[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix K. Spending for Income-Tested Benefits, Fiscal Years 1968-98]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]




 
 APPENDIX K. SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS, FISCAL YEARS 1968-98

                                CONTENTS

Overview
Participation in Income-Tested Programs
Trends in Spending
Spending Trends by Level of Government
  Federal Government
  State and Local Governments
  Total Spending
Share of Federal Budget Used for Income-Tested Benefits
List of Income-Tested Programs
  Medical Aid
  Cash Aid
  Food Aid
  Housing Aid
  Education Aid
  Other Services
  Jobs and Training Aid
  Energy Aid
References

                                OVERVIEW

    The Congressional Research Service (CRS) has found that 
almost 80 benefit programs (the programs are listed at the end 
of this chapter) provide cash and noncash aid that is directed 
primarily to persons with limited income (Burke, 1999). Such 
programs constitute the public ``welfare'' system, if welfare 
is defined as income-tested or needs-based benefits. This 
definition excludes social insurance programs, such as Social 
Security and Medicare.
    These income-tested benefit programs in fiscal year 1998 
cost $391.7 billion: $277.3 billion in Federal funds and $114.3 
billion in State and local funds. Total welfare spending rose 
by 3.1 percent from its fiscal year 1997 level. Higher medical 
spending accounted for $10.3 billion of the year's net increase 
of $11.8 billion and, for the first time, medical benefits 
accounted for half of all income-tested spending. Expressed in 
constant fiscal year 1998 dollars, total welfare spending 
increased by $5.8 billion (1.5 percent); medical benefits 
increased by $7.4 billion (3.9 percent); services by $0.6 
billion (5.4 percent); education by $0.3 billion (1.8 percent); 
and housing by $0.2 billion (0.6 percent). In real terms, cash 
benefit outlays held steady, but spending for food aid, jobs 
and training, and energy assistance declined. Welfare consumed 
the same share of the Federal budget (16.8 percent) as in 
fiscal year 1997, but accounted for a slightly smaller share of 
gross domestic product (4.6 percent compared to 4.7 percent in 
1997).
    In fiscal year 1998, medical services represented 50.1 
percent of total welfare spending; cash benefits, 24.1 percent; 
food and housing benefits, 16.6 percent. Services, energy aid, 
education, and jobs and training accounted for the remainder. 
The composition of welfare spending differed by level of 
government. Medical aid consumed 72 percent of State and local 
welfare funds, but only 41 percent of Federal welfare dollars.
    Most income-tested programs provide benefits in the form of 
cash, goods, or services, to persons who make no payment and 
render no service in return. However, in the case of the job 
and training programs and some educational benefits, recipients 
must work or study. Further, the block grant program of 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) requires adults 
to start work after a period of enrollment, the Food Stamp 
Program imposes work and training requirements, and public 
housing requires residents to engage in self-sufficiency 
activities or perform community service. Finally, the earned 
income credit (EIC) is available only to workers.

                PARTICIPATION IN INCOME-TESTED PROGRAMS

    An unduplicated count of welfare beneficiaries is not 
available. Enrollment in Medicaid, Aid to Families with 
Dependent Children (AFDC) or TANF, and food stamps has declined 
from 1994 to 1995 peak levels, but the number of recipients of 
EIC and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) continues to grow. 
Average 1998 monthly numbers are: Food stamps, 21 million; 
TANF, 8.8 million; and SSI, 7.2 million. In 1998, EIC payments 
went to an estimated 58.2 million persons, and in fiscal year 
1998, 40.7 million persons received Medicaid services. The U.S. 
Census Bureau (1999a) classified 34.5 million persons as poor 
on the basis of pretax money income in 1998. Of these persons, 
69.2 percent were in households that received some income-
tested aid other than the EIC. Among male-present families with 
children who were poor before transfers, the EIC was the main 
form of aid.
    The U.S. Census Bureau (1999b) examined participation in 
major means-tested government programs in 1993-94 before 
enactment of the 1996 welfare reform law (Public Law 104-193). 
On the basis of data from the Survey of Income and Program 
Participation, a longitudinal survey, the Bureau estimated that 
about 40 million persons participated in an average month 
during both 1993 and 1994 in at least one of these major 
welfare programs: AFDC, food stamps, SSI, Medicaid, housing, or 
general assistance (GA). Participation rates were highest for 
Medicaid. Here are the 1994 average monthly participation rates 
by program: Medicaid, 11.3 percent of the population; food 
stamps, 9.7 percent; AFDC/GA, 5.5 percent; housing assistance, 
4.7 percent; and SSI, 2 percent. The median monthly value of 
cash benefits (AFDC/GA and SSI) and food stamps was $485 per 
family in 1993, $476 in 1994. No valuation is available for 
housing assistance and Medicaid.

