[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Index]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]




 
                                 INDEX

       ABAWDs. See Able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs) 
                         ABC. See A Better Chance (ABC; Delaware) 
                                         Abecedarian Project, 596 
     A Better Chance (ABC; Delaware), 1483 table 9, 1497 table 10 
Able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs), 868, 869, 875, 889 

                              Accelerated death benefits, 801-802 
        Achieving Change for Texans (ACT)/TANF, 1491-1492 table 9 
               Administrative law judge (ALJ), 28-29, 83 table 45 
Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), 
                                689, 690, 692, 717, 718, 723, 744 
Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, 654, 668, 669, 672, 674, 
                                     679, 686, 694, 695, 713, 757 
      Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980, 686, 716 
                       Adoption Assistance Program, 363, 646, 756 
                                      adoption subsidies, 673-674 
                        AFCARS, 689, 690, 692, 717, 718, 723, 744 
                                              agreements, 673-674 
                                baseline projections, 650 table 4 
    data collection systems, 689, 690, 716-718, 719 table 16, 723 
                             definition of special needs, 672-673 
                          expenditures, 675-679, 676-678 table 10 
                              Federal funding, 647-648 tables 1-2 
                                  Medicaid coverage, 673-674, 757 
      nonrecurring adoption costs, 647, 649, 674-675, 675 table 9 
                                  participation data, 649 table 3 
                                                payments, 673-674 
    ``special-needs'' children, 647, 649, 672-673, 674, 752-753 
                                                         table 40 
    See also Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System 
                                                         (SACWIS) 
                 Adoption expenses, tax credit and exclusion, 828 
   Adoption Incentives Payment Program, 679-680 table 11, 679-681 
                Adoption promotion and support services, 656, 657 
            Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S.), 710 
AFCARS. See Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System 
                                                         (AFCARS) 
 AFDC. See Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program 
   After Leaving WAGES: Statewide Sample (Florida), 1501 table 11 
                                                             Aged 
                                             data. See Appendix A 
                              health expenditures. See Appendix B 
                                    health status. See Appendix B 
           income and taxes, effect of tax provisions on, 829-834 
                               long-term care and. See Appendix B 
                                        Medicaid Program, 897-901 
                                             Medicare Program, 99 
      Older Americans Act Employment Program for the Elderly, 872 
            Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act of 1996, 38-39, 42 
                  Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 216 
               Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, 101 
                                             tax credits, 823-824 
                                          tax deductions, 822-823 
                                         See also Social Security 
  Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act, 889 
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), SSI for persons with, 
                                                          222-223 
           Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program 
                                         child care programs, 602 
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program--continued 
                                       child support and, 463-464 
                                           duration findings, 447 
                                         duration on welfare, 447 
                                        earnings disregards, 1442 
                                                       exits, 448 
                                  family characteristics, 436-440 
                     composition of family, 436-438, 437 table 27 
                                   marital status of parents, 438 
        race and ethnicity of adults, 438-440, 439-440 tables 28-
                                                               29 
    replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
                                   Program, 2, 352, 465, 660, 714 
                                                     returns, 448 
                    ``special-needs'' children, 647, 649, 672-673 
                 TANF Program, differences from, 353-354, 447-448 
                              tax exclusions of benefits, 812-813 
                                               waivers, 1441-1442 
    See also Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG); 
           Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program 
Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed Parent (AFDC-
                  UP) Programs, 100 hour rule demonstration, 1447 
                                            Aid to the Blind, 212 
                 Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled, 212 
                AIME. See Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME) 
                  Alabama study of welfare leavers, 1500 table 11 
 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant, 642 
                                                       Alcoholism 
                      pregnant women and alcohol consumption, 711 
                               Social Security for alcoholics, 39 
                                 SSI and alcoholics, 252-254, 273 
                                                           Aliens 
                       Medicaid Program eligibility, 900-901, 909 
                  SSI Program eligibility, 217, 254, 270, 271-273 
                                              See also Appendix J 
                          ALJ. See Administrative law judge (ALJ) 
                                      Ambulance services, 167-168 
                 Ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 158, 162-165 
                American Association for Protecting Children, 707 
American Public Human Services Association (APHSA), 664, 673-674, 
                                                              716 
American Public Welfare Association. See under its later name 
               American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) 
                                                   American Samoa 
                           Medicaid Program, 770 table 5, 771-772 
                   Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767, 867-868 
                                           Anesthesiologists, 146 
                Anesthetists, certified registered nurse, 149-150 
    APHSA. See American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) 
                Arizona Cash Assistance Exit Study, 1500 table 11 
                     ASCs. See Ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) 
ASSETS. See Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and 
                                       Training (ASSETS; Alabama) 
                                          Asylees. See Appendix J 
                             At-Risk Child Care Program, 572, 598 
Augustus F. Hawkins Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1990, 
                                                              642 
Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and Training 
                                  (ASSETS; Alabama), 1481 table 9 
                   Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), 19-20 
                                                                  
                                                     Baby UI, 290 
                                Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 
                                        block grant programs, 642 
                     Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 534 
                                  earned income credit (EIC), 808 
                                          Food Stamp Program, 889 
                                       Medicaid Program, 892, 905 
                                       coverage for children, 894 
                                           major changes, 909-910 
                      managed care freedom-of-choice waivers, 908 
                     Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997--continued 
                                      Medicaid Program--continued 
                             State managed care programs and, 906 
                                   Medicare+Choice (M+C), 189-190 
    Medicare Program, 101, 119, 126, 134-140, 150-151, 159-160, 
                                                          188-189 
    State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 772, 896, 
                                                    930, 936, 938 
         Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 235, 272-273 
             unemployment compensation (UC) eligibility, 288, 313 
                         welfare-to-work grant programs, 442, 460 
Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) of 1999, 119, 128-129, 140-
                              141, 152, 160-161, 173-174, 190-192 
                               BBA. See Balanced Budget Act (BBA) 
                  BBRA. See Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) 
                   Black Lung Program, 821-822, 984, 987 table 48 
            Blind persons, additional tax deductions for, 822-823 
Block grants. See Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG); 
    Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant; Nutrition 
    Assistance Block Grant; Preventive Health and Health Services 
    Block Grant Program; Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) 
    Program; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
                                                          Program 
           Break-even points, TANF Program, 397, 398-400 table 13 
                                      Budget neutrality, 140, 161 
                           Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, 221 
                                    Budget tables. See Appendix I 
                                                                  
             CACFP. See Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) 
                                         Cafeteria plans, 797-799 
               California study of welfare leavers, 1500 table 11 
CAPTA. See Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 
                                                             1974 
        CCDBG. See Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) 
                 CCDF. See Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) 
                   CDRs. See Continuing disability reviews (CDRs) 
                           Center for Law and Social Policy, 1476 
        Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (Washington), 1476 
                 Certified registered nurse anesthetists, 149-150 
                                  Chapin Hall Center for Children 
                                       child welfare studies, 712 
                     Multistate Foster Care Data Archive, 720-723 
                                           Charitable choice, 361 
                                          Child abuse and neglect 
                                       crack cocaine use and, 710 
                                     Federal legislation, 706-707 
    maltreatment allegations and victimization data, 707-710, 708-
                                        709 table 15, 709 chart 1 
                                     substance abuse and, 710-711 
              termination of parental rights (TPR), 659, 672, 706 
                                     trends in reporting, 709-710 
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974, 706-707 
                                      amendments of 1996, 706-707 
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 599, 600-601 table 15, 
                                                          962-964 
        Child Assistance Program (NY CAP; New York), 1489 table 9 
                                              Child Care, 571-632 
                                            introduction, 571-572 
                    arrangements used by working mothers, 576-586 
                       afterschool arrangements, 580, 581 table 6 
                         by poverty status of mother, 582 table 7 
        for preschool age children, 577-579 table 5, 580, 585 
                                                         table 10 
                              certificates, 604, 616-617 table 24 
    Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 599, 600-601 table 
                                                      15, 962-964 
                                     costs, 586-588, 587 table 12 
                                        day care centers, 588-596 
    dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 599, 600-601 table 15, 774, 
                                                          813-815 
                    early childhood development and, 593-596, 599 
                     expenditures, by State, 622-624 tables 27-29 
                                            Child Care--continued 
                      Federal programs, 597-604, 600-601 table 15 
                        Head Start Program, 599, 600-601 table 15 
                             health and safety standards, 603-604 
                                       hours in care, 584 table 9 
                                               immunizations, 603 
    labor force participation of mothers, 572-576, 573-579 tables 
                                                              1-5 
                             licensing, 591-593, 592-593 table 14 
    marital status of working mothers, 572-576, 574-579 tables 2-5 

