22 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE
CHAPTER 32 - FOREIGN ASSISTANCE
SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE AND SALES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER II—MILITARY ASSISTANCE AND SALES

Part I—Declaration of Policy

§2301. Congressional statement of policy

The Congress of the United States reaffirms the policy of the United States to achieve international peace and security through the United Nations so that armed force shall not be used except for individual or collective self-defense. The Congress finds that the efforts of the United States and other friendly countries to promote peace and security continue to require measures of support based upon the principle of effective self-help and mutual aid. It is the purpose of subchapter II of this chapter to authorize measures in the common defense against internal and external aggression, including the furnishing of military assistance, upon request, to friendly countries and international organizations. In furnishing such military assistance, it remains the policy of the United States to continue to exert maximum efforts to achieve universal control of weapons of mass destruction and universal regulation and reduction of armaments, including armed forces, under adequate safeguards to protect complying countries against violation and evasion.

The Congress recognizes that the peace of the world and the security of the United States are endangered so long as hostile countries continue by threat of military action, by the use of economic pressure, and by internal subversion, or other means to attempt to bring under their domination peoples now free and independent and continue to deny the rights of freedom and self-government to peoples and countries once free but now subject to such domination.

It is the sense of the Congress that an important contribution toward peace would be made by the establishment under the Organization of American States of an international military force.

In enacting this legislation, it is therefore the intention of the Congress to promote the peace of the world and the foreign policy, security, and general welfare of the United States by fostering an improved climate of political independence and individual liberty, improving the ability of friendly countries and international organizations to deter or, if necessary, defeat aggression, facilitating arrangements for individual and collective security, assisting friendly countries to maintain internal security, and creating an environment of security and stability in the developing friendly countries essential to their more rapid social, economic, and political progress. The Congress urges that all other countries able to contribute join in a common undertaking to meet the goals stated in subchapter II of this chapter.

It is the sense of the Congress that in the administration of subchapter II of this chapter priority shall be given to the needs of those countries in danger of becoming victims of aggression or in which the internal security is threatened by internal subversion inspired or supported by hostile countries.

Finally, the Congress reaffirms its full support of the progress of the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization toward increased cooperation in political, military, and economic affairs. In particular, the Congress welcomes the steps which have been taken to promote multilateral programs of coordinated procurement, research, development, and production of defense articles and urges that such programs be expanded to the fullest extent possible to further the defense of the North Atlantic Area.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §501, formerly §502, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 434, renumbered §501 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 103–199, title VII, §705(1), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2328.)

References in Text

This legislation, referred to in fourth paragraph, means Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 501 of Pub. L. 87–195, provided that part II of Pub. L. 87–195 [subchapter II of this chapter] should be cited as the “International Peace and Security Act of 1961”, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §201(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384.

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–199, §705(1)(A), in second par., substituted “hostile countries” for “international communism and the countries it controls”.

Pub. L. 103–199, §705(1)(B), in fourth par., struck out “Communist or Communist-supported” after “if necessary, defeat”.

Pub. L. 103–199, §705(1)(C), in fifth par., substituted “aggression or in which the internal security is threatened by internal subversion inspired or supported by hostile countries.” for “active Communist or Communist-supported aggression or those countries in which the internal security is threatened by Communist-inspired or Communist-supported internal subversion.”

1967—Pub. L. 90–137 inserted par. to indicate that priority shall be given in the use of the funds available to defend against Communist aggression or Communist-inspired internal subversion.

Transfer of Proscribed Weapons to Persons or Entities in the West Bank and Gaza

Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §699, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1418, provided that:

“(a) Determination Regarding Transfers.—If the President determines, based on a preponderance of the evidence, that a foreign person or entity has knowingly transferred proscribed weapons to Palestinian entities in the West Bank or Gaza, then, for the period specified in subsection (b), no assistance may be provided to the person or entity under part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.] and no sales of defense articles or defense services may be made to the person or entity under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2763].

“(b) Duration of Prohibition.—The period referred to in subsection (a) is the period commencing on the date on which a notification of a determination under subsection (a) is submitted to the appropriate congressional committees and ending on the date that is two years after such date.

“(c) Report.—In conjunction with the report required under title VIII of the P.L.O. Commitments Compliance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101–246) [104 Stat. 76], the President shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees on transfers reviewed pursuant to subsection (a).

“(d) Definition.—In this section, the term ‘proscribed weapons’ means arms, ammunition, and equipment the transfer of which is not in compliance with the Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area of May 4, 1994, its annexes, or subsequent agreements between Israel and the PLO, or Palestinian Authority, as appropriate.”

[Functions of President under section 699 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, delegated to Secretary of State by Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 30, 2009, 74 F.R. 22637.]

[For definition of “appropriate congressional committees” as used in section 699 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title.]

§2302. Utilization of defense articles and defense services

Defense articles and defense services to any country shall be furnished solely for internal security (including for antiterrorism and nonproliferation purposes), for legitimate self-defense, to permit the recipient country to participate in regional or collective arrangements or measures consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, or otherwise to permit the recipient country to participate in collective measures requested by the United Nations for the purpose of maintaining or restoring international peace and security, or for the purpose of assisting foreign military forces in less developed friendly countries (or the voluntary efforts of personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States in such countries) to construct public works and to engage in other activities helpful to the economic and social development of such friendly countries. It is the sense of the Congress that such foreign military forces should not be maintained or established solely for civic action activities and that such civic action activities not significantly detract from the capability of the military forces to perform their military missions and be coordinated with and form part of the total economic and social development effort.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §502, formerly §505(a), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(d), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 106–280, title VII, §701, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 861.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 2313 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–280 inserted “(including for antiterrorism and nonproliferation purposes)” after “internal security” in first sentence.

1967—Pub. L. 90–137 substituted “Defense articles and defense services” for “Military assistance”.

1965—Pub. L. 89–171 authorized military assistance to any country for the purpose of assisting foreign military forces in less developed friendly countries (or the voluntary efforts of personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States in such countries) to construct public works and to engage in other activities helpful to the economic and social development of such friendly countries, expressed the sense of Congress that such foreign military forces should not be maintained or established solely for civic action activities, and that such civic action activities should not significantly detract from the capability of the military forces to perform their military missions, and should be coordinated with and from part of the total economic and social development effort, and struck out prohibition against further assistance to Latin American countries, now incorporated in section 2319(c) of this title.

1963—Pub. L. 88–205 inserted proviso stopping further military assistance under this chapter to Latin American countries except to the extent necessary to fulfill prior commitments or to safeguard the security of the United States or of a country associated with the United States in the Alliance for Progress against the overthrow of a duly constituted government, now incorporated in section 2319(c) of this title.

Transfer to Republic of Korea of Defense Articles; Reimbursement for Transfer

Pub. L. 91–652, §3, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1942, authorized the President until June 30, 1972, to transfer to the Republic of Korea such Armed Forces defense articles located in Korea on July 1, 1970 as he determined appropriate and provided that no funds appropriated under Pub. L. 91–652 or this chapter were to be available for reimbursement to any Government agency for any such transfers of defense articles.

§2303. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §104(b)(2)(A), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1426

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §502A, as added Pub. L. 93–189, §12(a), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 720, directed that excess defense articles be provided whenever possible rather than new items.

§2304. Human rights and security assistance

(a) Observance of human rights as principal goal of foreign policy; implementation requirements

(1) The United States shall, in accordance with its international obligations as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations and in keeping with the constitutional heritage and traditions of the United States, promote and encourage increased respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the world without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. Accordingly, a principal goal of the foreign policy of the United States shall be to promote the increased observance of internationally recognized human rights by all countries.

(2) Except under circumstances specified in this section, no security assistance may be provided to any country the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights. Security assistance may not be provided to the police, domestic intelligence, or similar law enforcement forces of a country, and licenses may not be issued under the Export Administration Act of 1979 [50 U.S.C. App. 2401 et seq.] for the export of crime control and detection instruments and equipment to a country, the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights unless the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate (when licenses are to be issued pursuant to the Export Administration Act of 1979).1 that extraordinary circumstances exist warranting provision of such assistance and issuance of such licenses. Assistance may not be provided under part V of this subchapter to a country the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights unless the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that extraordinary circumstances exist warranting provision of such assistance.

(3) In furtherance of paragraphs (1) and (2), the President is directed to formulate and conduct international security assistance programs of the United States in a manner which will promote and advance human rights and avoid identification of the United States, through such programs, with governments which deny to their people internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, in violation of international law or in contravention of the policy of the United States as expressed in this section or otherwise.

(4) In determining whether the government of a country engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, the President shall give particular consideration to whether the government—

(A) has engaged in or tolerated particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 6402 of this title; or

(B) has failed to undertake serious and sustained efforts to combat particularly severe violations of religious freedom when such efforts could have been reasonably undertaken.

(b) Report by Secretary of State on practices of proposed recipient countries; considerations

The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Congress, as part of the presentation materials for security assistance programs proposed for each fiscal year, a full and complete report, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor and with the assistance of the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom, with respect to practices regarding the observance of and respect for internationally recognized human rights in each country proposed as a recipient of security assistance. Wherever applicable, such report shall include consolidated information regarding the commission of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and evidence of acts that may constitute genocide (as defined in article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and modified by the United States instrument of ratification to that convention and section 2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987). Wherever applicable, such report shall include information on practices regarding coercion in population control, including coerced abortion and involuntary sterilization. Such report shall also include, wherever applicable, information on violations of religious freedom, including particularly severe violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 6402 of this title). Wherever applicable, a 2 description of the nature and extent of acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that occur, including the descriptions of such acts required under section 2151n(d)(8) of this title. Such report shall also include, for each country with respect to which the report indicates that extrajudicial killings, torture, or other serious violations of human rights have occurred in the country, the extent to which the United States has taken or will take action to encourage an end to such practices in the country. Each report under this section shall list the votes of each member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on all country-specific and thematic resolutions voted on at the Commission's annual session during the period covered during the preceding year. Each report under this section shall also include (i) wherever applicable, a description of the nature and extent of the compulsory recruitment and conscription of individuals under the age of 18 by armed forces of the government of the country, government-supported paramilitaries, or other armed groups, the participation of such individuals in such groups, and the nature and extent that such individuals take a direct part in hostilities, (ii) what steps, if any, taken by the government of the country to eliminate such practices, and (iii) such other information related to the use by such government of individuals under the age of 18 as soldiers, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary of State. Each report under this section shall describe the extent to which each country has extended protection to refugees, including the provision of first asylum and resettlement. In determining whether a government falls within the provisions of subsection (a)(3) of this section and in the preparation of any report or statement required under this section, consideration shall be given to—

(1) the relevant findings of appropriate international organizations, including nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross; and

(2) the extent of cooperation by such government in permitting an unimpeded investigation by any such organization of alleged violations of internationally recognized human rights.

(c) Congressional request for information; information required; 30-day period; failure to supply information; termination or restriction of assistance

(1) Upon the request of the Senate or the House of Representatives by resolution of either such House, or upon the request of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Secretary of State shall, within thirty days after receipt of such request, transmit to both such committees a statement, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, with respect to the country designated in such request, setting forth—

(A) all the available information about observance of and respect for human rights and fundamental freedom in that country, and a detailed description of practices by the recipient government with respect thereto;

(B) the steps the United States has taken to—

(i) promote respect for and observance of human rights in that country and discourage any practices which are inimical to internationally recognized human rights, and

(ii) publicly or privately call attention to, and disassociate the United States and any security assistance provided for such country from, such practices;


(C) whether, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, notwithstanding any such practices—

(i) extraordinary circumstances exist which necessitate a continuation of security assistance for such country, and, if so, a description of such circumstances and the extent to which such assistance should be continued (subject to such conditions as Congress may impose under this section), and

(ii) on all the facts it is in the national interest of the United States to provide such assistance; and


(D) such other information as such committee or such House may request.


(2)(A) A resolution of request under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(B) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this subsection, a resolution of request of the Senate under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) In the event a statement with respect to a country is requested pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection but is not transmitted in accordance therewith within thirty days after receipt of such request, no security assistance shall be delivered to such country except as may thereafter be specifically authorized by law from such country unless and until such statement is transmitted.

(4)(A) In the event a statement with respect to a country is transmitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Congress may at any time thereafter adopt a joint resolution terminating, restricting, or continuing security assistance for such country. In the event such a joint resolution is adopted, such assistance shall be so terminated, so restricted, or so continued, as the case may be.

(B) Any such resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(C) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this paragraph, a statement transmitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(d) Definitions

For the purposes of this section—

(1) the term “gross violations of internationally recognized human rights” includes torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges and trial, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons, and other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, or the security of person; and

(2) the term “security assistance” means—

(A) assistance under part II (military assistance) or part IV (economic support fund) or part V (military education and training) or part VI (peacekeeping operations) or part VIII (antiterrorism assistance) of this subchapter.

(B) sales of defense articles or services, extensions of credits (including participations in credits, and guaranties of loans under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.]); or

(C) any license in effect with respect to the export of defense articles or defense services to or for the armed forces, police, intelligence, or other internal security forces of a foreign country under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778].

(e) Removal of prohibition on assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds authorized to be appropriated under subchapter I of this chapter may be made available for the furnishing of assistance to any country with respect to which the President finds that such a significant improvement in its human rights record has occurred as to warrant lifting the prohibition on furnishing such assistance in the national interest of the United States.

(f) Allocations concerned with performance record of recipient countries without contravention of other provisions

In allocating the funds authorized to be appropriated by this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], the President shall take into account significant improvements in the human rights records of recipient countries, except that such allocations may not contravene any other provision of law.

(g) Report to Congress on use of certain authorities relating to human rights conditions

Whenever the provisions of subsection (e) or (f) of this section are applied, the President shall report to the Congress before making any funds available pursuant to those subsections. The report shall specify the country involved, the amount and kinds of assistance to be provided, and the justification for providing the assistance, including a description of the significant improvements which have occurred in the country's human rights record.

(h) Report on practices of recipient countries relating to trafficking in persons

(1) The report required by subsection (b) of this section shall include the following:

(A) A description of the nature and extent of severe forms of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 7102 of this title, in each foreign country.

(B) With respect to each country that is a country of origin, transit, or destination for victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons, an assessment of the efforts by the government of that country to combat such trafficking. The assessment shall address the following:

(i) Whether government authorities in that country participate in, facilitate, or condone such trafficking.

(ii) Which government authorities in that country are involved in activities to combat such trafficking.

(iii) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit government officials from participating in, facilitating, or condoning such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of such officials.

(iv) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit other individuals from participating in such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of individuals involved in severe forms of trafficking in persons, the criminal and civil penalties for such trafficking, and the efficacy of those penalties in eliminating or reducing such trafficking.

(v) What steps the government of that country has taken to assist victims of such trafficking, including efforts to prevent victims from being further victimized by traffickers, government officials, or others, grants of relief from deportation, and provision of humanitarian relief, including provision of mental and physical health care and shelter.

(vi) Whether the government of that country is cooperating with governments of other countries to extradite traffickers when requested, or, to the extent that such cooperation would be inconsistent with the laws of such country or with extradition treaties to which such country is a party, whether the government of that country is taking all appropriate measures to modify or replace such laws and treaties so as to permit such cooperation.

(vii) Whether the government of that country is assisting in international investigations of transnational trafficking networks and in other cooperative efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(viii) Whether the government of that country refrains from prosecuting victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons due to such victims having been trafficked, and refrains from other discriminatory treatment of such victims.

(ix) Whether the government of that country recognizes the rights of victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons and ensures their access to justice.


(C) Such other information relating to trafficking in persons as the Secretary of State considers appropriate.


(2) In compiling data and making assessments for the purposes of paragraph (1), United States diplomatic mission personnel shall consult with human rights organizations and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations.

(i) Report on status of freedom of the press in recipient countries

The report required by subsection (b) shall include, wherever applicable—

(1) a description of the status of freedom of the press, including initiatives in favor of freedom of the press and efforts to improve or preserve, as appropriate, the independence of the media, together with an assessment of progress made as a result of those efforts;

(2) an identification of countries in which there were violations of freedom of the press, including direct physical attacks, imprisonment, indirect sources of pressure, and censorship by governments, military, intelligence, or police forces, criminal groups, or armed extremist or rebel groups; and

(3) in countries where there are particularly severe violations of freedom of the press—

(A) whether government authorities of each such country participate in, facilitate, or condone such violations of the freedom of the press; and

(B) what steps the government of each such country has taken to preserve the safety and independence of the media, and to ensure the prosecution of those individuals who attack or murder journalists.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §502B, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §46, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1815; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §301(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 748; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(3), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 95–384, §§6(a)–(d)(1), (e), 10(b)(1), 12(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 731, 732, 735, 737; Pub. L. 96–53, title V, §511, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 96–92, §4, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §§701(b), 704, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3156, 3157; Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §124, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1201, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 276; Pub. L. 100–204, title I, §127(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1343; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588; Pub. L. 104–319, title II, §201(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3866; Pub. L. 105–292, title I, §102(d)(2), title IV, §421(b), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2795, 2810; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, §252, title VIII, §806(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–432, 1501A–471; Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, §104(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1472; Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §§665(b), 683(b), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1407, 1411; Pub. L. 108–332, §6(a)(2), Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 111–166, §2(2), May 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 1187.)

References in Text

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, as amended, which is classified principally to section 2401 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2401 of Title 50, Appendix, and Tables.

Section 2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987, referred to in subsec. (b), probably means section 2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987 (the Proxmire Act), Pub. L. 100–606, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3045, which enacted chapter 50A (§1091 et seq.) of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 601 of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (4)(B), is section 601 of Pub. L. 94–329, which was not classified to the Code.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(2)(B) and (f), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Codification

The 1983 amendment by Pub. L. 98–151 is based on section 202(a) of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, 1st Session, as reported May 17, 1983, which was enacted into permanent law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–166 added subsec. (i).

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–332 inserted after fourth sentence of introductory provisions “Wherever applicable, a description of the nature and extent of acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that occur, including the descriptions of such acts required under section 2151n(d)(8) of this title.”

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–228, §683(b), in introductory provisions, inserted after sixth sentence “Each report under this section shall also include (i) wherever applicable, a description of the nature and extent of the compulsory recruitment and conscription of individuals under the age of 18 by armed forces of the government of the country, government-supported paramilitaries, or other armed groups, the participation of such individuals in such groups, and the nature and extent that such individuals take a direct part in hostilities, (ii) what steps, if any, taken by the government of the country to eliminate such practices, and (iii) such other information related to the use by such government of individuals under the age of 18 as soldiers, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary of State.”

Pub. L. 107–228, §665(b), in introductory provisions, inserted after fourth sentence “Such report shall also include, for each country with respect to which the report indicates that extrajudicial killings, torture, or other serious violations of human rights have occurred in the country, the extent to which the United States has taken or will take action to encourage an end to such practices in the country.”

2000—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–386 added subsec. (h).

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–113, in introductory provisions, inserted after first sentence “Wherever applicable, such report shall include consolidated information regarding the commission of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and evidence of acts that may constitute genocide (as defined in article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and modified by the United States instrument of ratification to that convention and section 2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987).” and inserted after fourth sentence “Each report under this section shall describe the extent to which each country has extended protection to refugees, including the provision of first asylum and resettlement.”

1998—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–292, §421(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–292, §102(d)(2), in introductory provisions, inserted “and with the assistance of the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom” after “Labor” and “Such report shall also include, wherever applicable, information on violations of religious freedom, including particularly severe violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 6402 of this title).” after “sterilization.”

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–319 inserted “Each report under this section shall list the votes of each member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on all country-specific and thematic resolutions voted on at the Commission's annual session during the period covered during the preceding year.” after second sentence.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–236 substituted “Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor” for “Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Foreign Affairs” for “International Relations” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–236 substituted “Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor” for “Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs” in introductory provisions.

