[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 9 - Abbreviations and letter symbols ]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[[Page 147]]

 
                  9. ABBREVIATIONS AND LETTER SYMBOLS

  9.1. Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space 
and to avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words 
or phrases.
  9.2. The nature of the publication governs the extent to 
which abbreviations are used. In text of technical and legal 
publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, 
sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words 
are frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, 
and indexes follow the style of the text.
  9.3. Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols 
representing units of measure are to be omitted to conform with 
practice adopted by scientific, technical, and industrial 
groups. Where omission of terminal punctuation causes 
confusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch) mistaken for the 
preposition in, the symbol should be spelled out.
  9.4. Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and 
they should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not 
generally known should be followed in the text by the spelled-
out forms in parentheses the first time they occur; in tables 
and leaderwork such explanatory matter should be supplied in a 
footnote. As the printer cannot rewrite the copy, the author 
should supply these explanatory forms.
  9.5. In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should 
be used only with figures; similarly, many other abbreviations 
and symbols should not appear in isolation. For example, energy 
is measured in foot-pounds, not energy is measured in 
ftlbs.

Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing

  9.6. In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization 
and hyphenation of the word or words abbreviated. It is 
followed by a period unless otherwise indicated.
c.o.d.
St.
but ftlb
  9.7. Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with 
points are set without spaces. Abbreviations composed of 
contractions and initials or numbers, will retain space.
H.S.T.
J.F.K.
L.B.J.
U.S.
U.N.
U.S.C. (but Rev. Stat.)
B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc.
H.R. 116 (but S. 116, S. Con.
  Res. 116)
C.A.D.C. (but App. D.C.)
A.B. Secrest, D.D.S.

[[Page 148]]


A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL-CIO preferred)
A.D., B.C.
e.s.t.
i.e., e.g. (but op. cit.)
but
AT&T
Texas A&M
R&D
  
  9.8. Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are 
omitted after initials used as shortened names of governmental 
agencies and of other organized bodies. ``Other organized 
bodies'' shall be interpreted to mean organized bodies that 
have become popularly identified with a symbol, such as MIT 
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology), GM (General Motors), 
GMAC (General Motors Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See ``List of 
Abbreviations.'') Symbols, when they appear in copy, may be 
used for acts of Congress. Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment 
Act).
VFW
NLRB
TVA
AFL-CIO
ARC
ASTM

Geographic terms

  9.9. United States must be spelled out when appearing in a 
sentence containing the name of another country. The 
abbreviation U.S. will be used when preceding the word 
Government or the name of a Government organization, except in 
formal writing (treaties, Executive orders, proclamations, 
etc.); congressional bills; legal citations and courtwork; and 
covers and title pages.
      U.S. Government
      U.S. Congress
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      U.S. district court
      U.S. Supreme Court (but Supreme Court of the United 
        States)
      U.S. Army (but Army of the United States)
      U.S. monitor Nantucket
      U.S.-NATO assistance
      U.S. Government efforts to control inflation must be 
        successful if the   United States is to have a stable 
        economy.
  but British, French, and United States Governments; United 
        States-British  talks
  9.10. With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the 
abbreviation U.S. is used in the adjective position, but is 
spelled out when used as a noun.
U.S. foreign policy
U.S. farm-support program
U.S. attorney
U.S. citizen
United States Code (official title)
United States Steel Corp. (legal title)
Foreign policy of the United States
  
not Temperatures vary in the U.S.
  9.11. The names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, 
with the exception of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated 
due to its length.
  9.12. In other than formal usage as defined in rule 9.9, all 
States of the United States, the Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands are abbreviated immediately following any 
capitalized geographic term, including armory, arsenal, 
airbase, airport, barracks,

[[Page 149]]

depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery 
(also forest, historic site, memorial, seashore, monument, 
park), naval shipyard, proving ground, reservation (forest, 
Indian, or military), and reserve or station (military or 
naval).
Prince George's County, MD
Mount Rainier National Forest, WA
Stone Mountain, GA
National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD
Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use of hyphens 
  here)
Richmond, VA
Arlington National Cemetery, VA
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Baltimore-Washington International Airport, MD
Redstone Arsenal, AL
  
but
Leavenworth freight yards,
  Kansas
Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin
  9.13. The Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, 
and Freely Associated State abbreviations is to be used.

                               UNITED STATES (INCLUDING FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES)
AL             Alabama                  IN             Indiana                  ND             North Dakota
AK             Alaska                   IA             Iowa                     OH             Ohio
AZ             Arizona                  KS             Kansas                   OK             Oklahoma
AR             Arkansas                 KY             Kentucky                 OR             Oregon
AS             American Samoa           LA             Louisiana                PA             Pennsylvania
CA             California               ME             Maine                    PR             Puerto Rico
CO             Colorado                 MD             Maryland                 RI             Rhode Island
CT             Connecticut              MA             Massachusetts            SC             South Carolina
CZ             Canal Zone               MI             Michigan                 SD             South Dakota
DE             Delaware                 MN             Minnesota                TN             Tennessee
DC             District of              MS             Mississippi              TX             Texas
                 Columbia               MO             Missouri                 UT             Utah
FL             Florida                  MT             Montana                  VT             Vermont
FM             Federated States         NE             Nebraska                 VA             Virginia
                 of Micronesia          NV             Nevada                   VI             Virgin Islands
GA             Georgia                  NH             New Hampshire            WA             Washington
GU             Guam                     NJ             New Jersey               WV             West Virginia
HI             Hawaii                   NM             New Mexico               WI             Wisconsin
ID             Idaho                    NY             New York                 WY             Wyoming
IL             Illinois                 NC             North Carolina


                                                     CANADA
AB             Alberta                  NF             Newfoundland             PE             Prince Edward
BC             British Columbia         NT             Northwest                                 Island
LB             Labrador                                  Territories            PQ             Quebec
MB             Manitoba                 NS             Nova Scotia              SK             Saskatchewan
NB             New Brunswick            ON             Ontario                  YT             Yukon Territory

  9.14. The names of other insular possessions, trust 
territories, and Long Island, Staten Island, etc., are not 
abbreviated.
  9.15. The names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign 
political subdivisions are not abbreviated except as noted in 
rule 9.13.

Addresses

  9.16. Words such as Street, Avenue, Place, Road, Square, 
Boulevard, Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building, following a 
name or number, are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, 
tables, leaderwork, and lists.
  9.17. In addresses, a single period is used with the 
abbreviations NW., SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional 
divisions of cities) follow

[[Page 150]]

ing name or number. North, South, East, and West are spelled 
out at all times.
  9.18. The word Street or Avenue as part of a name is not 
abbreviated even in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, 
lists, and leaderwork.
14th Street Bridge
Ninth Avenue Bldg.
  9.19. The words County, Fort, Mount, Point, and Port are not 
abbreviated. Saint (St.) and Sainte (Ste.) should be 
abbreviated.

Descriptions of tracts of land

  9.20. If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions, half 
and quarter are used (not one-half nor one-quarter).
      south half of T. 47 N., R. 64 E.
  9.21. In the description of tracts of public land the 
following abbreviations are used (periods are omitted after 
abbreviated compass directions that immediately precede and 
close up on figures):
      SE\1/4\NW\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 12 S., R. 15 E., of the Boise 
        Meridian
      lot 6, NE\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 6 N., R. 1 W.
      N\1/2\ sec. 20, T. 7 N., R. 2 W., sixth principal 
        meridian
      Tps. 9, 10, 11, and 12 S., Rs. 12 and 13 W.
      T. 2 S., Rs. 8, 9, and 10 E., sec. 26
      T. 3 S., R. 1 E., sec. 34, W\1/2\E\1/2\, W\1/2\, and W\1/
        2\SE\1/4\SE\1/4\
      sec. 32 (with or without a township number)
  9.22. In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description 
symbol group at end of a line, use no hyphen and break after 
fraction.