                           TRENDS IN SPENDING

    The CRS data series provides annual spending figures for 26 
fiscal years (1968, 1973, and 1975-98). Total expenditures on 
cash and noncash welfare programs were 24 times as great in 
1998 as in 1968 (table K-1). Even after allowance for price 
inflation, spending quintupled (rising 419 percent) over the 30 
years, a period when the U.S. population rose 35 percent. 
Measured in constant 1998 dollars,\1\ the annual rate of growth 
in spending over the whole period was 5.6 percent. However, the 
growth pattern was uneven. During the first 8 years (1968-76), 
spending climbed at an annual rate of 12.9 percent; in the next 
8 years (1976-84),

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Current dollars were translated into fiscal year 1998 constant 
value dollars by use of the Consumer Price Index for All Urban 
Consumers.

   TABLE K-1.--EXPENDITURES FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FEDERAL AND STATE/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, SELECTED FISCAL
                                                  YEARS 1968-98
                                            [In millions of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Level of government         Total spending
                                                             ---------------------------------------------------
                         Fiscal year                                                                   Constant
                                                                Federal    State/local    Current        1998
                                                                                          dollars    dollars \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968........................................................      $11,406       $4,710      $16,116      $75,546
1973........................................................       26,876       10,054       36,930      135,684
1975........................................................       39,461       14,753       54,214      164,385
1976........................................................       49,954       16,990       66,944      191,926
1977........................................................       55,113       18,892       74,005      199,215
1978........................................................       63,964       20,151       84,115      210,455
1979........................................................       70,172       21,304       91,476      205,544
1980........................................................       80,043       24,633      104,676      207,231
1981........................................................       87,936       29,045      116,981      209,935
1982........................................................       88,977       31,706      120,683      204,011
1983........................................................       93,830       33,982      127,812      209,337
1984........................................................       99,151       36,191      135,342      212,496
1985........................................................      105,064       38,230      143,294      217,245
1986........................................................      107,775       40,811      148,586      221,157
1987........................................................      114,835       43,364      158,199      227,174
1988........................................................      125,061       46,580      171,641      236,685
1989........................................................      134,730       51,587      186,317      245,112
1990........................................................      151,514       61,064      212,578      265,405
1991........................................................      177,953       73,943      251,896      301,724
1992........................................................      208,273       88,130      296,403      344,585
1993........................................................      223,595       88,736      312,331      352,697
1994........................................................      246,374      102,396      348,770      383,854
1995........................................................      258,457      108,212      366,669      392,253
1996........................................................      263,550      107,219      370,769      385,319
1997........................................................      269,756      110,216      379,972      385,910
1998........................................................      277,330      114,399      391,729      391,729
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Current dollars have been translated into fiscal year 1998 constant dollars by use of the Consumer Price
  Index for All Urban Consumers.

Source: Burke, 1999.


