[113th Congress Public Law 274]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]



[[Page 128 STAT. 2971]]

Public Law 113-274
113th Congress

                                 An Act


 
   To provide for an ongoing, voluntary public-private partnership to 
  improve cybersecurity, and to strengthen cybersecurity research and 
 development, workforce development and education, and public awareness 
 and preparedness, and for other purposes. <<NOTE: Dec. 18, 2014 -  [S. 
                                1353]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: Cybersecurity 
Enhancement Act of 2014.>> 
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) <<NOTE: 15 USC 7421 note.>>  Short Title.--This Act may be cited 
as the ``Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014''.

    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. No regulatory authority.
Sec. 4. No additional funds authorized.

         TITLE I--PUBLIC-PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CYBERSECURITY

Sec. 101. Public-private collaboration on cybersecurity.

            TITLE II--CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Sec. 201. Federal cybersecurity research and development.
Sec. 202. Computer and network security research centers.
Sec. 203. Cybersecurity automation and checklists for government 
           systems.
Sec. 204. National Institute of Standards and Technology cybersecurity 
           research and development.

             TITLE III--EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Sec. 301. Cybersecurity competitions and challenges.
Sec. 302. Federal cyber scholarship-for-service program.

           TITLE IV--CYBERSECURITY AWARENESS AND PREPAREDNESS

Sec. 401. National cybersecurity awareness and education program.

        TITLE V--ADVANCEMENT OF CYBERSECURITY TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Sec. 501. Definitions.
Sec. 502. International cybersecurity technical standards.
Sec. 503. Cloud computing strategy.
Sec. 504. Identity management research and development.

SEC. 2. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7421.>>  DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Cybersecurity mission.--The term ``cybersecurity 
        mission'' means activities that encompass the full range of 
        threat reduction, vulnerability reduction, deterrence, 
        international engagement, incident response, resiliency, and 
        recovery policies

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        and activities, including computer network operations, 
        information assurance, law enforcement, diplomacy, military, and 
        intelligence missions as such activities relate to the security 
        and stability of cyberspace.
            (2) Information system.--The term ``information system'' has 
        the meaning given that term in section 3502 of title 44, United 
        States Code.
SEC. 3. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7422.>>  NO REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

    Nothing in this Act shall be construed to confer any regulatory 
authority on any Federal, State, tribal, or local department or agency.
SEC. 4. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7423.>>  NO ADDITIONAL FUNDS AUTHORIZED.

    No additional funds are authorized to carry out this Act, and the 
amendments made by this Act. This Act, and the amendments made by this 
Act, shall be carried out using amounts otherwise authorized or 
appropriated.

         TITLE I--PUBLIC-PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CYBERSECURITY

SEC. 101. PUBLIC-PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CYBERSECURITY.

    (a) Cybersecurity.--Section 2(c) of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(c)) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating paragraphs (15) through (22) as 
        paragraphs (16) through (23), respectively; and
            (2) by inserting after paragraph (14) the following:
            ``(15) on an ongoing basis, facilitate and support the 
        development of a voluntary, consensus-based, industry-led set of 
        standards, guidelines, best practices, methodologies, 
        procedures, and processes to cost-effectively reduce cyber risks 
        to critical infrastructure (as defined under subsection (e));''.

    (b) Scope and Limitations.--Section 2 of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272) is amended by adding at the 
end the following:
    ``(e) Cyber Risks.--
            ``(1) In general.--In carrying out the activities under 
        subsection (c)(15), the Director--
                    ``(A) shall--
                          ``(i) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordinate 
                      closely and regularly with relevant private sector 
                      personnel and entities, critical infrastructure 
                      owners and operators, and other relevant industry 
                      organizations, including Sector Coordinating 
                      Councils and Information Sharing and Analysis 
                      Centers, and incorporate industry expertise;
                          ``(ii) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  consult with 
                      the heads of agencies with national security 
                      responsibilities, sector-specific agencies and 
                      other appropriate agencies, State and local 
                      governments, the governments of other nations, and 
                      international organizations;
                          ``(iii) identify a prioritized, flexible, 
                      repeatable, performance-based, and cost-effective 
                      approach, including information security measures 
                      and controls,

