[Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)]
[Index]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]



 
                                   INDEX 

AAICAMA. See Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact 
on Adoption and MedicalAssistance (AAICAMA)
ABC (A Better Chance) Program (Delaware), Appendix L: 39, 59 table 8
Abecedarian Project, early childhood education quality study, 9:25-26
Able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs), 15:8-10, 15:15, 15:25
Abortion, 7:3, 7:10, 7:22, 15:87, Appendix L: 43, 49-72 table 8.  
See also Appendix M
Abstinence education, 7:96, 11:48.  See also Appendix M
Accelerated death benefits, 13:28, 13:29
Achieving Change for Texans (ACT), Appendix L: 70-71 table 8
ACS (American Community Survey), Appendix L: 44
ACT (Achieving Change for Texans), Appendix L: 70-71 table 8
Actuarial balance
definition of, 1:8
of Social Security trust funds, 1:8-10, 1:11, 1:62 table 33
Acute care facilities, 2:45-46
Adjusted gross income (AGI), 13:2, 13:10
Administrative law judge (ALJ), 1:26-27, 1:28 chart 2, 1:69-70 
table 43
Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), 
11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85,11:91, 11:92-131 tables 24-48, 11:138
Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997 (P.L. 105-89), 7:20, 
7:21, 7:96, 11:11, 11:12,11:15, 11:18, 11:26, 11:27, 11:32, 11:34, 
11:40-41, 11:52, 11:64, 11:66-67, 11:137-138
Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-272), 11:8,
11:26, 11:31, 11:52, 11:83
Adoption Assistance Program, 11:2, 11:33-40
AFCARS (data collection), 11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85, 11:91, 11:92-131
tables 24-48, 11:138 agreements and payments, 11:33-35
basic rates, by age, 11:37-38 table 10
caseloads, 11:8 table 4
by State, 11:39-40 table 12
children adopted
age at adoption finalization, 11:129-130 table 47
number of, 11:123-124 table 44
prior relationship of adoptive parent(s), 11:130-131 table 48
by race/ethnicity, 11:125-128 tables 45-46
children waiting for adoption
by length of stay, 11:120-122 table 43
by race/ethnicity, 11:118-120 table 42-43, 11:125 table 45
by State, 11:116-117 table 41
data collection systems, 11:55-56, 11:83-85
expenditures, 11:35-36
outlay projections, 11:8 table 4
by State, 11:38-39 table 11
Federal funding of, 11:3-6 tables 1-2
nonrecurring adoption costs, 11:4, 11:35
nonrecurring expense allowance, 11:36-37 table 10
number of agency-involved adoptions, 11:123-124 table 44
participation data, 11:4, 11:7 table 3
special-needs children definition, 11:33
TANF State plan requirements, 7:15
Adoption expenses, tax credit and exclusion, 13:58-59
Adoption Incentives Payment Program, 11:40-47, 11:42-46 table 13, 
11:138
Adoption subsidies, State or Federal, 4:13, 11:19, 11:34-35, 
11:69-71 table 20, 11:92, 11:137
Adult Employment and Training Activities, 15:118-119, 15:120 
table 29, 15:122 table 31
Advisory Council on Unemployment Compensation, 4:13
AFCARS (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System), 
11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85, 11:91, 11:92-131 tables 24-48, 11:138 
AFDC Program. See Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)              
Program
Aged persons. See Elderly; Senior citizens
AGI. See Adjusted gross income (AGI)
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998
(P.L. 105-185),
15:25-26, 15:124
Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-224), 15:79, 15:96
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program
bankruptcy and child support, 8:53
child care for recipients of, 9:27
child support enforcement, 8:2
earned income credit treatment, 13:40
enrollments, 7:31 table 6
Foster Care Program eligibility, 11:18-19
Medicaid Program, interaction with, 15:33, 15:34-35, 15:39
replaced by TANF Program, 1:2, 7:2-3, 8:3, 11:18-19, 11:81, 11:137
"special-needs" children, 11:4
TANF Program comparisons, 7:3-4
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:40
See also Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG); Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program
Aid to the Blind Program, 1:2, 3:2, 3:24, 3:61
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled, 3:2, 3:24, 3:61
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), Supplemental Security
Income for persons with, 3:12-13
AIME. See Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME)
Airline workers, unemployment compensation, 4:15, 4:36
Alabama, Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and Training
Services (ASSETS), 
Appendix L: 55-56 table 8
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant, 10:10
Alcoholics
Medicaid eligibility, 15:75-76
Social Security benefits, 1:36
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility, 3:45-47, 3:61,
15:75-76
Aliens
Medicaid eligibility, 15:76
OASDI Program benefits eligibility, 1:15
Social Security benefits eligibility, 1:36-37
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:7, 3:62-66
unemployment compensation ineligibility, 4:12
See also Noncitizens; and Appendix J
Allocation formula, for block grant programs, 10:1
ALS. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
ALTCS. See Arizona Long-Term Care System (ALTCS)
Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance (ATAA), 6:11
Ambulance services, 2:50, 2:116-118, 2:139, 2:141
Ambulatory payment classification (APC) groups, 2:112
Ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 2:114-116, 2:140-141
American Academy of Pediatrics, child care recommendations, 9:26
American Association for Protecting Children, 11:74
American Community Survey (ACS), Appendix L: 44
American Indians. See Indian tribes
American Public Health Association, child care guidelines, 9:26
American Public Human Services Association (APHSA), 11:83
American Samoa
Food Stamp Program, 15:7-8
Medicaid Program, 12:8 table 5, 12:9-10
Nutrition Assistance Programs, 12:3 table 2, 12:5-6, 15:7
SCHIP Program, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
social services block grant program, 12:12
social welfare programs, 12:1, 12:2 table 1, 12:3 table 2
Title XX funds, 10.1
See also Territories
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 2:141
Anesthetists, nurse, 2:100-101
APC. See Ambulatory payment classification (APC) groups
APHSA. See American Public Human Services Association (APHSA)
Archer medical savings accounts (MSAs), 13:21-24
Arizona, Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging
Responsibility(EMPOWER), Appendix L: 56 table 8
Arizona Long-Term Care System (ALTCS), 15:70
ASC. See Ambulatory surgical centers (ASC)
ASFA. See Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997
ASSETS (Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and Training
Services) (Alabama), 
Appendix L: 55-56 table 8
Assignment of child support collections, 8:11, 8:27, 8:58, 8:59
Association of Administrators of the Interstate Compact on Adoption 
and
Medical Assistance (AAICAMA), 11:34
Asylees. See Appendix J
At-Risk Child Care Program, 9:2, 9:27-28
ATAA. See Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance (ATAA)
Augustus F. Hawkins Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1990, 10:10
Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and Training Services
(ASSETS) (Alabama), 
Appendix L: 55-56 table 8
Average accounts benefit ratio, Railroad Retirement System, 5:10, 
5:27
Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), 1:17-18
Average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU), 4:34
AWIU. See Average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU)

BAA-UC Program. See "Baby UI"
"Baby UI" (birth and adoption UC experiment), 4:13
Balanced Budget Act (BBA 1997) (P.L. 105-33)
block grant programs, 10:9
Boren Amendment, repealed, 15:77
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:13, 8:81
earned income credit (EIC), 13:35
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 8:8
Food Stamp Program, 15:25
Foster Care Program, 11:19
Hospital Insurance (HI) Program, 2:14, 2:19
Medicaid Program, 2:53, 15:38, 15:58, 15:61, 15:76-77
Medicare+Choice Program, 2:14-15, 2:129
Medicare Program, 2:132-134
clinical laboratory testing, 2:101
durable medical equipment (DME), 2:103-105, 2:142
home health care, 2:9, 2:14, 2:72, 2:73
hospital fee schedule, 2:102, 2:110, 2:111
hospital transfer payments, 2:36
indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33
inherent reasonableness authority, 2:104
SNF prospective payment system, 2:63-64, 2:133
venipuncture services, 2:79
Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, 2:49
SCHIP Program, 12:10, 15:35, 15:83, 15:88, 15:90, 15:92-93
Section 4901, 15:35
Section 4911, 15:35
specialty hospitals payment, 2:53
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:26, 3:47, 3:64-65, 
11:137
Supplementary medical insurance (SMI) premiums, 2:14
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:10, 4:24, 4:36
Welfare-to-Work (WTW) programs, 7:20, 7:26, 7:91-92, 7:96
Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA 1999). See Medicare, Medicaid,
SCHIP Balanced Budget 
Refinement Act (BBRA 1999)
BBA. See Balanced Budget Act (BBA 1997)
BBRA. See Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act
(BBRA 1999)
BCCPT. See Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment (BCCPT)
Act of 2000
Benefits Improvement and Protection Act (BIPA 2000). See Medicare, 
Medicaid, and SCHIP 
Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA 2000)
Benefits. See under program name
BIPA-2000. See Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and
Protection Act (BIPA 2000)
Birth and adoption UC experiment. See "Baby UI"
Birth rates. See Appendix G; Appendix M
Black lung program, 13:51-52, 15:145
Blind persons
additional tax deductions, 13:52
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:4, 3:5 table 1
Block Grants. See Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG); 
Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program; Temporary Assistance for
Needy Families Program
Bone mass measurements, 2:122, 2:134
Boren amendment, repealed, 15:77
Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention),15:80
Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment (BCCPT) Act of 
2000 (P.L. 106-354), 15:80
Breast cancer, 15:32, 15:80-81
Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 (included in P.L. 101-508), 1:7, 1:33
Budget tables. See Appendix I
Bush administration initiatives, 4:13, 7:13, 15:51, 15:61, 15:90-91
Business investments, impact of capital gains tax, 13:55

CACFP. See Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
Cafeteria plans, 13:21, 13:24-26
CAH. See Critical access hospital (CAH) program
California
Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program, Appendix L: 37-38, 
40, 56-58 table 8
Program for All-Inclusive Care for Elderly (PACE), 15:69
Cancer breast and cervical, 15:40-41, 15:80-81
colorectal cancer screening, 2:120-121, 2:134
drugs, 2:119
hospitals, 2:53-54
prostate cancer screening, 2:120, 2:133
Capital gains tax exclusions, 13:55
Capital input price index (CIPI), 2:41-43, 2:43 table 17
Capital prospective payment system, 2:38-39, 2:43 table 17
Capped entitlement programs. See Entitlement ceilings
CAPTA. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) 
(P.L. 104-235)
CAR. See Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (CAR 2003)
Caregivers for children. See Child Care, providers of child care
Case management
child support enforcement, 8:54
disabled persons, 1:31, 3:17
foster care, 11:22, 11:68-70 table 20, 11:85
Medicaid Program, 15:50, 15:51, 15:64, 15:67, 15:74, 15:77
Social Services Block Grant Program, 10:7 table 3, 10:9 table 4
welfare-to-work programs, 7:95, Appendix L: 45, 52 table 8
Case-mix groups (CMGs), 2:54-57, 2:56 table 18
Case-mix system
Medicare home health services, 2:74, 2:75-76 table 23, 2:77
Medicare skilled nursing facility services, 2:64-68
Cash welfare recipiency rates, Appendix L: 6-9, 8-9 charts 2-4, 25-26 
tables 1-2
CBO. See Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
CCDBG. See Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)
CCDF. See Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)
CCN. See Continuing Care Network (CCN)
CDF. See Children's Defense Fund (CDF)
CDRs. See Continuing disability reviews (CDRs)
Census of Service Industries (CSI), 9:17
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), 2:3
diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) review, 2:26
CEX. See Consumption Expenditure Survey (CEX)
CFCIP. See Chafee Foster Care Independence Program (CFCIP)
CFSRs. See Child and family service reviews (CFSRs)
Chafee Foster Care Independence Program (CFCIP), 11:47-51
established, 11:4 table 1, 11:47-48, 11:138
Federal funding of, 11:3-6 tables 1-2, 11:4
participation data, 11:4, 11:7 table 3
replaced Independent Living Program, 11:4 table 1
See also Foster Care Independence Programs
Chapin Hall Center for Children, Multistate Foster Care Data Archive,
11:88-89
Child abuse and neglect, 11:73-77
incidence data, maltreatment allegations, 11:75-76 table 21, 11:77 
chart 1
NSCAW report, 11:18, 11:89-91
research studies, 11:17-18
substance abuse and, 11:78-79
termination of parental rights (TPR), 11:16
trends in reporting, 11:76-77
victimization data, 11:75-76 table 21
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (P.L. 104-235),
11:73-74
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 9:29, 9:31-33 table 15, 
15:115-118
Child and family service reviews (CFSRs), 11:54-58, 11:58-61 
tables 16-18
Child Assistance Program (NY CAP), Appendix L: 66-67 table 8
Child Care, 9:1-62, 10:7, 10:7 table 3, 10:8, 10:8 table 4
arrangements used by working mothers, 9:6-15
afterschool arrangements, 9:7, 9:10, 9:10 table 6
by poverty status of mother, 9:11 table 7
of preschool age children, 9:7, 9:8-9 table 5, 9:10, 9:11-14, 9:14
tables 7-11 businesses, defined, 9:17-18
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 15:115-118
child care centers research studies, 9:17-20
child support and, 8:5, 8:22, 8:23
costs/expenditures, 9:15-16, 9:16 table 12
dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 9:31-33 table 15, 12:15, 13:42-44, 
13:43 table 15
early childhood development research studies, 9:22-26
expenses, and child support enforcement, 8:5, 8:22, 8:23
family and group day care homes, 15:118
Federal programs, 9:26-36, 9:31-33 table 9
fees at regulated child care centers, 9:21 table 14, 9:35
for-profit institutions, Federal Foster Care Program, 11:137
Head Start Program, 8:5, 9:29, 9:31-33 table 15, 15:2, 15:122-123,
15:124 table 33, 15:125 table 34
home day care, 9:7, 9:8 table 5, 9:10-11 tables 6-7, 9:13, 9:17, 9:24,
9:39-40 table 19, 9:40-41 table 20, 9:46-48 table 23
hours in care, 9:12, 9:13 table 9
labor force participation of mothers, 9:2-6, 9:3-6 tables 1-4
"latch-key" children [self-day care for children], 9:7, 9:9-11 
tables 5-7 licensing or licensed child care, 9:17, 9:20-22, 9:21-22 
table 14, 9:25, 9:32 table 15, 9:35, 9:41-43 table 21, 9:46-48 
table 23
marital status of working mothers, 9:2-6, 9:4-6 tables 2-4
preschool age children, 9:2, 9:3-5 tables 1-3, 9:7, 9:8-9 table 5, 
9:10, 9:11-14, 9:14 tables 7-11 providers of child care, 9:17-20
regulation and licensing, 9:17, 9:20-22, 9:21-22 table 14, 9:25, 9:32
table 15, 9:35, 9:41-43 
table 21, 9:46-48 table 23
staff supply and turnover, 9:17-18, 9:20
staff wages, 9:17, 9:18, 9:18 table 13
vouchers for child care, 9:35
quality of care research studies, 9:22-26
school age children, 9:7, 9:10, 9:10 table 6
staff wages, 9:17, 9:18, 9:18-19 table 13
standards and quality, 9:20-26
supply of providers and staff turnover, 9:17-18, 9:20
survey data, 9:17-20, 9:22-26
TANF Program and, 7:5, 7:7-11, 7:16-18 table 1, 7:21, 7:23, 7:26,
7:48, 7:58, 7:59 table 18, 
7:61-62, 7:61 chart 3, 7:69-72 tables 21-22, 7:95
TANF Program provisions for, 7:10-11
in the Territories, 12:15
vouchers, 9:35
See also Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG); Child Care 
and Development Fund (CCDF); Day care centers; State Children's 
Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), 7:4, 7:11, 9:30-36,
10:9-10 administration and data collection, 9:35-36
authorization for, 9:2, 9:28-29, 9:30
brief description and overview, 9:31-33 table 15
eligibility and target population group, 9:35
financing, 9:30, 9:34
in the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3
use of funds by providers, 9:35
See also Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)
Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), 7:11, 7:16-18 table 1, 7:18, 
7:60, 7:68, 9:2, 9:28-29, 
9:30 children served, 9:36-44 tables 16-22
by age group, 9:38 table 18
by payment method, 9:49-50 table 24
by reason for care, 9:38 table 17
in regulated and legally operating settings, 9:42-44 tables 21-22
by types of care, 9:40-41 table 20, 9:46-48 table 23
eligibility limits (States' income), 9:44
for family of three, 9:50-52 table 25
expenditures, 9:45
discretionary or mandatory, for 1995 to 2001, 9:52 table 26
discretionary or mandatory, by State, 9:53-54 table 27, 9:55-58
tables 28-29 families served, by State, 9:36-38 table 16
providers receiving funds, 9:39-40 table 19
State allocations, 9:45, 9:59-60 table 30
State income eligibility limits, 9:44, 9:50-52 table 25
statistical tables, 9:36, 9:36-60 tables 16-30
See also Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)
Child Citizenship Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-395), 3:70
Child nutrition. See Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,
Infants, and Children (WIC)
Child Support Enforcement Amendments of 1984 (P.L. 98-378), 8:5, 8:15,
8:29, 8:37 Child Support Enforcement (CSE) and Paternity Establishment
Program, 7:15, 8:1-107 alternative penalties for States, 8:52, 8:55-56
application and late fees, 8:11
audits and financial penalties, 8:7, 8:56-58
automated data systems, 8:51-52, 8:53-56
award rates, by race and ethnicity, 8:24-25, 8:71 table 6
bankruptcy, 8:52-53
child access, custody, and visitation rights, 8:8, 8:14
collecting child support, 8:32-43
bonds, securities, and other guarantees, 8:39
"cost avoidance" effect, 8:68
credit bureau reporting, 8:40-41
enforcement techniques, 8:32-43, 8:34 table 3
expedited procedures, 8:20, 8:48-49
Federal employees, garnishment of wages, 8:41-42
Federal income tax refund offset, 8:10, 8:36-37, 8:39, 8:43, 8:59-60,
8:95-96 table 17
IRS full collection process, 8:39-40
licenses, withholding of, 8:40
local government/nonfederal activities, 8:50
lottery winnings, 8:43, 8:49
lump sum payments, 8:43, 8:49
methods, summary information, 8:49-50
military personnel, 8:42-43
passports, withholding of, 8:10, 8:40
private collection activities, 8:50-51
property liens, 8:38-39
small business loans, 8:42
State automated systems, 8:51-52
State income tax refund offset, 8:37
Title IV-D program, 8:73-77, 8:76 table 9, 8:98-99 table 19
unemployment compensation intercept, 8:38
wage withholding rule, 8:14, 8:33, 8:35-36
collections
non-TANF collections, 8:83-84 table 10, 8:90-91 table 14
number of cases, 8:92-95 tables 15-16
by State, 8:83-91 tables 10-14
TANF collections, 8:83-84 table 10
"cost avoidance" effect, 8:68
credit bureau reporting, 8:40-41
demographic trends, 8:3-4
distribution of payment rules, 8:51-52, 8:58-60
DNA testing, for paternity establishment, 8:17-18
effectiveness of program, 8:69-77
cost effectiveness ratio, 8:96-97 table 18
enforcement procedures, 8:10, 8:11-51
establishing orders, 8:19-26
Executive order supporting enforcement, 8:43
expedited procedures, 8:20-21, 8:48-49
expenditures, by State, 8:83-84 table 10
Federal courts role, 8:7, 8:45
Federal income tax refund offset, 8:10, 8:36-37, 8:39, 8:43, 8:59-60,
8:95-96 table 17
Federal role, 8:5, 8:7-8, 8:12, 8:13, 8:45, 8:49
fees, 8:3
foster care children and, 8:11
IV-D child support program [Title of the Social Security Act], 8:2,
8:11, 8:29, 8:45, 8:73-75, 8:76 table 9, 8:98-99 table 19
full faith and credit clause [constitutional principle], 8:16, 
8:28, 8:39, 8:46, 8:80 funding of State programs, 8:60-69
66 percent Federal reimbursement, 8:60-61, 8:67
90 percent funding for paternity testing, 8:61
application and late fees, 8:11
child support collections, 8:61
Federal incentive payments, 8:62, 8:83-84 table 10
program "savings," 8:65-66, 8:66 table 5
by State, 8:63-64 table 4
garnishment of wages, 8:33, 8:35-36, 8:41-42
incentive payments, 8:62, 8:83-84 table 10
income tax refund offset
Federal, 8:10, 8:36-37, 8:39, 8:43, 8:59-60, 8:95-96 table 17
State, 8:37
interstate enforcement procedures, 8:10, 8:12, 8:43-50
expedited process, 8:48-49
Federal courts role, 8:7, 8:45
Federal Institution Data Match program, 8:13, 8:39, 8:49, 8:79, 8:81
full faith and credit clause, 8:16, 8:28, 8:39, 8:46, 8:80
income withholding, 8:14, 8:46-47
long arm statutes, 8:44
UEFJA (Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act), 8:48
UIFSA (Uniform Interstate Family Support Act), 8:46, 8:47-48
URESA (Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act), 8:44
judicial process, 8:19-26
legislative history, 8:77-82
locating absent parents, 8:12-14
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 8:7-8, 8:12
military personnel, 8:42
Project 1099, 8:12-13, 8:39
medical support provisions, 8:29-32
military personnel
central personnel locator service, 8:42
Executive order supporting enforcement, 8:43
garnishment of wages, 8:42
offsets
Federal, 8:36-37, 8:95-96 table 17
State, 8:37
out-of wedlock births, by State, 8:101-102 table 21
overview and background, 8:2-4
pass through provisions, 8:58
paternity establishment, 8:15-19
birth certificates, 8:15
disestablishment of paternity, 8:16
DNA testing, 8:17-18
expedited procedures, 8:16, 8:48
Federal funding of testing, 8:61
IV-D caseload data, 8:98-99 table 19
genetic testing, 8:17-18
In-House Paternity Acknowledgment Program [voluntary program], 
8:6 table 1, 8:15-16, 8:19 number and percentages, by State, 8:100-101
table 20, 8:102-103 table 22 number established, 8:19, 8:100-101
table 20 probability of exclusion/paternity tests, 8:17
privatization of collection activities, 8:50-51
program impact
on national child support payments, 8:70-77
on poverty, 8:69-70
on taxpayers, 8:69
program "savings", Federal and State share, 8:65-66, 8:66 table 5
program statistics summary, 8:6 table 1
program trends, 8:4, 8:73-77, 8:76 table 9
Project 1099 (for locating parents), 8:12-13, 8:39
property liens, 8:38-39
qualified medical support order, 8:32
Social Security numbers (SSNs)
audits and financial penalties, 8:56-58
used by CSE agencies, 8:12-13
State automated data systems, 8:51-52, 8:53-56
alternative penalties for States, 8:52, 8:55-56
Federal matching funds rate (66 80 90, 8:53-56
State disbursement units, 8:14, 8:51-52
State income tax refund offset, 8:37
State role, 8:3, 8:8-11
statistical tables, 8:83-103 tables 10-23
support award amounts
award rates, 8:24-25
guidelines and controversies in determining, 8:21-25
income share approach, 8:22, 8:103 table 23
Melson-Delaware approach, 8:22, 8:23, 8:24
modifications, 8:26-28
percentage of income approach, 8:22, 8:23, 8:103 table 23
by poverty status, 8:72-73, 8:73 table 7
by race and ethnicity, 8:71 table 6, 8:72
by selected characteristics, 8:70, 8:71 table 6
by State, differences among, 8:24, 8:25-26 table 2
support orders
award amounts guidelines, 8:21-24, 8:103 table 23
establishing, 8:3, 8:19-26
expedited process, 8:20-21
judicial and administrative systems, 8:19-21
medical support provisions, 8:29-32
modifications, 8:26-28
reviewing and modifying, 8:26-28
TANF Program, interaction with, 8:8-11, 8:16, 8:19, 8:53, 8:56-58,
8:61-62, 8:67-68 tax provisions, 8:10, 8:37, 8:39, 8:42
visitation rights, 8:8, 8:14
waivers, 8:5-6
Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-200),
8:55, 8:62, 8:81, 11:64
Child Support Recovery Act of 1992, 8:47
Child tax credit, 13:59
Child Welfare League of America, foster care rates, 11:22
Child welfare programs, 11:1-140
AFCARS (data collection), 11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85, 11:91, 11:92-131
tables 24-48
Court Improvement Program, 11:16-17
data collection
AFCARS, 11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85, 11:91, 11:92-131 tables 24-48, 
11:138 on foster care and adoption, 11:83-131
SACWIS, 11:5 table 2, 11:84-85, 11:86 table 22, 11:91
demonstration projects, 11:66-67, 11:68-72 table 20, 11:138
disabled children, SSI program and, 3:4, 3:7
Federal conformity review system, 11:53-62
child and family services reviews (CFSRs) findings, 11:57-58, 11:58-61
tables 16-18 child and family services reviews (CFSRs) process,
11:54-57 eligibility reviews, 11:61-62
national State performance standards, 11:55
penalties for nonconformity, 11:56-57
Federal funding, 11:2
Federal matching support, 11:3 table 1
by program, 11:5-6 table 2
Federal programs today, 11:2-51
Federal review, history of, 11:52-53
funding of, 11:3-6 tables 1-2, 11:131
Federal matching support, 11:3-4 table 1
grants to States, 11:7-18
by State, 11:9-10 table 5
grants to States, 11:7-18
HHS research study, 11:11
interethnic and interjurisdictional adoption provisions, 11:62-64
introduction, 11:1-2
inventory of foster care children, 11:83
kinship care, 11:79-81
legislative history, 11:137-138
number and characteristics of participants, 11:11
outcomes
factors leading to improved, 11:54
measures of performance, 11:64-65, 11:65-66 table 19
research and demonstration studies, 11:17-18, 11:82-83
State accountability and Federal oversight, 11:52-66
State demonstration project waivers, 11:66-67, 11:68-72 table 20
State performance reports, 11:64-66
State program improvement plan, 11:57, 11:61-62
State-by-State allocations, 11:9-10 table 5
Statewide information system of foster care children, 11:83
substance abuse, 11:78-79
TANF "child-only" cases, 11:81-82
termination of parental rights (TPR), 11:16, 11:27, 11:32-33, 11:60
table 18, 11:73-74, 11:138 in the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 
12:4 table 3, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6, 12:15
Title IV-E eligibility reviews, 11:61-62
training programs for personnel, 11:17-18
trends affecting populations and programs, 11:72-83
waivers, 11:66-67, 11:68-72 table 20, 11:138
welfare reform, 11:81-83
Child Welfare Services Program (Title IV-B-1), 11:7-18, 11:138
Children
adolescent, welfare-to-work programs impact on,  Appendix L: 42
adult disabled children, Social Security benefits, 1:3, 1:46 table 11
child well-being, Appendix L: 41-42
data on. See Appendix G
disabled, definition of, 3:4, 3:7
early childhood development research studies, 9:22-26
institutionalized, 15:79-80, 15:96
outcomes of welfare-to-work programs, Appendix L: 3, 41-42, 49-72
table 8 prisoners' children mentoring program, 11:2, 11:3-4 table 1,
11:17, 11:138 relationship to head of household by family type, 7:92
table 92
Social Security benefits eligibility, 1:16
Social Security benefits for stepchildren, 1:36
special-needs children, 11:4, 11:40
definition, 11:33
TANF Program living arrangements of children, 7:91
child care provisions, 7:10-11
tax credits for, 13:59
termination of parental rights (TPR), 11:16
Children's Bureau (U.S.), child abuse and neglect model reporting law,
11:73 Children's Defense Fund (CDF), child care survey, 9:15-16
Children's Foundation
child care centers licensing, 9:21-22, 9:21 table 14
child care studies, 9:17, 9:21-22
Children's Health Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-310), 15:79-80, 15:96
Children's Hospitals, 2:53
Chronically ill, tax aspects, 13:31
CIPI. See Capital input price index (CIPI)
Citizenship, SSI program benefits eligibility and, 3:7
Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), 1:23
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-578),
2:101
Clinical laboratory services, 2:10, 2:101-102
national coverage determinations (NCDs), 2:101-102
national limitation amount (NLA), 2:102
Clinical psychologists, 2:101
Clinical social workers, 2:95, 2:101
CMGs. See Case-mix groups (CMGs)
CMS. See Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
CNMI. See Northern Mariana Islands, Commonwealth of the
Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (P.L. 91-173), 15:145
Coal miners
black lung program, 13:51-52, 15:145
workers' compensation, 13:51-52, 15:145
COBRA. See Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
COLAs. See Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs)
Colonoscopy screening, 2:120-121, 2:134, 2:141
Colorectal cancer screening, 2:120-121, 2:134
Committee on Economic Security, 1:2
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). See Northern
Mariana Islands, 
Commonwealth of the Community-Based Diversion Pilot Project (Florida),
15:70
Community-based services
children's rights and, 15:80
long-term care services and, 15:51, 15:73-75, 15:75 chart 4
See also Home and Community-Based Long-Term Care Services (HCBS)
Community Group Participation and Housing Supplementation 
Demonstration (Illinois), 11:60-61 table 8
Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-554), 13:21, 13:56
Competitive bidding, 2:105, 2:134, 2:137, 3:17, 3:47, 7:3, 7:14,
7:91-95, 15:119
Comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities (CORFs), 2:123
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act (P.L. 93-344),
Social Security budget, 1:32
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
emergency unemployment compensation estimates, 4:20, 4:21 table 6
Federal budget tables. See Appendix I
Medicare savings estimates, 2:144, 2:144-145 table 45
Social Security projections, 1:10
Connecticut, Jobs First Program, Appendix L: 34-35, 39, 40-41, 59
table 8 Consolidated Appropriations Act
for fiscal year 2000 (P.L. 106-113)
block grant programs and, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:52, 8:58, 8:82
SCHIP Program, 12:10, 15:78-79
trade adjustment assistance programs and, 6:16
Welfare-to-Work Grant Program, 7:92, 7:93, 7:95, 7:96
for fiscal year 2001 (P.L. 106-554)
block grant programs and, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
multiemployer plans, 14:16
See also Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act
(BBRA 1999)
Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (CAR 2003) (P.L. 108-7)
block grant programs and, 10:12
Medicare hospital payments, 2:30, 2:143
Medicare physicians' services calculations, 2:92, 2:93, 2:143
TANF Program, 7:96
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA 1985)
(P.L. 99-272)
group health plans, 13:26
health coverage tax credit and, 6:10
Independent Living Program, 11:47
Medicare hospice care benefit, 2:79
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, 14:15
railroad retirement benefits and, 5:15, 13:18-19
trade adjustment assistance programs, 6:10, 6:15
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA 1986), railroad
retirement benefits and, 5:22-23
Consumption Expenditure Survey (CEX), Appendix L: 21-24
Consumption expenditures, welfare research, Appendix L: 5, 21-24, 
25-26 tables 1-2
Continuing Care Network (CCN), 15:69
Continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 1:27, 1:28 chart 2, 1:35, 3:43,
3:61-62, 3:63, 3:69
cessations and continuations, 1:70 table 44
disability determination and, 1:26-30
Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-121), 1:33,
1:35, 3:46, 3:61, 3:65, 15:75-76
Conversion factor, and physicians' services, 2:88, 2:89, 2:91 
table 30, 2:93, 2:133, 2:136
CORFs. See Comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities (CORFs)
Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs)
Railroad Retirement System, 5:4
Social Security benefits and, 1:3, 1:19-20, 1:51-52 tables 18-19
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:18
Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study, 9:25
Cost-sharing
Medicaid Program, 3:50, 3:69, 15:38, 15:58, 15:71, 15:79
Medicare Program, 2:9-10, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:109, 15:38-39.  
See also Appendix B
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 15:87-88
Court Improvement Program, 11:16
Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, 13:46-48
Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 
(P.L. 101-625), 15:99
Credit Bureau reporting, for child support collection, 8:40-41
Criminal background checks, for prospective foster or adoptive 
parents, 11:137
Critical access hospital (CAH) program, 2:21, 2:49-50, 2:135, 
2:138-139
CSE. See Child Support Enforcement (CSE) and Paternity Establishment
Program
CSI. See Census of Service Industries (CSI)
CSRS (Civil Service Retirement System), 1:23
Current Population Survey, child care data, 9:3 table 1
Customs and Trade Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-382), trade adjustment
assistance programs and, 6:15-16