Names and titles

  9.23. The following forms are not always abbreviations, and 
copy should be followed as to periods:

Al
Alex
Ben
Ed
Fred
Sam
Walt
Will

  9.24. In signatures, an effort should be made to retain the 
exact form used by the signer.
George Wythe
Geo. Taylor
  9.25. In company and other formal names, if it is not 
necessary to preserve the full legal title, such forms as Bro., 
Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd., and & are used. Association and 
Manufacturing are not abbreviated.
Radio Corp. of America
Aluminum Co. of America
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey
Ronald G. Brown & Bro.
Jones Bros. & Co.
American Telephone & Telegraph Co.
Norton Enterprises, Inc.
Maryland Steamship Co., Ltd.
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal
Fairmount Building & Loan Association
Electronics Manufacturing Co.
Texas College of Arts & Industries
National Barrel & Drum Association
Robert Wilson & Associates, Inc.
U.S. News & World Report
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers
  
but
Little Theater Company
Senate Banking, Housing and
  Urban Affairs Committee

[[Page 151]]


  9.26. Company and Corporation are not abbreviated in names of 
Federal Government units.
      Commodity Credit Corporation
      Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
      Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
  9.27. In parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and 
leaderwork, abbreviate the words railroad and railway (RR. and 
Ry.), except in such names as ``Washington Railway & Electric 
Co.'' and ``Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.'' SS for 
steamship, MS for motorship, etc., preceding name are used at 
all times.
  9.28. In the names of informal companionships the word and is 
spelled out.
Gilbert and Sullivan
Currier and Ives
  9.29. In other than formal usage, a civil, military, or naval 
title preceding a name is abbreviated if followed by first or 
given name or initial; but Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., M., MM., 
Messrs., Mlle., Mme., and Dr. are abbreviated with or without 
first or given name or initial.

               army, air force, and marine corps officers
GEN..........  General                  CPT            Captain
LTG..........  Lieutenant General       1LT            First Lieutenant
MG...........  Major General            2LT            Second Lieutenant
BG...........  Brigadier General        MWO            Master Warrant
                                                        Officer
COL..........  Colonel                                   (Army)
LTC..........  Lieutenant Colonel       CWO            Chief Warrant
                                                        Officer
MAJ..........  Major                    WO             Warrant Officer


                              navy officers
ADM..........  Admiral                  LCDR           Lieutenant
                                                        Commander
VADM.........  Vice Admiral             LT             Lieutenant
RADM.........  Rear Admiral             LTJG           Lieutenant Junior
                                                        Grade
COMO.........  Commodore                ENS            Ensign
CAPT.........  Captain                  WO             Warrant Officer
CDR..........  Commander


                         army enlisted personnel
SMA..........  Sergeant Major of the    1SG            First Sergeant
                Army
CSM..........  Command Sergeant Major   MSG            Master Sergeant
SGM..........  Sergeant Major           PSG            Platoon Sergeant
SFC..........  Sergeant First Class     PFC            Private First
                                                        Class
SSG..........  Staff Sergeant           PVT            Private
SGT..........  Sergeant                 SP4            Specialist Fourth
                                                        Class
CPL..........  Corporal


                     marine corps enlisted personnel
MGySgt.......   Master Gunnery          Sgt            Sergeant
                Sergeant
1stSgt.......  First Sergeant           Cpl            Corporal
MSgt.........  Master Sergeant          LCpl           Lance Corporal
GySgt........  Gunnery Sergeant         PFC            Private First
                                                        Class
SSgt.........  Staff Sergeant           PVT            Private


[[Page 152]]


                      air force enlisted personnel
CMSgt........  Chief Master Sergeant    Sgt            Sergeant
SMSgt........  Senior Master Sergeant   SrA            Senior Airman
MSgt.........  Master Sergeant          A1C            Airman First
                                                        Class
TSgt.........  Technical Sergeant       Amn            Airman
SSgt.........  Staff Sergeant

  9.30. Spell out Senator, Representative, and commandant.
  9.31. Unless preceded by the, abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, 
and Monsignor when followed by the first name, initials, or 
title.
      Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; the Honorable 
        Mr. Root
      the Honorables William H. Rehnquist, John Paul Stevens, 
        and Sandra Day O'Connor
      Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; Rev. 
        Dr. King; Reverend King (not Rev. King, nor the 
        Reverend King)
      Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. 
        Freeman; Very Rev. Henry Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry 
        Boyd
      Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor 
        John Bird
  9.32. The following and similar forms are used after a name:
      Esq., Jr., Sr.
      2d, 3d (or II, III) (not preceded by comma)
      Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc.
      Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., 
        C.P.A., etc.
  9.33. The abbreviation Esq. and other titles such as Mr., 
Mrs., and Dr., should not appear with any other title or with 
abbreviations indicating scholastic degrees.
      John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., nor 
        John L. Smith, Esq., A.M.; but James A. Jones, Jr., 
        Esq.
      Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., 
        Ph.D.
      George Gray, M.D., not Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. 
        George Gray, M.D.
      Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M.
  9.34. Sr. and Jr. should not be used without first or given 
name or initials, but may be used in combination with any 
title.
      A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, not Jones, Jr., 
        nor Jones, Junior
      President J.B. Nelson, Jr.
  9.35. When name is followed by abbreviations designating 
religious and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary 
degrees, their sequence is as follows: Orders, religious first; 
theological degrees; academic degrees earned in course; and 
honorary degrees in order of bestowal.
      Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit.
      T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D.
      Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M.
  9.36. Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated.
      John was graduated with a B.A. degree; but bachelor of 
        arts degree (lowercase when spelled out).
      She earned her Ph.D. by hard work.
  9.37. In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and 
leaderwork but not in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and 
other titles

[[Page 153]]

preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, and 3d following a 
name, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in 
caps and small caps. If the name is in caps, they are set in 
caps and small caps, if small caps are available--otherwise in 
caps and lowercase.

Parts of publications

  9.38. The following abbreviations are used for parts of 
publications mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, 
sidenotes, list of references, tables, and leaderwork, when 
followed by figures, letters, or Roman numerals.
app., apps. (appendix, appendixes)
art., arts. (article, articles)
bull., bulls. (bulletin, bulletins)
ch., chs. (chapter, chapters)
col., cols. (column, columns)
ed., eds. (edition, editions)
fig., figs. (figure, figures)
No., Nos. (number, numbers)
p., pp. (page, pages)
par., pars. (paragraph, paragraphs)
pl., pls. (plate, plates)
pt., pts. (part, parts)
sec., secs. (section, sections)
subch., subchs. (subchapter, subchapters)
subpar., subpars. (subparagraph, subparagraphs)
subpt., subpts. (subpart, subparts)
subsec., subsecs. (subsection, subsections)
supp., supps. (supplement, supplements)
vol., vols. (volume, volumes)
  9.39. The word article and the word section are abbreviated 
when appearing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps 
and small caps followed by a period and an en space, except 
that the first of a series is spelled out.
      Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article 1; Section 1
      Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; but Article I; Section I
  9.40. At the beginning of a legend, the word figure preceding 
the legend number is not abbreviated.

                         Figure 4.--Landscape.

Terms relating to Congress

  9.41. The words Congress and session, when accompanied by a 
numerical reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, 
and text footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, 
leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the 
following abbreviations are used:
106th Cong., 1st sess.
1st sess., 106th Cong.
Public Law 84, 102d Cong.
Private Law 68, 102d Cong.
  9.42. In references to bills, resolutions, documents and 
reports in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, 
and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used:
H.R. 416 (House bill)
S. 116 (Senate bill)
The examples above may be abbreviated or spelled out in text.
H. Res. 5 (House resolution)
H. Con. Res. 10 (House concurrent resolution)
H.J. Res. 21 (House joint resolution)
S. Res. 50 (Senate resolution)
S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate concurrent resolution)
S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint resolution)

[[Page 154]]


H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House conference report)
H. Doc. 35 (House document)
S. Doc. 62 (Senate document)
H. Rept. 214 (House report)
S. Rept. 410 (Senate report)
Ex. Doc. B (Executive document)
Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.)
Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st sess.)
Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous document)
Public Res. 47
  9.43. References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, 
sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and congressional work are 
abbreviated.
      Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 
        U.S.C. 38
      Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes)
      Stat. L. (Statutes at Large)
  but Public Law 85-1; Private Law 68

Calendar divisions

  9.44. Names of months followed by the day, or day and year, 
are abbreviated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, 
and in bibliographies. (See examples, rule 9.45.) May, June, 
and July are always spelled out. In narrow columns in tables, 
however, the names of months may be abbreviated even if 
standing alone. Preferred forms follow:
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
  9.45. In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference 
within parentheses or brackets are also abbreviated.
      (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 1985)
      (Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 1981)
      [From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 1978]
      [From the Mar. 4 issue]
      On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 1977) the work 
        was finished. (In footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and 
        sidenotes)
      On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., 
        Dec. 4, 1975). (Text, but with citation in parentheses)
  but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 1967) the 
        work was finished. (Not a citation or reference in 
        text)
  9.46. Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms 
are used, if necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in 
tables:
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
  
Fri.
Sat.
  