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                      that may be voluntarily adopted by owners and 
                      operators of critical infrastructure to help them 
                      identify, assess, and manage cyber risks;
                          ``(iv) include methodologies--
                                    ``(I) to identify and mitigate 
                                impacts of the cybersecurity measures or 
                                controls on business confidentiality; 
                                and
                                    ``(II) to protect individual privacy 
                                and civil liberties;
                          ``(v) incorporate voluntary consensus 
                      standards and industry best practices;
                          ``(vi) align with voluntary international 
                      standards to the fullest extent possible;
                          ``(vii) prevent duplication of regulatory 
                      processes and prevent conflict with or superseding 
                      of regulatory requirements, mandatory standards, 
                      and related processes; and
                          ``(viii) include such other similar and 
                      consistent elements as the Director considers 
                      necessary; and
                    ``(B) shall not prescribe or otherwise require--
                          ``(i) the use of specific solutions;
                          ``(ii) the use of specific information or 
                      communications technology products or services; or
                          ``(iii) that information or communications 
                      technology products or services be designed, 
                      developed, or manufactured in a particular manner.
            ``(2) Limitation.--Information shared with or provided to 
        the Institute for the purpose of the activities described under 
        subsection (c)(15) shall not be used by any Federal, State, 
        tribal, or local department or agency to regulate the activity 
        of any entity. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to 
        modify any regulatory requirement to report or submit 
        information to a Federal, State, tribal, or local department or 
        agency.
            ``(3) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                    ``(A) Critical infrastructure.--The term `critical 
                infrastructure' has the meaning given the term in 
                section 1016(e) of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (42 
                U.S.C. 5195c(e)).
                    ``(B) Sector-specific agency.--The term `sector-
                specific agency' means the Federal department or agency 
                responsible for providing institutional knowledge and 
                specialized expertise as well as leading, facilitating, 
                or supporting the security and resilience programs and 
                associated activities of its designated critical 
                infrastructure sector in the all-hazards environment.''.

    (c) Study and Reports.--
            (1) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States 
        shall conduct a study that assesses--
                    (A) the progress made by the Director of the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology in 
                facilitating the development of standards and procedures 
                to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure in 
                accordance with section 2(c)(15) of the National 
                Institute of Standards and Technology Act, as added by 
                this section;
                    (B) the extent to which the Director's facilitation 
                efforts are consistent with the directive in such 
                section that the

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                development of such standards and procedures be 
                voluntary and led by industry representatives;
                    (C) the extent to which other Federal agencies have 
                promoted and sectors of critical infrastructure (as 
                defined in section 1016(e) of the USA PATRIOT Act of 
                2001 (42 U.S.C. 5195c(e))) have adopted a voluntary, 
                industry-led set of standards, guidelines, best 
                practices, methodologies, procedures, and processes to 
                reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure in 
                accordance with such section 2(c)(15);
                    (D) the reasons behind the decisions of sectors of 
                critical infrastructure (as defined in subparagraph (C)) 
                to adopt or to not adopt the voluntary standards 
                described in subparagraph (C); and
                    (E) the extent to which such voluntary standards 
                have proved successful in protecting critical 
                infrastructure from cyber threats.
            (2) Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, and every 2 years thereafter for the 
        following 6 years, the Comptroller General shall submit a 
        report, which summarizes the findings of the study conducted 
        under paragraph (1), to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
        Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives.

   TITLE <<NOTE: 15 USC prec. 7431.>>  II--CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH AND 
DEVELOPMENT
SEC. 201. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7431.>>  FEDERAL CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH 
                        AND DEVELOPMENT.

    (a) Fundamental Cybersecurity Research.--
            (1) Federal cybersecurity research and development strategic 
        plan.--The heads <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  of the applicable agencies 
        and departments, working through the National Science and 
        Technology Council and the Networking and Information Technology 
        Research and Development Program, shall develop and update every 
        4 years a Federal cybersecurity research and development 
        strategic plan (referred to in this subsection as the 
        ``strategic plan'') based on an assessment of cybersecurity risk 
        to guide the overall direction of Federal cybersecurity and 
        information assurance research and development for information 
        technology and networking systems. The heads of the applicable 
        agencies and departments shall build upon existing programs and 
        plans to develop the strategic plan to meet objectives in 
        cybersecurity, such as--
                    (A) how to design and build complex software-
                intensive systems that are secure and reliable when 
                first deployed;
                    (B) how to test and verify that software and 
                hardware, whether developed locally or obtained from a 
                third party, is free of significant known security 
                flaws;
                    (C) how to test and verify that software and 
                hardware obtained from a third party correctly 
                implements stated functionality, and only that 
                functionality;
                    (D) how to guarantee the privacy of an individual, 
                including that individual's identity, information, and 
                lawful transactions when stored in distributed systems 
                or transmitted over networks;

