[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix A. Data on the Elderly]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]




 
                    APPENDIX A. DATA ON THE ELDERLY

    This appendix presents historical, current, and projected 
data on the demographic and economic characteristics of the 
elderly, including information on population, life expectancy, 
labor force participation, marital status, living arrangements, 
poverty rates, and income. Data sources are noted at the bottom 
of each table.
    The following definitions may be useful for reading the 
tables:
 1. ``Aged'' and ``elderly'' each refer to any person age 65 or 
        older.
 2. ``OASDI'' and ``Social Security'' are used interchangeably.
 3. ``Supplemental Security Income'' is, at times, abbreviated 
        ``SSI.''
 4. The concepts ``unrelated individual'' and ``unit'' are used 
        many times throughout this appendix. ``Unrelated 
        individual'' refers to any individual living alone. 
        ``Unit'' refers to an individual living alone, a couple 
        living alone, or a family.

                                                        TABLE A-1.--ELDERLY AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELDERLY BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS 1940-2050
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                 Year
  Age and demographic group  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    1940             1950             1960             1970             1980             1990             2000             2010             2020             2030             2040             2050
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Population age 65 and older   9,562..........  12,743.........  17,251.........  20,921.........  26,149.........  32,021.........  35,482.........  39,728.........  53,103.........  69,096.........  74,642.........  77,653
 (in thousands).
Population age 65 and older   6.8............  8.0............  9.5............  9.7............  11.1...........  12.3...........  12.4...........  12.9...........  16.0...........  19.7...........  20.5...........  20.7
 as a percent of total
 population.
Population age 75 and older   2.0............  2.5............  3.1............  3.8............  4.4............  5.2............  5.9............  5.9............  6.4............  8.8............  11.0...........  11.0
 as a percent of total
 population.
Population age 85 and older   0.3............  0.4............  0.5............  0.7............  1.0............  1.3............  1.6............  1.8............  1.7............  2.1............  3.2............  4.0
 as a percent of total
 population.
Age and sex groupings as a
 percent of the population
 age 65 and older:
    Men 65 and older........  48.4...........  46.8...........  44.5...........  41.5...........  40.3...........  40.6...........  41.8...........  43.1...........  44.8...........  45.5...........  45.2...........  45.5
    Men 65-74...............  34.7...........  32.7...........  30.1...........  26.8...........  26.3...........  25.7...........  24.0...........  25.3...........  28.7...........  26.8...........  22.3...........  23.0
    Men 75-84...............  11.9...........  12.2...........  12.2...........  12.3...........  11.3...........  12.0...........  14.1...........  13.5...........  12.5...........  14.9...........  17.1...........  15.2
    Men 85 and older........  1.7............  1.9............  2.2............  2.4............  2.7............  2.9............  3.7............  4.3............  3.6............  3.7............  5.7............  7.2
    Women 65 and older......  51.6...........  53.2...........  55.5...........  58.5...........  59.7...........  59.4...........  58.2...........  56.9...........  55.2...........  54.5...........  54.8...........  54.5
    Women 65-74.............  35.8...........  35.8...........  35.7...........  34.7...........  33.9...........  31.9...........  28.3...........  28.8...........  31.7...........  28.9...........  24.1...........  24.1
    Women 75-84.............  13.5...........  14.6...........  16.3...........  19.1...........  19.3...........  20.0...........  20.9...........  18.7...........  16.3...........  18.7...........  20.8...........  18.3
    Women 85 and older......  2.4............  2.8............  3.6............  4.7............  6.5............  7.5............  9.0............  9.4............  7.3............  6.9............  9.9............  12.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Population figures are as of July 1, and include total United States plus the outlying areas covered under the Social Security Program and an adjustment for census undercount. Projections are based on the intermediate
  assumptions of the 2000 OASDI Trustees' Report.

Source: Office of the Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration.


