[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 13 - Tabular Work]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]

13.1. 	The object of a table is to present in a concise and orderly 
        manner information that cannot be presented as clearly in any 
        other way. 

13.2. 	Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible, so that 
        the meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the user. 

13.3. 	Tables shall be set without down (vertical) rules when there is 
        at least an em space between columns, except where: (1) In 
        GPO's judgment down rules are required for clarity; or (2) the 
        agency has indicated on the copy they are to be used. The mere 
        presence of down rules in copy or enclosed sample is not 
        considered a request that down rules be used. The publication 
        dictates the type size used in setting tables. Tabular work in 
        the Congressional Record is set 6 on 7. The balance of 
        congressional tabular work sets 7 on 8. 

13.4. 	To avoid burdening tabular text, commonly known abbreviations 
        are used in tables. Metric and unit-of-measurement 
        abbreviations are used with figures. 

13.5. 	The names of months (except May, June, and July) when followed 
        by the day are abbreviated. 

13.6. 	The words street, avenue, place, road, square, boulevard, 
        terrace, drive, court, and building, following name or number, 
        are abbreviated. For numbered streets, avenues, etc., figures 
        are used. 

13.7. 	Abbreviate the words United States if preceding the word 
        Government, the name of any Government organization, or as an 
        adjective generally. 

13.8. 	Use the abbreviations RR. and Ry. following a name, and SS, MS, 
        etc., preceding a name. 

13.9. 	Use lat. and long. with figures. 

13.10. 	Abbreviate, when followed by figures, the various parts of 
        publications, as article, part, section, etc. 

13.11. 	Use, generally, such abbreviations and contractions as 98th 
        Cong., 1st sess., H. Res. 5, H.J. Res. 21, S. Doc. 62, S. Rept. 
        410, Rev. Stat., etc. 

13.12. 	In columns containing names of persons, copy is followed as to 
        abbreviations of given names. 

13.13. 	Periods are not used after abbreviations followed by leaders. 

13.14. 	An en space is used for all bearoffs. 

13.15. 	In a crowded table, when down rules are necessary, the bearoff 
        may be reduced in fi gure columns. 

13.16. 	Fractions are set flush right to the bearoff of the allotted 
        column width, and not aligned. 

13.17. 	Mathematical signs, parentheses, fractions, and brackets are 
        set with a normal bearoff . 

13.18. 	Periods are omitted after all boxheads, but a dash is used 
        after any boxhead which reads into the matter following. 

13.19. 	Boxheads run crosswise. 

13.20. 	Boxheads are set solid, even in leaded tables. 

13.21. 	Boxheads are centered horizontally and vertically. 

Down-rule style (see Rule 13.3) 


13.22. 	In referring to quantity of things, the word Number in boxheads 
        is spelled if possible. 

13.23. 	Column numbers or letters in parentheses may be set under 
        box-heads and are separated by one line space below the 
        deepest head. (If alignment of parentheses is required within 
        the table, use brackets in boxhead.) These column references 
        align across the table. Units of quantity are set in 
        parentheses within boxheads. 


13.24. Leaders may be supplied in a column consisting entirely of 
       symbols or years or dates or any combination of these. 

Centerheads, flush entries, and subentries 
13.25.   Heads follow the style of the tables as to the use of figures 
         and abbreviations.  

13.26.  Punctuation is omitted after centerheads. Flush entries and 
        subentries over subordinate items are followed by a colon 
        (single subentry to run in, preserving the colon), but a dash 
        is used instead of a colon when the entry reads into the matter 


13.27.  In reading columns if the centerhead clears the reading matter 
        below by at least an em, the space is omitted; if it clears by 
        less than an em, a space is used. If an overrun, rule, etc., in 
        another column, or in the same column, creates a blank space 
        above the head, the extra space is not added.  

13.28.  Units of quantity and years used as heads in reading and figure 
        columns are set in italic with space above but no space below.  


No-down-rule style (preferred) 
The rules are used here to aid readability.