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–204 inserted after first sentence “Wherever applicable, such report shall include information on practices regarding coercion in population control, including coerced abortion and involuntary sterilization.”

1985—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–64 inserted “and the chairman of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate (when licenses are to be issued pursuant to the Export Administration Act of 1979).”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–83 added subsec. (g).

1983—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–151 inserted “or part VIII (antiterrorism assistance)”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–533, §704, substituted “Export Administration Act of 1979” for “Export Administration Act of 1969”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 96–533, §701(b), defined “gross violations of internationally recognized human rights” to include causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons.

1979—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–53 added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–92 added subsec. (f).

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–384, §6(a), substituted “The United States shall” for “It is the policy of the United States”, “throughout the world” for “for all”, and “Accordingly” for “To this end”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–384, §6(b), (d)(1), (e), substituted “Except” for “It is further the policy of the United States that, except” and inserted provisions prohibiting security assistance, including crime control and detection instruments, from being provided to police, domestic intelligence, or other police forces of governments which the executive branch determines are guilty of a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights and prohibiting assistance under part V of this subchapter to a country the government of which, as determined by the executive branch, is engaged in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–384, §6(c), substituted “paragraphs (1) and (2),” for “the foregoing policy”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–384, §§10(b)(1), 12(b), substituted “(economic support fund)” for “(security supporting assistance)”, inserted “or part VI (peacekeeping operations)” after “and training)”, and struck out “or subchapter V (assistance to the Middle East) of this chapter” after “of this subchapter”.

1977—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–105 substituted “Assistant Secretary of State” for “Coordinator”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–329 restricted the power of the President by eliminating the extraordinary circumstances exception to termination of assistance for gross violations of recognized human rights, directed the Secretary of State, as part of the presentation materials for an assistance program, to transmit a full and complete report to Congress on the human rights practices of the proposed recipient country and, within 30 days of a request by Congress, to supply information concerning the human rights practices of a country receiving assistance for determination as to whether the assistance should be continued, restricted, or terminated, and defined “security assistance”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–332 applicable beginning with the first report under sections 2151n(d), 2304(b), and 6412(b) of this title submitted more than 180 days after Oct. 16, 2004, see section 6(c) of Pub. L. 108–332, set out as a note under section 2151n of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be “such report shall include a”.

§2305. National Security Assistance Strategy

(a) Multiyear plan

Not later than 180 days after October 6, 2000, and annually thereafter at the time of submission of the congressional presentation materials of the foreign operations appropriations budget request, the Secretary of State should submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a plan setting forth a National Security Assistance Strategy for the United States.

(b) Elements of the Strategy

The National Security Assistance Strategy should—

(1) set forth a multi-year plan for security assistance programs;

(2) be consistent with the National Security Strategy of the United States;

(3) be coordinated with the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;

(4) be prepared, in consultation with other agencies, as appropriate;

(5) identify overarching security assistance objectives, including identification of the role that specific security assistance programs will play in achieving such objectives;

(6) identify a primary security assistance objective, as well as specific secondary objectives, for individual countries;

(7) identify, on a country-by-country basis, how specific resources will be allocated to accomplish both primary and secondary objectives;

(8) discuss how specific types of assistance, such as foreign military financing and international military education and training, will be combined at the country level to achieve United States objectives; and

(9) detail, with respect to each of the paragraphs (1) through (8), how specific types of assistance provided pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] are coordinated with United States assistance programs managed by the Department of Defense and other agencies.

(c) Covered assistance

The National Security Assistance Strategy should cover assistance provided under—

(1) section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763);

(2) chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347 et seq.); and

(3) section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2321j].

(Pub. L. 106–280, title V, §501, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 854.)

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(9), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsecs. (b)(9) and (c)(2), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. Chapter 5 of part II of the Act is classified generally to part V (§2347 et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Security Assistance Act of 2000, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Definition

Pub. L. 106–280, §2, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 846, provided that: “In this Act [see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 2151 of this title], the term ‘appropriate committees of Congress’ means the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] of the House of Representatives.”

Part II—Military Assistance

§2311. General authority

(a) Defense articles and services; noncombatant personnel; transfer of funds

The President is authorized to furnish military assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to any friendly country or international organization, the assisting of which the President finds will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace and which is otherwise eligible to receive such assistance, by—

(1) acquiring for any source and providing (by loan or grant) any defense article or defense service;

(2) assigning or detailing members of the Armed Forces of the United States and other personnel of the Department of Defense to perform duties of a noncombatant nature; or

(3) transferring such of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available under this part as the President may determine for assistance to a recipient country, to the account in which funds for the procurement of defense articles and defense services under section 21 and section 22 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2761 and 2762] have been deposited for such recipient, to be merged with such deposited funds, and to be used solely to meet obligations of the recipient for payment for sales under that Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].


Sales which are wholly paid from funds transferred under paragraph (3) or from funds made available on a non-repayable basis under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2763] shall be priced to exclude the costs of salaries of members of the Armed Forces of the United States (other than the Coast Guard).

(b) Terms and conditions

In addition to such other terms and conditions as the President may determine pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, defense articles may be loaned thereunder only if—

(1) there is a bona fide reason, other than the shortage of funds, for providing such articles on a loan basis rather than on a grant basis;

(2) there is a reasonable expectation that such articles will be returned to the agency making the loan at the end of the loan period, unless the loan is then renewed;

(3) the loan period is of fixed duration not exceeding five years, during which such article may be recalled for any reason by the United States;

(4) the agency making the loan is reimbursed for the loan based on the amount charged to the appropriation for military assistance under subsection (c) of this section; and

(5) the loan agreement provides that (A) if the defense article is damaged while on loan, the country or international organization to which it was loaned will reimburse the United States for the cost of restoring or replacing the defense article, and (B) if the defense article is lost or destroyed while on loan, the country or international organization to which it was loaned will pay to the United States an amount equal to the replacement cost (less any depreciation in the value) of the defense article.

(c) Appropriation charges; exceptions

(1) In the case of any loan of a defense article or defense service made under this section, there shall be a charge to the appropriation for military assistance for any fiscal year while the article or service is on loan in an amount based on—

(A) the out-of-pocket expenses authorized to be incurred in connection with such loan during such fiscal year; and

(B) the depreciation which occurs during such year while such article is on loan.


(2) The provisions of this subsection shall not apply—

(A) to any particular defense article or defense service which the United States Government agreed, prior to December 17, 1973, to lend; and

(B) to any defense article or defense service, or portion thereof, acquired with funds appropriated for military assistance under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §503, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 435; Pub. L. 88–633, §201(a), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(a), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(b), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(1), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3138; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §§109(c), 110(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §123(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §586(a), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–50.)

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Codification

A guaranty provision, formerly subsec. (e) of this section, was renumbered section 525(a) of Pub. L. 87–195 by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(b)(3), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455, and classified to section 2345(a) of this title and repealed by Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–461 inserted in last sentence “or from funds made available on a non-repayable basis under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act” after “under paragraph (3)” and “(other than the Coast Guard)” after “Armed Forces of the United States”.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83 inserted sentence relating to pricing of sales wholly paid from transferred funds.

1981—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–113, §110(c), substituted “country” for “specified in section 2312(a)(1) of this title, within the dollar limitations of that section”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted provision respecting payment of restoration or replacement costs for defense articles on loan for provision for making such a loan only if arrangements were made with the agency making the loan for reimbursement in the event the article was lost or destroyed while on loan, the reimbursement of which was to be made first out of any funds available to carry out this part and based on the depreciated value of the article at the time of loss or destruction.

1980—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–533 added par. (3).

1973—Pub. L. 93–189 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out references to making financial contributions to multilateral programs for the acquisition or construction of facilities for collective defense and providing financial assistance for expenses incident to participation by the United States government in regional or collective defense organizations, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137, §201(b)(1), substituted “or grant” for “, lease, sale, exchange, grant, or any other means”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–137, §201(b)(2), substituted a period for “; and”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–137, §201(b)(3), struck out subsec. (e) which related to the guaranty and insuring against political and credit risks in connection with credit sales for defense articles and services procured in the United States. See Codification note above.

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–171 struck out “in foreign countries” after “facilities”.

1964—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 88–633 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 586(c) of Pub. L. 100–461 provided that: “This section [amending this section] shall be effective on October 1, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Reports to Congressional Committees

Section 301 of Pub. L. 100–461 provided: “That the Committees on Appropriations shall be furnished on March 1 of each year a complete report of the status of military assistance funds appropriated by this or any future Act committed for the payment of any sales under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] as regards the individual sale, item description, and estimated sales price.”

Findings by Secretary of State

The Secretary of State, in the implementation of the functions delegated to him under section 2314(a)(1), (4), and (e) of this title, was authorized by section 1–701(e)(1) of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56678, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title, to find, in the case of a proposed transfer of a defense article or a related training or a related defense service by a foreign country or international organization to a foreign country or international organization not otherwise eligible under subsec. (a) of this section, whether the proposed transfer would strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace.

Review of Military Assistance Program; Reduction and Elimination Plan; Submittal to Congress

Pub. L. 93–559, §17, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1800, which set forth provisions respecting review of military assistance program and submittal to Congress of plan for reduction and elimination, was repealed by Pub. L. 95–384, §29(c)(4), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 747.

§2312. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization and availability of amounts

(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part $805,100,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $805,100,000 for fiscal year 1987.

(2) Amounts appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.

(b) Programing and budgeting procedures

In order to make sure that a dollar spent on military assistance to foreign countries is as necessary as a dollar spent for the United States military establishment, the President shall establish procedures for programing and budgeting so that programs of military assistance come into direct competition for financial support with other activities and programs of the Department of Defense.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §504, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(b), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(c), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(a), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. II, §201, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(2), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 93–559, §10, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1798; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §101, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 95–23, Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 54; Pub. L. 95–92, §5(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 614; Pub. L. 95–384, §7(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §5(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §110(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §103, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 195.)

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–83 amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $805,100,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of not to exceed $238,500,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113 in par. (1) substituted appropriations of $238,500,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983 for appropriation of $106,100,000 for fiscal year 1981 and struck out provision limiting assistance in listed amounts to Portugal ($51,000,000), Spain ($3,600,000), Philippines ($25,000,000), and Sudan ($1,700,000) for fiscal year 1981 and authorization of a 10-percent increase in any such amount when deemed necessary by the President, redesignated former par. (4) as (2), struck out former pars. (2), which limited assistance to those countries listed in par. (1), and par. (3), which provided that the authority contained in sections 2360(a) and 2364(a) of this title not be used to increase the amounts specified in par. (1) or the limitations in par. (2).

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted appropriations authorization of $106,100,000 for fiscal year 1981 with allocations of specified amounts for certain countries for fiscal year 1981 for such authorization of $110,200,000 for fiscal year 1980 with similar allocations for fiscal year 1980, included an allocation for The Sudan and deleted Jordan from the list.

1979—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–92 substituted appropriations authorization of $110,200,000 for fiscal year 1980 for prior authorization of $133,500,000 for fiscal year 1979, made the allocations available in specified amounts to Portugal, Spain, Jordan and the Philippines, struck out from the listing Greece, and struck out “for the fiscal year 1979” after “any such country” in provision limiting the percentage increment in an allotment to such fiscal year.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–384 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of $133,500,000 to the President for fiscal year 1979 to carry out the purposes of this part with specified amounts allocated to Portugal, Spain, Jordan, the Philippines, and Greece for provisions authorizing appropriations of $228,900,000 to the President for fiscal year 1978 to carry out the purposes of this part with specified amounts allocated to Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Jordan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 1978 to carry out the purposes of this part with specified amounts allocated to Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Jordan, Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand, for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1976 and 1977 to carry out the purposes of this part with specified amounts allocated to Greece, Indonesia, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Portugal.

Pub. L. 95–23 substituted “$179,550,000” for “$177,300,000” and added Portugal, with a fiscal year 1977 limit of $32,250,000, to the table of countries.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions prohibiting assistance to countries other than the countries specified in par. (1) except with respect to costs incurred under section 2321j(b) of this title or as otherwise required by law, for provisions setting forth limitations on amounts available for fiscal years 1976 and 1977 to carry out the purposes of this part with respect to assistance to international organizations and countries not designated in former par. (1).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions relating to the authority of sections 2360(a) and 2364(a) of this title, for provisions setting forth limitations on the number of countries eligible for assistance under this part in fiscal years 1976 and 1977.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions authorizing availability until expended of amounts appropriated under this subsection, for provisions relating to the authority of sections 2360(a) and 2364(a) of this title to increase appropriated amounts and making inapplicable to emergency assistance under section 2314(a) of this title limitations on appropriated funds under this section.

Subsec. (a)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 95–92 struck out pars. (5) to (8) which provided for appropriations for administrative and related expenses for fiscal years 1976 and 1977, restricted use of funds with respect to sophisticated weapons systems, authorized appropriated amounts to remain available until expended, and required assistance to Turkey under this part to be subject to section 2370(x) of this title, respectively.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for the purpose of this part of $196,700,000 for fiscal 1976 and $177,300,000 for fiscal 1977, with limitations in expenditures for the specified countries, and authorizing an increase of not more than 10% of the specified amounts if the President finds it necessary for the purpose of this part, for provisions authorizing appropriations not to exceed $600,000,000 for fiscal 1975 with provisos limiting assistance under this part to thirty-one countries except for training in the United States, and prohibiting the furnishing of sophisticated weapons systems to underdeveloped countries unless the President determined that such systems were important to national security, and added pars. (2) to (8).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559 substituted “$600,000,000 for the fiscal year 1975” for “$512,500,000 for the fiscal year 1974” and designated existing provision as item (1) and added item (2).

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189 substituted “$512,500,000 for the fiscal year 1974”, for “$500,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972” and “thirty-one countries” for “forty countries”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226 substituted “$500,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972” for “$350,000,000 for the fiscal year 1970, and $350,000,000 for the fiscal year 1971”.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 substituted “$350,000,000 for the fiscal year 1970, and $350,000,000 for the fiscal year 1971” for “$375,000,000 for the fiscal year 1969,” and inserted provisions cost-sharing expenses of United States participation in the military headquarters and related agencies program.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–554 substituted “1969” and “$375,000,000” for “1968” and “$510,000,000”, respectively, struck out provisions which made $24,100,000 of authorization available for fiscal year 1968, for cost-sharing expenses, and which prohibited other available funds from being used for cost-sharing expenses, and prohibited use of appropriated funds for weapons systems expenditures without Presidential determination of importance to national security and report to Congress, respectively.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted provisions authorizing appropriation of $510,000,000 for fiscal year 1968 for provisions authorizing appropriation of $875,000,000 for fiscal year 1967 in addition to such amounts as may be otherwise authorized to support Vietnamese forces and other free world forces in Vietnam, made $24,100,000 of such authorization available for fiscal year 1968 for cost-sharing expenses, and prohibited other available funds from being used for such cost-sharing expenses.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–583 substituted provisions authorizing appropriation of $875,000,000 for fiscal year 1967 in addition to such amounts as may be otherwise authorized to support Vietnamese forces and other free world forces in Vietnam and limiting assistance to forty countries in any fiscal year for provisions authorizing appropriation of $1,170,000,000 for fiscal year 1966 and prescribing availability of minimum of $200,000,000 for use in Vietnam for fiscal year 1965 unless otherwise determined by the President and so reported to Committees on Foreign Relations and Appropriations of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House.

1965—Pub. L. 89–171 substituted “1966” and “$1,170,000,000” for “1965” and “$1,055,000,000”, respectively.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–633 substituted “1965” and “$1,055,000,000” for “1964” and “$1,000,000,000”, respectively, and required not less than $200,000,000 to be available for fiscal year 1965 for use in Vietnam unless the President determined and reported otherwise to Congressional committees.

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–205 substituted “fiscal year 1964” and “$1,000,000,000, which”, for “the fiscal years 1962 and 1963” and “$1,700,000,000 for each such fiscal year, which sum”, respectively.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2313. Transferred

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §505(a), (b), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436, as amended, was renumbered §§502, 507(c) of Pub. L. 87–195 by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(d)(1), (l), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456, 457, and transferred to sections 2302 and 2319 of this title.

§2314. Furnishing of defense articles or related training or other defense service on grant basis

(a) Conditions of eligibility

In addition to such other provisions as the President may require, no defense articles or related training or other defense service shall be furnished to any country on a grant basis unless it shall have agreed that—

(1) it will not, without the consent of the President—

(A) permit any use of such articles or related training or other defense service by anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of that country,

(B) transfer, or permit any officer, employee, or agent of that country to transfer such articles or related training or other defense service by gift, sale, or otherwise, or

(C) use or permit the use of such articles or related training or other defense service for purposes other than those for which furnished;


(2) it will maintain the security of such articles or related training or other defense service, and will provide substantially the same degree of security protection afforded to such articles or related training or other defense service by the United States Government;

(3) it will, as the President may require, permit continuous observation and review by, and furnish necessary information to, representatives of the United States Government with regard to the use of such articles or related training or other defense service; and

(4) unless the President consents to other disposition, it will return to the United States Government for such use or disposition as the President considers in the best interests of the United States, such articles or related training or other defense service which are no longer needed for the purposes for which furnished.

(b) Limitation on amount; exceptions

No defense articles shall be furnished on a grant basis to any country at a cost in excess of $3,000,000 in any fiscal year unless the President determines—

(1) that such country conforms to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations;

(2) that such defense articles will be utilized by such country for the maintenance of its own defensive strength, or the defensive strength of the free world;

(3) that such country is taking all reasonable measures, consistent with its political and economic stability, which may be needed to develop its defense capacities; and

(4) that the increased ability of such country to defend itself is important to the security of the United States.

(c) Reduction and termination of grants to countries able to maintain adequate military forces without undue economic strain

The President shall regularly reduce and, with such deliberate speed as orderly procedure and other relevant considerations, including prior commitments, will permit, shall terminate all further grants of military equipment and supplies to any country having sufficient wealth to enable it, in the judgment of the President, to maintain and equip its own military forces at adequate strength, without undue burden to its economy.

(d) Termination of assistance; report of violation by President; conditions for reinstatement

(1) Assistance and deliveries of assistance under this part to any country shall be terminated as hereinafter provided, if such country uses defense articles or defense services furnished under this chapter, the Mutual Security Act of 1954, or any predecessor Foreign Assistance Act, in substantial violation (either in terms of quantities or in terms of the gravity of the consequences regardless of the quantities involved) of any agreement entered into pursuant to any such Act (A) by using such articles or services for a purpose not authorized under section 2302 of this title or, if such agreement provides that such articles or services may only be used for purposes more limited than those authorized under section 2302 of this title, for a purpose not authorized under such agreement; (B) by transferring such articles or services to, or permitting any use of such articles or services by, anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of the recipient country without the consent of the President; or (C) by failing to maintain the security of such articles or services.

(2)(A) Assistance and deliveries of assistance shall be terminated pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection if the President so determines and so states in writing to the Congress, or if the Congress so finds by joint resolution.

(B) The President shall report to the Congress promptly upon the receipt of information that a violation described in paragraph (1) of this subsection may have occurred.

(3) Assistance to a country shall remain terminated in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection until such time as—

(A) the President determines that the violation has ceased; and

(B) the country concerned has given assurances satisfactory to the President that such violation will not recur.


(4) The authority contained in section 2364(a) of this title may not be used to waive the provisions of this section with respect to further assistance under this part.

(e) Consent by President to transfer

In considering a request for approval of any transfer of any weapon, weapons system, munitions, aircraft, military boat, military vessel, or other implement of war to another country, the President shall not give his consent under subsection (a)(1) or (a)(4) of this section to the transfer unless the United States itself would transfer the defense article under consideration to that country. In addition, the President shall not give his consent under subsection (a)(1) or (a)(4) of this section to the transfer of any significant defense articles on the United States Munitions List unless the foreign country requesting consent to transfer agrees to demilitarize such defense articles prior to transfer, or the proposed recipient foreign country provides a commitment in writing to the United States Government that it will not transfer such defense articles, if not demilitarized, to any other foreign country or person without first obtaining the consent of the President.