Time zones

  9.47. The following forms are to be used when abbreviating 
names of time zones:
A.s.t., Atlantic standard time
A.t., Atlantic time
c.s.t., central standard time
c.t., central time
d.s.t., daylight saving (no ``s'') time
e.d.s.t., eastern daylight saving time
e.d.t., eastern daylight time
e.s.t., eastern standard time
e.t., eastern time
G.c.t., Greenwich civil time
G.m.a.t., Greenwich mean astronomical time
G.m.t., Greenwich mean time
l.s.t., local standard time
m.s.t., mountain standard time
m.t., mountain time
P.s.t., Pacific standard time
P.t., Pacific time
UTC, universal time coordinated

[[Page 155]]



Acronyms, coined words, and symbols

  9.48. To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of 
acronyms, coined words, and symbols, apply the formulas that 
follow:
      Use all capital letters when only the first letter of 
        each word or selected words is used to make up the 
        symbol:
          APPR (Army package power reactor)
          EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow)
          MAG (Military Advisory Group)
          MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry 
            vehicle)
          SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); (avoid SALT 
            talks)
          STEP (supplemental training and employment program)

      Use all capital letters where first letters of prefixes 
        and/or suffixes are utilized as part of established 
        expressions:
          CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
          ESP (extrasensory perception)
          FLIR (forward-looking infrared)

      Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated 
        form is copyrighted or established by law:
          ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym)
          MarAd (Maritime Administration)
          NACo (National Association of Counties)
          MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval 
            System)

      Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in 
        shortened form, any word of which uses more than the 
        first letter of each word:
          Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation)
          Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.)
          Inco (International Nickel Co.)
          Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.)
          Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force)

      Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more 
        than the first letter of lowercased words:
          loran (long-range navigation)
          sonar (sound navigation ranging)
          secant (separation control of aircraft by 
            nonsynchronous techniques)
  9.49. The words infra and supra are not abbreviated.

Terms of measure

  9.50. Compass directions are abbreviated as follows:
N.
NE.
E.
SW.
S.
NNW.
W.
  
ESE.
10 deg. N. 25 deg. W.
NW. by N. \1/4\ W.
  9.51. The words latitude and longitude, followed by figures, 
are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, 
tables, and leaderwork, and the figures are always closed up.
lat. 52 deg.33'05" N.
long. 13 deg.21'10" E.
  9.52. Avoid breaking latitude and longitude figures at end of 
line; space out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break 
at end of line, use hyphen.
  9.53. Temperature and gravity are expressed in figures. When 
the degree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the 
capital

[[Page 156]]

letter, not against the figures. Note the following related 
abbreviations and letter symbols and their usages:

abs, absolute
Be, Baume
 deg.C,\1\ degree Celsius\2\
 deg.F, degree Fahrenheit
 deg.R, degree Rankine
K, kelvin
273.15 K
 deg.API
API, American Petroleum Institute
Twad, Twaddell
100  deg.C
212  deg.F\1\
671.67  deg.R
18  deg.API

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ Without figures preceding it,  deg.C or  deg.F should be used 
only in boxheads and over figure columns in tables.
  \2\ Preferred form (superseding Centigrade) approved by Ninth General 
Conference on Weights and Measures, October 1948.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.54. References to meridian in statements of time are 
abbreviated as follows:

10 a.m. (not 10:00 a.m.)
2:30 p.m.
12 a.m. (formerly 12 m.) (noon)
12 p.m. (midnight)

  9.55. The word o'clock is not used with abbreviations of 
time.

      not 10 o'clock p.m.

  9.56. Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman 
unless the unit name has been derived from a proper name, in 
which case the first letter of the symbol is capitalized (for 
example Pa for pascal and W for watt). The exception is the 
letter L for liter. The same form is used for singular and 
plural. The preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is cm\3\; use 
cc only when requested.

  A space is used between a figure and a unit symbol except in 
the case of the symbols for degree, minute, and second of plane 
angle.

       3 m      45 mm      25  deg.C      but  33 deg.15'21"



  Prefixes for multiples and submultiples
                                                    Metric units



E                   exa (1018)                 d                   deci (10-1)                       m                  meter (for length)

P                   peta (1015)                c                   centi (10-2)                      g                  gram (for weight or

T                   tera (1012)                m                   milli (10-3)                                           mass)

G                   giga (109)                            micro (10-6)                      L                  liter (for capacity)

M                   mega (106)                 n                   nano (10-9)

k                   kilo (103)                 p                   pico (10-12)

h                   hecto (102)                f                   femto (10-15)
 
da                  deka (10)                  a                   atto (10-18)


 
                                     Length                                                                     Area                                                                            Volume
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
km               kilometer                                              km\2\           square kilometer                                                km\3\           cubic kilometer
hm               hectometer                                             hm\2\           square hectometer                                               hm\3\           cubic hectometer
dam              dekameter                                              dam\2\          square dekameter                                                dam\3\          cubic dekameter
m                meter                                                  m\2\            square meter                                                    m\3\            cubic meter
dm               decimeter                                              dm\2\           square decimeter                                                dm\3\           cubic decimeter
cm               centimeter                                             cm\2\           square centimeter                                               cm\3\           cubic centimeter
mm               millimeter                                             mm\2\           square millimeter                                               mm\3\           cubic millimeter


[[Page 157]]


 
                                                                                                              Land area                                               Capacity of containers
                                   Weight
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
kg         kilogram                                                          ha         hectare                                                         kL         kiloliter
hg         hectogram                                                         a          acre                                                            hL         hectoliter
dag        dekagram                                                                                                                                     daL        dekaliter
g          gram                                                                                                                                         L          liter
dg         decigram                                                          .........  ..............................................................  dL         deciliter
cg         centigram                                                         .........  ..............................................................  cL         centiliter
mg         milligram                                                         .........  ..............................................................  mL         milliliter
  microgram                                                         .........  ..............................................................
g

  9.57. A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of 
the metric system.

A              ampere
VA             voltampere
F              fared
H              Henry
Hz             Hertz
J              joule
V              volt
W              watt
kc             kilocycle
kV             kilovolt
kVA            kilovoltampere
kW             kilowatt
mF             millifarad
mH             millihenry
F     microfarad (one-millionth of a farad)

  9.58. The following forms are used when units of English 
weight and measure and units of time are abbreviated, the same 
form of abbreviation being used for both singular and plural:

 
                                          Length                                    Area and volume
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              in            inch                                      in\2\        square inch
              ft            foot                                      in\3\        cubic inch
              yd            yard                                      mi\2\        square mile
              mi            mile (statute)                            ft\3\        cubic foot


 
                                    Time                                                                              Weight                                                                                                   Capacity
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
yr                 year                                         gr                 grain                                                                                      gill               (not abbreviated)
mo                 month                                        dr                 dram                                                                                       pt                 pint
d                  day                                          oz                 ounce                                                                                      qt                 quart
h                  hour                                         lb                 pound                                                                                      gal                gallon
min                minute                                       cwt                hundredweight                                                                              pk                 peck
s                  second                                       dwt                pennyweight                                                                                bu                 bushel
                                                                ton(s)             (not abbreviated)                                                                          bbl                barrel
                                                                but t               metric ton (tonne)

  9.59. In astrophysical and similar scientific matter, 
magnitudes and units of time may be expressed as follows, if so 
written in copy.