13.29. 	Where the first number in a column or under a cross rule is 
        wholly a decimal, a cipher is added at the left of its decimal 
        point. A cipher used alone in a money or other decimal column 
        is placed in the unit row and is not followed by a period. The 
        cipher repeats in mixed units before decimals unless the group 


13.30. 	In columns containing both dollars and cents, ciphers will be 
        supplied on right of decimal point in the absence of figures. 

13.31. 	Where column consists of single decimal, supply a cipher on the 
        right unless the decimal is a cipher.


13.32. 	Where column has mixed decimals of two or more places, do not 
        supply ciphers but follow copy. 


13.33. 	Copy is followed in the use of the word None or a cipher to 
        indicate None in figure columns. If neither one appears in the 
        copy, leaders are inserted, unless a clear is specifically 

13.34. 	In columns of figures under the heading  � s d, if a whole 
        number of pounds is given, one cipher is supplied under s and 
        one under d; if only shillings are given, one cipher is 
        supplied under d. 

13.35. 	In columns of fi gures under Ft In, if only feet are given, 
        supply cipher under In; if only inches are given, clear under 
        Ft; if ciphers are used for None, place one cipher under both 
        Ft and In. 

13.36. 	In any column containing sums of money, the period and ciphers 
        are omitted if the column consists entirely of whole dollars. 

Continued heads 
13.37. 	In continued lines an em dash is used between the head and the 
        word Continued. No period is carried after a continued line. 

13.38. 	Continued heads over tables will be worded exactly like the 
        table heading. Notes above tables are repeated; footnote 
        references are repeated in boxheads and in continued lines. 

Dashes or rules 
13.39. 	Rules are not carried in reading columns or columns consisting 
        of serial or tracing numbers, but are carried through all 
        figure columns. 

13.40. 	Parallel rules are used to cut off figures from other figures 
        below that are added or subtracted; also, generally, above a 
        grand total. 

Ditto (do.) 
13.41. 	The abbreviation do. is used to indicate that the previous line 
        is being repeated instead of repeating the line, verbatim, over 
        and over. It is used in reading columns only, lowercased and 
        preceded by leaders (6 periods) when there is matter in 
        preceding column. If ditto marks are requested, closing quotes 
        will be used. 

13.42. 	Capitalize Do. in the first and last columns. These are 
        indented 1 or 2 ems, depending on the length of the word being
        repeated, or the width of the column; the situation will 
        determine as it is encountered. 

13.43. 	In mixed columns made up of figure and reading-matter items, 
        do. is used only under the latter items. 

13.44. 	Do. is not used--

            (1) In a figure or symbol column (tracing columns are 
          figure columns); 
            (2) In the first line under a centerhead in the column in 
          which the centerhead occurs; 
            (3) Under a line of leaders or a rule; 
            (4) Under an item italicized or set in boldface type for a 
          specific reason (italic or boldface do. is never used; item 
          is repeated); 
            (5) Under an abbreviated unit of quantity or other 
          abbreviations; or 
            (6) Under words of three letters or less. 

13.45. 	Do. is used, however, under a clear space and under the word 
        None in a reading column. 

13.46. 	Do. does not apply to a reference mark on the preceding item. 
        The reference mark, if needed, is added to do. 

13.47. 	Leaders are not used before Do. in the first column or before 
        or after Do. in the last column. 

13.48. 	In a first and/or last column 6 ems or less in width, a 1-em 
        space is used before Do. In all other columns 6 ems or less in 
        width, six periods are used. Bearoff is not included. 

13.49. 	In a first and/or last column more than 6 ems in width, 2 ems 
        of space are used before Do. In all other columns more than 6 
        ems in width, six periods are used. Bearoff space is not 
        included. If the preceding line is indented, the indention of 
        Do. is increased accordingly. 

13.50. 	Do. under an indented item in an inside reading column, with or 
        without matter in preceding column, is preceded by six periods 
        which are indented to align with item above. 