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                    (E) how to build new protocols to enable the 
                Internet to have robust security as one of the key 
                capabilities of the Internet;
                    (F) how to determine the origin of a message 
                transmitted over the Internet;
                    (G) how to support privacy in conjunction with 
                improved security;
                    (H) how to address the problem of insider threats;
                    (I) how improved consumer education and digital 
                literacy initiatives can address human factors that 
                contribute to cybersecurity;
                    (J) how to protect information processed, 
                transmitted, or stored using cloud computing or 
                transmitted through wireless services; and
                    (K) any additional objectives the heads of the 
                applicable agencies and departments, in coordination 
                with the head of any relevant Federal agency and with 
                input from stakeholders, including appropriate national 
                laboratories, industry, and academia, determine 
                appropriate.
            (2) Requirements.--
                    (A) Contents of plan.--The strategic plan shall--
                          (i) specify and prioritize near-term, mid-
                      term, and long-term research objectives, including 
                      objectives associated with the research identified 
                      in section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber Security Research 
                      and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(1));
                          (ii) specify how the near-term objectives 
                      described in clause (i) complement research and 
                      development areas in which the private sector is 
                      actively engaged;
                          (iii) describe how the heads of the applicable 
                      agencies and departments will focus on innovative, 
                      transformational technologies with the potential 
                      to enhance the security, reliability, resilience, 
                      and trustworthiness of the digital infrastructure, 
                      and to protect consumer privacy;
                          (iv) describe how the heads of the applicable 
                      agencies and departments will foster the rapid 
                      transfer of research and development results into 
                      new cybersecurity technologies and applications 
                      for the timely benefit of society and the national 
                      interest, including through the dissemination of 
                      best practices and other outreach activities;
                          (v) describe how the heads of the applicable 
                      agencies and departments will establish and 
                      maintain a national research infrastructure for 
                      creating, testing, and evaluating the next 
                      generation of secure networking and information 
                      technology systems; and
                          (vi) describe how the heads of the applicable 
                      agencies and departments will facilitate access by 
                      academic researchers to the infrastructure 
                      described in clause (v), as well as to relevant 
                      data, including event data.
                    (B) Private sector efforts.--In developing, 
                implementing, and updating the strategic plan, the heads 
                of the applicable agencies and departments, working 
                through the National Science and Technology Council and 
                Networking and Information Technology Research and 
                Development Program, shall work in close cooperation 
                with

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                industry, academia, and other interested stakeholders to 
                ensure, to the extent possible, that Federal 
                cybersecurity research and development is not 
                duplicative of private sector efforts.
                    (C) Recommendations.--In developing and updating the 
                strategic plan the heads of the applicable agencies and 
                departments shall solicit recommendations and advice 
                from--
                          (i) the advisory committee established under 
                      section 101(b)(1) of the High-Performance 
                      Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511(b)(1)); and
                          (ii) a wide range of stakeholders, including 
                      industry, academia, including representatives of 
                      minority serving institutions and community 
                      colleges, National Laboratories, and other 
                      relevant organizations and institutions.
                    (D) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  Implementation roadmap.--
                The heads of the applicable agencies and departments, 
                working through the National Science and Technology 
                Council and Networking and Information Technology 
                Research and Development Program, shall develop and 
                annually update an implementation roadmap for the 
                strategic plan. The implementation roadmap shall--
                          (i) specify the role of each Federal agency in 
                      carrying out or sponsoring research and 
                      development to meet the research objectives of the 
                      strategic plan, including a description of how 
                      progress toward the research objectives will be 
                      evaluated;
                          (ii) specify the funding allocated to each 
                      major research objective of the strategic plan and 
                      the source of funding by agency for the current 
                      fiscal year;
                          (iii) <<NOTE: Time period.>>  estimate the 
                      funding required for each major research objective 
                      of the strategic plan for the following 3 fiscal 
                      years; and
                          (iv) track ongoing and completed Federal 
                      cybersecurity research and development projects.
            (3) Reports to congress.--The heads of the applicable 
        agencies and departments, working through the National Science 
        and Technology Council and Networking and Information Technology 
        Research and Development Program, shall submit to the Committee 
        on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives--
                    (A) the strategic plan not later than 1 year after 
                the date of enactment of this Act;
                    (B) each quadrennial update to the strategic plan; 
                and
                    (C) the implementation roadmap under subparagraph 
                (D), and its annual updates, which shall be appended to 
                the annual report required under section 101(a)(2)(D) of 
                the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 
                5511(a)(2)(D)).
            (4) Definition of applicable agencies and departments.--In 
        this subsection, the term ``applicable agencies and 
        departments'' means the agencies and departments identified in 
        clauses (i) through (x) of section 101(a)(3)(B) of the High-
        Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511(a)(3)(B)) or 
        designated under clause (xi) of that section.

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    (b) Cybersecurity Practices Research.--The Director of the National 
Science Foundation shall support research that--
            (1) develops, evaluates, disseminates, and integrates new 
        cybersecurity practices and concepts into the core curriculum of 
        computer science programs and of other programs where graduates 
        of such programs have a substantial probability of developing 
        software after graduation, including new practices and concepts 
        relating to secure coding education and improvement programs; 
        and
            (2) develops new models for professional development of 
        faculty in cybersecurity education, including secure coding 
        development.