 TABLE A-2.--LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR MEN AND WOMEN, SELECTED YEARS 1900-2070
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Life expectancy at    Life expectancy at
                                      birth                age 65
            Year             -------------------------------------------
                                 Male      Female      Male      Female
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Actual:

    1900....................       46.4       49.0       11.4       11.7
    1910....................       50.1       53.6       11.4       12.1
    1920....................       54.5       56.3       11.8       12.3
    1930....................       58.0       61.3       11.8       12.9
    1940....................       61.4       65.7       11.9       13.4
    1950....................       65.6       71.1       12.8       15.1
    1960....................       66.7       73.2       12.9       15.9
    1970....................       67.1       74.9       13.1       17.1
    1980....................       69.9       77.5       14.0       18.4
    1990....................       71.8       78.9       15.0       19.0

Projected:

    2000....................       73.9       79.6       15.9       19.2
    2010....................       75.4       80.4       16.4       19.4
    2020....................       76.4       81.1       16.9       19.8
    2030....................       77.4       82.0       17.5       20.4
    2040....................       78.3       82.7       18.1       21.0
    2050....................       79.1       83.5       18.6       21.5
    2060....................       79.9       84.1       19.1       22.0
    2070....................       80.7       84.8       19.6       22.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--The life expectancy for any year is the average number of years
  of life remaining for a person if that person were to experience that
  year's age-sex-specific death rates throughout the remainder of his or
  her life. Projections are based on the intermediate assumptions of the
  2000 OASDI Trustees' Report.

Source: Office of the Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration.


                                         TABLE A-3.--LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1950-99
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                      Year
                  Sex and age group                   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         1950     1955     1960     1965     1970     1975     1980     1985     1990     1995     1999
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:
    55-64............................................     86.9     87.9     86.8     84.6     83.0     75.8     72.3     67.9     67.8     66.0     67.9
    55-59............................................       NA     92.5     91.6     90.2     89.5     84.4     81.9     79.6     79.9     77.4     78.4
    60-64............................................       NA     82.5     81.1     78.0     75.0     65.7     61.0     55.6     55.5     53.2     54.8
    60-61............................................       NA       NA       NA     84.8     82.6     75.2     71.8     68.9     68.8     65.6     66.3
    62-64............................................       NA       NA       NA     73.2     69.4     58.8     52.8     46.1     46.5     45.0     46.8
    65 and older.....................................     45.8     39.6     33.1     27.9     26.8     21.7     19.1     15.8     16.3     16.8     16.9
Women:
    55-64............................................     27.0     32.5     37.2     41.4     43.0     41.0     41.5     42.0     45.2     49.2     51.5
    55-59............................................       NA     35.6     42.2     47.1     50.4     47.9     48.6     50.3     55.3     59.5     61.8
    60-64............................................       NA     29.0     31.4     34.0     36.1     33.3     33.3     33.4     35.5     38.0     38.8
    60-61............................................       NA       NA       NA     40.4     41.4     39.5     39.8     40.3     42.9     46.1     46.2
    62-64............................................       NA       NA       NA     29.5     32.3     29.0     28.6     28.7     30.7     32.6     33.7
    65 and older.....................................      9.7     10.6     10.8     10.0      9.7      8.3      8.1      7.3      8.6      8.8      8.9
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian labor force as a percent of civilian noninstitutional population age 16 or older.

NA--Data not available.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.