                                   matching requirements, 602-603 
    preschool age children, 577-579 table 5, 580, 582 table 7, 583 
                               table 8, 584 table 9, 585 table 10 
                                quality of care research, 593-596 
                            regulation, 591-593, 592-593 table 14 
                               research studies, 588-591, 593-596 
                            school age children, 580, 581 table 6 
                                         sectarian providers, 604 
                                              staff turnover, 590 
                                   staff wages, 589, 590 table 13 
                                               standards, 591-596 
                                  supply of providers of, 588-589 
                   TANF recipients as child care workers, 590-591 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program and, 
                                                              360 
                                                    vouchers, 604 
                welfare recipients as child care workers, 590-591 
    See also At-Risk Child Care Program; Transitional Child Care 
                                               Assistance Program 
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), 354, 360, 598, 
                               599-604, 600-601 table 15, 641-642 
                          administration and data collection, 604 
                    eligibility and target population groups, 603 
                                               financing, 602-603 
                                  transfer of funds, 603, 641-642 
                                            use of funds, 603-604 
   Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), 598, 602, 603, 604-631 
                     expenditures, by State, 622-629 tables 27-29 
                              State allocations, 630-631 table 30 
                         statistical tables, 604-631 tables 16-30 
          See also Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) 
                      Child development research studies, 593-596 
                     Child protection. See Child welfare programs 
                         Child safety. See Child welfare programs 
           Child Support Enforcement Amendments of 1984, 468, 476 
            Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 363, 463-569 
                    administrative expenditures, 556-557 table 19 
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) payments 
                                      recovered, 552-553 table 17 
                           alternative penalty, 507-508, 511, 512 
                     audits and financial penalties, 468, 511-512 
                                       automated systems, 508-511 
        award rates, by race and ethnicity, 484, 524 table 6, 525 
                                              bankruptcy and, 508 
                         births, out-of-wedlock, 560-561 table 21 
                             cases in which a collection was made 
                                           AFDC, 546-547 table 14 
                                       non-AFDC, 548-549 table 15 
                                            child access, 469-470 
                             collection of child support, 490-499 
                     bonds, securities, and other guarantees, 496 
                                 credit bureau reporting, 497-498 
                                expedited procedures for, 504-505 
        Federal income tax refund offset, 491 table 3, 493-494, 
                                                          554-555 
        Internal Revenue Service (IRS) full collection process, 
                                                          496-497 
                                           lump-sum payments, 499 
                           methods for, 490-500, 491 table 3, 505 
                                        passport withholding, 497 
                           private collection activities, 505-506 
                                        small business loans, 499 
               Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program--continued 
                           collection of child support--continued 
             State income tax refund offset, 491 table 3, 494-495 
            unemployment compensation intercept, 491 table 3, 495 
                           wage withholding, 490-493, 491 table 3 
                                                      collections 
                               AFDC collections, 542-543 table 12 
                                   by State, 537-541 tables 10-11 
                           non-AFDC collections, 544-545 table 13 
                                   ``cost avoidance'' effect, 522 
                                      demographic trends, 465-466 
                              disapproval of State's program, 512 
                        disbursement of support payments, 506-508 
                          distribution of payments rules, 512-514 
                                                 DNA testing, 478 
                                effectiveness of program, 522-530 
    enforcement procedures, uniform State legislation, 500, 503-
                                                              504 
                                     enforcement process, 473-506 
                                       expedited process, 479-480 
                                                     expenditures 
                                 administrative, 556-557 table 19 
                                       by State, 537-539 table 10 
                                  Federal courts role in, 501-502 
                                                Federal employees 
                executive order supporting enforcement among, 499 
                                        garnishment of wages, 498 
                                            Federal role, 466-470 
                                         financial penalties, 468 
                                                 foster care, 472 
                            full faith and credit clause, 502-503 
              funding of State programs, 514-522, 517-518 table 4 
                                       general matching rate, 514 
                                             genetic testing, 478 
         health insurance coverage, 528 table 8, 550-551 table 16 
                                      incentive payments, 516-517 
                                         income tax refund offset 
                  Federal, 491 table 3, 493-494, 554-555 table 18 
                                      State, 491 table 3, 494-495 
               In-Hospital Paternity Acknowledgement Program, 475 
                       interstate enforcement procedures, 500-505 
                        and full faith and credit clause, 502-503 
                                          income withholding, 502 
                                           long arm statutes, 501 
        Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (UEFJA) 
                                                  procedures, 504 
        Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA) procedures, 
                                                          503-504 
        Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act (URESA) 
                                                  procedures, 500 
                                        judicial process, 479-480 
                                     legislative history, 531-536 
                                    licenses, withholding of, 497 
                                 locating absent parents, 473-475 
        Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 469, 470, 473-475, 
                                                              505 
                                          military personnel, 499 
                                       lottery winnings, 499, 505 
                                                  medical support 
                                              provisions, 487-490 
                             qualified medical support order, 490 
             with health insurance, 528 table 8, 550-551 table 16 
                                               military personnel 
                                                  allotments, 499 
                                     central locator service, 499 
                executive order supporting enforcement among, 499 
                                    garnishment of wages, 498-499 
                           90 percent matching rate, 509-510, 514 
               Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program--continued 
                                                          offsets 
        Federal income tax refund, 491 table 3, 493-494, 554-555 
                                                         table 18 
                    State income tax refund, 491 table 3, 494-495 
                              unemployment compensation (UC), 495 
                                 orders. See below support orders 
                                 overview and background, 463-466 
                                        passthrough, 512-513, 520 
                                 paternity establishment, 475-479 
                                                 DNA testing, 478 
                                expedited procedures for, 504-505 
                                 number of, 479, 558-559 table 20 
                        percentage of, by State, 562-563 table 22 
                                  scientific methods for, 477-478 
        program ``savings,'' Federal and State share, 519 table 5 
                                    State share, 564-565 table 23 
                                                 program's impact 
                      on national child support payments, 523-530 
                                                  on poverty, 523 
                                            on taxpayers, 522-523 
                          program statistics summary, 467 table 1 
                                              program trends, 466 
                                          property liens, 495-496 
                             qualified medical support order, 490 
                       66 percent Federal reimbursement, 514, 520 
    Social Security numbers, used by child support enforcement 
                                         (CSE) agencies, 474, 494 
                                     State disbursement unit, 506 
                                              State role, 470-473 
                         statistical tables, 537-566 tables 10-24 
                                            support award amounts 
                                                 award rates, 484 
                                        by State, 483-484 table 2 
                                          guidelines for, 480-483 
                        income shares approach, 481, 566 table 24 
                                    initiatives to increase, 1460 
                                    Melson-Delaware approach, 482 
                                    minimum level of support, 484 
                                    payments awarded, 524 table 6 
                 percentage of income approach, 482, 566 table 24 
                                           unresolved issues, 484 
                                                   support orders 
                                 award amount guidelines, 480-483 
                                            establishing, 479-484 
                     judicial and administrative systems, 479-480 
                              medical support provisions, 487-490 
                                        modifications of, 485-487 
                                 reviewing and modifying, 485-487 
                          with health insurance, 550-551 table 16 
                        support rights, assignment of (TANF), 355 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 
        interaction with, 355, 470-473, 515-516, 520-521, 522-523 
                                       visitation rights, 469-470 
                           wage withholding, 490-493, 491 table 3 
    Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1988, 510, 516 
                          Child Support Recovery Act of 1992, 503 
                             Child Welfare League of America, 664 
                                  Child welfare programs, 645-760 
                                                  data collection 
        Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System 
                      (AFCARS), 689, 690, 692, 717, 718, 723, 744 
                             on foster care and adoption, 716-756 
         Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System 
                             (SACWIS), 717-718, 719 table 16, 723 
                    demonstration projects, 697, 698-705 table 14 
                        Federal conformity review system, 688-693 
                       child and family services reviews, 688-692 
                                Child welfare programs--continued 
                      Federal conformity review system--continued 
                                     eligibility reviews, 692-693 
                        factors leading to improved outcomes, 688 
                                          national standards, 689 
                                 penalties for nonconformity, 691 
                         Federal funding, 646, 647-648 tables 1-2 
                                  Federal programs today, 646-686 
                              Federal review, history of, 686-687 
    interethnic and interjurisdictional adoption provisions, 693-
                                                              694 
                                            introduction, 645-646 
                                            kinship care, 712-714 
                                     legislative history, 756-758 
                                                         outcomes 
                                          factors to improve, 688 
                   measures of performance, 695-697 table 13, 695 
                           research studies and training, 659-660 
              State accountability and Federal oversight, 686-705 
                               State performance reports, 695-705 
                                 State plan requirements, 692-693 
                             State program improvement plans, 691 
               State waiver demonstrations, 697, 698-705 table 14 
                                     substance abuse and, 710-711 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) child-only 
                                                       cases, 714 
                                         territories, 764 table 2 
               trends affecting populations and programs, 705-716 
                                        waivers, 696-705 table 14 
                                          welfare reform, 714-716 
    See also Adoption Assistance Program; Child Welfare Services 
      Program; Foster Care Program; Independent Living Program; 
      Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program; Statewide 
              Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS) 
                              Child Welfare Services Program, 646 
                                   Court Improvement Program, 659 
                                data collection requirements, 716 
                              Federal funding, 647-648 tables 1-2 
                                                 funding for, 749 
                                        grants to States, 651-654 
                      State-by-State allocations, 652-653 table 5 
Child well-being, welfare reform impact evaluations. See Appendix 
                                                                L 
                                    Children's Bureau (U.S.), 706 
                                     Children's Defense Fund, 588 
                                            Children's Foundation 
                               child care centers study, 588, 591 
                                  child care providers study, 588 
                                      Clinical psychologists, 150 
                                     Clinical social workers, 150 
COBRA. See Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) 
                     COLA. See Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) 
Colorado Works Program, welfare leavers evaluation, 1501 table 11 
Community Group Participation and Housing Supplementation 
                           Demonstration (Illinois), 1484 table 9 
                                    Competitive bidding, 154, 189 
Connecticut Jobs First Program. See Jobs First Program 
                                                    (Connecticut) 
        Connecticut Post-Time Limit Tracking Study, 1501 table 11 
      Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1999, 349, 447, 460, 644 
                Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2000, 535, 644 
           Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) 
                                        health care coverage, 799 
         paternity establishment, scientific methods for, 477-478 
               railroad retirement system and, 325, 332, 348, 793 
                              Consumption expenditures, 1427-1430 
Continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 29-32, 34, 38, 84 table 46, 
                                               251, 270, 271, 277 
          Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, 269, 908 
                                   ``Cost avoidance'' effect, 522 
      Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs), 21-22, 58 table 18, 228 
Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes (1995, 1999) in Child Care 
                                                 Centers, 593-596 
                                   Court Improvement Program, 659 
                        Crack cocaine use, child welfare and, 710 
   Credit Bureau reporting, for child support collection, 497-498 
                           Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act, 972 
                 CSE. See Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program 
                               Customs and Trade Act of 1990, 349 
                                                                  
                                         Day care. See Child care 
                                                 Day care centers 
                             number of regulated centers, 588-589 
                                         quality of care, 593-596 
                                regulation and licensing, 591-593 
                                                staffing, 589-591 
                       DCTC. See Dependent care tax credit (DCTC) 
                  DDS. See Disability Determination Service (DDS) 
                Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act of 1998, 503, 535 
                          Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, 220, 797 
                                   Delayed retirement credits, 23 
            Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 1997, 272 
Dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 599, 600-601 table 15, 774, 813-
                                                              815 
    Dependent care, tax exclusions for employer-provided, 819-820 
                DI Program. See Disability Insurance (DI) Program 
                        Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 124, 157 
                       Disability Determination Service (DDS), 28 
                         Disability Insurance (DI) Program, 28-35 
               administrative law judge (ALJ), 28-29, 83 table 45 
                                                   alcoholics, 39 
                                           applicant backlogs, 34 
                                           attorneys' fees, 32-33 
                                beneficiaries, 79-82 tables 41-44 
                                       benefit eligibility, 17-18 
                                              child benefits, 216 
                               claims pending, 34-35, 85 table 47 
           claims process, 28-29, 34-35, 83 table 45, 85 table 47 
    continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 29-32, 34, 84 table 46, 
                                                    270, 271, 277 
                                  disability determination, 29-32 
                                                 drug addicts, 39 
                                                   enrollment, 34 
                                         health care services, 41 
                                        Medicare coverage, 34, 41 
          qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs), 186 
                                  railroad workers annuities, 318 
                                            representation, 32-33 
                                            return to work, 33-34 
                 State Disability Determination Service (DDS), 28 
                           statistical tables, 79-85 tables 41-47 
       substantial gainful activity (SGA), 17, 30-31, 64 table 24 
    Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, 
                                  27, 33-34, 41-42, 276, 892, 911 
                                      trial work period (TWP), 33 
                                              vocational grid, 31 
                                 vocational rehabilitation, 33-34 
                                               waiting period, 18 
                                              work incentives, 33 
                                                 Disabled persons 
                             Hospital Insurance (HI) Program, 101 
                                        Medicaid Program, 897-901 
          qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs), 186 
            Railroad Retirement System, disability annuities, 318 
              Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 211-277 
               Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, 101 
                                         tax credits for, 823-824 
      See also Disability Insurance (DI) Program; Social Security 
Disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 124, 905, 910, 911 

                  Disregards, earned income, 255, 1411, 1442-1443 
             District of Columbia Appropriations Act of 1998, 937 
                         DME. See Durable medical equipment (DME) 
DMERCs. See Durable medical equipment (DME), regional carriers 
                                                         (DMERCs) 
                    DNA testing, for paternity establishment, 478 
                                   Domestic violence waivers, 358 
                        DRGs. See Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) 
                                                     Drug addicts 
                                       child welfare and, 710-711 
                                 Social Security benefits for, 39 
                                                 SSI and, 252-254 
                                 Drugs and Medicare 108, 167, 192 
                   DSH. See Disproportionate share hospital (DSH) 
                                              Dual eligibles, 184 
                                             Dual entitlement, 25 
                                             Duggan v. Bowen, 133 
                Durable medical equipment (DME), 98, 151-154, 189 
                                  regional carriers (DMERCs), 153 
                                                                  
        Early childhood development, research studies on, 593-596 
              Early childhood intervention programs, 596, 597-598 
Earned income credit (EIC), 255, 361, 774, 808-812, 809 table 12, 
                      812 table 13, 813 table 14, 1409, 1422-1423 
        Earned income disregards, 255, 1411, 1442-1443, 1456-1457 
                                    Earnings data. See Appendix F 
                    Earnings disregards (welfare), 431, 1442-1443 
                                                 definition, 1434 
                                                    programs with 
              impact on child well-being, 1464-1465, 1466 table 7 
         impact on economic status, 1456-1457, 1494-1499 table 10 
        impact on employment, earnings, and welfare receipt, 1435-
                                                  1436, 1442-1443 
           impact on marital status, 1447-1449, 1450-1452 table 5 
     EB Program. See Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB) Program 
                                    Economic data. See Appendix I 
                 Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, 789, 814, 819 
                                                        Education 
    Head Start Program, 599, 600-601 table 15, 972, 973-974 tables 
                                                            42-43 
                                         Hope tax credit, 815-817 
                   individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 817-818 
                            lifetime learning tax credit, 815-817 
                   quality State tuition programs credit, 817-818 
                         student loan interest deduction, 818-819 
                       Education-focused welfare-to-work programs 
                                                 definition, 1434 
    employment, earnings, and welfare receipt impacts, 1439-1441, 
                                                1477-1494 table 9 
                              EIC. See Earned income credit (EIC) 
                                                Elderly. See Aged 
                      Emergency Assistance to Needy Families, 353 
                            Emergency Shelter Grants Program, 945 
   Emergency Unemployment Compensation Act of 1991, 291, 296, 312 
      Emergency Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1993, 313 
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program, 292, 296-298, 
                                                 297 table 6, 349 
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 783, 789, 797, 
                                                         799, 858 
                               Employee stock ownership plan, 783 
Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging 
    Responsibility (EMPOWER; Arizona), 1451 table 5, 1481 table 9, 
                                                    1496 table 10 
                                  Employment data. See Appendix F 
                      Employment-focused welfare-to-work programs 
                                                 definition, 1434 
    employment, earnings, and welfare receipt impacts, 1434-1435, 
                                     1439-1441, 1477-1494 table 9 
              Employment rates, single-mother families, 1416-1418 
Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA), 300, 305 table 
                                                   9, 311 chart 3 
EMPOWER. See Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and 
                             Encouraging Responsibility (EMPOWER) 
                                                Empowerment zones 
                       qualified plan for social services in, 643 
          Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Programs in, 642-643 
    End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 98, 124, 158, 168-174 
                           beneficiaries, number of, 169 table 25 
                                           coverage, 168-169, 172 
                                         dialysis treatments, 172 
                                       expenditures, 169 table 25 
                                 incidence data, 170-171 table 26 
                                           reimbursement, 173-174 
                secondary payer provisions, 177, 178-179 table 28 
                Enterprise communities, SSBG Programs in, 642-643 
       ERISA. See Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) 
      ESAA. See Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA) 
         ESRD Program. See End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program 
      EUCA. See Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA) 
EUC Program. See Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program 

Extended Benefits (EB) Program. See Federal-State Extended 
                                            Benefits (EB) Program 
Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA), 296, 300, 305 
                                             table 9, 311 chart 3 
                                                                  
                                   Fair Credit Reporting Act, 497 
Fair Labor Standards Act, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 
                                      (TANF) Program and, 355-356 
                                Families, data on. See Appendix G 
Family assistance. See Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 
                                                   (TANF) Program 
                                                       Family cap 
                                                 definition, 1434 
    programs with, impact on fertility, 1408-1409, 1449, 1450-1452 
                                                          table 5 
Family Development Program (FDP; New Jersey), 1452 table 5, 1489 
                                                          table 9 
Family Investment Program (FIP; Iowa), 1485 table 9, 1497 table 10 