    (c) Cybersecurity Modeling and Test Beds.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  Review.--Not later than 1 year 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the 
        National Science Foundation, in coordination with the Director 
        of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall conduct a 
        review of cybersecurity test beds in existence on the date of 
        enactment of this Act to inform the grants under paragraph (2). 
        The <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  review shall include an assessment of 
        whether a sufficient number of cybersecurity test beds are 
        available to meet the research needs under the Federal 
        cybersecurity research and development strategic plan. Upon 
        completion, the Director shall submit the review to the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
        and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House 
        of Representatives.
            (2) <<NOTE: Grants.>>  Additional cybersecurity modeling and 
        test beds.--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Determination. Coordination.>>  In 
                general.--If the Director of the National Science 
                Foundation, after the review under paragraph (1), 
                determines that the research needs under the Federal 
                cybersecurity research and development strategic plan 
                require the establishment of additional cybersecurity 
                test beds, the Director of the National Science 
                Foundation, in coordination with the Secretary of 
                Commerce and the Secretary of Homeland Security, may 
                award grants to institutions of higher education or 
                research and development non-profit institutions to 
                establish cybersecurity test beds.
                    (B) Requirement.--The cybersecurity test beds under 
                subparagraph (A) shall be sufficiently robust in order 
                to model the scale and complexity of real-time cyber 
                attacks and defenses on real world networks and 
                environments.
                    (C) <<NOTE: Coordination. Evaluation. Deadlines.>>  
                Assessment required.--The Director of the National 
                Science Foundation, in coordination with the Secretary 
                of Commerce and the Secretary of Homeland Security, 
                shall evaluate the effectiveness of any grants awarded 
                under this subsection in meeting the objectives of the 
                Federal cybersecurity research and development strategic 
                plan not later than 2 years after the review under 
                paragraph (1) of this subsection, and periodically 
                thereafter.

    (d) Coordination With Other Research Initiatives.--In accordance 
with the responsibilities under section 101 of the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511), the Director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy shall coordinate, to the extent 
practicable, Federal research and development activities under this 
section with other ongoing research and development security-related 
initiatives, including research being conducted by--

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            (1) the National Science Foundation;
            (2) the National Institute of Standards and Technology;
            (3) the Department of Homeland Security;
            (4) other Federal agencies;
            (5) other Federal and private research laboratories, 
        research entities, and universities;
            (6) institutions of higher education;
            (7) relevant nonprofit organizations; and
            (8) international partners of the United States.

    (e) National Science Foundation Computer and Network Security 
Research Grant Areas.--Section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber Security Research 
and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7403(a)(1)) is amended--
            (1) in subparagraph (H), by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (2) in subparagraph (I), by striking the period at the end 
        and inserting a semicolon; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(J) secure fundamental protocols that are integral 
                to inter-network communications and data exchange;
                    ``(K) secure software engineering and software 
                assurance, including--
                          ``(i) programming languages and systems that 
                      include fundamental security features;
                          ``(ii) portable or reusable code that remains 
                      secure when deployed in various environments;
                          ``(iii) verification and validation 
                      technologies to ensure that requirements and 
                      specifications have been implemented; and
                          ``(iv) models for comparison and metrics to 
                      assure that required standards have been met;
                    ``(L) holistic system security that--
                          ``(i) addresses the building of secure systems 
                      from trusted and untrusted components;
                          ``(ii) proactively reduces vulnerabilities;
                          ``(iii) addresses insider threats; and
                          ``(iv) supports privacy in conjunction with 
                      improved security;
                    ``(M) monitoring and detection;
                    ``(N) mitigation and rapid recovery methods;
                    ``(O) security of wireless networks and mobile 
                devices; and
                    ``(P) security of cloud infrastructure and 
                services.''.

    (f) Research on the Science of Cybersecurity.--The head of each 
agency and department identified under section 101(a)(3)(B) of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511(a)(3)(B)), through 
existing programs and activities, shall support research that will lead 
to the development of a scientific foundation for the field of 
cybersecurity, including research that increases understanding of the 
underlying principles of securing complex networked systems, enables 
repeatable experimentation, and creates quantifiable security metrics.
SEC. 202. COMPUTER AND NETWORK SECURITY RESEARCH CENTERS.

    Section 4(b) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 
U.S.C. 7403(b)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``the research areas'' and 
        inserting the following: ``improving the security and resiliency

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        of information technology, reducing cyber vulnerabilities, and 
        anticipating and mitigating consequences of cyber attacks on 
        critical infrastructure, by conducting research in the areas'';
            (2) by striking ``the center'' in paragraph (4)(D) and 
        inserting ``the Center''; and
            (3) in paragraph (5)--
                    (A) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph 
                (C);
                    (B) by striking the period at the end of 
                subparagraph (D) and inserting a semicolon; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(E) the demonstrated capability of the applicant 
                to conduct high performance computation integral to 
                complex computer and network security research, through 
                on-site or off-site computing;
                    ``(F) the applicant's affiliation with private 
                sector entities involved with industrial research 
                described in subsection (a)(1);
                    ``(G) the capability of the applicant to conduct 
                research in a secure environment;
                    ``(H) the applicant's affiliation with existing 
                research programs of the Federal Government;
                    ``(I) the applicant's experience managing public-
                private partnerships to transition new technologies into 
                a commercial setting or the government user community;
                    ``(J) the capability of the applicant to conduct 
                interdisciplinary cybersecurity research, basic and 
                applied, such as in law, economics, or behavioral 
                sciences; and
                    ``(K) the capability of the applicant to conduct 
                research in areas such as systems security, wireless 
                security, networking and protocols, formal methods and 
                high-performance computing, nanotechnology, or 
                industrial control systems.''.
SEC. 203. CYBERSECURITY AUTOMATION AND CHECKLISTS FOR GOVERNMENT 
                        SYSTEMS.