Dollar mark 
13.51. 	The dollar mark or any other money symbol is placed close to 
        the figure; it is used only at the head of the table and under 
        cross rules when the same unit of value applies to the entire 

13.52. 	In columns containing mixed amounts (as money, tons, gallons, 
        etc.), the dollar mark, pound mark, peso mark, or other symbol, 
        as required, is repeated before each sum of money. 

13.53. 	If several sums of money are grouped together, they are 
        separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule, and the 
        symbol is placed on the fi rst figure of the separated group 


13.54. 	In a double money column, dollar marks are used in the first 
        group of figures only; en dashes are aligned.


13.55. The dollar mark is omitted from a first item consisting of a 

                             0                but $0.12
                          $300 	                  13.43 
                           500                    15.07 
                           700                    23.18 

13.56. 	The dollar mark should be repeated in stub or reading columns. 

                           0 to $0.99.......... 
                           $1 to $24........... 
                           $25 to $49.......... 
                           $50 to $74.......... 

Figure columns 
13.57.  Figures align on the right, with an en space bearoff . There is 
        no bearoff on leaders.  

13.58.  In a crowded table the bearoff may be reduced in figure columns 
        only. It is preferable to retain the bearoff .  

13.59.  Figures in parentheses align.  

13.60.  In double rows of figures in a single column, connected by a 
        dash, a plus, or minus sign, and in dates appearing in the form 
        9-4-08, the dashes or signs can be aligned.  

13.61.  Plus or minus signs at the left of figures are placed against 
        the figures regardless of alignment; plus and minus signs at 
        the right of figures are cleared.  

13.62.  Words and Roman numerals in fi gure columns are aligned on the 
        right with the figures, without periods.  


13.63. 	Figures (including decimal and common fractions) expressing 
        mixed units of quantity (feet, dollars, etc.) and figures in 
        parentheses are aligned on the right. 

13.64. 	Decimal points are aligned except in columns containing numbers 
        that refer to mixed units (such as pounds, dollars, and 
        percentage) and have irregular decimals. 

13.65. 	It is preferred that all columns in a table consisting entirely 
        of figure columns be centered. 

Footnotes and references 
13.66. 	Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from footnotes 
        to text unless requested by committee or department. 

13.67. 	Superior figures are used for footnote references, beginning 
        with 1 in each table. 

13.68. 	If figures might lead to ambiguity (for example, in connection 
        with a chemical formula), asterisks, daggers, or italic 
        superior letters, etc., may be used. 

13.69. 	When items carry several reference marks, the superior-figure 
        reference precedes an asterisk, dagger, or similar character 
        used for reference. These, in the same sequence, precede 
        mathematical signs. A thin space is used to bear off an 
        asterisk, dagger, or similar character. 

13.70. 	Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued 
        lines over tables. 

13.71. 	References to footnotes are numbered consecutively across the 
        page from left to right. 

13.72. 	Footnote references are placed at the right in reading columns 
        and symbol columns, and at the left in figure columns (also at 
        the left of such words as None in figure columns), and are 
        separated by a thin space. 

13.73. 	Two or more footnote references occurring together are 
        separated by spaces, not commas. 

13.74. 	In a figure column, a footnote reference standing alone is set 
        in parentheses and flushed right. In a reading column, it is 
        set at the left in parentheses and is followed by leaders, but 
        in the last column it is followed by a period, as if it were a 
        word. In a symbol column it is set at the left and cleared. 

13.75. 	Numbered footnotes are placed immediately beneath the table. If 
        a sign or letter reference in the heading of a table is to be 
        followed, it is not changed to become the first numbered 
        reference mark. Th e footnote to it precedes all other 
        footnotes. The remaining footnotes in a table will follow this 
        sequence: footnotes (numbers, letters, or symbols); Note.--; 
        then Source:. 

13.76. 	For better makeup or appearance, footnotes may be placed at the 
        end of a lengthy table. A line reading ``Footnotes at end of 
        table.'' is supplied. 