(f) Disposition of defense articles furnished on a grant basis; net proceeds to be paid over to the United States

Effective July 1, 1974, no defense article shall be furnished to any country on a grant basis unless such country shall have agreed that the net proceeds of sale received by such country in disposing of any weapon, weapons system, munition, aircraft, military boat, military vessel, or other implement of war received under this part will be paid to the United States Government and shall be available to pay all official costs of the United States Government payable in the currency of that country, including all costs relating to the financing of international educational and cultural exchange activities in which that country participates under the programs authorized by the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.]. In the case of items which were delivered prior to 1985, the President may waive the requirement that such net proceeds be paid to the United States Government if he determines that to do so is in the national interest of the United States.

(g) Discrimination on basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex prohibited

(1) It is the policy of the United States that no assistance under this part should be furnished to any foreign country, the laws, regulations, official policies, or governmental practices of which prevent any United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30) of title 26) from participating in the furnishing of defense articles or defense services under this part on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex.

(2)(A) No agency performing functions under this part shall, in employing or assigning personnel to participate in the performance of any such function, whether in the United States or abroad, take into account the exclusionary policies or practices of any foreign government where such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex.

(B) Each contract entered into by any such agency for the performance of any function under this part shall contain a provision to the effect that no person, partnership, corporation, or other entity performing functions pursuant to such contract, shall, in employing or assigning personnel to participate in the performance of any such function, whether in the United States or abroad, take into account the exclusionary policies or practices of any foreign government where such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex.

(3) The President shall promptly transmit reports to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate concerning any transaction in which any United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30) of title 26) is prevented by a foreign government on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, from participating in the furnishing of assistance under this part, or education and training under part V of this subchapter, to any foreign country. Such reports shall include (A) a description of the facts and circumstances of any such discrimination, (B) the response thereto on the part of the United States or any agency or employee thereof, and (C) the result of such response, if any.

(4)(A) Upon the request of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the President shall, within 60 days after receipt of such request, transmit to both such committees a statement, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, with respect to the country designated in such request, setting forth—

(i) all the available information about the exclusionary policies or practices of the government of such country when such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex and prevent any such person from participating in a transaction involving the furnishing of any assistance under this part or any education and training under part V of this subchapter;

(ii) the response of the United States thereto and the results of such response;

(iii) whether, in the opinion of the President, notwithstanding any such policies or practices—

(I) extraordinary circumstances exist which necessitate a continuation of such assistance or education and training transaction, and, if so, a description of such circumstances and the extent to which such assistance or education and training transaction should be continued (subject to such conditions as Congress may impose under this section), and

(II) on all the facts it is in the national interest of the United States to continue such assistance or education and training transaction; and


(iv) such other information as such committee may request.


(B) In the event a statement with respect to an assistance or training transaction is requested pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph but is not transmitted in accordance therewith within 60 days after receipt of such request, such assistance or training transaction shall be suspended unless and until such statement is transmitted.

(C)(i) In the event a statement with respect to an assistance or training transaction is transmitted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Congress may at any time thereafter adopt a joint resolution terminating or restricting such assistance or training transaction.

(ii) Any such resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(iii) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this paragraph, a statement transmitted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §505, formerly §506, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(b), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §505, Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(e), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456 and amended Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(b), (c), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(3), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §§203(b), 204(b)(2), title III, §§302(a), 304(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 735, 736, 751, 754; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(4), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §123(b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–513, title III, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Security Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended by acts July 8, 1955, ch. 301, 69 Stat. 283; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §§2–11, 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–141, 71 Stat. 355; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85–477, ch. 1, §§101–103, ch. II, §§201–205, ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401, ch. V, §501, 72 Stat. 261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86–108, §2, ch. 1, §101, ch. II, §§201–205(a)–(i), (k)–(n), ch. III, §301, ch. IV, §401(a)–(k), (m), 73 Stat. 246; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. I to V, 74 Stat. 134, which was principally classified to chapter 24 (§1750 et seq.) of this title and which was repealed by act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, §8(m), 70 Stat. 559, Pub. L. 85–141, §§2(e) 3, 4(b), 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 356, Pub. L. 86–108, ch. II, §§205(j), ch. IV, 401(1), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250, Pub. L. 86–472, ch. II, §§203(d), 204(k), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 138, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460, Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §228, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963, except for sections 1754, 1783, 1796, 1853, 1928, and 1937 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1754 of this title and Tables.

The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 5 Stat. 527, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 33 (§2451 et. seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and Tables.

Section 601 of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (g)(4)(C)(ii), is section 601 of Pub. L. 94–329, which was not classified to the Code.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (g)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Foreign Affairs” for “International Relations” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–236 substituted “Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor” for “Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs” in introductory provisions.

1990—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–513 substituted “1985” for “1975” in second sentence.

1986—Subsec. (g)(1), (3). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1985—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–83 inserted provisions relating to waiver for items delivered prior to 1975.

1977—Subsec. (g)(4)(A). Pub. L. 95–105 substituted “Assistant Secretary of State” for “Coordinator” in provisions preceding cl. (i).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329, §203(b), inserted “or related training or other defense service” after “articles” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–329, §304(a), provided that either the President, by so stating in a writing to Congress, or Congress, by joint resolution, terminate assistance upon determining a violation, specified conditions for reinstatement of assistance, and denied the President the power, where a violation has been determined, of granting assistance on the basis of national security.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–329, §204(b)(2), struck out provisions relating to the President's notification of his consent to transfer war implements to another country, in writing, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate indicating his justification for the transfer and the particular war implement transferred.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–329 added subsec. (g).

1973—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 93–189 added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1972—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 92–226, §201(b), substituted “or” for “and”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–226, §201(c), repealed provisions respecting conditions of eligibility requiring agreements for use of foreign currencies from sale of surplus commodities for common defense including internal security.

1966—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–583 added subsec. (e).

1962—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 87–565 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 203(b) of Pub. L. 94–329 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1976.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2314a. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–189, §26(4), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731

Section, Pub. L. 91–672, §9, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055, related to transfer of defense articles to other countries under sections 2314(a)(1), (4) and 2753(a)(2) of this title and prerequisites for consent of President to transfer.

§§2315 to 2317. Transferred

Codification

Section 2315, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §507, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437, as amended, which related to sale of defense articles and services, manner of payment, price of non-excess defense articles, value of excess defense articles, contracts for procurement, undertakings, and fixed-price sales agreements, was renumbered §§522, 523 of Pub. L. 87–195 by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(f), (g), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456, and transferred to sections 2342 and 2343 of this title, respectively, which sections were subsequently repealed.

Section 2316, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §508, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437, as amended, which related to reimbursements and transfers to separate fund account, was renumbered §524 of Pub. L. 87–195 by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(h), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456, and transferred to section 2344 of this title.

Section 2317(a), Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §509(a), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(d), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011, related to exchanges, and was repealed by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(i)(1), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457.

Section 2317(b), Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §509(b), as added Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(d), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011, which related to guaranties, was renumbered §525(b) of Pub. L. 87–195 by Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(i)(2), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457, transferred to section 2345(b) of this title, and subsequently repealed.

§2318. Special authority

(a) Unforeseen emergency; national interest; determinations and reports to Congress; limitation of defense articles, defense services, and military education and training furnished

(1) If the President determines and reports to the Congress in accordance with section 2411 of this title that—

(A) an unforeseen emergency exists which requires immediate military assistance to a foreign country or international organization; and

(B) the emergency requirement cannot be met under the authority of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or any other law except this section;


he may direct, for the purposes of subchapter II of this chapter, the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training, of an aggregate value of not to exceed $100,000,000 in any fiscal year.

(2)(A) If the President determines and reports to the Congress in accordance with section 2411 of this title that it is in the national interest of the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the United States Government and military education and training from the Department of Defense, the President may direct the drawdown of such articles, services, and military education and training—

(i) for the purposes and under the authorities of—

(I) part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to international narcotics control assistance);

(II) part IX of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to international disaster assistance);

(III) part VIII of subchapter II of this chapter (relating to antiterrorism assistance);

(IV) part IX of subchapter II of this chapter (relating to nonproliferation assistance); or

(V) the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 [22 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.]; or


(ii) for the purpose of providing such articles, services, and military education and training to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos as the President determines are necessary—

(I) to support cooperative efforts to locate and repatriate members of the United States Armed Forces and civilians employed directly or indirectly by the United States Government who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War; and

(II) to ensure the safety of United States Government personnel engaged in such cooperative efforts and to support Department of Defense-sponsored humanitarian projects associated with such efforts.


(B) An aggregate value of not to exceed $200,000,000 in any fiscal year of such articles, services, and military education and training may be provided pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph—

(i) not more than $75,000,000 of which may be provided from the drawdown from the inventory and resources of the Department of Defense;

(ii) not more than $75,000,000 of which may be provided pursuant to clause (i)(I) of such subparagraph; and

(iii) not more than $15,000,000 of which may be provided to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos pursuant to clause (ii) of such subparagraph.

(b) Notification and information to Congress of assistance furnished

(1) The authority contained in this section shall be effective for any such emergency only upon prior notification to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations of each House of Congress. In the case of drawdowns authorized by subclauses (I) and (III) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(i) of this section, notifications shall be provided to those committees at least 15 days in advance of the drawdowns in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.

(2) The President shall keep the Congress fully and currently informed of all defense articles, defense services, and military education and training provided under this section, including providing the Congress with a report detailing all defense articles, defense services, and military education and training delivered to the recipient country or international organization upon delivery of such articles or upon completion of such services or education and training. Such report shall also include whether any savings were realized by utilizing commercial transport services rather than acquiring those services from United States Government transport assets.

(c) Commercial transportation and related services

For the purposes of any provision of law that authorizes the drawdown of defense or other articles or commodities, or defense or other services from an agency of the United States Government, such drawdown may include the supply of commercial transportation and related services that are acquired by contract for the purposes of the drawdown in question if the cost to acquire such commercial transportation and related services is less than the cost to the United States Government of providing such services from existing agency assets.

(d) Authorization of appropriations for reimbursement of applicable funds

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President such sums as may be necessary to reimburse the applicable appropriation, fund, or account for defense articles, defense services, and military education and training provided under this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §506, formerly §510, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(d), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(c), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(e), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(g), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 658; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(d), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §506 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(j), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(b), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. II, §202, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(d), pt. III, §304(a)(2), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25, 28; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(4), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 93–559, §11, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1798; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §102, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 96–92, §5(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(c), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §110(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §551(b), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1236; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §103(a), (b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1423; Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §576, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §121, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 850.)

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(V), is Pub. L. 87–510, June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 121, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 36 (§2601 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of this title and Tables.

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(III) to (V). Pub. L. 106–280, §121(b), added subcls. (III) to (V) and struck out former subcl. (III) which read as follows: “the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962; or”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–280, §121(a), substituted “$200,000,000” for “$150,000,000” in introductory provisions.

1997—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–118, §576(1), inserted before period at end “, including providing the Congress with a report detailing all defense articles, defense services, and military education and training delivered to the recipient country or international organization upon delivery of such articles or upon completion of such services or education and training. Such report shall also include whether any savings were realized by utilizing commercial transport services rather than acquiring those services from United States Government transport assets”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 105–118, §576(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–164, §103(a), substituted “$100,000,000” for “$75,000,000” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–164, §103(b)(1), substituted “articles and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the United States Government and military education and training from the Department of Defense, the President may direct the drawdown of such articles, services, and military education and training—” and cls. (i) and (ii) for “defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training, he may direct—

“(i) the drawdown of such articles, services, and the provision of such training for the purposes and under the authorities of parts VIII and IX of subchapter I of this chapter, as the case may be; and

“(ii) the drawdown of defense services for the purposes and under the authorities of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962.”

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–164, §103(b)(2), substituted “$150,000,000 in any fiscal year of such articles, services, and military education and training may be provided pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph—” and cls. (i) to (iii) for “$75,000,000 in any fiscal year of defense articles, defense services, and military education and training may be provided pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–164, §103(b)(3), inserted at end “In the case of drawdowns authorized by subclauses (I) and (III) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(i) of this section, notifications shall be provided to those committees at least 15 days in advance of the drawdowns in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.”

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–167 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113 increased fiscal year limitation to $75,000,000 from $50,000,000 on aggregate value of assistance furnished.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533 increased to $50,000,000 from $10,000,000 fiscal year limitation on aggregate value of assistance furnished.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–92 authorized military education and training assistance, substituted $10,000,000 fiscal year limitation on aggregate value of assistance furnished for $67,500,000 fiscal year limitation on total value of defense articles and defense services ordered, and eliminated requirement for determination that failure to respond immediately to the emergency would result in serious harm to vital United States security interests, deleted provision authorizing reimbursement from subsequent appropriations which is covered in subsec. (c), provision for effectiveness of authority only as provided in an appropriation Act, and requirement of information to Congress which is covered in subsec. (b)(2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–92 required notification of Congressional Committees, reenacted former subsec. (a) provision for information to Congress respecting assistance furnished, included military education and training, and deleted authorization of Defense Department, in applicable appropriations, to incur obligations in anticipation of reimbursements, and authorization of appropriations for reimbursement purposes.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–92 incorporated reimbursement provision of former subsec. (b) and expanded section to include military education and training.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329 redesignated existing provisions as pars. (1) to (3), limited the President's authority to act by inserting requirements that he act only in cases of unforeseen emergencies requiring immediate military assistance to a foreign country or international organization where vital United States security interests are concerned when such emergency requirement cannot be met under authority of the Arms Export Control Act or any other law, reduced the President's authority from $150 million to $67.5 million in any fiscal year, and required current reporting to Congress on the use of such authority.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559 substituted “fiscal year 1975” for “fiscal year 1974” wherever appearing and “$150,000,000” for “$250,000,000”.

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189 substituted “the fiscal year 1974”, “in the security interests”, and “$250,000,000” for “the fiscal year 1972”, “vital to the security”, and “$300,000,000”, respectively.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226 substituted “1972” for “1970 and the fiscal year 1971” and “the fiscal year 1972” for “each of the fiscal years 1970 and 1971”, and repealed last sentence providing for prompt notice of action taken to Committees on Foreign Relations, Appropriations, and Armed Services of the Senate and Speaker of the House.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–175 substituted “1970 and the fiscal year 1971” for “1969” in first sentence, and substituted “in each of the fiscal years 1970 and 1971” for “in the fiscal year 1969” in second sentence.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–554 substituted “1969” for “1968” wherever appearing.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–137 substituted “1968” for “1967” wherever appearing.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–583 substituted “1967” for “1966” wherever appearing.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–171 substituted “1966” for “1965” wherever appearing.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–633 substituted “1965” for “1964” wherever appearing.

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–205 substituted “1964” for “1963” wherever appearing.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–565 substituted “1963” for “1962” wherever appearing.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§§2319 to 2321. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(5), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722

Section 2319, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §507, formerly §§505(b), 511, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436, 438; amended Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(d), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(c), (h), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656, 658; renumbered §507 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II §201(k), (l), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(c), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 963; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(e), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25, placed certain restrictions on military aid to Latin America.

Section 2320, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §508, formerly §512, as added Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(e), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; amended Pub. L. 86–633, pt. II, §201(f), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(i), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 658; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(e), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §508 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(m), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(d), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 963, placed certain restrictions on military aid to African countries.

Section 2321, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §509, formerly §513, as added Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(g), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; renumbered §509 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(n), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457, provided for the giving of certification of recipients’ capabilities to utilize defense articles effectively and for the making of a report to the Speaker of the House and the Senate's Foreign Relations and Appropriations Committees whenever articles are furnished without such certification.

§2321a. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §510, as added Pub. L. 91–175, pt. II, §203, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820, limited the number of foreign military students to be trained in the United States out of funds appropriated under this subchapter, to not more than the number of foreign civilians brought to the United States under the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.) in the immediately preceding year.

Savings Provision

Section 106(c) of Pub. L. 94–329 provided that: “Except as may be expressly provided to the contrary in this Act [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note under section 2151 of this title], all determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of law amended or repealed by this section [repealing this section and amending sections 2382, 2383, 2392, 2396, and 2403 of this title] shall continue in full force and effect until modified, revoked, or superseded by appropriate authority.”

§2321b. Excess defense article

(a) to (c) Repealed. Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §210(c)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740

(d) Reports to Congress

The President shall promptly and fully inform the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate of each decision to furnish on a grant basis to any country excess defense articles which are major weapons systems to the extent such major weapons system was not included in the presentation material previously submitted to the Congress. The annual presentation materials for security assistance programs shall include a table listing by country the total value of all deliveries of excess defense articles, disclosing both the aggregate original acquisition cost and the aggregate value at the time of delivery.

(Pub. L. 91–672, §8, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2054; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. IV, §402, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 93–189, §26(1)–(3), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 93–559, §13, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §210(c)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740; Pub. L. 95–384, §29(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 747.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–384 substituted “The annual presentation materials for security assistance programs shall include a table” for “Additionally, the President shall also submit a quarterly report to the Congress”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329 struck out subsec. (a) which provided that the value of excess defense article granted to a foreign country or international organization shall be considered to be an expenditure from the funds of this chapter for military assistance, and established accounting procedure when an order for excess defense article was placed.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329 struck out subsec. (b) which provided that in the case of excess defense articles that were generated abroad, provisions of former subsec. (a) shall apply during any fiscal year only to the extent that the aggregate value of excess defense articles ordered during that year exceeded $100,000,000.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–329 struck out subsec. (c) which defined “value” as that meaning found in section 2403m of this title, except the term shall not include a value for any excess defense article which was less than 331/3 percent of the amount the United States paid for such article when it was acquired.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–329 struck out subsec. (e) which provided that except for excess defense articles granted under this subchapter, the provisions of this section did not apply to grants of such articles to South Vietnam prior to July 1, 1972.

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–559, §13(a)(1), substituted “$100,000,000” for “$150,000,000”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–559, §13(a)(2), inserted exception provision respecting definitions of value for excess defense articles.

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189, §26(1), inserted provision preceding cl. (1) relating to the subtraction of amounts to be transferred under section 2392(d) of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–189, §26(2), substituted “In the case of excess defense articles which are generated abroad, the provisions”, for “The provisions” and “$150,000,000” for “$185,000,000”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–189, §26(3), substituted provisions defining “value” as that meaning given it in section 2403(m) of this title, for provisions defining such term as not less than 331/3 per centum of the amount the United States paid at the time the excess defense articles were acquired by the United States.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226, §402(1), substituted in first sentence “by any department, agency, or independent establishment of the United States Government (other than the Agency for International Development)” for “subchapter II of this chapter” and “the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961” for “that Act”, codified in the text as “this chapter” and in second sentence “Unless such department, agency, or establishment certifies to the Comptroller General of the United States that the excess defense article it is ordering is not to be transferred by any means to a foreign country or international organization, when an order is placed for a defense article” for “When an order is placed under the military assistance program with the military departments for a defense article”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–226, §402(2), substituted “$185,000,000” for “$100,000,000”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–226, §402(3), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 210(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94–329 provided in part that the amendment of subsecs. (a) to (c) and (e) by Pub. L. 94–329 is effective July 1, 1976.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Transfer of Suspense Account Funds to General Fund of Treasury

Section 210(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94–329 provided in part that all funds in the suspense account referred to in former subsec. (a) of this section on July 1, 1976, shall be transferred to the general fund of the Treasury.

§2321c. Definitions

For purposes of sections 2321b and 2314a 1 of this title—

(1) “defense article” and “excess defense articles” have the same meanings as given them in subsections (d) and (g), respectively, of section 2403 of this title; and

(2) “foreign country” includes any department, agency, or independent establishment of the foreign country.