Family Investment Program (MFIP; Minnesota), 1408, 1410, 1432, 
    1442, 1443, 1445-1449, 1447 table 4, 1451-1452 table 5, 1456-
       1457, 1461, 1466 table 7, 1486-1488 table 9, 1498 table 10 
                        Family Medical Leave Act of 1993, 290-291 
Family Preservation Program. See Child Welfare Services Program; 
                       Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program 
                            Family preservation services, 656-658 
                                             Family reunification 
                                         evaluation research, 658 
                                      HomeRebuilders Project, 658 
                                           time-limited, 656, 657 
                                 Family support services, 656-659 
Family Transition Program (FTP; Florida), 1442, 1456, 1457, 1484 
                                           table 9, 1497 table 10 
                                     Family violence waivers, 358 
            FDP. See Family Development Program (FDP; New Jersey) 
         FECA. See Federal Employees' Compensation Account (FECA) 
         Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act, 868, 885 
             Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, 821 
                 Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act, 492, 499 
 Federal Employees' Compensation Account (FECA), 300, 305 table 9 
   Federal Employee's Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986, 25-26 
                              Federal housing assistance, 942-956 
              budget authority, trends in, 948, 951 table 31, 952 
                                           homeless programs, 945 
           households receiving assistance, 948, 949-950 table 30 
                                housing block grant programs, 946 
           net new commitments, trends in, 946, 947 table 29, 948 
                           outlays, 952-956, 953-955 tables 32-33 
                             types of housing assistance, 943-946 
                                              home ownership, 945 
                            Federal housing assistance--continued 
                           types of housing assistance--continued 
                                       rental assistance, 943-945 
Federal income tax refund offset program, 491 table 3, 493-494, 
                                            536, 554-555 table 18 
         Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax, 798, 819 
                     Social Security, 4-5, 42 table 1, 45 table 4 
                Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 936 
    Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 469, 470, 473-475, 505 
Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB) Program, 279-280, 292, 294-
                                                         295, 296 
Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970, 296 
Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program. See Unemployment 
                                        Compensation (UC) Program 
                   Federal Supplemental Compensation Program, 296 
Federal Unemployment Account (FUA), 300, 305 table 9, 311 chart 3 
 Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances Account (FUBA), 346 
          Federal unemployment tax, 305, 306 chart 2, 311 chart 3 
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) of 1939, 279-280, 762, 798, 
                                                              819 
            FERS. See Federal Employee's Retirement System (FERS) 
             FICA. See Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) 
                                   ``Fill the gap'' programs, 434 
Financial incentives (welfare). See Earnings disregards (welfare) 
                   FIP. See Family Investment Program (FIP; Iowa) 
Florida Family Transition Program. See Family Transition Program 
                                                   (FTP; Florida) 
 Florida Project Independence. See Project Independence (Florida) 
           FMAP. See Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP) 
Food assistance programs. See Food Stamp Program; Nutrition 
    Assistance Block Grant; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program 
                           for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) 
                                    Food Stamp Act, 868, 869, 872 
                                      Food Stamp Program, 865-889 
                                          administration, 866-869 
                 Federal administrative responsibilities, 866-867 
             State and local administrative responsibilities, 867 
                                  application processing, 877-878 
                                                benefits, 876-879 
               electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), 866, 878, 889 
                             monthly allotments, 877, 878 table 6 
                                           prorated benefits, 877 
                                     Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), 865 
                                       using food stamps, 878-879 
                                             eligibility, 869-876 
                                            allowable assets, 874 
                               categorical eligibility rules, 876 
        counted (net) and basic (gross) monthly income eligibility 
                                     limits, 871-873, 873 table 5 
                                      deductions from income, 872 
                                    food stamp household, 870-871 
                                     homeless, 870, 876, 877, 879 
                                      income eligibility, 871-873 
                                 institutional settings, 871, 876 
                                                 noncitizens, 876 
                               work-related requirements, 874-876 
                                                expenditures, 870 
                                                       fraud, 882 
                                                     funding, 869 
                              historical statistics, 891 table 11 
                                    household definition, 870-871 
                     households, characteristics of, 890 table 10 
                             income exclusions or disregards, 872 
                                  issuing of food stamps, 877-878 
                                    legislative history, 885, 889 
                                           outreach programs, 868 
                                         program options, 868-869 
                                      demonstration projects, 868 
                             quality control (QC) system, 879-882 
                                         error rates, 880 table 7 
                                    Food Stamp Program--continued 
       recipiency/participation rates, 883-885, 884 table 8, 1416 
                                      recipients, 886-888 table 9 
                                          simplified program, 868 
    State and local general assistance (GA) payments, 865-866, 
                                                          882-883 
    Supplemental Security Income (SSI), interaction with, 226, 
               240-241 table 7, 242-243 table 8, 865-866, 882-883 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 
                          interaction with, 361, 865-866, 882-883 
                 territories, 762, 763 table 2, 767, 866, 867-868 
                                            workfare program, 869 
                               work-related requirements, 874-876 
                                     Foreign born. See Appendix J 
     Foreign trade. See Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program 
Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, 40, 274-275, 535-536, 681-
                                               682, 892, 895, 911 
                   Foster Care Independence Program, 646, 681-686 
                                         entitlement ceiling, 682 
                                Federal funding, 647 table 1, 649 
                                  participation data, 649 table 3 
    See also Independent Living Program; John H. Chafee Foster 
                                        Care Independence Program 
                      Foster Care Program, 363, 646, 660-672, 756 
                                ``administrative costs,'' 663-664 
    Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System 
                      (AFCARS), 689, 690, 692, 717, 718, 723, 744 
             adoption finalization, time before, 750-751 table 39 
                                    aggravated circumstances, 669 
                                baseline projections, 650 table 4 
            basic monthly payment rates, 664-668, 665-667 table 8 
                                         caseload trends, 718-723 
                                 case review system, 668, 671-672 
    characteristics of children awaiting adoption, 739-743 tables 
                                                            31-33 
             characteristics of children in, 725-731 tables 19-24 
             characteristics of foster care, 731-739 tables 25-30 
                                         concurrent planning, 671 
    data collection systems, 689, 690, 716-718, 719 table 16, 723 
                                                       drift, 654 
                                    eligibility criteria, 660-661 
    expenditures and participation rates, 661-664, 662-663 table 7 

                         expenditures, by State, 754-755 table 41 
                              Federal funding, 647-648 tables 1-2 
                                       Federal matching rate, 661 
                                         financing structure, 661 
             flow of children through foster care system, 723-724 
                  incidence of foster care, 718, 719-720 table 17 
                                            kinship care, 712-714 
                             length of stay, 735-737 tables 28-29 
                                  Medicaid coverage, 673-674, 757 
    number and characteristics of adopted children, 744-749 tables 
                                                            34-38 
    number of children in, 649 table 3, 661, 723-725, 724 table 
                                                  18, 725 chart 2 
                          payment rates, 664-668, 665-667 table 8 
                                      permanency hearing, 671-672 
                       permanency plan, 671-672, 731-732 table 25 
                    placement and mandatory procedural safeguards 
                          case planning and case reviews, 671-672 
             filing for termination of parental rights (TPR), 672 
          interethnic and interjurisdictional provisions, 693-694 
                        ``reasonable efforts,'' 669-671, 692, 757 
                             placement settings, 733-734 table 26 
                                       eligible ``relative,'' 713 
                                      formal versus informal, 712 
                          placements, number of, 734-735 table 27 
                     preplacement preventive service program, 668 
                 protections for children in foster care, 668-669 
                          reasons for discharge, 738-739 table 30 
                                   Foster Care Program--continued 
    See also Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System 
                                                         (SACWIS) 
                       401(k) plans, tax provisions for, 783, 785 
                  FPLS. See Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS) 
                               FRA. See Full retirement age (FRA) 
                FTP. See Family Transition Program (FTP; Florida) 
                      FUA. See Federal Unemployment Account (FUA) 
FUBA. See Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances Account 
                                                           (FUBA) 
  Full Faith and Credit for Child Support Orders Act of 1994, 503 
     Full retirement age (FRA), 3, 17, 21-23, 24, 38, 60 table 20 
                    FUTA. See Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) 
                                                                  
GAIN Program. See Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program 
                                                     (California) 
            GA Program. See State General Assistance (GA) Program 
                                 Genetic testing. See DNA testing 
        Georgia, outcomes for 1997 welfare leavers, 1501 table 11 
                     Georgia Preschool Immunization Project, 1462 
                                 Government pension offset, 25-26 
Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program (California), 
    1435, 1438, 1451 table 5, 1456, 1459, 1482 table 9, 1496 table 
                                                               10 
                                                             Guam 
                           Medicaid Program, 770 table 5, 770-771 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program in, 
                                                          768-769 
                                            Guaranteed issue, 181 
                                                                  
                           Hard-to-employ welfare recipients, 442 
Head Start Program, 599, 600-601 table 15, 972, 973-974 table 42-
                                                               43 
                                                      Health care 
                                     expenditures. See Appendix C 
                                   of the elderly. See Appendix B 
                                                 Health insurance 
                                         cafeteria plans, 797-799 
                  employer contributions, tax exclusions, 794-795 
                              group health plan requirements, 800 
                          health care continuation rules, 799-800 
                    health care expenditures data. See Appendix C 
                    long-term care insurance, 801-804, Appendix B 
                                  Medicare duplication rules, 803 
                         self-employed individuals deduction, 804 
                          workers, primary source of, 796 table 9 
                See also Appendix B; Appendix C; Medicare Program 
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 188, 
                                               789, 795, 800, 801 
         Hemodialysis. See End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program 
                  HI Program. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program 
                           Higher Education Act of 1965, 815, 818 
HIPAA. See Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 
                                                          (HIPAA) 
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), Supplemental Security Income 
                                  (SSI) for persons with, 222-223 
                          Home Energy Assistance Act of 1980, 972 
                 Home health care services, 98, 101, 108, 131-141 
                                              background, 132-134 
              Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and, 134-135, 188 
    Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) of 1999 and, 140-141, 
                                                              191 
                                                coverage, 131-132 
                                          coverage rules, 135-136 
                                             eligibility, 131-132 
              interim payment system (IPS), 134 table 16, 137-140 
                                   Medicare payment policies, 134 
                       prospective payment system (PPS), 137, 140 
                           utilization and payments, 135 table 17 
                                                 Homeless persons 
                                                    programs, 945 
                                    SSI Program and, 223, 254-255 
               HomeRebuilders (family reunification project), 658 
                                         HOPE tax credit, 815-817 
HOPWA. See Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) 
                                                          Program 
                                   Hospice care, 98, 108, 141-148 
                                                benefits, 141-143 
                                    continuous home day care, 143 
                                                coverage, 141-143 
                              general inpatient day care, 143-144 
                                  inpatient respite day care, 143 
                                          payments, 144, 188, 191 
                              program data, 144-146, 145 table 18 
                                           reimbursement, 143-144 
                                       routine home day care, 143 
                           selected measures of, 147-148 table 19 
                                  Hospital Insurance (HI) Program 
                                        benefit payments, 123-146 
                                                benefits, 101-108 
                                     cost of program, 75 table 36 
                                            cost-sharing, 101-108 
                                                coverage, 123-146 
              disabled persons, eligibility and coverage for, 101 
                                               financing, 4-5, 99 
                                   military wage credits, 112-113 
              tax rates for self-employed individuals, 43 table 2 
              Hospital Insurance (HI) Program Trust Fund, 109-113 
                                     financial status of, 113-119 
                              insolvency projections, 118 table 9 
                          Hospital market basket index (MBI), 124 
                                                Hospital services 
       Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) of 1999 and, 190-192 
    disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 124, 905, 910, 
                                                              911 
      inpatient hospital services, 98, 101, 123-124, 125 table 13 
                           Medicare reimbursement. See Appendix D 
    outpatient department (OPD) services, 98, 150, 154-162, 155-
                                   157 tables 21-22, 189, 191-192 
               ``qualified'' hospitals for Medicare services, 150 
                                             rural providers, 190 
                See also Appendix B; Appendix C; Medicare Program 
                                               Housing assistance 
                           low-income housing tax credit, 826-828 
                             mortgage interest deduction, 825-826 
                       owner-occupied housing tax credit, 825-826 
                              See also Federal housing assistance 
 Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) Program, 945 
Human capital development welfare-to-work programs. See 
                      Employment-focused welfare-to-work programs 
                                                                  