Day care centers
family and group day care homes, 15:118
quality of care research studies, 9:22-26
regulation and licensing, 9:17, 9:20-21, 9:21-22 table 14, 9:25, 
9:32
table 15, 9:35, 9:41-43 table 21, 9:46-48 table 23
research studies, 9:17-20
staff turnover, 9:20
staff wages, 9:18, 9:18-19 table 13
See also Child Care
Day care for adults, 10:7 table 3, 10:9 table 4
Day care for children. See Child Care
DCTC. See Dependent care tax credit (DCTC)
DDS. See Disability Determination Service (DDS)
Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-187), 8:47, 8:81
Death rates, 1:63-64 table 36
Debt, Federal. See Appendix I
Deeming of income and resources, Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Program, 3:8, 3:11-12, 3:62
Defense Base Act, 15:144
Deferred compensation plans, tax aspects, 13:7, 13:25
Deficit, Federal. See Appendix I
Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-369)
cafeteria plans, 13:24
Medicare Program, 2:78, 2:144 table 45
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:10, 3:21
trade adjustment assistance programs and, 6:15
Delaware, A Better Chance (ABC) Program, Appendix L: 39, 59 table 8
Delayed retirement credits, for Social Security, 1:21, 1:53 table 20
Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 1997 (P.L. 104-208),
1:36-37, 3:63-64, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-117), 1:39,
3:69
Dependent care, tax exclusions for employer-provided, 13:48-49
Dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 9:29, 13:42-44, 13:44 table 15
brief description and overview, 9:31-33 table 15
in the Territories, 12:15
DGME. See Direct graduate medical education (DGME)
DI Program. See Disability Insurance (DI) Program
Diabetes outpatient self-management training, 2:121, 2:134
Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 2:21, 2:26, 2:27-28 table 11, 2:30, 
2:36-37
for long-term care hospitals, 2:59-60
Dialysis treatment. See Renal dialysis
Direct graduate medical education (DGME), 2:32, 2:44-45
Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-460), 1:26, 1:29
Disability determination, for Social Security, 1:26-32, 1:28 chart 2
Disability Determination Service (DDS), 1:26
Disability Insurance (DI) Program, 1:3, 3:45-47
administrative law judge (ALJ), 1:26-27, 1:28 chart 2, 1:69-70 
table 43
appeals process, 1:26, 1:28 chart 2
applicant backlogs, 1:31
applications and awards, 1:69 table 41
attorneys' fees, 1:29-30
beneficiaries
by age, sex, and education, 1:67 table 40
by disabling condition, 1:68 table 41
number of, 1:66 table 39
benefits
eligibility, 1:15-16
waiting period, 1:15-16
claims pending, 1:32
claims process, 1:26-30, 1:28 chart 2
continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 1:27, 1:35, 1:70-71 table 44,
3:61-62, 3:69 disability determination, 1:26-30 enrollment, 1:31-32
legal representation, 1:29-30
offsets for Social Security benefits, 1:23, 1:24
return to work and rehabilitation, 1:31
State Disability Determination Services (DDS), 1:26
statistical tables, 1:66-71 tables 39-45
substantial gainful activity (SGA), 1:15, 1:22, 1:27-29, 1:56
table 24, 3:4, 3:48 
trial work period (TWP), 1:30-31
vocational "grid," 1:29
vocational rehabilitation, 1:31
waiting period, 1:15-16
work incentives, 1:30-31
Disabled persons
case management services, 1:31, 1:37
children
adult disabled children and Social Security benefits, 1:3, 1:46 
table 11 definition of disabled child, 3:4, 3:7
Medicaid Program eligibility, 15:76
SSI program benefits and, 3:4, 3:7, 15:76
coal miners, black lung program, 13:51-52, 15:145
food stamp eligibility, 15:12-13
Medicaid Program and, 15:35-39, 15:76
Medicare eligibility and coverage, 2:5
Medicare enrollment, 2:6 table 2, 2:147 table 7
OASI Program, 1:15
Railroad Retirement System disability annuities, 5:5-6
social service block grants, 10:8 table 3
substantial gainful activity (SGA), 1:15, 1:22, 1:27-29, 1:56 
table 24,
3:4, 3:48 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:4, 3:5
table 1, 3:7, 3:42-44, 3:62-63, 15:76
tax credits for, 13:53-54, 13:54 table 16
working individuals with disabilities, 15:37-38, 15:39, 15:79
See also Disability Insurance (DI) Program
Displaced workers
reemployment services, 4:35
See also Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Programs
Dispositional hearings. See Permanency hearings and plans, child
placement
Disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments
Medicaid Program, 15:61, 15:77, 15:78-79, 15:81
Medicare Program, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:35, 2:134
Pickle formulas, 2:33
Disregards, earned income, 3:47-48, 15:12, Appendix L: 39, 48
Distinct part units, Medicare, 2:20, 2:36, 2:52-57, 2:138
District of Columbia Appropriations Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-100), 15:95
DME. See Durable medical equipment (DME)
Doctors' services. See Physicians' services
Domestic service employees, unemployment compensation, 4:2
Domestic violence waivers, TANF Program and, 7:8-9, 7:15, 8:5
DRGs. See Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)
Drug addicts
child welfare and, 11:78-79
Medicaid eligibility, 15:75-76
Social Security benefits for, 1:36
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility, 3:45-47, 3:61,
15:75
Drugs immunosuppressive drug coverage, 2:119, 2:125-127, 2:137, 2:141
Medicaid payments, 15:60
Medicare benefits, 2:10, 2:119-120, 2:125-127, 2:137
DSH. See Disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments
Dual benefit payments, railroad retirement system, 5:3, 5:4-5
Dual eligibles, Medicaid and Medicare Program, 15:59, 15:69
Dual entitlement, Social Security and, 1:23
Duggan v. Bowen [Medicare home health benefit], 2:78
Durable medical equipment (DME), 2:3, 2:103-105
administration, 2:105
competitive bidding demonstrations, 2:105, 2:134
definition, 2:103
inherent reasonableness authority, 2:104
regional carriers (DMERCs), 2:105, 2:120
reimbursement, 2:103-104, 2:142