5h3m9s       4.5h

Money

  9.60. The following are some of the abbreviations and symbols 
used for indicating money:
$, dol (dollar)
c, ct,  cents (cent, cents)
LT175 (Turkish)
US$15,000
Mex$2,650
P (peso)
 (pound)
d (pence)

  Use ``US$'' if omission would result in confusion.

  (For the abbreviations of other terms indicating currency, 
see the table ``Foreign Money'' in ``Useful Tables.'')

[[Page 158]]

                         LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Standard word abbreviations

  9.61. If abbreviations are required, use these forms:

AA, Alcoholics Anonymous
AARP, American Association of Retired Persons also AppleTalk Address 
  Resolution Protocol
abbr., abbreviation
ABM, Asynchronous Balanced Mode
abs., abstract
acct., account
ACDA, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone
A.D. (anno Domini), in the year of our Lord (A.D. 937)
ADDH, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
ADHD, attention deficit hyper-
  activity disorder
ADN, advanced digital network
ADP, automated data processing
ADSL, asymmetric digital subscriber line
AEF, American Expeditionary Forces
AF, audiofrequency
AFB, and similar military symbols (with name), Air Force Base
AFL-CIO, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial 
  Organizations
AID, Agency for International Development
AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a.k.a., also known as
A.L.R., American Law Reports
AM (no periods), amplitude modulation
A.M. (anno mundi), in the year of the world
A.M. or M.A., master of arts
a.m. (ante meridiem), before noon
Am. Repts., American Reports
Amtrak, National Railroad Passenger Corporation
AMVETS, American Veterans of World War II; Amvet(s) (individual)
ANSI, American National Standards Institute
antilog (no period), antilogarithm
A1 (rating)
AOA, Administration on Aging
API, American Petroleum Institute
APO (no periods), Army post office
App. D.C., District of Columbia Appeal Cases
App. Div., Appellate Division
APPR, Army package power reactor
approx., approximately
ARC, American Red Cross
ARP, Address Resolution Protocol
ARS, Agricultural Research Service
ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCS, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
ASME, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
A.S.N., Army service number
ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials
ATM, automatic teller machine
Atl., Atlantic Reporter; A.2d, Atlantic Reporter, second series
AUS, Army of the United States
Ave., avenue
AWACS, airborne warning and control system
AWOL, absent without leave
B.A. or A.B., bachelor of arts
BBB, Better Business Bureau
BBS, bulletin board service
B.C., before Christ (1200 B.C.)
BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guerin), antituberculosis vaccine
bf., boldface
BGN, Board on (not of) Geographic Names
BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIOS, Basic Input/Output System
BIS, Bank for International Settlements
BIT, BInary digiT
Blatch. Pr. Cas., Blatchford's Prize Cases
Bldg., building
B.Lit(t). or Lit(t).B., bachelor of literature
BLM, Bureau of Land Management
BLS, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Blvd., boulevard
b.o., buyer's option
BPS, bits per second
B.S. or B.Sc., bachelor of science
ca. (circa), about
ca, centiare
CACM, Central American Common Market
CAD, computer-aided design
c. and s.c., caps and small caps
CAP, Civil Air Patrol
CARE, Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere, Inc.
CAT scan, computerized axial tomography

[[Page 159]]


C.C.A., Circuit Court of Appeals
CCC, Commodity Credit Corporation
CCITT, Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and 
  Telephony
C.Cls., Court of Claims
C.Cls.R., Court of Claims Reports
C.C.P.A., Court of Customs and Patents Appeals
CCR, Commission on Civil Rights
CDC, Centers for Disease Control
CD-I, Compact Disk Interactive
CD-ROM, Compact Disk--Read Only Memory
CD-R, Compact Disk--Recordable
CEA, Council of Economic Advisers
cf. (confer), compare, or see
CFR, Code of Federal Regulations
CFR Supp., Code of Federal Regulations Supplement
CGI, Common Gateway Interface
CHAMPUS, Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
CIC, Counterintelligence Corps
C.J. (corpus juris), body of law; Chief Justice
CNN, Cable News Network
CO, commanding officer
Co., company (commercial)
c.o.d., cash on delivery
COLA, cost-of-living adjustment
Comp. Dec., Comptroller's Decisions (Treasury)
Comp. Gen., Comptroller General Decisions
con., continued
conelrad, control of electromagnetic radiation (civil defense)
Conrail, Consolidated Rail Corporation
Conus, continental United States
Corp., corporation (commercial)
cos (no period), cosine
cosh (no period), hyperbolic cosine
cot (no period), cotangent
coth (no period), hyperbolic cotangent
c.p., chemically pure
C.P.A., certified public accountant
CPI, Consumer Price Index
CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPU, central processing unit (computer)
cr., credit; creditor
C-SPAN, Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network
csc (no period), cosecant
csch (no period), hyperbolic cosecant
CTI, computer-telephony integration
Ct., court
Dall., Dallas (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
DAR, Daughters of the American Revolution
d.b.a., doing business as
d.b.h., diameter at breast height
DBMS, database management system
D.D., doctor of divinity
D.D.S., doctor of dental surgery
DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DEW, distant early warning (DEW line)
Dist. Ct., District Court
D.Lit(t). or Lit(t).D., doctor of literature
DMI, Desktop Management Interface
DNC, Domestic Names Committee (BGN)
DNS, Domain Name Service
do. (ditto), the same
DOC, Department of Commerce
DOD, Department of Defense
DOE, Department of Energy
DOJ, Department of Justice
DOL, Department of Labor
DOS, Department of State; disk operating system
DOT, Department of Transportation
DP (no periods), displaced person
D.P.H., doctor of public health
dpi, dots per inch
D.P.Hy., doctor of public hygiene
DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus innoculation
dr., debit; debtor
Dr., doctor; drive
DSSL, Document Style and Semantics Language
d.s.t., daylight saving (no ``s'') time
DTP, desktop publishing
DVD, digital video disk
D.V.M., doctor of veterinary medicine
E., east
EBCDIC, Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
e-mail, electronic mail
EEOC, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EFTA, European Free Trade Association
EFTS, electronic funds transfer system
e.g. (exempli gratia), for example
EHF, extremely high frequency
8+, octavo
emcee, master of ceremony
e.o.m., end of month
EOP, Executive Office of the President
EPA, Environmental Protection Agency

[[Page 160]]


EPS, Encapsulated PostScript file
ERP, European Recovery Program
et al. (et alii), and others
et seq. (et sequentia), and the following
etc. (et cetera), and so forth
EU, European Union
Euratom, European Atomic Energy Community
Euro, currency (common)
Eurodollars, U.S. dollars used to finance foreign trade
Ex. Doc. (with letter), executive document
Ex-Im Bank, Export-Import Bank of the United States
f., ff., and following page (pages)
FAA, Federal Aviation Administration
FACS, Faculty of the American College of Surgeons
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization
f.a.s., free alongside ship
FAS, Foreign Agricultural Service
FBB, Federal Bulletin Board
FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation
FCA, Farm Credit Administration
FCC, Federal Communications Commission
FCIC, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
FCSC, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission
FDA, Food and Drug Administration
FDDI, Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDIC, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FDLP, Federal Depository Library Program
Fed., Federal Reporter; F.3d, Federal Reporter, third series
FEOF, Foreign Exchange Operations Fund
FHA, Federal Housing Administration
FmHA, Farmers Home Administration
FHLBB, Federal Home Loan Bank Board
FHWA, Federal Highway Administration
FICA, Federal Insurance Contributions Act
FIPS, Federal Information Processing Standards
FLSA, Fair Labor Standards Act
FM, frequency modulation
FMC, Federal Maritime Commission
FMCS, Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
FNMA, Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
FNS, Food and Nutrition Service
FOSI, Format Output Specification Instance
f+, folio
f.o.b., free on board
4+, quarto
FPC, Federal Power Commission
FPO (no periods), fleet post office
FR, Federal Register (publication)
FRG, Federal Republic of Germany
FRS, Federal Reserve System
FS, Forest Service
FSLIC, Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
FSS, Federal Supply Service
F.Supp., Federal Supplement
FTC, Federal Trade Commission
FTP, File Transfer Protocol
FWS, Fish and Wildlife Service
GAO, General Accounting Office
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GB, gigabyte
GDI, Graphical Device Interface
GDR, German Democratic Republic
GGP, Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
GI, general issue; Government issue
GIF, Graphical Interchange Format
GILS, Government Information Locator Service
GIS, Geographic Information System
G.M.&S., general, medical, and surgical
GNMA, Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)
GNP, gross national product
Gov., Governor
GPO, Government Printing Office
gr. wt., gross weight
GSA, General Services Administration
GSE, Government-Sponsored Enterprise
GUI, Graphical User Interface
H.C., House of Commons
H. Con. Res. (with number), House concurrent resolution
H. Doc. (with number), House document
hazmat, hazardous material
HE (no periods), high explosive
HF (no periods), high frequency
HHS, Health and Human Services (Department of)
HIV, human immunodeficiency virus

