aid to Families with Dependent Children in previous editions); 
Child Support Enforcement; Child Care; Title XX Social Services 
Block Grant; Child Protection; Foster Care and Adoption 
Assistance; Social Welfare Programs in the Territories; Tax 
Provisions Related to Retirement, Health, Poverty, Employment, 
Disability, and Other Social Issues; and the Pension Benefit 
Guaranty Corporation. A final section summarizes major social 
programs that are not under jurisdiction of the Committee 
(including food stamps, Medicaid, the State Children's Health 
Insurance Program, Federal housing assistance, School Lunch and 
Breakfast Programs, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program 
for Women, Infants, and Children, the Child and Adult Care Food 
Program, the Workforce Investment Act, Head Start, the Low-
Income Home Energy Assistance Program, veterans benefits and 
services, and workers' compensation).
    The Appendixes include information directly related to the 
programs under Committee jurisdiction, including: health care 
of the elderly; long-term care health care expenditures; 
Medicare reimbursements for hospitals and physicians; the 
Medicare+Choice Program; data on employment earnings, and 
unemployment; data on families and poverty; Federal budget 
tables; benefits available to noncitizens and spending on 
income-tested benefits in recent decades; a literature review 
of studies of the effects of welfare reform; and information 
about nonmarital births and Federal strategies to reduce 
nonmarital pregnancies.
    This year's Green Book contains several changes from the 
1998 edition. In addition to updating data and legislative 
changes in all the sections and appendixes, a number of the 
sections have been substantially rewritten. The new section on 
the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program that was 
created by the 1996 welfare reform law is almost completely 
new. In addition, the sections on Social Security and child 
protection have been extensively reorganized and revised. 
Finally, three new appendixes have been added. One new appendix 
provides detailed information about the Medicare+Choice 
Program. Another new appendix, on which we received very 
helpful comments from many scholars and policy experts, reviews 
the large and growing research on welfare reform. The new 
appendix on nonmarital births, included in the Green Book at 
the suggestion of Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, provides a 
useful overview of historical trends in nonmarital births and 
recent actions taken by Congress to combat these trends.

 
                            C O N T E N T S

                               __________
                                                                   Page

Letter of Transmittal............................................   iii

Preface..........................................................    vi

                P R O G R A M    D E S C R I P T I O N S

Section 1. Social Security: The Old-Age, Survivors, and 
  Disability Insurance Programs..................................     1
Section 2. Medicare..............................................    97
Section 3. Supplemental Security Income (SSI)....................   211
Section 4. Unemployment Compensation.............................   279
Section 5. Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees............   315
Section 6. Trade Adjustment Assistance...........................   337
Section 7. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)........   351
Section 8. Child Support Enforcement Program.....................   463
Section 9. Child Care............................................   571
Section 10. Title XX Social Services Block Grant Program.........   633
Section 11. Child Protection, Foster Care, and Adoption 
  Assistance.....................................................   645
Section 12. Social Welfare Programs in the Territories...........   761
Section 13. Tax Provisions Related to Retirement, Health, 
  Poverty, Employment, Disability, and Other Social Issues.......   777
Section 14. The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.............   845
Section 15. Other Programs.......................................   861

                          A P P E N D I X E S

Appendix A. Data on the Elderly..................................   991
Appendix B. Health Status and Expenditures of the Elderly, and 
  Background Data on Long-Term Care..............................  1007
Appendix C. National and International Health Care Expenditures 
  and Health Insurance Coverage..................................  1033
Appendix D. Medicare Reimbursement to Hospitals and Physicians...  1081
Appendix E. Medicare+Choice......................................  1179
Appendix F. Data on Employment, Earnings, and Unemployment.......  1223
Appendix G. Data on Families.....................................  1235
Appendix H. Data on Poverty......................................  1281
Appendix I. Budget Tables........................................  1329
Appendix J. Welfare Benefits for Noncitizens.....................  1361
Appendix K. Spending for Income-Tested Benefits, Fiscal Years 
  1968-98........................................................  1393
Appendix L. Monitoring the Effects of Pre- and Post-TANF Welfare 
  Reform Initiatives.............................................  1405
Appendix M. Data on Nonmarital Births to Adults and Teenagers and 
  Federal Strategies to Reduce Nonmarital Pregnancies............  1519

Acronyms.........................................................  1533

Index............................................................  1539