[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Appendices]
[Appendix G. Data on Families]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]




 
                      APPENDIX G. DATA ON FAMILIES


                                  SELECTED INDICATORS OF THE STATUS OF CHILDREN


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Teenage Pregnancy

Category                                    1973            1980            1985            1990            1996
Female population (ages 15-19).       10,193,000      10,381,000       9,174,000       8,645,000       9,043,000
Births.........................          604,096         552,161         467,485         521,826         492,000
Induced abortions..............          231,900         444,780         399,200         350,970         264,000
Estimated miscarriages.........          144,010         154,910         133,420         139,460         137,000
Pregnancies....................          980,000         151,850         100,110       1,012,260         893,000

Source: Ventura et al. (1999a).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       International Infant Mortality Rates (deaths per 1,000 live births)

Country                                  1950-52         1970-72         1980-82         1986-88            1995
Japan..........................             55.9            12.4             7.1             5.0             4.3
Sweden.........................             20.9            11.0             6.9             6.0             4.1
United States (white)..........             26.0            17.1            10.5             8.7             6.3
Canada.........................             39.4            17.8             9.7             7.5             6.1
England and Wales..............             29.1            17.7            11.3             9.3             6.1
United States (total)..........             28.7            19.2            12.0            10.1             7.6
Hungary........................             77.0            34.7            21.4            17.4            10.7
United States (black)..........             45.1            30.9            20.3            17.8            15.1

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1993); U.S. Public Health Service (1996), National Center for Health Statistics
 (1999).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Living Arrangements of Children Under Age 18 (in thousands)

Group                                       1960            1970            1980            1990            1998
Total in population............           63,727          69,162          63,427          64,137          71,377
Living with one parent.........            5,829           8,199          12,466          15,867          19,777
    Percent of all children....              9.1            11.9            19.7            24.7            27.8
Living with never-married                    243             557           1,820           4,853           7,746
 parent........................
    Percent of all children....              0.4             0.8             2.9             7.6            10.9

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1964, 1996, 1998b).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Children Below Poverty (number in thousands/rate per 1,000)

Ethnic Group                                1974            1979            1990            1995            1998
Total..........................    10,156 (15.4)   10,377 (16.4)   13,431 (20.6)   14,665 (20.8)   13,467 (18.9)
Black..........................     3,755 (39.8)    3,833 (41.2)    4,550 (44.8)    4,761 (41.9)    4,151 (36.7)
White..........................     6,223 (11.2)    6,193 (11.8)    8,232 (15.9)    8,981 (16.2)    8,443 (15.1)
Hispanic.......................          NA (NA)    1,535 (28.0)    2,865 (38.4)    4,080 (40.0)    3,837 (34.4)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1999).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Educational Achievement

                                            1975            1985            1990            1996            1998
High school dropouts
 (percentage of status
 dropouts, ages 16-24)
    Total......................             13.9            12.6            12.1            11.1            11.8
    White......................             12.6            12.2            12.1            11.0             7.7
    Black......................             22.8            15.1            13.2            13.5            13.8
    Hispanic origin \1\........             29.2            27.6            32.4            29.3            29.5
Average verbal SAT scores......              512             509             500             505             505
Average math SAT scores........              498             500             501             508             512

Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1999); College Board (1999).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

NA--Not available.


              TABLE G-1.--TOTAL NUMBER AND RATES OF MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Number (thousands)             Rate \1\
                            Year                             ---------------------------------------------------
                                                               Marriages     Divorces    Marriages     Divorces
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950........................................................        1,667          385         11.1          2.6
1960........................................................        1,523          393          8.5          2.2
1970........................................................        2,159          708         10.6          3.5
1980........................................................        2,390        1,189         10.6          5.2
1985........................................................        2,413        1,190         10.1          5.0
1986........................................................        2,407        1,178         10.0          4.9
1987........................................................        2,403        1,166          9.9          4.8
1988........................................................        2,396        1,167          9.8          4.8
1989........................................................        2,403        1,157          9.7          4.7
1990........................................................        2,443        1,182          9.8          4.7
1991........................................................        2,371        1,189          9.4          4.7
1992........................................................        2,362        1,215          9.3          4.8
1993........................................................        2,334        1,187          9.0          4.6
1994........................................................        2,362        1,191          9.1          4.6
1995........................................................        2,336        1,169          8.9          4.4
1996........................................................        2,344        1,150          8.8          4.3
1997........................................................        2,384        1,163          8.9          4.3
1998 \2\....................................................        2,244        1,135          8.3          4.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Per 1,000 population.
\2\ Provisional data.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999a).




                    TABLE G-2.--PERCENT NEVER MARRIED BY AGE AND SEX, SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year
                   Age and sex                   ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1960    1970    1980    1990    1992    1995    1996    1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women:
    20-24.......................................    28.4    35.8    50.2    62.8    65.7    66.7    68.5    70.3
    25-29.......................................    10.5    10.5    20.9    31.1    33.2    35.3    37.6    38.6
    30-34.......................................     6.9     6.2     9.5    16.4    18.8    19.0    20.5    21.6
Men:
    20-24.......................................    53.1    54.7    68.8    79.3    80.3    80.7    81.0    83.4
    25-29.......................................    20.8    19.1    33.1    45.0    48.7    51.0    52.0    51.0
    30-34.......................................    11.9     9.4    15.9    27.0    29.4    28.2    29.6    29.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1966; 1996; 1998b).


TABLE G-3.--NUMBER AND RATE OF BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN, BY AGE AND RACE OF MOTHER, 1980, 1993, 1995, 1997, AND
                                                      1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Number of births        Rate per 1,000 unmarried
                                                        -------------------------------           women
                     Age of mother                                                     -------------------------
                                                         All races    White     Black   All races
                                                            \1\                            \1\     White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1980:
    Under 15...........................................      9,024     3,166     5,691       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    262,777   130,417   126,278     27.6     18.5    87.9
        15-17..........................................    121,900    58,705    60,548     20.6     12.0    68.8
        18-19..........................................    140,877    71,712    65,728     39.0     24.1   118.2
    20-24..............................................    237,265   118,445   114,538     40.9     25.1   112.3
    25-29..............................................     99,583    46,722    47,594     34.0     21.5    81.4
    30-34..............................................     40,984    21,325    18,160     21.1     14.1    46.7
    35-39..............................................     13,187     7,298     5,338      9.7      7.1    19.0
    40 and older \2\...................................      2,927     1,611     1,202      2.6      1.8     5.5
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................    665,747   328,984   318,799     29.4     18.1    81.1
                                                        ========================================================
1993:
    Under 15...........................................     11,467     4,868     6,293       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    357,432   213,080   133,031     44.5     33.6   102.4
        15-17..........................................    152,212    87,032    60,412     30.6     22.1    76.8
        18-19..........................................    205,220   126,048    72,619     66.9     52.4   141.6
    20-24..............................................    438,538   283,538   159,598     69.2     54.2   142.2
    25-29..............................................    233,776   139,905    84,604     57.1     46.7    94.5
    30-34..............................................    132,263    79,136    47,330     38.5     32.2    57.3
    35-39..............................................     55,570    34,283    18,526     19.0     16.4    25.9
    40 and older \2\...................................     11,126     7,319     3,094      4.4      3.9     5.8
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,240,172   742,129   452,476     45.3     35.9    84.0
                                                        ========================================================
1995:
    Under 15...........................................     11,441     5,196     5,876       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    375,738   236,546   127,241     44.4     35.5    92.8
        15-17..........................................    161,140    98,415    57,766     30.5     23.6    68.6
        18-19..........................................    214,598   138,131    69,475     67.6     55.4   131.2
    20-24..............................................    432,003   271,466   145,134     70.3     58.0   127.7
    25-29..............................................    228,614   143,006    75,815     56.1     48.7    84.8
    30-34..............................................    133,282    82,392    44,690     39.6     34.2    54.3
    35-39..............................................     60,234    37,931    19,271     19.5     16.9    25.6
    40 and older \2\...................................     12,664     8,455     3,462      4.7      4.2     6.0
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,253,976   784,992   421,489     45.1     37.5    75.9
                                                        ========================================================

1997:
    Under 15...........................................      9,685     4,631     4,682       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    376,117   240,353   122,986     42.2     34.2    86.4
        15-17..........................................    156,253    98,021    52,722     28.2     22.4    60.6
        18-19..........................................    219,864   142,332    70,264     65.2     53.6   127.2
    20-24..............................................    438,632   276,764   145,647     71.0     59.2   127.8
    25-29..............................................    234,762   147,318    76,977     56.2     49.3    85.2
    30-34..............................................    124,831    77,543    41,520     39.0     34.4    52.3
    35-39..............................................     59,870    37,878    19,223     19.0     16.7    24.7
    40 and older \2\...................................     13,547     8,715     4,019      4.6      3.9     6.5
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,257,444   793,202   415,054     44.0     37.0    73.4
                                                        ========================================================
1998:
    Under 15...........................................      9,137     4,514     4,270       NA       NA      NA
    15-19..............................................    380,868   245,832   121,458     41.5     34.0    83.4
        15-17..........................................    151,557    96,586    49,268     27.0     21.8    56.5
        18-19..........................................    229,331   149,246    72,190     64.5     53.5   123.5
    20-24..............................................    460,367   291,677   151,903     72.3     60.5   131.0
    25-29..............................................    243,280   153,310    79,344     58.4     50.9    90.3
    30-34..............................................    124,624    77,883    40,927     39.1     34.9    51.7
    35-39..............................................     61,087    38,905    19,367     19.0     17.0    24.7
    40 and older \2\...................................     14,204     9,320     4,114      4.6      4.0     6.1
                                                        --------------------------------------------------------
          Total (ages 15-44) \3\.......................  1,293,567   821,441   421,383     44.3     37.5   73.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than black and white.
\2\ Rates computed by relating births to unmarried mothers aged 40 years and older to unmarried women aged 40-44
  years.
\3\ Rates computed by relating all births to unmarried mothers, regardless of age of mother, to unmarried women
  aged 15-44 years.

NA--Not available.

Source: Ventura et al. (1995, 2000).


              TABLE G-4.--TWO- AND ONE-PARENT FAMILIES AS PROPORTIONS OF ALL FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN PRESENT BY RACE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-98
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Year (all races)                               Year (white)                      Year (black)
          Family type          -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  1970     1980     1985     1992     1996     1998     1970     1992     1996     1998    1970    1992    1996    1998
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Numbers in thousands
                               -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups......   25,823   25,231   24,573   24,880   25,361   25,709   23,477   21,909   22,178   22,237   2,071   1,948   1,942   2,111
One-parent family groups......    3,808    6,920    8,779   10,499   11,717   11,948    2,638    6,938    7,769    8,077   1,148   3,216   3,493   3,493
  Maintained by mother........    3,415    6,230    7,737    9,028    9,855    9,848    2,330    5,753    6,329    6,328   1,063   2,994   3,171   3,211
    Never married.............      248    1,063    2,208    3,284    3,721    4,148       73    1,391    1,712    2,000     173   1,799   1,884   2,046
    Spouse absent.............    1,377    1,743    1,732    1,947    2,067    1,833      796    1,341    1,377    1,235     570     548     620     507
    Separated.................      962    1,483    1,524    1,658    1,718    1,452    1,168    1,146    1,168    1,001     479     482     503     398
    Divorced..................    1,109    2,721    3,228    3,349    3,660    3,416      930    2,692    2,957    2,761     172     550     581     571
    Widowed...................      682      703      569      448      406      431      531      328      283      332     148      97      87      87
  Maintained by father........      393      692    1,042    1,472    1,862    2,120      307    1,186    1,440    1,749      85     222     322     282
                               -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children        29,631   32,150   33,372   35,379   37,077   37,657   26,115   28,847   29,947   30,314   3,219   5,164   5,434   5,604
       under 18...............
                               =========================================================================================================================
                                                                                  Percent distribution
                               -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Two-parent family groups......     87.1     78.5     73.6     70.3     68.4     68.3     89.9     75.9     74.1     73.4    64.3    37.7    35.7    37.7
One-parent family groups......     12.9     21.5     26.3     29.7     31.6     31.7     10.1     24.1     25.9     26.6    35.7    62.3    64.3    62.3
  Maintained by mother........     11.5     19.4     23.2     25.5     26.6     26.2      8.9     19.9     21.1     20.9    33.0    58.0    58.4    57.3
    Never married.............      0.8      3.3      6.6      9.3     10.0     11.0      0.3      4.8      5.7      6.6     5.4    34.8    34.7    36.5
    Spouse absent.............      4.6      5.4      5.2      5.5      5.6      4.9      3.0      4.6      4.6      4.1    17.7    10.6    11.4     9.1
    Separated.................      3.2      4.6      4.6      4.7      4.6      3.9      1.8      4.0      3.9      3.3    14.9     9.3     9.3     7.1
    Divorced..................      3.7      8.5      9.7      9.5      9.9      9.1      3.6      9.3      9.9      9.1     5.3    10.7    10.7    10.2
    Widowed...................      2.3      2.2      1.7      1.3      1.1      1.1      2.0      1.1      0.9      1.1     4.6     1.9     1.6     1.6
  Maintained by father........      1.3      2.2      3.1      4.2      5.0      5.6      1.2      4.1      4.8      5.8     2.6     4.3     5.9     5.0
                               -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total with children         100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0
       under 18...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Family groups consist of family households, related subfamilies, and unrelated subfamilies. Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1996, 1998a).