[[Page 161]]


H.J. Res. (with number), House joint resolution
HMO, health-maintenance organization
HOV, high-occupancy vehicle
How., Howard (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
H.R. (with number), House bill
H. Rept. (with number), House report
H. Res. (with number), House resolution
HTML, HyperText Markup Language
HTTP, HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTPD, HyperText Transfer Protocol Daemon
HUD, Housing and Urban Development
HYTELNET, HyperText-browser for Telnet Accessible Sites
IADB, Inter-American Defense Board
IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency
ibid. (ibidem), in the same place
ICBM, intercontinental ballistic missile
ICC, Interstate Commerce Commission
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol
id. (idem), the same
IDA, International Development Association
IDE, integrated drive electronics
i.e. (id est), that is
IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IF (no periods), intermediate frequency
IFC, International Finance Corporation
IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization
IMF, International Monetary Fund
INS, Immigration and Naturalization Service
Insp. Gen. (also IG), inspector general
Interpol, International Criminal Police Organization
IOU, I owe you
IP, Internet Protocol
IQ, intelligence quotient
IRA, individual retirement account
IRBM, intermediate range ballistic missile
IRE, Institute of Radio Engineers
IRO, International Refugee Organization
IRS, Internal Revenue Service
ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO, International Standards Organization
ISP, Internet service provider
ITO, International Trade Organization
ITU, International Telecommunications Union
JAG, Judge Advocate General
jato, jet-assisted takeoff
J.D. (jurum or juris doctor), doctor of laws
JOBS, Job Opportunities in the Business Sector
JIT, just in time
JPEG, Joint Photographic Experts Group
Jpn., Japan or Japanese where necessary to abbreviate
Jr., junior
Judge Adv. Gen., Judge Advocate General
LAFTA, Latin American Free Trade Association
LAN, local area network
LAPM, Link Access Procedure for Modems
lat., latitude
LC, Library of Congress
LCD, liquid crystal display
lc., lowercase
L.Ed., Lawyer's edition (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
liq., liquid
lf., lightface
LF, low frequency
LL.B., bachelor of laws
LL.D., doctor of laws
loc. cit. (loco citato), in the place cited
log (no period), logarithm
long., longitude
loran (no periods), long-range navigation
lox (no periods), liquid oxygen
LPG, liquefied petroleum gas
Ltd., limited
Lt. Gov., lieutenant governor
M, money supply: M1, M2, etc.
M., monsieur; MM., messieurs
m. (meridies), noon
M, more
MA (see MarAd)
MAC, Military Airlift Command
MAG, Military Advisory Group
MarAd, Maritime Administration
MB, megabyte
MC, Member of Congress (emcee, master of ceremonies)
M.D., doctor of medicine
MDAP, Mutual Defense Assistance Program
MediCal, Medicaid California
memo, memorandum
MF, medium frequency; microfiche
MFN, most favored nation
MIA, missing in action (plural, MIA's)

[[Page 162]]


MIME, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIPS, millions of instructions per second
MIRV, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle
Misc. Doc. (with number), miscellaneous document
Mlle., mademoiselle
Mme., madam
Mmes., mesdames
mo., month
MOS, military occupational specialty
MPEG, Motion Pictures Experts Group
M.P., Member of Parliament
MP, military police
Mr., mister (plural, Messrs.)
MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
Mrs., mistress
Ms., coined feminine title (plural, Mses.)
M.S., master of science
MS., MSS., manuscript, manuscripts
MSC, Military Sealift Command
Msgr., monsignor
m.s.l., mean sea level
MSNBC, Microsoft, National Broadcasting Co.
MTN, multilateral trade negotiations
N., north
NA, not available; not applicable
NACo., National Association of Counties
NAFTA, North American Free Trade Agreement
NAS, National Academy of Science
NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NAT, network address translation module
NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCUA, National Credit Union Administration
NE., northeast
n.e.c., not elsewhere classified
n.e.s., not elsewhere specified
net wt., net weight
N.F., National Formulary
NFAH, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities
NIH, National Institutes of Health
N-ISDN, Narrowband ISDN
NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology
n.l., natural log or logarithm
NLRB, National Labor Relations Board
NNTP, Network News Transfer Protocol
No., Nos., number, numbers
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
n.o.i.b.n., not otherwise indexed by name
n.o.p., not otherwise provided (for)
n.o.s., not otherwise specified
NOVS, National Office of Vital Statistics
NPS, National Park Service
NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NS, nuclear ship
NSA, National Shipping Authority
NSC, National Security Council
NSF, National Science Foundation
n.s.k., not specified by kind
n.s.p.f., not specifically provided for
NW., northwest
OAPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS, Organization of American States
OASDHI, Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance Program
OASI, Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
OCD, Office of Civil Defense
OCR, optical character recognition
OD, officer of the day
OD, overdose; ODd, overdosed
O.D., doctor of optometry
OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OK, OKed, OKing, OKs
OMB, Office of Management and Budget
Op. Atty. Gen., Opinions of the Attorney General
op. cit. (opere citato), in the work cited
OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSD, Office of the Secretary of Defense
OTC, Organization for Trade Cooperation
PA, public address system
Pac., Pacific Reporter; P.2d, Pacific Reporter, second series
PAC, political action committee (plural, PAC's)
Passed Asst. Surg., passed assistant surgeon
PBS, Public Building Service
PC, personal computer
PCV, Peace Corps Volunteer
PDF, Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format
PDL, Page Description Language
Pet., Peters (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
Ph, phenyl
Phar.D., doctor of pharmacy
Ph.B. or B.Ph., bachelor of philosophy
Ph.D., or D.Ph., doctor of philosophy

[[Page 163]]