(Pub. L. 91–672, §11, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055.)

References in Text

Section 2314a, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 93–189, §26(4), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2321d. Considerations in furnishing military assistance

Decisions to furnish military assistance made under subchapter II of this chapter shall take into account whether such assistance will—

(1) contribute to an arms race;

(2) increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict; or

(3) prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control arrangements.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §511, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(f), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; amended Pub. L. 94–141, title I, §150(c), Nov. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 760; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, §1225(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–773.)

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “take into account” for “be made in coordination with the Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and shall take into account his opinion as to” in introductory provisions.

1975—Pub. L. 94–141 substituted “be made in coordination with the Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and shall take into account his opinion as to” for “take into account”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective Apr. 1, 1999, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of this title.

§2321e. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(5), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §512, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(f), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25, provided for the diminution and consolidation of military assistance advisory groups and missions in foreign countries.

§2321f. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §513, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(f), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; amended Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(6), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 93–559, §12, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1798, prohibited military assistance to Thailand, Laos, and South Vietnam after June 30, 1972, 1974, and 1976, respectively, without prior authorization.

§2321g. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(5), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §514, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(f), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 26, covered special foreign country accounts, the deposit of currencies, use of special accounts for payments of certain costs, Presidential waiver authority, the nonapplicability of provisions for special accounts, and the limitations on the amount of deposits.

Special Foreign Country Accounts

Section 1–501(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56675, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to continue to administer any open special foreign country accounts established pursuant to this section prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 93–189.

§2321h. Stockpiling of defense articles for foreign countries

(a) Transfer of defense articles

No defense article in the inventory of the Department of Defense which is set aside, reserved, or in any way earmarked or intended for future use by any foreign country may be made available to or for use by any foreign country unless such transfer is authorized under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or any subsequent corresponding legislation, and the value of such transfer is charged against funds authorized under such legislation or against the limitations specified in such legislation, as appropriate, for the fiscal period in which such defense article is transferred. For purposes of this subsection, “value” means the acquisition cost plus crating, packing, handling, and transportation costs incurred in carrying out this section.

(b) Fiscal year limits on new stockpiles or additions to existing stockpiles located in foreign countries

(1) The value of defense articles to be set aside, earmarked, reserved, or intended for use as war reserve stocks for allied or other foreign countries (other than for purposes of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or in the implementation of agreements with Israel) in stockpiles located in foreign countries may not exceed in any fiscal year an amount that is specified in security assistance authorizing legislation for that fiscal year.

(2)(A) The value of such additions to stockpiles of defense articles in foreign countries shall not exceed $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2011 and 2012.

(B) Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for a fiscal year, not more than $200,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the State of Israel.

(c) Location of stockpiles of defense articles

(1) Limitation

Except as provided in paragraph (2), no stockpile of defense articles may be located outside the boundaries of a United States military base or a military base used primarily by the United States.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to stockpiles of defense articles located in the Republic of Korea, Thailand, any country that is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any country that is a major non-NATO ally, or any other country the President may designate. At least 15 days before designating a country pursuant to the last clause of the preceding sentence, the President shall notify the congressional committees specified in section 2394–1(a) of this title in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under that section.

(d) Transferred articles not to be considered excess articles in determining value

No defense article transferred from any stockpile which is made available to or for use by any foreign country may be considered an excess defense article for the purpose of determining the value thereof.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §514, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §15, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §103, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 95–92, §6, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 95–384, §8, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §6(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §113, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §111, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(1) [title V, §541(a)], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1884, 1903; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §124, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title III, §301], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–147; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §555, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–36; Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §587(b), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1253; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1303(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §573, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2042; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §569, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1681; Pub. L. 103–87, title V, §535, Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §535, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1637; Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §531B, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §575, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §571], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–198; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §§1000(a)(2) [title V, §584], 1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §1231], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1536, 1501A–117, 1501A–499; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §111, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1261, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 108–287, title X, §12002, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 109–472, §13(a)(2), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3559; Pub. L. 111–266, title III, §302(b), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2804.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 is based on section 116(a) of H.R. 5119, Ninety-eighth Congress, as passed by the House of Representatives May 10, 1984, which was enacted into permanent law by Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–266 substituted “fiscal years 2011 and 2012” for “fiscal years 2007 and 2008”.

2007—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–472, §13(a)(2)(A), substituted “$200,000,000” for “$100,000,000” and “2007 and 2008” for “2004 and 2005”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–472, §13(a)(2)(B), substituted “$200,000,000” for “$100,000,000”.

2004—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–287, §12002(1), substituted “for each of fiscal years 2004 and 2005” for “for fiscal year 2003”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–287, §12002(2), substituted “for a fiscal year” for “for fiscal year 2003”.

2002—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–228 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

“(2)(A) The value of such additions to stockpiles of defense articles in foreign countries shall not exceed $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2001.

“(B) Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A), not more than $50,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea.”

2000—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–280 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

“(2)(A) The value of such additions to stockpiles of defense articles in foreign countries shall not exceed $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2000.

“(B) Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A), not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1231], amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

“(A) The value of such additions to stockpiles of defense articles in foreign countries shall not exceed $340,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2000.

“(B) Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1999, not more than $320,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand. Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 2000, not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §584(a)], inserted “and $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2000” before period at end and directed the striking of “$50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1996 and 1997, $60,000,000 for fiscal year 1998, and”, which was executed by striking after “shall not exceed” text which did not include a comma after “1998” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §584(b)], struck out “Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for each of the fiscal years 1996 and 1997, not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $10,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand. Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1998, not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand. Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1999, not more than $320,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.” after “(B)” and inserted at end “Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 2000, not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(d) [title V, §571(a)], substituted a comma for “and” after “1997” and inserted “and $340,000,000 for fiscal year 1999” before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(d) [title V, §571(b)], inserted at end “Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1999, not more than $320,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–118, §575(a), inserted “and $60,000,000 for fiscal year 1998” before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–118, §575(b), inserted at end “Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1998, not more than $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea and not more than $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–107, §531B(a), inserted “or in the implementation of agreements with Israel” after “North Atlantic Treaty Organization”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–107, §531B(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “The value of such additions to stockpiles in foreign countries shall not exceed a total of $200,000,000 for stockpiles in Israel for fiscal years 1994 and 1995, up to $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea, and up to $10,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand for fiscal year 1995, up to $72,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea, and up to $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–107, §531B(c), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except for stockpiles in existence on June 30, 1976 and for stockpiles located in the Republic of Korea, Thailand, or countries which are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or major non-NATO allies, no stockpile may be located outside the boundaries of a United States military base or a military base used primarily by the United States.”

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–306 substituted “a total of $200,000,000 for stockpiles in Israel for fiscal years 1994 and 1995, up to $40,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea, and up to $10,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand for fiscal year 1995” for “$200,000,000 for stockpiles in Israel for fiscal year 1994”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–87 which directed amendment of par. (2) “by striking out ‘$389,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, of which amount not less than $200,000,000 shall be available for stockpiles in Israel, and up to $189,000,000 may be available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea’ and inserting in lieu thereof ‘$200,000,000 for stockpiles in Israel for fiscal year 1994’, up to $72,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea, and up to $20,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in Thailand.” was executed as if the end quotation mark for the inserted material followed “Thailand” rather than following “1994” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–391, which directed the substitution of “$389,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, of which amount not less than $200,000,000 shall be available for stockpiles in Israel, and up to $189,000,000 may be available for stockpiles in the Republic of Korea” for “$378,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be available for stockpiles in Israel”, was executed by making such substitution for “$378,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be for stockpiles in Israel”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1990—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–513, §573(b), substituted “$378,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be for stockpiles in Israel” for “$165,000,000 for fiscal year 1990”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–513, §573(a), inserted “or major non-NATO allies,” after “Organization,”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–510 struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: “The President shall promptly report to the Congress each new stockpile, or addition to an existing stockpile, described in this section of defense articles valued in excess of $10,000,000 in any fiscal year.”

1989—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–167, §587(b)(1), substituted “an amount that is specified” for “an amount greater than is specified”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–167, §587(b)(2), substituted “$165,000,000 for fiscal year 1990” for “$77,000,000 for fiscal year 1989”.

1988—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–461 amended par. (2) generally, substituting “$77,000,000 for fiscal year 1989” for “$116,000,000 for fiscal year 1988”.

1987—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–202 amended par. (2) generally, substituting “$116,000,000 for fiscal year 1988” for “$360,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and shall not exceed $125,000,000 for fiscal year 1987”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–202 inserted “, Thailand,” after “Korea”.

1985—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–83 amended par. (2) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of not to exceed $360,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $125,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $125,000,000 for fiscal year 1984 and $248,000,000 for fiscal year 1985.

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted “$125,000,000 for the fiscal year 1984 and $248,000,000 for the fiscal year 1985” for “$130,000,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $125,000,000 for the fiscal year 1983”.

1981—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted “$130,000,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $125,000,000 for the fiscal year 1983” for “$85,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981”.

1980—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted “$85,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981” for “$95,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980”.

1979—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–92, §6(a)(1), substituted “$95,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980” for “$90,000,000 for the fiscal year 1979”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–92, §6(a)(2), inserted reference to stockpiles in Republic of Korea.

1978—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–384 substituted “$90,000,000 for the fiscal year 1979” for “$270,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978”.

1977—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted “$270,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978” for “$93,750,000 for the period beginning July 1, 1975, and ending September 30, 1976, and $125,000,000 for the fiscal year 1977”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–329 substituted provisions prohibiting the transfer of any defense article earmarked for foreign use unless such transfer is authorized under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act or subsequent legislation, requiring the charge-off of such transfer against funds authorized under such legislation, and defining “value”, for provisions that no funds, other than funds made available under this part or section 401(a) of Pub. L. 89–367 (80 Stat. 37) be obligated for purposes of stockpiling any defense article or war reserve material if such article is earmarked for future foreign use.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329 substituted provisions limiting the value of earmarked defense articles for allied or foreign use to an amount not greater than is specified in security assistance legislation for that fiscal year and limiting the value of additions to stockpiles in foreign countries not to exceed $93,750,000 for the period beginning July 1, 1975 and ending Sept. 30, 1976, and $125,000,000 for fiscal 1977 for provisions specifying a charge-off of the cost of any such article earmarked for use by or on behalf of the country referred to in section 401(a)(1) of Pub. L. 89–367 (80 Stat. 37) against the limitations specified in such section or subsequent legislation and against funds authorized under this part.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 94–329 added subsecs. (c) to (e).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 116(b) of H.R. 5119, as passed by the House of Representatives May 10, 1984, and enacted into permanent law by 101(1) [title V, §541(a)], of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1984].”

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Fiscal Year 1992 Additions to Stockpiles in Israel

Pub. L. 102–145, §118, as added by Pub. L. 102–266, §102, Apr. 1, 1992, 106 Stat. 93, provided in part that the authority and conditions provided in section 571 of H.R. 2621, One Hundred Second Congress, 1st Session, as passed by the House on June 19, 1991, shall be applicable to funds appropriated by Pub. L. 102–145 (and are hereby enacted) in lieu of the authority and conditions provided in section 573 of Pub. L. 101–513 [amending this section]. Section 571 of H.R. 2621, as referred to above, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 514(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [subsec. (b) of this section], additions may be made to stockpiles in Israel during fiscal year 1992 having a value of $300,000,000: Provided, That the word ‘value’ as used in this section shall have the same meaning as in section 514 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this section].”

Republic of Korea Stockpiling Authorities; Report to Congress

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 96–92 directed President to transmit to Congress, not later than Dec. 31, 1979, a report regarding stockpiling authorities for Republic of Korea, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(11), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

§2321i. Overseas management of assistance and sales programs

(a) Assignment of military personnel for performance of enumerated functions

In order to carry out his responsibilities for the management of international security assistance programs conducted under this part, part V of this subchapter, and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], the President may assign members of the Armed Forces of the United States to a foreign country to perform one or more of the following functions:

(1) equipment and services case management;

(2) training management;

(3) program monitoring;

(4) evaluation and planning of the host government's military capabilities and requirements;

(5) administrative support;

(6) promoting rationalization, standardization, interoperability, and other defense cooperation measures; and

(7) liaison functions exclusive of advisory and training assistance.

(b) Furnishing of advisory and training assistance

Advisory and training assistance conducted by military personnel assigned under this section shall be kept to an absolute minimum. It is the sense of the Congress that advising and training assistance in countries to which military personnel are assigned under this section shall be provided primarily by other personnel who are not assigned under this section and who are detailed for limited periods to perform specific tasks.

(c) Number of personnel assigned; waiver; procedures applicable

(1) The number of members of the Armed Forces assigned to a foreign country under this section may not exceed six unless specifically authorized by the Congress. The president may waive this limitation if he determines and reports to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, 30 days prior to the introduction of the additional military personnel, that United States national interests require that more than six members of the Armed Forces be assigned under this section to carry out international security assistance programs in a country not specified in this paragraph. Pakistan, Tunisia, El Salvador, Honduras, Colombia, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey are authorized to have military personnel strengths larger than six under this section to carry out international security assistance programs.

(2) The total number of members of the Armed Forces assigned under this section to a foreign country in a fiscal year may not exceed the number justified to the Congress for that country in the congressional presentation materials for that fiscal year, unless the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives are notified 30 days in advance of the introduction of the additional military personnel.

(d) Costs

Effective October 1, 1989, the entire costs (excluding salaries of the United States military personnel other than the Coast Guard) of overseas management of international security assistance programs under this section shall be charged to or reimbursed from funds made available to carry out this part or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], other than any such costs which are either paid directly for such defense services under section 21(a) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2761(a)] or reimbursed from charges for services collected from foreign governments pursuant to section 21(e) [22 U.S.C. 2761(e)] and section 43(b) [22 U.S.C. 2792(b)] of that Act.

(e) Direction and supervision of assigned personnel

Members of the Armed Forces assigned to a foreign country under this section shall serve under the direction and supervision of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission to that country.

(f) Presidential directive respecting purchase by foreign country of United States-made military equipment

The President shall continue to instruct United States diplomatic and military personnel in the United States missions abroad that they should not encourage, promote, or influence the purchase by any foreign country of United States-made military equipment, unless they are specifically instructed to do so by an appropriate official of the executive branch.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §515, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §16, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §104, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 95–92, §7(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 95–384, §9, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §7, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §114, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §112, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §125, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4305(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4273; Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9104(a), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1152; Pub. L. 101–167, title III, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1213; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §556(c), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §143, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1434.)

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 104–164 struck out “among members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and with the Armed Forces of Japan, Australia, and New Zealand” after “defense cooperation measures”.

1992—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–391, which directed the substitution of “(excluding salaries of the United States military personnel other than the Coast Guard)” for “(excluding salaries of the United States military personnel)”, was executed by making the substitution for “(excluding salaries of United States military personnel)”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–167 inserted “or the Arms Export Control Act” after “this part”.

Pub. L. 101–165 changed effective date from Oct. 1, 1982, to Oct. 1, 1989, and provided that costs would exclude rather than include salaries of U.S. military personnel.

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “Colombia,” after “Honduras,”.

1985—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–83 substituted “Pakistan, Tunisia, El Salvador, Honduras” for “For the fiscal year 1982 and the fiscal year 1983”.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted provision authorizing the President to assign members of the Armed Forces of the United States to a foreign country to perform one or more enumerated functions for provision requiring specific Congressional authorization for military assistance groups, etc., to operate in a foreign country, with exception of regular units of the Armed Forces of the United States engaged in routine functions designed to bring about standardization of military operation and procedures between United States forces and defense treaty allies.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted provision directing that advisory and training assistance conducted by military personnel assigned under this section be kept to an absolute minimum for provision authorizing the President to assign military personnel under international security programs to Portugal, Spain, Jordan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Panama, Greece, Turkey, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia to perform logistics management, transportation, fiscal management, and contract administration of country programs, designated the maximum number assignable, and provided for reimbursement from Saudi Arabia. See subsec. (a) of this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted provision designating the maximum number of personnel assignable, waiver of this limitation, and the procedures applicable for provision relating to assignment of military personnel to countries not specified in former subsec. (b) of this section for performance of accounting and other management functions, the maximum number assignable, and an exception to that number if the Chief of the Diplomatic Mission so requests.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted provision directing that, effective Oct. 1, 1982, the entire costs of overseas management of international security assistance programs be charged or reimbursed from funds made available to carry out this part, other than costs paid directly for defense services under section 2761(a) of this title or reimbursed from charges for services collected from foreign governments pursuant to sections 2761(e) and 2792(b) of this title, for provision that the maximum number of members of the Armed Forces assignable for fiscal year 1979 to all countries not exceed 790.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted “under this section” for “under subsection (b) or (c) of this section” and “to that country” for “in that country”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–113 redesignated subsec. (h) as (f). Former subsec. (f), relating to performance of management functions by defense attache�AE1's if that President determined it was the most economic and efficient means of performing those functions, was struck out.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–113 struck out subsec. (g) which provided that the entire cost of overseas management of international security assistance programs under this section be charged or reimbursed from funds made available to carry out this part, including costs reimbursed from charges for services collected from foreign governments pursuant to sections 2761(e) and 2792(b) of this title, and that the prohibition of former subsec. (a) of this section and the numerical limitations of former subsecs. (b), (c), and (d) of this section not apply to Armed Forces members performing services for specific purposes and for fixed periods of time on a fully reimbursable basis under section 2761(a) of this title. See subsec. (d) of this section.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–113 redesignated subsec. (h) as (f).

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–533, §114(1), substituted “fiscal year 1981” for “fiscal year 1980”, substituted “Portugal, Spain, Jordan, the Philippines,” for “the countries specified in section 2312(a) of this title and in”, authorized assignment of military personnel for programs in Egypt, and deleted from the list of countries eligible for such programs Iran and Kuwait.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–533, §114(2), substituted “assigned to Saudi Arabia” for “assigned to Iran, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia”, “assigned to such country” for “assigned to such countries” and “assigned to such country exceeds” for “assigned to each such country exceeds”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–533, §114(3), substituted “may not exceed six more than the number of defense attache�AE1s” for “may not exceed the number of defense attache�AE1s” and “December 31, 1979” for “December 31, 1978”, and inserted “such countries and countries to which military personnel have been assigned pursuant to subsection (c) of this section” after “such countries”.

1979—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–92, §7(1), substituted “fiscal year 1980” for “fiscal year 1979” and authorized assignment of military personnel for programs in Greece.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–92, §7(2), substituted “December 31, 1978” for “December 31, 1977”.

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–384, §9(a), substituted “fiscal year 1979” for “fiscal year 1978” and “Turkey, Indonesia, Thailand” for “Brazil”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–384, §9(b), substituted “, including any such members serving on a reimbursable basis pursuant to subsection (b)(3) of this section, may not exceed 790 for the fiscal year 1979” for “may not exceed 865 for the fiscal year 1978”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–384, §9(c), substituted “December 31, 1977, except that the President may assign an aggregate total of not to exceed eight additional defense attache�AE1s to such countries in order to perform overseas management functions under this subsection” for “December 31, 1976”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–384, §9(d), inserted “for fixed” after “for specific purposes and”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–384, §9(e), added subsec. (h).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions requiring specific Congressional authorization for a military assistance advisory group, etc., to operate in any foreign country and set forth exceptions to such requirement, for provisions authorizing deductions of expenditures from military assistance appropriations during the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending Sept. 30, 1977, under section 2312 of this title where under this section reimbursement is requested by the expending government agency or if the available funds are deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions relating to assignment of military personnel to specified countries by President for implementation of management responsibilities during fiscal year 1978 under international security assistance programs, for provisions requiring specific Congressional authority for assignment of any military assistance advisory group, etc., to operate in any foreign country after Sept. 30, 1977, and provisions relating to assignment by the President of military personnel to diplomatic missions of the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions relating to assignment of military personnel to nonspecified countries by President for performance of accounting and other management functions under international security assistance programs, for provisions limiting after Sept. 30, 1976, the number of military missions and groups to not more than 34.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–92 substituted provisions setting forth maximum number of military personnel assignable under subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section for fiscal year 1978 as 865, for provisions defining “military assistance advisory group, military mission, or other organization of United States military personnel performing similar military advisory functions under this chapter”.