               TABLE G-5.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS, SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         Year
Living arrangements of children and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      marital status of parent          1960       1970       1980       1990       1995       1997       1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Numbers in thousands
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Living with:
  Two parents......................     55,877     58,939     48,624     46,503     48,276     48,386     48,642
  One parent.......................      5,829      8,199     12,466     15,867     18,938     19,799     19,777
    Mother only....................      5,105      7,452     11,406     13,874     16,477     16,740     16,634
    Father only....................        724        748      1,060      1,993      2,461      3,059      3,143
  Other relatives or nonrelatives        2,021      2,024      2,337      1,768      3,040      2,798      2,958
   only............................
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total number of children.....     63,727     69,162     63,427     64,137     70,254     70,983     71,377
                                    ============================================================================
                                                                 Percent distribution
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Living with:
  Two parents......................       87.7       85.2       76.7       72.5       68.7       68.2       68.1
  One parent.......................        9.1       11.9       19.7       24.7       27.0       27.9       27.7
    Mother only....................        8.0       10.8       18.0       21.6       23.5       23.6       23.3
    Father only....................        1.1        1.1        1.7        3.1        3.5        4.3        4.4
  Other relatives or nonrelatives          3.2        2.9        3.7        2.8        4.3        3.9        4.1
   only............................
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Percent......................      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain
  households or family groups.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1964, 1996b, 1998, 1998b).


    TABLE G-6.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS LIVING WITH ONE PARENT, SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Year
 Living arrangements of children and  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
       marital status of parent          1960      1970       1980       1990       1995       1997       1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Numbers in thousands
                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Never married........................       243       557      1,820      4,853      6,558      7,553      7,746
Married, spouse absent...............     2,700     3,521      3,898      3,767      4,348      4,347      4,136
    Separated........................     1,608     2,484      3,327      3,222      3,621      3,521      3,163
Widowed..............................     1,543     1,649      1,469      1,125        830        693        794
Divorced.............................     1,343     2,473      5,281      6,122      7,201      7,204      7,101
                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total children living with        5,829     8,199     12,466     15,867     18,938     19,799     19,777
         one parent..................
                                      ==========================================================================
                                                                  Percent distribution
                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Never married........................       4.2       6.8       14.6       30.6       34.6       38.1       39.2
Married, spouse absent...............      46.3      42.9       31.3       23.7       23.0       22.0       20.9
    Separated........................      27.6      30.3       26.7       20.3       19.1       17.8       16.0
Widowed..............................      26.5      20.1       11.8        7.1        4.4        3.5        4.0
Divorced.............................      23.0      30.2       42.4       38.6       38.0       36.4       35.9
                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Percent......................     100.0     100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Numbers may not sum to totals due to rounding. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain
  households or family groups.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1964, 1996b, 1998, 1998b).


         TABLE G-7.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF WHITE CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Year
                   Family type                    --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1960     1970     1980     1990     1992     1996     1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                All children (numbers in thousands)
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................   50,082   52,624   43,200   40,593   46,735   41,609   41,547
One parent.......................................    3,932    5,109    7,901    9,870   10,971   12,335   12,772
    Mother only..................................    3,381    4,581    7,059    8,321    9,250   10,239   10,210
    Father only..................................      551      528      842    1,549    1,721    2,096    2,562
Other relatives or nonrelatives..................    1,062    1,058    1,141      928      886    1,770    1,799
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................   55,077   58,790   52,242   51,390   52,493   55,714   56,124
                                                  ==============================================================
                                                                       All children (percent)
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Two parents......................................     90.9     89.5     82.7     79.0     77.4     74.7     74.0
One parent.......................................      7.1      8.7     15.1     19.2     20.9     22.1     22.8
    Mother only..................................      6.1      7.8     13.5     16.2     17.6     18.4     18.2
    Father only..................................      1.0      0.9      1.6      3.0      3.3      3.8      4.5
Other relatives or nonrelatives..................      1.9      1.8      2.2      1.8      1.7      3.2      3.2
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Children in single-parent families (numbers in thousands)
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married................................       61      131      552    1,894    2,449    3,101    3,595
    Married, spouse absent.......................    1,615    1,822    2,243    2,356    2,837    2,915    2,833
        Separated................................      779    1,111    1,817    1,982    2,425    2,423    2,215
    Widowed......................................    1,139    1,160    1,000      774      624      518      589
    Divorced.....................................    1,118    1,997    4,106    4,847    5,061    5,801    5,755
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
        Total....................................    3,932    5,110    7,901    9,869   10,971   12,335   12,772
                                                  ==============================================================
                                                            Children in single-parent families (percent)
                                                  --------------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married................................      1.6      2.6      7.0     19.2     22.3     25.1     28.1
    Married, spouse absent.......................     41.1     35.7     28.4     23.9     25.9     23.6     22.2
        Separated................................     19.8     21.7     23.0     20.1     22.1     19.6     17.3
    Widowed......................................     29.0     22.7     12.7      7.8      5.7      4.2      4.6
    Divorced.....................................     28.4     39.1     52.0     49.1     46.1     47.0     45.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or family groups.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1964, 1996, 1998b).


         TABLE G-8.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF BLACK CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1960-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year
                     Family type                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                       1960    1970    1980     1990     1992     1996     1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  All children (numbers in thousands)
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
Two parents.........................................   5,795   5,508   3,956    3,781    3,714    3,816    4,137
One parent..........................................   1,897   2,996   4,297    5,485    5,934    6,560    6,254
    Mother only.....................................   1,723   2,783   4,117    5,132    5,607    6,056    5,830
    Father only.....................................     173     213     180      353      327      504      424
Other relatives or nonrelatives only................     959     917   1,122      752      779    1,058    1,022
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................   8,650   9,422   9,375   10,018   10,427   11,434   11,414
                                                     ===========================================================
                                                                        All children (percent)
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
Two parents.........................................    67.0    58.5    42.2     37.7     35.6     33.4     36.2
One parent..........................................    21.9    31.8    45.8     54.8     56.9     57.4     54.7
    Mother only.....................................    19.9    29.5    43.9     51.2     53.8     53.0     51.1
    Father only.....................................     2.0     2.3     1.9      3.5      3.1      4.4      3.7
Other relatives or nonrelatives only................    11.1     9.7    12.0      7.5      7.5      9.3      8.9
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Children in single-parent families (numbers in thousands)
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married...................................     182     423   1,235    2,839    3,314    3,792    3,874
    Married spouse absent...........................   1,085   1,651   1,573    1,251    1,290    1,372    1,093
        Separated...................................     829   1,343   1,463    1,125    1,156    1,073      854
    Widowed.........................................     405     482     411      278      194      199      177
    Divorced........................................     225     438   1,078    1,117    1,136    1,197    1,110
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................   1,897   2,995   4,297    5,484    5,934    6,560    6,254
                                                     ===========================================================
                                                             Children in single-parent families (percent)
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married...................................     9.6    14.1    28.7     51.8     55.9     57.8     61.9
    Married spouse absent...........................    57.2    55.1    36.6     22.8     21.7     20.9     17.5
        Separated...................................    43.7    44.8    34.0     20.5     19.5     16.4     13.6
    Widowed.........................................    21.3    16.1     9.6      5.1      3.3      3.0      2.8
    Divorced........................................    11.9    14.6    25.1     20.4     19.1     18.2     17.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Black children include nonwhite in 1960. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain households or
  family groups.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1964, 1996, 1998b).


       TABLE G-9.--LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF HISPANIC CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED YEARS 1970-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Year
                        Family type                        -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              1970     1980     1990     1992     1996     1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     All children (numbers in thousands)
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................    3,111    4,116    4,789    4,935    6,381    6,909
One parent................................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,321    3,397
    Mother only...........................................       NA    1,069    1,943    2,168    2,937    2,915
    Father only...........................................       NA       83      211      279      384      482
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................       NA      191      231      237      549      556
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total children....................................    4,006    5,459    7,174    7,619   10,251   10,863
                                                           =====================================================
                                                                           All children (percent)
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Two parents...............................................     77.7     75.4     66.8     64.8     62.2     63.6
One parent................................................       NA     21.1     30.0     32.1     32.4     31.3
    Mother only...........................................       NA     19.6     27.1     28.5     28.7     26.8
    Father only...........................................       NA      1.5      2.9      3.7      3.7      4.4
Other relatives or nonrelatives only......................       NA      3.5      3.2      3.1      5.4      5.1
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                               Children in single-parent families (numbers in
                                                                                 thousands)
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married.........................................       NA      228      703      872    1,336    1,530
    Married, spouse absent................................       NA      468      728      739      990      939
        Separated.........................................       NA      400      577      600      786      737
    Widowed...............................................       NA      103      149      137      114      146
    Divorced..............................................       NA      353      574      699      881      782
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
        Total.............................................       NA    1,152    2,154    2,447    3,321    3,397
                                                           =====================================================
                                                                Children in single-parent families (percent)
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
Marital status of parent:
    Never married.........................................       NA     19.8     32.6     35.6     40.2     45.0
    Married, spouse absent................................       NA     40.6     33.8     30.2     29.8     27.6
        Separated.........................................       NA     34.7     26.8     24.5     23.7     21.7
    Widowed...............................................       NA      8.9      6.9      5.6      3.4      4.3
    Divorced..............................................       NA     30.6     26.6     28.6     26.5     23.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.

Note.--Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Excludes persons under 18 years old who maintain
  households or family groups; numbers in thousands.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1973, 1996, 1998b).


  TABLE G-10.--CHILDREN LIVING WITH TWO PARENTS BY THEIR BIOLOGICAL, STEP, ADOPTIVE, AND FOSTER STATUS, BY RACE
                                        AND HISPANIC ORIGIN, SUMMER 1991
                                             [Numbers in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Hispanic
                     Characteristics of parents                      All races    White      Black    origin \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Biological mother and father.......................................     40,553     35,002      3,576       4,129
Biological mother and stepfather...................................      3,672      3,195        351         367
Biological father and stepmother...................................        830        740         40          43
Adoptive mother and father \2\.....................................        582        387        103          42
Foster mother and father \3\.......................................        195        147         48       (\4\)
Other..............................................................      1,994      1,524        286         245
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
    Total..........................................................     47,826     40,995      4,404       4,826
                                                                    ============================================
Biological mother and father.......................................       84.8       85.4       81.2        85.6
Biological mother and stepfather...................................        7.7        7.8        8.0         7.6
Biological father and stepmother...................................        1.7        1.8        0.9         0.9
Adoptive mother and father \2\.....................................        1.2        0.9        2.3         0.9
Foster mother and father \3\.......................................      (\4\)      (\4\)        1.1       (\4\)
Other..............................................................        4.2        3.7        6.5         5.1
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
    Percent distribution...........................................      100.0      100.0      100.0       100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
\2\ Children living with one biological parent and one adoptive parent have been placed in a biological parent/
  stepparent category.
\3\ Foster relationships only include official placements by a government agency or representative of a
  government agency.
\4\ Represents zero or a number that rounds to zero.

Source: Furukawa (1994).


 TABLE G-11.--PERSONS LIVING IN MOTHER-ONLY FAMILIES BY MOTHER'S MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND
                                         FAMILY POVERTY STATUS, 1998 \1\
                                                 [In thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Family living arrangement
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
   Family type defined by mother's  marital status      Total   Independent  Extended                  Unrelated
                                                                  families   families  Cohabiting \2\   families
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of persons:
    Never married...................................    11,460       6,984      2,689        1,252           536
    Separated/other.................................     5,814       4,430        841          256           287
    Divorced........................................    10,100       7,406        986          918           790
    Widowed.........................................     1,202         871        191           30           110
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    28,576      19,691      4,706        2,456         1,723
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of poor persons:
    Never married...................................     5,844       4,027        804          726           287
    Separated/other.................................     2,687       2,139        215          182           151
    Divorced........................................     2,844       2,046        193          427           178
    Widowed.........................................       366         273         50           10            33
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................    11,742       8,485      1,262        1,344           650
                                                     ===========================================================
Poverty rate (percent poor):
    Never married...................................      51.0        57.7       29.9         58.0          53.6
    Separated/other.................................      46.2        48.3       25.5         71.1          52.9
    Divorced........................................      28.2        27.6       19.6         46.5          22.5
    Widowed.........................................      30.5        31.4       26.3         31.9          30.0
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................      41.1        43.1       26.8         54.7          37.7
                                                     ===========================================================
Number of families:
    Never married...................................     4,176       2,365      1,131          497           183
    Separated/other.................................     1,804       1,340        289           85            89
    Divorced........................................     3,476       2,458        393          359           266
    Widowed.........................................       391         280         71           10            29
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
        Total.......................................     9,847       6,444      1,884          951           568
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The Current Population Survey (CPS) defines families on the basis of marital and blood relations, and treats
  families as a basic economic unit in its measures of family poverty and income. Under such definitions, an
  unmarried, cohabiting, couple would be viewed as two distinct economic units; either as two unrelated
  individuals, if no child dependents were involved, or as one or two single-parent families, if one or both
  members of the couple had children residing in the household. Cohabiting couples are identifiable on the CPS
  only by inference. The U.S. Census Bureau identifies such families as unmarried couple households--a household
  with only two adults who are unrelated and of the opposite sex (one of whom is the householder) with or
  without the presence of children under the age of 15. The CPS assigns a residing child to only one of the two
  adult members of the unmarried couple, even though the child may be the couple's offspring.
\2\ Single female-headed families (either primary or unrelated subfamilies) with children, living in a household
  with either an unrelated single adult male, or with an unrelated family headed by a single adult male.

Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Numbers are estimates subject to sampling error. Caution
  should be exercised in interpreting differences based on small cell sizes. Marital status and family living
  arrangements are for the family head, as of March 1999. Poverty status is based on family income in the prior
  year (1998).

Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service, based on analysis of the March 1999 Current Population
  Survey microdata files.