13.77.  If the footnotes to both table and text fall together at the 
        bottom of a page, the footnotes to the table are placed above 
        the footnotes to the text, and the two groups are separated by 
        a 50-point rule fl ush left; but if there are footnotes to the 
        text and none to the table, the 50-point rule is retained.  

13.78.  Footnotes to cut-in and indented tables and tables in rules are 
        set full measure, except when footnotes are short, they can be 
        set in 1 em under indented table.  

13.79.  Footnotes are set as paragraphs, but two or more short 
        footnotes should be combined into one line, separated by not 
        less than 2 ems.  

13.80.  The footnotes and notes to tables are set solid.  

13.81.  Footnotes and notes to tables and boxheads are set the same 
        size, but not smaller than 6 point, unless specified otherwise.  

13.82.  Footnotes to tables follow tabular style in the use of 
        abbreviations, figures, etc.  

13.83.  In footnotes, numbers are expressed in figures, even at the 
        beginning of a note or sentence.  

13.84.  If a footnote consists entirely or partly of a table or 
        leaderwork, it should always be preceded by introductory matter 
        carrying the reference number; if necessary, the copy preparer 
        should add an introductory line, such as ``/1/ See the following   

13.85.  An explanatory paragraph without specific reference but 
        belonging to the table rather than to the text follows the 
        footnotes, if any, and is separated from them or from the table 
        by space. 

13.86. All fractions are set flush right to the bearoff. 


13.87. 	Fractions standing alone are expressed in figures, even at the 
        beginning of a line, but should be spelled out at the beginning 
        of a footnote. 

13.88. 	Headnotes should be set lowercase, but not smaller than 6 
        point, bracketed, and period omitted at end, even if the 
        statement is a complete sentence; but periods should not be   
        omitted internally if required by sentence structure. 

13.89. 	Headnotes are repeated under continued heads but the word 
        Continued is not added to the headnote. 

Indentions and overruns 

13.90. 	The indention of subentries is determined by the width of the 
        stub or reading column. Subentries in columns more than 15 ems 
        wide are indented in 2-em units; in columns 15 ems or less, 
        with short entry lines and few overruns, 2-em indentions are 
        also used. All overruns are indented 1 em more. 

13.91. 	Subentries in columns of 15 ems or less are indented in 1-em 
        units. Overruns are indented 1 additional em space. 

Total, mean, and average lines 
13.92. 	All total (also mean and average) lines are indented 3 ems. In 
        very narrow stub columns, total lines may be reduced to 1- or 
        2-em indentions, depending on length of line. 

13.93. 	Where overrun of item above confl icts, the total line is 
        indented 1 em more. Runovers of total lines are also indented 1 
        em more. 

13.94. 	It is not necessary to maintain uniform indention of the word 
        Total throughout the same table. The word Total is supplied 
        when not in copy. 


13.95. 	Names of vessels and aircraft (except in columns consisting 
        entirely of such names), titles of legal cases (except v. for 
        versus), and certain scientific terms are set in italic. The 
        word ``Total'' and headings in the column do not affect the 
        application of this rule. In gothic typefaces without italic, 
        quotes are allowed. 

13.96. 	Set ``See'' and ``See also'' in roman. 

13.97. 	Leaders run across the entire table except that they are 
        omitted from a last reading column. 

13.98. 	The style of leadering is guided by two rules: (1) Tables with 
        a single reading column leader from the bottom line, or (2) 
        tables with any combination of more than one reading or symbol 
        column leader from the top line. 

13.99. 	If leadering from the top line, overruns end with a period. 

13.100. A column of dates is regarded as a reading column only if 
        leaders are added; in all other cases it is treated as a figure 

13.101.	In tables with tracing figures on left and right of page, 
        leader from top line. 

Numerals in tables 
13.102. Figures, ordinals, and fractions are used in all parts 
        of a table, except fractions that will be spelled out at the 
        beginning of a footnote. 