                    Idaho study of welfare leavers, 1502 table 11 
                                   Illegal aliens. See Appendix J 
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 
                                                        1996, 272 
                                     Illegitimacy. See Appendix M 
                                      Income data. See Appendix I 
                        Income tax provisions. See Tax provisions 
                           Income-tested benefits. See Appendix K 
Independence Program (Virginia), 1442, 1456, 1492-1493 table 9, 
                                                    1499 table 10 
                                       Independent Living Program 
                                baseline projections, 650 table 4 
                                                 established, 681 
                             evaluation research studies, 684-687 
                                     Federal funding, 648 table 2 
                                  participation data, 649 table 3 
                        renamed for Senator John Chafee, 682, 758 
                              State allocations, 683-684 table 12 
                  Indiana study of welfare leavers, 1502 table 11 
   Indiana Welfare Reform Evaluation, 1485 table 9, 1497 table 10 
                                    Indian Child Welfare Act, 694 
                                                    Indian tribes 
                                       child care assistance, 602 
                                         Indian tribes--continued 
    family assistance programs, Temporary Assistance for Needy 
                                    Families (TANF), 353, 373-375 
                             Individual development accounts, 354 
              Individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 785, 789-792 
                                deductible IRAs, 790, 792 table 8 
                                               education, 817-818 
                             effect of tax provisions on, 791-792 
                                     legislative history, 789-790 
                                          nondeductible IRAs, 791 
                                               Roth IRAs, 790-791 
               In-Hospital Paternity Acknowledgement Program, 476 
                                        Institutionalized persons 
                                   Medicaid Program coverage, 900 
                                 Social Security benefits, 27, 40 
    Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 217, 223-225, 274 
                             Insured unemployment rate (IUR), 295 
              Interim payment system (IPS), 134 table 16, 137-140 
                  Internal Revenue Code (IRC). See Tax provisions 
                                   Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 
                         child support arrearages collection, 496 
                  Project 1099 and child support enforcement, 496 
                            IPS. See Interim payment system (IPS) 
                  IRAs. See Individual retirement accounts (IRAs) 
                          IRS. See Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 
                         IUR. See Insured unemployment rate (IUR) 
                                                                  
                                           Job access grants, 354 
                                Job Corps, 965 table 37, 968, 972 
  Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Training Program, 353 
                                   evaluation results, 1406, 1438 
Jobs First Program (Connecticut), 1409, 1443, 1451 table 5, 1456-
                     1457, 1457-1458, 1483 table 9, 1496 table 10 
                    Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 872, 964 
                       characteristics of, 966-967 tables 38a-38b 
        John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program, 682, 758 
                              See also Independent Living Program 
                    JTPA. See Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) 
                                                                  
                   Kansas study of welfare leavers, 1503 table 11 
           Kentucky study of K-TAP welfare leavers, 1503 table 11 
       Kidney disease. See End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program 
                        Kidney transplants, 98, 101, 173 table 27 
                                            Kinship care, 712-714 
                                                                  
Labor force attachment (LFA) welfare-to-work programs. See 
                      Employment-focused welfare-to-work programs 
Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP; Ohio), 1444, 1450, 1452 
                             table 5, 1491 table 9, 1498 table 10 
                                         Leaver studies (welfare) 
                                                 definition, 1471 
                                                         findings 
                                              overview, 1472-1474 
                          State-by-State data, 1500-1510 table 11 
                  Legal Permanent Residents (LPR). See Appendix J 
                     Life After Welfare (Maryland), 1503 table 11 
                            Lifetime learning tax credit, 815-817 
   LIHEAP. See Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 
                       Limited Benefit Plan (Iowa), 1502 table 11 
            Long arm statutes, for child support enforcement, 501 
                                Long-term care insurance, 801-804 
                                              See also Appendix B 
Los Angeles Jobs-First Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) 
                Program (California), 1483 table 9, 1496 table 10 
                Louisiana study of welfare leavers, 1503 table 11 
 Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), 642, 972-980 
                                        background, 972, 974, 977 
                     eligibility and types of assistance, 977-978 
    Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)--continued 
         heating assistance benefits, estimated, 979-980 table 45 
                                 planning and administration, 980 
                                          program components, 977 
                          State allotments, 975-976 table 44, 977 
                         LPR. See Legal Permanent Residents (LPR) 
                                                                  
                   M+C Program. See Medicare+Choice (M+C) Program 
Maintenance of effort (MOE) in Temporary Assistance for Needy 
                                                  Families (TANF) 
                          expenditures, 411, 412-415 tables 18-20 
                                              rule, 353, 363, 368 
                                  Mammography screening, 165, 189 
            Managed care, Medicaid Program and, 903, 906-908, 910 
                                                   Marital status 
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program 
                                                     parents, 438 
     earnings disregards, impact on, 1447-1449, 1450-1452 table 5 
    initiatives to promote. See Welfare-to-work (WTW) programs, 
                                               mandatory programs 
                  of working mothers, 572-576, 574-579 tables 2-5 
    Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Program 
                                    beneficiaries, 51-52 table 11 
                                        TANF Program parents, 438 
            Massachusetts study of welfare leavers, 1504 table 11 
              Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, 642 
                      MBI. See Hospital market basket index (MBI) 
              MCCA. See Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) 
                                   Means-tested programs, 811-812 
                                              See also Appendix K 
                                        Medicaid Program, 889-930 
                                              administration, 906 
                          AFDC Program, interaction with, 893-894 
                                         AFDC-related groups, 895 
                               aged and disabled persons, 897-901 
                                             aliens, 900-901, 909 
                                             Boren amendment, 905 
                                                      buy-in, 898 
                                      capitated managed care, 903 
                               categorically needy, 892, 901, 904 
                                                children, 894-895 
             Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and, 487-490 
                                      cost sharing, 898, 906, 907 
    disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 905, 910, 911 
                                         dual eligibles, 906, 908 
                                             eligibility, 892-893 
                                         AFDC-related groups, 895 
                               aged and disabled persons, 897-901 
                                             aliens, 900-901, 909 
                  families, pregnant women, and children, 893-897 
                institutionalized persons and related groups, 900 
        qualified Medicare beneficiaries (QMBs), 184-186, 186-187 
                                                table 30, 899-900 
                                   requirements, waivers, 896-897 
        Supplemental Security Income (SSI)-related groups, 897-899 

                  families, pregnant women, and children, 893-897 
                                       Federal matching rate, 904 
                               fee-for-service reimbursement, 903 
                                                   financing, 904 
                              freedom-of-choice waivers, 907, 908 
                                                   gag rules, 908 
                institutionalized persons and related groups, 900 
                                        Katie Beckett option, 900 
                                     legislative history, 908-911 
                           long-term care, spending on, 1024-1026 
                                         low-income children, 896 
                              managed care and, 903, 906-908, 910 
                            medically needy program and, 901, 904 
                                        noncitizens, 900-901, 909 
                                      Medicaid Program--continued 
                           nursing facilities (NFs), 900, 904-906 
                               outlays, 911-913, 912-913 table 13 
                     payments, 918-926 tables 18-23, 929 table 26 
                          personal needs allowance (PNA), 230-231 
                              poverty level and, 902-903 table 12 
               poverty level pregnant women and children, 894-895 
                        prepaid health care, 928-930 tables 25-26 
                                      prescription drugs, 904-906 
                                     presumptive eligibility, 895 
       primary care case management (PCCM) programs, 907-908, 910 
                                            program data, 911-930 
                                  prudent layperson standard, 908 
          qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs), 186 
    qualified Medicare beneficiaries (QMBs), 184-186, 186-187 
                                                table 30, 899-900 
    recipients, number of, 914-917 tables 14-17, 928-929 table 25 
                                    reimbursement policy, 904-906 
                                   requirements, waivers, 896-897 
                                       Ribicoff children, 895-896 
                                          risk-based program, 907 
    section 209(b) of Social Security Amendments of 1972, 897-898 
                  section 1915(c) of the Social Security Act, 900 
                                      services, 904, 927 table 24 
                              special-needs children and, 673-674 
    specified low-income Medicare beneficiaries (SLMBs), 184, 185, 
                                                 186-187 table 30 
                                             spend down, 897, 901 
    Supplemental Security Income (SSI) eligibility and, 225-226, 
                                                230-231, 256, 277 
                                      SSI-related groups, 897-899 
     State supplemental payments (SSP), interaction with, 897-898 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 
                               interaction with, 360-361, 893-894 
                                             territories, 769-772 
             ``300 percent rule'' for Medicaid qualification, 900 
                       transitional medical assistance (TMA), 895 
                                                 waivers, 896-897 
                                               Medical assistance 
                                    child support orders, 487-490 
                Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 936 
Medical care. See Appendix B; Appendix C; Appendix D; Appendix E; 
    Health care; Health insurance; Medicaid Program; Medicare 
                                                          Program 
                              Medical expense deductions, 805-807 
                                Medically needy program, 901, 904 
                         Medical savings accounts (MSAs), 795-797 
               Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA), 130-131 
            Medicare+Choice (M+C) Program, 168, 174, 189-190, 192 
                                              See also Appendix E 
Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) 
                                                     of 1999, 937 
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC), 141, 159, 189, 192 
                                         Medicare Program, 97-210 
                                               administration, 99 
                               aged, eligibility and coverage, 99 
                                      ambulance services, 167-168 
                 ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 158, 162-165 
                                           anesthesiologists, 146 
    assignment, ``assigned'' or ``unassigned'' basis for payment, 
                                                         146, 149 
    Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and, 101, 119, 126, 134-140, 
                                                 150-151, 159-160 
                   beneficiaries, number of, 101, 102-103 table 2 
                    benefit payments, 102-107 tables 2-4, 146-168 
                     lifetime benefits, 119, 122-123 tables 11-12 
                                                     benefits, 98 
                                 bone mass measurements, 166, 189 
                            clinical laboratory services, 150-151 
                                      clinical psychologists, 150 
                                      Medicare Program--continued 
                                     clinical social workers, 150 
                                coinsurance, 108, 110-111 table 5 
                            colorectal cancer screening, 166, 189 
                                            coverage, 98, 123-168 
                      data, historical, 193, 194-209 tables 32-41 
                                 deductible, 108, 110-111 table 5 
                                     diabetes screening, 166, 189 
                        diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 124, 157 
              disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 124 
                                             drugs, 108, 167, 192 
                                             Duggan v. Bowen, 133 
                                           duplication rules, 803 
                     durable medical equipment (DME), 98, 151-154 
                                          administration, 153-154 
                                    competitive bidding, 154, 189 
                                                  definition, 152 
                       inherent reasonableness authority, 152-153 
                                       reimbursement for, 151-152 
                                                spending for, 153 
    End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 98, 124, 158, 168-174 
                                     fee-for-service payments, 98 
                                           fee schedule, 146, 149 
                       inherent reasonableness authority, 152-153 
                                           financing, 99, 109-123 
                                            guaranteed issue, 181 
       home health care services, 98, 101, 108, 131-141, 188, 191 
       hospice care, 98, 108, 141-146, 147-148 table 19, 188, 191 
                                                hospital services 
        inpatient hospital services, 98, 101, 123-124, 125 table 
                                                               13 
        outpatient department (OPD) services, 98, 150, 154-162, 
                                        155-157 tables 21-22, 191 
                        kidney transplants, 98, 101, 173 table 27 
                                     legislative history, 187-192 
                                  mammography screening, 165, 189 
    Medicaid Program, interaction with, 184-186, 186-187 table 30 
                nurse anesthetists, certified registered, 149-150 
                                      nurse midwife services, 149 
                                         nurse practitioners, 149 
                                     occupational therapists, 150 
                                     orthotics, 151, 153 table 20 
                                         outlays, 99, 100 table 1 
                                                  overview, 98-99 
                                        Pap smears, 165, 189, 192 
                      part A. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program 
        part B. See Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program 
                             Participating Physician Program, 149 
                        peer review organizations (PROs), 174-176 
                                           pelvic exams, 165, 189 
                                         physical therapists, 150 
                                        physician assistants, 149 
          physician services, 108, 146, 149, 188, 191, Appendix E 
                                        premiums, 110-111 table 5 
                             prospective payment system (PPS), 98 
                                   home health services, 137, 140 
        hospital outpatient department (OPD) services, 158, 160-
                                                              161 
                                      hospital services, 188, 190 
                             inpatient hospital services, 123-124 
                 skilled nursing facility (SNF) services, 126-128 
                               prostate cancer screening, 165-166 
                                               prosthetic devices 
                                                  definition, 151 
                                       spending for, 153 table 20 
          qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs), 186 
                             qualified hospitals, definition, 150 
    qualified Medicare beneficiaries (QMBs), 184-186, 186-187 
                                                table 30, 899-900 
           Railroad Retirement System, interaction with, 101, 109 
                                      Medicare Program--continued 
                                                   reimbursements 
                                       for uninsured persons, 109 
                      to hospitals and physicians. See Appendix D 
                resource utilization group (RUG) system, 127, 131 
                                             rural providers, 190 
    savings estimates for Budget Reconciliation Acts (1981-99), 
                                                193, 194 table 31 
                secondary payer provisions, 177, 178-179 table 28 
                         SNF services, 98, 101, 126-131, 188, 191 
    specified low-income Medicare beneficiaries (SLMBs), 184, 185, 
                                                 186-187 table 30 
               supplementary coverage, 179-187, 180 table 29, 189 
                                     employer-based policies, 182 
                             impact on Medicare spending, 182-184 
                  Medicaid eligibility, 184-186, 186-187 table 30 
                                       Medigap insurance, 180-182 
                                   tax exclusion of benefits, 805 
                                                 territories, 762 
                                            therapy services, 192 
                                               vaccines, 108, 167 
    See also Appendix B; Appendix D; Appendix E; Medicare+Choice 
                                                          Program 
Medicare Utilization and Quality Control Peer Review Organization 
                                           (PRO) Program, 174-176 
                             Medigap insurance, 159, 180-182, 192 
        MedPAC. See Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) 
     Men's health issues, prostate cancer screening, 165-166, 189 
                       MEPA. See Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) 
            MFIP. See Family Investment Program (MFIP; Minnesota) 
                              MGIB. See Montgomery GI bill (MGIB) 
                 Michigan study of welfare leavers, 1504 table 11 
Milwaukee's New Hope Demonstration Project. See New Hope 
                                Demonstration Project (Milwaukee) 
Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP). See Family Investment 
                                        Program (MFIP; Minnesota) 
              Mississippi study of welfare leavers, 1504 table 11 
                 Missouri study of welfare leavers, 1504 table 11 
Moderate Rehabilitation for Single Room Occupancy Dwellings 
                                                     Program, 945 
MOE. See Maintenance of effort (MOE) in Temporary Assistance for 
                                            Needy Families (TANF) 
                                   Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 982 
MPPAA. See Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 
                                                          (MPPAA) 
                        MSAs. See Medical savings accounts (MSAs) 
Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 (MPPAA), 850-
                                                     851, 859-860 
                        Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA), 693-694 
       Multistate Foster Care Data Archive (Chapin Hall), 720-723 
                                                                  
           NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 
                          NAFTA Worker Security Act, 344-346, 349 
      National Advisory Commission on the Future of Medicare, 189 
National Bureau of Economic Research, child maltreatment study, 
                                                          715-716 
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 689, 690, 
                                                         707, 710 
              National Child Care Staffing Study (NCCSS), 589-591 
         National Child Support Enforcement Reference Center, 468 
National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS), 1409, 
    1432, 1438-1441, 1450 table 5, 1456, 1459, 1461, 1463-1465, 
                      1469, 1477-1479 table 9, 1494-1495 table 10 
National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS), 707, 
                                                              710 
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 
                                child care quality study, 593-596 
                        National Institute on Drug Abuse, 710-711 
 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), 584-586, 713, 1476 
          National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, 660 
                             Native Employment Works Program, 374 
NCANDS. See National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) 
            NCCSS. See National Child Care Staffing Study (NCCSS) 
                            Needs-tested benefits. See Appendix K 
New Chance Demonstration Project, 1444, 1450, 1450 table 5, 1467-
                        1468 table 8, 1479 table 9, 1495 table 10 
New Hope Demonstration Project (Milwaukee), 1410, 1459, 1467-1468 
                             table 8, 1494 table 9, 1499 table 10 
New Jersey Family Development Program. See Family Development 
                                        Program (FDP; New Jersey) 
NEWWS. See National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies 
                                                          (NEWWS) 
New York, A Study of Work and Benefit Use Afer Case Closing, 1505 
                                                         table 11 
New York Child Assistance Program (NY CAP). See Child Assistance 
                                                 Program (NY CAP) 
NICHD. See National Institute of Child Health and Human 
                                              Development (NICHD) 
NIS. See National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS) 

Noncitizen Benefit Clarification and Other Technical Amendments 
                                                 Act of 1998, 535 
                                                      Noncitizens 
                                      Food Stamp Program and, 876 
                               Medicaid Program and, 900-901, 909 
    Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility, 217, 
                                           254, 262, 270, 271-274 
                                              See also Appendix J 
                                             Nondisplacement, 358 
                North American Council on Adoptable Children, 675 
                      North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 
                        Implementation Act of 1993, 313, 337, 349 
    Transitional Adjustment Assistance Program for Workers, 344, 
                                                              349 
               See also Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program 
           North Carolina study of welfare leavers, 1505 table 11 
                        Northern Mariana Islands, Commonwealth of 
                               Medicaid Program, 770 table 5, 771 
                   Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767, 867-868 
           NSAF. See National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) 
                                                 Nursing services 
                anesthetists, certified registered nurse, 149-150 
                                            midwife services, 149 
                                         nurse practitioners, 149 
                   Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767, 867-868 
Nutrition programs. See Food Stamp Program; Nutrition Assistance 
    Block Grant; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, 
                                      Infants, and Children (WIC) 
          NY CAP. See Child Assistance Program (NY CAP; New York) 
                                                                  
OASDI (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance) Programs. See 
                                                  Social Security 
        OASIS. See Outcome and assessment information set (OASIS) 
               OBRA. See Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) 
             Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), 466, 468 
                                  Offsets, Social Security, 25-27 
Ohio JOBS. See Transitions to Independence Demonstration (Ohio 
                                                            JOBS) 
  Ohio study of welfare leavers in Cuyahoga County, 1506 table 11 
Oklahoma study of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
                           cases closed and denied, 1506 table 11 
                Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Program, 2 
                                       benefit eligibility, 16-17 
                                         See also Social Security 
                             Old Age Assistance Program, 212, 213 
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Programs. See 
                                                  Social Security 
      Older Americans Act Employment Program for the Elderly, 872 
Omnibus Appropriations Act of 1999, State Children's Health 
                                   Insurance Program (SCHIP), 772 
                         Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) 
                    adoption and foster care data collection, 717 
                                                  child care, 572 
                Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 495, 502 
           empowerment zones and enterprise communities, 642, 644 
              Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)--continued 
                                        home health services, 132 
                                  Independent Living Program, 681 
                                            Medicaid Program, 904 
                                 paternity establishment, 476-477 
                     protections for children in foster care, 668 
             railroad retirement benefits, 323, 325, 334-335, 793 
            Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Programs, 633, 642 
                                                    SSI, 226, 235 
                       Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), 348-349 
                         unemployment compensation (UC), 296, 312 
Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations 
                                                    Act, 349, 937 
   Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (OTCA) of 1988, 338, 349 
OPD services. See Hospital services, outpatient department (OPD) 
                                                         services 
        Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 972 
                                     Orthotics, 151, 153 table 20 
   OTCA. See Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (OTCA) of 1988 
          Outcome and assessment information set (OASIS), 140-141 
                                            Out-of-wedlock births 
                                 paternity establishment, 475-479 
                                     reduction, as TANF goal, 354 
                                              See also Appendix M 
                                                                  
                                          Parent locator services 
    Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 469, 470, 473-475, 505 
                                      for military personnel, 499 
      Parent's Fair Share Demonstration (PFS), 1460, 1480 table 9 
                 PASS. See Plan for achieving self-support (PASS) 
            PBGC. See Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) 
                        Peer review organizations (PROs), 174-176 
Pennsylvania technical report on welfare leavers, 1506-1507 table 
                                                               11 
             Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 845-860 
                                           administration of, 845 
                                          Advisory Committee, 845 
                            budgetary treatment, 855, 856 table 3 
                                       coverage requirements, 847 
                                   defined benefit plans, 845-846 
                              defined contribution plans, 845-846 
                                  financial condition of, 851-855 
                                                  claims, 851-852 
                                          future of, 855, 857-858 
                                                    overview, 851 
                              financial structure of, 855 chart 1 
                                                        financing 
                                          employer liability, 854 
                                           investment income, 854 
                                                premiums, 852-854 
                                              sources of, 852-855 
                                     legislative history, 858-860 
                                multiemployer plans, 850-851, 854 
                              plan termination insurance, 845-846 
                                                  purpose of, 845 
                                            single-employer plans 
                                            asset allocation, 850 
                                            benefit payments, 849 
                                                           claims 
                                          experience, 852 table 1 
                                           number of, 853 table 2 
                                          employer liability, 849 
                                     guaranteed benefits, 849-850 
                                                premiums, 852-854 
                                    section 4022(c) benefits, 850 
                                            terminations, 847-848 
                                              future, 852 table 1 
                                           number of, 853 table 2 
                                                 trusteeship, 849 
           PCCM. See Primary care case management (PCCM) programs 
         Pension Protection Act of 1987 (PPA), 848, 852, 854, 858 
                                                         Pensions 
                               employee stock ownership plan, 783 
                                           401(k) plans, 783, 785 
                           government pension offsets, 25-26, 291 
                  legislative history of tax exclusions, 779, 783 
         Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE), 785 
    See also Individual retirement accounts (IRAs); Railroad 
                                                Retirement System 
                          Personal needs allowance (PNA), 230-231 
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
    (PRWORA) of 1996, 17, 39, 216, 270-271, 352, 355, 460, 465, 
        572, 643-644, 714, 756, 808, 885, 889, 908-909, 1405-1406 
                 PFS. See Parent's Fair Share Demonstration (PFS) 
                                        Physician assistants, 149 
                    Physician Payment Review Commission, 183, 189 
                                               Physician services 
            Medicare Program, 108, 146, 149, 188, 191, Appendix E 
                           Medicare reimbursement. See Appendix D 
                                              See also Appendix C 
                          PIA. See Primary insurance amount (PIA) 
             Plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 218, 255-256 
                          PNA. See Personal needs allowance (PNA) 
                                 Political asylum. See Appendix J 
                                     Poverty data. See Appendix H 
                                                   Poverty status 
                                     child support impact on, 523 
             child support payments and, 524 table 6, 527 table 7 
                          consumption expenditures and, 1427-1430 
                            Federal poverty level (FPL), 893, 931 
                                   Federal tax treatment, 839-842 
                        food assistance programs, effect on, 1422 
                  Medicaid Program and, 894-895, 902-903 table 12 
                         pregnant women and children and, 894-895 
                                           single-mother families 
                            and work status, 1412-1413, 1418-1419 
          effects of earnings, transfers, and taxes on, 1420-1423 
Poverty thresholds, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits 
    payments and, 215 table 1, 241-243, 244 table 9, 245 table 10 
                    PPA. See Pension Protection Act of 1987 (PPA) 
                        PPS. See Prospective payment system (PPS) 
                                 Prevent Child Abuse America, 707 
   Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant Program, 642 
       Primary care case management (PCCM) programs, 907-908, 910 
           Primary insurance amount (PIA), 19-21, 23, 52 table 12 
                                               Primary payer, 177 
                                    Prisoners and fugitive felons 
                             and Social Security benefits, 27, 40 
                                       and SSI, 217, 224-225, 274 
Profile of Child Care Settings Study (Department of Education), 
                                                              588 
      Project Independence (Florida), 1484 table 9, 1497 table 10 
                                   Project Save Our Children, 503 
Project Self-Reliance: TAFI Participant Closure Study (Idaho), 
                                                    1502 table 11 
             Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program, 646, 757 
                                   Court Improvement Program, 659 
                                        entitlement ceilings, 654 
                          evaluation research activities, 657-659 
                              Federal funding, 647-648 tables 1-2 
                                        grants to States, 654-659 
                                  participation data, 649 table 3 
                                                  set-asides, 654 
                      State-by-State allocations, 655-656 table 6 
                                            use of funds, 656-658 
   ProPAC. See Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) 
              Property liens, for child support payments, 495-496 
                       PROs. See Peer review organizations (PROs) 
          Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC), 189 
                             Prospective payment system (PPS), 98 
                                        home health services, 140 
      hospital outpatient department (OPD) services, 158, 160-161 
                                      hospital services, 188, 190 
                             inpatient hospital services, 123-124 
                 skilled nursing facility (SNF) services, 126-128 
                               Prostate cancer screening, 165-166 
                                               Prosthetic devices 
                                                  definition, 151 
                                       spending for, 153 table 20 
      Protecting the Social Security and Medicare Trust Funds, 39 
PRWORA. See Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity 
                                      Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) 
                                     Psychologists, clinical, 149 
Public assistance programs. See Aid to Families with Dependent 
    Children (AFDC) Program; Temporary Assistance for Needy 
                                          Families (TANF) Program 
                             Public Health Services Act, 269, 799 
                   Public housing. See Federal housing assistance 
                                                      Puerto Rico 
                               Medicaid Program, 770 table 5, 770 
                   Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767, 867-868 
                                                TANF Program, 768 
                                                                  
    QDWIs. See Qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs) 
                QMBs. See Qualified Medicare beneficiaries (QMBs) 
          Qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs), 186 
Qualified Medicare beneficiaries (QMBs), 184-186, 186-187 table 
                                                      30, 899-900 
                             Quarters of coverage, 16, 45 table 5 
                                                                  