 the annual rate of increase dropped to 1.7 percent (in 1 year, 
1982, real spending declined, and it remained below the 1981 
level until 1985). From 1985 to 1995, growth resumed and 
averaged 6 percent per year. This lifted 1995 spending to a new 
record high. However, real spending declined in 1996; 
thereafter, it turned upward and by 1998 it almost regained its 
1995 peak.
    Total per capita welfare spending grew in real terms 
(constant fiscal year 1998 dollars) from $376 in fiscal year 
1968 to a peak of $1,491 in fiscal year 1995 and $1,451 in 
fiscal year 1998.
    The CRS data series shown in table K-1 differs somewhat 
from one presented in a study by Rector and Lauber (1995) of 
the Heritage Foundation. The list of 80 major programs included 
in their analysis (see their appendix 1, pp. 45ff) is similar 
to the CRS list. However, the Rector and Lauber list includes 
some programs (grants to local education authorities for 
educationally deprived children and programs of community 
development aid) not in the CRS series, which is restricted to 
programs that provide benefits to individuals or families who 
meet a needs test. Moreover, the Rector and Lauber study 
provides estimates for years (1965-67; 1969-72; and 1974) that 
are not covered in the CRS study.
    Even so, results from the two studies are similar. The most 
recent year for comparison of results is 1993. In that year, 
Rector and Lauber estimated total (Federal and State) welfare 
spending at $324.4 billion, as compared with $312.3 billion in 
the CRS analysis. Almost all of the difference between the two 
estimates is accounted for by the education and community 
development programs included in the Rector and Lauber 
analysis. For the period 1965-93, the Rector and Lauber study 
estimated that a total of $5.4 trillion in constant 1993 
dollars was spent by Federal and State governments on the 
programs included in their analysis. For fiscal years 1968, 
1973, and 1975-94, total spending in the CRS series was $4.5 
trillion in fiscal year 1994 dollars.
    The rise in overall needs-tested spending is sharper than 
the increase in spending reported by the Social Security 
Administration (SSA) for a smaller group of needs-tested 
programs. The SSA data series, called ``public aid,'' is a 
category within SSA reports on social welfare expenditures, and 
it excludes numerous income-tested programs that are in the CRS 
series. Not counted as public aid in the SSA series are the 
EIC, child nutrition, subsidized housing, educational benefits, 
adoption assistance, foster care, some job training programs, 
and others. Some of these programs did not exist 30 years ago, 
and many have grown rapidly. Adjusted for price inflation, 
public aid outlays in the SSA series rose 268 percent between 
1968 and 1995 (the most recent year for which SSA data are 
available; Bixby, 1999). SSA also has published data on private 
social welfare expenditures (Kerns, 1997).

                 SPENDING TRENDS BY LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT

                           Federal Government

    Table K-2 presents Federal income-tested spending for 
selected fiscal years between 1968 and 1998. The spending 
figures are presented by form of benefit in constant 1998 
dollars. Federal spending for income-tested benefits climbed 
from $53.5 billion in fiscal year 1968 to $277.3 billion in 
fiscal year 1998, an increase of 419 percent. Cash aid was the 
leading form of Federal welfare until 1980, when it was 
overtaken in value by medical benefits. Two years later, in 
1982, Federal welfare spending declined for all forms of aid 
except subsidized housing, in which case outlays reflected 
earlier commitments, and education benefits. In 1983, Federal 
spending declined further for medical benefits. For the next 12 
years, aggregate real Federal welfare outlays climbed steadily, 
from $155.7 billion in fiscal year 1984 to $276.5 billion in 
fiscal year 1995. However, in fiscal year 1996, real Federal 
welfare spending declined, but thereafter it turned upward. In 
fiscal year 1998 it set a new historic record of $277.3 
billion.

                      State and Local Governments

    Table K-3 shows that State and local spending for income-
tested benefits, measured in fiscal year 1998 dollars, climbed 
from $22.1 billion in fiscal year 1968 to $114.4 billion in 
fiscal year 1998, an increase of 418 percent. Cash aid was 
overtaken by medical benefits as the dominant form of State and 
local welfare spending in 1976. State and local spending rose 
steadily in all years after 1979 except for 1993 and 1996, 
although increases in 1997 and 1998 had still not returned 
total spending to its 1995 high point.

                             Total Spending

    Table K-4 shows total (Federal plus State and local) 
spending on income-tested benefits in 1998 dollars. Total 
spending rose from $75.5 billion in 1968 to $392.3 billion in 
1995, a rise of 419 percent, before declining to about $385 
billion in both 1996 and 1997. By 1998, total spending was 
still slightly below its 1995 peak. The rise in spending after 
1968 was led by spending on medical programs, primarily 
Medicaid. As early as 1980, medical spending was greater than 
any other form; by 1998 it was greater than all the other forms 
combined.

