Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.
This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply, himself or his agent, to any foreign government or the agents thereof for redress of any injury which he may have sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §5 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §5, 35 Stat. 1088; Apr. 22, 1932, ch. 126, 47 Stat. 132).
The reference to any citizen or resident within the jurisdiction of the United States not duly authorized “who counsels, advises or assists in such correspondence with such intent” was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of principal in section 2.
Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.
Minor changes of arrangement and in phraseology were made.
1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in first par.