                                                       TABLE G-12.--BIRTHS AND FERTILITY RATES, BY RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS 1940-98
                                                                  [Fertility rates are births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                            Number of births                                                Fertility rate
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Year                                                                                      Asian or                                                    Asian or
                                                                     All births     White        Black     American       Pacific     All births    White     Black    American       Pacific
                                                                        \1\                               Indian \2\     Islander         \1\                         Indian \2\     Islander
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1940 \3\..........................................................    2,559,000    2,199,000          NA          NA              NA       79.9       77.1        NA         NA               NA
1950 \3\..........................................................    3,632,000    3,108,000          NA          NA              NA      106.2      102.3        NA         NA               NA
1960 \3\..........................................................    4,257,850    3,600,744     602,264      21,114              NA      118.0      113.2     153.5         NA               NA
1970 \3\..........................................................    3,731,386    3,091,264     572,362      25,864              NA       87.9       84.1     115.4         NA               NA
1975 \3\..........................................................    3,144,198    2,551,996     511,581      27,546              NA       66.0       62.5      87.9         NA               NA
1980..............................................................    3,612,258    2,936,351     568,080      29,389          74,355       68.4       65.6      84.7       82.7             73.2
1985..............................................................    3,760,561    3,037,913     581,824      34,037         104,606       66.3       64.1      78.8       78.6             68.4
1988..............................................................    3,909,510    3,102,083     638,562      37,088         129,035       67.3       64.5      82.6       76.8             70.2
1989..............................................................    4,040,958    3,192,355     673,124      39,478         133,075       69.2       66.4      86.2       79.0             68.2
1990..............................................................    4,158,212    3,290,273     684,336      39,051         141,635       70.9       68.3      86.8       76.2             69.6
1991..............................................................    4,110,907    3,241,273     682,602      38,841         145,372       69.6       67.0      85.2       75.1             67.6
1992..............................................................    4,065,014    3,201,678     673,633      39,453         150,250       68.9       66.5      83.2       75.4             67.2
1993..............................................................    4,000,240    3,149,833     658,875      38,732         152,800       67.6       65.4      80.5       73.4             66.7
1994..............................................................    3,952,767    3,121,004     636,391      37,740         157,632       66.7       64.9      76.9       70.9             66.8
1995..............................................................    3,899,589    3,098,885     603,139      37,278         160,287       65.6       64.4      72.3       69.1             66.4
1996..............................................................    3,891,494    3,093,057     594,781      37,880         165,776       65.3       64.3      70.7       68.7             65.9
1997..............................................................    3,880,894    3,072,640     599,913      38,572         169,769       65.0       63.9      70.7       69.1             66.3
1998..............................................................    3,941,553    3,118,727     609,902      40,272         172,652       65.6       64.6      71.0       70.7             64.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1940-91 includes births to races not shown separately.
\2\ Includes births to Aleuts and Eskimos.
\3\ Data are by race of child; see source below for more information.

NA--Not available.

Source: Ventura et al. (1997, 2000).


                     TABLE G-13.--NUMBERS AND RATES OF BIRTHS, ABORTIONS, AND PREGNANCIES, BY AGE AT PREGNANCY OUTCOME, \1\ 1976-96
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Female              Total number (in thousands)               Rate per 1,000 females
                                                              population -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Age group and year                           (in              Induced      Fetal
                                                              thousands)  Births  abortions  losses \1\  Pregnancies \2\  Birth  Abortion  Pregnancy \2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Women aged 15-19:
    1976....................................................     10,582     559        363       151           1,072       52.8     34.3        101.3
    1977....................................................     10,581     559        397       152           1,108       52.8     37.5        104.7
    1978....................................................     10,555     543        419       147           1,109       51.5     39.7        105.1
    1979....................................................     10,498     549        445       148           1,142       52.3     42.4        108.8
    1980....................................................     10,413     552        445       149           1,146       53.0     42.7        110.0
    1981....................................................     10,096     527        433       142           1,103       52.2     42.9        109.2
    1982....................................................      9,809     514        419       125           1,058       52.4     42.7        107.8
    1983....................................................      9,515     489        411       119           1,020       51.4     43.2        107.2
    1984....................................................      9,287     470        399       114             983       50.6     42.9        105.8
    1985....................................................      9,174     467        399       114             981       51.0     43.5        106.9
    1988....................................................      9,029     478        393       122             993       53.0     43.5        109.9
    1989....................................................      8,840     507        371       121             999       57.3     42.0        113.0
    1990....................................................      8,709     522        351       140           1,013       59.9     40.3        116.3
    1991....................................................      8,371     520        314       141             975       62.1     37.6        116.5
    1992....................................................      8,324     505        295       138             939       60.7     35.5        112.8
    1993....................................................      8,410     501        289       139             928       59.6     34.3        110.4
    1994....................................................      8,580     505        276       141             923       58.9     32.2        107.6
    1995....................................................      8,799     500        264       140             904       56.8     30.0        102.7
    1996....................................................      9,043     492        264       137             893       54.4     29.2         98.7
Women aged 10-14:
    1976....................................................      9,837      12         16         4              32        1.2      1.6          3.2
    1977....................................................      9,550      11         16         4              31         NA       NA           NA
    1978....................................................      9,262      11         15         4              30         NA       NA           NA
    1979....................................................      9,031      11         16         3              30         NA       NA           NA
    1980....................................................      8,926      10         15         3              29        1.1      1.7          3.2
    1981....................................................      8,921      10         15         3              28        1.1      1.7          3.1
    1982....................................................      8,811      10         15         3              27        1.1      1.6          3.1
    1983....................................................      8,690      10         16         3              29        1.1      1.9          3.3
    1984....................................................      7,984      10         17         3              30        1.2      2.0          3.5
    1985....................................................      8,339      10         17         3              30        1.2      2.0          3.6
    1988....................................................      8,102      11         14         3              27        1.3      1.7          3.4
    1989....................................................      8,260      11         13         4              28        1.4      1.6          3.4
    1990....................................................      8,322      12         13         5              29        1.4      1.5          3.5
    1991....................................................      8,620      12         12         5              29        1.4      1.4          3.4
    1992....................................................      8,829      12         13         5              30        1.4      1.5          3.4
    1993....................................................      9,026      13         12         5              30        1.4      1.4          3.3
    1994....................................................      9,150      13         12         5              30        1.4      1.3          3.3
    1995....................................................      9,229      12         11         5              28        1.3      1.2          3.0
    1996....................................................      9,254      11         10         4              26        1.2      1.1          2.8
Women aged 15-17:
    1976....................................................      6,319     215        153        70             439       34.1     24.2         69.4
    1977....................................................      6,310     214        166        70             449       33.9     26.2         71.2
    1978....................................................      6,286     203        169        66             438       32.2     26.9         69.7
    1979....................................................      6,200     200        179        65             444       32.3     28.8         71.6
    1980....................................................      6,100     198        183        65             446       32.5     30.1         73.2
    1981....................................................      5,848     187        176        61             424       32.0     30.1         72.6
    1982....................................................      5,617     181        168        55             405       32.3     30.0         72.1
    1983....................................................      5,424     173        166        53             392       31.8     30.7         72.2
    1984....................................................      5,373     167        161        51             378       31.0     29.9         70.4
    1985....................................................      5,410     168        166        51             385       31.0     30.6         71.1
    1988....................................................      5,251     177        158        54             389       33.6     30.2         74.1
    1989....................................................      4,975     181        139        63             383       36.4     28.0         76.9
    1990....................................................      4,890     183        130        79             393       37.5     26.5         80.3
    1991....................................................      4,861     188        118        82             388       38.7     24.3         79.8
    1992....................................................      4,959     188        114        82             384       37.8     23.1         77.3
    1993....................................................      5,037     191        113        83             387       37.8     22.5         76.8
    1994....................................................      5,188     195        111        86             392       37.6     21.4         75.5
    1995....................................................      5,351     193        106        85             384       36.0     19.9         71.7
    1996....................................................      5,488     186        104        82             372       33.8     19.0         67.8
Women aged 18-19:
    1976....................................................      4,263     343        210        82             635       80.5     49.3        148.9
    1977....................................................      4,263     345        231        82             658       80.9     54.1        154.2
    1978....................................................      4,269     341        250        81             671       79.8     58.4        157.2
    1979....................................................      4,297     349        266        83             698       81.3     61.9        162.5
    1980....................................................      4,313     354        261        84             699       82.1     60.6        162.2
    1981....................................................      4,248     340        257        81             678       80.0     60.6        159.6
    1982....................................................      4,191     333        250        70             653       79.4     59.7        155.7
    1983....................................................      4,091     317        245        66             628       77.4     59.9        153.5
    1984....................................................      3,914     303        238        64             605       77.4     60.8        154.4
    1985....................................................      3,765     300        234        63             596       79.6     62.0        158.3
    1988....................................................      3,778     302        234        63             600       79.9     62.0        158.7
    1989....................................................      3,866     325        232        59             616       84.2     60.0        159.3
    1990....................................................      3,819     338        221        61             620       88.6     57.9        162.4
    1991....................................................      3,510     331        196        59             587       94.4     55.9        167.2
    1992....................................................      3,365     318        181        57             556       94.5     53.8        165.1
    1993....................................................      3,372     311        175        56             542       92.1     52.0        160.6
    1994....................................................      3,392     310        165        56             531       91.5     48.8        156.7
    1995....................................................      3,448     307        157        55             520       89.1     45.7        150.8
    1996....................................................      3,555     306        160        55             521       86.0     44.9        146.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Spontaneous fetal losses from recognized pregnancies of all gestational periods as reported to women in the 1982 and 1988 National Survey of Family
  Growth conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. The rate of pregnancy loss depends on the degree to which losses at very early
  gestations are detected.
\2\ Sum of births, induced abortions, and fetal losses.

NA--Not available.

Source: Ventura et al. (1999).


   TABLE G-14.--NUMBER OF BIRTHS AND BIRTH RATES FOR WOMEN AGES 15-19 BY RACE OF CHILD AND RACE OF MOTHER,\1\
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1950-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Number of births                     Birth rate \2\
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Year                                          All women 15-19       15-17           18-19
                                             White      Black   ------------------------------------------------
                                                                  White    Black   White   Black   White   Black
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950.....................................    318,522     98,100     70.0      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
1955.....................................    372,678    108,375     79.1      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
1960.....................................    458,130    118,044     79.4   156.1      NA      NA      NA      NA
1965.....................................    443,754    141,026     60.6   144.6      NA      NA      NA      NA
1970.....................................    463,608    171,826     57.4   140.7    29.2   101.4   101.5   204.9
1975.....................................    410,129    161,044     46.4   111.8    28.0    85.6    74.0   152.4
1980.....................................    393,564    147,378     45.4    97.8    25.5    72.5    73.2   135.1
1981.....................................    375,432    140,344     44.9    94.5    25.4    69.3    71.5   131.0
1982.....................................    363,742    137,456     45.0    94.3    25.5    69.7    70.8   128.9
1983.....................................    343,199    133,953     43.9    93.9    25.0    69.6    68.8   127.1
1984.....................................    326,301    131,497     42.9    94.1    24.3    69.2    68.4   128.1
1985.....................................    324,590    130,857     43.3    95.4    24.4    69.3    70.4   132.4
1986.....................................    317,970    131,594     42.3    95.8    23.8    69.3    70.1   135.1
1987.....................................    315,464    134,050     42.5    97.6    24.6    72.1    68.9   135.8
1988.....................................    323,830    140,608     44.4   102.7    26.0    75.7    69.6   142.7
1989.....................................    340,472    150,699     47.9   111.5    28.1    81.9    72.9   151.9
1990.....................................    354,482    151,613     50.8   112.8    29.5    82.3    78.0   152.9
1991.....................................    352,359    150,956     52.8   115.5    30.7    84.1    83.5   158.6
1992.....................................    342,739    146,800     51.8   112.4    30.1    81.3    83.8   157.9
1993.....................................    341,817    143,153     51.1   108.6    30.3    79.8    82.1   151.9
1994.....................................    348,081    140,968     51.1   104.5    30.7    76.3    82.1   148.3
1995.....................................    349,635    133,694     50.1    96.1    30.0    69.7    81.2   137.1
1996.....................................    344,685    130,596     48.1    91.4    28.4    64.7    78.4   132.5
1997.....................................    338,272    128,539     46.3    88.2    27.1    60.8    75.9   130.1
1998.....................................    340,694    126,937     45.4    85.4    25.9    56.8    74.6   126.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Births are tabulated by race of child through 1975, and by race of mother for 1980-98.
\2\ Births per 1,000 women in specified group.

NA--Not available.

Source: Martin et al. (1999); Ventura et al. (2000).


    TABLE G-15.--BIRTH RATES FOR UNMARRIED WOMEN AGES 15-17 AND 18-19 BY RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN OF MOTHER,
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1980-98
                              [Births per 1,000 unmarried women in specified group]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        White                 Black             Hispanic \1\
                     Year                      -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19      15-17      18-19
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1980..........................................       12.0       24.1       68.8      118.2         NA         NA
1985..........................................       14.5       31.2       66.8      117.9         NA         NA
1986..........................................       14.9       33.5       67.0      121.1         NA         NA
1987..........................................       16.2       34.5       69.9      123.0         NA         NA
1988..........................................       17.6       36.8       73.5      130.5         NA         NA
1989..........................................       19.3       40.2       78.9      140.9         NA         NA
1990..........................................       20.4       44.9       78.8      143.7       45.9       98.9
1991..........................................       21.8       49.6       80.4      148.7       50.5      109.6
1992..........................................       21.6       51.5       78.0      147.8       51.0      110.5
1993..........................................       22.1       52.4       76.8      141.6       51.9      114.6
1994..........................................       24.1       56.4       75.1      141.6       59.0      123.6
1995..........................................       23.6       55.4       68.6      131.2       56.3      117.9
1996..........................................       22.7       54.1       64.0      129.2       53.4      110.4
1997..........................................       22.4       53.6       60.6      127.2       55.0      109.5
1998..........................................       21.8       53.5       56.5      123.5       53.0      107.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Hispanic ethnicity is independent of race; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

NA--Not available.

Note.--Data for States in which marital status was not reported have been inferred and included with data from
  the remaining States. Race is determined by race of the child for 1980-89 and by race of the mother for 1990-
  93.

Source: Ventura et al. (2000).