                                       TABLE A-4.--MARITAL STATUS OF AGED INDIVIDUALS, \1\ SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
                                                                      [In percent]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    1960 \2\          1970 \3\            1980              1990              1998
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Demographic group                                  75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and            75 and
                                                                 65-74    older    65-74    older    65-74    older    65-74    older    65-74    older
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Men:
    Married...................................................     78.9     59.1     77.6     79.7     81.6     69.4     80.2     69.9     79.2     69.2
    Widowed...................................................     12.7     31.6     11.0     30.4      8.5     24.0      9.2     23.7      8.8     23.7
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.5      2.9      1.5      4.4      2.2      6.0      3.1      7.8      3.6
    Never married \4\.........................................      6.7      7.8      8.5      6.6      5.4      4.2      4.1      3.4      4.1      3.4
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total percent.........................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               =========================================================================================
        Number (in thousands).................................    4,778    2,280    5,333    3,031    6,459    3,234    8,013    4,320    7,992    5,533
                                                               =========================================================================================
Women:
    Married...................................................     45.6     21.8     45.4     20.8     50.1     23.3     53.2     25.4     54.8     32.9
    Widowed...................................................     44.4     68.3     43.7     70.5     40.3     68.0     36.1     65.6     31.9     60.4
    Divorced..................................................      1.7      1.2      3.0      1.3      4.0      2.3      6.2      3.6      8.9      4.9
    Never married \4\.........................................      8.4      8.6      7.9      7.4      5.6      6.4      4.6      5.4      4.3      5.3
                                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total percent.........................................    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
                                                               =========================================================================================
        Number (in thousands).................................    5,529    3,054    6,741    4,608    8,549    5,411    9,966    7,267    9,882    8,677
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Civilian noninstitutional population only.
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1960 Decennial Census.
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 Decennial Census.
\4\ Never married was reported as ``single'' for 1960.

Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Series P-20 (various years).


                    TABLE A-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ELDERLY,\1\ SELECTED YEARS 1970-98
                         [Civilian noninstitutionalized population, number in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Total age 65 and    Widowed men     Widowed women
                                                                    older      ---------------------------------
                 Living arrangement and year                 ------------------
                                                               Number  Percent  Number  Percent  Number  Percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In families:
    1970 \2\................................................   13,347     70.0     499     37.4   2,386     40.1
    1980 \3\................................................   16,355     67.6     385     28.7   2,194     30.1
    1990....................................................   19,737     66.8     525     29.9   2,202     26.3
    1992....................................................   20,351     66.5     536     28.0   2,305     26.8
    1995....................................................   20,828     66.6     466     26.6   2,363     27.4
    1996....................................................   21,092     66.6     527     27.1   2,427     28.2
    1998....................................................   21,443     66.8     516     25.6   2,359     28.1
Living alone:
    1970 \2\................................................    5,071     26.6     708     53.1   3,309     55.7
    1980 \3\................................................    7,328     30.3     893     66.5   4,916     67.4
    1990....................................................    9,176     31.0   1,117     63.6   5,946     71.1
    1992....................................................    9,523     31.1   1,241     64.7   6,070     70.6
    1995....................................................    9,862     31.5   1,201     68.4   6,092     70.5
    1996....................................................    9,841     31.1   1,259     64.8   5,963     69.3
    1998....................................................    9,923     30.9   1,343     66.6   5,880     70.1
Other:
    1970 \2\................................................      645      3.4     124      9.3     251      4.2
    1980 \3\................................................      511      2.1      65      4.8     186      2.5
    1990....................................................      653      2.2     113      6.4     220      2.6
    1992....................................................      716      2.3     142      7.4     227      2.6
    1995....................................................      577      1.8      88      5.0     182      2.1
    1996....................................................      725      2.3     158      8.1     217      2.5
    1998....................................................      716      2.2     158      7.8     155      1.9
Total:......................................................
    1970 \2\................................................   19,061    100.0   1,333    100.0   5,946    100.0
    1980 \3\................................................   24,194    100.0   1,342    100.0   7,295    100.0
    1990....................................................   29,566    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,367    100.0
    1992....................................................   30,590    100.0   1,917    100.0   8,601    100.0
    1995....................................................   31,267    100.0   1,755    100.0   8,637    100.0
    1996....................................................   31,658    100.0   1,944    100.0   8,607    100.0
    1998....................................................   32,082    100.0   2,017    100.0   8,394    100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Excludes persons in institutions (nursing homes, etc.). The number of such persons age 65 and older was
  estimated to be 0.8 million in 1970, and 1.6 million in 1989.
\2\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1970 Decennial Census.
\3\ Estimates based on weights derived from the 1980 Decennial Census.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Series P-20 (various years).