EA Program. See Emergency Assistance (EA) to Needy Families
Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, 9:25
Earned income credit (EIC), 7:12, 7:84, 12:15, 13:35-40, 13:37-38
table 12, 13:41 tables 13-14, 
13:67,  Appendix L: 5, 11, 13-14, 13 chart 7, 15-16, 18-21
Earned income disregards, 3:47-48, 15:12, Appendix L: 39, 48
Earnings data
and supplementary benefits, by State, 7:45-47 table 14, 7:49-51
table 15
See also Appendix F
EB Program. See Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB) Program
Economic data. See Appendix I
Economic Development Administration (EDA), TAA programs, 6:12-14
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA) of 2001
(P.L. 107-16), 3:69-70, 
13:10, 13:15, 13:17, 13:35, 13:46, 13:47, 13:58-59
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-452), 15:122
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, 13:14, 13:43, 13:48
EDA. See Economic Development Administration (EDA)
Education and training
direct graduate medical education (DGME), 2:32, 2:44-45
"education-first" vs. "work-first" program, Appendix L: 35-38
graduate medical education (GME), 2:32, 2:134
Head Start Program, 8:5, 9:29, 9:31-33 table 15, 15:2, 15:122-123,
15:124 table 33, 15:125 table 34
HOPE tax credit, 13:45
indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33, 2:134
job training programs, 7:3, 7:4, 7:7, 7:93, 7:95, 15:118-122,
Appendix L: 35 lifetime learning tax credit, 13:45
State tuition program deductions, 13:46-48
student loan interest deduction, 13:47
in the Territories, 12:3 table 2
vouchers, 11:3 table 1, 11:48, 11:49-50 table 15
EFT. See Electronic funds transfer (EFT)
EGTRRA. See Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA)
of 2001
EIC. See Earned income credit (EIC)
Elderly
data. See Appendix A
definition of aged, 3:4
Federal tax treatment, 13:52, 13:59, 13:60, 13:64-65 tables 20-21
food stamp eligibility, 15:12-13
health expenditures. See Appendix B
health status. See Appendix B
long-term care and. See Appendix B
Medicaid Program, 15:35-39
Medicare eligibility and coverage, 2:5
Social Security benefits earnings limit, 1:3, 1:22-23, 1:35-36, 1:39,
1:54 table 22, 5:26
standard tax deductions, 13:52
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:4, 3:5 table 1
tax credits, 13:53-54, 13:54 table 16
tax deductions, additional personal or standard, 13:52
See also Senior citizens
Electronic funds transfer (EFT), 1:37
Emergency Assistance (EA) to Needy Families, 7:3, 7:4, 7:15-16, 7:19,
7:21, 7:26, 7:59 table 18
See also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program
Emergency Shelter Grants Program, 15:101
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act
of 1997 (P.L. 105-18), 3:64, 15:25
of 1999 (P.L. 106-31), 15:78
Emergency Unemployment Compensation Act
of 1971, 4:19
of 1974, 4:19
of 1991 (P.L. 102-164), 4:13, 4:19-20, 4:34, 4:35
Amendments of 1993 (P.L. 103-6), 4:35
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program, 4:5, 4:19-20, 6:16
outlay estimates, 4:21 table 6
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA 1974) (P.L. 93-406),
14:1, 14:14
cafeteria plans, 13:24
child support orders, 8:81
health care continuation rules, 13:26-27
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:14
medical child support order, 8:32
pension plans, 13:3, 13:7, 13:15
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), 13:7, 13:14
Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging Responsibility
(EMPOWER) 
(Arizona), Appendix L: 56 table 8
Employment and Training Administration (ETA), TAA programs, 6:2, 6:4
Employment data. See Appendix F
Employment rates, single-mother families, Appendix L: 9-11, 10 chart 5
Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) Project, Appendix L: 44, 45
Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA), 4:23, 4:32, 4:33
chart 3
Employment Service (ES), 4:34
EMPOWER (Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging
Responsibility) 
(Arizona), Appendix L: 56 table 8
Empowerment zones, social services block grants programs in, 10:10-11
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 2:2, 2:109
beneficiaries, 2:125 table 41
coverage, 2:124-125
enrollment, 2:6 table 2, 2:142-143, 2:147 table 47
expenditures, 2:125 table 41
incidence data, 2:126-127 table 42
Medicare Secondary Payer Program, 2:131, 2:131-132 table 44
outpatient immunosuppressive drug coverage, 2:125-127
reimbursement, 2:128-129, 2:142
treatment, 2:127-128
Energy assistance. See Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program
(LIHEAP)
Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act
(P.L. 106-398), 15:146
Enterprise communities, social services block grants programs in,
10:10-11
EPO. See Erythropoietin (EPO)
ERA Project. See Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) Project
ERISA. See Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
Erythropoietin (EPO), 2:119
ES. See Employment Service (ES)
ESAA. See Employment Security Administration Account (ESAA)
ESOP. See Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
ESRD. See End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program
ETA. See Employment and Training Administration (ETA)
EUC Program. See Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program
EUCA. See Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA)
Excise tax on employers
contributions to pension plans, 13:7
failure to satisfy health care continuum rules, 13:27
Extended Benefits (EB) Program. See Federal-State Extended Benefits
EB) Program
Extended Unemployment Compensation Account (EUCA), 4:20, 4:23,
4:33 chart 3
Fair Credit Reporting Act, 8:41
Fair Labor Standards Act, TANF Program and, 7:6
Families
data on. See Appendix G; Appendix H
demographic trends, 8:3-4
See also Appendix G; Appendix H
Families and Work Institute, child care quality study, 9:24-25
Family assistance programs. See Temporary Assistance for Needy 
Families (TANF) Program
Family cap policy, Appendix L: 42-43, 48, 49-72 table 8
Family Development Program (FDP) (New Jersey), Appendix L: 43, 66
table 8
Family formation, welfare-to-work programs impact on, Appendix L: 
42-45
Family income. See Appendix H
Family Investment Program (FIP) (Iowa), 11:61-62 table 8
Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-3), 4:13
Family planning, 10:6, 10:7 table 3, 10:8 table 4, 15:72
Family Preservation and Family Support Program, See also Promoting 
Safe and Stable Families Program, 11:138
Family preservation and reunification
evaluation research studies, 11:15-16
Homebuilders model, 11:15
preference to relatives for foster and adoptive placement, 11:137
"reasonable efforts" safeguards, 11:27, 11:31, 11:62, 11:137
services, 11:12, 11:15-16, 11:27
Family Support Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-485), 7:2, 9:2, 10:7
AFDC benefits, and earned income credit (EIC), 13:40
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:5, 8:15, 8:16, 8:21,
8:26-27, 8:33, 8:56, 8:79
dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 13:43
welfare reform initiatives, Appendix L: 31, 33, 34, 36
Family support services, 11:14-16
Family Transition Program (FTP) (Florida), Appendix L: 35, 39, 40-41,
60 table 8
Family Violence Option (FVO), 7:8, 7:9, 7:15, 8:5
Farm bills
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998
(P.L. 105-185), 15:25-26, 15:124
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171),
15:7-8, 15:26, Appendix L: 31 Federal Agriculture Improvement and
Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127), 15:25
Food Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2002 (included in P.L. 107-171),
Appendix L: 31
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171),
15:7-8, 15:26
Farmers, Trade Adjustment Assistance Programs, 6:14-15
FDP (Family Development Program) (New Jersey), Appendix L: 43, 66
table 8
FECA. See Federal Employees' Compensation Account (FECA)
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of  1996
(P.L. 104-127), 15:25
Federal budget deficit. See Budget Enforcement Act; Deficit Reduction
Act; Gramm-Rudmann 
Hollings Act; and Appendix I
Federal budget tables. See Appendix I
Federal Case Registry of child support orders, 8:14
Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (P.L. 91-173), 13:51,
15:145 Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act, 8:35, 8:42
Federal debt. See Appendix I
Federal Employees' Compensation Account (FECA), 4:23
Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) (P.L. 64-267), 15:143-144
Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986, 1:23
Federal Employers' Liability Act, 15:146
Federal housing assistance, 15:98-108
budget authority, trends in, 15:102-105, 15:106-107 table 24
home ownership assistance, 15:101
homeless programs, 15:101-102
housing block grant programs, 15:102
net new commitments, trends in, 15:103, 15:104-105 table 23
outlays, 15:105, 15:107-108, 15:110-111 table 25
rental assistance, 15:99-100
Section 8 programs, 15:100-101
types of, 15:99-102
home ownership assistance, 15:101
homeless programs, 15:101-102
housing block grant programs, 15:102
rental assistance, 15:100-101
Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39
table 1, 1:41 table 4, 13:25, 13:48
Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 15:54, 15:59-60 
table 18, 15:82-83, 15:89-90
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 8:7-8, 8:12, 8:49
Federal poverty level (FPL), 15:33-34, 15:45, 15:83
Federal revenue, data on. See Appendix I
Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB) Program, 4:1-2, 4:11-12, 4:14-15,
4:18, 4:19, 4:23, 4:35
Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970, 4:19
Federal-State Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program. See Unemployment
Compensation (UC) Program
Federal Supplemental Benefits Program, 4:19
Federal Supplemental Compensation Program, 4:19
Federal surplus. See Appendix I
Federal Unemployment Account (FUA), 4:23, 4:32, 4:33 chart 3
Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances Account (FUBA), 6:12
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) (P.L. 76-379), 4:1-2, 4:32, 12:2,
13:25 funds transfers, 4:33 chart 3, 13:48
Federal unemployment tax rate, 4:2, 4:25, 4:28 chart 2, 4:34
Federally-Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), 2:122-123, 15:49, 15:78,
15:81
Felons. See Prisoners and fugitive felons
FERS. See Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986
Fertility rates, 1:63-64 table 36
FICA. See Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA)
FIDA. See Financial Institution Data Match (FIDA) Program
Final Impacts for JOBS and Work Choice (Ohio), 11:67-68 table 8
Financial Institution Data Match (FIDA) Program, 8:13, 8:39, 8:49,
8:79, 8:81
FIP (Family Investment Program) (Iowa), 11:61-62 table 8
"Firewall" provisions, in Social Security, 1:34-35
Florida
Community-Based Diversion Pilot Project, 15:70
Family Transition Program (FTP),  Appendix L: 35, 39, 40-41, 60 
table 8
Project Independence, 11:60 table 8
Flu vaccine, 2:119
FMAP. See Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP)
Food Stamp Act, 15:7, 15:8, 15:9, 15:12, 15:25
Food Stamp Program, 15:5-26
administration
Federal administrative responsibilities, 15:6
State and local administrative responsibilities, 15:6-7, 15:25
application processing, 15:17-18
benefits, 15:16-18
electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), 15:6, 15:7, 15:18, 15:22, 15:25
minimum and prorated, 15:17
monthly allotments, 15:16-17, 15:17 table 6
Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), 15:5, 15:16-17
uses for food stamps, approved list, 15:18
disqualifications, 15:14, 15:16, 15:25
eligibility
able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs), 15:8-10, 15:15, 15:25
allowable assets, 15:13-14
categorical eligibility rules, 15:15-16
counted (or net) and basic (gross) monthly income limits, 15:12-13,
15:13 table 5
deductions from income, 15:12
food stamp household, 15:10-11
income disregards, 15:12
income eligibility, 15:11-13
institutional settings, 15:11, 15:16
noncitizens, 15:15
work-related requirements, 15:14-15
expenditures, 15:9 table 4
funding, 15:9-10
historical statistics, 15:31 table 11
household definition, 15:10
households, characteristics of, 15:30 table 10
issuing food stamps, 15:17-18
legislative history, 15:25-26
noncitizen eligibility ban, 7:21
outreach programs, 15:8
program options, 15:8-9
quality control (QC) system, 15:19-22
error rates, 15:19, 15:20-21 table 7
recipients
by jurisdiction, 15:27-29 table 9
participation rates, 15:23-24, 15:24 table 8
State general assistance (GA) program, 15:5, 15:22-23
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:16, 3:25, 3:27,
3:32-33 table 7, 3:36 table 9, 
3:37 table 10, 3:65, 15:5, 15:22-23
TANF Program, interaction with, 7:12, 15:5, 15:22-23
in the Territories, 10:7-8, 12:2, 12:3 table 2, 12:5-6, 15:6, 15:7-8
welfare leavers, Appendix L: 30-31, 30 table 5
work-related requirements, 15:8-10, 15:14-15
workfare programs, 15:8-9
Food Stamp Reauthorization Act of 2002 (included in P.L. 107-171),
Appendix L :31
For-profit child care institutions, and Federal foster care, 11:137
Foreign-born. See Aliens; Noncitizens; and Appendix J
Foster care for adults, 10:7, 10:7 table 3, 10:9 table 4
Foster care for children, 10:7, 10:7 table 3, 10:9 table 4
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and, 8:11, 8:33, 8:82
Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-169), 1:37-38, 3:50,
3:66-68, 8:82, 11:4, 11:47-
48, 11:51, 11:138, 15:79
Foster Care Independence Programs, 11:47-51
education and training vouchers, 11:3 table 1, 11:48, 11:49-50 
table 15
entitlement ceiling, 11:48
evaluation research studies, 11:50-51
Federal entitlement funds, 11:3-4 table 1
Federal funding of, 11:5-6 table 2, 11:138
Medicaid coverage, 15:79
participation data, 11:7 table 3
program expansion, 11:138
State allotments, 11:49-50 table 15
See also Chafee Foster Care Independence Program (CFCIP); Independent
Living Program
Foster Care Program, 11:2, 11:18-33
administrative costs, 11:22
AFCARS (data collection), 11:55-56, 11:61, 11:84-85, 11:91, 11:92-131 
tables 24-48, 11:138
"aggravated circumstances," 11:27
basic monthly maintenance rates, 11:28-30 table 9
basic monthly payment rates, 11:22-26, 11:23-25 table 8
case review system, 11:26, 11:31-32
caseloads
by State, 11:20-21 table 7
trends in, 11:85-91
characteristics of children, 11:93
by age of children, 11:98-100 tables 27-28
by race/ethnicity of children, 11:101-104 tables 29-30
waiting for adoption, 11:116-122 tables 41-43
data collection systems, 11:51, 11:83-85, 11:86 table 22, 11:91,
11:92-131 tables 24-48
eligibility criteria, 11:18-19
expenditures, 11:21-22, 11:23-25 table 8, 11:131-133
outlay projections, 11:8 table 4
for placement, administration, and training, 11:132 table 49
by State, 11:134-136 table 50
Federal funding of, 11:3-6 tables 1-2
financing structure, 11:19-20
"flow" of children through system, 11:92-93, 11:92 table 24, 11:93
chart 2, 11:94-95 table 25
incidence of children in, 11:85, 11:86-87 table 23
kinship care, 11:79-81
length of stay, 11:111-113 tables 37-38
number of children in, 11:92-93, 11:92 table 24, 11:93 chart 2
by State, 11:94-97 tables 25-26
participation data and rates, 11:4, 11:7 table 3, 11:21-22
payment rates, 11:22-26, 11:23-25 table 8
permanency hearings, for child placement, 11:26, 11:27, 11:32, 11:60
table 18, 11:137
permanency plans, 11:105, 11:105-107 tables 31-32, 11:138
placement and procedural safeguards
"aggravated circumstances," 11:27
case planning and case reviews, 11:31-32
interethnic provisions, 11:62-64
interjurisdictional provisions, 11:64
"reasonable efforts" for family reunification, 11:27, 11:31, 11:62,
11:137 termination of parental rights (TPR), 11:16, 11:27, 11:32-33, 
11:60 table 18, 11:73-74, 11:138
placement settings, 11:107-109 tables 33-34
placements of children
length of stay, 11:111-113 tables 37-38
number of, 11:109-111 tables 35-36
protections for children in foster care, 11:26-27
reasons for discharge, 11:114-116 tables 39-40
TANF State plan requirements, 7:15
401(k) plans, tax provisions, 13:7, 13:9-10, 13:14
457 plans, tax provisions, 13:10
FPL. See Federal poverty level (FPL)
FPLS. See Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS)
FQHCs. See Federally-Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs)
FRA. See Full retirement age (FRA)
Fraud and abuse
Social Security overpayment protection, 1:37-38
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:12
FTP (Family Transition Program) (Florida), Appendix L: 35, 39, 40-41,
60 table 8
FUA. See Federal Unemployment Account (FUA)
FUBA. See Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances Account (FUBA)
Fugitive felons. See Prisoners and fugitive felons
Full Faith and Credit for Child Support Orders Act of 1994
(P.L. 103-383), 8:46 Full retirement age (FRA) for Social 
Security, 1:3, 1:15, 1:20-21, 1:22, 1:35, 1:53 table 20
FUTA. See Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)
FVO. See Family Violence Option (FVO)

GA program. See State general assistance (GA) program
GAIN (Greater Avenues for Independence Program) (California),
Appendix L: 37-38, 40, 56-58 
table 8
General Accounting Office (GAO)
Child Welfare Services funds report, 11:10-11, 11:16
Federal child care programs report, 9:27
Independent Living Program report, 11:51
interstate income withholding report, 8:46
kinship care report, 11:80-81
privatization of CSE collection activities, 8:50-51
Glaucoma screening, 2:122, 2:141
GME. See Graduate medical education (GME)
Government pension offset, 1:23
Graduate medical education (GME), 2:32
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, 5:26, 10:2 table 1
Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program (California), 
Appendix L: 37-38, 40, 56-58 
table 8
Guam
Medicaid Program, 12:8-9, 12:8 table 5
SCHIP Program, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
social services block grant programs, 12:12
social welfare programs, 12:1, 12:2 table 1, 12:3 table 2
TANF Program, 12:6
See also Territories

Hawkins Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1990, 10:10
HCBS. See Home and Community-Based Long-Term Care Services (HCBS)
HCFA. See Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) see also Centers
for Medicare and 
Medicaid Services (CMS)
HCPCS. See Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS)
HCTC. See Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC)
Head Start Program, 8:5, 9:29, 9:31-33 table 15, 15:2, 15:122-123,
15:124 table 33, 15:125 table 34
Health care
of the elderly. See Appendix B
expenditures. See Appendix C
See also Medicaid Program; Medicare Program; State Children's Health
Insurance Program (SCHIP)
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 2:3. See also Centers for
Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS).
Health Care Safety Net Amendments of 2002 (P.L. 107-251), 15:82, 15:97
Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC), 6:9-11
Health insurance
cafeteria plans, 13:21, 13:24-26
child support order for medical assistance, 8:24, 8:29-32, 8:72,
8:74 table 8
employer contributions, tax exclusions, 13:19-21
group health plan requirements, 13:27-28
health care continuation rules, 13:26-27
health care expenditures data. See Appendix A
health insurance status. See Appendix A
health savings accounts (HSAs), 13:23-24
long-term care insurance, 13:28-31
Medicare duplication rules, 13:30
self-employed individuals deduction, 13:31-32
special needs adopted children, 11:138
for workers, primary source of, 13:22 table 9
See also Medicaid Program; Medicare Program; State Children's Health
Insurance Program (SCHIP); and Appendix C
Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability (HIFA) Initiative, 
15:40, 15:72-73, 15:90-91
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
(P.L. 104-191) accelerated death benefits, 13:29
group health plan requirements, 13:27
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:14
long-term care insurance, 13:30
medical savings accounts (MSAs), 13:21
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs). See Medicare+Choice
(M+C) Program
Health professional shortage area (HPSA), 2:93
Health savings accounts (HSAs), 13:23-34
Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), 2:112
Hemophilia clotting factors, 2:119
Hepatitis B vaccine, 2:119
HHAs. See Home health agencies (HHAs)
HHRGs. See Home Health Resource Groups (HHRGs)
HI Program. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program
HIFA. See Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability (HIFA)0
Initiative
Higher Education Act of 1965, 13:45, 13:47
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), Supplemental Security Income for
persons with, 3:12-13 Home and Community-Based Long-Term Care Services
(HCBS), 15:51, 15:68, 15:70, 15:73-75, 
15:75 chart 4
See also Appendix B
Home-based services, social services block grants, 10:7, 10:7 table 3,
10:8, 10:9 table 4
Home health agencies (HHAs), 2:72, 2:136, 2:139-140
Home health care services, 2:3, 2:9, 2:14, 2:71-79, 2:119
case-mix system, 2:74, 2:75-76 table 23, 2:77
coverage and benefits, 2:71-72
financing for, 2:72
low utilization payment adjustment (LUPA), 2:78
market basket index, 2:77
Medicaid Program, 15:50, 15:51
Medicare Program, 2:3, 2:9, 2:14, 2:71-79, 2:119
OASIS data collection, 2:74, 2:136
outlier adjustments, 2:77
partial episode payment adjustment, 2:77
payment calculation, 2:74, 2:77 table 24
payments, 2:72-74, 2:80 table 25
prospective payment system (PPS), 2:73, 2:133, 2:136
significant change in a beneficiary's condition (SCIC), 2:77
unit of payment, 2:73-74
utilization and spending, 2:78-79
wage adjustment, 2:74
Home Health Resource Groups (HHRGs), 2:74, 2:75-76 table 23
HOME Investment Partnerships Block Grant Program, 15:102
Home Ownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere (HOPE)
Program, 15:102
Home ownership investment, tax provisions, 13:55, 13:56
Homebuilders model, family preservation and reunification, 11:15
Homeless persons, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and,
3:13, 3:47
HOPD. See Hospital outpatient department (HOPD) services
HOPE. See Home Ownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere
(HOPE) Program
HOPE tax credit [for education], 13:45
HOPWA. See Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) Program
Hospice services, 2:3, 2:9, 2:79-84
cap amount, 2:83-84
cash outlays, 2:86 table 28
coverage and benefits, 2:79-81
number of beneficiaries, 2:86 table 28
payment calculation, 2:83, 2:83 table 26
payment updates, 2:84, 2:133, 2:140
program data, 2:84, 2:85 table 27, 2:86-87 table 28
prospective payment system (PPS), 2:82-83, 2:136
unit of payment, 2:82-83
wage adjustment, 2:83
Hospital Insurance (HI) Program, 2:2
benefits and beneficiary cost-sharing, 2:9
cost of program, 1:62-63 table 34
coverage and payments, 2:20-85
financing, 1:4-5, 1:58 table 26, 2:10, 2:13, 2:15-18 tables 5-6
military wage credits, 2:13
premiums, monthly, 2:11-12 table 4
tax rates for self-employed individuals, 1:40 table 2
uninsured persons, reimbursements, 2:13
voluntary enrollees, 2:13
Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund
financial status, 2:14, 2:20
financing, 1:4-5, 1:25, 1:58 table 26
income, 2:10, 2:13
income and disbursements, 2:15-18 tables 5-6
insolvency projections, 2:19 table 7, 2:20
Hospital outpatient department (HOPD) services, 2:3, 2:101, 2:105-114,
2:108 table 39, 2:113, 2:133, 2:136-137, 2:140
Hospital services, 2:20-25
annual update factor, 2:29 table 12, 2:39-40
cancer hospitals, 2:53
capital input price index (CIPI), 2:2.43 table 17, 2:41-43
capital prospective payment system, 2:38-39, 2:43 table 17
Children's Hospitals, 2:53
critical access hospital (CAH) program, 2:21, 2:49-50, 2:135, 
2:138-139 
diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 2:21, 2:26, 2:27-28 table 11, 2:30,
2:36-37 
disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 2:33, 2:34-35
table 14, 2:134, 15:61, 15:77, 15:78-79, 15:81
geographic reclassification of, 2:46, 2:50-52, 2:138
indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33
inpatient hospital care, 2:2-3, 2:9, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:24-25
tables 9-10 inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS), 2:20-21, 
2:26, 2:53 inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), 2:54-57, 2:138
long-term care hospitals, 2:57-63
market basket (MB) index, 2:29 table 12, 2:39-40
expense categories, 2:41 table 15
Medicaid Program, 15:49, 15:54, 15:87
Medicare dependent hospitals (MDHs), 2:21, 2:48, 2:139
Medicare Program, 2:20-25
Medicare reimbursement. See Appendix D
outpatient department (OPD) services, 2:3, 2:105-114, 2:106-108 
tables 38-40, 2:133, 2:136-137, 2:140
partial hospitalization services, 2:123
postacute care transfer policy, 2:36-37
prospective payment system (PPS), 2:82-83, 2:132-133, 2:134-135, 2:138
psychiatric hospitals, 2:53-54
"qualified hospitals" for Medicare services, 2:102
rural hospitals, 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:135, 2:138-139
rural referral centers (RRCs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:35 table 14, 2:48-49
sole community hospitals (SCHs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:46-49,
2:102, 2:135, 2:139 specialty hospitals and services, 2:20, 2:21,
2:47, 2:52-63 swing bed program, 2:21, 2:36, 2:46, 2:49-50, 2:62,
2:138-139
transfer cases, 2:36-37 utilization trends, 2:20-21, 2:24-25 tables
9-10.
See also Appendix C
wage value index, 2:30-32, 2:31 table 13, 2:51-52
See also Appendix B; Appendix C
Hospital wage value index, 2:30-32, 2:31 table 13, 2:51-52
Housing Act of 1990. See Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing
Act of 1990
Housing assistance
low-income housing credit, 13:56-58, 13:58 table 17
mortgage interest deduction, 13:54-55
owner-occupied housing, 13:54-55
See also Federal housing assistance
Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) Program, 
15:101-102
HSAs. See Health savings accounts (HSAs)
Human Services Reauthorization Act (HSRA) of 1984 (P.L. 98-558),
15:124, 15:134
Human Services Reauthorization Act (HSRA) of 1990, Augustus F. 
Hawkins, 10:10
ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision,
Clinical Modification) codes,2:102
IDEA. See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Illegal aliens. See Appendix J
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
(included in P.L. 104-208), 1:36-37, 3:63-64
Illegitimacy. See Nonmarital births
Illinois, Community Group Participation and Housing Supplementation
Demonstration, 11:60-61 
table 8
IME. See Indirect medical education (IME) adjustment
Immigrants. See Aliens; Noncitizens; and Appendix J
Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 1:15
Immunosuppressive drugs, 2:119, 2:125-127, 2:137, 2:141
In-House Paternity Acknowledgment Program, 8:6 table 1, 8:15-16, 8:19
INA (Immigration and Nationality Act), 1:15
Incentive payments (Federal) for State Child Support Enforcement (CSE)
Program, 8:62, 8:83-84 
table 10
Income-tested benefits. See Appendix K
Incomes, family. See Appendix H
Independent Living Program, 11:3-4 table 1, 11:47
established, 11:47-48
evaluation research studies, 11:50-51
history of, 11:51
renamed for Senator John H. Chafee, 11:48, 11:138
State data collection requirements, 11:51
See also Chafee Foster Care Independence Program; Foster Care
Independence Programs
Indian Child Welfare Act, 11:63
Indian tribes
Medicaid eligibility for women with breast and cervical cancer, 15:81
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:64
TANF Program and, 7:3, 7:15, 7:23, 7:26-27, 7:28-30 table 5, 7:92
See also Native Americans
Indiana, Welfare Reform Evaluation, Appendix L: 39, 61 table 8
Indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33, 2:134
Individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:9, 13:14-18
deductible IRAs, 13:18 table 8
education IRAs, 13:46
effect of tax provisions on, 13:17
legislative history, 13:14-15
nondeductible IRAs, 13:16
Roth IRAs, 13:10, 13:16-17
traditional IRAs, 13:15-16
withdrawals, 13:16
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 11:74
Influenza virus vaccine, 2:119
Inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS), 2:20-21, 2:26, 2:32-33,
2:38-44, 2:41-43 tables 15-17, 2:49, 2:50, 2:55, 2:59, 2:61, 2:102,
2:109, 2:111, 2:113, 2:138 exemptions, exclusions, 2:53-54, 2:57-58,
2:62, 2:138
Inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), 2:54-57, 2:138
Institutionalized persons
children's rights, 15:79-80, 15:96
Medicaid Program coverage, 15:36-37, 15:79-80, 15:96
Miller Trust, 15:37
Social Security benefits suspension, 1:25
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:7-8, 3:13-15, 3:63
Insured unemployment rate (IUR), 4:18
Intern and resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio, and teaching hospitals, 
2:32-33, 2:39, 2:44-45, 2:71, 2:138
Internal Revenue Code (IRC). See Tax Provisions
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
child support arrearages collection, 8:36-37, 8:39
Project 1099, for child support enforcement, 8:12-13, 8:39
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards of Commissions
(IAIBC), 15:142
International health care expenditures. See Appendix C
Iowa Family Investment Program (FIP), 11:61-62 table 8
IPPS. See Inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS)
IRAs. See Individual retirement arrangements (IRAs)
IRB. See Intern and resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio
IRFs. See Inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs)
IUR. See Insured unemployment rate (IUR)