                     TABLE G-16.--ESTIMATED PREGNANCIES \1\ PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1990, 1995, AND 1997
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        1980                       1990                       1995                       1997
                    State                    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Total \1\  White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black   Total \1\  White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.....................................     117       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA     106       86      143      98.6     81.4    132.0
Alaska......................................     124       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA      68.5       NA       NA
Arizona.....................................     123      115      195     101.8     99.9    153.5     108      109      112      99.5    100.5    109.0
Arkansas....................................     117      104      168      98.4     92.7    157.2     104       88      156     101.8     89.1    145.0
California..................................     140      127      272        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA
Colorado....................................     114      105      192      82.3       NA       NA      80       NA       NA      75.0     73.1    108.1
Connecticut.................................      81       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      77       NA       NA      78.6       NA       NA
Delaware....................................     106       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA     127.8    102.7    208.8
District of Columbia \1\....................     200       NA       NA     255.2       NA       NA     230       NA       NA     249.7       NA       NA
Florida.....................................     131       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA
Georgia.....................................     131      111      172     110.8     88.2    162.5     116       90      165     108.8     85.4    152.9
Hawaii......................................     106       81       NA      88.2       NA       NA      92       51       77      82.6     46.3     65.6
Idaho.......................................      96       96       NA      68.8     56.6       NA      63       63       NA      56.0     55.7       NA
Illinois....................................     101       78      190        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA      92.3       NA       NA
Indiana.....................................     102       92      193      74.3     65.5    158.0      82       74      159      78.6     70.4    155.1
Iowa........................................      79       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA
Kansas......................................     101       93      199      81.1     74.5    181.1      95       86      209      87.9     79.8    194.5
Kentucky....................................     111       NA       NA      91.0     84.3    164.1      89       82      154      82.5     77.0    137.8
Louisiana \2\...............................     118       93   \2\ 16      92.1     68.7  \2\ 128      98       72   \2\ 13      93.0     69.2  \2\ 125
                                                                     3                          .8                         6                          .8
Maine.......................................      87       86       NA      88.4     87.6       NA      59       58       NA      54.9     54.4       NA
Maryland....................................     123      103      174      84.7     61.5    141.8      81       58      132      65.2     43.8    111.4
Massachusetts...............................      86       NA       NA      71.1       NA       NA      72       NA       NA      67.5       NA       NA
Michigan....................................     102       NA       NA      85.2       NA       NA      80       NA       NA      71.0       NA       NA
Minnesota...................................      77       73      240      62.0     55.3    219.4      56       47      217      55.9     46.4    213.5
Mississippi.................................     125       97      162      97.8     71.6    130.5     103       73      138      96.2     68.1    128.6
Missouri....................................     106       92      205      82.6     64.8    197.5      79       66      162      72.0     60.9    141.4
Montana.....................................      93       85       NA      81.7       NA       NA      73       65       NA      67.1     59.2       NA
Nebraska....................................      81       NA       NA      74.2       NA       NA      65       NA       NA      63.0       NA       NA
Nevada......................................     144      134      226     107.5    105.8    158.8     117      118      141     107.5    105.8    145.1
New Hampshire...............................      81       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA
New Jersey..................................      96       74      210      75.3     52.7    181.6      72       46      176      65.3     42.0    160.8
New Mexico..................................     126      118       NA     100.4     99.8    115.5     107      109      100     100.5    104.1     86.1
New York....................................     101       78      207      92.9     76.3    166.4     106       85      191      98.1     78.0    180.7
North Carolina..............................     110       92      153     106.4     88.3    157.3     112       92      158     102.1     84.4    142.7
North Dakota................................      75       68       NA      56.4     50.4       NA      56       49       NA      48.2     41.5       NA
Ohio........................................     101       88      190      74.6     80.5    170.1      83       69      173      81.5     67.4    173.1
Oklahoma....................................     120      107      187        NA       NA       NA      NA       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA
Oregon......................................     119      112       NA      89.2     88.7    178.0      92       91      183      88.4     86.0    170.9
Pennsylvania................................      90       NA       NA      74.0       NA       NA      72       54      210      64.4     47.8    195.5
Rhode Island................................      83       NA       NA      87.7     80.4    198.9      93       83      206      91.0     82.9    177.6
South Carolina..............................     114       98      140      95.0     76.6    127.0      96       78      123      89.2     72.9    115.8
South Dakota................................      86       74       NA      56.9     48.0       NA      59       48       NA      55.9     45.0       NA
Tennessee...................................     113      102      157     101.8     88.3    165.6     104       87      170      98.6     82.3    158.0
Texas.......................................     137       NA       NA     102.8     96.1    153.6     116      114      142     108.4    106.7    132.9
Utah........................................      95       94       NA      63.0     62.2       NA      58       56       NA      58.0     56.8       NA
Vermont.....................................      95       94       NA      72.1     72.7       NA      65       65       NA      57.7     58.1       NA
Virginia....................................     107       94      152      86.5     70.4    149.1      84       69      138      77.8     62.1    129.3
Washington..................................     122       NA       NA      95.4       NA       NA      88       NA       NA      82.8       NA       NA
West Virginia...............................     104       NA       NA      67.4     66.4    103.9      73       71      133      69.7     68.1    116.1
Wisconsin...................................      85       NA       NA      66.6       NA       NA      59       46      197      57.8     44.9    198.3
Wyoming.....................................     127       NA       NA      62.2       NA       NA      58       NA       NA      52.8     51.8       NA
                                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total...................................     111       NA       NA        NA       NA       NA    98.3       NA       NA      90.7       NA       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.
\2\ Rate is for all races other than white.

NA--Not available.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995, 1998).


                             TABLE G-17.--BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 YEARS, BY RACE AND STATE, 1990 AND 1995-97
                                                       [Births per 1,000 women in specified group]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  1990                         1995                         1996                         1997
                State                -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama.............................        71        55      105      70.3      55.9     99.4      69.2      54.6     96.4      66.6      54.5     90.1
Alaska..............................        65        54       NA      50.3      36.5       NA      46.4      36.2       NA      44.6      33.6       NA
Arizona.............................        76        72      115      75.3      75.6     77.5      73.9      74.4     75.2      69.7      70.0     74.9
Arkansas............................        80        66      132      73.5      62.2    112.2      75.4      65.9    108.1      72.9      63.9    104.2
California..........................        71        74      101      68.2      73.2     85.2      62.6      67.7     76.5      57.3      61.5     71.6
Colorado............................        55        52      106      51.3      50.1     77.1      49.5      48.2     74.7      48.2      47.2     68.8
Connecticut.........................        39        31      103      39.4      33.3     83.8      37.4      31.7     79.5      36.1      30.6     78.2
Delaware............................        55        37      120      57.1      43.2    102.9      56.9      40.0    109.5      55.8      40.3    107.8
District of Columbia................        93        12      121     105.5      25.8    154.8     102.1      29.0    148.9      91.0      22.0    139.4
Florida.............................        69        53      135      61.6      51.0    100.6      58.9      48.8     95.7      57.7      48.0     92.2
Georgia.............................        76        57      116      71.0      55.7    101.4      68.2      55.0     94.6      67.2      54.0     92.6
Hawaii..............................        61        42       NA      48.1      24.1     48.7      48.1      25.3     36.1      43.8      22.0     37.2
Idaho...............................        51        50       NA      49.0      48.9       NA      47.2      46.8       NA      43.3      43.3       NA
Illinois............................        63        44      144      60.0      45.8    126.2      57.1      44.2    117.6      54.7      42.0    115.1
Indiana.............................        59        52      122      57.5      52.2    106.1      56.1      50.7    105.3      54.2      49.5     99.1
Iowa................................        41        39      119      38.6      36.5    116.4      37.8      35.6    107.6      35.7      33.6    104.7
Kansas..............................        56        51      132      52.3      47.4    115.5      49.6      45.5    106.2      48.5      44.5    105.3
Kentucky............................        68        64      116      62.6      59.1    102.2      61.5      57.8    103.4      59.6      56.6     90.9
Louisiana...........................        74        52      109      69.9      48.4    103.6      66.7      47.3     96.9      66.3      48.1     94.0
Maine...............................        43        43       NA      33.7      33.2       NA      31.4      31.2       NA      32.0      31.9       NA
Maryland............................        53        36       96      47.6      33.0     81.4      46.1      31.7     79.0      43.9      30.0     75.0
Massachusetts.......................        35        31       90      34.3      30.5     77.8      32.2      28.7     72.0      31.7      28.0     75.4
Michigan............................        59        43      131      49.2      38.6    100.7      46.5      37.0     93.5      43.9      35.4     88.3
Minnesota...........................        36        31      152      32.4      26.5    121.0      32.1      26.5    120.9      32.0      26.1    119.4
Mississippi.........................        81        56      113      80.5      56.3    108.1      75.5      52.1    102.0      73.7      51.9     98.9
Missouri............................        63        50      144      55.5      47.3    108.7      53.7      45.5    105.9      51.5      44.3     97.8
Montana.............................        48        40       NA      41.9      35.4       NA      38.6      32.8       NA      37.6      31.0       NA
Nebraska............................        42        37      135      37.6      33.7    100.4      38.7      34.7     99.6      37.2      33.3    101.2
Nevada..............................        73        69      129      73.4      72.2    101.7      69.6      67.2    100.2      67.7      65.5     98.0
New Hampshire.......................        33        33       NA      30.6      30.6       NA      28.6      28.4       NA      28.6      28.7       NA
New Jersey..........................        41        28      100      38.0      28.6     85.7      35.4      26.3     81.3      35.0      26.0     79.8
New Mexico..........................        78        76       95      74.4      73.6     68.3      70.9      71.1     55.0      68.4      69.0     54.0
New York............................        44        37       76      43.9      39.1     66.4      41.8      36.4     66.4      38.8      33.2     64.1
North Carolina......................        68        52      107      64.0      51.7     92.6      63.5      51.5     91.2      61.3      51.0     85.6
North Dakota........................        35        29       NA      33.5      28.1       NA      32.3      27.1       NA      30.1      24.7       NA
Ohio................................        58        48      129      53.4      45.5    107.2      50.4      42.9    100.6      49.8      42.1    100.4
Oklahoma............................        67        60      116      64.0      57.4     99.2      63.4      57.9     92.8      64.3      57.9     94.7
Oregon..............................        55        54      108      50.5      50.0     88.4      50.8      50.1     85.7      46.9      46.1     72.4
Pennsylvania........................        45        35      125      41.7      32.9    109.3      39.3      31.4    100.5      37.3      29.4    100.7
Rhode Island........................        44        39      114      42.9      37.4     92.6      42.5      37.5     82.2      42.7      38.2     83.9
South Carolina......................        71        54      101      65.2      51.9     86.2      62.9      49.1     84.5      61.4      48.3     82.7
South Dakota........................        47        35       NA      40.5      30.8       NA      39.5      30.4       NA      39.7      30.1       NA
Tennessee...........................        72        60      121      68.0      57.3    109.5      66.1      56.6    101.8      64.5      55.0     99.5
Texas...............................        75        71      114      75.8      75.2     91.4      73.5      73.0     88.1      71.7      71.4     85.3
Utah................................        49        48       NA      42.3      41.4       NA      42.8      42.2       NA      42.6      41.9       NA
Vermont.............................        34        34       NA      28.6      28.8       NA      30.1      30.5       NA      26.9      27.4       NA
Virginia............................        53        41       99      48.5      38.9     83.1      45.5      36.4     77.6      44.2      35.0     76.0
Washington..........................        53        52       94      47.5      45.8     76.2      45.0      43.7     71.7      42.5      41.4     67.4
West Virginia.......................        57        57       74      52.6      51.7     82.3      50.3      49.4     81.0      49.1      48.5     72.3
Wisconsin...........................        43        31      175      37.8      28.6    132.7      36.8      27.7    129.6      35.9      27.2    127.9
Wyoming.............................        56        55       NA      47.3      45.4       NA      44.0      42.4       NA      43.3      42.4       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.

NA--Not available.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1995); Ventura et al. (1998, 1999a); Martin et al. (1999).



 TABLE G-18.--PERCENTAGE OF BABIES BORN TO WOMEN RECEIVING EARLY CARE, OR LATE OR NO CARE, BY RACE OF CHILD AND
                                     RACE OF MOTHER, SELECTED YEARS, 1970-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Percent born to women        Percent born to women
                                                          beginning care in first      beginning care in third
                         Year                                    trimester           trimester or having no care
                                                       ---------------------------------------------------------
                                                         White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1970 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     72.4     44.4      68.0       6.2     16.6       7.9
1975 \2\ \3\ \4\......................................     75.9     55.8      72.4       5.0     10.5       6.0
1980 \3\..............................................     79.2     62.4      76.3       4.3      8.9       5.1
1981 \3\..............................................     79.3     62.1      76.3       4.3      9.2       5.2
1982 \3\..............................................     79.2     61.1      76.1       4.5      9.7       5.5
1983 \3\..............................................     79.3     61.2      76.2       4.6      9.8       5.6
1984 \3\..............................................     79.6     61.9      76.5       4.7      9.7       5.6
1985..................................................     79.3     61.5      76.2       4.8     10.2       5.7
1986..................................................     79.1     61.2      75.9       5.0     10.7       6.0
1987..................................................     79.3     60.8      76.0       5.0     11.2       6.1
1988..................................................     79.3     60.7      75.9       5.0     11.0       6.1
1989..................................................     78.9     60.0      75.5       5.2     11.9       6.4
1990..................................................     79.2     60.6      75.8       4.9     11.3       6.1
1991..................................................     79.5     61.9      76.2       4.7     10.7       5.8
1992..................................................     80.8     63.9      77.7       4.2      9.9       5.2
1993..................................................     81.8     66.0      78.9       3.9      9.0       4.8
1994..................................................     82.8     68.3      80.2       3.6      8.2       4.4
1995..................................................     83.6     70.4      81.3       3.5      7.6       4.2
1996..................................................     84.0     71.4      81.9       3.3      7.3       4.0
1997..................................................     84.7     72.3      82.5       3.2      7.3       3.9
1998..................................................     84.8     73.3      82.8       3.3      7.0       3.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.
\2\ Figures are by race of child.
\3\ Based on 100 percent of births in selected States and on a 50-percent sample of births in all other States.
\4\ Based on data for 39 States and the District of Columbia in 1970, and based on data for 42 States and the
  District of Columbia in 1975.