                 TABLE A-6.--POVERTY STATUS OF ALL PERSONS AND ELDERLY BY SEX, ETHNICITY, AND LIVING ARRANGEMENT, SELECTED YEARS 1959-98
                                                            [Percent below the poverty level]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                         Year
                                                             -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                1959     1966     1970   1973 \1\    1980     1990   1992 \2\    1994     1995     1998
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All persons.................................................     22.4     14.7     12.6      11.1     13.0     13.5      14.8     14.5     13.8     12.7

Persons age 65 and older....................................     35.2     28.5     24.5      16.3     15.7     12.2      12.9     11.7     10.5     10.5
    Both sexes:
        Living arrangement:
            Living in families..............................       NA       NA     14.7       9.4      8.5      5.8       7.1      6.0      5.0      5.7
            Unrelated individuals...........................       NA       NA     47.1      32.0     30.6     24.7      24.9     23.1     21.4     20.4
        Race/ethnicity:
            Black...........................................       NA       NA     48.0      37.1     38.1     33.8      33.5     27.4     25.4     26.4
            Hispanic \3\....................................       NA       NA       NA      24.9     30.8     22.5      22.1     22.6     23.5     21.0
            White...........................................       NA       NA     22.5      14.4     13.6     10.1      11.0     10.2      9.0      8.9

    Men.....................................................       NA       NA     19.0      12.4     10.9      7.6       8.8      7.2      6.2      7.2
        Living arrangement:
            Living in families..............................       NA       NA     14.9       9.4      8.2      5.4       6.7      5.1      4.2      5.0
            Unrelated individuals...........................       NA       NA     38.9      27.1     24.4     17.3      18.4     16.1     14.3     16.3
        Race/ethnicity:
            Black...........................................       NA       NA     41.3      32.4     31.4     27.8      26.9     20.6     15.4     20.6
            Hispanic \3\....................................       NA       NA       NA      22.0     27.0     18.6      17.4     15.4     16.0     15.6
            White...........................................       NA       NA     17.0      10.4      9.0      5.6       7.1      5.9      5.4      5.9

    Women...................................................       NA       NA     28.5      19.0     19.0     15.4      15.8     14.9     13.6     12.8
        Living arrangement:
            Living in families..............................       NA       NA     14.5       9.3      8.8      6.3       7.5      7.0      5.9      6.3
            Unrelated individuals...........................       NA       NA     49.7      33.5     32.3     26.9      26.8     25.3     23.8     21.7
        Race/ethnicity:
            Black...........................................       NA       NA     53.2      40.5     42.6     37.9      37.8     31.7     31.1     30.2
            Hispanic \3\....................................       NA       NA       NA      24.7     34.3     25.3      25.4     28.4     28.9     25.3
            White...........................................       NA       NA     26.5      17.2     16.8     13.2      13.7     13.3     11.7     11.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ First year in which Hispanic data are available.
\2\ 1992 figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
\3\ Hispanics may be of any race.

NA--Not available.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Series P-60 (various years).


    TABLE A-7.--POVERTY RATES OF THE ELDERLY BY AGE, SEX, AND MARITAL
                              STATUS, 1998
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Age group
                                     -----------------------------------
       Sex and marital status          65 and                     85 and
                                       older    65-74    75-84    older
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Male:
    Married.........................      5.1      4.7      5.8      5.7
    Widowed.........................     10.3     11.2     10.6      8.2
    Divorced/separated/never married     17.9     18.7     16.2       NA
                                     -----------------------------------
        Male total..................      7.2      7.0      7.5      7.6
                                     ===================================
Female:
    Married.........................      5.4      4.7      6.4     11.6
    Widowed.........................     16.8     15.6     17.7     17.3
    Divorced/separated/never married     24.7     23.6     26.0       NA
                                     -----------------------------------
        Female total................     12.8     10.7     14.4     17.5
                                     ===================================
            Total all elderly.......     10.5      9.1     11.6    14.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available due to unreliability of estimate; percentage base
  represents fewer than 250,000 persons.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on
  March 1999 Current Population Survey.