JCWAA. See Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act (JCWAA) of 2002
JGTRRA. See Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (JGTRRA)
of 2003
Job Corps, 15:120-122, 15:122 table 32
Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act (JCWAA) of 2002, 7:96, 13:58,
14:9
Job losers, Unemployment Compensation Program and, 4:5, 4:8, 4:8
chart 1
Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Training Program, 7:3, 7:4,
7:26, 7:64, Appendix L: 35-39, 49-72 table 8
See also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program
Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) (P.L. 97-300), 15:12, 15:118
Job training programs, 7:3, 7:4, 7:7, 7:93, 7:95, 15:118-122,
Appendix L: 35
Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (JGTRRA) of 2003
(P.L. 108-27),
15:55, 15:82-83
Jobs First Program (Connecticut), Appendix L: 34-35, 39, 40-41,
59 table 8
JTPA. See Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA)
Judge surrogates, and child support expedited process, 8:19
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 11:48


Kidney disease treatment. See Renal dialysis
Kidney transplants, 2:2, 2:5, 2:127, 2:128 table 43
Kinship care, 7:42 table 12, 11:79-81

Labor unions, unemployment compensation and, 4:12
Lanham Act, child care financing, 9:27
Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) initiative, Appendix L: 69
table 8
Leaver studies. See Welfare leavers
Legal Permanent Residents (LPR). See Appendix J
LHWCA. See Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA)

Life expectancy, 1:63-64 table 36, 1:82 table 50.  See also Appendix A
Lifetime learning tax credit, 13:45
LIHEAP. See Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
Lock box or PAY-GO rules for Social Security surplus, 1:34-35
Long arm statutes for child support enforcement, 8:44
Long-term care
Medicaid Program, 15:32, 15:51, 15:54, 15:55 table 16, 15:56-57
table 17, 15:58 chart 3, 15:67-70, 15:73-75
See also Appendix B
Long-term care hospitals (LTCHs), 2:57-63, 2:135, 2:138
prospective payment calculations, 2:59-63, 2:62 table 19
Long-term care insurance
tax aspects, 13:28-31, 13:32
See also Appendix B
Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA), 15:144-145
Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), 10:10, 15:2,
15:124-134
background, 15:124, 15:126
crisis and weatherization assistance, 15:131-133 table 37
eligibility standards, 15:130
funding sources, 15:134
heating and cooling assistance benefits, estimated, 15:128-129 
table 36
performance measurement, 15:134
planning and administration, 15:130, 15:134
State allotments, 15:124, 15:126-127, 15:127-128 table 35
Low-income housing credit, 13:56-57
Low-income patients, Medicare Program, 2:33, 2:54, 2:55, 2:56, 2:133
LTCHs. See Long-term care hospitals (LTCHs)
Lump-sum death benefit, 1:17

Maintenance of effort (MOE) in SCHIP, 15:94 table 22
Maintenance of effort (MOE) in TANF, 7:3, 7:5-6, 7:9-10, 7:13, 7:15,
7:16, 7:16-18 table 1, 7:18, 7:21, 7:26, 7:27, 7:32, 7:58, 7:61-63,
7:69-72 tables 21-22, 8:61, 9:31 table 15, 9:34, 9:57-58 
table 29
Making Appropriations for the Departments of Labor, HHS, and Education
(P.L. 107-116), 3:70
Malpractice expenses, Medicare Program and, 2:88, 2:89 table 29
Mammography screening, 2:10, 2:120, 2:133
Managed care
demonstration projects, 11:67, 11:68-72 table 20
Medicaid Program, 15:63-67, 15:65-66 table 19, 15:67-68 table 20, 
15:77
Medicare Program, 2:92-93, 2:132, 2:150 table 49
Mariana Islands. See Northern Mariana Islands, Commonwealth of the
Marital status
of TANF Program parents, 7:87, 7:92, 7:93, 7:95
of working mothers, 9:2-6, 9:4-6 tables 2-4
Mark-to-market [housing] initiative, 15:108
Market basket (MB) index, 2:29 table 12, 2:39-40
Marriage promotion and two-parent families as TANF Program goal, 7:4,
7:23, Appendix L: 42-45
Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, 10:10
Maximum taxable earnings for Social Security, 1:5, 1:39 table 1,
1:72-73
MCCA. See Medicare Catastrophic Cover Act (MCCA)
McKinney Act. See Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987
("McKinney Act")
MDHs (Medicare dependent hospitals), 2:21, 2:48, 2:139
Means-tested programs, 13:40, 15:2-3, 15:3 table 2.  See also
Appendix K
Medicaid Program, 15:26-83
administration, 15:61-62, 15:76
AFDC Program, interaction with, 15:33
aged and disabled persons, 15:35-39
alcoholics, eligibility for, 15:75-76
benefits, 15:49-54
EPSDT services for children, 15:50
Home and Community-Based Long-Term Care Services (HCBS), 15:51,
15:73-75, 15:75 
chart 4.  See also Appendix B
medically needy options, 15:50-51
optional services, 15:50, 15:52-53 table 15
pregnancy-related services, 15:50
tuberculosis (TB)-related services, 15:14, 15:51
waivers, 15:49-51, 15:54
breast cancer, 15:32, 15:80-81
capitated payment systems, 15:54
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and, 8:3, 8:29-32
children, 15:33-34
low-income children, 15:35
coverage, by age and family income, 15:48 table 14
delivery systems, 15:62-70
demonstration projects, 15:40, 15:51, 15:54, 15:69-70, 15:70-71
disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 15:61, 15:77, 
15:78-79, 15:81
drug addict eligibility, 15:75-76
dual eligibles, 15:59, 15:69
eligibility, 15:32, 15:46 table 13, 15:76-77
aged and disabled persons, 15:35-39
aliens, 15:76
dual eligibles, 15:59, 15:69
families, pregnant women, and children, 15:33-34
institutionalized persons and related groups, 15:36-37
noncitizens/immigrants, 15:41
persons with tuberculosis, 15:41, 15:51
presumptive eligibility, 12:10, 15:97
Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals (QDWIs), 15:39
Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMB), 11:59, 15:38-39
Qualifying Individuals (QI-1), 15:39
Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries (SLMB), 15:39
women with breast and cervical cancer, 15:40-41, 15:80
enrollment, 15:41-44, 15:42-43 chart 1-2
expenditures, by acute and long-term care, 15:58 chart 3
families, pregnant women and children, 15:33-34
Federal matching rate, 15:54-55
Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 15:54, 15:59-60 
table 18, 15:71, 15:82-83, 15:89-90, 15:93
Federal reimbursement to States, 8:61
Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), 15:49, 15:78, 15:81
fee-for-service (FFS) system, 15:62-63, 15:68
financing, 15:54-58, 15:71
former foster care youth and, 11:137, 11:138
institutional providers, 15:61
institutionalized children, 15:79-80, 15:96
institutionalized persons and related groups, 15:36-37
legislative history, 15:75-83
long-term care services, 15:32, 15:51, 15:54, 15:55 table 16, 15:56-57
table 17, 15:58 chart 3, 15:67-70, 15:73-75
managed care and, 15:63-67, 15:65-66 table 19,15:67-68 table 20, 15:77
managed care freedom-of-choice waivers, 15:49
medically needy option, 15:32, 15:37, 15:39-40, 15:50-51
migrant farm workers study, 15:82
noncitizen/immigrant eligibility, 3:65, 15:41, 15:76
nursing facility residents, 15:77-78
overview, 15:26, 15:31-32
payments
by basis of eligibility, 15:56-57 table 17, 15:67-68 table 20
Boren amendment, 15:77
disproportionate share hospitals (DSHs), 15:61, 15:77, 15:78-79, 15:81
payment methods, 15:77
personal needs allowance (PNA), 3:11, 3:19-20
and the poor, 15:33-34, 15:39, 15:45
pre-paid health plan (PHP), 15:64, 15:65-66 table 19
prescription drugs, 15:60
primary care case management (PCCM), 15:50, 15:51, 15:55, 15:64,
15:67, 15:77
Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals (QWDIs), 15:39
Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMB), 11:59, 15:38-39
Qualifying Individuals (QI-1), 15:39
recipients
by eligibility category, 15:44 table 12
by service category, 15:54, 15:55 table 16
reimbursement policy, 15:58-61
Ribicoff children, 15:34-35
risk-based managed care plans, 15:66-67
rural health clinics (RHCs), 15:78, 15:81
SCHIP, and Medicaid expansions, 15:35, 15:78, 15:84, 15:85-86 table 21
Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries (SLMB), 15:39
spend down process, 15:36, 15:40
State supplemental payments (SSP), interaction with, 15:36
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:15-16, 3:22-23 table 3
eligibility, 3:19-20, 3:48-50, 3:65, 15:35-36
survey data, 7:11
TANF Program, interaction with, 7:11-12, 7:23, 15:33
in the Territories, 12:4 table 3, 12:7-10, 12:8 table 5
"300 percent rule," 15:36-37
transitional medical assistance (TMA), 15:34
waiver programs, 15:70-75
during a disaster or public health emergency, 15:81-82
Family Planning demonstrations, 15:51, 15:54, 15:72
managed care freedom-of-choice waivers, 15:49
Pharmacy Plus demonstrations, 15:51, 15:73
research and demonstration programs, 15:40, 15:51, 15:54, 15:70-71
Specialty Services and Populations Demonstrations, 15:54, 15:72
welfare leavers, Appendix L: 30, 30 table 5
welfare recipients and transition, Appendix L: 27, 30, 48, 49-72
table 8
women with breast and cervical cancer, 15:40-41, 15:80
working individuals with disabilities, 15:37-38, 15:39, 15:79
Medical education
direct graduate medical education (DGME), 2:32, 2:44-45
graduate medical education (GME), 2:32, 2:134
indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33, 2:134
intern and resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio, 2:32-33, 2:39, 2:44-45, 2:71,
2:138 Medical expenses
child support orders, 8:29-32
deductions, 13:14, 13:32-33, 13:34 tables 10-11
Medical insurance. See Health insurance
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) services, 2:121-122
Medical savings accounts (MSAs), 13:21-23
Medically needy program, 15:32, 15:37, 15:39-40, 15:50-51
Medicare and Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and railroad retirement, 
5:12, 5:13 table 5
Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) (P.L. 100-360), 2:69-70
Medicare dependent hospitals (MDHs), 2:21, 2:48, 2:139
Medicare economic index (MEI), 2:85, 2:89, 2:92, 2:93, 2:122, 2:123
Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board (MGCRB), 2:46,
2:50-52, 2:138
Medicare HI Trust Fund. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund
Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act
(BBRA 1999) (included in P.L.106-113), 2:19, 2:46, 2:52, 2:67, 2:70,
2:101, 2:111, 2:129, 2:130, 2:134-137, 15:78-79, 15:95-96
Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act
(BIPA 2000) (included in P.L. 106-554), 2:19, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:67,
2:70, 2:101, 2:111, 2:127, 2:130, 2:138-143, 12:11, 
12:14 table 6, 15:61, 15:81, 15:88, 15:96-97 Medicare/Medicaid
Antifraud and Abuse Amendments of 1977, 8:29
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, 2:134, 2:137
Medicare+Choice (M+C) Program, 2:14-15, 2:129, 2:129-130, 2:134, 
2:137, 2:142-143, 15:81.
See also Appendix E
Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
(P.L. 108-173), 2:1, 2:10, 13:23
Medicare Program, 2:1-155 acute care facilities, 2:45-46
administration, 2:3 aged, eligibility and coverage, 2:5
ambulance services, 2:116-118, 2:141
ambulatory payment classification (APC) groups, 2:112
ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), 2:114-116, 2:140-141
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 2:141
annual update factor, 2:29 table 12, 2:39-40 benefits, 2:2-3
beneficiary cost-sharing and, 2:9-10 benefit payments, 2:133, 2:150
table 49 bone mass measurements, 2:122, 2:134 bonus and relief 
payments,
2:53, 2:73 capital exception payments, 2:39 capital prospective 
payment system, 2:38-39 case-mix groups (CMGs), 2:54-57, 2:56 table 18
clinical laboratory services, 2:10, 2:101-102 clinical psychologists,
2:101 coinsurance, 2:11-12 table 4
colonoscopy screening, 2:120-121, 2:134, 2:141
colorectal cancer screening, 2:120-121, 2:134
competitive bidding demonstrations, 2:105, 2:134, 2:137
comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities (CORFs), 2:123
cost-sharing, 2:9-10, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:109, 15:38-39.  See also
Appendix B coverage claims process, 2:142
critical access hospital (CAH) program, 2:21, 2:49-50, 2:135, 2:138-139
deductible, 2:11-12 table 4
diabetes outpatient self-management training, 2:121, 2:134
diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 2:21, 2:26, 2:27-28 table 11, 2:30,
2:36-37 diagnostic testing, 2:10
direct graduate medical education (DGME), 2:32, 2:44-45
disabled persons eligibility and coverage, 2:5
enrollment, 2:147 table 47
disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14,
2:35, 2:134 distinct part units, 2:20, 2:36, 2:52-57, 2:138
doctor's services, 2:9
drugs and vaccines, 2:10, 2:119-120, 2:125-127, 2:137
dual eligibles, 15:59, 15:69
Duggan v. Bowen, 2:78
duplication rules, 13:30
durable medical equipment (DME), 2:3, 2:103-105, 2:120, 2:134, 2:142
eligibility and coverage, 2:2, 2:5-8
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 2:2, 2:6 table 2, 2:109,
2:124-129, 2:147 table 47 enrollment disabled persons, 2:147 table 47
by sex and age, 2:146 table 46
by type of coverage, 2:6-7 table 2, 2:150-152 table 50
Federal outlays, 2:4, 2:4 table 1
Federally-Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), 2:122-123
fee-for-service payments, 2:3
fee schedule, inherent reasonableness authority, 2:104
financing, 2:3, 2:10-20
glaucoma screening, 2:122, 2:141
health maintenance organizations (HMOs). See Medicare+ Choice (M+C)
Program health savings account deductions, 13:23-24
historical data, 2:145, 2:146-154 tables 46-52
home health care services, 2:3, 2:9, 2:14, 2:71-79, 2:119, 2:133, 2:136
hospice services, 2:3, 2:9, 2:79-84, 2:83 table 26, 2:85-86 tables
27-28, 2:133, 2:136, 2:140
hospital insurance (HI) Program. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program
hospital services, 2:20-25
geographic classification of, 2:46, 2:50-52
inpatient hospital care, 2:2, 2:9, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:24-25 tables 
9-10
outpatient department (OPD) services, 2:3, 2:105-114, 2:133, 
2:136-137,
2:140 partial hospitalization services, 2:123
short-term stay general hospitals, 2:26-52, 2:27-28 table 11, 
2:153-154
table 52 spending, 2:20-21, 2:24 table 9, 2:29 table 12
swing bed program, 2:21, 2:36, 2:46, 2:49-50, 2:62, 2:138-139
utilization, 2:20-21, 2:24-25 tables 9-10
indirect medical education (IME) adjustment, 2:32-33
inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS), 2:20-21, 2:26, 2:32,
2:32-33, 2:38-44, 2:41-43 
tables 15-17, 2:49, 2:50, 2:53-62, 2:102, 2:109, 2:111, 2:113, 2:138
inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), 2:54-57, 2:138
kidney transplants, 2:2, 2:5, 2:127, 2:128 table 43
legislative history, 2:132-143
long-term care hospitals, 2:57-63
low-income patients, 2:33, 2:54, 2:55, 2:56, 2:133
managed care, 2:92-93, 2:132, 2:150 table 49
medical nutrition therapy (MNT) services, 2:121-122
Medicare dependent hospitals (MDHs), 2:21, 2:48, 2:139
mental health services, 2:9, 2:53-54, 2:80, 2:81, 2:85, 2:94, 2:101, 
2:123, 2:135, 2:138 midwife services, 2:100, 15:50 
national coverage determinations (NCDs), 2:101-102
new technology payments, 2:37-38
nonphysician practitioners services, 2:9, 2:100-101
nurse anesthetists, 2:100-101
nurse practitioners, 2:100
occupational therapy services, 2:101, 2:137, 2:141
orthotics, 2:103-105, 2:142
overview, 2:2-4
Pap smears, 2:10, 2:120, 2:137, 2:141
Part A. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program
Part B. See Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program
payment policies. See Appendix D
payments for services, 2:3, 2:152 table 51
pelvic exams, 2:10, 2:120, 2:133, 2:141
persons served
by demographic characteristics, 2:152 table 51
by type of coverage, 2:150-152 table 50
physical therapy service, 2:101, 2:137, 2:141
physician assistants, 2:100
physicians' services, 2:85, 2:88-100, 2:89-92 tables 29-30, 2:133
premiums, 2:11-12 table 4
prescription drug benefits, 2:10, 2:119-120
preventive screenings, 2:10, 2:120-121, 2:133-134, 2:141
prostate cancer screening, 2:120, 2:133
prosthetics, 2:103-105, 2:142
Railroad Retirement System, interaction with, 2:5, 2:13
rehabilitation impairment categories (RICs), 2:54
renal dialysis, 2:2, 2:128, 2:141
resource utilization groups (RUGs), 2:64-68, 2:65-67 table 20
rural health clinics (RHCs), 2:122-123
rural hospitals, 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:135, 2:138-139
rural referral centers (RRCs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:35 table 14, 2:48-49
savings estimates, Congressional Budget Office, 2:144, 2:144-145
table 45 
Secondary Payer Program, 2:130-132 short-term stay general hospitals,
2:26-52, 2:27-28 table 11 skilled nursing facility (SNF) care, 2:3,
2:9, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:14, 2:49, 2:63-70, 2:133
social workers, 2:101
sole community hospitals (SCHs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 
2:46-49, 2:102
Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries (SLMB) Program, 2:133
supplementary coverage, 2.132, 2.134.  See also Appendix B
supplementary medical insurance (SMI), 2:2, 2:5, 2:11-12 table 4
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:32
telehealth services, 2:122
in the Territories eligibility and coverage, 12:2 table 1
Federal funding for, 12:4 table 3
venipuncture services, 2:79
See also Appendix B; Appendix D; Appendix E; Hospital Insurance (HI)
Program
Medicare Risk Contract Program, 2:134
Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, 2:49
Medicare Trust Funds
administration and protection, 1:33, 1:36-37
See also Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund
Medigap insurance, 2:134, 2:137, 2:143.  See also Appendix B;
Appendix E
MEI (Medicare economic index), 2:85, 2:89, 2:92, 2:93, 2:122, 2:123
Melson-Delaware approach to child support awards, 8:22, 8:23, 8:24
Mental health services, 2:9, 2:53-54, 2:80, 2:81, 2:85, 2:94, 2:101,
2:123, 2:135, 2:138, 10:10, 
11:15, 11:50, 11:85, 15:64, 15:87, 15:123
Mentoring Children of Prisoners Program, 11:2, 11:3-4 table 1, 11:17,
11:138
MEPA. See Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA 1994)
Merchant Marine Act of 1920 ("Jones Act"), 15:146
MFIP (Minnesota Family Investment Program), Appendix L: 34-35, 40-41, 
43, 63-66 table 8 MGCRB. See Medicare Geographic Classification Review
Board (MGCRB)
MGIB (Montgomery GI bill), 15:135
Michigan, To Strengthen Families (TSMF), Appendix L: 62-63 table 8
Midwife services, certified nurse, 2:100, 15:50
Migrant farm workers study, SCHIP, 15:82
Military personnel
child support enforcement, 8:42-43
parent locator services and, 8:42
Unemployment Compensation Program, 4:13-14
wage credits, HI trust fund transfers, 2:13
Miller v. Ybarra case, 15:37
Milwaukee's New Hope Demonstration Project, Appendix L: 72 table 8
Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), Appendix L: 34-35, 40-41 , 
43, 63-66 table 8
Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO), 15:69
MNT. See Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) services
Model Interstate Income Withholding Act, 8:45
Moderate Rehabilitation for Single Room Occupancy Dwellings Program, 
15:101
MOE. See Maintenance of effort (MOE)
Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 15:135
Mortgage interest tax deduction, 13:54-55
MPPAA. See Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act (MPPAA)
MSAs (medical savings accounts), 13:21-23
MSHO. See Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO)
Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act (MPPAA 1980) (P.L. 96-364), 
14:6-7, 14:9, 14:16
Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA 1994) (P.L. 103-382), 11:31, 11:62-64

Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997
(P.L. 105-65), 15:108
Multistate Foster Care Data Archive (Chapin Hall), 11:88-89

NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
NAFTA-Transitional Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA) program, 
6:2, 6:12
NAFTA Worker Security Act (P.L. 103-182), 6:12, 6:16
NAIC (National Association of Insurance Commissioners), 15:142
National Advisory Commission on the Future of Medicare, 2:134
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-625), 15:99
National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), 15:142
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 11:78-79
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 11:55-56,
11:74-77
National Child Care Staffing Study (NCCSS), 9:20
National Child Support Enforcement Reference Center, 8:5
National Conference of Commissions on Uniform State Laws, 8:44, 8:47,
8:48
National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI), 15:142
National coverage determinations (NCDs) for clinical laboratory tests,
2:101-102
National Directory of New Hires, 8:13, 8:14, 8:39
National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS), Appendix L:
35-39, 38 table 6, 40, 
47, 49-53 table 8
National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health (NHSDUH), 11:78
National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS), 11:74, 
11:77
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 
child care quality study,9:22-24
National medical support notice, standardized, 8:32
National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust (NRRIT), 5:13-14, 
5:26-27
National Resource Center for Information Technology in Child Welfare,
11:91
National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), 9:12-14, 11:79
National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), 11:18, 
11:89-91
Native American Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Technical 
Amendment Act of 2001 (P.L.107-121), 15:81
Native Americans
child support programs, 8:5
Medicaid eligibility for women with breast and cervical cancer, 15:81
SCHIP, 15:95
Supplement Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:64
TANF family assistance programs, 7:3, 7:15, 7:23, 7:26-27, 7:28-30
table 5, 7:92
Native Employment Works (NEW) Program, 7:26
Naturalization. See Appendix J
NCANDS. See National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)
NCCI (National Council on Compensation Insurance), 15:142
NCCSS. See National Child Care Staffing Study (NCCSS)
NCDs. See National coverage determinations (NCDs)
Needs-tested benefits. See Appendix K
NEW. See Native Employment Works (NEW) Program
New Chance Demonstration, Appendix L: 53-54 table 8
New Hope Demonstration Project, Appendix L: 72 table 8
New Jersey, Family Development Program (FDP), Appendix L: 43, 66
table 8 New York
Child Assistance Program (NY CAP), Appendix L: 66-67 table 8
Continuing Care Network (CCN), 15:69
NEWWS. See National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS)
NHSDUH. See National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health (NHSDUH)
NICHD. See National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
(NICHD)
NIS. See National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS)
NLA (national limitation amount) for clinical laboratory services,
2:102 Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities Act, 15:144
Noncitizen Benefit Clarification and Other Technical Amendments Act
of 1998 (P.L. 105-306),3:47, 3:66, 8:81-82
Noncitizens
food stamp eligibility, 15:15
Medicaid Program eligibility, 15:41
OASDI Program benefits eligibility, 1:15
Social Security benefits eligibility, 1:36-37
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:7, 3:47, 3:62-66
TANF Program benefits, 7:5
See also Aliens; Appendix J
Nonmarital births
prevention as TANF goal, 7:4, 7:15
by State, 8:101-102 table 21
TANF nonmarital birthrate reduction bonuses, 7:22, 7:22 table 3
See also Appendix M
Nonparticipating physicians, Medicare Program and, 2:94
Nonphysician practitioners services, 2:9, 2:100-101
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation Act of 1993
(P.L. 103-182), 4:35-36, 6:1, 6:12, 6:15-16
Northern Mariana Islands, Commonwealth of the
Food Stamp Program, 15:7-8
Medicaid Program, 12:8 table 5, 12:9
Nutrition Assistance Programs, 12:3 table 2, 12:5-6
SCHIP Program, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
social services block grant programs, 12:12
social welfare programs, 12:1, 12:2 table 1, 12:3 table 2
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:2
TANF Program, 12:6
See also Territories
NRRIT. See National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust (NRRIT)
NSAF. See National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)
NSCAW. See National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW)
Nurse midwife services, 2:100, 15:50
Nursery school development, Federal role, 9:25
Nurses and nurse practitioners, 2:100-101, 15:49, 15:50, 15:145
Nursing Home Resident Protection Amendments of 1999 (P.L. 106-004),
15:77-78
Nutrition Assistance Programs
in the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 12:5-6, 15:7
See also Food Stamp Program; School Lunch and Breakfast Programs;
Special Supplemental 
Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
NY CAP (Child Assistance Program), Appendix L: 66-67 table 8

OASDI. See Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI)
OASI Program. See Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Program
OASIS (Outcome and Assessment Information Set), 2:74, 2:136
OBRA. See Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Program, 9:18
Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.L. 91-596), 15:142-143
Occupational therapy services, 2:101, 2:137, 2:141
OCSE. See Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE)
Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), 8:5
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), emergency unemployment
compensation outlay estimates, 4:20, 4:21 table 6
Offsets
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:36-37, 8:95-96 table 17
Social Security pension offsets, 1:23, 1:24, 4:14
Ohio welfare reform initiatives
Final Impacts for JOBS and Work Choice, 11:67-68 table 8
Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP), Appendix L: 69 table 8
Transitions to Independence Demonstration, Appendix L: 67-68 table 8
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Program, 1:2
benefit and contribution statements, 1:36
benefits eligibility, 1:14-15
currently insured, 1:14-15
fully insured, 1:14-15
disability coverage, 1:15
"exhaustion" of trust funds, 1:11
insured status, 1:14-15
trust fund actuarial balance, 1:11
See also Social Security
Old-Age Assistance Program, 1:2, 3:2, 3:3, 3:24, 3:61
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Program
beneficiaries by benefit types, 1:45-46 tables 10-11
benefits payments, 1:44 table 9 penalties, 1:37-38
cost of program, 1:62-63 table 34
covered earnings, 1:24, 1:40-41 table 3
"exhaustion" of trust funds, 1:11, 1:60 table 31
FICA tax, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 table 1, 1:41 table 4
financing, 1:4-5, 1:58 table 26
prisoner benefits suspension, 1:25
railroad retirement benefits and, 5:12, 5:13 table 5
SECA tax, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 table 1, 1:41 table 4
Social Security benefits eligibility, 1:15
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and, 3:14-15
tax rates for self-employed individuals, 1:40 table 2
taxable earnings, 1:40-41 table 3
trust fund actuarial balance, 1:10, 1:11, 1:62 table 33
See also Social Security
Older Americans Act and the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3
Older Americans Act Employment Program for the Elderly, 15:12
Older persons. See Elderly; Senior citizens
OMB. See Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Omnibus Appropriations Act for fiscal year 1999, 12:10
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1980) (P.L. 96-499)
Medicare home health services coverage, 2:72
Medicare swing bed program, 2:21, 2:36, 2:46, 2:49-50, 2:62, 2:138-139
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1981) (P.L. 97-35)
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:36, 8:38
Extended Benefits (EB) Program, 4:19
LIHEAP, 15:124
Nutrition Assistance Block Grant in Puerto Rico, 12:5
railroad retirement benefits, 5:6, 5:12
social services block grants, 10:1, 10:10
trade adjustment assistance programs, 6:15
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1986) (P.L. 99-509)
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:28, 8:46
Medicare immunosuppressive drug coverage, 2:127
Medicare PPS for HOPD care, 2:109
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1987) (P.L. 100-203)
Medicare DME fee schedule, 2:103
Medicare swing-bed program, 2:49
mortgage interest deduction, 13:55
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 14:9
railroad retirement benefits, 5:15, 5:25
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:11
Title XX entitlement ceiling, 10:2 table 1
Title XX funds to American Samoa, 10:1
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1989) (P.L. 101-239)
child welfare services, 11:9
Independent Living Program, 11:47
low-income housing tax credit, 13:56
railroad retirement benefits, 5:25
social services block grants, 10:2 table 1
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1990) (P.L. 101-508)
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), 9:2, 9:30
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program, 8:37
Foster Care Program administrative costs, 11:22
FUTA surtax extension, 4:35
Independent Living Program, 11:47
Medicaid prescription drug reimbursement, 15:60
Medicare PPS for HOPD care, 2:109
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 14:9
railroad retirement benefits, 5:25
Social Security and budget calculations, 1:33
Social Security for State and local employees, 1:4
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:16
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA 1993) (P.L. 103-66)
empowerment zones and enterprise communities, 10:10
Foster Care Program, 11:26, 11:47, 11:84
FUTA surtax extension, 4:35
Independent Living Program, 11:47
low-income housing tax credit, 13:56
Medicaid Program coverage for institutionalized persons, 15:37
medical child support orders, 8:30-32
paternity establishment, 8:15
railroad retirement benefits, 5:15, 5:25-26
Social Security benefits, 2:13, 13:18
social services block grants, 10:2 table 1, 10:10
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:26
taxation of benefits, 1:25
trade adjustment assistance programs, 6:16
Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 
for fiscal year 1999 (P.L. 105-277), 6:16, 10:2 table 1, 10:12, 15:95
Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996
(P.L. 104-134), 1:37, 10:12 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act
(OTCA) of 1988 (P.L. 100-418), Trade Adjustment 
Assistance Programs, 6:6, 6:7, 6:15
Orthotics, 2:103-105, 2:142
Out-of-wedlock births
prevention as TANF goal, 7:4, 7:15
by State, 8:101-102 table 21
TANF nonmarital birth rate reduction bonuses, 7:22, 7:22 table 3
See also Appendix M
Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), 2:74, 2:136
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 15:144
Owner-occupied housing, 13:54-56

PACE (Program for All-Inclusive Care for Elderly), 15:69
Pap smears, 2:10, 2:120, 2:137, 2:141
Parent locator services
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 8:7-8, 8:12, 8:14, 8:49
Financial Institution Data Match (FIDM) Program, 8:13, 8:39, 8:49, 
8:79, 8:81 locating absent parents, 8:12-14
for military personnel, 8:42
Project 1099, 8:12-13, 8:39
Parental rights, termination of, 11:16, 11:27, 11:32-33, 11:60 
table 18, 11:73-74, 11:138
Parents' Fair Share (PFS) Demonstration, Appendix L: 54 table 8
Part A Medicare. See Hospital Insurance (HI) Program
Part B Medicare. See Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program
PASS. See Plan for achieving self-support (PASS)
Paternity establishment. See Child Support Enforcement (CSE) and
Paternity Establishment Program
"PAY-GO" approach, Social Security, 1:34-35
Payroll taxes
FICA tax, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 table 1, 1:41 table 4, 13:25, 13:48
Medicare, HI share, 2:5, 2:10, 2:13, 2:15-58 tables 5-6
Railroad Retirement System, 5:10, 5:11 table 4, 5:27
Social Security, 1:4-6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:39-41 tables 1-4, 1:72, 1:74-81,
1:75-79 tables 46-48, 1:81 table 49
State unemployment, 4:28-29
PBGC. See Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
PCCM. See Primary care case management (PCCM)
Pell grants, in the Territories, 12:2 table 1
Pelvic exams, 2:10, 2:120, 2:133, 2:141
Pennington v. Doherty case, 4:10
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 14:1-16
administration of, 14:1
Advisory Committee, 14:1
budgetary treatment, 14:11, 14:13 table 3
coverage requirements, 14:3
defined benefit plans, 14:1-2
defined contribution plans, 14:1-2
financial condition, 14:11-14
financing, 14:8-14
assets from terminated plans, 14:10
employer liability, 14:10-11
investment income, 14:11
premiums, 14:9
sources of, 14:8-9
multiemployer plans, 14:2-3
legislative history, 14:16
premiums, 14:9
terminations, 14:6-7
overview, 14:17
plan termination insurance, 14:1-2
single-employer plans, 14:2-3
asset allocation, 14:6
benefits
		benefit payments, 14:5
		guaranteed benefits, 14:5-6
		section 4022(c) benefits, 14:6
claims, 14:7-8
		experience, 14:8 table 1
		number of, 14:10 table 2
employer liability, 14:5
legislative history, 14:14-16
premiums, 14:9
terminations
		distress, 14:4
		future, 14:8 table 1
		involuntary, 14:4
		number of, 14:10 table 2
		standard, 14:3-4
trusteeship, 14:4-5
Pension Insurance Modeling System (PIMS), 14:13-14
Pension Protection Act (PPA 1987), 14:4, 14:15
Pensions
coverage, 13:3, 13:7-8, 13:11, 13:13-14
defined benefit plans, 3:7-8, 3:13
employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), 13:7, 13:14
government pension offsets, 1:23, 1:24, 4:14
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:9, 13:10, 13:14-18
legislative history of tax exclusions, 13:3, 13:7
participation in employer-sponsored plans, 13:12-14 tables 3-7
qualified plan rules, 13:8-9
Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE), 13:9-10
termination of plans, 13:7
vesting rules, 13:7, 13:8
See also Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation; Railroad Retirement
System Permanency hearings and plans, child placement, 11:26, 11:27,
11:32, 11:60 table 18, 11:105, 
11:105-107 tables 31-32, 11:137
Personal needs allowance (PNA), 3:11, 3:19-20
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
(PRWORA) of 1996 (P.L. 104-193)
AFDC Program repealed by, 7:2, 7:11, 8:3, 11:81, 11:137
bankruptcy and child support, 8:53
block grant programs, 10:2 table 1, 10:9-10
child abuse and neglect studies, 11:17-18
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), 9:27-28, 9:30
child care for low-income families, 7:10, 9:2
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and welfare reform, 8:3, 8:7, 
8:13-14, 8:16, 8:20, 8:27-28, 8:39, 8:41, 8:51, 8:57, 8:77-81
child welfare programs, 11:81-83, 11:137
earned income credit (EIC), 13:35
food stamp ban for noncitizens, 7:21
Food Stamp Program, 15:8, 15:25
Foster Care Program, 11:18-19, 11:26, 11:84
Medicaid Program and, 15:76
noncitizens and. See Appendix J
Social Security benefits eligibility, 1:15, 1:36-37
Social Services Block Grant Program, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
State automated data systems, 8:54-55, 11:84
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:4, 3:14, 3:43, 3:47,
3:62, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
TANF Program established by, 7:2, 7:11, 7:96, 8:3, 11:81, 11:137
Personal Roads to Individual Development (PRIDE) Program, 
Appendix L: 44
PFS Demonstration. See Parents' Fair Share (PFS) Demonstration
Pharmacy Plus demonstrations, 15:51, 15:73
PHP. See Pre-paid health plan (PHP)
Physical therapy services, 2:101, 2:137, 2:141
Physician assistants, 2:100
Physician Payment Review Commission, replaced by Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, 2:134
Physicians' services, 2:88-100
assignment rates, 2:95, 2:95 table 32, 2:96-97 table 33
beneficiary liability limits, 2:94
bonus payments, 2:93
conversion factor, 2:88, 2:89, 2:91 table 30, 2:93, 2:133, 2:136
coverage, 2:85
fee schedule calculations, 2:88-93
geographic adjustments, 2:88, 2:89-91 table 29
Medicaid Program and, 15:49, 15:54
Medicare economic index (MEI), 2:89
Medicare reimbursement, 2:85.  See also Appendix D
mental health services payment limitation, 2:94
participation data, 2:94-95, 2:97-100 tables 34-36
practice costs, by locality, 2:89-91 table 29
relative value for service, 2:88, 2:136
sustainable growth rate (SGR), 2:89, 2:92-93, 2:133, 2:136
update adjustment factor, 2:89, 2:92-93.  See also Appendix C;
Appendix E
PIA. See Primary insurance amount (PIA)
PIMS (Pension Insurance Modeling System), 14:13-14
P.L. See Public laws
Plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 3:8-9, 3:48
PNA (Personal needs allowance), 3:11, 3:19-20
Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, 2:119, 2:120
Political asylum. See Appendix J
Poverty status
child care arrangements, 9:11 table 7, 9:16 table 12
child support payments, 8:69-70, 8:72-73, 8:73 table 7
consumption expenditures, Appendix L: 21-24
earned income credit (EIC) effect on, Appendix L: 15, 18-21
Federal poverty level (FPL), 15:33-34, 15:45, 15:83
Federal tax treatment, 13:67, 13:71-74 tables 24-25
food assistance programs, Appendix L: 15
food stamp benefits, 3:36 table 9, 3:37 table 10
household income, effect on, Appendix L:16
Medicaid Program and, 15:33-34, 15:36, 15:39, 15:45
pregnant women and children, 15:33-34
single-mother families
cash welfare recipiency rates, Appendix L: 6-9, 8-9 charts 2-4,
25-26 tables 1-2"earnings poor," Appendix L: 16-17
0
effects of earnings, transfers, and taxes, Appendix L: 12-16, 17
chart 8
income sources, Appendix L: 18-21
work and welfare status, Appendix L: 4-5, 6 chart 1, 11-17, 12 chart 6
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, 3:6 table 1, 3:27, 3:36
table 9 "work-first" programs impact on, Appendix L: 2-3
See also Appendix H
Poverty thresholds, 13:67, 13:71-74 tables 24-25
PPA. See Pension Protection Act (PPA)
PPS. See Prospective payment system (PPS)
Pregnancy
Medicaid program for pregnant women and children, 15:33-34
out-of-wedlock births, 7:4, 7:15, 8:101-102 table 21
and welfare, Appendix L: 3, 42, 49-72 table 8 
See also Appendix L; Appendix M
Pre-paid health plan (PHP), 15:64, 15:65-66 table 19
Prescription drugs, 2:119-120
immunosuppressive drugs, 2:119, 2:125-127, 2:137, 2:141
Medicaid reimbursements, 15:60
Medicare benefits, 2:10, 2:119-120, 2:125-127, 2:137
Preserving Affordable Housing for Senior Citizens and Families into 
the 21st Century Act(P.L. 106-74), 15:108
Presumptive eligibility, defined, 12:10, 15:97
Prevent Child Abuse America, 11:74
Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant, 10:10
Preventive health services, 2:10, 2:120-122, 2:133-134, 2:141, 9:35,
10:10, 11:48, 13:31, 15:80, 15:81, 15:87, 15:88
PRIDE Program. See Personal Roads to Individual Development (PRIDE)
Program
Primary care case management (PCCM), 15:55, 15:64, 15:67, 15:77
Primary insurance amount (PIA), 1:17-19, 1:46 table 12, 1:53 table 20
Prisoners and fugitive felons
Social Security benefits suspension, 1:25, 1:37, 1:39
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program benefits prohibitions, 
3:7-8, 3:13-15, 3:63
TANF Program benefits, 7:5
Prisoners' children, mentoring program, 11:2, 11:3-4 table 1, 11:17,
11:138
Privatization of child support enforcement, 8:50-51
of TANF Program, 7:13
Profile of Child Care Settings Study (Department of Education), 9:17
Program for All-Inclusive Care for Elderly (PACE), 15:69
Project 1099 for child support enforcement, 8:12-13, 8:39
Project Independence, 11:60 table 8
Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendments of 2001 (P.L. 107-133),
11:4 table 1, 11:11-12, 11:14, 11:17, 11:48, 11:138
Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) Program, 11:2
authorization (P.L. 107-133), 11:138
Court Improvement Program, 11:16-17
entitlement ceilings, 11:11-12
family preservation and reunification, 11:15-16
family support programs evaluation studies, 11:15-16
Federal funding of, 11:3-6 tables 1-2
grants to States, 11:11-16
set-asides, 11:12, 11:14 table 6, 11:16
State-by-State allocations, 11:13-14 table 6
States' use of funds, 11:16
Property liens for child support, 8:38-39
Prospective Payment Assessment Commission replaced by Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, 2:134
Prospective payment system (PPS), 2:3, 2:26
home health services, 2:73
hospice care, 2:82-83, 2:136
hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs-OPPS), 2:109, 2:136-137, 2:140
hospitals, 2:82-83, 2:132-133, 2:134-135, 2:138
long-term care hospitals, 2:59-63, 2:62 table 19
skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), 2:14, 2:49, 2:63-64, 2:133
See also Capital prospective payment system; Inpatient prospective
payment system (IPPS)
Prostate cancer screening, 2:120, 2:133
Prosthetics, 2:103-105, 2:142
PRWORA. See Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation
Act (PRWORA) of 
1996 (P.L. 104-193)
PSSF Program. See Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) Program
Psychiatric hospitals, 2:53-54
Psychologists, clinical, 2:101
Public assistance programs
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:42
in the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 12:6
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act
of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), 2:130, 2:143, 15:81-82, 15:97
Public Health Services Act, 2:93, 3:61, 13:26-27
Public laws
64th-94th Congresses, through 1976 
64-267, 15:143-144
74-271, 1:2, 4:1-2
75-722, 5:16
76-379, 4:1-2, 4:32, 4:33 chart 3, 12:2, 13:25, 13:48
88-452, 15:122
89-97, 15:26
91-173, 13:51, 15:145
91-596, 15:142-143
92-576, 15:144
92-603, 1:3, 3:2, 3:45-46, 12:5, 15:35
93-344, 1:32
93-406, 8:32, 8:81, 13:3, 13:7, 13:14, 13:26-27, 14:1, 14:14
93-445, 5:2, 5:3, 5:4
93-618, 6:1, 6:12, 6:15, 6:16
93-647, 8:2, 10:1
94-12, 13:42
94-21, 3:2
94-566, 4:2, 4:14
94-585, 3:25
95th-96th Congresses, 1977-1980
95-134, 12:12
95-215, 1:3, 5:10
96-272, 11:8, 11:26, 11:31, 11:52, 11:83
96-364, 4:14
96-473, 1:25, 1:29
96-499, 2:21, 2:36, 2:46, 2:49-50, 2:62, 2:72, 2:138-139
96-597, 15:7
97th-98th Congresses, 1981-1984
97-35, 4:19, 5:6, 5:12, 6:15, 8:36, 8:38, 10:1, 10:10, 12:5, 15:124
97-248, 2:52-53, 2:57, 2:59, 2:79, 4:19, 6:12, 8:42, 13:32
97-300, 15:12, 15:118
98-21, 1:3, 1:23-24, 1:25, 2:26, 3:18, 3:51, 5:15, 5:25, 13:18
98-76, 5:12, 5:15, 5:22
98-120, 6:15
98-369, 2:78, 3:10, 6:15, 13:24
98-378, 8:5, 8:15, 8:29, 8:37
98-460, 1:26, 1:29
98-502, 15:130
98-558, 15:124, 15:134
99th -100th Congresses, 1985-1988
99-81, 6:15
99-107, 6:15
99-155, 6:15
99-189, 6:15
99-272, 2:79, 5:15, 6:10, 6:15, 11:47, 13:26, 14:15
99-509, 2:109, 2:127, 8:28, 8:46
99-514, 4:14, 5:15, 13:14, 13:24, 13:54
99-643, 3:16, 3:48
100-77, 15:99, 15:101
100-203, 2:49, 2:103, 5:15, 5:25, 10:1, 10:2 table 1, 13:55, 14:9
100-360, 2:69-70
100-418, 6:6, 6:7, 6:15
100-485, 7:2, 8:5, 8:15, 8:56, 9:2, 10:7, Appendix L: 31
100-578, 2:101
100-647, 5:23, 5:25, 11:47, 13:27
101st-102nd Congresses, 1989-1992 
101-198, 10:2 table 1
101-239, 5:25, 10:2 table 1, 11:9, 11:47, 13:56
101-382, 6:15-16
101-508, 1:4, 1:7, 1:33, 2:109, 3:16, 4:35, 5:25, 8:37, 9:2, 9:30, 
11:22, 11:47, 14:9, 15:60
101-625, 15:99
102-164, 4:13, 4:19-20, 4:34, 4:35
102-318, 4:11, 4:12-13, 4:18, 4:19, 4:34, 4:35, 6:16
102-537, 8:40-41
102-585, 15:60
103rd-104th Congresses, 1993-1996
103-3, 4:13
103-6, 4:35
103-66, 1:25, 2:13, 3:26, 4:35, 5:15, 5:25-26, 6:16, 8:15, 8:30-32, 
10:2 table 1, 10:10, 11:26, 11:47, 11:84, 13:56
103-152, 4:35
103-182, 4:35-36, 6:1, 6:12, 6:15-16
103-296, 3:46, 5:26
103-382, 11:31, 11:62-64
103-383, 8:46
103-387, 1:25
103-394, 8:53
103-403, 8:42
103-432, 8:41, 11:31, 11:53, 11:66
104-35, 8:54
104-121, 1:33, 1:35, 1:36, 3:46, 3:61, 3:65, 15:75-76
104-127, 15:25
104-134, 1:37, 10:12
104-188, 11:63, 13:9, 13:14, 13:43, 13:58
104-191, 13:14, 13:21, 13:27, 13:29, 13:30
104-193, 1:15, 1:36-37, 3:4, 3:14, 3:43, 3:47, 3:62, 3:63, 7:2, 7:10,
7:11, 7:21, 7:96, 8:3, 8:7, 8:13-14, 8:20, 8:27-28, 8:39, 8:41, 8:51,
8:56, 8:57, 8:77-81, 9:2, 9:27-28, 9:30, 10:2 table 1, 
10:12, 11:17-19, 11:26, 11:137, 13:35, 15:8, 15:25.  See also
Appendix J 104-208, 1:36-37, 3:63-64, 10:2 table 1, 10:12
104-235, 11:73-74
104-251, 5:23
104-262, 15:136
105th -106th Congresses, 1997-2000
105-18, 3:64, 15:25
105-33, 2:9, 2:14, 2:19, 2:49, 2:72, 2:73, 2:79, 2:101-105, 2:110, 
2:111, 2:129, 2:132-134,2:142, 3:26, 3:47, 3:64-65, 4:10, 4:24, 4:36, 
7:20, 7:26, 7:91-92, 7:96, 8:8, 8:13, 8:81, 10:9,11:19, 11:137, 12:10, 
13:35, 15:25, 15:35, 15:38, 15:58, 15:61, 15:76-77, 15:83, 15:88, 
15:90, 15:92-93 
105-34, 1:37, 4:2, 4:36, 7:12, 10:10, 12:15, 13:35, 13:59
105-65, 15:108
105-78, 10:2 table 1
105-89, 7:20, 7:21, 7:96, 11:11, 11:12, 11:15, 11:18, 11:26, 11:27,
11:32, 11:34, 11:40-41, 
11:52, 11:64, 11:66-67, 11:137-138
105-100, 15:95
105-178, 10:2 table 1, 10:10, 10:12
105-185, 15:25-26, 15:124
105-187, 8:47, 8:81
105-200, 8:32, 8:49, 8:55, 8:56, 8:62, 8:81, 11:64
105-220, 7:15, 15:12, 15:118-122
105-277, 6:16, 10:2 table 1, 10:12, 15:95
105-306, 3:47, 3:66, 8:81-82
106-4, 15:77-78
106-31, 15:78
106-74, 15:108
106-113, 2:19, 2:46, 2:52, 2:67, 2:70, 2:101, 2:111, 2:129, 2:130,
:134-137, 6:16, 7:92, 7:93, 7:95, 7:96, 8:52, 8:58, 8:82, 10:2 
table 1,
10:12, 12:10, 15:78-79, 15:95-96 106-169, 1:37-38, 3:50, 3:66-68,
8:82, 11:4, 11:47-48, 11:51, 11:138, 15:79
106-170, 1:25, 1:30, 1:31, 1:38-39, 3:14, 3:26, 3:49, 3:68-69, 15:38,
15:79
106-182, 1:3, 1:39, 5:26
106-224, 15:79, 15:96
106-245, 3:70
106-310, 15:79-80, 15:96
106-354, 15:80
106-386, 3:70
106-395, 3:70
106-398, 15:146
106-554, 2:19, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:37, 2:67, 2:68, 2:70, 2:101, 
2:116, 2:127, 2:129, 2:130, 2:138-143, 7:93, 7:96, 10:2 table 1, 
10:12, 12:11, 12:14 table 6, 13:21, 13:56, 14:16, 15:61, 15:81, 
15:88, 15:96-97
107th-108th Congresses, 2001-2004 
107-16, 3:69-70, 13:10, 13:15, 13:17, 13:35, 13:46, 13:47, 13:58-59
107-22, 13:46
107-90, 5:3-4, 5:7, 5:9, 5:10, 5:13-14, 5:26
107-116, 3:70
107-117, 1:39
107-121, 15:81
107-133, 11:4 table 1, 11:11-12, 11:14, 11:17, 11:48, 11:138
107-147, 4:15, 4:20, 4:24, 4:35, 4:36, 7:96
107-171, 15:7-8, 15:26, Appendix L: 31
107-188, 2:130, 2:143, 15:81-82, 15:97
107-210, 6:1, 6:2, 6:9, 6:14, 6:15, 6:16, 13:21, 14:16
107-229, 7:96
107-251, 15:82, 15:97
107-294, 7:96
108-1, 4:15, 4:20, 4:36
108-7, 2:30, 2:92, 2:93, 2:143, 7:96, 10:12
108-11, 4:15, 4:20, 4:36
108-26, 4:15, 4:20, 4:36
108-27, 15:55, 15:82-83
108-36, 11:74
108-40, 7:96, 11:66
108-74, 12:11, 15:83, 15:89, 15:97-98
108-89, 2:30, 2:144, 7:96
108-145, 11:41, 11:47, 11:138
108-173, 2:1, 2:10, 13:23
Puerto Rico, Commonwealth of
Food Stamp Program, 15:7-8
Medicaid Program, 12:7-8, 12:8 table 5
Nutrition Assistance Programs, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 12:5-6, 
15:7
SCHIP Program, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
social welfare programs, 12:1, 12:2 table 1, 12:3 table 2
TANF Program, 12:6
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:1
See also Territories