Source: Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996); National Center for Health Statistics (1975, 1978, 1999); Ventura et
  al. (2000).


                          TABLE G-19.--ABORTIONS PER 1,000 WOMEN AGED 15-19 BY STATE AND RACE, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1992, AND 1996
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          1980                       1985                        1990                         1992                1996
            State             --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White   Black  Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\   White    Black   Total \1\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama......................        32       NA      NA        32       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      20.7      18.2     25.8      18.7
Alaska.......................        43       NA      NA        59       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA      15.9
Arizona......................        41       39      41        43       46      27      26.3      27.6     38.4      21.5      22.4     38.5      13.5
Arkansas.....................        25       26      23        23       23      21      18.3      16.6     25.2      15.3      13.9     20.6      14.2

California...................        69       60     150        79       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA
Colorado.....................        49       43      76        51       49      84      27.7        NA       NA      21.4        NA       NA      16.7
Connecticut..................        40       NA      NA        52       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA      39.3        NA       NA      31.8
Delaware.....................        40       NA      NA        37       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA

District of Columbia \2\.....       114       NA      NA       113       NA      NA     162.1        NA       NA      92.3        NA       NA        NA
Florida......................        55       NA      NA        51       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA
Georgia......................        41       42      36        44       42      46      35.3      29.6     46.3      32.3      24.7     47.7      26.1
Hawaii.......................        41       40      NA        61       59      62      27.0        NA       NA      32.9      31.9       NA      27.8

Idaho........................        23       23      NA        21       21      NA       8.2       8.2       NA       8.0       8.0       NA       5.0
Illinois.....................        31       25      40        38       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA      28.3
Indiana......................        30       27      53        24       21      47      15.7      13.6     35.6      13.5      11.6     30.8      13.3
Iowa.........................        25       NA      NA        25       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA

Kansas.......................        30       29      44        23       23      28      25.0      23.7     49.2      31.3      20.1     74.5      25.9
Kentucky.....................        22       NA      NA        16       NA      NA      23.4      20.8     48.3      17.0      14.8     37.8      10.5
Louisiana....................        24       22      28        22       21      24      17.8      16.7     19.6      16.1      14.0     20.2      13.8
Maine........................        27       27      NA        36       36      NA      25.4      24.9       NA      15.3      15.0       NA      14.2

Maryland.....................        64       59      76        59       51      77      31.4      25.4     46.3      28.2      19.0     41.6      15.4
Massachusetts................        47       NA      NA        45       NA      NA      36.0        NA       NA      31.5        NA       NA      24.8
Michigan.....................        44       NA      NA        50       NA      NA      26.1        NA       NA      23.1        NA       NA      17.7
Minnesota....................        31       31      81        24       23      47      25.7      24.7     67.7      19.2      17.8     55.6      15.6

Mississippi..................        22       27      16        19       22      15      16.8      16.1     17.8      16.6      14.7     19.0       7.2
Missouri.....................        34       29      61        29       25      55      19.7      14.5     53.6      14.8      10.4     42.1      11.2
Montana......................        32       32      NA        28       29      NA      33.3        NA       NA      24.0      23.8       NA      19.2
Nebraska.....................        24       NA      NA        27       NA      NA      31.9        NA       NA      22.2        NA       NA      18.0

Nevada.......................        67       67      66        57       58      45      34.2      36.9     27.5      34.7      36.3     34.0      24.4
New Hampshire................        37       NA      NA        46       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA
New Jersey...................        49       41      85        63       38     170      34.6      24.6     82.0      30.5      15.2     78.5      24.5
New Mexico...................        36       35      NA        30       33      12      22.3      24.0     20.9      21.5      22.7     25.2      16.9

New York.....................        54       42     107        64       49     120      49.3      38.7     90.8      51.3      38.3    102.1      48.9
North Carolina...............        38       35      43        41       38      48      38.8      34.3     60.7      35.1      29.9     47.6      27.2
North Dakota.................        23       22      NA        17       18      NA      21.0      21.2       NA      16.0      17.2       NA      13.4
Ohio.........................        35       30      64        33       28      59      16.6      12.9     40.6      16.7        NA       NA      16.1

Oklahoma.....................        27       27      32        29       NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        NA
Oregon.......................        52       49      NA        41       41      37      34.6      34.7     70.0      27.8      27.2     68.1      26.9
Pennsylvania.................        38       NA      NA        35       NA      NA      29.7        NA       NA      28.5      18.9     84.2      18.1
Rhode Island.................        40       NA      NA        40       NA      NA      43.8      41.7     84.6      40.6      37.9     80.7      34.3

South Carolina...............        33       36      27        26       30      20      23.6      22.3     25.9      17.7      16.3     19.9      14.4
South Dakota.................        21       20      NA        18       18      NA      10.1      11.0       NA      11.1      11.5       NA       8.4
Tennessee....................        33       33      33        29       29      31      29.5      25.0     44.4      22.7      18.9     38.3      19.2
Texas........................        44       NA      NA        39       NA      NA      27.4      25.5     39.6      24.8      23.2     35.4      23.3

Utah.........................        15       14      NA        15       14      NA      14.5      14.4       NA       9.4       8.8       NA       7.0
Vermont......................        43       43      NA        36       36      NA      38.0      36.4       NA      33.0      32.8       NA      24.6
Virginia.....................        45       44      48        45       43      49      33.6      29.3     50.6      27.3      23.4     41.8      23.4
Washington...................        60       NA      NA        46       44      62      42.2        NA       NA      34.2        NA       NA      27.6

West Virginia................        20       NA      NA        19       NA      NA      10.0       9.4     29.5      10.2       9.1     39.0       9.0
Wisconsin \2\................        34       NA      NA        25       NA      NA      24.0        NA       NA      18.7      15.5     59.8      13.6
Wyoming......................        29       NA      NA        30       NA      NA       5.9        NA       NA       4.1        NA       NA       2.2
                              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total....................        43       38      NA        44       38      71        NA        NA       NA        NA        NA       NA        22
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes races other than white and black.
\2\ Data for 1992 and 1996 include residents only.

NA--Not available.

Note.--Legal induced abortion data are by State of occurrence because abortion data by State of residence are not available for all States. Caution
  should therefore be exercised when comparing rates from State to State and over time. Rates are not available for 10 States in 1990 and 8 States in
  1992 because age-specific abortion data were not available. Rates by race are not available for States that did not report abortion information by
  race. Rates were not computed if age or race information for more than 15 percent of the abortions was not reported, or if there were fewer than 20
  abortions or fewer than 1,000 women in the group.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service (1993, 1995, 1999); Lewis, Mathews, & Heuser (1996).


   TABLE G-20.--INFANT, NEONATAL, AND POSTNEONATAL MORTALITY RATES, BY
                    RACE,\1\ SELECTED YEARS, 1940-98
                 [Mortality rates per 1,000 live births]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Year                 All races      White        Black
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Infant mortality rate: \2\
    1940.........................         47.0         43.2         72.9
    1950.........................         29.2         26.8         43.9
    1960.........................         26.0         22.9         44.3
    1970.........................         20.0         17.8         32.6
    1980.........................         12.6         10.9         22.2
    1985.........................         10.6          9.2         19.0
    1986.........................         10.4          8.8         18.9
    1987.........................         10.1          8.5         18.8
    1988.........................         10.0          8.4         18.5
    1989.........................          9.8          8.1         18.6
    1990.........................          9.2          7.6         18.0
    1991.........................          8.9          7.3         17.6
    1992.........................          8.5          6.9         16.8
    1993.........................          8.4          6.8         16.5
    1994.........................          8.0          6.6         15.8
    1995.........................          7.6          6.3         15.1
    1996.........................          7.3          6.1         14.7
    1997.........................          7.2          6.0         14.2
    1998 \3\.....................          7.2          6.0         14.1
Neonatal mortality rate: \4\
    1940.........................         28.8         27.2         39.9
    1950.........................         20.5         19.4         27.8
    1960.........................         18.7         17.2         27.8
    1970.........................         15.1         13.8         22.8
    1980.........................          8.5          7.4         14.6
    1985.........................          7.0          6.0         12.6
    1986.........................          6.7          5.7         12.3
    1987.........................          6.5          5.4         12.3
    1988.........................          6.3          5.3         12.1
    1989.........................          6.2          5.1         11.9
    1990.........................          5.8          4.8         11.6
    1991.........................          5.6          4.5         11.2
    1992.........................          5.4          4.3         10.8
    1993.........................          5.3          4.3         10.7
    1994.........................          5.1          4.2         10.2
    1995.........................          4.9          4.1          9.8
    1996.........................          4.8          4.0          9.6
    1997.........................          4.8          4.0          9.4
    1998 \3\.....................          4.8          4.0          9.3
Postneonatal mortality rate: \5\
    1940.........................         18.3         16.0         33.0
    1950.........................          8.7          7.4         16.1
    1960.........................          7.3          5.7         16.5
    1970.........................          4.9          4.0          9.9
    1980.........................          4.1          3.5          7.6
    1985.........................          3.7          3.2          6.4
    1986.........................          3.6          3.1          6.6
    1987.........................          3.6          3.1          6.4
    1988.........................          3.6          3.1          6.5
    1989.........................          3.6          2.9          6.7
    1990.........................          3.4          2.8          6.4
    1991.........................          3.4          2.8          6.3
    1992.........................          3.1          2.6          6.0
    1993.........................          3.1          2.5          5.8
    1994.........................          2.9          2.4          5.6
    1995.........................          2.7          2.2          5.3
    1996.........................          2.5          2.1          5.1
    1997.........................          2.5          2.0          4.8
    1998 \3\.....................          2.4          2.0          4.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ As of 1989, race for live births (the denominator of infant
  mortality rates) is tabulated according to race of mother. For all
  prior years, race is tabulated according to race of child.
\2\ Deaths before the age of one.
\3\ Based on preliminary data.
\4\ Deaths under 28 days.
\5\ Deaths from 28 days to 11 months.

Source: Gardner & Hudson (1996); National Center for Health Statistics
  (1999); Martin et al. (1999).


  TABLE G-21.--ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) CASES, ACCORDING TO AGE AT DIAGNOSIS, SEX, DETAILED RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN, SELECTED YEARS
                                                                         1985-98
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 All years \1\                                           Number, by year of report                                 12
                              ------------------           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  months
 Age at diagnosis, sex, race,                    All years                                                                                       ending
     and  Hispanic origin           Percent         \1\       1985      1990      1993      1994      1995      1996      1997    January-June  June 30,
                               distribution \2\                                                                                       1998      1998 \3\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Male:
    All males, 13 years and           100.0        536,198     7,510    36,283    85,266    62,811    57,061    52,553    45,291      18,423        38.5
     older...................
    White, non-Hispanic......          50.6        271,446     4,755    20,881    43,256    29,497    26,206    23,173    17,557       7,181        20.0
    Black, non-Hispanic......          33.1        177,356     1,708    10,267    28,354    22,446    20,945    20,069    18,785       7,595       145.3
    Hispanic \4\.............          15.1         80,987       991     4,762    12,624    10,083     9,172     8,581     8,248       3,326        67.2
    American Indian or Alaska           0.3          1,527         7        81       310       207       197       169       165          51        18.1
     Native \5\..............
    Asian or Pacific Islander           0.8          4,184        49       263       662       525       486       481       380         168        10.0
     \5\.....................
    13-19 years..............           0.4          1,924        28       107       361       226       228       204       183          81         1.1
    20-29 years..............          16.5         88,475     1,504     6,943    14,629     9,691     8,426     7,071     5,791       2,223        27.2
    30-39 years..............          45.8        245,361     3,588    16,718    38,909    28,942    25,842    23,842    20,185       7,992        82.2
    40-49 years..............          26.6        142,559     1,634     8,854    22,863    17,197    16,273    15,479    13,627       5,702        57.6
    50-59 years..............           8.0         42,793       597     2,650     6,407     5,060     4,721     4,432     4,124       1,783        29.4
    60 years and older.......           2.8         15,086       159     1,011     2,097     1,695     1,571     1,525     1,381         642         7.0
Female:
    All females, 13 years and         100.0         99,259       523     4,534    15,943    13,310    13,032    13,192    12,515       5,401        10.2
     older...................
    White, non-Hispanic......          23.6         23,448       142     1,225     4,043     3,081     3,060     2,867     2,474       1,012         2.6
    Black, non-Hispanic......          59.0         58,523       279     2,546     9,105     7,851     7,624     8,104     7,845       3,447        54.1
    Hispanic \4\.............          16.4         16,299        99       732     2,629     2,284     2,230     2,074     2,040         859        17.6
    American Indian or Alaska           0.3            294         2         8        61        40        38        43        35          15         4.5
     Native \5\..............
    Asian or Pacific Islander           0.5            537         1        19        97        50        71        80        64          31         1.6
     \5\.....................
    13-19 years..............           1.2          1,230         4        66       200       174       156       177       176          84         1.3
    20-29 years..............          22.1         21,958       178     1,117     3,721     2,944     2,678     2,684     2,427         990        12.0
    30-39 years..............          45.6         45,260       232     2,079     7,526     6,001     5,966     5,907     5,496       2,297        22.5
    40-49 years..............          21.9         21,718        45       781     3,217     3,081     3,080     3,265     3,248       1,466        15.2
    50-59 years..............           6.0          5,936        26       272       848       768       816       833       818         414         5.9
    60 years and older.......           3.2          3,157        38       219       431       342       336       326       350         150         1.3
Children:
    All children, under 13            100.0          7,893       128       723       873       971       746       653       448         190         0.7
     years...................
    White, non-Hispanic......          18.5          1,463        26       158       153       143       117        95        63          36         0.2
    Black, non-Hispanic......          60.9          4,810        84       388       535       633       483       428       292         116         3.1
    Hispanic \4\.............          19.4          1,533        18       168       175       180       135       125        86          37         0.9
    American Indian or Alaska           0.3             27     (\6\)         5         3         2         2         3         2       (\6\)         0.2
     Native \5\..............
    Asian or Pacific Islander           0.6             45     (\6\)         4         4        11         5         1         3           1         0.2
     \5\.....................
    Under 1 year.............          39.7          3,134        63       316       352       350       271       219       131          55         2.7
    1-12 years...............          60.3          4,759        65       407       521       621       475       434       317         135         0.6
                              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races....................            NA        643,350     8,161    41,540   102,082    77,092    70,839    66,398    58,254      24,014        19.6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes cases prior to 1985 and through June 30, 1998.
\2\ Percents may not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.
\3\ Cases per 100,000 population. Computed using official post-Census resident population estimates for 1997 from the U.S. Census Bureau.
\4\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
\5\ Excludes persons of Hispanic origin.
\6\ Quantity zero.