  TABLE A-8.--AMOUNT OF INCOME FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN SOCIAL SECURITY,
       AMONG SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFICIARIES, AGE 65 AND OLDER, 1998
                              [In percent]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Married   Nonmarried
Unit income other than Social Security  All units   couples     persons
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 None.................................       13.3        7.3        18.3
 Loss or $1-$1,999....................       14.3        8.6        19.1
 $2,000-$3,999........................        8.0        5.4        10.3
 $4,000-$5,999........................        6.0        4.6         7.1
 $6,000-$7,999........................        5.4        4.6         6.1
 $8,000-$9,999........................        4.8        4.6         5.0
 $10,000-$14,999......................        9.6       10.4         8.9
 $15,000-$19,999......................        7.3        8.8         6.2
 $20,000-$29,999......................        9.2       11.6         7.2
 $30,000-$39,999......................        6.1        8.6         3.9
 $40,000-$49,999......................        3.7        5.4         2.3
 $50,000-$74,999......................        6.0        9.4         3.2
 $75,000-$99,999......................        2.7        4.5         1.2
 $100,000 or more.....................        3.5        6.2         1.2

   Number (in thousands)..............     22,095     10,072      12,023
   Median income other than Social         $9,225    $17,300      $4,680
   Security...........................
   Median Social Security income......    $10,737    $15,225     $9,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Units are families (primary families, related, and unrelated
  subfamilies) and unrelated individuals with any member age 65 or
  older.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on
  March 1999 Current Population Survey.


                                                  TABLE A-9.--TOTAL MONEY INCOME OF ELDERLY UNITS, 1998
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  All units                     Married couples                 Nonmarried persons
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Amount of income                      Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85     Age 65                Age 85
                                                       and older  Age 65-69  and older  and older  Age 65-69  and older  and older  Age 65-69  and older
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Under $5,000........................................        3.2        2.8        4.8        1.7        1.8        1.3        4.5        4.2        5.9
 $5,000-$9,999.......................................       14.7       11.4       20.2        2.9        2.3        3.3       24.8       24.2       25.5
 $10,000-$14,999.....................................       15.8       11.3       23.5        7.3        5.9       11.4       23.0       18.9       27.2
 $15,000-$19,999.....................................       12.1        9.6       14.1       10.5        7.9       14.4       13.4       11.9       13.9
 $20,000-$29,999.....................................       17.5       16.6       13.1       21.4       17.9       18.8       14.1       14.7       11.4
 $30,000-$39,999.....................................       11.1       13.1        7.8       15.4       16.0       12.4        7.5        9.2        6.4
 $40,000-$49,999.....................................        6.8        9.3        3.7        9.9       12.3        6.9        4.1        5.1        2.8
 $50,000-$74,999.....................................        9.4       13.0        5.9       14.4       17.6       11.5        5.1        6.5        4.2
 $75,000-$99,999.....................................        4.1        5.2        2.8        6.9        7.4        7.1        1.7        2.1        1.5
 $100,000 or more....................................        5.4        7.8        3.9        9.6       10.9       12.9        1.9        3.3        1.2
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Total percent...............................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
                                                      ==================================================================================================
     Number (in thousands)...........................     24,371      6,868      2,603     11,185      4,006        616     13,185      2,862      1,987
     Median..........................................    $22,041    $28,948    $15,402    $33,577    $38,720    $30,954    $14,453    $16,269    $13,132
    Mean.............................................    $34,379    $42,154    $27,546    $48,391    $52,907    $52,930    $22,493    $27,106    $19,675
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Units are families (primary families, related, and unrelated subfamilies) and unrelated individuals with any member age 65 or older. Unit's age
  is the age of the head of the unit, if age 65 or older. If the head of the unit is under age 65, the unit's age is based on the age of the spouse, if
  the spouse is age 65 or older; otherwise the unit's age is based on the age of the oldest person age 65 or older in the unit.

 Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on March 1999 Current Population Survey.