    Section 8(c) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 
U.S.C. 7406(c)) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(c) Security Automation and Checklists for Government Systems.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Director of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology shall, as necessary, develop and revise 
        security automation standards, associated reference materials 
        (including protocols), and checklists providing settings and 
        option selections that minimize the security risks associated 
        with each information technology hardware or software system and 
        security tool that is, or is likely to become, widely used 
        within the Federal Government, thereby enabling standardized and 
        interoperable technologies, architectures, and frameworks for 
        continuous monitoring of information security within the Federal 
        Government.
            ``(2) Priorities for development.--The Director of the 
        National Institute of Standards and Technology shall establish 
        priorities for the development of standards, reference 
        materials, and checklists under this subsection on the basis 
        of--
                    ``(A) the security risks associated with the use of 
                the system;

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                    ``(B) the number of agencies that use a particular 
                system or security tool;
                    ``(C) the usefulness of the standards, reference 
                materials, or checklists to Federal agencies that are 
                users or potential users of the system;
                    ``(D) the effectiveness of the associated standard, 
                reference material, or checklist in creating or enabling 
                continuous monitoring of information security; or
                    ``(E) such other factors as the Director of the 
                National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                determines to be appropriate.
            ``(3) Excluded systems.--The Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology may exclude from the 
        application of paragraph (1) any information technology hardware 
        or software system or security tool for which such Director 
        determines that the development of a standard, reference 
        material, or checklist is inappropriate because of the 
        infrequency of use of the system, the obsolescence of the 
        system, or the lack of utility or impracticability of developing 
        a standard, reference material, or checklist for the system.
            ``(4) Dissemination of standards and related materials.--The 
        Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        shall ensure that Federal agencies are informed of the 
        availability of any standard, reference material, checklist, or 
        other item developed under this subsection.
            ``(5) Agency use requirements.--The development of 
        standards, reference materials, and checklists under paragraph 
        (1) for an information technology hardware or software system or 
        tool does not--
                    ``(A) require any Federal agency to select the 
                specific settings or options recommended by the 
                standard, reference material, or checklist for the 
                system;
                    ``(B) establish conditions or prerequisites for 
                Federal agency procurement or deployment of any such 
                system;
                    ``(C) imply an endorsement of any such system by the 
                Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology; or
                    ``(D) preclude any Federal agency from procuring or 
                deploying other information technology hardware or 
                software systems for which no such standard, reference 
                material, or checklist has been developed or identified 
                under paragraph (1).''.
SEC. 204. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY 
                        CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act 
(15 U.S.C. 278g-3) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsection (e) as subsection (f); and
            (2) by inserting after subsection (d) the following:

    ``(e) Intramural Security Research.--As part of the research 
activities conducted in accordance with subsection (d)(3), the Institute 
shall, to the extent practicable and appropriate--
            ``(1) conduct a research program to develop a unifying and 
        standardized identity, privilege, and access control management 
        framework for the execution of a wide variety of resource 
        protection policies and that is amenable to implementation 
        within

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        a wide variety of existing and emerging computing environments;
            ``(2) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security of information systems and networks;
            ``(3) carry out research associated with improving the 
        testing, measurement, usability, and assurance of information 
        systems and networks;
            ``(4) carry out research associated with improving security 
        of industrial control systems;
            ``(5) carry out research associated with improving the 
        security and integrity of the information technology supply 
        chain; and
            ``(6) carry out any additional research the Institute 
        determines appropriate.''.

    TITLE <<NOTE: 15 USC prec. 7441.>>  III--EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE 
DEVELOPMENT
SEC. 301. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7441.>>  CYBERSECURITY COMPETITIONS AND 
                        CHALLENGES.

    (a) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  In General.--The Secretary of Commerce, 
Director of the National Science Foundation, and Secretary of Homeland 
Security, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Personnel 
Management, shall--
            (1) support competitions and challenges under section 24 of 
        the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 
        U.S.C. 3719) (as amended by section 105 of the America COMPETES 
        Reauthorization Act of 2010 (124 Stat. 3989)) or any other 
        provision of law, as appropriate--
                    (A) to identify, develop, and recruit talented 
                individuals to perform duties relating to the security 
                of information technology in Federal, State, local, and 
                tribal government agencies, and the private sector; or
                    (B) to stimulate innovation in basic and applied 
                cybersecurity research, technology development, and 
                prototype demonstration that has the potential for 
                application to the information technology activities of 
                the Federal Government; and
            (2) ensure the effective operation of the competitions and 
        challenges under this section.