Ph.G., graduate in pharmacy
PHS, Public Health Service
PIN, personal identification number
PING, Packet Internet Groper
Pl., place
p.m. (post meridiem), after noon
P.O. Box (with number); but post office box (in general sense)
POP, Point of Presence; Post Office Protocol
POW, prisoner of war (plural, POWs)
PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PTSD, post-traumatic-stress syndrome
PERL, practical extraction and report language
Private Res. (with number), private resolution
Prof., professor
pro tem (pro tempore), temporarily
P.S. (post scriptum), postscript; public school (with number)
PTA, parent-teachers' association
Public Res. (with number), public resolution
PX, post exchange
QT, on the quiet
racon, radar beacon
radar, radio detection and ranging
RAID, redundant array of inexpensive disks
RAM, Random-Access Memory
R&D, research and development
rato, rocket-assisted takeoff
Rd., road
RDT&E, research, development, testing, and evaluation
REA, Rural Electrification Administration
Rev., reverend
Rev. Stat., Revised Statutes
RF, radiofrequency
R.F.D., rural free delivery
Rh, Rhesus (blood factor)
RIF, reduction(s) in force; RIFed, RIFing, RIFs
R.N., registered nurse
ROTC, Reserve Officers' Training Corps
RPC, remote procedure call
RR., railroad
RRB, Railroad Retirement Board
Rt. Rev., right reverend
RTF, Rich Text Format
Ry., railway
S., south; Senate bill (with number)
SAC, Strategic Air Command
SAE, Society of Automotive Engineers
S&L(s), savings and loan(s)
SALT, strategic arms limitation talks
SAR, Sons of the American Revolution
SBA, Small Business Administration
sc. (scilicet), namely (see also ss)
s.c., small caps
S. Con. Res. (with number), Senate concurrent resolution
s.d. (sine die), without date
SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative
S. Doc. (with number), Senate document
SE., southeast
SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEC, Securities and Exchange Commission
sec, secant
sech, hyperbolic secant
2d, 3d, second, third
SGML, Standard Generalized Markup Language
SHF, superhigh frequency
shoran, short range (radio)
SI, Systeme International
  d'Unites
sic, thus
sin, sine
sinh, hyperbolic sine
S.J. Res. (with number), Senate joint resolution
SLIP, Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol
sonar (no period), sound, navigation, and ranging
SOP, standard operating procedure
SOS, wireless distress signal
SP, shore patrol
SPAR, Coast Guard Women's Reserve (semper paratus--always ready)
sp. gr., specific gravity
Sq., square (street)
Sr., senior
S. Rept. (with number), Senate report
S. Res. (with number), Senate resolution
SS, steamship
ss (scilicet), namely (in law) (see also sc.)
SSA, Social Security Administration
SSL, Secure Sockets Layer
SSS, Selective Service System
St., Ste., SS., Saint, Sainte, Saints
St., street
Stat., Statutes at Large
STP, standard temperature and pressure
Sup. Ct., Supreme Court Reporter

[[Page 164]]


Supp. Rev. Stat., Supplement to the Revised Statutes
Supt., superintendent
Surg., surgeon
Surg. Gen., Surgeon General
SW., southwest
S.W.2d, Southwestern Reporter, second series
SWAIS, Simple Wide Area Information System
SWAT, special weapons and tactics (team)
T., Tps., township, townships
tan, tangent
tann, hyperbolic tangent
TB, tuberculosis
TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
T.D., Treasury Decisions
TDMA, Time Division Multiplexing Access
TDY, temporary duty
Ter., terrace
TIFF, Tagged Image File Format
t.m., true mean
TNT, trinitrotoluol
TV, television
TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority
2,4-D (insecticide)
uc., uppercase
UDP, User Datagram Protocol
UHF, ultrahigh frequency
UMTA, Urban Mass Transportation Administration
U.N., United Nations
Unesco, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
  Organization (copyrighted form)
UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund
URL, Uniform Resource Locator
URN, Uniform Resource Name/Number
U.S., U.S. Supreme Court Reports
U.S.A., United States of America
USA, U.S. Army
USAF, U.S. Air Force
USB, universal serial bus
U.S.C., United States Code
U.S.C.A., United States Code Annotated
U.S.C. Supp., United States Code Supplement
USCG, U.S. Coast Guard
USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture
USES, U.S. Employment Service
U.S. 40, U.S. No. 40, U.S. Highway No. 40
USGS, U.S. Geological Survey
USIA, U.S. Information Agency
USMC, U.S. Marine Corps
USN, U.S. Navy
USNR, U.S. Naval Reserve
U.S.P., United States Pharmacopeia
USPS, U.S. Postal Service
U.S.S., U.S. Senate; U.S. ship
U.S.S.R., Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
v. or vs. (versus), against
VA, Department of Veterans Affairs
VAT, value added tax
VCR, video cassette recorder
VHF, very high frequency
VIP, very important person
viz (videlicet), namely
VLAN, virtual LAN
VLF, very low frequency
VRML, Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VTR, video tape recording
W., west
WAC, Women's Army Corps; a Wac
w.a.e., when actually employed
WAF, Women in the Air Force; a Waf
WAIS, Wide Area Information Server
Wall., Wallace (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
WAN, wide area network
WAVES, women accepted for volunteer emergency service; a Wave
wf, wrong font
Wheat., Wheaton (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
WHO, World Health Organization
WIPO, World Intellectual Property Organization
WMAL, WRC, etc., radio stations
w.o.p., without pay
WORM, write once, read many
WWW, World Wide Web
WYSIWYG, What you see is what you get.
Yale L.J., Yale Law Journal
ZIP Code, Zone Improvement Plan Code (Postal Service)
ZIP+4, 9-digit ZIP Code

Italic

GPO Access
CBDNet

[[Page 165]]



Standard letter symbols for units of measure

  9.62. The same form is used for singular and plural senses.

A, ampere
a, angstrom
a, are
a, atto (prefix, one-quintillionth)
aA, attoampere
abs, absolute (temperature and gravity)
ac, alternating current
AF, audiofrequency
Ah, ampere-hour
A/m, ampere per meter
AM, amplitude modulation
asb, apostilb
At, ampere-turn
at, atmosphere, technical
atm, atmosphere
at wt, atomic weight
au, astronomical units
avdp, avoirdupois
b, barn
B, bel
b, bit
bbl, barrel
bbl/d, barrel per day
Bd, baud
bd. ft., board foot (obsolete); use fbm
Be, Baume
Bev (obsolete); see GeV
Bhn, Brinell hardness number
bhp, brake horsepower
bm, board measure
bp, boiling point
Btu, British thermal unit
bu, bushel
c,  cents, ct; cent(s)
c, centi (prefix, one-hundredth)
C, coulomb
 deg.C, degree Celsius
cal, calorie (also: calIT, International Table; 
  calth, thermochemical)
cd/in2, candela per square inch
cd/m2, candela per square meter
cg, centigram
cdh, candela-hour
Ci, curie
cL, centiliter
cm, centimeter
c/m, cycles per minute
cm2, square centimeter
cm3, cubic centimeter
cmil, circular mil
cp, candlepower
cP, centipoise
cSt, centistokes
cwt, hundredweight
D, darcy
d, day
d, deci (prefix, one-tenth)
d, pence
da, deka (prefix, 10)
dag, dekagram
daL, dekaliter
dam, dekameter
dam2, square dekameter
dam3, cubic dekameter
dB, decibel
dBu, decibel unit
dc, direct current
dg, decigram
dL, deciliter
dm, decimeter
dm\2\, square decimeter
dm\3\, cubic decimeter
dol, dollar
doz, dozen
dr, dram
dwt, deadweight tons
dwt, pennyweight
dyn, dyne
EHF, extremely high frequency
emf, electromotive force
emu, electromagnetic unit
erg, erg
esu, electrostatic unit
eV, electronvolt
 deg.F, degree Fahrenheit
F, farad
f, femto (prefix, one-quadrillionth)
fbm, board foot; board foot measure
fc, footcandle
fL, footlambert
fm, fentometer
FM, frequency modulation
ft, foot
ft\2\, square foot
ft\3\, cubic foot
ftH2O, conventional foot of water
ftlb, foot-pound
ftlbf, foot-pound force
ft/min, foot per minute
ft2/min, square foot per minute
ft3/min, cubic foot per minute
ft-pdl, foot poundal
ft/s, foot per second
ft2/s, square foot per second
ft3/s, cubic foot per second
ft/s2, foot per second squared
ft/s3, foot per second cubed
G, gauss
G, giga (prefix, 1 billion)
g, gram; acceleration of gravity
Gal, gal cm/s2
gal, gallon
gal/min, gallons per minute
gal/s, gallons per second
GB, gigabyte
Gb, gilbert
g/cm3, gram per cubic centimeter
GeV, gigaelectronvolt
GHz, gigahertz (gigacycle per second)
gr, grain; gross
h, hecto (prefix, 100)

[[Page 166]]