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 95–92 added subsecs. (e) to (g).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329, §104(1), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and substituted “During the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1977” for “Effective July 1, 1976”.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 94–329, §104(2), added subsecs. (b) to (d).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2321j. Authority to transfer excess defense articles

(a) Authorization

The President is authorized to transfer excess defense articles under this section to countries for which receipt of such articles was justified pursuant to the annual congressional presentation documents for military assistance programs, or for programs under part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, submitted under section 2394 of this title, or for which receipt of such articles was separately justified to the Congress, for the fiscal year in which the transfer is authorized.

(b) Limitations on transfers

(1) The President may transfer excess defense articles under this section only if—

(A) such articles are drawn from existing stocks of the Department of Defense;

(B) funds available to the Department of Defense for the procurement of defense equipment are not expended in connection with the transfer;

(C) the transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the military readiness of the United States;

(D) with respect to a proposed transfer of such articles on a grant basis, such a transfer is preferable to a transfer on a sales basis, after taking into account the potential proceeds from, and likelihood of, such sales, and the comparative foreign policy benefits that may accrue to the United States as the result of a transfer on either a grant or sales basis;

(E) the President determines that the transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, will not reduce the opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are transferred; and

(F) the transfer of such articles is consistent with the policy framework for the Eastern Mediterranean established under section 2373 of this title.


(2) Accordingly, for the four-year period beginning on October 1, 1996, and thereafter for the four-period 1 beginning on October 1, 2000, the President shall ensure that excess defense articles offered to Greece and Turkey under this section will be made available consistent with the manner in which the President made available such excess defense articles during the four-year period that began on October 1, 1992, pursuant to section 573(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990.

(c) Terms of transfers

(1) No cost to recipient country

Excess defense articles may be transferred under this section without cost to the recipient country.

(2) Priority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the delivery of excess defense articles under this section to member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on the southern and southeastern flank of NATO, to major non-NATO allies on such southern and southeastern flank, and to the Philippines shall be given priority to the maximum extent feasible over the delivery of such excess defense articles to other countries.

(d) Waiver of requirement for reimbursement of Department of Defense expenses

Section 2392(d) of this title shall not apply with respect to transfers of excess defense articles (including transportation and related costs) under this section.

(e) Transportation and related costs

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), funds available to the Department of Defense may not be expended for crating, packing, handling, and transportation of excess defense articles transferred under the authority of this section.

(2) Exception

The President may provide for the transportation of excess defense articles without charge to a country for the costs of such transportation if—

(A) it is determined that it is in the national interest of the United States to do so;

(B) the recipient is a developing country receiving less than $10,000,000 of assistance under part V of this subchapter (relating to international military education and training) or section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763; relating to the Foreign Military Financing program) in the fiscal year in which the transportation is provided;

(C) the total weight of the transfer does not exceed 50,000 pounds; and

(D) such transportation is accomplished on a space available basis.

(f) Advance notification to Congress for transfer of certain excess defense articles

(1) In general

The President may not transfer excess defense articles that are significant military equipment (as defined in section 47(9) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2794(9)]) or excess defense articles valued (in terms of original acquisition cost) at $7,000,000 or more, under this section or under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed transfer to the congressional committees specified in section 2394–1(a) of this title in accordance with procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under that section.

(2) Contents

Such notification shall include—

(A) a statement outlining the purposes for which the article is being provided to the country, including whether such article has been previously provided to such country;

(B) an assessment of the impact of the transfer on the military readiness of the United States;

(C) an assessment of the impact of the transfer on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, the impact on opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are to be transferred; and

(D) a statement describing the current value of such article and the value of such article at acquisition.

(g) Aggregate annual limitation

(1) In general

The aggregate value of excess defense articles transferred to countries under this section in any fiscal year may not exceed $425,000,000.

(2) Effective date

The limitation contained in paragraph (1) shall apply only with respect to fiscal years beginning after fiscal year 1996.

(h) Congressional presentation documents

Documents described in subsection (a) of this section justifying the transfer of excess defense articles shall include an explanation of the general purposes of providing excess defense articles as well as a table which provides an aggregate annual total of transfers of excess defense articles in the preceding year by country in terms of offers and actual deliveries and in terms of acquisition cost and current value. Such table shall indicate whether such excess defense articles were provided on a grant or sale basis.

(i) Excess Coast Guard property

For purposes of this section, the term “excess defense articles” shall be deemed to include excess property of the Coast Guard, and the term “Department of Defense” shall be deemed, with respect to such excess property, to include the Coast Guard.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §516, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XI, §1101, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3960; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8143], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1321–43, 1329–89; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IX, §934, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §589, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1049(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1469; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §574, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1683; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1313, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2548; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(c)(2), title XIV, §1421, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1772, 1829; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §731(a), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1012(g)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §104(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1424; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §§1211(b), 1213], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–497, 1501A–498; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §122, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1234, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1433.)

References in Text

Section 573(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is section 573(e) of Pub. L. 101–167, which is set out in a note below.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2321j, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §516, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §105, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 732; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §§5(b), 7(b), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 615, 617; Pub. L. 95–384, §7(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §5(c), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(d), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139, provided for termination of authorities contained in this part other than the authorities contained in sections 2318, 2321h, and 2321i of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §110(d), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–228 substituted “, to major non-NATO allies on such southern and southeastern flank, and to the Philippines” for “and to major non-NATO allies on such southern and southeastern flank”.

2000—Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–280 substituted “50,000” for “25,000”.

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1211(b)], inserted “and thereafter for the four-period beginning on October 1, 2000,” after “October 1, 1996,”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1213], substituted “$425,000,000” for “$350,000,000”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–164 amended section generally, expanding geographic scope of President's authority to transfer excess defense articles, including Coast Guard property and permitting waiver of Department of Defense reimbursement, to any country for military assistance programs or international narcotics control, so long as such transfer is preferable to sale and is consistent within congressionally documented Eastern Mediterranean policy requirements, meets certain terms of transfer requirements including preference for NATO and non-NATO allies on southern flank, complies with advance notification to Congress for certain excess defense articles, and is within aggregate annual limitations of $350,000,000 in value, for provisions which authorized President to transfer excess defense articles to predominantly NATO countries on southern flank for purpose of modernization of their defense capabilities.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–106 added subsec. (g) which prohibited certain transfers of vessels on a grant basis.

1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–236 added par. (4).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–160, §1182(c)(2), made technical amendment to Pub. L. 102–484, §1313(2). See 1992 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–160, §1421, inserted “or fiscal year 1992” after “fiscal year 1991”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484, §1313(4), which directed the amendment of subsec. (a) by striking “and those countries which received Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance in fiscal year 1990 and which, as of October 1, 1990, contributed armed forces to deter Iraqi aggression in the Arabian Gulf,”, could not be executed because that language did not appear subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 102–391. See below.

Pub. L. 102–484, §1313(3), inserted “and (3) to those countries which, as of October 1, 1990, contributed armed forces to deter Iraqi aggression in the Arabian Gulf, and which either received Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance in fiscal year 1990 or are in the Near East Region and received Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance in fiscal year 1991,” after “southeastern flank of NATO which are eligible for United States security assistance,”.

Pub. L. 102–484, §1313(2), as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, §1182(c)(2), substituted “structure, (2)” for “structure, and”.

Pub. L. 102–484, §1313(1), inserted “(1)” after “may transfer”.

Pub. L. 102–391 repealed the amendment by Pub. L. 101–513. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §1049(a)(1), struck out “during the fiscal years 1987 through 1991,” before “the President may transfer”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–190, §1049(a)(2), added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–513, which directed amendment of subsec. (a) by inserting “and those countries which received Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance in fiscal year 1990 and which, as of October 1, 1990, contributed armed forces to deter Iraqi aggression in the Arabian Gulf,” after the second occurrence of the words “United States security assistance,”, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–391. See 1992 Amendment note above.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “during the fiscal years 1987 through 1991” for “during the fiscal years 1987, 1988, and 1989” and inserted at end “Transfers to recipient countries under this subsection shall be consistent with the policy framework for the Eastern Mediterranean region established in section 2373 of this title.”

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8143(a), (b), (c)(1)], in first sentence substituted “, 1988, and 1989,” for “and 1988”, inserted “, and to major non-NATO allies on the southern and southeastern flank of NATO which are eligible for United States security assistance,” after “military structure”, and inserted “excess” before “defense articles”, and in second sentence inserted “excess defense” before “articles”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8143(c)(2)], in introductory text, inserted “excess” before “defense articles”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8143(c)(2)], inserted “excess” before “defense articles”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1012(g)(2) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the transfer of a vessel on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996] (other than a vessel the transfer of which is authorized by subsection (a) [110 Stat. 421] or by law before the date of the enactment of this Act).”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 1182(c)(2) of Pub. L. 103–160 provided in part that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Oct. 23, 1992.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Mediterranean Excess Defense Articles

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §535], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009–153, provided that: “For the four-year period beginning on October 1, 1996, the President shall ensure that excess defense articles will be made available under section[s] 516 and 519 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2321j, 2321m] consistent with the manner in which the President made available excess defense articles under those sections during the four-year period that began on October 1, 1992, pursuant to section 573(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 [Pub. L. 101–167, set out below].”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §536, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 735.

Avoiding Duplicative Amendments

Section 1049(b) of Pub. L. 102–190, which provided that if the International Cooperation Act of 1991 was enacted and made the same amendments to this section as did section 1049(a) of Pub. L. 102–190, then the duplicative amendments enacted by section 1049(a) would not take effect, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1053(7), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2502.

Modernization of Military Capabilities of Certain Countries

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §573, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1246, as amended by Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §578(a), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1685, provided that:

“(a) Authority To Transfer Excess Defense Articles.—

“(1) NATO southern flank countries.—The President may transfer—

“(A) to any NATO southern flank country which is eligible for United States security assistance and which is integrated into NATO's military structure; and

“(B) to any major non-NATO ally on the southern and southeastern flank of NATO which is eligible for United States security assistance, such excess defense articles as may be necessary to help modernize the defense capabilities of such country.

“(2) Major illicit drug producing countries.—Subject to subsection (f), the President may transfer to any country—

“(A) which is a major illicit drug producing country,

“(B) which has a democratic government, and

“(C) whose armed forces do not engage in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, such excess defense articles as may be necessary to carry out subsection (f)(1).

“(3) Terms of transfers.—Excess defense articles may be transferred under this section without cost to the recipient country.

“(b) Limitations on Transfers.—The President may transfer excess defense articles under this section only if—

“(1) they are drawn from existing stocks of the Department of Defense;

“(2) funds available to the Department of Defense for the procurement of defense equipment are not expended in connection with the transfer; and

“(3) the President determines that the transfer of the excess defense articles will not have an adverse impact on the military readiness of the United States.

“(c) Notification to Congress.—

“(1) Advance notice.—The President may not transfer excess defense articles under this section until thirty days after the President has provided notice of the proposed transfer to the committees specified in paragraph (2). This notification shall include—

“(A) a certification of the need for the transfer;

“(B) an assessment of the impact of the transfer on the military readiness of the United States; and

“(C) the value of the excess defense articles to be transferred.

“(2) Committees to be notified.—Notice shall be provided pursuant to paragraph (1) to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

“(d) Waiver of Requirement for Reimbursement of DOD Expenses.—Section 632(d) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2392(d)] does not apply with respect to transfers of excess defense articles under this section.

“(e) Maintenance of Military Balance in Eastern Mediterranean.—

“(1) United states policy.—The Congress intends that excess defense articles be made available under this section consistent with the United States policy, established by section 841 of the International Cooperation Act of 1989 [probably means section 841 of H.R. 2655, 101st Congress, which was not enacted], of maintaining the military balance in the Eastern Mediterranean.

“(2) Maintenance of balance.—Accordingly, the President shall ensure that, over the four-year period beginning on October 1, 1992, the ratio of—

“(A) the value of excess defense articles made available for Turkey under this section, to

“(B) the value of excess defense articles made available for Greece under this section, closely approximates the ratio of—

“(i) the amount of foreign military financing provided for Turkey, to

“(ii) the amount of foreign military financing provided for Greece.

“(3) Exception to requirement.—This subsection shall not apply if either Greece or Turkey ceases to be eligible to receive excess defense articles under subsection (a).

“(f) Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.—

“(1) Purpose.—Excess defense articles shall be transferred under subsection (a)(2) for the purpose of encouraging the military forces of an eligible country in Latin America and the Caribbean to participate with local law enforcement agencies in a comprehensive national antinarcotics program, conceived and developed by the government of that country, by conducting activities within that country and on the high seas to prevent the production, processing, trafficking, transportation, and consumption of illicit narcotic or psychotrophic [sic] drugs or other controlled substances.

“(2) Uses of excess defense articles.—Excess defense articles may be furnished to a country under subsection (a)(2) only if that country ensures that those excess defense articles will be used only in support of antinarcotics activities.

“(3) Role of the secretary of state.—The Secretary of State shall determine the eligibility of countries to receive excess defense articles under subsection (a)(2) and insure that any transfer is coordinated with other antinarcotics enforcement programs assisted by the United States Government.

“(4) Limitation.—The aggregate value of excess defense articles transferred to a country under subsection (a)(2) in any fiscal year may not exceed $10,000,000.

“(g) Definitions.—As used in this section—

“(1) the term ‘excess defense article’ has the meaning given that term by section 644(g) [probably means section 644(g) of Pub. L. 87–195, which is classified to section 2403(g) of this title];

“(2) the term ‘made available’ means that a good faith offer is made by the United States to furnish the excess defense articles to a country;

“(3) the term ‘major non-NATO ally’ includes Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand;

“(4) the term ‘NATO’ means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; and

“(5) the term ‘NATO southern flank countries’ means Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey.”

[For delegation of functions of President under section 573 of Pub. L. 101–567, set out above, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.]

Provisions similar to those appearing in section 573(e) of Pub. L. 101–167, set out above, were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §569, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–43.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §582], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–182.

1 So in original. Probably should be “four-year period”.

§2321k. Designation of major non-NATO allies

(a) Notice to Congress

The President shall notify the Congress in writing at least 30 days before—

(1) designating a country as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.); or

(2) terminating such a designation.

(b) Initial designations

Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand shall be deemed to have been so designated by the President as of the effective date of this section, and the President is not required to notify the Congress of such designation of those countries.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §517, as added Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §147(a)(1), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1434.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (b), is July 21, 1996, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–164, which enacted this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2321k, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §517, as added Pub. L. 101–231, §5, Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1957; amended Pub. L. 101–623, §15, Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3357; Pub. L. 102–583, §9(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4934; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §731(b), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 502, related to modernization of counternarcotics capabilities of certain Latin America and Caribbean countries, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §104(b)(2)(B), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Treatment of Taiwan Relating to Transfers of Defense Articles and Defense Services

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1206, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1428, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the transfer or possible transfer of defense articles or defense services under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.), or any other provision of law, Taiwan shall be treated as though it were designated a major non-NATO ally (as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2403(q))[)].”

[For definitions of “defense article” and “defense service” as used in section 1206 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 1002 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.]

Presidential Determinations Relating to Designations of Countries as Major Non-NATO Allies

The following Presidential Determinations designated the countries listed as major non-NATO allies of the United States for purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.):

Determination No. 97–4, Nov. 12, 1996, 61 F.R. 59809.—Jordan.

Determination No. 98–9, Jan. 6, 1998, 63 F.R. 3635.—Argentina.

Determination No. 2002–10, Mar. 14, 2002, 67 F.R. 13247.—Bahrain.

Determination No. 2004–02, Oct. 6, 2003, 68 F.R. 59855.—Philippines.

Determination No. 2004–16, Dec. 30, 2003, 69 F.R. 2053.—Thailand.

Determination No. 2004–21, Jan. 15, 2004, 69 F.R. 4843.—Kuwait.

Determination No. 2004–35, June 3, 2004, 69 F.R. 34049.—Morocco.

Determination No. 2004–37, June 16, 2004, 69 F.R. 38797.—Pakistan.

§§2321l to 2321n. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §104(b)(2)(B), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427

Section 2321l, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §518, as added Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §533(f), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2015, authorized President to transfer nonlethal excess defense articles and small arms to friendly countries and to international organizations and private and voluntary organizations for preservation of endangered animal and plant species.

Section 2321m, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §519, as added Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §596(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2061; amended Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §731(c), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 502, authorized President to transfer to countries for whom foreign military financing program was justified such nonlethal excess defense articles as President determined necessary to help modernize defense capabilities of such countries.

Section 2321n, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §520, as added Pub. L. 103–236, title IV, §408, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 452, authorized President to transfer to international and regional organizations of which United States is a member such excess defense articles as President determined necessary to support and maintain international peacekeeping operations and security.

§2322. Transferred

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §521, formerly §514, as added Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(f), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §521, Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(o)(1), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457, which related to administration of sales programs, was transferred to section 2341 of this title and subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 90–629, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327.

Part III—Foreign Military Sales

§§2341 to 2343. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327

Section 2341, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §521, formerly §514, as added Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(f), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §521 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(o)(1), (3)–(7), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457, provided for administration of sales programs involving defense articles and services. Subsec. (a) related to encouragement of regional arms control and disarmament agreements and discouragement of arms races; reimbursable basis of acquisitions; domestic procurement; and considerations. Subsec. (b) related to limitation on military assistance and sales for American Republics; and inclusion of assistance to inter-American military force under control of Organization of American States. Subsec. (c) related to furnishing of defense articles and services; conditions; and report to Congress. For subject matter of subsecs. (a) to (c), see sections 2751 and 2791, 2773, and 2753 of this title, respectively.

Section 2342, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §522, formerly §507 (a), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; amended Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(b), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(d)(1), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 657; renumbered §522 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(f), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456, provided for sales of defense articles from stock and services, manner of payment, price of non-excess defense articles, and value of excess defense articles. See section 2761 of this title.

Section 2343, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §523, formerly §507(b), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; amended Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(c), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(c), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(d)(2), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 657; renumbered §523 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(g), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456, related to contracts for procurement for sales; undertakings; reimbursements; fixed-price sales agreements; prohibition against sales of articles available from commercial sources; and waiver of restrictions. See section 2762 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 46 of Pub. L. 90–629 provided that: “Except as may be expressly provided to the contrary in this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title], all determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of law repealed by section 45(a) [repealing sections 2341 to 2343, 2344(b)(3), 2345, 2394(g), and 2399a of this title] shall continue in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority.”

§2344. Reimbursements

(a) Separate fund account; transfers to such account

Whenever funds made available for use under subchapter II of this chapter have been or are used to furnish military assistance on cash or credit terms, United States dollar repayments, including dollar proceeds derived from the sale of foreign currency repayments to any agency or program of the United States Government, receipts received from the disposition of evidences of indebtedness and charges (including fees and premiums) or interest collected shall be credited to a separate fund account, and shall be available until expended solely for the purpose of financing sales and guaranties, including the overhead costs thereof, and, notwithstanding any provision of law relating to receipts and credits accruing to the United States Government, repayments in foreign currency may be used to carry out subchapter II of this chapter. Such amounts of the appropriations made available under subchapter II of this chapter (including unliquidated balances of funds heretofore obligated for financing sales and guarantees) as may be determined by the President shall be transferred to, and merged with, the separate fund account.