    (b) Participation.--Participants in the competitions and challenges 
under subsection (a)(1) may include--
            (1) students enrolled in grades 9 through 12;
            (2) students enrolled in a postsecondary program of study 
        leading to a baccalaureate degree at an institution of higher 
        education;
            (3) students enrolled in a postbaccalaureate program of 
        study at an institution of higher education;
            (4) institutions of higher education and research 
        institutions;
            (5) veterans; and
            (6) other groups or individuals that the Secretary of 
        Commerce, Director of the National Science Foundation, and 
        Secretary of Homeland Security determine appropriate.

    (c) Affiliation and Cooperative Agreements.--Competitions and 
challenges under this section may be carried out through affiliation and 
cooperative agreements with--

[[Page 128 STAT. 2982]]

            (1) Federal agencies;
            (2) regional, State, or school programs supporting the 
        development of cyber professionals;
            (3) State, local, and tribal governments; or
            (4) other private sector organizations.

    (d) Areas of Skill.--Competitions and challenges under subsection 
(a)(1)(A) shall be designed to identify, develop, and recruit 
exceptional talent relating to--
            (1) ethical hacking;
            (2) penetration testing;
            (3) vulnerability assessment;
            (4) continuity of system operations;
            (5) security in design;
            (6) cyber forensics;
            (7) offensive and defensive cyber operations; and
            (8) other areas the Secretary of Commerce, Director of the 
        National Science Foundation, and Secretary of Homeland Security 
        consider necessary to fulfill the cybersecurity mission.

    (e) Topics.--In selecting topics for competitions and challenges 
under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Commerce, Director of the 
National Science Foundation, and Secretary of Homeland Security--
            (1) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  shall consult widely both 
        within and outside the Federal Government; and
            (2) may empanel advisory committees.

    (f) Internships.--The Director of the Office of Personnel Management 
may support, as appropriate, internships or other work experience in the 
Federal Government to the winners of the competitions and challenges 
under this section.
SEC. 302. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7442.>>  FEDERAL CYBER SCHOLARSHIP-FOR-
                        SERVICE PROGRAM.

    (a) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  In General.--The Director of the 
National Science Foundation, in coordination with the Director of the 
Office of Personnel Management and Secretary of Homeland Security, shall 
continue a Federal cyber scholarship-for-service program to recruit and 
train the next generation of information technology professionals, 
industrial control system security professionals, and security managers 
to meet the needs of the cybersecurity mission for Federal, State, 
local, and tribal governments.

    (b) Program Description and Components.--The Federal Cyber 
Scholarship-for-Service Program shall--
            (1) provide scholarships through qualified institutions of 
        higher education, including community colleges, to students who 
        are enrolled in programs of study at institutions of higher 
        education leading to degrees or specialized program 
        certifications in the cybersecurity field;
            (2) provide the scholarship recipients with summer 
        internship opportunities or other meaningful temporary 
        appointments in the Federal information technology workforce; 
        and
            (3) prioritize the employment placement of scholarship 
        recipients in the Federal Government.

    (c) <<NOTE: Time period.>>  Scholarship Amounts.--Each scholarship 
under subsection (b) shall be in an amount that covers the student's 
tuition and fees at the institution under subsection (b)(1) for not more 
than 3 years and provides the student with an additional stipend.

[[Page 128 STAT. 2983]]

    (d) Post-award Employment Obligations.--Each scholarship recipient, 
as a condition of receiving a scholarship under the program, shall enter 
into an agreement under which the recipient agrees to work in the 
cybersecurity mission of a Federal, State, local, or tribal agency for a 
period equal to the length of the scholarship following receipt of the 
student's degree.
    (e) Hiring Authority.--
            (1) Appointment in excepted service.--Notwithstanding any 
        provision of chapter 33 of title 5, United States Code, 
        governing appointments in the competitive service, an agency 
        shall appoint in the excepted service an individual who has 
        completed the eligible degree program for which a scholarship 
        was awarded.
            (2) Noncompetitive conversion.--Except as provided in 
        paragraph (4), upon fulfillment of the service term, an employee 
        appointed under paragraph (1) may be converted noncompetitively 
        to term, career-conditional or career appointment.
            (3) Timing of conversion.--An agency may noncompetitively 
        convert a term employee appointed under paragraph (2) to a 
        career-conditional or career appointment before the term 
        appointment expires.
            (4) Authority to decline conversion.--An agency may decline 
        to make the noncompetitive conversion or appointment under 
        paragraph (2) for cause.

    (f) Eligibility.--To be eligible to receive a scholarship under this 
section, an individual shall--
            (1) be a citizen or lawful permanent resident of the United 
        States;
            (2) demonstrate a commitment to a career in improving the 
        security of information technology;
            (3) have demonstrated a high level of proficiency in 
        mathematics, engineering, or computer sciences;
            (4) be a full-time student in an eligible degree program at 
        a qualified institution of higher education, as determined by 
        the Director of the National Science Foundation; and
            (5) accept the terms of a scholarship under this section.