                             Railroad Administration Account, 299 
                      Railroad industry, number of employees, 326 
                                      Railroad Retirement Account 
                                     financial status of, 325-326 
                   transfers to Hospital Insurance (HI) Fund, 109 
                          Railroad Retirement Act (RRA), 316, 793 
                         Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), 315-316 
                         Railroad Retirement Solvency Act of 1983 
                           and railroad retirement, 323, 325, 334 
                         and railroad unemployment insurance, 332 
                              Railroad Retirement System, 315-336 
                                                        annuities 
                                        disability annuities, 318 
                                            spouse annuities, 319 
                                      supplemental annuities, 319 
                            beneficiaries, number of, 320 table 2 
                                                benefits, 317-319 
                               benefit payments, 320 table 2, 321 
                          cash benefits, 316 table 1, 321 table 3 
                                   dual benefit payments, 317-318 
                                           lump-sum benefits, 319 
                                           survivor benefits, 319 
                                                 taxation of, 325 
                                  tier 1 and 2 benefits, 317, 793 
                                   ``windfall'' benefits, 317-318 
                                       benefit structure, 317-319 
                                   dual benefit payments, 317-318 
                                  tier 1 and 2 benefits, 317, 793 
                                    disability annuities, 318-319 
                                   financial interchange, 322-323 
                                     financial status of, 325-326 
                                            financing of, 321-325 
                                          appropriations, 323-324 
                                            other income, 324-325 
                                           payroll taxes, 321-322 
                                           tax rates, 322 table 4 
                                           wage base, 322 table 4 
                            Railroad Retirement System--continued 
                                     legislative history, 333-335 
                     Medicare Program, interaction with, 101, 109 
                                                overview, 315-316 
                  Social Security Equivalent Benefit Account, 323 
    Social Security Programs, financial interchange, 317-319, 322-
                                                 324, 324 table 5 
                                            spouse annuities, 319 
                                      supplemental annuities, 319 
                               tax exclusion of benefits, 792-794 
                                                vesting, 317, 318 
                                 Railroad Retirement Tax Act, 316 
                     Railroad Unemployment Insurance Account, 299 
                  Railroad Unemployment Insurance System, 327-333 
                                                         benefits 
                              by category and amount, 330 table 8 
                                          during strikes, 330-331 
                     for sickness, 327, 328-329 table 7, 330, 331 
                  for unemployment, 327, 328-329 table 7, 330-331 
                                    eligibility requirements, 327 
                                            financing of, 331-333 
                                                    overview, 327 
           RCCIs. See Residential child care institutions (RCCIs) 
``Reasonable efforts'' for family preservation/reunification, 669-
                                                    671, 692, 757 
                                         Refugees. See Appendix J 
                                          Renal dialysis, 98, 101 
                 Residential child care institutions (RCCIs), 957 
                Resource utilization group (RUG) system, 127, 131 
                                  Retirement Protection Act (RPA) 
                                                     of 1994, 859 
                                                     of 1997, 848 
                                                      Revenue Act 
                                                     of 1918, 821 
                                                of 1964, 814, 815 
                                                     of 1971, 814 
                                                     of 1976, 814 
                                                of 1978, 291, 797 
                           Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1997, 40 
                         RPA. See Retirement Protection Act (RPA) 
                           RRA. See Railroad Retirement Act (RRA) 
                         RRB. See Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) 
                 RUG. See Resource utilization group (RUG) system 
                                                                  
SACWIS. See Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System 
                                                         (SACWIS) 
         Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE), 785 
     SCHIP. See State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) 
                  School Breakfast Program, 957-958, 959 table 35 
                      School Lunch Program, 957-958, 958 table 34 
Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance Experiment (SIME-DIME), 1446-
                                                             1447 
               SECA. See Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA) 
                Secondary payer provisions, 177, 178-179 table 28 
        Section 8 housing assistance, for rental housing, 943-945 
Section 209(b), of the Social Security Act. See under Supplemental 
                                    Security Income (SSI) Program 
                  Section 217(g), of the Social Security Act, 112 
                  Section 229(b), of the Social Security Act, 112 
                     Section 427, of the Social Security Act, 687 
         Section 429A, title IV-B of the Social Security Act, 660 
                  Section 473(c), of the Social Security Act, 674 
      Section 477, of title IV-E, of the Social Security Act, 681 
      Section 479, title IV-E of the Social Security Act, 716-717 
Section 1115(a), of the Social Security Act. See Medicaid Program, 
                                        freedom-of-choice waivers 
                Section 1619, of the Social Security Act, 255-257 
Section 1915(b), of the Social Security Act. See Medicaid Program, 
                                        freedom-of-choice waivers 
Section 4022(c), Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation benefits, 
                                                              850 
                     Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA) tax 
                           Social Security, 4-6, 42-43 tables 1-2 
                                               tax liability, 829 
Self-Sufficiency Program. See Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency 
                                                          Program 
            Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act of 1996, 38-39, 42 
SEPPAA. See Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 
                                                         (SEPPAA) 
                      SGA. See Substantial gainful activity (SGA) 
                                   Shelter Plus Care Program, 945 
SIME-DIME. See Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance Experiment (SIME-
                                                            DIME) 
  SIMPLE. See Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) 
Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 (SEPPAA), 848, 
                                                              858 
Single-mother families, welfare, employment, and poverty status, 
                                                        1412-1427 
      SIPP. See Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 
Skilled nursing facility (SNF) services, 98, 101, 126-131, 188, 
                                                              191 
   SLMBs. See Specified low-income Medicare beneficiaries (SLMBs) 
Small Business Administration Reauthorization and Amendments Act 
                                                     of 1994, 499 
Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, 693, 785, 789, 814, 
                                                         817, 828 
   SMI Program. See Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program 
                SNFs. See Skilled nursing facility (SNF) services 
                          Social insurance, concept definition, 3 
                                            Social Security, 1-96 
                                       actuarial reduction, 22-23 
                         administrative expenses, 36, 78 table 40 
                                 beneficiaries, 50-57 tables 9-17 
                          benefit adjustments, 58-61 tables 18-21 
             cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), 21-22, 58 table 18 
                                             dual entitlement, 25 
             earnings limit, 24-25, 38-39, 42, 62-63 tables 22-23 
                                     for age at retirement, 22-23 
                                 government pension offset, 25-26 
                                   maximum family benefits, 23-24 
                         public disability benefits offset, 26-27 
                  windfall elimination provision, 26, 61 table 21 
        benefit amounts, 50 table 10, 51-52 table 11, 56 table 16 
                                          tax exclusions, 226-228 
                                              benefit computation 
                   average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), 19-20 
                                           bend points, 20-21, 24 
                                              benefit formula, 20 
                                            computation years, 20 
                                                dropout years, 20 
                                                indexing year, 19 
        primary insurance amount (PIA), 19-21, 23-34, 52 table 12 
                                      special minimum benefit, 21 
                                  benefit data, 50-57 tables 9-17 
                                     benefit payments, 50 table 9 
    benefits, relationship to taxes, 85-88, 89-93 tables 48-50, 
                                    93, 94-95 tables 51-52, 95-96 
                                               brief history, 2-3 
                          budgetary treatment, 35-38, 78 table 40 
                                              child's benefit, 18 
             cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), 21-22, 58 table 18 
                                    coverage, 4, 46-49 tables 6-8 
                          quarters of coverage, 16-17, 45 table 5 
                                     covered earnings, 44 table 3 
                                covered workers, 46-49 tables 6-8 
                      delayed retirement credits, 23, 60 table 20 
                               dependents' benefits, 18-19, 22-26 
      disability insurance. See Disability Insurance (DI) Program 
                      disability program data, 79-85 tables 41-47 
                         early retirement, 22-23, 53 tables 13-14 
      earnings histories, of hypothetical workers, 54-55 table 15 
             earnings limit, 24-25, 38-39, 42, 62-63 tables 22-23 
                                       Social Security--continued 
    effect of current earnings and taxation of benefits, 62-67 
                                                     tables 22-27 
                                               eligibility, 16-19 
                                             father's benefit, 18 
                                FICA, 4-5, 42 table 1, 45 table 4 
                                financing, 4-16, 42-44 tables 1-3 
                                          firewall provisions, 37 
             full retirement age (FRA), 3, 17, 21-24, 60 table 20 
                                            insured status, 16-17 
              legislative history, 104th--106th Congresses, 38-42 
                                       lump-sum death benefit, 19 
                                            Medicare Program, 113 
                                                moneys' worth, 85 
                                             mother's benefit, 18 
                                                   offsets, 25-27 
                                             parent's benefit, 19 
                                           pay-as-you-go rule, 36 
                               payroll tax, 4-5, 42-43 tables 1-2 
                        prisoners, suspension of benefits, 27, 40 
    Railroad Retirement System, financial interchange, 317-319, 
                                             322-324, 324 table 5 
                                   replacement rates, 57 table 17 
        retirement age, election of benefits, 23, 53 tables 13-14 
                                          retirement benefits, 17 
                                      SECA, 4-5, 42-43 tables 1-2 
                                  social insurance, concept of, 3 
                                             spouse's benefit, 18 
         State and local government employees, 4-5, 48-49 table 8 
                            statistical tables, 42-85 tables 1-47 
                                   stepchildren, benefits for, 39 
                                  survivor benefits, 18-19, 22-26 
    taxable wage base (maximum taxable earnings), 5, 42 table 1, 
                                                       44 table 3 
                  taxation of benefits, 27-28, 65-67 tables 25-27 
                               tax exclusion of benefits, 792-794 
                 tax rates and covered earnings, 42-45 tables 1-5 
                                         territories, 762 table 1 
        title XVI. See Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program 
                           trust funds, 14-16, 68-78 tables 28-40 
                                          widow(er's) benefit, 18 
                                              Social Security Act 
                                     Amendments of 1972, 168, 766 
                                Amendments of 1983, 123, 793, 823 
                              Social Security Act of 1935, 2, 279 
              Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program, 633-644 
                                          allocation formula, 633 
             allocations, by State and territory, 633-638 table 2 
                                 appropriations, 633, 634 table 1 
                child care provisions, 599, 600-601 table 15, 603 
                                  child welfare services and, 646 
                                       empowerment zones, 642-643 
                                  enterprise communities, 642-643 
                  entitlement ceilings, 633, 634 table 1, 643-644 
              expenditures, by service category, 640, 641 table 4 
                                      funding levels, 634 table 1 
                                     funding of, 633, 647 table 1 
                                     legislative history, 643-644 
                                                    overview, 633 
                                               program goals, 635 
                                              qualified plan, 643 
                                      reporting requirements, 639 
                               services provided, 639-640 table 3 
                                  transfer of funds, 354, 641-642 
                                                     use of funds 
                           by service categories, 639-640 table 3 
                                             restrictions on, 635 
              Social welfare programs in the territories, 761-775 
            Social welfare programs in the territories--continued 
                               coverage of residents, 762 table 1 
                        Federal funding for, 765, 765-766 table 3 
                                            Federal programs, 761 
                     Federal-State programs, 762, 763-764 table 2 
                                          grant programs, 773-774 
                                         health programs, 769-774 
                                        Medicaid Program, 769-772 
                            Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767 
                  Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 766 
       State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 772-773 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 767-
                                                              769 
              tax provisions that affect low-income families, 774 
                                    Social workers, clinical, 150 
South Carolina, Survey of Former Family Independence Program 
                                           Clients, 1507 table 11 
``Special-needs'' children, 647, 649, 672-673, 674, 752-753 table 
                                                               40 
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and 
                                     Children (WIC), 361, 959-961 
Specified low-income Medicare beneficiaries (SLMBs), 184, 185, 
                                                 186-187 table 30 
             SSBG. See Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program 
              SSI. See Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program 
SSP. See under Medicaid Program, State supplemental payments 
    (SSP); State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 
                                     separate State program (SSP) 
       State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 930-942 
                                                   abortions, 935 
                                 additional service category, 935 
                            allotments, 937-942, 939-941 table 28 
                                     basic benefits category, 935 
                                   benchmark benefit package, 932 
                               benchmark equivalent coverage, 935 
                                                benefits, 932-935 
                           combination approach (COMBO), 932, 938 
                                                cost sharing, 935 
                          data collection and evaluation, 937-938 
                                                 eligibility, 931 
                                                 asset tests, 931 
                                    income eligibility limit, 931 
                                targeted low-income children, 931 
       enhanced Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 936 
                          enrollment statistics, 932-934 table 27 
                                   expenditures, 939-941 table 28 
                                                   financing, 936 
                                     legislative history, 936-938 
      Medicaid Program expansions, 896, 910-911, 932-934 table 27 
                                         preventive services, 935 
                                            program data, 938-942 
                                        section 1115 waivers, 938 
                           separate State program (SSP), 932, 938 
                                             territories, 772-773 
                   State General Assistance (GA) Program, 865-866 
                                 State Tax Intercept Program, 494 
Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS), 
                                       717-718, 719 table 16, 723 
                      Substance abuse, child welfare and, 710-711 
    Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 17, 64 table 24, 216, 255 
                         Substitute care. See Foster Care Program 
Summer Youth Employment and Training Program, 965 table 37, 968, 
                                                              972 
     Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions Act of 1998, 937 
              Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 211-277 
                                   administration of program, 213 
                                         administrative fees, 235 
                                                        aged, 216 
                                      AIDS, persons with, 222-223 
                                         alcoholics, 252-254, 273 
                                   aliens, 217, 254, 270, 271-273 
            Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program--continued 
                                                 asset limit, 220 
                                             benefits eligibility 
                                                        aged, 216 
                                      AIDS, persons with, 222-223 
                                         alcoholics, 252-254, 273 
                                   aliens, 217, 254, 270, 271-273 
                                                       blind, 216 
                                categorical requirements, 216-217 
                      citizenship and residency requirements, 217 
                         disabled children, 216-217, 270-271, 273 
                                            disabled persons, 216 
                                       drug addicts, 252-254, 273 
                                   homeless persons, 223, 254-255 
                                          illegal immigrants, 270 
                       income and resources requirements, 217-222 
                                            assets in trusts, 274 
                              deeming procedure, 217-218, 221-222 
                                   disposal of resources, 274-275 
                                    earned income exclusions, 218 
                            maximum allowable income, 218 table 2 
                              noncitizens, 217, 254, 270, 271-273 
             plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 218, 255-256 
             prisoners, suspension of benefits, 217, 224-225, 274 
                          public institution requirement, 223-225 
                          benefits payments, 213, 214-215 table 1 
                                          benefit rates, 213, 216 
                               by living arrangement, 230 table 4 
                                       by State, 264-265 table 21 
                                             debt collection, 274 
                                  emergency advance payments, 232 
        Federal and State benefits, 264-265 table 21, 268-269 
                                                         table 23 
                         Federal benefit levels, 228, 229 table 3 
        food stamp benefit, 226, 240-241 table 7, 242-243 table 8 
                   former recipients of State assistance, 231-232 
        maximum potential benefits, 240-241 table 7, 242-243 table 
                                                                8 
                       overpayments and debt collection, 232, 274 
                          personal needs allowance (PNA), 230-231 
            persons in Medicaid institution, 230 table 4, 230-231 
                            persons living independently, 234-243 
                  persons living in the household of another, 230 
        poverty thresholds, 215 table 1, 241-243, 244 table 9, 245 
                                                         table 10 
            State supplementation, 232-234, 268-269 table 23, 273 
                                   by State, 264-267 tables 21-22 
                        levels over time, 235, 236-239 tables 5-6 
                                 variation in payment amount, 234 
                                                       blind, 216 
                                        break-even point, 255-256 
                                                burial funds, 220 
                                cash-out food stamp benefits, 234 
         continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 251, 270, 271, 277 
                            cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), 228 
                  costs of program, 262-263, 264-269 tables 21-23 
                                   countable income, 218-219, 222 
                                         countable resources, 219 
                                                       deductions 
                                      medical cost deduction, 240 
                                           shelter deduction, 240 
                deeming of income and resources, 217-218, 221-222 
                                 ``disabled adult children,'' 226 
                        disabled children, 216-217, 251, 270, 273 
                                            disabled persons, 216 
                                       drug addicts, 252-254, 273 
                               earned income disregards, 218, 255 
                                    earned income exclusions, 218 
                eligibility. See above under benefits eligibility 
            Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program--continued 
                            employment networks, 227-228, 276-277 
                            outcome milestone payment system, 228 
                                      outcome payment system, 228 
                                        essential person, 231-232 
                                                       exclusions 
                                                      income, 218 
                                                    resource, 218 
    Federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit standard, 
                                                 228, 229 table 3 
                                                      felons, 217 
                               fraud and abuse reduction, 274-276 
                        fugitives, prohibition of payment to, 217 
                                                     funding, 213 
                                       HIV, persons with, 222-223 
                                   homeless persons, 223, 254-255 
                                      illegal immigrants, 270-271 
                                          immediate payments, 232 
                                 impairments, listing of, 216-217 
                                           income exclusions, 218 
                                                income floor, 225 
                        information sharing requirements, 275-276 
                                            initial payments, 232 
                                      in-kind assistance, 218-219 
                                     legislative history, 269-277 
                                     life insurance policies, 220 
                   maintenance-of-effort (MOE) provision, 233-234 
    Medicaid eligibility, based on SSI, 225-226, 230-231, 256, 277 