H, henry
h, hour
ha, hectare
HF, high frequency
hg, hectogram
hL, hectoliter
hm, hectometer
hm2, square hectometer
hm3, cubic hectometer
hp, horsepower
hph, horsepower-hour
Hz, hertz (cycles per second)
id, inside diameter
ihp, indicated horsepower
in, inch
in2, square inch
in3, cubic inch
in/h, inch per hour
inH2O, conventional inch of water
inHg, conventional inch of mercury
in-lb, inch-pound
in/s, inch per second
J, joule
J/K, joule per kelvin
K, kayser
K, kelvin (use without degree symbol)
k, kilo (prefix, 1,000)
k, thousand (7k=7,000)
kc, kilocycle; see also kHz (kilohertz), kilocycles per second
kcal, kilocalory
keV, kiloelectronvolt
kG, kilogauss
kg, kilogram
kgf, kilogram-force
kHz, kilohertz (kilocycles per second)
kL, kiloliter
klbf, kilopound-force
km, kilometer
km2, square kilometer
km3, cubic kilometer
km/h, kilometer per hour
kn, knot (speed)
k, kilohm
kt, kiloton; carat
kV, kilovolt
kVA, kilovoltampere
kvar, kilovar
kW, kilowatt
kWh, kilowatthour
L, lambert
L, liter
lb, pound
lb ap, apothecary pound
lb, avdp, avoirdupois pound
lbf, pound-force
lbf/ft, pound-force foot
lbf/ft2, pound-force per square foot
lbf/ft3, pound-force per cubic foot
lbf/in2, pound-force per square inch (see psi)
lb/ft, pound per foot
lb/ft2, pound per square foot
lb/ft3, pound per cubic foot
lct, long calcined ton
ldt, long dry ton
LF, low frequency
lin ft, linear foot
l/m, lines per minute
lm, lumen
lm/ft2, lumen per square foot
lm/m2, lumen per square meter
lms, lumen second
lm/W, lumen per watt
l/s, lines per second
L/s, liter per second
lx, lux
M, mega (prefix, 1 million)
M, million (3 M=3 million)
m, meter
m, milli (prefix, one-thousandth)
M1, monetary aggregate
m\3\, cubic meter
m\2\, square meter
, micro (prefix, one-millionth)
m, micrometer
mA, milliampere
A, microampere
MB, megabyte
mbar, millibar
bar, microbar
Mc, megacycle; see also MHz (megahertz), megacycles per second
mc, millicycle; see also mHz (millihertz), millicycles per second
mD, millidarcy
meq, milliquivalent
MeV, megaelectronvolts
mF, millifarad
F, microfarad
mG, milligauss
mg, milligram
g, microgram
Mgal/d, million gallons per day
mH, millihenry
H, microhenry
MHz, megahertz
mHz, millihertz
mi, mile (statute)
mi\2\, square mile
mi/gal, mile(s) per gallon
mi/h, mile(s) per hour
mil, mil
min, minute (time)
in, microinch
mL, milliliter
mm, millimeter
mm\2\, square millimeter
mm\3\, cubic millimeter
m2, square micrometer
m3, cubic micrometer
, micromicron (use of compound prefixes obsolete; use 
  pm, picometer)
f, micromicrofarad (use of compound prefixes 
  obsolete; use pF)
mmHg, conventional millimeter of mercury

[[Page 167]]


M, megohm
mo, month
mol, mole (unit of substance)
mol wt, molecular weight
mp, melting point
ms, millisecond
s, microsecond
Mt, megaton
mV, millivolt
V, microvolt
MW, megawatt
mW, milliwatt
W, microwatt
MWd/t, megawatt-days per ton
Mx, maxwell
n, nano (prefix, one-billionth)
N, newton
nA, nanoampere
nF, nanofarad
Nm, newton meter
N/m2, newton per square meter
nmi, nautical mile
Np, neper
ns, nanosecond
Ns/m2, newton second per square meter
nt, nit
od, outside diameter
Oe, oersted (use of A/m, amperes per meter, preferred)
oz, ounce (avoirdupois)
p, pico (prefix, one-trillionth)
P, poise
Pa, pascal
pA, picoampere
pct, percent
pdl, poundal
pF, picofarad (micromicrofarad, obsolete)
pF, water-holding energy
pH, hydrogen-ion concentration
ph, phot; phase
pk, peck,
p/m, parts per million
ps, picosecond
psi, pounds per square inch
pt, pint
pW, picowatt
qt, quart
quad, quadrillion (1015)
 deg.R, rankine
 deg.R, roentgen
R, degree rankine
R, degree reaumur
rad, radian
rd, rad
rem, roentgen equivalent man
r/min, revolutions per minute
rms, root mean square
r/s, revolutions per second
s, second (time)
s, shilling
S, siemens
sb, stilb
scp, spherical candlepower
sft, second-foot
shp, shaft horsepower
slug, slug
sr, steradian
sSf, standard saybolt fural
sSu, standard saybolt universal
stdft\3\, standard cubic foot (feet)
Sus, saybolt universal second(s)
T, tera (prefix, 1 trillion)
Tft\3\, trillion cubic feet
T, tesla
t, tonne (metric ton)
tbsp, tablespoonful
thm, therm
ton, ton
tsp, teaspoonful
Twad, twaddell
u, (unified) atomic mass unit
UHF, ultrahigh frequency
V, volt
VA, voltampere
var, var
VHF, very high frequency
V/m, volt per meter
W, watt
Wb, weber
Wh, watthour
W/(mK), watt per meter kelvin
W/sr, watt per steradian
W/(srm\2\), watt per steradian square meter
x, unknown quantity (italic)
yd, yard
yd2, square yard
yd3, cubic yard
yr, year

[[Page 168]]



 Standard Latin abbreviations

  9.63. When Latin abbreviations are used, follow this list.

a., annus, year; ante, before
A.A.C., anno ante Christum, in the year before Christ
A.A.S., Academiae Americanae Socius, Fellow of the American Academy 
  [Academy of Arts and Sciences]
A.B., artium baccalaureus, bachelor of arts
ab init., ab initio, from the beginning
abs. re., absente reo, the defendant being absent
A.C., ante Christum, before Christ
A.D., anno Domini, in the year of our Lord
a.d., ante diem, before the day
ad fin., ad finem, at the end, to one end
ad h.l., ad hunc locum, to this place, on this passage
ad inf., ad infinitum, to infinity
ad init., ad initium, at the beginning
ad int., ad interim, in the meantime
ad lib., ad libitum, at pleasure
ad loc., ad locum, at the place
ad val., ad valorem, according to value
A.I., anno inventionis, in the year of the discovery
al., alia, alii, other things, other persons
A.M., anno mundi, in the year of the world; Annus mirabilis, the 
  wonderful year [1666]; a.m., ante meridiem, before noon
an., anno, in the year; ante, before
ann., annales, annals; anni, years
A.R.S.S., Antiquariorum Regiae Societatis Socius, Fellow of the Royal 
  Society of Antiquaries
A.U.C., anno urbis conditae, ab urbe conolita, in [the year from] the 
  building of the City [Rome], 753 B.C.
B.A., baccalaureus artium, bachelor of arts
B. Sc., baccalaureus scientiae, bachelor of science
C., centum, a hundred; condemno, I condemn, find guilty
c., circa, about
cent., centum, a hundred
cf., confer, compare
C.M., chirurgiae magister, master of surgery
coch., cochlear, a spoon, spoonful
coch. amp., cochlear amplum, a tablespoonful
coch. mag., cochlear magnum, a large spoonful
coch. med., cochlear medium, a dessert spoonful
coch. parv., cochlear parvum, a teaspoonful
con., contra, against; conjunx, wife
C.P.S., custos privati sigilli, keeper of the privy seal
C.S., custos sigilli, keeper of the seal
cwt., c. for centum, wt. for weight, hundredweight
D., Deus, God; Dominus, Lord; d., decretum, a decree; denarius, a 
  penny; da, give
D.D., divinitatis doctor, doctor of divinity
D.G., Dei gratia, by the grace of God; Deo gratias, thanks to God
D.N., Dominus noster, our Lord
D. Sc., doctor scientiae, doctor of science
d.s.p., decessit sine prole, died without issue
D.V., Deo volente, God willing
dwt., d. for denarius, wt. for weight pennyweight
e.g., exempli gratia, for example
et al., et alibi, and elsewhere; et alii, or aliae, and others
etc., et cetera, and others, and so forth
et seq., et sequentes, and those that follow
et ux., et uxor, and wife
F., filius, son
f., fiat, let it be made; forte, strong
fac., factum similis, facsimile, an exact copy
fasc., fasciculus, a bundle
fl., flores, flowers; floruit, flourished; fluidus, fluid
f.r., folio recto, right-hand page
F.R.S., Fraternitatis Regiae Socius, Fellow of the Royal Society
f.v., folio verso, on the back of the leaf
guttat., guttatim, by drops
H., hora, hour
h.a., hoc anno, in this year; hujus anni, this year's
hab. corp., habeas corpus, have the body--a writ
h.e., hic est, this is; hoc est, that is
h.m., hoc mense, in this month; huius mensis, this month's
h.q., hoc quaere, look for this
H.R.I.P., hic requiescat in pace, here rests in peace
H.S., hic sepultus, here is buried; hic situs, here lies; h.s., hoc 
  sensu, in this sense