                        TABLE K-2.--FEDERAL SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FORM OF BENEFIT, SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1968-98
                                                   [In millions of constant fiscal year 1998 dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Medical                 Food     Housing   Education    Jobs/                 Energy
                     Fiscal year                        benefits   Cash aid   benefits   benefits   benefits   training   Services     aid     Total \1\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968.................................................    $12,849    $23,612     $4,186     $3,670     $4,031     $3,324     $1,795          0    $53,467
1973.................................................     24,466     31,505     14,164     12,338      6,691      3,391      6,191          0     98,745
1975.................................................     29,063     38,627     19,524     13,141      6,610      6,516      6,170          0    119,652
1977.................................................     35,479     42,255     20,878     16,259      9,360     14,598      8,716       $813    148,359
1979.................................................     36,875     38,046     23,317     19,007     10,810     20,820      8,208        591    157,674
1980.................................................     38,405     37,571     25,913     19,017      9,681     17,075      7,394      3,407    158,464
1982.................................................     38,948     36,472     26,496     19,919     13,160      6,743      5,246      3,428    150,413
1983.................................................     38,611     36,690     29,639     20,439     12,158      7,382      5,411      3,351    153,680
1984.................................................     39,007     37,341     29,385     20,152     12,578      8,442      5,399      3,369    155,674
1985.................................................     42,268     37,123     29,354     21,396     14,427      5,905      5,384      3,428    159,285
1986.................................................     44,316     39,187     28,491     19,744     14,966      5,397      5,046      3,267    160,414
1987.................................................     50,467     39,431     28,566     18,971     14,027      5,431      5,180      2,830    164,903
1988.................................................     53,258     41,802     27,877     20,272     15,371      5,168      6,190      2,515    172,453
1989.................................................     55,790     43,628     27,410     20,950     16,424      5,019      5,882      2,143    177,246
1990.................................................     62,708     45,502     29,803     21,909     17,181      4,963      5,099      2,003    189,166
1991.................................................     74,805     50,634     33,545     22,712     17,803      5,257      6,236      2,163    213,154
1992.................................................     91,470     56,635     38,142     25,486     15,813      5,834      6,790      1,959    242,129
1993.................................................     96,044     60,245     39,266     27,051     16,163      5,388      6,604      1,732    252,492
1994.................................................    103,112     69,774     39,739     26,574     16,109      5,350      8,389      2,110    271,158
1995.................................................    108,489     72,662     39,365     26,689     16,193      4,949      6,431      1,713    276,491
1996.................................................    108,003     72,758     38,622     26,497     16,028      4,199      6,560      1,225    273,893
1997.................................................    109,471     72,971     35,927     26,853     16,767      3,855      6,764      1,363    273,971
1998.................................................    113,779     73,872     33,451     26,897     16,989      3,785      7,300      1,257    277,330
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Rows may not add to total shown because of rounding.

Source: Burke, 1999.