NA--Not applicable.

Note.--The AIDS case reporting definitions were expanded in 1985, 1987, and 1993. See Appendix II. Excludes data for U.S. dependencies and possessions
  and independent nations in free association with the United States. Data are updated periodically because of reporting delays. Data for all years have
  been updated through June 30, 1998, and may differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Similar data as of December 31, 1998, are
  available in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Year-end edition, Vol. 10 No. 2, 1998.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999).


    TABLE G-22.--TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, AND DRUG USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS BY SUBSTANCE AND FREQUENCY OF USE,
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1975-99
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Class of
             Substance and frequency of use              -------------------------------------------------------
                                                           1975   1980   1985   1992   1993   1995   1997   1999
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Percentage reporting having ever used drugs
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
Cigarettes..............................................   73.6   71.0   68.8   61.8   61.9   64.2   65.4   64.6
Alcohol \1\.............................................   90.4   93.2   92.2   87.5   80.0   80.7   81.7   80.0
Any illicit drug........................................   55.2   65.4   60.6   40.7   42.9   48.4   54.3   54.7
    Marijuana only......................................   19.0   26.7   20.9   15.6   16.2   20.3   24.3   25.3
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...........   36.2   38.7   39.7   25.1   26.7   28.1   30.0   29.4
Selected illicit drugs:
    Cocaine.............................................    9.0   15.7   17.3    6.1    6.1    6.0    8.7    9.8
    Heroin..............................................    2.2    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.6    2.1    2.0
    LSD.................................................   11.3    9.3    7.5    8.6   10.3   11.7   13.6   12.2
    Marijuana/hashish...................................   47.3   60.3   54.2   32.6   35.3   41.7   49.6   49.7
    PCP.................................................     NA    9.6    4.9    2.4    2.9    2.7    3.9    3.4
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Percentage reporting use of drugs in the previous 30
                                                                                   days
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
Cigarettes..............................................   36.7   30.5   30.1   27.8   29.9   33.5   36.5   34.6
Alcohol \1\.............................................   68.2   72.0   65.9   51.3   48.6   51.3   52.7   51.0
Any illicit drug........................................   30.7   37.2   29.7   14.4   18.3   23.8   26.2   25.9
    Marijuana only......................................   15.3   18.8   14.8    8.1   10.4   13.8   15.5   15.5
    Any illicit drug other than marijuana \2\...........   15.4   18.4   14.9    6.3    7.9   10.0   10.7   10.4
Selected illicit drugs:
    Cocaine.............................................    1.9    5.2    6.7    1.3    1.3    1.8    2.3    2.6
    Heroin..............................................    0.4    0.2    0.3    0.3    0.2    0.6    0.5    0.5
    LSD.................................................    2.3    2.3    1.6    2.0    2.4    4.0    3.1    2.7
    Marijuana/hashish...................................   27.1   33.7   25.7   11.9   15.5   21.2   23.7   23.1
    PCP.................................................     NA    1.4    1.6    0.6    1.0    0.6    0.7    0.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In 1993, the question text was changed slightly in three of six forms to indicate that a ``drink'' meant
  ``more than a few sips.'' Data for 1993 and years after are based on all six forms which include this change.
\2\ Other illicit drugs include hallucinogens, cocaine, and heroin, or any other opiates, stimulants, sedatives,
  or tranquilizers not prescribed by a doctor.

 NA--Not available.

 Note.--A revised questionnaire was used in 1982 and later years to reduce the inappropriate reporting of
  nonprescription stimulants. This slightly reduced the positive responses for some types of drug use.

Source: Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman (1999).


                 TABLE G-23.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25, SELECTED YEARS 1950-98
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Sex, race and age                1950      1960      1970      1980      1990      1991      1993      1995      1996      1997      1998
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All races:
    Under 1 year..........................   3,299.2   2,696.4   2,142.4   1,288.3     971.9     916.6     854.4     768.8     755.7     738.7     754.3
    1-4 years.............................     139.4     109.1      84.5      63.9      46.8      47.4      44.8      40.6      38.3      38.3      34.4
    5-14 years............................      60.1      46.6      41.3      30.6      24.0      23.6      23.4      22.5      21.7      20.8      19.8
    15-24 years...........................     128.1     106.3     127.7     115.4      99.2     100.1      98.5      95.3      89.6      86.2      81.4
White males:
    Under 1 year..........................   3,400.5   2,694.1   2,113.2   1,230.3     896.1     860.3     773.0     717.5     683.6     678.1     682.4
    1-4 years.............................     135.5     104.9      83.6      66.1      45.9      45.5      42.9      38.8      37.1      35.1      32.4
    5-14 years............................      67.2      52.7      48.0      35.0      26.4      26.5      25.2      24.5      23.2      22.1      21.0
    15-24 years...........................     152.4     143.7     170.8     167.0     131.3     128.2     123.0     122.3     113.9     109.0     106.4
Black males:
    Under 1 year..........................        NA   5,306.8   4,298.9   2,586.7   2,112.4   1,957.4   1,922.2   1,590.8   1,748.2   1,671.6   1,692.5
    1-4 years.............................        NA     208.5     150.5     110.5      85.8      88.4      86.1      77.5      71.4      67.2      68.8
    5-14 years............................      95.1      75.1      67.1      47.4      41.7      42.4      40.5      40.2      38.1      34.8      34.9
    15-24 years...........................     289.7     212.0     320.6     209.1     252.2     278.1     289.4     249.2     233.0     215.8     193.5
White females:
    Under 1 year..........................   2,566.8   2,007.7   1,614.6     962.5     690.0     659.2     617.5     571.6     558.0     546.0     570.6
    1-4 years.............................     112.2      85.2      66.1      49.3      36.1      37.6      33.6      31.2      28.5      28.0      27.2
    5-14 years............................      45.1      34.7      29.9      22.9      17.9      17.2      17.3      16.6      16.4      15.6      15.2
    15-24 years...........................      71.5      54.9      61.6      55.5      45.9      46.6      44.4      44.3      42.7      43.8      40.9
Black females:
    Under 1 year..........................        NA   4,162.2   3,368.8   2,123.7   1,735.5   1,580.8   1,543.2   1,342.0   1,444.0   1,383.9   1,363.0
    1-4 years.............................        NA     173.3     129.4      84.4      67.6      70.8      71.9      62.9      63.7      51.0      53.9
    5-14 years............................      72.2      53.8      43.8      30.5      27.5      25.8      29.5      26.5      25.9      27.2      22.9
    15-24 years...........................     213.1     107.5     111.9      70.5      68.7      72.6      73.3      70.3      66.8      62.0      57.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA--Not available.

Note.--Death rates under 1 year (based on population estimates) differ from infant mortality rates (based on live births).

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999); Martin et al. (1999).



  TABLE G-24. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE FOR PERSONS UNDER AGE 25,
                                             SELECTED YEARS 1950-97
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year
                 Sex, race and age                  ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      1950   1960   1970    1980   1990    1993    1996    1997
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:
  Under 1 year.....................................    8.4    8.1     9.8    7.0     4.9     4.9     5.7     4.3
  1-4 years........................................   11.5   10.0    11.5    9.2     6.3     5.6     5.3     5.0
  5-14 years.......................................    8.8    7.9    10.2    7.9     5.9     5.3     5.2     5.1
  15-24 years......................................   34.4   38.0    47.2   44.8    34.1    29.1    29.2    27.9

Race and sex (15-24 years):
  White male.......................................   58.3   62.7    75.2   73.8    52.5    43.8    42.2    39.8
  Black male.......................................   41.6   46.4    58.1   34.9    36.1    34.3    35.2    32.7
  White female.....................................   12.6   15.6    22.7   23.0    19.5    17.1    18.1    18.4
  Black female.....................................   11.5    9.9    13.4    8.0     9.9    10.6    13.3    11.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999).




  TABLE G-25. DEATH RATES PER 100,000 FOR HOMICIDE AND LEGAL INTERVENTION ACCORDING TO SEX, RACE AND AGE IN THE
                                      UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-97
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year
                 Sex, race, and age                 ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      1950   1960   1970    1980   1990    1993    1995    1997
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:
  5-14 years.......................................    0.5    0.5     0.9    1.2     1.5     1.8     1.5     1.2
  15-24 years......................................    6.3    5.9    11.7   15.6    19.9    23.4    20.3    16.8

Race and sex (15-24 years):
  White male.......................................    3.7    4.4     7.9   15.5    15.4    17.1    16.5    13.2
  Black male.......................................   58.9   46.4   102.5   84.3   138.3   167.0   132.0   113.3
  White female.....................................    1.3    1.5     2.7    4.7     4.0     4.2     4.0     3.2
  Black female.....................................   16.5   11.9    17.7   18.4    18.9    22.0    16.8    13.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999).


TABLE G-26.--DEATH RATES PER 100,000 BY SUICIDE BY SEX, RACE, AND AGE IN THE UNITED STATES, SELECTED YEARS 1950-
                                                       97
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Year
                 Sex, race and age                  ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1950  1960   1970   1980   1990   1991   1993   1995   1997
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age:
  5-14 years.......................................   0.2   0.3    0.3    0.4    0.8    0.7    0.9    0.9    0.8
  15-24 years......................................   4.5   5.2    8.8   12.3   13.2   13.1   13.5   13.3   11.4
Race and sex (15-24 years):
  White male.......................................   6.6   8.6   13.9   21.4   23.2   23.0   23.1   23.5   19.5
  Black male.......................................   4.9   4.1   10.5   12.3   15.1   16.4   20.1   18.0   16.0
  White female.....................................   2.7   2.3    4.2    4.6    4.2    4.2    4.3    3.9    3.7
  Black female.....................................   1.8   1.3    3.8    2.3    2.3    1.6    2.7    2.2    2.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1999).


                         TABLE G-27.--MEAN SAT SCORES FOR COLLEGE-BOUND SENIORS, 1972-99
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Verbal                      Math
                           Year                            -----------------------------------------------------
                                                             Males   Females   Total    Males   Females   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1972......................................................      531      529      530      527      489      509
1973......................................................      523      521      523      525      489      506
1974......................................................      524      520      521      524      488      505
1975......................................................      515      509      512      518      479      498
1976......................................................      511      508      509      520      475      497
1977......................................................      509      505      507      520      474      496
1978......................................................      511      503      507      517      474      494
1979......................................................      509      501      505      516      473      493
1980......................................................      506      498      502      515      473      492
1981......................................................      508      496      502      516      473      492
1982......................................................      509      499      504      516      473      493
1983......................................................      508      498      503      516      474      494
1984......................................................      511      498      504      518      478      497
1985......................................................      514      503      509      522      480      500
1986......................................................      515      504      509      523      479      500
1987......................................................      512      502      507      523      481      501
1988......................................................      512      499      505      521      483      501
1989......................................................      510      498      504      523      482      502
1990......................................................      505      496      500      521      483      501
1991......................................................      503      495      499      520      482      500
1992......................................................      504      496      500      521      484      501
1993......................................................      504      497      500      524      484      503
1994......................................................      501      497      499      523      487      504
1995......................................................      505      502      504      525      490      506
1996......................................................      507      503      505      527      492      508
1997......................................................      507      503      505      530      494      511
1998......................................................      509      502      505      531      496      512
1999......................................................      509      502      505      531      495      511
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--For 1972-86, a formula was applied to the original mean and standard deviation to convert the mean to the
  recentered scale. For 1987-95, individual student scores were converted to the recentered scale and then the
  mean was recomputed. For 1996-99 most students received scores on the recentered scale. (Any score on the
  original scale was converted to the recentered scale prior to recomputing the mean.)

Source: College Board (1999).