                            medical institutionalization, 223-224 
                                            medical listings, 217 
           mental illness or mental impairment, 216, 254-255, 262 
                              noncitizens, 217, 262, 270, 271-274 
                     one-third reduction of benefit standard, 230 
                                           overpayments, 232, 274 
                                 overview and background, 212-213 
                       participation rates, 258-259, 258 table 17 
                                    pass-along provision, 233-234 
                          personal needs allowance (PNA), 230-231 
                            persons living independently, 234-243 
             plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 218, 255-256 
                                presumptive eligibility, 222, 232 
                                     prisoners, 217, 224-225, 274 
                                      program of last resort, 225 
                                              public institutions 
                        prohibition of payments to residents, 224 
                                            requirements, 223-225 
                                             qualified alien, 217 
                                                       recipients 
             adult disabled and blind, 246, 247 table 12, 248-249 
                                       by age group, 249 table 14 
                                        by category, 249 table 14 
                            by disability diagnosis, 248 table 13 
                              by living arrangements, 230 table 4 
                                                     by race, 249 
                                                      by sex, 249 
                                by source of income, 250 table 15 
                                  by type of income, 250 table 16 
                                       caseload developments, 252 
                                             children as, 251-252 
        number of, 213, 214-215 table 1, 243, 246 table 11, 259-
                                                 264 tables 18-20 
                                         on the basis of age, 249 
                       participation rates, 258 table 17, 258-259 
                                      reporting requirements, 276 
                                        representative payee, 253 
                                       residency requirement, 217 
                                          resource exclusion, 218 
                                   resource requirements, 219-221 
            Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program--continued 
    section 209(b) option, for Medicaid eligibility, 225-226, 256 
     section 1619 provisions, of the Social Security Act, 255-257 
         self-sufficiency programs and, 226-228, 255-256, 276-277 
                            Social Security Program and, 213, 225 
        State supplementation, 232-234, 268-269 table 23, 273-274 
                                   by State, 264-267 tables 21-22 
                        levels over time, 235, 236-239 tables 5-6 
                                    substance abuse, 252-254, 273 
                     substantial gainful activity (SGA), 216, 255 
                                Sullivan v. Zebley, 216, 217, 251 
                              tax exclusions of benefits, 812-813 
                                    territories, 762 table 1, 766 
                                            threshold amount, 256 
                                             tolerance level, 220 
                                       transfer of resources, 220 
                                                  trends, 213-216 
                 vocational rehabilitation programs and, 227, 276 
                           work disincentive elimination, 255-257 
                                    working disabled and, 255-257 
             See also Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program 
                    Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program 
                              aged, eligibility and coverage, 101 
                                      ambulance services, 167-168 
               ambulatory surgical center (ASC) services, 162-165 
                                       benefits payments, 146-168 
                            clinical laboratory services, 150-151 
                                                coverage, 146-168 
                          disabled, eligibility and coverage, 101 
                                                  drugs, 108, 167 
                         durable medical equipment (DME), 151-154 
                                                    financing, 99 
                      home health services, 98, 101, 108, 131-141 
           hospital outpatient department (OPD) services, 154-162 
                                 medical and health services, 108 
                                physician services, 108, 146, 149 
                           preventive services, 108, 165-168, 188 
                                               vaccines, 108, 167 
            Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund, 113 
                                            financial status, 119 
                       income and disbursements, 120-121 table 10 
                                  Supportive Housing Program, 945 
 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 576, 577, 586 
        Suter v. Artist M. (``reasonable efforts'' case), 670-671 
                                                                  
       TAA Program. See Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program 
         TANF. See Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
Taxation of benefits, Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 291-
                      292, 292 table 4, 306, 307-309 tables 10-11 
Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 1982, 141-142, 
                                               174, 296, 498, 805 
                                          Tax provisions, 777-843 
            accelerated death benefits, tax benefits for, 801-802 
                 adoption expenses, tax credit and exclusion, 828 
                                     Black Lung Programs, 821-822 
                blind persons, additional tax deductions, 822-823 
                                         cafeteria plans, 797-799 
                                        child tax credit, 828-829 
                       dependent care, employer-provided, 819-820 
    dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 599, 600-601 table 15, 774, 
                                                          813-815 
                            dependents, child tax credit, 828-829 
                           disabled persons, tax credits, 823-824 
                earned income credit (EIC), 808-812, 813 table 14 
                                                        education 
                                             Hope credit, 815-817 
                   individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 817-818 
                                lifetime learning credit, 815-817 
                                        Tax provisions--continued 
                                             education--continued 
                 qualified State tuition programs credit, 817-818 
                         student loan interest deduction, 818-819 
    effectiveness measures (using distributional analysis), 778-
                                                              779 
                                                          elderly 
                                              deductions, 822-823 
         effect of tax provisions on income and taxes of, 829-834 
                                             tax credits, 823-824 
                               employee stock ownership plan, 783 
        estimates of exceptions and credits, 779, 780-782 table 2 
                family income and taxes, distribution of, 834-838 
    Federal income tax refund offset program, 491 table 3, 493-
                                       494, 536, 554-555 table 18 
                                                 health insurance 
        employer contributions, tax exclusions of, 794-795, 796 
                                                          table 9 
                              group health plan requirements, 800 
              health care continuation rules under COBRA, 799-800 
                                  Medicare duplication rules, 803 
                         self-employed individuals deduction, 804 
                                                 housing, 825-828 
                               low-income housing credit, 826-828 
                           owner-occupied housing credit, 825-826 
                                       income, definition of, 212 
                                 income distribution, 779 table 1 
                                            introduction, 778-779 
                                long-term care insurance, 801-804 
                                      marginal tax rates, 834-838 
                              medical expense deductions, 805-807 
                         medical savings accounts (MSAs), 795-797 
                           Medicare benefits, tax exclusions, 805 
                                  Medicare duplication rules, 803 
                                                         pensions 
                                           401(k) plans, 783, 785 
              individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 785, 789-792 
                             tax exclusions, 779-789, 780 table 2 
                                       poverty level and, 839-842 
            public assistance, tax exclusion of benefits, 812-813 
    Railroad Retirement System, tax exclusion of benefits, 325, 
                                                          792-794 
              Social Security, tax exclusion of benefits, 792-794 
                        State income tax offset, 491 table 3, 494 
    Supplemental Security Income (SSI), tax exclusion of benefits, 
                                                          812-813 
                                  welfare-to-work tax credit, 821 
        workers' compensation, tax exclusion of benefits, 821-822 
                                 work opportunity tax credit, 820 
          See also Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax 
TEA. See Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) Program 
                      (Arkansas); Transportation Equity Act (TEA) 
                     Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act, 799 
             Ted Weiss Child Support Enforcement Act of 1992, 497 
Teenage Parent Demonstration (TPD), 1444, 1449-1450, 1451 table 5, 
                                 1480 table 9, 1495-1497 table 10 
Teenage parents, initiatives to decrease nonmarital childbearing, 
                                     1449-1450, 1450-1452 table 5 
TEFRA. See Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 
                                                             1982 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 2, 351-462 

    Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program, 
                               differences from, 353-354, 447-448 
                                       benefits, 359-360, 381-396 
                 annual earnings and income, 391-396 tables 11-12 
                         average monthly benefit, 381-382 table 6 
                         break-even points, 397, 398-400 table 13 
                       maximum benefits, 382, 383-390 tables 7-10 
                                    minimum wage workers, 388-396 
                                           brief summary, 352-354 
                                           charitable choice, 361 
           child care, TANF recipients as child care workers, 591 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program--continued 
                     child care provisions, 360, 600-601 table 15 
             Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and, 470-473 
                                    child welfare system and, 714 
                                  corrective compliance plan, 419 
                                                   diversion, 359 
                                   domestic violence waivers, 358 
                                         duration on welfare, 447 
                         earned income credit (EIC) payments, 361 
                              earnings disregards, 431, 1442-1443 
                                                 eligibility, 355 
                                                   exits, 448-450 
                             expenditures, 397, 404 table 15, 405 
                                      family cap, 1408-1409, 1449 
                                  family characteristics, 436-442 
                          child's relationship in family, 441-442 
                     composition of family, 436-438, 437 table 27 
                        educational attainment of adults, 440-441 
                                   marital status of parents, 438 
        race and ethnicity of adults, 438-440, 439-440 tables 28-
                                                               29 
                                      family violence option, 358 
                                  food assistance provisions, 361 
                                              funding of, 364-375 
             basic family assistance grants, 364, 365-367 table 1 
                                        contingency fund, 370-371 
                         high-performance bonus, 372, 373 table 3 
                                                   loan fund, 371 
                   nonmarital birth rate reduction bonus, 371-372 
        State spending for family assistance, history of, 365-367 
                                                          table 1 
             State spending requirement (MOE rule), 353, 363, 368 
                        supplemental grants, 368-369, 370 table 2 
           transfer of funds, 354, 408-410 table 17, 641-642, 644 
                                               unspent funds, 397 
                                      welfare-to-work grants, 369 
                                                            funds 
        maintenance-of-effort (MOE) expenditures, 411, 412-415 
                                                     tables 18-20 
                  maintenance-of-effort rule, 353, 363, 368, 1411 
                                             restrictions on, 355 
                                            uses allowed, 354-355 
                                              history of, 352-354 
                                           Indian tribes, 373-375 
                             individual development accounts, 354 
                                               ineligibility, 355 
                                           job access grants, 354 
                                         legislative history, 460 
                            major conditions attached to, 355-359 
                      Medicaid Program, interaction with, 360-361 
                            penalties, corrective compliance, 419 
                                        privatization option, 361 
                                program data, 375-442 tables 4-30 
                                    benefits, 381-390 tables 6-10 
           caseload trends, 375-377, 376 table 4, 378-380 table 5 
        exits and returns to program, 448, 449-450 table 32, 1471-
                                                             1474 
                               expenditures, 404-418 tables 15-20 
                                         by category, 418 chart 3 
                                                  highlights, 375 
                                      reporting requirements, 359 
                                    program objectives, 354, 1406 
                                         program outline, 354-363 
                                                   reporting, 359 
                                             restrictions on, 355 
                                                 returns, 448-450 
    State Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Programs 
                                         caseload trends, 377-380 
                                            expenditures, 404-407 
                            maintenance-of-effort (MOE) rule, 411 
                       penalties against States, 357-358, 362-363 
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program--continued 
    State Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
                                              Programs--continued 
                                            requirements, 363-364 
               selected provisions of, 451, 452-459 table 33, 460 
                                       spending requirements, 368 
                                                  summary of, 364 
                        supplemental grants, 368-369, 370 table 2 
                                   uses of, 397, 401-403 table 14 
                                   territories, 353, 419, 767-769 
                                           time limits, 358, 1411 
           transfer of funds, 354, 408-410 table 17, 641-642, 644 
                             welfare reform, impact on, 1410-1411 
                            welfare-to-work (WTW) grants, 369-370 
                                            work definitions, 356 
                                              work incentive, 431 
                                               work participation 
               adult recipients' employment, 431-435, 434 chart 4 
                          benefits and earnings, 435, 436 chart 6 
                           by work activity, 424-434 tables 23-26 
                               employment rates, 434, 435 chart 5 
        job preparation activity, 431, 431 table 25, 432-433 table 
                                                               26 
                                            minimum rates of, 356 
        participation rates for fiscal year 1998, 419-424, 420-423 
                                                     tables 21-22 
                                           required hours of, 357 
                                              work rules, 355-358 
                                  creditable work activities, 357 
                                   domestic violence waivers, 358 
                    enforcement penalties against States, 357-358 
                                             nondisplacement, 358 
             work-trigger time limit rule, 355, 356, 1434 table 2 
    See also Adoption Assistance Program; Aid to Families with 
      Dependent Children (AFDC) Program; Child Care and 
      Development Block Grant (CCDBG); Foster Care Program; 
                                   Welfare-to-work (WTW) programs 
Tennessee, Survey of Welfare Recipients Employed or Sanctioned for 
                                    Non-Compliance, 1508 table 11 
              Termination of parental rights (TPR), 659, 672, 706 
                                             Territories, 761-775 
                                            child tax credit, 829 
                            dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 774 
                                  earned income credit (EIC), 774 
             Federal funding for social welfare programs, 765-766 
    Federal-State social welfare programs in, 762, 763-764 table 2 