                    TABLE K-3.--STATE AND LOCAL SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FORM OF BENEFIT, SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1968-98
                                                   [In millions of constant fiscal year 1998 dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Medical                  Food         Housing    Education    Jobs/                 Energy
                  Fiscal year                     benefits   Cash aid  benefits \1\  benefits \2\   benefits   training   Services     aid     Total \1\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968...........................................     $9,661    $11,672            0             0           0       $202       $544          0    $22,079
1973...........................................     15,303     19,462            0             0           0        206      1,969          0     36,939
1975...........................................     20,046     20,470       $1,695             0        $434        118      1,971          0     44,733
1978...........................................     24,422     21,022        2,184             0         593        158      2,039          0     50,418
1980...........................................     26,132     19,294          905             0         566        160      1,709          0     48,767
1982...........................................     29,678     18,886        1,215             0         455        127      3,212        $25     53,598
1984...........................................     32,235     19,448        1,492             0         474        122      2,983         68     56,822
1985...........................................     32,687     19,936        1,560             0         688        123      2,918         47     57,960
1986...........................................     34,335     21,019        1,642             0         737        109      2,828         74     60,744
1987...........................................     35,336     21,282        1,676             0         734        102      2,843        299     62,271
1988...........................................     37,445     21,226        1,571             0         750         99      2,896        244     64,232
1989...........................................     40,801     21,692        1,529             0         717        128      2,763        237     67,866
1990...........................................     45,689     22,236        1,542             0         785        333      5,498        155     76,239
1991...........................................     56,847     23,179        1,572             0         655        526      5,656        135     88,570
1992...........................................     66,449     24,538        1,678        $2,674         714        553      5,748        102    102,456
1993...........................................     65,502     24,223        1,768         1,502         865        635      5,629         80    100,204
1994...........................................     74,542     25,228        1,948         1,777         994        720      7,403         85    112,696
1995...........................................     78,327     25,327        1,958         2,487       1,022        868      5,688         87    115,762
1996...........................................     76,920     23,325        1,995         2,555         992        669      4,894         76    111,426
1997...........................................     79,537     21,566        2,005         2,494       1,042        181      5,049         65    111,938
1998...........................................     82,610     20,690        2,060         2,614       1,137         71      5,153         64    114,399
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Beginning in 1979, estimates of State and local funds used for free and reduced price school lunches could not be made.
\2\ Housing data represent the Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) and the Home Ownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere Program (HOPE).
  HOME includes some private funds (amount not available).

Source: Burke, 1999.


                         TABLE K-4.--TOTAL SPENDING FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS BY FORM OF BENEFIT, SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1968-98
                                                   [In millions of constant fiscal year 1998 dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Medical                 Food     Housing   Education    Jobs/                 Energy
                     Fiscal year                        benefits   Cash aid   benefits   benefits   benefits   training   Services     aid     Total \1\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968.................................................    $22,510    $35,284     $4,186     $3,670     $4,031     $3,525     $2,339          0    $75,546
1973.................................................     39,768     50,967     14,164     12,338      6,691      3,597      8,160          0    135,684
1975.................................................     49,109     59,097     21,219     13,141      7,044      6,634      8,141          0    164,385
1978.................................................     60,866     61,171     23,474     18,367     10,769     24,427     10,699       $683    210,455
1980.................................................     64,537     56,866     26,817     19,017     10,247     17,236      9,103      3,407    207,231
1981.................................................     67,985     57,350     29,197     19,488      9,115     13,639      9,556      3,605    209,935
1982.................................................     68,626     55,358     27,712     19,919     13,615      6,870      8,457      3,454    204,011
1983.................................................     69,538     56,033     30,921     20,439     12,652      7,511      8,851      3,392    209,337
1984.................................................     71,242     56,789     30,877     20,152     13,052      8,565      8,383      3,437    212,496
1985.................................................     74,955     57,059     30,914     21,396     15,115      6,028      8,302      3,475    217,245
1986.................................................     78,651     60,206     30,133     19,744     15,703      5,506      7,874      3,341    221,157
1987.................................................     85,803     60,713     30,242     18,971     14,761      5,533      8,023      3,129    227,174
1988.................................................     90,703     63,028     29,448     20,272     16,121      5,268      9,086      2,759    236,685
1989.................................................     96,591     65,320     28,938     20,950     17,140      5,146      8,645      2,380    245,112
1990.................................................    108,397     67,738     31,345     21,909     17,966      5,296     10,597      2,157    265,405
1991.................................................    131,652     73,813     35,116     22,712     18,458      5,783     11,892      2,299    301,724
1992.................................................    157,919     81,173     39,820     28,159     16,527      6,387     12,538      2,061    344,585
1993.................................................    161,546     84,468     41,034     28,553     17,028      6,022     12,233      1,812    352,697
1994.................................................    177,655     95,002     41,687     28,351     17,103      6,070     15,791      2,194    383,854
1995.................................................    186,816     97,989     41,322     29,176     17,215      5,816     12,119      1,799    392,253
1996.................................................    184,923     96,083     40,618     29,052     17,021      4,868     11,453      1,301    385,319
1997.................................................    189,008     94,537     37,932     29,348     17,809      4,036     11,813      1,428    385,910
1998.................................................    196,389     94,562     35,511     29,511     18,126      3,856     12,453      1,321    391,729
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Rows may not add to total shown because of rounding.