                 TABLE G-28.--EVENT DROPOUT RATES FROM GRADES 10-12 BY SEX AND RACE, 1972-98 \1\
                                                  [In percent]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Sex              Race/ethnicity \1\
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
                        Year                            Total                         White     Black
                                                                  Male     Female     non-      non-    Hispanic
                                                                                    Hispanic  Hispanic
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1972................................................       6.1       5.9       6.3       5.3       9.5      11.2
1973................................................       6.3       6.8       5.7       5.5       9.9      10.0
1974................................................       6.7       7.4       6.0       5.8      11.6       9.9
1975................................................       5.8       5.4       6.1       5.0       8.7      10.9
1976................................................       5.9       6.6       5.2       5.6       7.4       7.3
1977................................................       6.5       6.9       6.1       6.1       8.6       7.8
1978................................................       6.7       7.5       5.9       5.8      10.2      12.3
1979................................................       6.7       6.8       6.7       6.0       9.9       9.8
1980................................................       6.1       6.7       5.5       5.2       8.2      11.7
1981................................................       5.9       6.0       5.8       4.8       9.7      10.7
1982................................................       5.5       5.8       5.1       4.7       7.8       9.2
1983................................................       5.2       5.8       4.7       4.4       7.0      10.1
1984................................................       5.1       5.4       4.8       4.4       5.7      11.1
1985................................................       5.2       5.4       5.0       4.3       7.8       9.8
1986................................................       4.7       4.7       4.7       3.7       5.4      11.9
1987 \2\............................................       4.1       4.3       3.8       3.5       6.4       5.4
1988 \2\............................................       4.8       5.1       4.4       4.2       5.9      10.4
1989 \2\............................................       4.5       4.5       4.5       3.5       7.8       7.8
1990 \2\............................................       4.0       4.0       3.9       3.3       5.0       7.9
1991 \2\............................................       4.1       3.8       4.2       3.2       6.0       7.3
1992 \2\ \3\........................................       4.4       3.9       4.9       3.7       5.0       8.2
1993 \2\ \3\........................................       4.5       4.6       4.3       3.9       5.8       6.7
1994 \2\ \3\ \4\....................................       5.3       5.2       5.4       4.2       6.6      10.0
1995 \2\ \3\ \4\....................................       5.7       6.2       5.3       4.5       6.4      12.4
1996 \2\ \3\ \4\....................................       5.0       5.0       5.1       4.1       6.7       9.0
1997 \2\ \3\ \4\....................................       4.6       5.0       4.1       3.6       5.0       9.5
1998 \2\ \3\ \4\....................................       4.8       4.6       4.9       3.9       5.2       9.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Due to relatively small sample sizes, American Indians/Alaska Natives and Asians/Pacific Islanders are
  included in the total but are not shown separately.
\2\ Numbers for these years reflect new editing procedures beginning in 1987 instituted by the U.S. Census
  Bureau for cases with missing data on school enrollment items.
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new wording of the educational attainment in the Current Population Survey
  (CPS) beginning in 1992.
\4\ Numbers in these years reflect changes in the CPS beginning in 1994 due to newly instituted computer-
  assisted interviewing and the change in the population controls used in the 1990 Census-based estimates, with
  adjustments for undercounting in the 1990 Census.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1999).


 TABLE G-29.--HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATES FOR 18-24 YEAR OLDS, BY RACE/
                           ETHNICITY, 1972-98
                              [In percent]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Race/ethnicity \1\
                                        --------------------------------
            Year                Total    White non- Black non-
                                          Hispanic   Hispanic   Hispanic
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1972........................       82.8       86.0       72.1       56.2
1973........................       83.7       87.0       71.6       58.7
1974........................       83.6       86.7       73.0       60.1
1975........................       83.8       87.2       70.2       62.2
1976........................       83.5       86.4       73.5       60.3
1977........................       83.6       86.7       73.9       58.6
1978........................       83.6       86.9       73.4       58.8
1979........................       83.1       86.6       72.6       58.5
1980........................       83.9       87.5       75.2       57.1
1981........................       83.8       87.1       76.7       59.1
1982........................       83.8       87.0       76.4       60.9
1983........................       83.9       87.4       76.8       59.4
1984........................       84.7       87.5       80.3       63.7
1985........................       85.4       88.2       81.0       66.6
1986........................       85.5       88.8       81.8       63.5
1987 \2\....................       84.7       87.7       81.9       65.1
1988 \2\....................       84.5       88.7       80.9       58.2
1989 \2\....................       84.7       89.0       81.9       59.4
1990 \2\....................       85.6       89.6       83.2       59.1
1991 \2\....................       84.9       89.4       82.5       56.5
1992 \2\ \3\................       86.4       90.7       82.0       62.1
1993 \2\ \3\................       86.2       90.1       81.9       64.4
1994 \2\ \3\ \4\............       85.8       90.7       83.3       61.8
1995 \2\ \3\ \4\............       85.3       89.8       84.5       62.8
1996 \2\ \3\ \4\............       86.2       91.5       83.0       61.9
1997 \2\ \3\ \4\............       85.9       90.5       82.0       66.7
1998 \2\ \3\ \4\............       84.8       90.2       81.4       62.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Not shown separately are non-Hispanics who are neither black nor
  white, but who are included in the total.
\2\ Revisions in edits were instituted by the U.S. Census Bureau this
  year for cases with missing data on school enrollment items.
\3\ Numbers for these years reflect new wording of the educational
  attainment item in the Current Population Survey.
\4\ Numbers in these years reflect changes in CPS due to newly
  instituted computer assisted interviewing and/or due to the change in
  the population controls used to adjust for the 1990 Census-based
  estimates.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics (1999).


    TABLE G-30.--TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND INCOME COMPOSITION OF FEMALE-HEADED FAMILIES WITH
                                         CHILDREN, 1987, 1993, AND 1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Poor \1\                   Nonpoor \1\                    Total
          Category           -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                1987     1993     1998     1987      1993      1998      1987     1993     1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in          3,525    4,361    3,660     4,082     4,969     5,682    7,607    9,329    9,342
 thousands).................
Family characteristics:
    Percent never married...     35.6     43.2     47.5      15.2      20.9        29     24.6     31.3     36.2
    Percent with head age 15-     2.7      3.7      3.4       0.4       0.6       1.3      1.5        2      2.1
     19.....................
    Percent with head age 20-    35.9     36.9     34.9      17.8      15.3      18.7     26.2     25.4       25
     29.....................
    Percent with head 30 and     61.4     59.4     61.6      81.7      84.2      80.1     72.3     72.6     72.8
     older..................
    Percent white non-           42.5     41.4       42      66.5      63.5      61.2     55.3     53.2     53.6
     Hispanic \2\...........
    Percent black non-           41.9     40.8     37.5        25      26.6      27.1     32.9     33.2     31.1
     Hispanic...............
    Percent Hispanic........     15.6     17.8     20.6       8.5       9.9      11.8     11.8     13.6     15.2
    Average family size.....      3.4      3.4      3.4       3.1         3         3      3.2      3.2      3.2
Percent with income from:
    Earnings \3\............     47.7     49.7     64.7      96.6      94.5      96.5       74     73.5     84.1
    Social Security.........     10.9      8.6     10.6      16.7        16        13       14     12.5     12.1
    Pensions................      1.4      1.1        1       5.6       5.8       4.8      3.7      3.6      3.3
    Unemployment                    4      4.6      4.6       5.8         8       5.3        5      6.5        5
     compensation...........
    Workers' compensation,        1.4      1.8        1       3.8         4       2.3      2.6      2.9      1.8
     disability.............
    Veterans Administration.      0.9      0.6      0.4       2.5         1         1      1.7      0.8      0.7
    Supplemental Security         7.3      9.6     10.7       3.3         6       4.7      5.1      7.7        7
     Income.................
    Aid to Families with         60.2     60.2     38.6       8.8      11.8       6.9     32.7     34.4     19.4
     Dependent Children
     (AFDC), TANF, other
     public assistance......
    Child support, alimony..     17.8     20.5     17.8      37.8      38.8      39.5     28.6     30.2       31
    Interest, dividends \3\.     11.1     10.3     10.8      53.9      51.7      48.2       34     32.3     33.5
    Food stamps.............     67.5     71.9     56.7       8.4      16.7        13     35.8     42.5     30.1
    School lunch............     63.1     65.5     68.2      54.4      57.3      62.7     58.4     61.1     64.9
    Housing assistance......     31.8     33.7     32.5       7.5       7.3       8.6     18.8     19.6       18
Percent of total income
 from:
    Earnings \3\............     26.6     25.1     41.1      79.5      76.8      80.7     69.2     65.7     74.5
    Social Security.........      6.5      4.7      5.7       4.5       4.5       3.6      4.9      4.6      3.9
    Pensions................      0.6      0.3      0.5       2.2       1.9       1.5      1.9      1.5      1.4
    Unemployment                  0.6      0.9      0.8       0.4       0.8       0.4      0.4      0.8      0.5
     compensation...........
    Workers' compensation,        0.3      0.7      0.3       0.5       0.8       0.4      0.5      0.7      0.4
     disability.............
    Veterans Administration.      0.3      0.3      0.2       0.3       0.2       0.3      0.3      0.2      0.3
    Supplemental Security         3.4      4.5      5.2       0.5       1.1       0.8      1.1      1.8      1.5
     Income.................
    AFDC, TANF, other public     32.9     26.1     12.9       1.3       1.6       0.7      7.5      6.8      2.6
     assistance.............
    Child support, alimony..      3.5      3.5      3.5         6       6.2       5.9      5.5      5.7      5.5
    Interest, dividends \3\.      0.3      0.3      0.3       2.4       2.8       2.3        2      2.2        2
    Food stamps \4\.........     17.4     17.3     13.3       0.3       0.8       0.6      3.7      4.3      2.6
    School lunch \4\........      4.7      3.8      4.1       0.5       0.5       0.5      1.3      1.2      1.1
    Housing assistance \4\..      0.9      9.9      9.2         0       0.3       0.3      0.2      2.3      1.7
Mean income per family         $2,847   $3,081   $3,007   $11,396   $11,021   $11,607   $7,232   $7,170   $8,058
 member \5\ (1998 dollars)..
Percent with 50 percent or       58.1     61.1     42.8       2.1       2.9       1.7     28.1     30.1     17.8
 more of income from public
 assistance \5\.............
Percent with 90 percent or       39.1     37.2     22.1       0.4       0.7       0.3     18.3     17.8     8.8
 more of income from public
 assistance \5\.............
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official U.S. Census Bureau poverty levels.    \2\ Includes ``other races.''    \3\ Negative
  incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.    \4\ The cash values of food stamps and housing assistance were
  estimated using their market values. Their cash values are excluded from total income for purposes of
  determining poverty status. Cash values of food stamps and housing assistance are included in total income for
  calculating the percentage share of total income.    \5\ Includes cash values of food stamps and housing
  assistance, and includes negative incomes (i.e., losses). 1988 income converted to 1993 dollars using the CPI-
  X1 Price Index.

Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.

Source: Table prepared by Congressional Research Service based on data from March 1989, 1994, and 1999 Current
  Population Survey.


 TABLE G-31.--PERCENT OF MALE-PRESENT FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN WITH INCOME FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, BY THE RATIO OF TOTAL INCOME TO THE POVERTY THRESHOLD,\1\
                                                                          1998
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Ratio of total income to poverty threshold
                                             ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                         3.00    Poor   Nonpoor   Total
                                              Under  0.50-0.74  0.75-0.99  1.00-1.24  1.25-1.49  1.50-1.99  2.00-2.99    and
                                               0.50                                                                      over
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of families (in thousands)...........    669      631        903        931       1,199      2,666      5,391    16,024   2,204   26,210   28,414
Earnings \2\................................   66.1     87.9       93.6       97.4        95.9       97.7       99.1      99.8    83.6     99.2     98.0
Social Security.............................    6.8     12.7       11.4       11.4        11.0        7.8        7.7       4.1    10.4      5.8      6.1
Pensions....................................    1.4      1.1        1.1        1.5         3.2        2.8        3.8       4.2     1.1      3.8      3.6
Unemployment compensation...................    3.1      7.6        8.1        7.3        10.9        8.6        8.3       5.9     6.4      6.9      6.9
Disability..................................    3.4      3.1        3.4        3.6         4.2        3.9        4.0       2.8     3.3      3.2      3.2
Veterans Administration.....................    0.3      0.8        0.6        0.9         1.4        1.2        1.4       1.7     0.6      1.5      1.5
Supplemental Security Income................    7.9      9.3        6.9        4.3         4.3        3.7        1.5       0.6     7.9      1.4      1.9
AFDC/TANF, general assistance...............   12.5     14.4        9.4        6.3         3.3        2.4        1.1       0.2    11.8      1.0      1.8
Child support, alimony......................    4.3      4.3        4.8        5.0         4.9        6.1        6.7       5.8     4.5      5.9      5.8
Interest, dividends \2\.....................   19.0     13.3       19.4       23.8        30.2       42.8       56.4      80.6    17.5     67.5     63.6
Food stamps.................................   31.9     42.9       28.4       16.6        11.0        6.0        1.3       0.1    33.6      2.1      4.5
School lunch................................   62.0     72.0       69.8       64.8        67.2       59.9       58.3      49.2    68.0     53.6     54.7
Housing assistance..........................   14.6     11.1       10.7        5.3         4.6        3.2        1.3       0.1    12.0      1.1      1.9
Family characteristics:
    Percent with head age 15-19.............    1.3      1.6        2.0        0.2         0.8        0.8        0.3       0.1     1.7      0.2      0.4
    Percent with head age 20-29.............   28.0     30.2       25.4       25.4        21.3       20.8       15.9       7.9    27.6     12.1     13.3
    Percent with head age 30 and older......   70.7     68.3       72.6       74.3        77.8       78.5       83.7      92.0    70.8     87.6     86.3
    Percent white non-Hispanic \3\..........   61.6     54.6       46.7       55.9        55.0       67.0       75.6      87.2    53.5     80.2     78.1
    Percent black non-Hispanic..............   11.2     10.4       14.5       12.6        14.8       11.0       10.2       6.7    12.3      8.4      8.7
    Percent Hispanic........................   27.3     35.0       38.9       31.5        30.2       22.0       14.2       6.1    34.2     11.4     13.2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Based on official U.S. Census Bureau poverty levels.    \2\ Negative incomes (i.e., losses) set to zero.    \3\ Includes ``other races.''

Note.--Details may not sum to totals due to rounding.

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service based on data from March 1999 Current Population Survey.