    (g) Conditions of Support.--
            (1) In general.--As a condition of receiving a scholarship 
        under this section, a recipient shall agree to provide the 
        qualified institution of higher education with annual verifiable 
        documentation of post-award employment and up-to-date contact 
        information.
            (2) Terms.--A scholarship recipient under this section shall 
        be liable to the United States as provided in subsection (i) if 
        the individual--
                    (A) fails to maintain an acceptable level of 
                academic standing at the applicable institution of 
                higher education, as determined by the Director of the 
                National Science Foundation;
                    (B) is dismissed from the applicable institution of 
                higher education for disciplinary reasons;
                    (C) withdraws from the eligible degree program 
                before completing the program;
                    (D) declares that the individual does not intend to 
                fulfill the post-award employment obligation under this 
                section; or

[[Page 128 STAT. 2984]]

                    (E) fails to fulfill the post-award employment 
                obligation of the individual under this section.

    (h) Monitoring Compliance.--As a condition of participating in the 
program, a qualified institution of higher education shall--
            (1) <<NOTE: Contracts.>>  enter into an agreement with the 
        Director of the National Science Foundation, to monitor the 
        compliance of scholarship recipients with respect to their post-
        award employment obligations; and
            (2) provide to the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation, on an annual basis, the post-award employment 
        documentation required under subsection (g)(1) for scholarship 
        recipients through the completion of their post-award employment 
        obligations.

    (i) Amount of Repayment.--
            (1) Less than 1 year of service.--If a circumstance 
        described in subsection (g)(2) occurs before the completion of 1 
        year of a post-award employment obligation under this section, 
        the total amount of scholarship awards received by the 
        individual under this section shall--
                    (A) be repaid; or
                    (B) be treated as a loan to be repaid in accordance 
                with subsection (j).
            (2) 1 or more years of service.--If a circumstance described 
        in subparagraph (D) or (E) of subsection (g)(2) occurs after the 
        completion of 1 or more years of a post-award employment 
        obligation under this section, the total amount of scholarship 
        awards received by the individual under this section, reduced by 
        the ratio of the number of years of service completed divided by 
        the number of years of service required, shall--
                    (A) be repaid; or
                    (B) be treated as a loan to be repaid in accordance 
                with subsection (j).

    (j) Repayments.--A loan described subsection (i) shall--
            (1) be treated as a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford 
        Loan under part D of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 
        1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087a et seq.); and
            (2) be subject to repayment, together with interest thereon 
        accruing from the date of the scholarship award, in accordance 
        with terms and conditions specified by the Director of the 
        National Science Foundation (in consultation with the Secretary 
        of Education) in regulations promulgated to carry out this 
        subsection.

    (k) Collection of Repayment.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Determinations.>>  In general.--In the event 
        that a scholarship recipient is required to repay the 
        scholarship award under this section, the qualified institution 
        of higher education providing the scholarship shall--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Notification.>>  determine the repayment 
                amounts and notify the recipient and the Director of the 
                National Science Foundation of the amounts owed; and
                    (B) <<NOTE: Time period.>>  collect the repayment 
                amounts within a period of time as determined by the 
                Director of the National Science Foundation, or the 
                repayment amounts shall be treated as a loan in 
                accordance with subsection (j).
            (2) Returned to treasury.--Except as provided in paragraph 
        (3), any repayment under this subsection shall be returned to 
        the Treasury of the United States.

[[Page 128 STAT. 2985]]

            (3) Retain percentage.--A qualified institution of higher 
        education may retain a percentage of any repayment the 
        institution collects under this subsection to defray 
        administrative costs associated with the 
        collection. <<NOTE: Applicability.>>  The Director of the 
        National Science Foundation shall establish a single, fixed 
        percentage that will apply to all eligible entities.

    (l) Exceptions.--The Director of the National Science Foundation may 
provide for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any service or 
payment obligation by an individual under this section whenever 
compliance by the individual with the obligation is impossible or would 
involve extreme hardship to the individual, or if enforcement of such 
obligation with respect to the individual would be unconscionable.
    (m) Evaluation and Report.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation shall evaluate and report periodically to Congress on the 
success of recruiting individuals for scholarships under this section 
and on hiring and retaining those individuals in the public sector 
workforce.

  TITLE <<NOTE: 15 USC prec. 7451.>>  IV--CYBERSECURITY AWARENESS AND 
PREPAREDNESS
SEC. 401. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7451.>>  NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY AWARENESS 
                        AND EDUCATION PROGRAM.