(b) Termination of account; special account for discharge of Federal liabilities and obligations; general fund for excess moneys

(1) The special fund account established under subsection (a) of this section shall terminate as of the end of June 30, 1968, or on such earlier date as may be selected by the President.

(2) Upon the termination of such fund account pursuant to paragraph (1), all of the assets of such fund account (including loans and other payments receivable) shall be transferred to a special account in the Treasury, which special account shall be available solely for the purpose of discharging outstanding liabilities and obligations of the United States arising out of credit sales agreements entered into, and guaranties issued, under subchapter II of this chapter prior to June 30, 1968. Any moneys in such special account in excess of the aggregate United States dollar amount of such liabilities and obligations shall be transferred from time to time to the general fund of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §524, formerly §508, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(e), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 657; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(c), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §524 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(h), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327.)

References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Certain Parts of Subchapter II

References to subchapter II of this chapter are deemed to exclude parts IV (§2346 et seq.), VI (§2348 et seq.), and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II, and references to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 2316 of this title.

Amendments

1968—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 90–629 repealed provisions of par. (3) which related to appropriations for financing sales, dollar value payments, general fund for payments, and exempt transactions, and is now covered by section 2763 of this title.

1967—Pub. L. 90–137 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1966—Pub. L. 89–583 provided for transfer to and merger with the separate fund account of such amounts of available appropriations (including unliquidated balances of funds heretofore obligated for financing sales and guarantees) as is determined by the President.

1965—Pub. L. 89–171 inserted “receipts received from the disposition of evidences of indebtedness and charges (including fees and premiums) or interest collected” and substituted “have been or are used” for “are used” and “financing sales and guaranties, including the overhead costs thereof” for “furnishing further military assistance on cash or credit terms.”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–629 effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Savings Provision

Determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of former subsec. (b)(3) of this section as continuing in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority, see section 46 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under former section 2341 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Increases in Military Assistance Programs; Reports to Congress on Presidential Determinations

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §100, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 7, in part, limited increases in the military assistance program for any country to twenty per cent of the amount justified to Congress unless the President determined that such an increase was essential to the national interest of the United States and reported such determination to the Congress within thirty days after each such determination.

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §100, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 937; Pub. L. 90–581, title I, §100, Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1138.

Expenditures by Underdeveloped Countries for Weapons Systems; Presidential Determination; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §119, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 10, directed the President to withhold economic assistance in an amount equivalent to the amount spent by any underdeveloped country for the purchase of sophisticated weapons systems from any country other than certain enumerated countries, unless the President determined that such a purchase was important to the national security of the United States and reported such determination to Congress within thirty days after each such determination.

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §119, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 940; Pub. L. 90–581, title I, §119, Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1141.

Arms Races and Weapons Systems Restraints; Prohibitions Against Diversion of Resources for Economic and Agricultural Development to Military Purposes

Pub. L. 91–194, title I, §120, Feb. 9, 1970, 84 Stat. 10, as amended by Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1821, provided that:

“(a) In order to restrain arms races and proliferation of sophisticated weapons, and to ensure that resources intended for economic development are not diverted to military purposes, the President shall take into account before furnishing development loans, Alliance loans, or supporting assistance to any country under this Act [Pub. L. 91–194], and before making sales under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.]:

“(1) the percentage of the recipient or purchasing country's budget which is devoted to military purposes,

“(2) the degree to which the recipient or purchasing country is using its foreign exchange resources to acquire military equipment; and

“(3) the amount spent by the recipient or purchasing country for the purchase of sophisticated weapons systems, such as missile systems and jet aircraft for military purposes, from any country.

“(b) The President shall report annually to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate his actions in carrying out this provision.”

§2345. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §525, formerly §§503(e), 509(b), as added Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(a), (d), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; amended Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(f), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 657; renumbered §525 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(b)(3), (i)(2), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455, 457, provided for guaranties until June 30, 1968. See section 2764 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2751 of this title.

Savings Provision

Determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued undertaken, or entered into under authority of any provision of former section 2345 of this title as continuing in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority, see section 46 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under former section 2341 of this title.

Part IV—Economic Support Fund

§2346. Authority

(a) Policy requirements for assistance

The Congress recognizes that, under special economic, political, or security conditions, the national interests of the United States may require economic support for countries or in amounts which could not be justified solely under part I of subchapter I of this chapter or, in the case of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, part X of subchapter I of this chapter. In such cases, the President is authorized to furnish assistance to countries and organizations, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, in order to promote economic or political stability. To the maximum extent feasible, the President shall provide assistance under this part consistent with the policy directions, purposes, and programs of subchapter I of this chapter.

(b) Responsibility for policy decisions and justifications

The Secretary of State shall be responsible for policy decisions and justifications for economic support programs under this part, including determinations of whether there will be an economic support program for a country and the amount of the program for each country. The Secretary shall exercise this responsibility in cooperation with the Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter.

(c) Detailed justification for uses and purposes of funds

As part of the annual presentation materials for foreign assistance submitted to the Congress, the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter II of this chapter shall provide a detailed justification for the uses and the purposes of the funds provided under this part. Such material shall include, but not be limited to, information concerning the amounts and kinds of cash grant transfers, the amounts and kinds of budgetary and balance-of-payments support provided, and the amounts and kinds of project assistance provided with funds made available under this part.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §533(a)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–180

(e) Availability of funds

Amounts appropriated to carry out this part shall be available for economic programs only and may not be used for military or paramilitary purposes.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §531, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210; amended Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §562(d)(8), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2031; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §533(a)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–180.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include This and Certain Other Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §202(b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 27, provided that: “Chapter 4 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [part IV of subchapter I of this chapter (sections 2241 to 2243 of this title)] is hereby repealed. References to such chapter [4 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (former sections 2241 to 2243 of this title)] or any sections thereof shall hereafter [on and after Feb. 7, 1972] be deemed to be references to chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by subsection (a) of this section [this part], or to appropriate sections thereof. All references to part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [subchapter I of this chapter] shall hereafter be deemed to be references also to chapter 4 of part II [this part], and all references to part II of such Act [subchapter II of this chapter] shall be deemed not to include chapter 4 of such part II [this part]”.

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts VI (§2348 et seq.) and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.

Reference to Part I Deemed To Include Section 2293

Reference to part I of subchapter I of this chapter deemed to include a reference to section 2293 of this title. See section 2293(d)(1) of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2346, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §531, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §202(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 26; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §8(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 95–384, §10(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 733; 1979 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §6(b)(1), eff. Oct. 1, 1979, 44 F.R. 41166, 93 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 96–92, §8(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §201, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142; Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §201, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1528, authorized President to furnish assistance to countries and organizations to promote economic or political stability, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–277 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: “To the maximum extent feasible, funds made available pursuant to this part for commodity import programs or other program assistance shall be used to generate local currencies, not less than 50 percent of which shall be available to support activities consistent with the objectives of sections 2151a through 2151d of this title, and administered by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter.”

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–513 inserted “or, in the case of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, part X of subchapter I of this chapter” after “part I of subchapter I of this chapter”.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Assistance to Lebanon

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1224, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1432, provided that:

“(a) Prohibition.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, $10,000,000 of the amounts made available for fiscal year 2003 or any subsequent fiscal year that are allocated for assistance to Lebanon under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.; relating to the economic support fund) may not be obligated unless and until the President certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that—

“(1) the armed forces of Lebanon have been deployed to the internationally recognized border between Lebanon and Israel; and

“(2) the Government of Lebanon is effectively asserting its authority in the area in which such armed forces have been deployed.

“(b) Requirement Relating to Funds Withheld.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any funds withheld pursuant to subsection (a) may not be programmed in order to be used for a purpose other than for assistance to Lebanon until the last month of the fiscal year in which the authority to obligate such funds lapses.”

[For definition of “appropriate congressional committees” as used in section 1224 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title.]

Assistance to Afghanistan

Pub. L. 99–83, title IX, §904, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 268, provided that:

“(a) Authorization.—The President may make available funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] (relating to the economic support fund) for the provision of food, medicine, or other humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people, notwithstanding any other provision of law.

“(b) Earmarking of Funds.—Each fiscal year, not less than $15,000,000 of the aggregate amount of funds available to carry out chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall be available only for humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

“(c) Effective Dates.—This section shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 1985], except that subsection (b) shall not apply to fiscal year 1985.”

Reports on Economic Conditions Prevailing in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, and Portugal

Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1205, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 277, provided that:

“(a) External Debt Burden of Certain Countries Receiving United States Assistance.—The Congress finds that the Governments of Egypt, Israel, Turkey, and Portugal each have an enormous external debt burden which may be made more difficult by virtue of financing provided for those governments under various United States assistance programs.

“(b) Annual Reports on Economic Conditions.—In order to assist the Congress in examining United States assistance for these countries, the President shall report to Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, not later than January 15 of each year, regarding economic conditions prevailing in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, and Portugal which may affect their respective ability to meet their international debt obligations and to stabilize their economies.”

[For delegation of functions of President under section 1205(b) of Pub. L. 99–83, set out above, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.]

References to Security Supporting Assistance as References to Assistance Under Part IV of Subchapter II of This Chapter

Section 10(b)(6) of Pub. L. 95–384 provided that: “After September 30, 1978, any reference in any law to security supporting assistance shall be deemed to be a reference to assistance under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this part].”

Security Supporting Assistance Program for Egypt

Section 9 of Pub. L. 95–92, as amended by Pub. L. 95–384, §29(c)(2)(A), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 747, provided that: “It is the sense of the Congress that the security supporting assistance program for Egypt plays an important role in the Middle East peace effort and that the Executive branch should concentrate its efforts in order to make the program a success.”

§2346a. Authorizations of appropriations

(a) Recipients and purposes of funds

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part—

(1) $2,015,000,000 for the fiscal year 1986 and $2,015,000,000 for the fiscal year 1987 for the following countries signing the Camp David agreement: Israel and Egypt; and

(2) $1,785,000,000 for the fiscal year 1986 and $1,785,000,000 for the fiscal year 1987 for assistance under this part for recipients or purposes other than the countries referred to in paragraph (1).

(b) Availability of amounts

Amounts appropriated to carry out this part are authorized to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §532, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 211.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2346a, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, 532, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1529; amended Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 970, earmarked specific funds for Israel and Egypt, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210.

Another prior section 2346a, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §532, as added Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142, related to Middle East programs and use of fiscal year funds, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1529.

Another prior section 2346a, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §532, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §202(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 26; amended Pub. L. 93–189, §13(1), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 93–559, §18, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1800; Pub. L. 94–329, title V, §501(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 95–92, §8(b), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 95–384, §10(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 96–92, §8(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703, related to Middle East program, providing policy requirements, availability of funds, amount of grants, and cash transfers, regional programs, comprehensive peace settlement and process of peace, and assistance to Syria, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Termination of Assistance Programs to Syria

Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1004, Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1057, provided that:

“(a) After the enactment of this section [Nov. 22, 1983], funds available to the Agency for International Development may not be used for any payment or reimbursement of any kind to the Government of Syria or for the delivery of any goods or services of any kind to the Government of Syria.

“(b) The Administrator of the Agency for International Development shall deobligate all funds which have been obligated for Syria under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this chapter] prior to the enactment of this section [Nov. 22, 1983], except that—

“(1) such funds may continue to be used to finance the training or studies outside of Syria of students whose course of study began before the enactment of this section;

“(2) the Administrator may adopt as a contract of the United States Government any contract with a United States or third-country contractor which would otherwise be terminated pursuant to this subsection, and may assume in whole or in part any liabilities arising under such contract, except that the authority provided by this paragraph may be exercised only to the extent that budget authority is available to meet the obligations of the United States under such contracts; and

“(3) amounts certified pursuant to section 1311 of the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1955 [31 U.S.C. 1108(c), 1501, 1502(a)], as having been obligated for Syria under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this part] shall continue to be available until expended to meet necessary expenses arising from the termination of assistance programs for Syria pursuant to this subsection.”

Section 101(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–151 provided that: “None of the funds heretofore appropriated or otherwise made available for Syria for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this part] shall be expended after the date of enactment of this joint resolution [Nov. 14, 1983]. The Administrator of the Agency for International Development is directed to terminate the economic assistance program to Syria and to deobligate all funds heretofore obligated for assistance to Syria, except that such funds may continue to be available to finance the training or studies outside of Syria of students whose course of study or training program began before enactment of this joint resolution. The Administrator of the Agency for International Development is authorized to adopt as a contract of the United States Government, and assume any liabilities arising thereunder (in whole or in part), any contract with a United States contractor which had been funded by the Agency for International Development prior to the date of enactment of this joint resolution. Amounts certified pursuant to section 1311 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1955 [31 U.S.C. 1108(c), 1501, 1502(a)], as having been obligated against appropriations heretofore made pursuant to chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (and predecessor legislation) for Syria are hereby continued available until expended to meet necessary expenses arising from the termination under this subsection of assistance programs for Syria authorized by such chapter: Provided, That this shall not be construed as permitting payments or reimbursements of any kind to the Government of Syria.”

Negotiations Between Israel and Egypt; Promotion, Etc.

Section 28 of Pub. L. 95–384 provided that:

“(a) The Congress finds that—

“(1) a lasting settlement of the Arab-Israel conflict is vital to United States national interests as well as to the interests of the countries of the region;

“(2) support for a strong and secure Israel and the maintenance for this purpose of Israel's effective defense capabilities as essential to peace remains a fundamental tenet of United States foreign policy;

“(3) direct, face-to-face negotiations between Israel and Egypt without preconditions is an historic opening for peace, and the support of such negotiations by other moderate Arab countries, can best promote a peace settlement based on mutual concessions and accommodations;

“(4) the establishment of secure, recognized, and defensible borders between Israel and its neighbors will discourage hostilities; and

“(5) full, normalized relations between Israel and its Arab neighbors, including trade, travel, tourism, communications, and diplomatic relations are vital for peace.

“(b) It is the sense of the Congress that the Government of the United States should continue to promote direct negotiations between Israel and Egypt and to encourage other Arab countries to enter into negotiations leading to peace treaties with Israel.

“(c) It is further the sense of the Congress that the United States should be responsive to Israel's economic needs and defense requirements, including the provision of additional advanced aircraft, in order to maintain Israel's defense capability which is essential to peace.”

§2346b. Emergency assistance

(a) Of the funds appropriated to carry out this part, up to $75,000,000 for the fiscal year 1986 and up to $75,000,000 for the fiscal year 1987 may be made available for emergency use under this part when the national interests of the United States urgently require economic support to promote economic or political stability.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of this part or of an appropriations Act (including a joint resolution making continuing appropriations) which earmarks funds available to carry out this part for a specific country or purpose, up to 5 percent of each amount so earmarked may be used to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §533, formerly §535, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1530; renumbered §533 and amended Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 211.)

Codification

Section was classified to section 2346d of this title prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 99–83.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2346b, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §533, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1530, related to grants for eastern Mediterranean programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210.

Another prior section 2346b, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §533, as added Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3143, related to Central American economic support, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1529.

Another prior section 2346b, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §533, as added Pub. L. 95–92, §8(c), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 618; amended Pub. L. 95–384, §10(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735; Pub. L. 96–92, §8(c), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 704, provided for a Southern Africa economic support program, including availability of funds and assistance requirements and limitations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142.

Another prior section 2346b, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §533, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §202(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 27, provided for a Vietnam special dollar account for coverage of United States refund claims, amount in account, and maintenance of dollar level, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–189, §13(2), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §202(b)(1), substituted “1986” and “1987” for “1982” and “1983”, respectively.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

§2346c. Administration of justice

(a) Authorization of assistance; purposes

The President may furnish assistance under this part to countries and organizations, including national and regional institutions, in order to strengthen the administration of justice in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

(b) Scope of assistance

Assistance under this section may only include—

(1) support for specialized professional training, scholarships, and exchanges for continuing legal education;

(2) programs to enhance prosecutorial and judicial capabilities and protection for participants in judicial cases;

(3) notwithstanding section 2420 of this title—

(A) programs to enhance professional capabilities to carry out investigative and forensic functions conducted under judicial or prosecutorial control;

(B) programs to assist in the development of academic instruction and curricula for training law enforcement personnel;

(C) programs to improve the administrative and management capabilities of law enforcement agencies, especially their capabilities relating to career development, personnel evaluation, and internal discipline procedures; and

(D) programs, conducted through multilateral or regional institutions, to improve penal institutions and the rehabilitation of offenders;


(4) strengthening professional organizations in order to promote services to members and the role of the bar in judicial selection, enforcement of ethical standards, and legal reform;

(5) increasing the availability of legal materials and publications;

(6) seminars, conferences, and training and educational programs to improve the administration of justice and to strengthen respect for the rule of law and internationally recognized human rights; and

(7) revision and modernization of legal codes and procedures.

(c) Availability of funds

Not more than $20,000,000 of the funds made available to carry out this part for any fiscal year shall be available to carry out this section, in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes.

(d) Obligation of funds

Funds may not be obligated for assistance under this section unless the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate are notified of the amount and nature of the proposed assistance at least 15 days in advance in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogrammings pursuant to section 2394–1 of this title.

(e) Participation of Defense personnel in training prohibited; availability of funds; expiration of authority

Personnel of the Department of Defense and members of the United States Armed Forces may not participate in the provision of training under this section. Of the funds made available to carry out this section, not more than $10,000,000 may be made available in fiscal year 1991 to carry out the provisions of subsection (b)(3) of this section. The authority of this section shall expire on September 30, 1991.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §534, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title VII, §712, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 244; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §579], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–181; Pub. L. 101–167, title II, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1206; Pub. L. 101–513, title II, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 101–623, §2(b)(6), Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3351.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2346c, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §534, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1530, prohibited the use of funds for nuclear facilities in foreign countries except under certain circumstances, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210.

Another prior section 2346c, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §534, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §10(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 735; amended Pub. L. 96–92, §8(d), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 704, provided economic support for Turkey and Cyprus in amounts of $98,000,000 and $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1980, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–623, §2(b)(6)(A), which directed the substitution of “$10,000,000 may be made available in fiscal year 1991” for “$7,000,000 may be made available in fiscal year 1990”, was executed by making the substitution for “$7,000,000 may be made available in fiscal year 1991” to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening substitution of “fiscal year 1991” for “fiscal year 1990” by Pub. L. 101–513. See below.

Pub. L. 101–623, §2(b)(6)(B), and Pub. L. 101–513, amended subsec. (e) identically, substituting “September 30, 1991” for “September 30, 1990”.

Pub. L. 101–513 substituted “fiscal year 1991” for “fiscal year 1990”.

1989—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–167 substituted “fiscal year 1990” for “each of fiscal years 1988 and 1989” and “September 30, 1990” for “September 30, 1989”.

1987—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §579(a)], amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “notwithstanding section 2420 of this title, programs to enhance investigative capabilities, conducted under judicial or prosecutorial control;”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §579(b)], amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “The authority of this section shall expire on September 30, 1987.”

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Administration of Justice Activities

Pub. L. 108–199, div. D, title V, §536, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 183, provided that: “Of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available by this Act or any subsequent Act for ‘Economic Support Fund’, assistance may be provided to strengthen the administration of justice in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in other regions consistent with the provisions of section 534(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346c(b)], except that programs to enhance protection of participants in judicial cases may be conducted notwithstanding section 660 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2420]. Funds made available pursuant to this section may be made available notwithstanding section 534(c) and the second and third sentences of section 534(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346c(c), (e)].”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 108–7, div. E, title V, §536, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 195.

Pub. L. 107–115, title V, §536, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2152.

Pub. L. 106–429, §101(a) [title V, §540], Nov. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 1900, 1900A–37.

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §540], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–95.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §542], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–184.

Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §541, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2418.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §543], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009–157.

Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §543, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 739.

Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §549(a), (c), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1643, 1644.

Pub. L. 103–87, title V, §551(a)(1), (b), Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 962.