                                          grant programs, 773-774 
                                                  identified, 761 
                                        Medicaid Program, 769-772 
                            Nutrition Assistance Block Grant, 767 
                              public assistance programs, 767-769 
       State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 772-773 
                 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) coverage, 766 
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program and, 
                                                          767-769 
                      tax provisions for low-income families, 774 
                   Texas, study of welfare leavers, 1508 table 11 
                                Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), 865, 877 
Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program, 227-228, 256-257, 
                                                          276-277 
Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, 27, 
                                      33-34, 41-42, 276, 892, 911 
      Tier 1 and 2 benefits, of Railroad Retirement Act, 317, 793 
                                            Time limits (welfare) 
                                                 definition, 1434 
                          federally funded lifetime benefits, 358 
                                                    programs with 
        impact on employment, earnings, and welfare receipt after 
               reaching, 1409, 1435, 1443-1444, 1477-1494 table 9 
        impact on income before reaching, 1457-1458, 1494-1499 
                                                         table 10 
                                 Time limits (welfare)--continued 
                              State time limits, 452-459 table 33 
         TANF lifetime eligibility rules, 353, 1411, 1434 table 2 
                                work trigger rule, 355, 356, 1434 
                                                        Title III 
    of the Social Security Act. See Federal Unemployment Tax Act 
                                                           (FUTA) 
       of the welfare reform bill. See Welfare reform legislation 
Title IV-B, of the Social Security Act. See Child welfare 
    programs; Child Welfare Services Program; Promoting Safe and 
                                          Stable Families Program 
Title IV-D, of the Social Security Act. See Child Support 
                                        Enforcement (CSE) Program 
Title IV-E, of the Social Security Act. See Adoption Assistance 
    Program; Adoption Incentives Payment Program; Child welfare 
    programs; Foster Care Independence Program; Foster Care 
                                                          Program 
Title IX, of the Social Security Act. See Federal Unemployment Tax 
                                                       Act (FUTA) 
Title XII, of the Social Security Act. See Federal Unemployment 
                                                   Tax Act (FUTA) 
Title XVI, of the Social Security Act. See Supplemental Security 
                                             Income (SSI) Program 
      Title XIX, of the Social Security Act. See Medicaid Program 
Title XX, of the Social Security Act. See Social Services Block 
                                             Grant (SSBG) Program 
Title XXI, of the Social Security Act. See State Children's Health 
                                        Insurance Program (SCHIP) 
                   TMA. See Transitional medical assistance (TMA) 
To Strengthen Michigan Families (TSMF), 1462-1463, 1486 table 9, 
                                                    1497 table 10 
                               Total unemployment rate (TUR), 295 
                      TPD. See Teenage Parent Demonstration (TPD) 
                    TPR. See Termination of parental rights (TPR) 
                            Trade Act of 1974, 337, 344, 346, 348 
               Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program, 337-349 
                                          for firms, 337, 346-348 
                                             for workers, 337-344 
                           certification, 338, 339-340 tables 1-2 
                          job search allowances, 344, 345 table 4 
                          relocation allowances, 344, 345 table 4 
               trade readjustment allowances (TRAs), 337, 339-342 
                                                 funding for, 346 
                                     legislative history, 348-349 
                                                    overview, 337 
               training and employment services, 343, 345 table 4 
             See also North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 
                                 Trade Expansion Act of 1962, 348 
               Trade readjustment allowances (TRAs), 337, 339-342 
Transitional Adjustment Assistance Program for Workers. See North 
                                    American Free Trade Agreement 
                  Transitional Child Care Assistance Program, 598 
Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) Program (Arkansas), 1500 
                                                         table 11 
                       Transitional medical assistance (TMA), 895 
Transitions to Independence Demonstration (Ohio JOBS), 1490-1491 
                                                          table 9 
Transportation Equity Act (TEA), Temporary Assistance for Needy 
                          Families (TANF) allotment and, 642, 644 
                   TRAs. See Trade readjustment allowances (TRAs) 
                                    Tribal TANF Programs, 373-375 
                 TSMF. See To Strengthen Michigan Families (TSMF) 
                           TUR. See Total unemployment rate (TUR) 
                                                                  
           UC Program. See Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program 
  UEFJA. See Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (UEFJA) 
         UIFSA. See Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA) 
                             Unemployment Compensation Amendments 
                                                     of 1976, 291 
                                                of 1992, 312, 354 
                  Unemployment Compensation Amendments--continued 
                                                     of 1993, 313 
                  Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 279-313 
                               administration of program, 279-280 
                 administrative financing and allocation, 309-312 
                  average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU), 310 
                                        base year definition, 288 
                                       benefits coverage, 280-286 
        displaced workers. See Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) 
                                                          Program 
                  number of covered workers, 283, 284-285 table 2 
                                             benefits eligibility 
                                ability to work requirements, 289 
                                          available for work, 289 
                                           disqualifications, 290 
                                          ex-service members, 291 
                                            family leave, 290-291 
        monetary qualification requirements, 286-287, 287-288 
                                                          table 3 
                                              pension offset, 291 
                                ``suitable work'' definition, 289 
                                                benefits payments 
        amount and duration of weekly benefits, 292-295, 293-294 
                                                          table 5 
                                  exhaustion of benefits, 295-296 
                         Extended Benefits (EB) Program, 295, 296 
         hypothetical weekly State benefits, 298, 298-299 table 7 
                                   supplemental benefits, 296-298 
                                         chargeable employer, 291 
                 child support collections, interaction with, 495 
                                           contingency funds, 310 
                                     Employment Service (ES), 310 
                                          high-cost multiple, 304 
               insured unemployment, 284-285 table 2, 286 chart 1 
                             insured unemployment rate (IUR), 295 
                                             job losers, 283, 286 
                                     legislative history, 312-313 
                                         monetarily eligible, 290 
                                                overview, 279-280 
                                       Pennington v. Doherty, 288 
                                    program data, 281-282 table 1 
                                          program objectives, 279 
                         State Unemployment Compensation Programs 
                          financial condition of, 301-303 table 8 
                                 trust fund balances, 305 table 9 
              State unemployment taxes, 306, 307-309 tables 10-11 
                       taxation of benefits, 291-292, 292 table 4 
                                    territories, 762, 763 table 2 
                               total unemployment rate (TUR), 295 
                    triggers for benefit extension, 292, 295, 296 
                                           Wagner-Peyser Act, 310 
                 weekly benefit amounts, 292-295, 293-294 table 5 
    See also Appendix F; Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) 
                                                          Program 
                                Unemployment data. See Appendix F 
                              Unemployment Insurance Service, 310 
                        Unemployment Trust Fund, 299-300, 304-305 
                          beginning of year balances, 305 table 9 
                                      financial condition of, 300 
        Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (UEFJA), 504 
           Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA), 503-504 
       Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act (URESA), 500 
                                                  Urban Institute 
                                      child care studies, 585-586 
                                    foster care studies, 712, 713 
                                welfare reform studies, 1475-1476 
 URESA. See Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act (URESA) 
                                                                  
                                               Vaccines, 108, 167 
                  VA Programs. See Veterans Affairs (VA) programs 
        VCIS. See Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS) 
                                   Veterans Affairs (VA) programs 
                                   benefits and services, 980-983 
                                   budget authority, 981 table 46 
                                   Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 982 
                               number of recipients, 983 table 47 
                            Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, 905 
  VIEW. See Virginia Initiative for Employment Not Welfare (VIEW) 
Virginia, Experiences of Virginia Time-Limit Families in the Six 
                         Months After Case Closure, 1509 table 11 
Virginia Initiative for Employment Not Welfare (VIEW), 1442, 1456, 
                                 1492-1493 table 9, 1499 table 10 
                                                   Virgin Islands 
                               Medicaid Program, 770 table 5, 771 
      Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 769 
                     Vocational Rehabilitation Programs, 227, 276 
             Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS), 716 
                                                                  
                                           Wagner-Peyser Act, 310 
Washington's TANF Single-Parent Families After Welfare, 1509 table 
                                                               11 
               Washington study of TANF departures, 1509 table 11 
                                     Welfare avoidance grant, 359 
                                     Welfare, definition of, 1393 
                                           Welfare diversion, 359 
                                        Welfare dynamics, 447-450 
                    Welfare leavers. See Leaver studies (welfare) 
Welfare recipients, studies of former, 1471, 1472-1474, 1500-1510 
                                                         table 11 
                                Welfare reform impact evaluations 
                                 cost-benefit analysis, 1469-1470 
                                                 definition, 1430 
                                    methodology issues, 1430-1433 
                                administrative data, use of, 1431 
                                 quasi-experimental designs, 1432 
                   random assignment experiments, 1430-1431, 1432 
                                   statistical significance, 1430 
                                        survey data, use of, 1431 
                  monitoring studies, differences from, 1471-1474 
                                  overview of findings, 1405-1411 
                                       Welfare reform legislation 
                               block grant programs, 641-642, 644 
                                                  child care, 602 
                children at risk for abuse and neglect study, 660 
    Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Programs, 468, 469-470, 531-
                                                              534 
                                    child welfare system, 714-716 
                      Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 273-274 
    work-requirements for able-bodied adults without dependents 
                                                    (ABAWDs), 875 
Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP; Vermont), 1432, 1442, 1456, 
                                      1492 table 9, 1498 table 10 
                                   Welfare-to-work (WTW) programs 
               expenditures, by State, 443, 444-446 table 31, 447 
                                               mandatory programs 
          child well-being impacts, 1410, 1463-1465, 1464 table 6 
                                                 definition, 1437 
        economic status studies, 1409-1410, 1453-1461, 1494-1499 
                                                         table 10 
        employment, earnings, and welfare recipients, 1408, 1434, 
                                                1477-1494 table 9 
        marital status impacts, 1408, 1445, 1446-1449, 1450-1452 
                                                          table 5 
                                           overview, 442-443, 460 
                                                  tax credit, 821 
    See also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
                                                          Program 
            Welfare Waiver Demonstration (Arkansas), 1451 table 5 
WFNJ Evaluation: How WFNJ Clients are Faring Under Welfare Reform 
                                      (New Jersey), 1505 table 11 
When Families Leave Welfare Behind: First Survey Findings 
                                        (Illinois), 1502 table 11 
                  WIA. See Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 
WIC Program. See Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, 
                                      Infants, and Children (WIC) 
                  Windfall elimination provision, 26, 61 table 21 
    Wisconsin, Survey of Those Leaving AFDC or W-2, 1510 table 11 
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. See Special 
    Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and 
                                                   Children (WIC) 
                                            Women's health issues 
                                 bone mass measurements, 166, 189 
                                  mammography screening, 165, 189 
                                             Pap smears, 165, 189 
                                           pelvic exams, 165, 189 
                                   Workers' compensation, 983-988 
                               tax exclusion of benefits, 821-822 
                     Work First New Jersey Program, 1505 table 11 
               Work First Program (North Carolina), 1505 table 11 
``Work first'' programs, 1411, 1434-1435, 1439-1441, 1477-1494 
                                                          table 9 
        Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998, 363, 872, 964-972 
                                     Work Incentive Program, 1406 
                                 Work opportunity tax credit, 820 
                            Workplace injuries and illnesses, 986 
Work requirements. See Welfare-to-work (WTW) programs, mandatory 
                                                         programs 
            WRP. See Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP; Vermont) 
           WTW grant programs. See Welfare-to-work (WTW) programs 
Wyoming, Survey of former POWER (Welfare) Recipients, 1510 table 
                                                               11 

                                   -