Source: Burke, 1999.

        SHARE OF FEDERAL BUDGET USED FOR INCOME-TESTED BENEFITS

    The share of the Federal budget used for income-tested 
benefits climbed from 6.4 percent in fiscal year 1968 to 17.1 
percent in fiscal year 1995, then declined slightly to 16.8 
percent in fiscal year 1997 and 1998 (table K-5). Most of the 
1968-98 increase of 10.4 percentage points was accounted for by 
medical benefits (5.4 percentage point gain). Measured in 
percentage points, increases for other forms of aid were: cash, 
1.6; food, 1.5; housing, 1.2; education, 0.5; services, 0.2; 
energy, 0.1. Federal spending for income-tested jobs/training 
benefits declined by 0.2 percentage points as a percent of the 
budget.

  TABLE K-5.--SHARE OF FEDERAL BUDGET USED FOR INCOME-TESTED AID, BY FORM OF AID, SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1968-98
                                                  [In percent]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Medical   Cash    Food   Housing  Education    Jobs/
          Fiscal year              aid      aid     aid     aid       aid     training  Energy  Services   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1968...........................     1.54    2.83    0.50     0.44      0.48      0.40     0.00     0.22      6.4
1973...........................     2.71    3.49    1.57     1.37      0.74      0.38     0.00     0.69     10.9
1978...........................     3.18    3.50    1.86     1.60      0.89   \1\ 2.11    0.06     0.75     13.9
1983...........................     2.92    2.77    2.24     1.54      0.92      0.56     0.25     0.41     11.6
1988...........................     3.63    2.85    1.90     1.38      1.05      0.35     0.17     0.42     11.7
1990...........................     4.01    2.91    1.90     1.40      1.10      0.32     0.13     0.33     12.1
1992...........................     5.69    3.53    2.37     1.59      0.98      0.36     0.12     0.42     15.1
1994...........................     6.41    4.34    2.47     1.65      1.00      0.33     0.13     0.52     16.9
1996...........................     6.66    4.49    2.38     1.63      0.99      0.26     0.08     0.40     16.9
1997...........................     6.73    4.49    2.21     1.65      1.03      0.24     0.08     0.42     16.8
1998...........................     6.88    4.47    2.02     1.63      1.03      0.23     0.08     0.44     16.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In fiscal year 1978, jobs and training benefit outlays were $9.7 billion. Of this total, $5.8 billion
  represented public service employment and $2 billion, employment and training services.

Source: Burke, 1999.


                     LIST OF INCOME-TESTED PROGRAMS

    Below is the list of programs providing income-tested 
benefits included in this appendix. Within each category, the 
programs are listed in the order of their total cost in fiscal 
year 1998 to Federal and State and local governments. Amounts 
shown are millions of dollars.

                              Medical Aid

 1. Medicaid ($177,364)
 2. Medical care for veterans without service-connected 
        disability ($9,603)
 3. General assistance (medical care component), no Federal 
        dollars ($4,956)
 4. Indian health services ($2,099)
 5. Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant ($1,102)
 6. Consolidated health centers ($825)
 7. Title X family planning services ($204)
 8. State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) ($145)
 9. Medical assistance to refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants 
        ($93)

                              Cash Aid \2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \2\ Dropped from the fiscal year 1998 list of income-tested benefit 
programs was Emergency Assistance to Needy Families (EA), which was 
ended by the 1996 welfare reform law. Base level EA funding was 
included in the TANF Block Grant.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) ($33,601)
11. Earned income credit (EIC) ($25,300)
12. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)/Aid to 
        Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) ($21,513)
13. Foster care ($7,033)
14. Pensions for needy veterans, their dependents, and 
        survivors, ($3,071)
15. General assistance (nonmedical care component), no Federal 
        dollars ($2,625)
16. Adoption assistance ($1,285)
17. General assistance to Indians ($61)
18. Cash assistance to refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants 
        ($44)
19. Dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC) and death 
        compensation for parents of veterans ($30)