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §588(a)(1), (b), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1689, 1690.

Anti-Narcotics Update

Pub. L. 102–145, §124, as added by Pub. L. 102–266, §102, Apr. 1, 1992, 106 Stat. 97, provided that: “The program authorized by section 534 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346c] may continue from funds appropriated by this joint resolution for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs, notwithstanding the last sentence of section 534(e) of that Act: Provided, That such programs may include the protection of participants in judicial cases, notwithstanding section 660 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2420]: Provided further, That, notwithstanding sections 534(c) and 660 of that Act, (1) up to $10,000,000 to provide support for a professional civilian police force for Panama, except that such assistance shall not include more than $5,000,000 for the procurement of equipment for law enforcement purposes, and shall not include lethal equipment, and (2) up to $16,000,000 for Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru.”

§2346d. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–149, §4(a)(3)(B), Nov. 23, 1993, 107 Stat. 1505

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §535, as added Pub. L. 99–440, title V, §511(a), Oct. 2, 1986, 100 Stat. 1111; amended Pub. L. 99–631, §1(b)(3), Nov. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 3519, related to economic support for disadvantaged South Africans.

§§2346e to 2346i. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–83, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 210

Section 2346e, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §536, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1531, related to special requirements fund.

A prior section 2346e, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §536, as added Pub. L. 96–257, §2, May 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 422, provided for Central American economic support for fiscal year 1980, in amount of $80,000,000, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–533, title II, §202, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3142.

Section 2346f, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §537, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1531, related to programs for Tunisia.

Section 2346g, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §538, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1531, related to programs for Costa Rica.

Section 2346h, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §539, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title II, §202, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1531, related to programs for Nicaragua.

Section 2346i, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §540, as added Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §708(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1546, related to programs for Poland.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Part V—International Military Education and Training

§2347. General authority

(a) The President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions consistent with this chapter as the President may determine (but whenever feasible on a reimbursable basis), military education and training to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries. Such civilian personnel shall include foreign governmental personnel of ministries other than ministries of defense, and may also include legislators and individuals who are not members of the government, if the military education and training would (i) contribute to responsible defense resource management, (ii) foster greater respect for and understanding of the principle of civilian control of the military, (iii) contribute to cooperation between military and law enforcement personnel with respect to counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, or (iv) improve military justice systems and procedures in accordance with internationally recognized human rights. Such training and education may be provided through—

(1) attendance at military educational and training facilities in the United States (other than Service academies) and abroad;

(2) attendance in special courses of instruction at schools and institutions of learning or research in the United States and abroad; and

(3) observation and orientation visits to military facilities and related activities in the United States and abroad.

(b) The President shall seek reimbursement for military education and training furnished under this part from countries using assistance under section 2763 of this title (relating to the Foreign Military Financing Program) to purchase such military education and training at a rate comparable to the rate charged to countries receiving grant assistance for military education and training under this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §541, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 732; amended Pub. L. 101–513, title III, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 102–583, §10, Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4934; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427; Pub. L. 109–102, title V, §534(l)(3), Nov. 14, 2005, 119 Stat. 2211.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2005—Pub. L. 109–102 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1996—Pub. L. 104–164 inserted “and individuals who are not members of the government” after “legislators” in second sentence of introductory provisions.

1992—Pub. L. 102–583, in introductory provisions, inserted “, and may also include legislators,” after “ministries of defense” and substituted “(iii) contribute to cooperation between military and law enforcement personnel with respect to counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, or (iv)” for “or (iii)”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–513 inserted after first sentence “Such civilian personnel shall include foreign governmental personnel of ministries other than ministries of defense if the military education and training would (i) contribute to responsible defense resource management, (ii) foster greater respect for and understanding of the principle of civilian control of the military, or (iii) improve military justice systems and procedures in accordance with internationally recognized human rights.”

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Funds Made Available Pursuant to Other Provisions of Law

Section 106(d) of Pub. L. 94–329 provided that: “Funds made available pursuant to other provisions of law for foreign military educational and training activities shall remain available for obligation and expenditure for their original purposes in accordance with the provisions of law originally applicable to those purposes or in accordance with the provisions of law currently applicable to those purposes.”

§2347a. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part $56,221,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $56,221,000 for fiscal year 1987.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §542, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 732; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §10, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 95–384, §11(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736; Pub. L. 96–92, §9, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §115(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1528, 1560; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §104, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 195.)

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–83 amended section generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $56,221,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $42,000,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

1981—Pub. L. 97–113, §§113, 734(a)(1), substituted appropriations authorization of $42,000,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983 for appropriation of $34,000,000 for fiscal year 1981 and deleted prohibition against any training after June 30, 1976, outside the United States without a prior Presidential report to the Speaker of the House and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and justification for the training.

1980—Pub. L. 96–533 substituted appropriations authorization of $34,000,000 for fiscal year 1981 for authorization of $31,800,000 for fiscal year 1980, including prohibition against availability of any amount for Inter-American regional programs unless the foreign country participants collectively contribute an equivalent amount to carry out the programs.

1979—Pub. L. 96–92 substituted appropriations authorization of $31,800,000 for fiscal year 1980, for identical authorization for fiscal year 1979, and required collective contribution of an equivalent amount by the foreign countries participating in Inter-American regional programs before such amount became available from the appropriation for such programs.

1978—Pub. L. 95–384 substituted “$31,800,000 for the fiscal year 1979” for “$31,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978”.

1977—Pub. L. 95–92 substituted “$31,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978” for “$27,000,000 for the fiscal year 1976 and $30,200,000 for the fiscal year 1977”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2347b. Congressional declaration of purpose

Education and training activities conducted under this part shall be designed—

(1) to encourage effective and mutually beneficial relations and increased understanding between the United States and foreign countries in furtherance of the goals of international peace and security;

(2) to improve the ability of participating foreign countries to utilize their resources, including defense articles and defense services obtained by them from the United States, with maximum effectiveness, thereby contributing to greater self-reliance by such countries; and

(3) to increase the awareness of nationals of foreign countries participating in such activities of basic issues involving internationally recognized human rights.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §543, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733; amended Pub. L. 95–384, §11(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736.)

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–384 added par. (3).

§2347c. Exchange training; reciprocity agreement

(a) Attendance of foreign military personnel at professional military education institutions

In carrying out this part, the President is authorized to provide for attendance of foreign military personnel at professional military education institutions in the United States (other than service academies) without charge, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title), if such attendance is pursuant to an agreement providing for the exchange of students on a one-for-one, reciprocal basis each fiscal year between those United States professional military education institutions and comparable institutions of foreign countries and international organizations.

(b) Attendance of foreign military and civilian defense personnel at flight training schools and programs

The President may provide for the attendance of foreign military and civilian defense personnel at flight training schools and programs (including test pilot schools) in the United States without charge, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title), if such attendance is pursuant to an agreement providing for the exchange of students on a one-for-one basis each fiscal year between those United States flight training schools and programs (including test pilot schools) and comparable flight training schools and programs of foreign countries.

(c) Post-undergraduate flying training and tactical leadership programs at training locations in Southwest Asia

(1) The President is authorized to enter into cooperative arrangements providing for the participation of foreign and United States military and civilian defense personnel in post-undergraduate flying training and tactical leadership programs at training locations in Southwest Asia without charge to participating foreign countries, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title). Such training must satisfy common requirements with the United States for post-undergraduate flying and tactical leadership training.

(2) Cooperative arrangements under this subsection shall require an equitable contribution of support and services from each participating country. The President may waive the requirement for an equitable contribution of a participating foreign country if he determines that to do so is important to the national security interests of the United States.

(3) Costs incurred by the United States shall be charged to the current applicable appropriations accounts or funds of the participating United States Government agencies.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §544, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §126, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; amended Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1213, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1429.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–228 added subsec. (c).

1996—Pub. L. 104–164 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Authority for Exchange Training Through Specified Professional Military Education Institution Outside United States

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IX, §935, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1538, provided that:

“(a) Authority.—The United States Army Russian Institute in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Federal Republic of Germany, shall be treated for purposes of section 544 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347c) as if it were located in the United States.

“(b) Expiration of Authority.—Subsection (a) shall cease to be in effect upon the enactment in foreign assistance authorizing legislation of an amendment to section 544 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 that provides the same authority as is provided by subsection (a).”

§2347d. Training in maritime skills

The President is encouraged to allocate a portion of the funds made available each fiscal year to carry out this part for use in providing education and training in maritime search and rescue, operation and maintenance of aids to navigation, port security, at-sea law enforcement, international maritime law, and general maritime skills.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §545, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §127(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2347e. Prohibition on grant assistance for certain high income foreign countries

(a) In general

None of the funds made available for a fiscal year for assistance under this part may be made available for assistance on a grant basis for any of the high-income foreign countries described in subsection (b) of this section for military education and training of military and related civilian personnel of such country.

(b) High-income foreign countries described

The high-income foreign countries described in this subsection are Austria, Finland, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Spain.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §546, as added Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(c)(1), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427.)

§2347f. Consultation requirement

The selection of foreign personnel for training under this part shall be made in consultation with the United States defense attache to the relevant country.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §547, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title II, §202, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851.)

§2347g. Records regarding foreign participants

(a) Development and maintenance of database

In order to contribute most effectively to the development of military professionalism in foreign countries, the Secretary of Defense shall develop and maintain a database containing records on each foreign military or defense ministry civilian participant in education and training activities conducted under this part after December 31, 2000. This record shall include the type of instruction received, the dates of such instruction, whether such instruction was completed successfully, and, to the extent practicable, a record of the person's subsequent military or defense ministry career and current position and location.

(b) Annual list of foreign personnel

For the purposes of preparing the report required pursuant to section 2347h of this title, the Secretary of State may annually request the Secretary of Defense to provide information contained in the database, with respect to a list submitted to the Secretary of Defense by the Secretary of State, that contains the names of foreign personnel or military units. To the extent practicable, the Secretary of Defense shall provide, and the Secretary of State may take into account, the information contained in the database, if any, relating to the Secretary of State's submission.

(c) Updating of database

If the Secretary of State determines and reports to Congress under section 2347h of this title that a foreign person identified in the database maintained pursuant to this section was involved in a violation of internationally recognized human rights, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the database is updated to contain such fact and all relevant information.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §548, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title II, §202, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851; amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1212(b), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1429.)

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–228 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

§2347h. Human rights report

(a) In general

Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary of State shall submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report describing, to the extent practicable, any involvement of a foreign military or defense ministry civilian participant in education and training activities under this part in a violation of internationally recognized human rights reported under section 2151n(d) of this title subsequent to such participation.

(b) Form

The report described in subsection (a) of this section shall be in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §549, as added Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1212(a), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1428.)

Part VI—Peacekeeping Operations

§2348. General authorization

The President is authorized to furnish assistance to friendly countries and international organizations, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for peacekeeping operations and other programs carried out in furtherance of the national security interests of the United States. Such assistance may include reimbursement to the Department of Defense for expenses incurred pursuant to section 287d–1 of this title, except that such reimbursements may not exceed $5,000,000 in any fiscal year unless a greater amount is specifically authorized by this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §551, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §12(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736; amended Pub. L. 96–92, §10(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 705.)

Amendments

1979—Pub. L. 96–92 authorized reimbursement of Department of Defense for expenses incurred in furnishing assistance to the United States limited to $5,000,000 per fiscal year unless specifically authorized.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

United States Proposal for the Early Warning System in Sinai

Pub. L. 94–110, Oct. 13, 1975, 89 Stat. 572, provided that:

“Whereas an agreement signed on September 4, 1975, by the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of Israel may, when it enters into force, constitute a significant step toward peace in the Middle East;

“Whereas the President of the United States on September 1, 1975, transmitted to the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and to the Government of Israel identical proposals for United States participation in an early-warning system, the text of which has been submitted to the Congress, providing for the assignment of no more than two hundred United States civilian personnel to carry out certain specified noncombat functions and setting forth the terms and conditions thereof;

“Whereas that proposal would permit the Government of the United States to withdraw such personnel if it concludes that their safety is jeopardized or that continuation of their role is no longer necessary; and

“Whereas the implementation of the United States proposals for the early-warning system in Sinai may enhance the prospect of compliance in good faith with the terms of the Egyptian-Israeli agreements and thereby promote the cause of peace: Now, therefore, be it

“Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President is authorized to implement the ‘United States Proposal for the Early Warning System in Sinai’: Provided, however, That United States civilian personnel assigned to Sinai under such proposal shall be removed immediately in the event of an outbreak of hostilities between Egypt and Israel or if the Congress by concurrent resolution determines that the safety of such personnel is jeopardized or that continuation of their role is no longer necessary. Nothing contained in this resolution shall be construed as granting any authority to the President with respect to the introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situations wherein involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances which authority he would not have had in the absence of this joint resolution.

“Sec. 2. Any concurrent resolution of the type described in the first section of this resolution which is introduced in either House of Congress shall be privileged in the same manner and to the same extent as a concurrent resolution of the type described in section 5(c) of Public Law 93–148 [section 1544(c) of Title 50, War and National Defense] is privileged under section 7 of such law [section 1546 of title 50, War and National Defense].

“Sec. 3. The United States civilian personnel participating in the early warning system in Sinai shall include only individuals who have volunteered to participate in such system.

“Sec. 4. Whenever United States civilian personnel, pursuant to this resolution, participate in an early warning system, the President shall, so long as the participation of such personnel continues, submit written reports to the Congress periodically, but no less frequently than once every six months, on (1) the status, scope, and anticipated duration of their participation, and (2) the feasibility of ending or reducing as soon as possible their participation by substituting nationals of other countries or by making technological changes. The appropriate committees of the Congress shall promptly hold hearings on each report of the President and report to the Congress any findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

“Sec. 5. The authority contained in this joint resolution to implement the ‘United States Proposal for the Early Warning System in Sinai’ does not signify approval of the Congress of any other agreement, understanding, or commitment made by the executive branch.”

Executive Order No. 11896

Ex. Ord. No. 11896, Jan. 13, 1976, 41 F.R. 2067, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12150, July 23, 1979, 44 F.R. 43455; Ex. Ord. No. 12227, July 22, 1980, 45 F.R. 49237; Ex. Ord. No. 12357, Apr. 6, 1982, 47 F.R. 15093, which established the United States Sinai Support Mission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

§2348a. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Fiscal years 1986 and 1987

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part, in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes, $37,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $37,000,000 for fiscal year 1987.

(b) Availability of funds

Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(c) Emergency transfer of funds

If the President determines that, as the result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of assistance under this part in amounts in excess of funds otherwise available for such assistance is important to the national interests of the United States, the President may (1) exercise the authority of section 2360(a) of this title to transfer funds available to carry out part IV of this subchapter for use under this part without regard to the 20-percent increase limitation contained in such section, except that the total amount so transferred in any fiscal year may not exceed $15,000,000; and (2) in the event the President also determines that such unforeseen emergency requires the immediate provision of assistance under this part, direct the drawdown of commodities and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the United States Government of an aggregate value not to exceed $25,000,000 in any fiscal year.

(d) Reimbursement of applicable appropriation, fund, or account

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President such sums as may be necessary to reimburse the applicable appropriation, fund, or account for commodities and services provided under subsection (c)(2) of this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §552, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §12(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736; amended Pub. L. 96–92, §10(a), (c), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §116(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §114, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §105(a), (b)(1), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 195.)

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §105(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $37,000,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $19,000,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–83, §105(b)(1)(A), (B), designated existing provisions as cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–83, §105(b)(1)(C), added subsec. (d).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113, §114(a), substituted “$19,000,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $19,000,000 for the fiscal year 1983” for “$25,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–113, §114(b), increased to $15,000,000 from $10,000,000 amount of funds authorized to be transferred in any fiscal year and deleted restriction on transfer of earmarked funds.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533 substituted “$25,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981” for “$21,100,000 for the fiscal year 1980”.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–92, §10(a), substituted “$21,100,000 for the fiscal year 1980” for “$30,900,000 for the fiscal year 1979”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–92, §10(c), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2348b. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §116(b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §553, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §12(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736, provided for Middle East special requirements fund and funding limitations and requirements, including use of $3,500,000 for fiscal year 1979 for international peacekeeping in the Middle East.

§2348c. Administrative authorities

Except where expressly provided to the contrary, any reference in any law to subchapter I of this chapter shall be deemed to include reference to this part and any reference in any law to subchapter II of this chapter shall be deemed to exclude reference to this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §553, formerly §554, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §12(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737; renumbered §553, Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §116(b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.) and VIII (§2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and section 2349aa–5 of this title.

§2348d. Data on costs incurred in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations

(a) United States costs

The President shall annually provide to the Secretary General of the United Nations data regarding all costs incurred by the United States Department of Defense during the preceding year in support of all United Nations Security Council resolutions as reported to the Congress pursuant to section 8079 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998.

(b) United Nations member costs

The President shall request that the United Nations compile and publish information concerning costs incurred by United Nations members in support of such resolutions.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §554, as added Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. A, title VII, §722], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–462.)

References in Text

Section 8079 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 8079 of Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1236, which is not classified to the Code.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 554 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 553 and is classified to section 2348c of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Part VII—Air Base Construction in Israel

§2349. General authority

The President is authorized—

(1) to construct such air bases in Israel for the Government of Israel as may be agreed upon between the Government of Israel and the Government of the United States to replace the Israeli air bases located at Etzion and Etam on the Sinai peninsula that are to be evacuated by the Government of Israel; and

(2) for purposes of such construction, to furnish as a grant to the Government of Israel, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, defense articles and defense services, which he may acquire from any source, of a value not to exceed the amount appropriated pursuant to section 2349a(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §561, as added Pub. L. 96–35, §3, July 20, 1979, 93 Stat. 89.)

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349a. Authorization and utilization of funds

(a) Authorization of appropriation

There is authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part not to exceed $800,000,000, which may be made available until expended.

(b) Presidential authority to incur obligations and enter into contracts

Upon agreement by the Government of Israel to provide to the Government of the United States funds equal to the difference between the amount required to complete the agreed construction work and the amount appropriated pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, and to make those funds available, in advance of the time when payments are due, in such amounts and at such times as may be required by the Government of the United States to meet those additional costs of construction, the President may incur obligations and enter into contracts to the extent necessary to complete the agreed construction work, except that this authority shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(c) Crediting of funds to proper appropriation account

Funds made available by the Government of Israel pursuant to subsection (b) of this section may be credited to the appropriation account established to carry out the purposes of this section for the payment of obligations incurred and for refund to the Government of Israel if they are unnecessary for that purpose, as determined by the President. Credits and the proceeds of guaranteed loans made available to the Government of Israel pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], as well as any other source of financing available to it, may be used by Israel to carry out its undertaking to provide such additional funds.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §562, as added Pub. L. 96–35, §3, July 20, 1979, 93 Stat. 90.)

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349b. Waiver authorities

(a) Efficient and timely completion of authorized construction

It is the sense of the Congress that the President should take all necessary measures consistent with law to insure the efficient and timely completion of the construction authorized by this part, including the exercise of authority vested in him by section 2393(a) of this title.

(b) Use of funds to pay for personal services abroad

The provisions of paragraph (3) of section 2396(a) of this title shall be applicable to the use of funds available to carry out this part, except that no more than sixty persons may be engaged at any one time under that paragraph for purposes of this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §563, as added Pub. L. 96–35, §3, July 20, 1979, 93 Stat. 90.)

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Part VIII—Antiterrorism Assistance

§2349aa. General authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries (other than sections 2304 and 2371 of this title), the President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, assistance to foreign countries in order to enhance the ability of their law enforcement personnel to deter terrorists and terrorist groups from engaging in international terrorist acts such as bombing, kidnapping, assassination, hostage taking, and hijacking. Such assistance may include training services and the provision of equipment and other commodities related to bomb detection and disposal, management of hostage situations, physical security, and other matters relating to the detection, deterrence, and prevention of acts of terrorism, the resolution of terrorist incidents, and the apprehension of those involved in such acts.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §571, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

Codification

Section 571 of Pub. L. 87–195 is based on section 201 of title II of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, as reported May 17, 1983, and enacted into law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–164 substituted “Notwithstanding any other provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries (other than sections 2304 and 2371 of this title)” for “Subject to the provisions of this part”.