      TABLE G-32.--NUMBERS, PERCENT COMPOSITION, AND RATES OF CHILDREN BELOW POVERTY, \1\ BY RACE, 1974-98
                                             [Numbers in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Number                                Rate
                 Year                  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Total    Black   White  Hispanic \1\  Total  Black  White  Hispanic \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1974..................................    9,967   3,713   6,079      1,414      15.1   39.6   11.0       28.6
1975..................................   10,882   3,884   6,748      1,619      16.8   41.4   12.5       33.1
1976..................................   10,081   3,758   6,034      1,424      15.8   40.4   11.3       30.1
1977..................................   10,028   3,850   5,943      1,402      16.0   41.6   11.4       28.0

1978..................................    9,772   3,781   5,674      1,354      15.7   41.2   11.0       27.2
1979..................................    9,993   3,745   5,909      1,505      16.0   40.8   11.4       27.7
1980..................................   11,114   3,906   6,817      1,718      17.9   42.1   13.4       33.0
1981..................................   12,068   4,170   7,429      1,874      19.5   44.9   14.7       35.4

1982..................................   13,139   4,388   8,282      2,117      21.3   47.3   16.5       38.9
1983..................................   13,427   4,273   8,534      2,251      21.8   46.2   17.0       37.7
1984..................................   12,929   4,320   8,086      2,317      21.0   46.2   16.1       38.7
1985..................................   12,483   4,057   7,838      2,512      20.1   43.1   15.6       39.6

1986..................................   12,257   4,037   7,714      2,413      19.8   42.7   15.3       37.1
1987 \2\..............................   12,275   4,234   7,398      2,606      19.7   44.4   14.7       38.9
1988 \2\..............................   11,935   4,148   7,095      2,576      19.0   42.8   14.0       37.3
1989..................................   12,001   4,257   7,164      2,496      19.0   43.2   14.1       35.5

1990..................................   12,715   4,412   7,696      2,750      19.9   44.2   15.1       37.7
1991 \2\..............................   13,658   4,637   8,316      2,977      21.1   45.6   16.1       39.8
1992 \2\..............................   14,521   5,015   8,752      3,440      21.6   46.3   16.5       39.0
1993..................................   14,961   5,030   9,123      3,666      22.0   45.9   17.0       39.9

1994..................................   14,610   4,787   8,826      3,956      21.2   43.3   16.3       41.1
1995..................................   13,999   4,644   8,474      3,938      20.2   41.5   15.5       39.3
1996..................................   13,764   4,411   8,488      4,090      19.8   39.5   15.5       39.9
1997..................................   13,422   4,116   8,441      3,865      19.2   36.8   15.4       36.4
1998..................................   12,845   4,073   7,935      3,670      18.3   36.4   14.4       33.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ People of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
\2\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 Census population controls. For 1991, figures are revised to correct for
  nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file. For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new
  processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988
  advance report, ``Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988,'' P-60, No. 166.

Note.--Prior to 1979, unrelated subfamilies were included in all families. Beginning in 1979, unrelated
  subfamilies are excluded from all families.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1999).


                                                      TABLE G-33.--COMPOSITION OF CHILD POVERTY POPULATION BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-98
                                                                                     [Numbers in thousands]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                         Female head                                                  Male present
                          Year                            Total poor -------------------------------------------------- Percent of -------------------------------------------------- Percent of
                                                                       Nonwhite      White    Hispanic \1\     Total       total     Nonwhite      White    Hispanic \1\     Total       total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966....................................................      12,146       2,150       2,112           NA        4,262        35.1       2,792       5,092           NA        7,884        64.9
1967....................................................      11,427       2,316       1,930           NA        4,246        37.2       2,382       4,799           NA        7,181        62.8
1968....................................................      10,739       2,334       2,075           NA        4,409        41.1       2,032       4,298           NA        6,330        58.9
1969....................................................       9,500       2,179       2,068           NA        4,247        44.7       1,655       3,598           NA        5,253        55.3

1970....................................................      10,235       2,442       2,247           NA        4,689        45.8       1,651       3,891           NA        5,546        54.2
1971....................................................      10,344       2,398       2,452           NA        4,850        46.9       1,605       3,889           NA        5,494        53.1
1972....................................................      10,082       2,821       2,273           NA        5,094        50.5       1,477       3,511           NA        4,988        49.5
1973....................................................       9,453       2,710       2,461          606        5,171        54.7       1,281       3,001          758        4,282        45.3

1974....................................................       9,966       2,678       2,683          621        5,361        53.8       1,209       3,396          793        4,605        46.2
1975....................................................      10,881       2,784       2,813          694        5,597        51.4       1,350       3,394          925        5,284        48.6
1976....................................................      10,080       2,870       2,713          636        5,583        55.4       1,176       3,321          789        4,497        44.6
1977....................................................      10,029       2,965       2,693          686        5,658        56.4       1,121       3,250          716        4,371        43.6

1978....................................................       9,722       3,060       2,627          663        5,687        58.5         988       3,047          692        4,035        41.5
1979....................................................       9,993       3,006       2,629          668        5,635        56.4       1,079       3,279          837        4,358        43.6
1980....................................................      11,114       3,053       2,813          809        5,866        52.8       1,244       4,004          909        5,248        47.2
1981....................................................      12,069       3,185       3,120          909        6,305        52.2       1,455       4,309          966        5,764        47.8

1982....................................................      13,139       3,447       3,249          990        6,696        51.0       1,411       5,032        1,127        6,443        49.0
1983....................................................      13,427       3,359       3,388        1,018        6,747        50.2       1,534       5,146        1,233        6,680        49.8
1984....................................................      12,929       3,395       3,377        1,093        6,772        52.4       1,448       4,709        1,223        6,157        47.6
1985....................................................      12,483       3,344       3,372        1,247        6,716        53.8       1,300       4,467        1,266        5,767        46.2

1986....................................................      12,257       3,421       3,522        1,194        6,943        56.6       1,121       4,192        1,219        5,313        43.3
1987....................................................      12,435       3,600       3,474        1,241        7,074        56.9       1,285       4,076        1,390        5,361        43.1
1987 \2\................................................      12,275       3,586       3,433        1,250        7,019        57.2       1,291       3,966        1,356        5,257        42.8
1988....................................................      11,935       3,530       3,424        1,294        6,954        58.3       1,310       3,671        1,282        4,981        41.7

1989....................................................      12,001       3,553       3,255        1,158        6,808        56.7       1,285       3,908        1,338        5,193        43.3
1990....................................................      12,715       3,766       3,597        1,314        7,363        57.9       1,253       4,098        1,437        5,352        42.1
1991....................................................      13,658       4,125       3,941        1,398        8,065        59.1       1,217       4,376        1,579        5,593        40.9
1992 \3\................................................      14,521       4,408       3,960        1,504        8,368        57.6       1,361       4,792        1,936        6,153        42.4

1993....................................................      14,961       4,401       4,102        1,673        8,503        56.8       1,437       5,021        1,993        6,458        43.2
1994....................................................      14,610       4,328       4,099        1,804        8,427        57.7       1,456       4,727        2,152        6,183        42.3
1995....................................................      13,999       4,313       4,051        1,872        8,364        59.7       1,212       4,423        2,066        5,635        40.3
1996....................................................      13,764       3,961       4,029        1,779        7,990        58.0       1,315       4,459        2,311        5,774        42.0

1997....................................................      13,422       3,742       4,186        1,758        7,928        59.1       1,239       4,255        2,107        5,494        40.9
1998....................................................      12,845       3,752       3,875        1,739        7,627        59.4       1,158       4,060        1,931        5,218        40.6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
\2\ Revised.
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 Census population controls.

NA--Not available.

Note.--Includes only related children in families. 1987 revised through 1991 estimates are not comparable to prior years due to processing changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS).

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.


                     TABLE G-34.--POVERTY RATE OF CHILDREN BY FAMILY TYPE AND RACE, 1966-98
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Female head                          Male present
            Year               Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total   Black   White  Hispanic \1\   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966........................    17.4    76.6    46.9         NA       58.2    39.9     9.2         NA       12.6
1967........................    16.3    72.4    42.1         NA       54.3    35.3     8.7         NA       11.5
1968........................    15.3    70.5    44.4         NA       55.2    29.8     7.8         NA       10.2
1969........................    13.8    68.2    45.2         NA       54.4    25.0     6.7         NA        8.6
1970........................    14.9    67.7    43.1         NA       53.0    26.0     7.3         NA        9.2
1971........................    15.1    66.6    44.6         NA       53.1    25.5     7.4         NA        9.3
1972........................    14.9    69.5    41.1         NA       53.1    24.1     6.8         NA        8.6
1973........................    14.2    67.2    42.1       68.7       52.1    21.7     6.0       18.8        7.6
1974........................    15.1    65.0    42.9       64.3       51.5    20.0     6.9       20.0        8.7
1975........................    16.8    66.0    44.2       68.4       52.7    22.1     8.2       23.8        9.8
1976........................    15.8    65.6    42.7       67.3       52.0    19.4     7.1       20.8        8.5
1977........................    16.0    65.7    40.3       68.6       50.3    19.9     7.1       17.9        8.5
1978........................    15.7    66.4    39.9       68.9       50.6    17.6     6.8       17.2        7.9
1979........................    16.0    63.1    38.6       62.2       48.6    18.7     7.3       19.2        8.5
1980........................    17.9    64.8    41.6       65.0       50.8    20.3     9.0       22.9       10.4
1981........................    19.5    67.7    42.8       67.3       52.3    23.4    10.0       24.5       11.6
1982........................    21.3    70.7    46.5       71.8       56.0    24.1    11.6       27.8       13.0
1983........................    21.8    68.3    47.1       70.6       55.4    23.7    12.0       27.2       13.5
1984........................    21.0    66.2    45.9       71.0       54.0    24.3    11.0       27.5       12.5
1985........................    20.1    66.9    45.2       72.4       53.6    18.8    10.4       27.4       11.7
1986........................    19.8    67.1    46.3       66.7       54.4    17.0     9.8       25.8       10.8
1987........................    20.0    68.3    45.8       70.1       54.7    19.8     9.5       28.3       10.9
1987 \2\....................    19.7    66.9    45.0       69.8       53.7    19.1     9.3       27.7       10.6
1988........................    19.0    64.7    44.9       69.6       52.9    18.7     8.5       25.4       10.0
1989........................    19.0    63.1    42.5       64.3       51.1    20.3     9.1       25.5       10.4
1990........................    19.9    64.7    45.9       68.4       53.4    19.3     9.5       26.7       10.7
1991........................    21.1    68.2    47.1       68.6       55.5    17.3    10.1       29.1       11.1
1992 \3\....................    21.6    67.1    45.9       65.9       54.6    19.4    10.3       29.6       11.8
1993........................    22.0    65.9    45.6       66.1       53.7    19.5    11.3       29.9       12.4
1994........................    21.2    63.2    45.7       68.3       52.9    17.7    10.4       30.8       11.7
1995........................    20.2    61.6    42.5       65.7       50.3    14.4     9.8       28.8       10.7
1996........................    19.8    58.2    43.1       67.4       49.3    16.0     9.9       30.4       10.9
1997........................    19.2    55.3    44.3       62.8       49.0    14.2     9.4       26.9       10.2
1998........................    18.3    54.7    40.0       59.6       46.1    14.1     8.9       24.1        9.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
\2\ Revised.
\3\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 Census population controls.

NA--Not available.

Note.--Data are number per 100. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.


      TABLE G-35.--NUMBER OF POOR CHILDREN UNDER 6 AND FROM 6 TO 17 YEARS AND THEIR POVERTY RATES, 1966-98
                                             [Numbers in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Total                  Total
                                            Total        Total      number of    Poverty   number of    Poverty
                                          number of      number        poor      rate of      poor      rate of
                  Year                     children     under 6      children   children  children 6-   children
                                           under 18   (thousands)    under 6     under 6    17 years      6-17
                                         (thousands)               (thousands)            (thousands)    years
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1966...................................      70,218       23,779        4,304       18.1       8,085        17.4
1967...................................      70,408       23,171        4,055       17.5       7,601        16.1
1968...................................      70,385       22,249        3,659       16.6       7,295        15.2
1969...................................      69,090       21,681        3,361       15.5       6,330        13.4
1970...................................      69,159       21,556        3,601       16.7       6,839        14.4
1971...................................      68,816       20,898        3,579       17.1       6,972        14.5
1972...................................      67,930       20,510        3,388       16.5       6,896        14.5
1973...................................      66,959       20,043        3,204       16.0       6,438        13.7
1974...................................      66,134       19,887        3,361       16.9       6,795        14.7
1975...................................      65,079       19,353        3,522       18.2       7,582        16.6
1976...................................      64,028       18,971        3,358       17.7       6,915        15.3
1977...................................      63,137       18,518        3,426       18.5       6,862        15.4
1978...................................      62,311       18,789        3,344       17.8       6,587        15.1
1979...................................      63,375       19,012        3,479       18.3       6,898        15.5
1980...................................      62,914       19,974        4,054       20.3       7,489        17.4
1981...................................      62,449       20,396        4,487       22.0       8,018        19.1
1982...................................      62,345       20,789        4,899       23.6       8,748        21.1
1983...................................      62,334       21,039        5,302       25.0       8,609        20.8
1984...................................      62,447       21,196        5,066       23.9       8,354        20.3
1985...................................      62,876       21,526        4,951       23.0       8,059        19.5
1986...................................      62,948       21,656        4,796       22.1       8,080        19.6
1987...................................      63,290       21,860        4,984       22.8       7,979        19.3
1988 (revised).........................      63,747       22,232        4,957       22.3       7,499        18.1
1989...................................      64,144       22,505        5,071       22.5       7,518        18.1
1990...................................      65,049       22,937        5,412       23.6       8,019        19.0
1991...................................      65,918       23,206        5,702       24.6       8,639        20.2
1992 \1\...............................      68,440       24,070        6,360       26.4       8,934        20.1
1993...................................      69,292       24,219        6,352       26.5       9,375        20.8
1994...................................      70,020       24,265        6,093       25.1       9,196        20.1
1995...................................      70,566       24,184        5,821       24.1       8,844        19.1
1996...................................      70,650       23,452        5,333       22.7       8,431        18.3
1997...................................      71,069       23,363        5,049       21.6       8,373        18.0
1998...................................      71,338       23,160        4,775       20.6       8,071        17.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 1992, figures are based on 1990 Census population controls.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.

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