20 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 20 - EDUCATION
CHAPTER 68 - NATIONAL EDUCATION REFORM
SUBCHAPTER X - MISCELLANEOUS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER X—MISCELLANEOUS

Part A—Miscellaneous Provisions

§6061. School prayer

No funds authorized to be appropriated under this chapter may be used by any State or local educational agency to adopt policies that prevent voluntary prayer and meditation in public schools.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1011, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 265.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original this “Act”, meaning Pub. L. 103–227, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 125, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Another section 1011 of Pub. L. 103–227 was classified to section 6054 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–279.

§6062. Funding for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.] was established with the commitment of forty percent Federal funding but currently receives only eight percent Federal funding;

(2) this funding shortfall is particularly burdensome to school districts and schools in low-income areas which serve higher than average proportions of students with disabilities and have fewer local resources to contribute; and

(3) it would cost the Federal Government approximately $10,000,000,000 each year to fully fund the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

(b) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of the Congress that the Federal Government should provide States and communities with adequate resources under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.] as soon as reasonably possible, through the reallocation of noneducation funds within the current budget monetary constraints.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1012, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 265.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in text, is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Another section 1012 of Pub. L. 103–227 was classified to section 6054a of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–279.

§6063. Study of Goals 2000 and students with disabilities

(a) Study required

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after March 31, 1994, the Secretary shall make appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Education to conduct a comprehensive study of the inclusion of children with disabilities in school reform activities assisted under the Goals 2000: Educate America Act [20 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.].

(2) “Children with disabilities” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “children with disabilities” has the same meaning given such term in section 1401 of this title.

(b) Study components

The study conducted under subsection (a) of this section shall include—

(1) an evaluation of the National Education Goals and objectives, curriculum reforms, standards, and other programs and activities intended to achieve those goals;

(2) a review of the adequacy of assessments and measures used to gauge progress towards meeting National Education Goals and any national and State standards, and an examination of other methods or accommodations necessary or desirable to collect data on the educational progress of children with disabilities, and the costs of such methods and accommodations;

(3) an examination of what incentives or assistance might be provided to States to develop improvement plans that adequately address the needs of children with disabilities;

(4) the relation of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act [20 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.] to other Federal laws governing or affecting the education of children with disabilities; and

(5) such other issues as the National Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Education considers appropriate.

(c) Study panel membership

Any panel constituted in furtherance of the study to be conducted under subsection (a) of this section shall include consumer representatives.

(d) Findings and recommendations

The Secretary shall request the National Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Education to submit an interim report of its findings and recommendations to the President and Congress not later than 12 months, and a final report not later than 24 months, from the date of the completion of procurement relating to the study.

(e) Funding

From funds appropriated to the Secretary for research related to individuals with disabilities the Secretary shall make available $600,000 for fiscal year 1994, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1995, to carry out this section. Amounts made available under this subsection shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1015, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 266.)

References in Text

The Goals 2000: Educate America Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(4), is Pub. L. 103–227, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 125 (except titles V and IX), as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (except subchapters V (§5931 et seq.) and IX (§6001 et seq.)). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

§6064. Contraceptive devices

The Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Education shall ensure that all federally funded programs which provide for the distribution of contraceptive devices to unemancipated minors develop procedures to encourage, to the extent practical, family participation in such programs.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1018, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 268.)

§6065. Assessments

(a) Subchapter II

No funds provided under subchapter II of this chapter shall be used to develop or undertake assessments that will be used to make decisions regarding the graduation, grade promotion, or retention of students for 5 years after March 31, 1994.

(b) Subchapter III 1

Assessments developed with funds under subchapter III 1 of this chapter may be used for decisions regarding graduation, grade promotion, or retention of students only on the condition that students have been prepared in the content for which the students are being assessed.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1019, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 269.)

References in Text

Subchapters II and III of this chapter, referred to in text, were in the original references to titles II and III, respectively, of Pub. L. 103–227, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 133, 157. Title II enacted subchapter II of this chapter and section 3425 of this title, amended section 5093 of this title and section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 5093 of this title. Title III was classified generally to subchapter III (§5881 et seq.) of this chapter and was repealed by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(4) [title III, §310(i)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–265.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6066. Public schools

Except as provided in section 5890 1 of this title, nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the use of funds under subchapter III 1 of this chapter to directly or indirectly benefit any school other than a public school.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1020, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 269.)

References in Text

Section 5890 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(4) [title III, §310(i)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–265.

Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in text, was in the original a reference to title III of Pub. L. 103–227, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 157, which was classified generally to subchapter III (§5881 et seq.) of this chapter and was repealed by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(4) [title III, §310(i)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–265.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6067. Sense of Congress

It is the sense of the Congress that—

(1) no funds appropriated pursuant to this chapter should be expended by an entity unless the entity agrees that in expending the assistance the entity will comply with chapter 83 of title 41;

(2) in the case of any equipment or products that may be authorized to be purchased with financial assistance provided under this chapter, entities receiving such assistance should, in expending the assistance, purchase only American-made equipment and products;

(3) in providing financial assistance under this chapter, the head of each Federal agency should provide to each recipient of the assistance a notice describing the statement made in subsection (a) 1 by the Congress; and

(4) if it has been finally determined by a court or Federal agency that any person intentionally affixed a label bearing a “Made in America” inscription, or any inscription with the same meaning to any product sold in or shipped to the United States that is not made in the United States, such person should be ineligible to receive any contract or subcontract made with funds provided pursuant to this chapter, pursuant to the debarment, suspension, and ineligibility procedures described in sections 9.400 through 9.409 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations, as such sections existed on March 31, 1994.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1022, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 270.)

Codification

In par. (1), “chapter 83 of title 41” substituted for “sections 2 through 4 of the Act of March 3, 1993 (41 U.S.C. 10a–10c, popularly known as the ‘Buy American Act’)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Another section 1022 of Pub. L. 103–227 was classified to section 6055a of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–279.

1 So in original. No subsec. (a) has been enacted.

Part B—Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Codification

This part was, in the original, part C of title X of Pub. L. 103–227 and has been designated part B of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

Similar provisions relating to environmental tobacco smoke are contained in part C (§7181 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 70 of this title.

§6081. Short title

This part may be cited as the “Pro-Children Act of 1994”.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1041, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 271.)

§6082. Definitions

As used in this part:

(1) Children

The term “children” means individuals who have not attained the age of 18.

(2) Children's services

The term “children's services” means the provision on a routine or regular basis of health, day care, education, or library services—

(A) that are funded, after March 31, 1994, directly by the Federal Government or through State or local governments, by Federal grant, loan, loan guarantee, or contract programs—

(i) administered by either the Secretary of Health and Human Services or the Secretary of Education (other than services provided and funded solely under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq., 1396 et seq.]); or

(ii) administered by the Secretary of Agriculture in the case of a clinic (as defined in 7 CFR 246.2) under section 17(b)(6) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1786(b)(6)), or


(B) that are provided in indoor facilities that are constructed, operated, or maintained with such Federal funds, as determined by the appropriate Secretary in any enforcement action under this subchapter,


except that nothing in clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) is intended to include facilities (other than clinics) where coupons are redeemed under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.].

(3) Person

The term “person” means any State or local subdivision thereof, agency of such State or subdivision, corporation, or partnership that owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides children's services or any individual who owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides such services.

(4) Indoor facility

The term “indoor facility” means a building that is enclosed.

(5) Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1042, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 271.)

References in Text

The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 89–642, Oct. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 885, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 13A (§1771 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1771 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in par. (2)(A)(i), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§1395 et seq.) and XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in par. (2)(B), was in the original “this title”, meaning title X of Pub. L. 103–227, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 265, which enacted this subchapter and section 3351 of this title, amended sections 1107, 1232h, 2421, 3381 to 3384, and 3386 of this title, sections 1632, 1633, and 1635 of Title 29, Labor, and section 11903a of Title 42, and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 2701 of this title and section 11901 of Title 42.

§6083. Nonsmoking policy for children's services

(a) Prohibition

After March 31, 1994, no person shall permit smoking within any indoor facility owned or leased or contracted for and utilized by such person for provision of routine or regular kindergarten, elementary, or secondary education or library services to children.

(b) Additional prohibition

After March 31, 1994, no person shall permit smoking within any indoor facility (or portion thereof) owned or leased or contracted for by such person for the provision by such person of regular or routine health care or day care or early childhood development (Head Start) services to children or for the use of the employees of such person who provides such services, except that this subsection shall not apply to—

(1) any portion of such facility that is used for inpatient hospital treatment of individuals dependent on, or addicted to, drugs or alcohol; and

(2) any private residence.

(c) Federal agencies

(1) Kindergarten, elementary, or secondary education or library services

After March 31, 1994, no Federal agency shall permit smoking within any indoor facility in the United States operated by such agency, directly or by contract, to provide routine or regular kindergarten, elementary, or secondary education or library services to children.