 TABLE A-10.--PERCENT OF UNITS \1\ WITH ANY MEMBER AGE 65 OR OLDER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND PERCENT
                       OF TOTAL UNIT INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE, BY POVERTY \2\ STATUS, 1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Percent of units with    Percent of unit income
                                                                income from each source      from each source
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
                                                                Total    Poor   Nonpoor   Total   Poor   Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of units (in thousands)...............................   24,367   3,033   21,334      NA      NA       NA
Number of aged individuals (in thousands)....................   32,394   3,386   29,008      NA      NA       NA
Percent of units.............................................    100.0    12.4     87.6      NA      NA       NA

Earnings \3\.................................................     33.5     9.5     37.0    33.1     7.1     33.7
Social Security..............................................     90.6    77.0     92.6    30.8    66.9     29.9
Pensions.....................................................     44.2     9.0     49.2    16.0     4.2     16.3
Unemployment compensation....................................      1.7     0.6      1.8     0.1     0.1      0.1
Disability...................................................      2.1     0.6      2.3     0.6     0.2      0.6
Veterans Administration......................................      4.7     1.7      5.1     1.0     0.6      1.0
SSI..........................................................      5.9    20.1      3.9     0.7     8.8      0.5
AFDC, general assistance.....................................      0.5     1.6      0.4     0.0     0.5      0.0
Child support, alimony.......................................      0.8     0.3      0.9     0.1     0.1      0.1
Interest, dividends \3\......................................     65.3    25.7     70.9    16.7     2.0     17.0
Food stamps \4\..............................................      4.2    20.1      1.9     0.1     2.8      0.0
School lunch \4\.............................................      3.7     5.1      3.5     0.0     0.4      0.0
Housing assistance \4\.......................................      5.0    16.7      3.4     0.3     6.2     0.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes both families and unrelated individuals.
\2\ Based on census (``Orshansky'') poverty levels.
\3\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.
\4\ The cash values of food stamps, school lunch, and housing assistance were estimated using their market
  values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their
  cash values are included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of unit income from these
  sources.

NA--Not applicable.

Note.--Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on March 1999 Current Population Survey.


 TABLE A-11.--PERCENT OF MARRIED COUPLES WITH ALL MEMBERS AGE 65 OR OLDER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND
                   PERCENT OF TOTAL FAMILY INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE, BY POVERTY STATUS,\1\ 1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Percent of couples      Percent of family
                                                                    with income from each     income from each
                                                                           source                  source
                                                                  ----------------------------------------------
                                                                    Total   Poor  Nonpoor  Total   Poor  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of married couples (in thousands).........................   6,488    289   6,199      NA     NA      NA
Percent of married couples.......................................   100.0    4.5    95.5      NA     NA      NA

Earnings \2\.....................................................    23.0    4.7    23.9    15.5    4.0    15.6
Social Security..................................................    94.8   52.3    96.8    37.6   72.4    37.4
Pensions.........................................................    58.2   20.3    59.9    22.5   13.1    22.5
Unemployment compensation........................................     0.7    0.4     0.7     0.0    0.0     0.0
Disability.......................................................     1.2    0.0     1.3     0.4    0.0     0.4
Veterans Administration..........................................     5.6    3.5     5.6     0.8    1.6     0.8
SSI..............................................................     1.4    5.8     1.2     0.2    4.1     0.2
AFDC, general assistance.........................................     0.0    0.0     0.1     0.0    0.0     0.0
Child support, alimony...........................................     0.1    0.0     0.1     0.0    0.0     0.0
Interest, dividends \2\..........................................    76.9   40.2    78.6    22.6    1.8    22.7
Food stamps \3\..................................................     1.0    7.5     0.7     0.0    1.5     0.0
School lunch \3\.................................................     0.0    0.0     0.0     0.0    0.0     0.0
Housing assistance \3\...........................................     1.0    3.4     0.9     0.0    1.5    0.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on census poverty levels.
\2\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.
\3\ The cash values of food stamps, school lunch, and housing assistance were estimated using their market
  values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their
  cash values are included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of family income from
  these sources.