Qualified Disabled and Working Individuals (QDWIs), Medicare Program,
15:39
Qualified distributions from ROTH IRAs, 13:16-17
Qualified Individuals (QI-1), Medicare Program, 15:39
Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMB), 11:59, 15:38-39
Quarters of Social Security coverage/credits, 1:14-15, 1:41 table 5

Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), 15:145-146
Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-245), 3:70
Railroad Administration Account, 4:23
Railroad industry, number of employees, 5:16 table 6
Railroad Retirement Act (RRA 1934), 5:24
Railroad Retirement Act (RRA 1935), 13:18
Railroad Retirement Act (RRA 1974) (P.L. 93-445), 5:2, 5:3, 5:4
Railroad Retirement and Survivors' Improvement Act of 2001 (P.L. 
107-90), 5:3-4, 5:7, 5:9, 5:10, 5:13-14, 5:26
Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), 5:1-2
NRRIT and, 5:13-14, 5:26-27
Social Security Equivalent Benefit Account (SSEBA), 5:11, 5:27
Railroad Retirement Investment Trust. See National Railroad Retirement
Investment Trust (NRRIT)
Railroad Retirement Solvency Act of 1983 (P.L. 98-76) and railroad
retirement, 5:12, 5:15, 5:22
Railroad Retirement System, 5:1-27
annuities
disability annuities, 5:5-6
spouse annuities, 5:6
supplemental annuities, 5:6
annuity structure, 5:2-8
average accounts benefit ratio, 5:10, 5:27
beneficiaries, number of, 5:8 table 2, 5:9 table 3
benefit structure, 5:2-8
dual benefit payments, 5:3, 5:4-5
tier 1 and tier 2 benefits, 5:3, 5:4, 5:11 table 4, 13:18-19
benefits
benefit payments, 5:8 table 2
cash benefits, 5:2, 5:3 table 1, 5:9 table 3
cost-of-living adjustments, 5:4
dual benefit payments, 5:4-5
survivor benefits, 5:6-7
tax exclusion, 13:18-19
taxation of, 5:15
tier 1 and tier 2 benefits, 5:4, 5:11 table 4, 13:18-19
"windfall" benefits, 5:4-5
disability annuities, 5:5-6
financial status of, 5:15-16
financing of, 5:9-15
appropriations, 5:12-13
financial interchange with Social Security, 5:10-12, 5:13 table 5
investment income, 5:13-14
payroll taxes, 5:10, 5:11 table 4
legislative history, 5:24-27
lump sum death benefits, 5:7-8
Medicare Program, interaction with, 2:5, 2:13
overview, 5:1-2
payroll taxes, 5:10, 5:11 table 4, 5:27
program data, 5:9
Social Security
benefit formulas, 5:4-5, 5:7
financial interchange, 5:10-12, 5:13 table 5
spouse annuities, 5:6
supplemental annuities, 5:6
survivor benefits, 5:6-7
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:18-19
vesting, 5:4
Railroad Retirement Tax Act, 5:2
Railroad Unemployment Compensation Committee, 5:22, 5:23
Railroad Unemployment Insurance Account, 4:23
Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (P.L. 75-722), 5:16
Railroad Unemployment Insurance Amendments Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-251), 
5:23
Railroad Unemployment Insurance System, 5:16-24
benefits, 5:17-18
by category and amount, 5:21 table 8
during strikes, 5:18
for sickness, 5:17-18, 5:19-20 table 7
for unemployment, 5:17-18, 5:19-20 table 7
contingency surtax, 5:23
eligibility requirements, 5:17-18
financing of, 5:18, 5:21-24
overview, 5:16-17
Railroad workers and workers' compensation, 15:146
Railway Labor Act of 1926, 5:18
RAND Corporation child care quality research study, 9:26
RCCIs. See Residential child care institutions (RCCIs)
"Reasonable efforts," for family preservation/reunification, 11:27,
11:31, 11:62, 11:137
RECA. See Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA)
Reed Act funds transfer for unemployment compensation
(included in P.L. 107-147) 4:24, 4:35
Refugees. See Appendix J
Regional referral centers. See Rural referral centers (RRCs)
Rehabilitation impairment categories (RICs), 2:54-55
Renal dialysis, 2:2, 2:5, 2:128-129, 2:141
Residential child care institutions (RCCIs), 15:108-109
Resource utilization groups (RUGs), 2:64-68, 2:65-67 table 20,
2:135, 2:139
Respite care, 2:81, 2:82, 2:83 table 26, 2:86-87 table 28, 11:12, 11:14,
11:22, 11:31, 15:51
Retirement. See Pensions; and see Social Security
Retirement Protection Act (RPA 1994), 14:4, 14:9, 14:15-16
Revenue Act of 1918, 13:51
Revenue Act of 1964, 13:42
Revenue Act of 1971, 13:42
Revenue Act of 1978
401(k) plans, 13:7
cafeteria plans, 13:24--
medical reimbursement plan, 13:20
and taxable unemployment compensation benefits, 4:14
Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1997 (included in P.L. 105-34), 1:37
Revenues, Federal. See Appendix I
RHCs. See Rural health clinics (RHCs)
Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, 15:115
RICs (Rehabilitation impairment categories), 2:54-55
ROTH IRA plans, 13:14-17
RPA. See Retirement Protection Act (RPA 1994)
RRA. See Railroad Retirement Act (RRA)
RRB. See Railroad Retirement Board (RRB)
RRCs. See Rural referral centers (RRCs)
RUGs. See Resource utilization groups (RUGs)
Rural health clinics (RHCs), 2:122-123, 15:78, 15:81
Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, 2:49
Rural hospitals
critical access hospital (CAH) program, 2:21, 2:49-50, 2:135, 2:138-139
Medicare dependent hospitals (MDHs), 2:21, 2:48, 2:139
Medicare Program and, 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:135, 2:138-139
urban hospitals in rural areas, 2:46
Rural referral centers (RRCs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:35 table 14, 2:48-49