Parallel and divide tables are discouraged 
13.103. Parallel tables are set in pairs of pages; beginning on a 
        left-hand page and running across to facing right-hand page, 
        leader from the top line. 

13.104. Heads and headnotes center across the pair of pages, with 2-em 
        hanging indention for three or more lines when combined measure 
        exceeds 30 picas in width. Two-line heads are set across the 
        pair of pages. A single-line head or headnote is divided 
        evenly, each part set flush right and left, respectively. Words 
        are not divided between pages. 

13.105. Boxheads and horizontal rules align across both pages. 

13.106. Boxheads are not divided but are repeated, with Continued 

13.107. Tracing figures are carried through from the outside columns of 
        both pages and are set to ``leader from the top line.'' 

13.108. In divide tables that are made up parallel, with stub column 
        repeated, the head and headnote repeat on each succeeding page, 
        with Continued added to the head only. 

13.109. Tables with tracing figures or stub, or both, repeating on the 
        left of odd pages, are divide tables and not parallel tables. 
        Over such tables the heads are repeated, with Continued added. 

Reading columns 
13.110. Figures or combinations of figures and letters used to form a 
        reading column align on left and are followed by leaders. Do. 
        is not used under such items. 

13.111. The en dash is not to be used for to in a reading column; if 
        both occur, change to to throughout. 

13.112. Cut-in items following a colon are indented 2 ems. 

13.113.	A single entry under a colon line should be run in; retain the 

13.114.	Numerical terms, including numbered streets, avenues, etc., are 
        expressed in figures, even at the beginning of an item. 

Symbol columns 
13.115.	A column consisting entirely of letters, letters and figures, 
        symbols, or signs, or any combination of these, is called a 
        symbol column. It should be set flush left and cleared, except
        when it takes the place of the stub, it should then be 
        leadered. No closing period is used when such column is the 
        last column. Blank lines in a last column are cleared. Do. is 
        not used in a symbol column. 


13.116. Columns composed of both symbols and figures are treated as 
        figure columns and are set flush right. In case of blank lines 
        in a last column, leaders will be used as in figure columns. 


Tables without rules 
13.117. It is preferable to set all tables alike; that is, without 
        either down rules or cross rules and with roman boxheads. When 
        so indicated on copy, by ordering agency, tabular matter may be 
        set without rules, with italic boxheads. 

13.118. Column heads over figure columns in 6- or 8-point leaderwork 
        are set in 6-point italic. 

13.119. Horizontal rules (spanner) used between a spread or upper level 
        column heading carried over two or more lower level column 
        headings are set continuous and without break, from left to 
        right, between the two levels of such headings. 


13.120. More than one figure column, also illustrating use of dollar 
        mark, rule, bearoff , etc. 


Units of quantity 
13.121. Units of quantity in stub columns are set in lowercase in 
plural form and placed in parentheses. 


13.122. Units of quantity and other words as headings over figure 
        columns are used at the beginning of a table or at the head of 
        a continued page or continued column in a double-up table. 

13.123. Over figure columns, units of quantity and other words used as
        headings, and the abbreviations a.m. and p.m., if not included 
        in the boxheads, are set in italic and are placed immediately 
        above the figures, without periods other than abbreviating 
        periods. In congressional work (gothic), or at any time when 
        italic is not available, these units should be placed in the 
        boxheads in parentheses. Any well-known abbreviation will be 
        used to save an overrun, but if one unit of quantity is 
        abbreviated, all in the same table will be abbreviated. If 
        units change in a column, the new units are set in italic with 
        space above and no space below. The space is placed both above 
        and below only when there is no italic available. 

Quoted tabular work 
13.124. When a table is part of quoted matter, quotation marks will 
        open on each centerhead and each footnote paragraph, and, if 
        table is end of quoted matter, quotation marks close at end of 
        footnotes. If there are no footnotes and the table is the end 
        of the quotation, quotation marks close at end of last item.