(2) Health or day care or early childhood development services

After March 31, 1994, no Federal agency shall permit smoking within any indoor facility (or portion thereof) operated by such agency, directly or by contract, to provide routine or regular health or day care or early childhood development (Head Start) services to children, except that this paragraph shall not apply to—

(A) any portion of such facility that is used for inpatient hospital treatment of individuals dependent on, or addicted to, drugs or alcohol; and

(B) any private residence.

(3) Application of provisions

The provisions of paragraph (2) shall also apply to the provision of such routine or regular kindergarten, elementary or secondary education or library services in the facilities described in paragraph (2) not subject to paragraph (1).

(d) Notice

The prohibitions in subsections (a) through (c) of this section shall be incorporated by publication of a notice in the Federal Register by the Secretary (in consultation with the heads of other affected agencies) and by such agency heads in funding arrangements involving the provision of children's services administered by such heads. Such prohibitions shall be effective 90 days after such notice is published, or 270 days after March 31, 1994, whichever occurs first.

(e) Special waiver

(1) In general

On receipt of an application, the head of the Federal agency may grant a special waiver to a person described in subsection (a) of this section who employs individuals who are members of a labor organization and provide children's services pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement that—

(A) took effect before March 31, 1994; and

(B) includes provisions relating to smoking privileges that are in violation of the requirements of this section.

(2) Termination of waiver

A special waiver granted under this subsection shall terminate on the earlier of—

(A) the first expiration date (after March 31, 1994) of the collective bargaining agreement containing the provisions relating to smoking privileges; or

(B) the date that is 1 year after March 31, 1994.

(f) Civil penalties

(1) In general

Any failure to comply with a prohibition in this section shall be a violation of this section and any person subject to such prohibition who commits such violation may be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $1,000 for each violation, or may be subject to an administrative compliance order, or both, as determined by the Secretary. Each day a violation continues shall constitute a separate violation. In the case of any civil penalty under this section, the total amount shall not exceed the amount of Federal funds received by such person for the fiscal year in which the continuing violations occurred. For the purpose of the prohibition in subsection (c) of this section, the term “person” shall mean the head of the applicable Federal agency or the contractor of such agency providing the services to children.

(2) Administrative proceeding

A civil penalty may be assessed in a written notice, or an administrative compliance order may be issued, by the Secretary only after an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5. Before making such assessment or issuing such order, or both, the Secretary shall give written notice thereof to such person by certified mail with return receipt and provide therein an opportunity to request in writing not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of such notice such hearing. The notice shall reasonably describe the violation and be accompanied with the procedures for such hearing and a simple form to request such hearing if such person desires to use such form. If a hearing is requested, the Secretary shall establish by such certified notice the time and place for such hearing which should be located, to the greatest extent possible, at a location convenient to such person. The Secretary (or the Secretary's designee) and such person may consult to arrange a suitable date and location where appropriate.

(3) Circumstances affecting penalty or order

In determining the amount of the civil penalty or the nature of the administrative compliance order, the Secretary shall take into account, as appropriate—

(A) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation;

(B) with respect to the violator, any good faith efforts to comply, the importance of achieving early and permanent compliance, the ability to pay or comply, the effect of the penalty or order on the ability to continue operation, any prior history of the same kind of violation, the degree of culpability, and any demonstration of willingness to comply with the prohibitions of this section in a timely manner; and

(C) such other matters as justice may require.

(4) Modification

The Secretary may, as appropriate, compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty or administrative compliance order. In the case of a civil penalty, the amount, as finally determined by the Secretary or agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums that the United States or its agencies or instrumentalities owes to the person against whom the penalty is assessed.

(5) Petition for review

Any person aggrieved by a penalty assessed or an order issued, or both, by the Secretary under this section may file a petition for judicial review thereof with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which the person resides or transacts business. Such person shall provide a copy thereof to the Secretary or the Secretary's designee. The petition shall be filed within 30 days after the Secretary's assessment or order, or both, are final and have been provided to such person by certified mail. The Secretary shall promptly provide to the court a certified copy of the transcript of any hearing held under this section and a copy of the notice or order.

(6) Failure to comply

If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty or comply with an order, after either or both are final under this section, or after a court under paragraph (5) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary, the Attorney General, at the request of the Secretary, shall recover the amount of the civil penalty (plus interest at then currently prevailing rates from the day either or both are final) or enforce the order in an action brought in the appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the penalty or order or the amount of the penalty shall not be subject to review.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1043, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 272.)

§6084. Preemption

Nothing in this part is intended to preempt any provision of law of a State or political subdivision of a State that is more restrictive than a provision of this part.

(Pub. L. 103–227, title X, §1044, Mar. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 274.)