                                Food Aid

20. Food stamps ($22,384)
21. School Lunch Program (free and reduced price segments) 
        ($5,196)
22. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, 
        and Children (WIC) ($3,896)
23. Child and Adult Care Food Program ($1,404)
24. School Breakfast Program (free and reduced price segments) 
        ($1,266)
25. Nutrition Program for the Elderly ($700)
26. The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) ($255)
27. Summer Food Service Program for Children ($252)
28. Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) ($89)
29. Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations ($68)
30. Special Milk Program (free segment) ($1)

                              Housing Aid

31. Section 8 Low-Income Housing Assistance ($16,114)
32. Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) ($4,062)
33. Low-rent public housing ($3,899)
34. Rural housing loans (section 502) ($3,830)
35. Section 236 interest reduction payments ($618)
36. Rural rental assistance payments (section 521) ($541)
37. Rural rental housing loans (section 515) ($149)
38. Home Ownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere (HOPE) 
        Programs ($64)
39. Rural housing repair loans and grants (section 504) ($56)
40. Section 101 rent supplements ($55)
41. Section 235 home ownership assistance for low-income 
        families ($45)
42. Rural housing self-help technical assistance grants 
        (section 523) and rural housing site loans (sections 
        523 and 524) ($27)
43. Farm labor housing loans (section 514) and grants (section 
        516) ($25)
44. Indian housing improvement grants ($16)
45. Rural housing preservation grants (section 533) ($11)

                             Education Aid

46. Federal Pell grants ($6,274)
47. Head Start ($5,434)
48. Subsidized Federal Stafford loans and Stafford/Ford loans 
        ($3,770)
49. Federal work-study program ($830)
50. Supplemental educational opportunity grants ($583)
51. Federal Trio Programs ($500)
52. Chapter 1 Migrant Education Program ($305)
53. Perkins loans ($158)
54. Health professions student loans and scholarships ($133)
55. Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnerships (LEAP) 
        ($100)
56. Fellowships for graduate and professional study ($30)
57. Migrant High School Equivalency Program (HEP) ($7)
58. College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) ($2)
59. Ellender fellowships ($2)

                           Other Services \3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \3\ Dropped from the fiscal year 1998 list of income-tested benefit 
programs were AFDC-related child care and at-risk child care, which 
were ended by the 1996 welfare reform law. A new child care block grant 
replaced these programs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
60. Social Services Block Grant (title XX) ($5,885)
61. Child Care and Development Block Grant ($4,690)
62. Homeless assistance ($823)
63. Community Services Block Grant ($542)
64. Legal services ($283)
65. Social services for refugees and Cuban/Haitian entrants 
        ($130)
66. Emergency Food and Shelter Program ($100)

                         Jobs and Training Aid

67. Job Corps ($1,246)
68. Adult training ($955)
69. Summer Youth Employment and Training Program ($871)
70. Senior Community Service Employment Program ($489)
71. Youth training ($130)
72. Foster grandparents ($97)
73. Senior companions ($35)
74. Welfare-to-work grants ($26)
75. Native Employment Works ($8)

                               Energy Aid

76. Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) ($1,132)
77. Weatherization assistance ($189)

                               REFERENCES

Bixby, A.K. (1999). Public social welfare expenditures, fiscal 
        year 1995. Social Security Bulletin, 62(2), pp. 86-94.
Burke, V. (1999). Cash and noncash benefits for persons with 
        limited income: Eligibility rules, recipient and 
        expenditure data, fiscal years 1996-98 (RL30401). 
        Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Kerns, W.L. (1997). Private social welfare expenditures, 1972-
        94. Social Security Bulletin, 60(1), pp. 54-60.
Rector, R., & Lauber, W.F. (1995). America's failed $5.4 
        trillion war on poverty. Washington, DC: Heritage 
        Foundation.
U.S. Census Bureau. (1999a). Poverty in the United States. 
        Current Population Reports, Series P-60-207.\4\ 
        Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Census Bureau. (1999b). Dynamics of economic well-being: 
        Program participation, who gets assistance? Current 
        Population Reports, Series P-70-69.\4\ Washington, DC: 
        U.S. Government Printing Office.
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    \4\ Available on the U.S. Census Bureau's Website: http://
www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html