SACWIS. See Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System
(SACWIS)
Save Our Children Project, 8:47
Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE), 13:9-10
SAWW (State average weekly wage), 15:140, 15:141-142 table 42
SCHIP Program. See State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, 15:79, 15:108-109, 15:112, 15:112
table 26, 15:113 table 27.
See also Appendix J
SCHs. See Sole community hospitals (SCHs)
Seamen and workers' compensation, 15:146
SECA. See Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA)
Secondary Payer Program (Medicare), 2:130-132, 2:131-132 table 44
Section 8 housing assistance programs, 15:100-101
Section 202(y), Social Security Act, noncitizens eligibility for
benefits, 1:36
Section 209(b), Social Security Act, and Medicaid, 3:15-16, 15:35-36,
15:40
Section 401(a), Social Security Act, TANF Program, 7:4
Section 403(a), Social Security Act. See Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 
Programs
Section 427, Social Security Act, child welfare and, 11:26, 11:52-53
Section 429A, Title IV-B, Social Security Act, child abuse and neglect
research study, 11:17-18
Section 446(a)(9), Social Security Act, child support enforcement, 
8:28
Section 454, Social Security Act, child support enforcement, 8:57
Section 466, Social Security Act, child support enforcement, 8:57
Section 477, Social Security Act, foster care independent living, 
11:50
Section 479, Social Security Act, child welfare data collection, 11:84
Section 1108, Social Security Act, American Samoa and TANF funds, 7:16
Section 1115
child support enforcement, 8:5
Medicaid Program, 15:40, 15:51, 15:70-73, 15:81, 15:90
Social Security Act, waiver demonstration programs, 15:40, 15:51,
15:70-73, 15:81, 15:90, 
Appendix L: 31
TANF Program, Appendix L: 31
Section 1130, Social Security Act, child welfare waivers, 11:66
Section 1615(d), Social Security Act, rehabilitation of disabled SSI
recipients, 3:17
Section 1619, Social Security Act, Supplemental Security Income, 3:16,
3:48-50
Section 1619(a), Social Security Act, Supplemental Security Income and
Medicaid, 15:37-38
Section 1619(b)(1), Social Security Act, Supplemental Security Income
and Medicaid, 15:38
Section 1861(m), Social Security Act, Medicare home health benefit and,
2:78
Section 1886(c), Social Security Act, Medicare hospital reimbursement,
2:52-53
Section 1902(a), Social Security Act, Boren amendment repealed, 15:77
Section 1902(r)(2), Social Security Act, Medicaid eligibility and,
15:32, 15:70
Section 1905(q), Social Security Act, Supplemental Security Income and
Medicaid, 15:38
Section 1915(b), Social Security Act, Medicaid waivers, 15:77
Section 1915(c), Social Security Act, Medicaid waivers, 15:68, 15:70,
15:73-75, 15:77
Section 1931, Social Security Act, Medicaid eligibility, 15:33-34,
15:42, 15:51
Section 4022(c), Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation benefits, 14:6
Section 4901, Balanced Budget Act (BBA 1997), SCHIP-related, 15:35
Section 4911, Balanced Budget Act (BBA 1997), SCHIP-related, 15:35
Self-employed persons, health insurance tax deductions, 13:31
Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA) tax, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 
table 1, 1:41 table 4
Self-sufficiency programs for welfare families, 3:17-18, 3:49-50, 7:2,
7:93, Appendix L: 55-56 
table 8
Senior citizens
earnings limit and Social Security benefits, 1:3, 1:22-23, 1:35-36,
1:39, 1:54 table 22, 5:26
See also Elderly
Senior Citizens' Freedom to Work Act (P.L. 106-182), 1:3, 1:39, 5:26
Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act of 1996 (included in P.L. 104-121),
1:33, 1:36
Separate State programs (SSPs), 15:90
SEPPAA. See Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act (SEPPAA 1986)
SEPs (Simplified employee pensions), 13:10
SGA. See Substantial gainful activity (SGA)
SGR. See Sustainable growth rate (SGR)
Shelter Plus Care Program, 15:101
Short-term stay general hospitals, 2:26-52
diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 2:26, 2:27-28 table 11, 2:30, 2:36-37
hospital wage index, 2:30-32, 2:31 table 13
outlier payments, 2:35-36
prospective payment system (PPS), 2:26, 2:30
transfer cases, 2:36-37
utilization data, 2:153-154 table 52
SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees), 13:9-10
Simplified employee pensions (SEPs), 13:10
Single Audit Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-502), 15:130
Single Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act (SEPPAA 1986), 14:4, 14:9,
14:15
Single-employer pension plans. See Pension Benefit Guaranty 
Corporation (PBGC)
Single-mother families
cash welfare recipiency rates, Appendix L: 6-9, 8-9 charts 2-4, 25-26
tables 1-2
consumption expenditures, Appendix L: 21-24, 25-26 tables 1-2
"earnings poor", after taxes and transfers, Appendix L: 16-17, 17
chart 8 effects of earnings, transfer, and taxes on, Appendix L: 12-16,
13 chart 7, 17 chart 8
employment rates, Appendix L: 9-11, 10 chart 5
income sources, Appendix L: 18-21, 19-20 charts 9-10
number of, Appendix L: 6-7, 7 chart 2
work and welfare status, Appendix L: 4-5, 6 chart 1
See also Appendix G; Appendix H
SIPP (Survey of Income and Program Participation), 9:6-7, 9:16 
table 12
Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care, 2:3, 2:9, 2:63-70, 2:135-136
case-mix system, 2:64-68
coinsurance, 2:11-12 table 4
coverage, 2:63
Federal per-diem rate, 2:64
payments and utilization, 2:69-70, 2:139
prospective payment system (PPS), 2:14, 2:49, 2:63-64, 2:133
calculation, 2:68-69, 2:69 table 21
resource utilization groups (RUGs), 2:64-68, 2:65-67 table 20, 2:135,
2:139 unit of payment, 2:64 wage adjustment, 2:68
SLMB (Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries Program), 2:133,
15:39
Small Business Administration Reauthorization and Amendments Act of
1994 (P.L. 103-403), 8:42
Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188), 11:63, 13:9,
13:14, 13:43, 13:58
SMI. See Supplementary medical insurance (SMI)
SNF. See Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care
Social insurance, concept definition, 1:3-4
Social insurance programs
Social Security Act and, 1:2-3
Social Security Program as a, 1:73
Social Security, 1:1-82
administrative expenses, 1:33, 1:66 table 38
beneficiaries by benefit type, 1:45-46 tables 10-11
benefit adjustments, 1:51-54 tables 18-21
cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs), 1:3, 1:19-20, 1:51 table 18
delayed retirement credits, 1:21, 1:53 table 20
dual entitlement, 1:23
full retirement age (FRA), 1:3, 1:15, 1:20-21, 1:22, 1:35
government pension offsets, 1:23
multiple beneficiary benefits adjustments, 1:21-22
primary insurance amount (PIA), 1:17-19, 1:46 table 12
public disability benefits offset, 1:26-27
windfall elimination provision, 1:23-24, 1:54 table 21
benefits
amounts for beneficiary families, 1:49 table 16
tax exclusion, 13:18-19
benefits computation, 1:17-25, 1:51-54 tables 18-21
average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), 1:17-18
earnings limit, 1:22-23, 1:35-36, 1:39
maximum family benefit, 1:21-22
maximum taxable earnings, 1:5, 1:39 table 1, 1:72-73
special minimum benefit, 1:17, 1:19
benefits data, 1:44-50 tables 9-17
benefits eligibility, 1:14-32
Board of Trustees, 1:8
Board of Trustees' report, 1:8-11
brief history, 1:2-4
child's benefit, 1:16
claims process, 1:26-32
cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs), 1:3, 1:19-20, 1:51-52 tables 18-19
coverage, 1:4, 1:42-44 tables 6-8
credits/quarters of coverage, 1:14-15, 1:41 table 5
covered workers, 1:42-44 tables 6-8
debt collection, 1:37
dependents' benefits, 1:16-17
disability benefits and taxation, 13:53
disability determination, 1:26-32, 1:28 chart 2
disability program data, 1:66-71 tables 39-45
dual entitlement, 1:23
earnings
covered earnings, 1:40-41 table 3
histories for hypothetical workers, 1:48-49 table 15, 1:73-74
number of retired workers with, 1:55 table 23
and taxation of benefits, 1:25-26, 1:57-59 tables 25-27
earnings limit
earnings exempt from, 1:54 table 22
for Seniors, 1:3, 1:22-23, 1:35-36, 1:39, 5:26
electronic funds transfer (EFT), 1:37
Federal budgetary treatment, 1:32-35
FICA tax and, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 table 1, 1:41 table 4
financing of, 1:4-12
lock box or "PAY-GO" approach, 1:34-35
payroll taxes, 1:4-6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:39-41 tables 1-4, 1:72, 1:74-81,
1:75-79 tables 46-48, 1:81 table 49
solvency, 1:8-11, 1:14, 1:25
trust funds, 1:6-12
"firewall" provisions, 1:34-35
fraud and abuse, and benefit overpayment protection, 1:37-38, 1:39
full retirement age (FRA), 1:3, 1:15, 1:20-21, 1:22, 1:35
insured status, 1:14-15
legislative history, 1:35-39
lock box or "PAY-GO" approach, 1:34-35
lump-sum death benefit, 1:17
maximum family benefit, 1:21-22
maximum taxable earnings, 1:5, 1:39 table 1, 1:72-73
mother's/father's benefit, 1:16
offsets, 1:23, 1:24
parent's benefit, 1:16-17
PAY-GO rules, 1:34-35
payback times, 1:79-81, 1:81 table 49
payroll taxes, 1:4-6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:39-41 tables 1-4, 1:74-81, 1:75-79
tables 46-48, 1:81 table 49 of average wage earner, 1:77-78 table 47
of earner with maximum taxable earnings, 1:78-79 table 48
HI Trust Fund and, 2:13
of minimum wage earner, 1:75-76 table 46
primary insurance amount (PIA), 1:17-19, 1:46 table 12, 1:53 table 20
prisoners, suspension of benefits, 1:25, 1:37, 1:39
Railroad Retirement System
benefit formulas, 5:4-5, 5:7
financial interchange, 5:10-12, 5:13 table 5
replacement rates for hypothetical workers, 1:50 table 17
retirement
age and election of benefits, 1:3, 1:15, 1:20-21, 1:47 tables 13-14
delayed retirement credits, 1:21, 1:53 table 20
early retirement, 1:45 tables 13-14
full retirement age (FRA), 1:3, 1:15, 1:20-21, 1:22, 1:35, 1:53 
table 20
SECA tax and, 1:4-5, 1:6, 1:39 table 1, 1:41 table 4
social insurance, concept definition, 1:3-4
spouse's benefit, 1:16
State/local government employees, 1:4, 1:43-44 table 8
statistical tables, 1:39-71 tables 1-71
stepchildren benefits, 1:36
substantial gainful activity (SGA), 1:15, 1:22, 1:27-29, 1:56 table 24
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:3, 3:15
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:18-19
tax rates and covered earnings, 1:39-45 tables 1-9
taxable earnings, 1:40-41 table 3, 2:13
taxable earnings worksheet, 1:58-59 table 27
taxable wage base (maximum taxable earnings), 1:5, 1:39 table 1, 
1:72-73 taxation of benefits, 1:25-26, 1:57-59 tables 25-27, 1:72-82
in the Territories
eligibility and coverage, 12:2 table 1
Federal funding for, 12:4 table 3
Title XVI. See Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program
Title XX. See Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program
trust funds, 1:6-14, 1:13 chart 1, 1:36-37, 1:59-60 tables 28-31
Trustee's report, 1:10-11
widow(er)'s benefit, 1:16, 1:20-21, 1:23, 1:45-46 tables 10-12, 1:49
table 16
Social Security Act of 1935 (P.L. 74-271)
creation of, 1:2
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:1-2
Amendments of 1965 (P.L. 89-97), Medicaid Program, 15:26
Amendments of 1967, 1:3
Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-603)
cost-of-living increases, 1:3, 1:19
End-State Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, 2:124
Supplemental Security Income Program, 3:2, 3:45-46, 15:35
in the Territories, 12:5
Amendments of 1977 (P.L. 95-215)
benefits compensation, 1:3
and railroad retirement benefits, 5:10
Amendments of 1983 (P.L. 98-21), 1:3
Medicare inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS), 2:26
and railroad retirement benefits, 5:15, 5:25
Social Security benefits, 13:18
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program and, 3:18, 3:51
taxation of benefits, 1:25
windfall elimination provision, 1:23-24
Amendments of 1996, 1:3
Amendments of 1999, 1:3
Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-182), earnings limit for seniors, 1:3
Amendments of 1980 (P.L. 96-473), 1:25, 1:29
Amendments of 1994 (P.L. 103-387), 1:25
Title III, Unemployment Compensation Program, 4:32
Title IV-B See Child Welfare Services Program; Mentoring Children of
Prisoners Program; 
Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) Program
Title IV-D, child support program, 8:2, 8:11, 8:29, 8:45, 8:73-75, 
8:76
table 9, 8:98-99 table 19
Title IV-E. See Adoption Assistance Program; Chafee Foster Care
Independence Program; Foster Care Program
Title XIX, Medicaid for public assistance families, 8:29, 15:70
Title XVI. See Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program
Title XX. See Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program
Title XXI, 15:83-84, 15:97
See also "Section" for specific Social Security Act section references
Social Security Administrative Reform Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-296), 3:46 
5:26
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). See Disability Insurance
(DI) Program
Social Security Equivalent Benefit Account (SSEBA), 5:11, 5:27
Social Security Numbers (SSNs)
for Social Security applications, 1:37
used by Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program and, 8:12-13
Social Security Trust Fund, 1:6-14, 1:13 chart 1
actuarial balance, 1:8-10, 1:11, 1:62 table 33
data related to, 1:59-66 tables 28-38
Federal securities, 1:6-7, 1:75
protecting, 1:36-37
Trustee's report, 1:8-11
"Social service" spending survey, 7:62
Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program, 10:1-12
allocation formula, 10:1
allocations by State and Territory, 10:3-5 table 2
appropriations, 10:2 table 1
brief description and overview, 9:31-33 table 15
case management, 10:7 table 3, 10:9 table 4
child care provisions, 9:28
child welfare services, 11:2
entitlement ceiling or "cap," 10:1, 10:2 table 1, 10:11-12
expenditures, by service category, 10:8, 10:9 table 4
Federal programs, 12:1
funding of, 10:1, 10:2 table 1, 10:3-5 table 2, 11:131-132
legislative history, 10:11-12
overview, 10:1
program goals, 10:6
services provided, 10:7-8 table 3
in the Territories, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 12:12
transfer of funds, 7:4, 10:9-10
use of funds
reporting requirements, 10:6-7
restrictions on, 10:6
Social welfare programs in the Territories, 12:1-15
coverage of residents, 12:2 table 1
Federal funding for, 12:4, 12:4 table 3
Federal-State programs, 12:1-2, 12:3 table 2
Food Stamp Program, 10:7-8, 12:2, 12:3 table 2, 15:6, 15:7-8
health programs, 12:7-12
Medicaid Program, 12:4 table 3, 12:7-10, 12:8 table 5
Nutrition Assistance Programs, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 12:5-6
public assistance programs, 12:6
SCHIP Program, 12:4 table 3, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 12:2, 12:2 table 1, 12:5
TANF Program, 7:3, 12:6
Social workers, clinical, 2:95, 2:101
Sole community hospitals (SCHs), 2:21, 2:33, 2:34-35 table 14, 2:46-49,
2:102
Southern Pacific Co. v. Jensen case, 15:144
"Special-needs" children
adoption assistance payments, 11:4, 11:40-41, 11:138
definition of, 11:33
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and 
Children (WIC), 7:12, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 15:112-115, 15:115 
table 28
Specialty hospitals, 2:20, 2:21, 2:47, 2:52-63
Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries (SLMB) Program, 2:133,15:39
Spousal support, 8:11
Spouse annuities, Railroad Retirement System, 5:6
Spouse's benefit, Social Security, 1:16
SSBG Program. See Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program
SSDI. See Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)
SSEBA. See Social Security Equivalent Benefit Account (SSEBA)
SSI. See Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program
SSNs (Social Security Numbers), 1:37, 8:12-13, 8:56-58
SSPs (Separate State programs), 15:90
Standard deductions, taxation, 13:61-63 tables 18-19
State average weekly wage (SAWW), 15:140, 15:141-142 table 42
State Children's Health Insurance Program Allotments Extension Act of
2003 (P.L. 108-74), 12:11, 15:83, 15:89, 15:97-98
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 15:83-98
abortion coverage, 15:87
additional service category, 15:87
administration of, 12:11-12
allotment formula, 15:95
allotments, 15:95
benchmark-equivalent coverage, 15:84, 15:87
benefits, 15:84-87
cost sharing, 15:87-88
data collection, 15:95-96
eligibility, 15:83-84
presumptive eligibility, 12:10, 15:97
enrollment data, by State, 15:85-86 table 21, 15:91-92
expenditures, 15:92, 15:93-94 table 22
Federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), 15:89-90
financing, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6, 15:88-90
legislative history, 15:92-98
Medicaid Program expansions, 15:35, 15:78, 15:84, 15:85-86 table 21
migrant farm workers study, 15:82
program characteristics, 15:90-91
separate State programs (SSPs), 15:90
survey data, 7:11
TANF Program, interaction with, 7:11, 7:23
in the Territories, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
State courts, child support enforcement and, 8:1, 8:2, 8:10, 8:39
State general assistance (GA) program, 15:5, 15:22-23
State/local government employees, Social Security benefits for, 1:4,
1:43-44 table 8
State Tax Intercept Program, 8:37
State unemployment tax rates, 4:28-29, 4:29-32 tables 10-11
Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS), 11:5
table 2, 11:84-85, 11:86 table 22, 11:91
Stepchildren, Social Security benefits, 1:36
Stepfathers and fathers, welfare evaluations, Appendix L: 54 table 8,
66 table 8
Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 ("McKinney Act")
(P.L. 100-77), 15:99, 15:101
Strikes, railroad worker unemployment benefits and, 5:18
Student loans
guaranteed, in the Territories, 12:2 table 1
interest deduction, 13:47
Pell grants, in the Territories, 12:2 table 1
Students, FICA and SECA tax exemptions, 1:5
Substance abuse, 11:78-79
Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 1:15, 1:22, 1:27-29, 1:56 
table 24, 3:4, 3:48, 15:37
Sullivan v. Zebley case, 3:4, 3:7, 3:43
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program, 3:1-70
administrative fees, 3:26
aged, 3:4, 3:5 table 1
AIDS, persons with, 3:12-13
alcoholics, 3:45-47, 3:61, 15:75-76
aliens, 3:7, 3:62-66
asset limits, 3:11
background, 3:2-3
benefits eligibility, 3:4, 3:7
aged persons, 3:4
AIDs, persons with, 3:12-13
alcoholics, 3:45-47, 3:61, 15:75-76
blind persons, 3:4
categorical requirements, 3:4, 3:7
citizenship and residency requirements, 3:7
disabled children, 3:4, 3:7
disabled persons, 3:4
drug addicts, 3:45-47
felons and fugitives prohibitions, 3:7-8
HIV, persons with, 3:12-13
homeless persons, 3:47
income and resource requirements, 3:8-12
		asset limits, 3:11
		"countable" income, 3:8
		"deeming" of income and resources, 3:8, 3:11-12, 3:62
		in-kind assistance, 3:8, 3:9
		income exclusions, 3:8-9
		maximum allowable income, 3:8 table 2
		resource exclusions, 3:9-10
		resource transfers, 3:10
individualized functional assessment, 3:7
medical impairments listing, 3:7
noncitizens/aliens, 3:7, 3:47, 3:62-66.  See also Appendix J
Plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 3:8-9, 3:48
prisoner prohibitions, 3:7-8, 3:13-15, 3:63
public institution requirements, 3:13-15
real property exclusions, 3:11
for Social Security benefits, 3:15
Sullivan v. Zebley case, 3:4, 3:7, 3:43
World War II veterans benefits, 3:50
benefits payments, 3:3, 3:5-6 table 1
benefit rates, 3:3-4
"cash out" food stamp benefits, 3:25
electronic funds transfer (EFT), 1:37
emergency advance payments, 3:21
essential persons, 3:20
Federal benefit levels, 3:18-19, 3:22-23 table 3
food stamp benefit, 3:27, 3:32-33 table 7, 3:34-35 table 8
former recipients of State assistance, 3:20
immediate payments, 3:21
initial payments, 3:21
by living arrangements, 3:24 table 4
maximum potential benefits, 3:27, 3:32-33 table 7, 3:34-35 table 8
overpayments, 3:21
penalties for abuse, 1:37-38
personal needs allowance (PNA), 3:11, 3:19-20
persons in Medicaid institution, 3:19-20, 3:22-23 table 3
persons living in the household of another, 3:19, 3:22-23 table 3
persons living independently, 3:25-26
poverty thresholds, 3:36 table 9, 3:37 table 10
by selected years (1970-2005), 3:60 table 23, 3:61
by selected years (1970-2008), 3:54 table 19
by State, 3:56-57 table 21
State supplementation, 3:21, 3:24-27 levels over time, 3:27, 3:28-29
table 5, 3:30-31
table 6 by State, 3:56-57 table 21, 3:59-60 table 22
variation in payment amount, 3:25-26
"break-even-point," 3:48
burial funds, 3:10
continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 3:43, 3:61-62, 3:63, 3:69
cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), 3:18
costs of program, 3:56-57 table 21
"countable" income, 3:8
"deeming" of income and resources, 3:8, 3:11-12, 3:62
disabled children, 3:4, 3:7, 3:42-44, 3:62-63
disabled persons, 3:4, 3:5 table 1
drug addicts, 3:45-47, 3:61, 15:75
electronic funds transfer, 1:37
employment networks, 3:17-18, 3:68-69
outcome payment system, 3:18
essential persons, 3:20
felons and fugitives, 3:7-8
Food Stamp Program eligibility and, 3:16, 3:25
HIV, persons with, 3:12-13
homeless persons, 3:14, 3:47
immediate payments, 3:21
in-kind assistance, 3:8, 3:9
income exclusions, 3:8-9
initial payments, 3:21
legislative history, 3:61-70
life insurance policies, 3:10
Medicaid eligibility, based on SSI, 3:15-16, 3:19-20
medical institutionalization, 3:13-14
overpayments, 3:21
participation rates, 3:50-51, 3:51 table 17
pass-along/maintenance-of-effort provision, 3:25
personal needs allowance (PNA), 3:11, 3:19-20
Plan for achieving self-support (PASS), 3:8-9, 3:48
poverty thresholds, 3:4, 3:6 table 1, 3:27, 3:36 table 9, 3:37 
table 10
prisoner prohibitions, 3:7-8, 3:13-15, 3:63
as "program of last resort," 3:15
public institution requirements, 3:13-15, 3:63
real property exclusions, 3:11
recipients
adult disabled and blind, 3:39, 3:40 table 12
by age group, 3:38 table 11, 3:41-42, 3:42 table 14
caseload developments and trends, 3:45
by disability category, 3:38 table 11, 3:40 table 12, 3:42 table 14,
3:44 table 15 by disability diagnosis, 3:41 table 13
disabled children, 3:42-44
households receiving assistance, 15:4 table 3
number of, 3:3, 3:5 table 1, 3:35, 3:38 table 11, 3:52-56 
tables 18-20
participation rates, 3:50-51, 3:51 table 17
by race, 3:41-42
by sex, 3:42 table 14
by source of income, 3:44 table 15
by source of payment, 3:38 table 11
by State, 3:52-53 table 18, 3:55-56 table 20
by type of income, 3:45 table 16
resource exclusions, 3:9-10
resource requirements, 3:9-12
resource transfers, 3:10
Section 209(b) option for Medicaid eligibility, 3:15-16, 3:48
Section 1619 provisions of the Social Security Act, 3:48-50
self-sufficiency programs and, 3:17-18
Social Security program and, 3:3, 3:15
State supplementation, 3:21, 3:24-27
levels over time, 3:27, 3:28-29 table 5, 3:30-31 table 6
by State, 3:58-59 table 22
substantial gainful activity (SGA), 3:4, 3:48, 15:37
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:42
and the Territories, 12:2, 12:2 table 1, 12:5
trafficking in persons, 3:7, 3:70
trends, 3:3-4, 3:5-6 table 1, 3:45
vocational rehabilitation programs and, 3:17
work disincentive elimination, 3:48-50
Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, 2:2
aged beneficiaries, 2:5
benefits and beneficiary cost-sharing, 2:9-10
coverage and payments, 2:85-123
enrollment, 2:148-149 table 48
income and expenditures, 2:22-23 table 8
premiums, monthly, 2:11-12 table 4, 2:14
Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund
financial status, 2:20
income, 2:14
Supportive Housing Program, 15:101
Supreme Court decisions
Duggan v. Bowen, 2:78
Miller v. Ybarra, 15:37
Pennington v. Doherty, 4:10
Southern Pacific Co. v. Jensen, 15:144
Sullivan v. Zebley, 3:4, 3:7, 3:43
Suter v. Artist M., 11:31
Surplus, Federal budget. See Appendix I
Surtax, FUTA tax rate, 4:2, 4:35, 4:36
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 9:6-7, 9:16 
table 12
Sustainable growth rate (SGR), Medicare Program, 2:89, 2:92-93,
2:133, 2:136
Suter v. Artist M. ("reasonable efforts" case), 11:31