[[Page 169]]


H.S.S., Historiae Societatis Socius, Fellow of the Historical Society
h.t., hoc tempore, at this time; hoc titulo, in or under this title
I, Idus, the Ides; i., id, that; immortalis, immortal
ib. or ibid., ibidem, in the same place
id., idem, the same
i.e., id est, that is
imp., imprimatur, sanction, let it be printed
I.N.D., in nomine Dei, in the name of God
in f., in fine, at the end
inf., infra, below
init., initio, in the beginning
in lim., in limine, on the threshold, at the outset
in loc., in loco, in its place
in loc. cit., in loco citato, in the place cited
in pr., in principio, in the beginning
in trans., in transitu, on the way
i.q., idem quod, the same as
i.q.e.d., id quod erat demonstrandum, what was to be proved
J., judex, judge
J.C.D., juris civilis doctor, doctor of civil law
J.D., jurum or juris doctor, doctor of laws
J.U.D., juris utriusque doctor, doctor of both civil and canon law
L., liber, a book; locus, a place
, libra, pound; placed before figures, thus 10; 
  if l., to be placed after, as 401.
L.A.M., liberalium artium magister, master of the liberal arts
L.B., baccalaureus literarum, bachelor of letters
lb., libra, pound (singular and plural)
L.H.D., literarum humaniorum doctor, doctor of the more humane letters
Litt. D., literarum doctor, doctor of letters
LL.B., legum baccalaureus, bachelor of laws
LL.D., legum doctor, doctor of laws
LL.M., legum magister, master of laws
loc. cit., loco citato, in the place cited
loq., loquitur, he, or she, speaks
L.S., locus sigilli, the place of the seal
l.s.c., loco supra citato, in the place above cited
 s. d., librae, solidi, denarii, pounds, shillings, pence
M., magister, master; manipulus, handful; medicinae, of medicine; m., 
  meridies, noon
M.A., magister artium, master of arts
M.B., medicinae baccalaureus, bachelor of medicine
M. Ch., magister chirurgiae, master of surgery
M.D., medicinae doctor, doctor of medicine
m.m., mutatis mutandis, with the necessary changes
m.n., mutato nomine, the name being changed
MS., manuscriptum, manuscript; MSS., manuscripta, manuscripts
Mus. B., musicae baccalaureus, bachelor of music
Mus. D., musicae doctor, doctor of music
Mus. M., musicae magister, master of music
N., Nepos, grandson; nomen, name; nomina, names; noster, our; n., 
  natus, born; nocte, at night
N.B., nota bene, mark well
ni. pri., nisi prius, unless before
nob., nobis, for (or on) our part
nol. pros., nolle prosequi, will not prosecute
non cul., non culpabilis, not guilty
n.l., non licet, it is not permitted; non liquet, it is not clear; non 
  longe, not far
non obs., non obstante, notwithstanding
non pros., non prosequitur, he does not prosecute
non seq., non sequitur, it does not follow logically
O., octarius, a pint
ob., obiit, he, or she, died; obiter, incidentally
ob. s.p., obiit sine prole, died without issue
o.c., opere citato, in the work cited
op., opus, work; opera, works
op. cit., opere citato, in the work cited
P., papa, pope; pater, father; pontifex, bishop; populus, people; p., 
  partim, in part; per, by, for; pius, holy; pondere, by weight; post, 
  after; primus, first; pro, for
p.a., or per ann., per annum, yearly; pro anno, for the year
p. ae., partes aequales, equal parts
pass., passim, everywhere
percent., per centum, by the hundred
pil., pilula, pill
Ph. B., philosophiae baccalaureus, bachelor of philosophy
P.M., post mortem, after death

[[Page 170]]


p.m., post meridiem, afternoon
pro tem., pro tempore, for the time being
prox., proximo, in or of the next [month]
P.S., postscriptum, postscript; P.SS., postscripta, postscripts
q.d., quasi dicat, as if one should say; quasi dictum, as if said; 
  quasi dixisset, as if he had said
q.e., quod est, which is
Q.E.D., quod erat demonstrandum, which was to be demonstrated
Q.E.F., quod erat faciendum, which was to be done
Q.E.I., quod erat inveniendum, which was to be found out
q.l., quantum libet, as much as you please
q. pl., quantum placet, as much as seems good
q.s., quantum sufficit sufficient quantity
q.v., quantum vis, as much as you will; quem, quam, quod vide, which 
  see; qq. v., quos, quas, or quae vide, which see (plural)
R., regina, queen; recto, right-hand page; respublica, commonwealth
, recipe, take
R.I.P., requiescat, or requiescant, in pace, may he, she, or they, rest 
  in peace
R.P.D., rerum politicarum doctor, doctor of political science
rr., rarissime, very rarely
R.S.S., Regiae Societatis Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal Society
S., sepultus, buried; situs, lies; societas, society; socius or 
  sodalis, fellow; s., semi, half; solidus, shilling
s.a., sine anno, without date; secundum artem, according to art
S.A.S., Societatis Antiquariorum Socius, Fellow of the Society of 
  Antiquaries
sc., scilicet, namely; sculpsit, he, or she, carved or engraved it
Sc. B., scientiae baccalaureus, bachelor of science
Sc. D., scientiae doctor, doctor of science
S.D., salutem dicit, sends greetings
s.d., sine die, indefinitely
sec., secundum, according to
sec. leg., secundum legem, according to law
sec. nat., secundum naturam, according to nature, or naturally
sec. reg., secundum regulam, according to rule
seq., sequens, sequentes, sequentia, the following
S.H.S., Societatis Historiae Socius, Fellow of the Historical Society
s.h.v., sub hac voce or sub hoc verbo, under this word
s.l.a.n., sine loco, anno, vel nomine, without place, date, or name
s.l.p., sine legitima prole, without lawful issue
s.m.p., sine mascula prole, without male issue
s.n., sine nomine, without name
s.p., sine prole, without issue
S.P.A.S., Societatis Philosophiae Americanae Socius, Fellow of the 
  American Philosophical Society
s.p.s., sine prole superstite, without surviving issue
S.R.S., Societatis Regiae Socius or Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal 
  Society
ss, scilicet, namely (in law)
S.S.C., Societas Sanctae Crucis, Society of the Holy Cross
stat., statim, immediately
S.T.B., sacrae theologiae baccalaureus, bachelor of sacred theology
S.T.D., sacrae theologiae doctor, doctor of sacred theology
S.T.P., sacrae theologiae professor, professor of sacred theology
sub., subaudi, understand, supply
sup., supra, above
t. or temp., tempore, in the time of
tal. qual., talis qualis, just as they come; average quality
U.J.D., utriusque juris doctor, doctor of both civil and canon law
ult., ultimo, last month (may be abbreviated in writing but should be 
  spelled out in printing)
ung., unguentum, ointment
u.s., ubi supra, in the place above mentioned
ut dict., ut dictum, as directed
ut sup., ut supra, as above
ux., uxor, wife
v., versus, against; vide, see; voce, voice, word
v. ---- a., vixit ---- annos, lived [so many] years
verb. sap., verbum [satis] sapienti, a word to the wise suffices
v.g., verbi gratia, for example
viz, videlicet, namely
v.s., vide supra, see above