NA--Not applicable.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on March 1999 Current Population Survey.


 TABLE A-12.--PERCENT OF UNRELATED INDIVIDUALS \1\ AGE 65 OR OLDER WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, AND PERCENT
                          OF TOTAL INCOME FROM EACH SOURCE, BY POVERTY STATUS,\2\ 1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Percent of individuals   Percent of individual
                                                                   with income from each      income from each
                                                                          source                   source
                                                                ------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Total    Poor   Nonpoor  Total   Poor  Nonpoor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of individuals (in thousands)...........................   10,564   2,150   8,413      NA     NA      NA
Percent of individuals.........................................    100.0    20.4    79.6      NA     NA      NA

Earnings \3\...................................................     12.9     3.4    15.3    13.1    1.3    13.9
Social Security................................................     92.1    81.8    94.7    43.0   72.4    40.9
Pensions.......................................................     38.2     7.2    46.1    18.2    3.1    19.2
Unemployment compensation......................................      0.4     0.1     0.5     0.1    0.0     0.1
Disability.....................................................      1.1     0.4     1.2     0.5    0.1     0.5
Veterans Administration........................................      3.9     1.3     4.6     1.6    0.5     1.7
SSI............................................................      6.0    22.4     1.8     1.0   10.2     0.3
AFDC, general assistance.......................................      0.3     0.7     0.2     0.0    0.0     0.0
Child support, alimony.........................................      0.4     0.0     0.5     0.2    0.0     0.2
Interest, dividends \3\........................................     60.0    24.2    69.1    21.0    2.0    22.3
Food stamps \4\................................................      5.1    18.9     1.6     0.1    1.8     0.0
School lunch \4\...............................................      0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    0.0     0.0
Housing assistance \4\.........................................      9.6    20.8     6.8     1.0    8.4    0.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Elderly living alone.
\2\ Based on census (``Orshansky'') poverty levels.
\3\ Negative income (i.e., losses) set to zero.
\4\ The cash values of food stamps, school lunch, and housing assistance were estimated using their market
  values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for purposes of determining poverty status. Their
  cash values are included in total income for purposes of calculating the percentage of individuals' income
  from these sources.

NA--Not applicable.

 Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on March 1999 Current Population Survey.


 TABLE A-13.--RECEIPT OF SOCIAL SECURITY, SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME,
FOOD STAMPS, AND COMBINATIONS THEREOF, AMONG UNITS \1\ WITH AN AGED HEAD
CLASSIFIED BY FAMILY MONEY INCOME AS A PERCENT OF THE POVERTY THRESHOLD,
                                  1998
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Less than 100     100-149.9 percent of
                               percent of poverty     poverty threshold
                                    threshold      ---------------------
       Type of benefit       ----------------------
                              Number (in            Number (in   Percent
                              thousands)   Percent  thousands)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Social Security \2\.........       2,247      77.9       3,303      95.5
SSI.........................         582      20.2         254       7.3
Food stamps.................         570      19.8         208       6.0
Social Security only \3\....       1,628      56.4       2,972      86.0
SSI only \3\................          85       3.0          30       0.9
Food stamps only \3\........          30       1.0           4       0.1
Social Security and food             214       7.4         128       3.7
 stamps \4\.................
Social Security and SSI \4\.         170       5.9         147       4.3
SSI and food stamps \4\.....          92       3.2          21       0.6
Social Security, SSI, and            234       8.1          55       1.6
 food stamps................
No Social Security, SSI, or          431      14.9         100       2.9
 food stamps................
                             -------------------------------------------
    Total...................       2,884     100.0       3,458    100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes unrelated individuals and elderly individuals living alone.
\2\ Includes railroad retirement.
\3\ Family receives only the one type of income specified but not the
  other two. The family could be receiving other types of income.
\4\ Family receives only the two types of income specified but not the
  third. The family could be receiving other sources of income than the
  three mentioned.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on
  March 1999 Current Population Survey.