TAA Programs. See Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Programs
TANF Program. See Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
Program
Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA 1982) (P.L. 97-248),
2:52-53, 2:57, 2:59, 2:79, 4:19, 6:12, 8:42, 13:32
Tax Provisions, 13:1-75
401(k) plans, 13:7, 13:9-10, 13:14
accelerated death benefits, 13:28, 13:29
adjusted gross income (AGI), 13:2, 13:10
adoption expenses, tax credit and exclusions, 13:58-69
black lung program, 13:51-52
blind persons, 13:52
cafeteria plans, 13:21, 13:24-26
for Child Support enforcement, 8:10, 8:37, 8:39, 8:42
child tax credit, 13:59
dependent care, employer-provided, 13:48-49
dependent care tax credit (DCTC), 9:29, 9:31-33 table 15, 12:15,
13:42-44, 13:44 table 15
dependents, child tax credit, 13:59
disabled persons, tax credits, 13:53-54, 13:54 table 16
earned income credit (EIC), 12:15, 13:35-40, 13:37-38 table 12, 13:41
tables 13-14,  
Appendix L: 15-16, 18-21 education
Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, 13:46-47
HOPE tax credit, 13:45 IRAs, 13:46
lifetime learning credit, 13:45
qualified State tuition programs, 13:46-48
student loan interest deduction, 13:47
effectiveness measures (using distributional analysis), 13:2-3
elderly deductions, 13:52-54
tax credits, 13:53-54, 13:54 table 16
employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), 13:7, 13:14
estimates of tax base exceptions and credits, 13:3, 13:4-6 table 2
family income and taxes, distribution of, 13:68-70 table 23
health insurance
cafeteria plans, 13:21, 13:24-26
employer contributions, tax exclusions of, 13:19-21
group health plan requirements, 13:27-28
health care continuation rules, 13:26-27
health savings accounts (HSAs), 13:23-24
long-term care insurance, 13:28-31
Medicare duplication rules, 13:30
self-employed individuals deduction, 13:31-32
for workers, 13:22 table 9
health savings accounts (HSAs), 13:23-24
HOPE tax credit, 13:45
housing
low-income housing credit, 13:56-58, 13:58 table 17
mortgage interest deduction, 13:54-55
owner-occupied housing, 13:54-55
income, definition of, 13:2
income distribution, 13:3 table 1
distributional analysis, 13:2-3
income tax refund offsets, for child support, 8:10, 8:36-38, 8:95-96
table 17
introduction, 13:2-3
long-term care insurance, 13:28-31.  See also Appendix B
marginal tax rates, 13:66 table 22, 13:67, 13:68-70 table 23
medical expense deductions, 3:14, 13:32-33, 13:34 tables 10-11
medical savings accounts (MSAs), 13:21-23
Medicare benefits, tax exclusions, 13:32
pensions
401(k) plans, 13:7, 13:9-10, 13:14
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:9, 13:10, 13:14-18
simplified employee pensions (SEPs), 13:10
tax exclusions, 13:3-14
personal exemptions, 13:61-63 tables 18-19
public assistance, tax exclusion of benefits, 13:42
Railroad Retirement System
income taxation, 5:15
tax exclusion of benefits, 13:18-19
Social Security, tax exclusion of benefits, 13:18-19
standard deductions, 13:61-63 tables 18-19
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), tax exclusion of benefits, 13:42
taxable income levels, 13:61-63 tables 18-19
in the Territories, for low-income families, 12:15
Trade Adjustment Assistance Program, health coverage tax credit, 
6:9-11
welfare-to-work tax credit, 12:15, 13:50-51
work opportunity tax credit, 13:49-50
workers' compensation, tax exclusions for, 13:51-52
Tax Reduction Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-12), 13:42
Tax Reform Act of 1976, 13:53
Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514)
blind and elderly, standard deductions for, 13:52
cafeteria plans, 13:24
dependent care tax credit, 13:43
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:14
medical expense deductions, 13:32
mortgage interest deduction, 13:54
railroad retirement benefits, 5:15
unemployment compensation benefits taxable, 4:14
Tax returns data, 13:3 table 1
Taxation of benefits
Railroad Retirement System, 5:15
Social Security benefits and, 1:25-26, 1:57-59 tables 25-27, 1:72-82
unemployment compensation benefits, 4:14, 4:15 table 4
Taxpayer identification number (TIN), 13:35, 13:39, 13:43
Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-34)
capital gains tax exclusions, 13:55
child tax credit, 13:59
Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, 13:46-47
earned income credit (EIC), 13:35
empowerment zones and enterprise communities, 10:10
HOPE tax credit, 13:45
individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), 13:14-15
student loan interest deduction, 13:47
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:2, 4:36
welfare-to-work tax credit, 12:15
TEA. See Transportation Equity Act (TEA)
Teaching hospitals, intern and resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio, 2:32-33,
2:39, 2:44-45, 2:71, 2:138
Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-647)
health care continuation rules, 13:27
independent living services, 11:47
and railroad retirement benefits, 5:23, 5:25
Ted Weiss Child Support Enforcement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-537), 
8:40-41
Teenage Parent Demonstration (TPD), Appendix L: 54-55 table 8
Teenage parents, and welfare, Appendix L: 49-72 table 8
TEFRA. See Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA 1982)
Telehealth services, 2:122, 2:140
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, 1:2, 7:1-98
AFDC Program comparisons, 7:3-4
AFDC/TANF program data, 7:27-86
adult recipients' employment, 7:83-84, 7:85 chart 5
benefits, 7:36-37 table 9, 7:37, 7:38-47 tables 10-14, 7:42, 7:48,
7:49-51 table 15 caseloads, 7:27, 7:31-32, 7:31 table 6, 7:32 chart 1,
7:33-35 tables 7-8 enrollments, 7:31 table 6
exits and returns to program, 7:86
expenditures, 7:58-62, 7:59 table 18, 7:60 chart 2, 7:61 chart 3,
7:65-70 tables 19-21
highlights, 7:27
households receiving assistance, 15:4 table 3
phase-out earnings levels, 7:48, 7:51-54 table 16
reporting requirements, 7:9-10
assistance defined, 7:5
bankruptcy and child support, 8:53
benefit eligibility, 7:5-10
exits and returns, 7:86
phase-out earnings levels, 7:48, 7:51-54 table 16
time limits for Federal funding, 7:5, 7:8-9, 7:57-58
work rules, 7:6-9, 7:13-14, 7:75 table 24, 7:85-86
See also Appendix J
benefits, 7:10, 7:37-48
average monthly benefit, 7:36-37 table 9, 7:37
maximum benefits, 7:37, 7:38-44 tables 10-13
minimum wage workers, 7:37, 7:45-47 table 14, 7:48, 7:49-51 table 15
sanctions, 7:85-86
block grants and relationship to TANF, 8:3, 8:7, 8:52
brief description and overview, 9:31-33 table 15
charitable choice option, 7:13
child care provisions and expenses, 7:5, 7:8, 7:10-11, 7:16-18 
table 1,
7:21, 7:23, 7:26, 7:48,7:58, 7:59 table 18, 9:28, 9:29, 9:31-33
table 15
Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Program interaction with, 8:8-11, 
8:16, 8:19, 8:53, 8:56-58, 8:61-62, 8:67-68
child welfare services, 11:2, 11:81-83
domestic violence waivers, 7:8, 7:9, 7:15, 8:5
earned income credit (EIC) payments, 7:12
earnings and supplementary benefits, by State, 7:45-47 table 14,
7:49-51 table 15
earnings disregards, Appendix L: 39
eligibility. See above under benefit eligibility
enrollments, AFDC/TANF, 7:31 table 6
exits and returns, 7:86
expenditures, 7:58-62
by State, 7:59-61, 7:65-70 tables 19-21
trends, 7:58-59, 7:59 table 18, 7:60 chart 2
family characteristics, 7:87-91
child's living arrangements, and relationship in family, 7:27, 7:91,
7:92 table 32
composition of families, 7:27, 7:87, 7:88 table 29
educational attainment of adults, 7:91
marital or custodial status of parents, 7:87, 7:93
non-white adult recipients by State, 7:90-91 table 31
race and ethnicity of adults, 7:88-89, 7:89 table 30
teen parents and welfare, 7:4, 7:6, 7:7, 7:18, 7:64, 7:88 table 29
Family Violence Option (FVO), 7:8, 7:9, 7:15, 8:5
food assistance programs, 7:12
foster care and adoption assistance program, 11:19
funding of, 7:15-27
bonus funds, 7:9-10, 7:12, 7:22-23, 7:22 table 3, 7:24-25 table 4, 
7:92
contingency fund, 7:14, 7:20-21, 7:96
family assistance grants, 7:15-16, 7:16-18 table 1
Federally funded benefits time limit, 7:5, 7:8-9
high performance bonus awards, 7:22-23, 7:24-25 table 4, 7:92
job access grants, 7:4
loan fund, 7:21-22
nonmarital birth rate reduction bonuses, 7:22, 7:22 table 3
State spending requirement (MOE rule), 7:3, 7:15, 7:16, 7:16-18
table 1, 7:18, 7:21, 7:69-72 
tables 21-22, 8:61, 9:34
supplemental grants, 7:19-20, 7:20 table 2
transfer of funds, 7:4, 7:54-56 table 17, 7:67-68 table 20, 10:9-10
uses of funds allowed, 7:4-5
welfare-to-work grants, 7:20
history of, 7:2-4
Indian tribes family assistance grants, 7:3, 7:23, 7:26-27, 7:28-30
table 5, 7:92 legislative history, 7:96
Medicaid Program, interaction with, 7:11-12, 7:23, 15:33
privatization option, 7:13
program data reporting requirements, 7:9-10
program outline, 7:4-14
program overview, 9:31-33 table 15
purpose of program, 7:4
reauthorization, 7:2
sanctions against individuals for work-refusal, 7:85-86
"social service" spending survey, 7:62
State TANF programs
caseloads, 7:27, 7:31-32, 7:31 table 6, 7:32 chart 1, 7:33-35
tables 7-8 expenditures, 7:58-62, 7:59 table 18, 7:60 chart 2, 7:65-72
tables 19-22 penalties against States, 7:8, 7:13-14, 7:63, 7:75
table 24
"social service" spending survey, 7:62
State plan requirements, 7:14-15
State required spending levels, 7:16-18 table 1, 7:18
supplemental grants, 7:19-20, 7:20 table 2
uses of TANF funds, 7:48, 7:54-56 table 17
work definition, 7:6
in the Territories, 7:3, 12:6
time limits for funding, 7:5, 7:8-9, 7:57-58
transfer of funds, 7:4, 7:54-56 table 17, 7:67-68 table 20, 10:9-10
waivers, 7:2, 7:5, 7:9, 7:15, 7:62, 7:73-80 tables 23-26
work definitions, 7:6-7
work incentives and participation, 7:57, 7:62-64, 7:75, 7:81-83
adult recipients' employment, 7:83-84, 7:85 chart 5
adult recipients' in work or job preparation activity, 7:81-82
tables 27-28
average monthly earnings, 7:83, 7:83 chart 4
job preparation activities, 7:75, 7:76-80 tables 25-26, 7:81-83
job training, 7:3, 7:4, 7:7, 7:93, 7:95
minimum rates of, 7:6-7
penalties against States for noncompliance, 7:8, 7:13-14, 7:63, 7:75
table 24 required weekly hours of, 7:7-8
by work activity, 7:76-80 tables 25-26
work rules, 7:6-8, 7:28-30 table 5, 7:62, 7:87
community service rule, 7:6
creditable work activities, 7:7
enforcement penalties against States, 7:8, 7:13-14, 7:63, 7:75 
table 24
family violence waivers, 7:8, 7:9, 7:15
nondisplacement, 7:8
sanctions for refusing to work, 7:57, 7:85-86, Appendix L: 48
work trigger time limit rule, 7:6, Appendix L: 48, 49-72 table 8 
See also Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC)
Temporary Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC) Program, 4:15
Temporary Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 2002 
(P.L. 107-147), 4:15, 4:20, 4:36, 7:96
Temporary Extended Unemployment Compensation (TEUC) Program, 4:15, 
4:20, 4:36
Termination of parental rights (TPR), 11:16, 11:27, 11:32-33, 11:60
table 18, 11:73-74, 11:138
Territories, 12:1-15
child tax credit, 13:59
family assistance programs, 7:3
Federal funding for social welfare programs, 12:4, 12:4 table 3
Federal social welfare programs, 12:1
Federal-State social welfare programs, 12:1-2, 12:3 table 2
Food Stamp Program, 10:7-8, 12:2, 12:3 table 2, 15:6, 15:7-8
grant programs, 12:12
health programs, 12:7-12
identification of, 12:1
Medicaid Program, 12:7-10, 12:8 table 5
Nutrition Assistance Programs, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3, 15:7
public assistance programs, 12:6
SCHIP Program, 12:4 table 3, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
Social Security, 12:2 table 1, 12:4 table 3
Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) Program, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 
table 3, 12:12
Supplemental Security Income, 12:2, 12:2 table 1, 12:5
TANF Program, 7:3, 12:6
tax provisions for low-income families, 12:15
Unemployment Compensation Program, 12:2, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3
See also American Samoa; Guam; Northern Mariana Islands, Commonwealth
of the;  
Puerto Rico, Commonwealth of; Virgin Islands
TEUC, TE.UC-A, TEUC-AX, and TEUC-X Programs, 4:15, 4:20, 4:36
Texas, Achieving Change for Texans (ACT), Appendix L: 70-71 table 8
Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), 15:5, 15:16-17
Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program, 3:17-18, 3:49-50
Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999
(P.L. 106-170), 1:25, 1:30, 1:31, 1:38-39, 3:14, 3:26, 3:49, 3:68-69,
15:38, 15:79
Tier 1 and tier 2 benefits, of Railroad Retirement Act, 5:4, 5:11
table 4, 13:18-19
Time limits on welfare benefits 
program evaluation, Appendix L: 39, 48
TANF lifetime eligibility rules, 7:5, 7:8-9, 7:57-58, Appendix L: 
40-42, 49-72 table 8
TIN (Taxpayer identification number), 13:35, 13:39, 13:43
Title III, of the Social Security Act, Unemployment Compensation
Program, 4:32
Title IV-B of the Social Security Act,
Section 429A, child abuse and neglect research study, 11:17-18
See also Child Welfare Services Program; Mentoring Children of
Prisoners Program; 
Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) Program
Title IV-D of the Social Security Act, child support program, 8:2, 
8:11, 8:29, 8:45, 8:73-77, 8:76 table 9, 8:98-99 table 19
Title IV-E of the Social Security Act. See Adoption Assistance 
Program; Chafee Foster Care 
Independence Program; Foster Care Program
Title XIX of the Social Security Act, Medicaid for public assistance
families, 8:29, 15:70
Title XVI of the Social Security Act. See Supplemental Security Income
(SSI) Program
Title XX of the Social Security Act. See Social Services Block Grant
(SSBG) Program
Title XXI of the Social Security Act, 15:83-84, 15:97. See also State
Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
TMA. See Transitional medical assistance (TMA)
To Extend the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant
Program.  (P.L. 108-89), 2:30, 2:144, 7:96
To Strengthen Families (TSMF), Appendix L: 62-63 table 8
Tobacco settlement payments to States, 15:78
Total unemployment rate (TUR), 4:18
TPD Demonstration. See Teenage Parent Demonstration (TPD)
TPR. See Termination of parental rights (TPR)
Trade Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-618), 6:1, 6:12, 6:15, 6:16
Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210)
health insurance tax credit, 13:21
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and, 14:16
trade adjustment assistance, 6:1, 6:2, 6:9, 6:14, 6:15, 6:16
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Programs, 6:1-16
for farmers, 6:14-15
for firms, 6:1, 6:12-14
benefits, 6:13-14
funding of, 6:14
funding of, 6:12, 6:14
legislative history, 6:15-16
for older workers, 6:11
overview, 6:1
for workers, 6:1-11
alternative trade adjustment assistance (ATAA) for older workers, 6:11
cash benefits, 6:6-7
certification, 6:2-4, 6:3-4 tables 1-2
eligibility for benefits, 6:2, 6:4-6
health coverage tax credit (HCTC), 6:9-11
job search allowances, 6:9, 6:10 table 4
petition process, 6:2-4
relocation allowances, 6:9, 6:10 table 4
trade readjustment allowances (TRAs), 6:1, 6:4-6, 6:8 table 3
training, 6:7-9, 6:10 table 4
Trade Expansion Act of 1962, 6:15
Trade Expansion Act of 1974, 6:15
Trade readjustment allowances (TRAs), 6:1, 6:4-6, 6:8 table 3
Trafficking in persons and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program,
3:7, 3:70
Training. See Education and training
Transfer payments, 13:2, 13:39, 13:42
Transitional Adjustment Assistance program. See NAFTA-Transitional
Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA) program
Transitional Child Care Assistance, 9:27
Transitional medical assistance (TMA), 15:34, Appendix L: 30
Transitions to Independence Demonstration, Appendix L: 67-68 table 8
Transportation Equity Act (TEA) (P.L. 105-178), block grant programs 
and, 10:2 table 1, 10:10, 10:12
TRAs. See Trade readjustment allowances (TRAs)
Trial work period (TWP), 1:30-31
Tribal TANF programs, 7:3, 7:23, 7:26-27, 7:28-30 table 5
Tribes, Indian. See Indian tribes; Native Americans
Trust funds. See under trust fund name; and Appendix I
TSMF (To Strengthen Michigan Families), Appendix L: 62-63 table 8
Tuition deductions, 13:47
TUR. See Total unemployment rate (TUR)
TWP (Trial work period), 1:30-31

UC. See Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program
UEFJA. See Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (UEFJA)
UIFSA. See Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)
UIS. See Unemployment Insurance Service (UIS)
Undocumented immigrants. See Appendix J
Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-566), 4:2, 4:14
Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1992 (P.L. 102-318), 4:11,
4:12-13, 4:18, 4:19, 4:34, 4:35, 6:16
Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1993 (P.L. 103-152), 4:35
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:1-36
administrative financing and allocation, 4:32-35
average weekly insured unemployment (AWIU), 4:34
base year definition, base funds, 4:10, 4:34
benefits coverage, 4:2-8
number of covered workers, 4:5, 4:8
benefits eligibility
ability and/or availability to work, 4:11-12
disqualifications, 4:12-13
ex-service members, 4:13-14
family leave, 4:13
monetary qualification requirements, 4:8-11, 4:9-10 table 3, 4:12
pension offset, 4:14
"suitability" of work, 4:11
benefits payments, 4:14-16
amount and duration of weekly benefits, 4:14-16, 4:16-17 table 5
exhaustion of benefits, 4:18-19
extended benefits (EB) program, 4:1-2, 4:11, 4:14-15, 4:18, 4:19, 4:35
hypothetical weekly State benefits, 4:21, 4:22-23 table 7
triggers for extensions, 4:15, 4:18-19
"chargeable" employer, 4:14
child support enforcement, 8:38
contingency funds, 4:34
displaced workers reemployment services, 4:35
Employment Service (ES), 4:34
insured unemployment, 4:6-7 table 2, 4:18
job losers ratio, 4:5, 4:8, 4:8 chart 1
legislative history, 4:35-36
overview, 4:1-2
Pennington v. Doherty case, 4:10
program data, 4:3-4 table 1
program objectives, 4:1
State unemployment compensation program funds, 4:26-27 table 8
State unemployment taxes, 4:28-29, 4:29-32 tables 10-11
taxation of benefits, 4:14, 4:15 table 4
in the Territories, 12:2, 12:3 table 2, 12:4 table 3
total unemployment rate (TUR), 4:18
triggers for benefit extension, 4:15, 4:18-19
Unemployment Insurance Service (UIS), 4:34
Wagner-Peyser Act, 4:34
See also Appendix F
Unemployment data. See Appendix F
Unemployment insurance. See Appendix F
Unemployment Insurance Service (UIS), 4:34
Unemployment tax rate. See Federal unemployment tax rate; State
unemployment tax rate
Unemployment Trust Fund, 4:23-25
beginning-of-year balances, 4:28 table 9
Federal accounts, 4:20, 4:23-24, 4:32
financial condition of, 4:20, 4:23-25
State accounts, 4:24-25, 4:26-27 table 8
Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (UEFJA), 8:48
Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA), 8:46, 8:47-48
Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act (URESA), 8:44
Uninsured, 15:40, 15:72.  See also Appendix C
Unwed mothers
TANF Program benefits, 7:5.  See also Nonmarital births
The Urban Institute
child care survey results, 9:12-14, 9:13-15 tables 9-11
child support research, 8:75
foster care survey, 11:133
kinship foster care, 11:79, 11:80
URESA. See Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act (URESA)

VA. See Veterans Affairs (VA)
Vaccines, 2:10
hepatitis B vaccine, 2:119
influenza virus vaccine, 2:119, 2:120
pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, 2:119, 2:120
VCIS (Voluntary Cooperative Information System), 11:83
Venipuncture services, 2:79
Vermont, Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP), Appendix L: 35, 
69-70 table 8
Vesting, pensions, 5:4, 13:7-8
Veterans Affairs (VA)
benefits and services, 15:135-137
budget authority, 15:136 table 38
Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), 15:135
number of recipients, 15:138 table 39
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program benefits, 3:50
Veterans Health Care Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-585), 15:60
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 
(P.L. 106-386), 3:70
VIEW (Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Welfare) Program,
Appendix L: 35, 39, 70-72 table 8
Virgin Islands
Medicaid Program, 12:8 table 5, 12:9
SCHIP Program, 12:10-12, 12:13-14 table 6
social services block grant programs, 12:12
social welfare programs, 12:1, 12:2 table 1, 12:3 table 2
TANF Program, 12:6
Unemployment Compensation (UC) Program, 4:1
See also Territories
Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Welfare (VIEW) Program,
Appendix L: 35, 39, 70-72 table 8
Vocational Rehabilitation Act, 1:31
Vocational rehabilitation programs, SSI Program and, 3:17
Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS), 11:83

Wage withholding, for child medical support or child support, 8:14,
8:33, 8:35-36
Wagner-Peyser Act, 4:34
Waivers
child support enforcement, 8:5-6
child welfare demonstration expansion (P.L. 105-89), 11:138
domestic violence waivers, 7:8-9, 7:15, 8:5
Family Violence Option (FVO), 7:8, 7:9, 7:15, 8:5
managed care freedom-of-choice waivers (Medicaid), 15:49
Medicaid Program and, 15:49-51, 15:54, 15:70-75, Appendix L: 30
State child welfare demonstration project waivers, 11:23-25 table 8,
11:38-39 table 11, 11:66-67, 11:68-72 table 20, 11:138, Appendix L: 31
TANF rule waivers, 7:2, 7:5, 7:9, 7:15, 7:62, 7:73-80 tables 23-26
welfare-to-work program evaluations, Appendix L: 31-32, 34, 39, 43-48
Ways and Means Committee, jurisdiction and program recipient data,
15:2-3, 15:3 tables 1-2
Welfare benefit fund, 13:20
Welfare leavers, Appendix L: 24-29
earnings and income, Appendix L: 28-29, 29 table 4
employment rates, Appendix L: 27, 28 table 3
food stamp program, Appendix L: 30-31, 30 table 5
Medicaid benefits, Appendix L: 30, 30 table 5
program evaluation studies, Appendix L: 24, 27, 31
recidivism (return rates), Appendix L: 27, 28 table 3
Welfare reform initiatives, Appendix L: 1-76
ABC (A Better Chance) Program (Delaware), Appendix L: 39, 59 table 8
Achieving Change for Texans (ACT),  Appendix L: 70-71 table 8
Avenues to Self-Sufficiency through Employment and Training Services
(ASSETS) (Alabama), 
Appendix L: 55-56 table 8
Child Assistance Program (NY CAP), Appendix L: 66-67 table 8
EMPOWER (Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging
Responsibility) 
(Arizona), Appendix L: 56 table 8
Family Transition Program (FTP) (Florida), Appendix L: 35, 39, 40-41,
Appendix L:  60 table 8
Federally-funded research projects, Appendix L: 45-46, 46-47 table 7
future policy and research, Appendix L: 3-4, 43
GAIN (Greater Avenues for Independence Program) (California),
Appendix L:37-38, 40, 56-58 table 8
impact evaluations, lessons learned, Appendix L: 33-39, 49-72 table 8
introduction, Appendix L: 1-4
Jobs First Program (Connecticut), Appendix L: 34-35, 39, 40-41, 59
table 59
Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) (Ohio), Appendix L: 69 table 8
Milwaukee's New Hope Demonstration Project, Appendix L: 72 table 8
Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), Appendix L: 34-35, 40-41,
43, 63-66 table 8
New Chance Demonstration, Appendix L: 53-54 table 8
new program models, Appendix L: 45-46
overview of findings, Appendix L: 4-5
random assignment experimental studies, Appendix L: 31-32
research findings, Appendix L: 2-3
time limits, stronger sanctions, and other policy initiatives,
Appendix L: 39, 42, 48
Parents' Fair Share (PFS) Demonstration, Appendix L: 54 table 8
To Strengthen Michigan Families (TSMF), Appendix L: 62-63 table 8
Transitions to Independence Demonstration (Ohio), Appendix L: 67-68 
table 8
Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Welfare (VIEW) Program,
Appendix L: 35, 39, 70-72 table 8
Welfare Reform Evaluation (Indiana), Appendix L: 39, 61 table 8
Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP) (Vermont), Appendix L: 35, 69-70
table 8
Welfare reform law of 1996. See Personal Responsibility and Work
Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
(PRWORA) of 1996 (P.L. 104-193)
Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP) (Vermont), Appendix L: 35, 69-70
table 8
Welfare-to-Work (WTW) programs, 7:3, 7:20, 7:91-95, 7:96
case management and pre-employment services, 7:95, Appendix L: 45, 52
table 8
child care transition, 9:2
expenditures by States, 7:93-94 table 33
family cap policy, Appendix L: 42-43, 48, 49-72 table 8
impact evaluations, Appendix L: 3, 47-49, 49-72 table 8
child well-being, Appendix L: 41-42
family formation, Appendix L: 42-45
income, Appendix L: 40-41
lessons learned, Appendix L: 33-39
marriage promotion, Appendix L: 42-45
mandatory participation, Appendix L: 2, 33-35
post-employment services, Appendix L: 45
program message, Appendix L: 38-39
research findings, Appendix L: 1, 2-3, 33
tax credit, 13:50-51
in the Territories, 12:15
tribal family assistance program, 7:26
work investment areas (WIAs), 7:92
WIA. See Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998
WIC Program. See Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,
Infants, and Children 
(WIC)
Widow(er)'s benefit, Social Security, 1:16, 1:20-21, 1:23, 1:45-46
tables 10-12, 1:49 table 16
Windfall benefits, Railroad Retirement System, 5:4-5
Windfall elimination provision, Social Security, 1:23-24, 1:54 
table 21
Wisconsin, Milwaukee's New Hope Demonstration Project, Appendix L: 72
table 8
Wisconsin Partnership Program, 15:69
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program, 7:12, 12:3 table 2,
12:4 table 3, 15:112-115, 15:115 
table 28
Women's health issues
breast and cervical cancer treatment, 15:32, 15:40-41, 15:80-81
mammography screening, 2:10, 2:120, 2:133
nurse midwife services, 2:100, 15:50
Pap smears, 2:10, 2:120, 2:137, 2:141
pelvic exams, 2:10, 2:120, 2:133, 2:141
pregnancy and postpartum-related services, 15:50
"Work-first" programs
research findings, Appendix L: 2-3
versus education-first programs, Appendix L: 35-37
Work opportunity tax credit, and targeted groups, 13:49-50
Workers' compensation, 15:137-148
benefit adequacy, 15:146
benefits, 15:139-141, 15:147-148 table 43
payments by insurance arrangement, 15:139 table 41
for permanent total disability, 15:141-142 table 42
black lung program, 13:51-52, 15:145
child support and, 8:43
coal miners, 13:51-52, 15:145
energy employees compensation, 15:146
Federal role, 15:142-146
financial dimensions, 15:138 table 40
major developments, 15:146, 15:148
overview, 15:137, 15:139
radiation exposure compensation, 15:145-146
railroad workers and seamen, 15:146
State average weekly wage (SAWW), 15:140
tax exclusions, 13:51-52
Workers with disabilities. See Disability Insurance (DI) Program;
Disabled persons
Workfare programs, for food stamp recipients, 15:8-9
Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 (P.L. 105-220), 7:15, 7:92,
15:12, 15:118-122
Working mothers and child care, 9:2-6, 9:4-6 tables 2-4.  See
also Child Care
WRP (Welfare Restructuring Project) (Vermont), Appendix L: 35,
69-70 table 8
WTW. See Welfare-to-Work (WTW) programs

Youth Job Training Programs, 15:119-120, 15:121 table 30, 15:122
table 31
INDEX - 1