    (a) National Cybersecurity Awareness and Education Program.--The 
Director <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  of the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology (referred to in this section as the ``Director''), in 
consultation with appropriate Federal agencies, industry, educational 
institutions, National Laboratories, the Networking and Information 
Technology Research and Development program, and other organizations 
shall continue to coordinate a national cybersecurity awareness and 
education program, that includes activities such as--
            (1) the widespread dissemination of cybersecurity technical 
        standards and best practices identified by the Director;
            (2) efforts to make cybersecurity best practices usable by 
        individuals, small to medium-sized businesses, educational 
        institutions, and State, local, and tribal governments;
            (3) increasing public awareness of cybersecurity, cyber 
        safety, and cyber ethics;
            (4) increasing the understanding of State, local, and tribal 
        governments, institutions of higher education, and private 
        sector entities of--
                    (A) the benefits of ensuring effective risk 
                management of information technology versus the costs of 
                failure to do so; and
                    (B) the methods to mitigate and remediate 
                vulnerabilities;
            (5) supporting formal cybersecurity education programs at 
        all education levels to prepare and improve a skilled 
        cybersecurity and computer science workforce for the private 
        sector and Federal, State, local, and tribal government; and
            (6) promoting initiatives to evaluate and forecast future 
        cybersecurity workforce needs of the Federal Government and 
        develop strategies for recruitment, training, and retention.

[[Page 128 STAT. 2986]]

    (b) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  Considerations.--In carrying out the 
authority described in subsection (a), the Director, in consultation 
with appropriate Federal agencies, shall leverage existing programs 
designed to inform the public of safety and security of products or 
services, including self-certifications and independently verified 
assessments regarding the quantification and valuation of information 
security risk.

    (c) Strategic Plan.--The Director, in cooperation with relevant 
Federal agencies and other stakeholders, shall build upon programs and 
plans in effect as of the date of enactment of this Act to develop and 
implement a strategic plan to guide Federal programs and activities in 
support of the national cybersecurity awareness and education program 
under subsection (a).
    (d) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, and every 5 years thereafter, the Director shall transmit the 
strategic plan under subsection (c) to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives.

  TITLE <<NOTE: 15 USC prec. 7461.>>  V--ADVANCEMENT OF CYBERSECURITY 
TECHNICAL STANDARDS
SEC. 501. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7461.>>  DEFINITIONS.

    In this title:
            (1) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
            (2) Institute.--The term ``Institute'' means the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology.
SEC. 502. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7462.>>  INTERNATIONAL CYBERSECURITY 
                        TECHNICAL STANDARDS.

    (a) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  In General.--The Director, in 
coordination with appropriate Federal authorities, shall--
            (1) as appropriate, ensure coordination of Federal agencies 
        engaged in the development of international technical standards 
        related to information system security; and
            (2) <<NOTE: Deadline. Plans.>>  not later than 1 year after 
        the date of enactment of this Act, develop and transmit to 
        Congress a plan for ensuring such Federal agency coordination.

    (b) Consultation With the Private Sector.--In carrying out the 
activities specified in subsection (a)(1), the Director shall ensure 
consultation with appropriate private sector stakeholders.
SEC. 503. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7463.>>  CLOUD COMPUTING STRATEGY.

    (a) <<NOTE: Coordination. Collaboration. Consultation.>>  In 
General.--The Director, in coordination with the Office of Management 
and Budget, in collaboration with the Federal Chief Information Officers 
Council, and in consultation with other relevant Federal agencies and 
stakeholders from the private sector, shall continue to develop and 
encourage the implementation of a comprehensive strategy for the use and 
adoption of cloud computing services by the Federal Government.

    (b) Activities.--In carrying out the strategy described under 
subsection (a), the Director shall give consideration to activities 
that--

[[Page 128 STAT. 2987]]

            (1) accelerate the development, in collaboration with the 
        private sector, of standards that address interoperability and 
        portability of cloud computing services;
            (2) advance the development of conformance testing performed 
        by the private sector in support of cloud computing 
        standardization; and
            (3) <<NOTE: Coordination. Consultation.>>  support, in 
        coordination with the Office of Management and Budget, and in 
        consultation with the private sector, the development of 
        appropriate security frameworks and reference materials, and the 
        identification of best practices, for use by Federal agencies to 
        address security and privacy requirements to enable the use and 
        adoption of cloud computing services, including activities--
                    (A) to ensure the physical security of cloud 
                computing data centers and the data stored in such 
                centers;
                    (B) to ensure secure access to the data stored in 
                cloud computing data centers;
                    (C) to develop security standards as required under 
                section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3); and
                    (D) to support the development of the automation of 
                continuous monitoring systems.
SEC. 504. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7464.>>  IDENTITY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND 
                        DEVELOPMENT.

    The Director shall continue a program to support the development of 
voluntary and cost-effective technical standards, metrology, testbeds, 
and conformance criteria, taking into account appropriate user 
concerns--
            (1) to improve interoperability among identity management 
        technologies;
            (2) to strengthen authentication methods of identity 
        management systems;
            (3) to improve privacy protection in identity management 
        systems, including health information technology systems, 
        through authentication and security protocols; and
            (4) to improve the usability of identity management systems.

    Approved December 18, 2014.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--S. 1353:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

SENATE REPORTS: No. 113-270 (Comm. on Commerce, Science, and Transpor-
                    tation).
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 160 (2014):
            Dec. 11, considered and passed Senate and House.

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