Effective Date

Section 203 of title II of H.R. 2992, as enacted into permanent law by section 101(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–151, provided that: “This title [enacting this part and amending sections 2304 and 2403 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1983].”

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–1. Purposes

Activities conducted under this part shall be designed—

(1) to enhance the antiterrorism skills of friendly countries by providing training and equipment to deter and counter terrorism;

(2) to strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in this area of great mutual concern; and

(3) to increase respect for human rights by sharing with foreign civil authorities modern, humane, and effective antiterrorism techniques.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §572, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972.)

Codification

Section 572 of Pub. L. 87–195 is based on section 201 of title II of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, as reported May 17, 1983, and enacted into law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–2. Limitations

(a) Services and commodities furnished by agency of United States Government; advance payment

Whenever the President determines it to be consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes of this part, and on such terms and conditions consistent with this chapter as he may determine, any agency of the United States Government is authorized to furnish services and commodities, without charge to funds available to carry out this part, to an eligible foreign country, subject to payment in advance of the value thereof (within the meaning of section 2403(m) of this title) in United States dollars by the foreign country. Credits and the proceeds of guaranteed loans made available to such countries pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] shall not be used for such payments. Collections under this part shall be credited to the currently applicable appropriation, account, or fund of the agency providing such services and commodities and shall be available for the purposes for which such appropriation, account, or fund is authorized to be used.

(b) Consultation in development and implementation of assistance

The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor shall be consulted in the determinations of the foreign countries that will be furnished assistance under this part and determinations of the nature of assistance to be furnished to each such country.

(c) Arms and ammunition; value of equipment and commodities

(1) Arms and ammunition may be provided under this part only if they are directly related to antiterrorism assistance.

(2) The value (in terms of original acquisition cost) of all equipment and commodities provided under this part in any fiscal year shall not exceed 30 percent of the funds made available to carry out this part for that fiscal year.

(d) Information exchange activities

This part does not apply to information exchange activities conducted by agencies of the United States Government under other authority for such purposes.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §573, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §501(b), (c), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 99–399, title V, §507, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 101–604, title II, §213(b), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3086; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(3), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §328(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1257; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section 573 of Pub. L. 87–195 is based on section 201 of title II of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, as reported May 17, 1983, and enacted into law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(1), substituted “Limitations” for “Specific authorities and limitations” as section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (b) and (c) as (a) and (b), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding section 2420 of this title, services and commodities may be granted for the purposes of this part to eligible foreign countries, subject to reimbursement of the value thereof (within the meaning of section 2403(m) of this title) pursuant to section 2392 of this title from funds available to carry out this part.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(4), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking out pars. (1) and (2), redesignating pars. (3) to (5) as (1) to (3), respectively, and amending par. (2) generally, could not be executed because subsec. (c) [formerly (d)] did not contain pars. (3) to (5) subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 104–132, §328(a)(2), see below.

Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Pub. L. 104–132, §328(a)(1), struck out “development and implementation of the antiterrorism assistance program under this part, including” after “shall be consulted in the”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(3), redesignated subsecs. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Pub. L. 104–132, §328(a)(2), amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting pars. (1) and (2) for former pars. (1) to (5) which related to location for training and advice, law enforcement personnel training, availability of items on United States Munitions List, and services, equipment, personnel, and facilities involved in collection of intelligence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–164, §121(b)(3), which directed redesignation of subsec. (f) as (e), could not be executed because of prior amendment by Pub. L. 104–132, §328(a)(3), see below. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–132, §328(a)(3), struck out subsec. (f) which read as follows: “Funds made available to carry out this part may not be used for personnel compensation or benefits.”

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–236 substituted “Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor” for “Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs”.

1990—Subsec. (d)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 101–604 added pars. (1) to (3) and struck out former pars. (1) to (3) which read as follows:

“(1) Training services provided pursuant to this part shall not be conducted outside the United States.

“(2) Personnel of the United States Government authorized to advise eligible foreign countries on antiterrorism matters shall carry out their responsibilities, to the maximum extent possible, within the United States. Such personnel may provide advice outside the United States on antiterrorism matters to eligible foreign countries for periods not to exceed thirty consecutive calendar days.

“(3) Employees of the Department of State shall not engage in the training of law enforcement personnel or provision of services under this part, except that employees of the Office of Security of the Department of State may provide training and services to law enforcement personnel for the physical protection of internationally protected persons and related facilities.”

1986—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–399, in amending par. (4) generally, included articles in category X and articles in par. (b), (c), or (d) of category XIII as articles on the United States Munitions List which could be made available, struck out availability of articles only for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, substituted provision that the value in any fiscal year not exceed 25 percent of the funds available to carry out this part for that fiscal year for provision that the value not exceed $325,000 in fiscal year 1986 or 1987, and provided that no shock batons or similar devices be provided under this part.

1985—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–83, §501(b), in amending par. (4) generally, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted provisions excepting subpar. (B), and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–83, §501(c), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–3. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(c), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §574, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972, directed President to transmit to Congress, not less than 30 days before providing assistance to foreign country under this part, a report which specified terms and objectives of such assistance, and required annual presentation to Congress of information on all countries that received assistance under this part for each fiscal year.

§2349aa–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part $72,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $73,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, and $64,200,000 for fiscal year 2003.

(b) Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §574, formerly §575, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §501(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 219; Pub. L. 99–399, title IV, §401(a)(2), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 862; renumbered §574, Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(d), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428; Pub. L. 106–280, title IV, §401, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 854; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1251, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1433.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 574 of Pub. L. 87–195 was classified to section 2349aa–3 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–164.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–228 substituted “, $73,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, and $64,200,000 for fiscal year 2003” for “and $73,000,000 for fiscal year 2002”.

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–280 substituted “$72,000,000 for fiscal year 2001 and $73,000,000 for fiscal year 2002” for “$9,840,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $14,680,000 for fiscal year 1987”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–399 substituted “$14,680,000 for the fiscal year 1987” for “$9,840,000 for the fiscal year 1987”.

1985—Pub. L. 99–83, in amending section generally, designated existing provisions as subsecs. (a) and (b), and in subsec. (a) as so designated, substituted provisions appropriating $9,840,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 for provisions appropriating $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1984.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–5. Administrative authorities

Except where expressly provided to the contrary, any reference in any law to subchapter I of this chapter shall be deemed to include reference to this part and any reference in any law to subchapter II of this chapter shall be deemed to exclude reference to this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §575, formerly §576, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; renumbered §575, Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(d), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II, and References to Subchapter II Deemed To Exclude Such Parts

References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§2346 et seq.) and VI (§2348 et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) of Pub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and section 2348c of this title.

Codification

Section 575, formerly 576, of Pub. L. 87–195 is based on section 201 of title II of H.R. 2992, Ninety-eighth Congress, as reported May 17, 1983, and enacted into law by Pub. L. 98–151.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 575 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 574 and is classified to section 2349aa–4 of this title.

§2349aa–6. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §501(d), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220

Section, Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §577, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972, provided for expiration of authorities of this part on Sept. 30, 1985.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

§2349aa–7. Coordination of all United States terrorism-related assistance to foreign countries

(a) Responsibility

The Secretary of State shall be responsible for coordinating all assistance related to international terrorism which is provided by the United States Government to foreign countries.

(b) Reports

Not later than February 1 each year, the Secretary of State, in consultation with appropriate United States Government agencies, shall report to the appropriate committees of the Congress on the assistance related to international terrorism which was provided by the United States Government during the preceding fiscal year. Such reports may be provided on a classified basis to the extent necessary, and shall specify the amount and nature of the assistance provided.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to limit or impair the authority or responsibility of any other Federal agency with respect to law enforcement, domestic security operations, or intelligence activities as defined in Executive Order 12333.

(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §502, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 99–399, title V, §503, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 871.)

References in Text

Executive Order 12333, referred to in subsec. (c), is set out as a note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–399, §503(1), substituted “terrorism-related” for “anti-terrorism” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–399, §503(2), substituted “assistance related to international terrorism which is provided by the United States Government to foreign countries” for “anti-terrorism assistance to foreign countries provided by the United States Government”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–399, §503(3), substituted “assistance related to international terrorism which was” for “anti-terrorism assistance”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–399, §503(4), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

§2349aa–8. Prohibition on imports from and exports to Libya

(a) Prohibition on imports

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may prohibit any article grown, produced, extracted, or manufactured in Libya from being imported into the United States.

(b) Prohibition on exports

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may prohibit any goods or technology, including technical data or other information, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or exported by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, from being exported to Libya.

(c) “United States” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes territories and possessions of the United States.

(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §504, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 221.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–9. Ban on importing goods and services from countries supporting terrorism

(a) Authority

The President may ban the importation into the United States of any good or service from any country which supports terrorism or terrorist organizations or harbors terrorists or terrorist organizations.

(b) Consultation

The President, in every possible instance, shall consult with the Congress before exercising the authority granted by this section and shall consult regularly with the Congress so long as that authority is being exercised.

(c) Reports

Whenever the President exercises the authority granted by this section, he shall immediately transmit to the Congress a report specifying—

(1) the country with respect to which the authority is to be exercised and the imports to be prohibited;

(2) the circumstances which necessitate the exercise of such authority;

(3) why the President believes those circumstances justify the exercise of such authority; and

(4) why the President believes the prohibitions are necessary to deal with those circumstances.


At least once during each succeeding 6-month period after transmitting a report pursuant to this subsection, the President shall report to the Congress with respect to the actions taken, since the last such report, pursuant to this section and with respect to any changes which have occurred concerning any information previously furnished pursuant to this subsection.

(d) “United States” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “United States” includes territories and possessions of the United States.

(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §505, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 221.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349aa–10. Antiterrorism assistance

(a) Omitted

(b) Assistance to foreign countries to procure explosives detection devices and other counterterrorism technology

(1) Subject to section 2349aa–4(b) of this title, up to $3,000,000 in any fiscal year may be made available—

(A) to procure explosives detection devices and other counterterrorism technology; and

(B) for joint counterterrorism research and development projects on such technology conducted with NATO and major non-NATO allies under the auspices of the Technical Support Working Group of the Department of State.


(2) As used in this subsection, the term “major non-NATO allies” means those countries designated as major non-NATO allies for purposes of section 2350a(i)(3) 1 of title 10.

(c) Assistance to foreign countries

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (except section 2371 of this title) up to $1,000,000 in assistance may be provided to a foreign country for counterterrorism efforts in any fiscal year if—

(1) such assistance is provided for the purpose of protecting the property of the United States Government or the life and property of any United States citizen, or furthering the apprehension of any individual involved in any act of terrorism against such property or persons; and

(2) the appropriate committees of Congress are notified not later than 15 days prior to the provision of such assistance.

(Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §328, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1257.)

References in Text

Section 2349aa–4 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original “section 575”, which was translated as meaning section 575 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. Section 575 of the Act was renumbered section 574 by section 121(d) of Pub. L. 104–164 without corresponding amendment to this section.

Section 2350a of title 10, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was subsequently amended, and section 2350a(i)(3) no longer defines the term “major non-NATO ally”. However, such term is defined elsewhere in that section.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 328 of Pub. L. 104–132. Subsec. (a) of section 328 of Pub. L. 104–132 amended section 2349aa–2 of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

“Assistance” Defined

Section 329 of title III of Pub. L. 104–132 provided that: “For purposes of this title [enacting this section and sections 262p–4q, 2377, 2378, and 2781 of this title, section 1189 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and sections 2332d and 2339B of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending section 2349aa–2 of this title, section 2339A of Title 18, and section 44906 of Title 49, Transportation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2377 of this title and sections 2332d and 2339B of Title 18]—

“(1) the term ‘assistance’ means assistance to or for the benefit of a government of any country that is provided by grant, concessional sale, guaranty, insurance, or by any other means on terms more favorable than generally available in the applicable market, whether in the form of a loan, lease, credit, debt relief, or otherwise, including subsidies for exports to such country and favorable tariff treatment of articles that are the growth, product, or manufacture of such country; and

“(2) the term ‘assistance’ does not include assistance of the type authorized under chapter 9 of part 1 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2292 et seq.] (relating to international disaster assistance).”

1 See References in Text note below.

Part IX—Nonproliferation and Export Control Assistance

§2349bb. Purposes

The purposes of assistance under this part are to halt the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and conventional weaponry, through support of activities designed—

(1) to enhance the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of friendly countries by providing training and equipment to detect, deter, monitor, interdict, and counter proliferation;

(2) to strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in this area of vital national security interest;

(3) to accomplish the activities and objectives set forth in sections 5853 and 5854 of this title, without regard to the limitation of those sections to the independent states of the former Soviet Union; and

(4) to promote multilateral activities, including cooperation with international organizations, relating to nonproliferation.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §581, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851.)

Nonproliferation Technology Acquisition Programs for Friendly Foreign Countries

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1302, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1435, provided that:

“(a) In General.—For the purpose of enhancing the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of friendly countries, of the amount authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 2003 by section 585 [586] of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2349bb et seq.) [22 U.S.C. 2349bb–4], the Secretary is authorized to make available—

“(1) $5,000,000 for the procurement and provision of nuclear, chemical, and biological detection systems, including spectroscopic and pulse echo technologies; and

“(2) $10,000,000 for the procurement and provision of x-ray systems capable of imaging sea-cargo containers.

“(b) Reports on Training Program.—

“(1) Initial report.—Not later than March 31, 2003, the Secretary shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees setting forth his plans and budget for a multiyear training program to train foreign personnel in the utilization of the systems described in subsection (a).

“(2) Subsequent reports.—Not later than March 31, 2004, and annually thereafter for the next three years, the Secretary shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees describing the progress, current status, and budget of that training program and of the provision of those systems.”

[For definitions of “Secretary” and “appropriate congressional committees” as used in section 1302 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title.]

§2349bb–1. Authorization of assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or section 2371 of this title), the President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, assistance in order to carry out the purposes of this part. Such assistance may include training services and the provision of funds, equipment, and other commodities related to the detection, deterrence, monitoring, interdiction, and prevention or countering of proliferation, the establishment of effective nonproliferation laws and regulations, and the apprehension of those individuals involved in acts of proliferation of such weapons.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §582, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852.)

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–2. Transit interdiction

(a) Allocation of funds

In providing assistance under this part, the President shall ensure that, beginning in fiscal year 2007, not less than one-quarter of the total of such assistance is obligated for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of friendly countries to detect and interdict proliferation-related shipments of cargo to non-State actors and States of proliferation concern.

(b) Priority to certain countries

Priority shall be given in the apportionment of the assistance described under subsection (a) of this section to any friendly country that has been determined by the Secretary of State to be a country frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.

(c) Cooperative agreements

In order to promote cooperation regarding the interdiction of weapons of mass destruction and related materials and delivery systems, the President is authorized to conclude agreements, including reciprocal maritime agreements, with other countries to facilitate effective measures to prevent the transportation of such items to non-state actors and states of proliferation concern.

(d) Determination and notice to Congress

The Secretary of State shall notify the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in writing not more than 30 days after making a determination that any friendly country has been determined to be a country eligible for priority consideration of any assistance under subsection (a). Such determination shall set forth the reasons for such determination, and may be submitted in classified and unclassified form, as necessary.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §583, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; amended Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c)(1), substituted “shall ensure that, beginning in fiscal year 2007,” for “should ensure that”, “obligated” for “expended”, and “to non-State actors and States of proliferation concern” for “that originate from, and are destined for, other countries”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c)(2), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–2a. International nonproliferation export control training

(a) General authority

The President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions consistent with this part (but whenever feasible on a reimbursable basis), education and training to appropriate military and civilian personnel of foreign countries for the purpose of enhancing the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of such personnel through their attendance in special courses of instruction conducted by the United States.

(b) Administration of courses

The Secretary of State shall have overall responsibility for the development and conduct of international nonproliferation education and training programs under this section, and may utilize other departments and agencies of the United States, as appropriate, to recommend personnel for the education and training and to administer specific courses of instruction.

(c) Purposes

Education and training activities conducted under this section shall be—

(1) of a technical nature, emphasizing techniques for detecting, deterring, monitoring, interdicting, and countering proliferation;

(2) designed to encourage effective and mutually beneficial relations and increased understanding between the United States and friendly countries; and

(3) designed to improve the ability of friendly countries to utilize their resources with maximum effectiveness, thereby contributing to greater self-reliance by such countries.

(d) Priority to certain countries

In selecting personnel for education and training pursuant to this section, priority should be given to personnel from countries determined by the Secretary of State to be countries frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §584, as added Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 584 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 585 and is classified to section 2349bb–3 of this title.

§2349bb–3. Limitations

The limitations contained in section 2349aa–2(a) and (d) of this title shall apply to this part.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §585, formerly §584,as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §585, Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 585 of Pub. L. 87–195 was renumbered section 586 and is classified to section 2349bb–4 of this title.

§2349bb–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part $162,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.

(b) Availability of funds

Funds made available under subsection (a) of this section may be used notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or 2371 of this title) and shall remain available until expended.

(c) Treatment of appropriations

Amounts made available by the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, under “Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related Programs” and “Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union” accounts for the activities described in subsection (d) of this section shall be considered to be made available pursuant to this part.

(d) Covered activities

The activities referred to in subsection (c) of this section are—

(1) assistance under the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund;

(2) assistance for science and technology centers in the independent states of the former Soviet Union;

(3) export control assistance; and

(4) export control and border assistance under part XI of subchapter I of this chapter or the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §586, formerly §585, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §586 and amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §§1301(a), 1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1435, 1436.)

References in Text

The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 107–115, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2118, also known as the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2002. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The FREEDOM Support Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is Pub. L. 102–511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, as amended, also known as the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–228, §1301(a)(1), substituted “$162,000,000 for fiscal year 2003” for “$129,000,000 for fiscal year 2001 and $142,000,000 for fiscal year 2002”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–228, §1301(a)(2), struck out “fiscal year 2001” before “appropriations” in heading and substituted “2002” for “2001” in text.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

§2349bb–5. Proliferation interdiction assistance

Consistent with section 2349bb–2 of this title, the President is authorized to provide assistance to friendly foreign countries for proliferation detection and interdiction activities and for developing complementary capabilities.

(Pub. L. 109–472, §10(a), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

§2349bb–6. Safeguarding and elimination of conventional arms

(a) In general

The Secretary of State is authorized to secure, remove, or eliminate stocks of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), small arms and light weapons, stockpiled munitions, abandoned ordnance, and other conventional weapons, including tactical missile systems (hereafter in this section referred to as “MANPADS and other conventional weapons”), as well as related equipment and facilities, located outside the United States that are determined by the Secretary to pose a proliferation threat.

(b) Elements

The activities authorized under subsection (a) may include the following:

(1) Humanitarian demining activities.

(2) The elimination or securing of MANPADS.

(3) The elimination or securing of other conventional weapons.

(4) Assistance to countries in the safe handling and proper storage of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(5) Cooperative programs with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other international organizations to assist countries in the safe handling and proper storage or elimination of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(6) The utilization of funds for the elimination or safeguarding of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(7) Activities to secure and safeguard MANPADS and other conventional weapons.

(8) Actions to ensure that equipment and funds, including security upgrades at locations for the storage or disposition of MANPADS and other conventional weapons and related equipment that are determined by the Secretary of State to pose a proliferation threat, continue to be used for authorized purposes.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the authorities of the Secretary of Defense.

(Pub. L. 109–472, §11, Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of State Authorities Act of 2006, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.