42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 136 - VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
SUBCHAPTER III - VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER III—VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

§13925. Definitions and grant provisions

(a) Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Courts

The term “courts” means any civil or criminal, tribal, and Alaska Native Village, Federal, State, local or territorial court having jurisdiction to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including immigration, family, juvenile, and dependency courts, and the judicial officers serving in those courts, including judges, magistrate judges, commissioners, justices of the peace, or any other person with decisionmaking authority.

(2) Child abuse and neglect

The term “child abuse and neglect” means any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver with intent to cause death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. This definition shall not be construed to mean that failure to leave an abusive relationship, in the absence of other action constituting abuse or neglect, is itself abuse or neglect.

(3) Community-based organization

The term “community-based organization” means an organization that—

(A) focuses primarily on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) has established a specialized culturally specific program that addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(C) has a primary focus on underserved populations (and includes representatives of these populations) and domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; or

(D) obtains expertise, or shows demonstrated capacity to work effectively, on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking through collaboration.

(4) Child maltreatment

The term “child maltreatment” means the physical or psychological abuse or neglect of a child or youth, including sexual assault and abuse.

(5) Court-based and court-related personnel

The term “court-based” and “court-related personnel” mean persons working in the court, whether paid or volunteer, including—

(A) clerks, special masters, domestic relations officers, administrators, mediators, custody evaluators, guardians ad litem, lawyers, negotiators, probation, parole, interpreters, victim assistants, victim advocates, and judicial, administrative, or any other professionals or personnel similarly involved in the legal process;

(B) court security personnel;

(C) personnel working in related, supplementary offices or programs (such as child support enforcement); and

(D) any other court-based or community-based personnel having responsibilities or authority to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking in the court system.

(6) Domestic violence

The term “domestic violence” includes felony or misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.

(7) Dating partner

The term “dating partner” refers to a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the abuser, and where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of—

(A) the length of the relationship;

(B) the type of relationship; and

(C) the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(8) Dating violence

The term “dating violence” means violence committed by a person—

(A) who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim; and

(B) where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of the following factors:

(i) The length of the relationship.

(ii) The type of relationship.

(iii) The frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(9) Elder abuse

The term “elder abuse” means any action against a person who is 50 years of age or older that constitutes the willful—

(A) infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish; or

(B) deprivation by a person, including a caregiver, of goods or services with intent to cause physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness.

(10) Indian

The term “Indian” means a member of an Indian tribe.

(11) Indian country

The term “Indian country” has the same meaning given such term in section 1151 of title 18.

(12) Indian housing

The term “Indian housing” means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq., as amended).

(13) Indian tribe

The term “Indian tribe” means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(14) Indian law enforcement

The term “Indian law enforcement” means the departments or individuals under the direction of the Indian tribe that maintain public order.

(15) Law enforcement

The term “law enforcement” means a public agency charged with policing functions, including any of its component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs), including those referred to in section 2802 of title 25.

(16) Legal assistance

The term “legal assistance” includes assistance to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in—

(A) family, tribal, territorial, immigration, employment, administrative agency, housing matters, campus administrative or protection or stay away order proceedings, and other similar matters; and

(B) criminal justice investigations, prosecutions and post-trial matters (including sentencing, parole, and probation) that impact the victim's safety and privacy.

(17) Linguistically and culturally specific services

The term “linguistically and culturally specific services” means community-based services that offer full linguistic access and culturally specific services and resources, including outreach, collaboration, and support mechanisms primarily directed toward underserved communities.

(18) Personally identifying information or personal information

The term “personally identifying information” or “personal information” means individually identifying information for or about an individual including information likely to disclose the location of a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including—

(A) a first and last name;

(B) a home or other physical address;

(C) contact information (including a postal, e-mail or Internet protocol address, or telephone or facsimile number);

(D) a social security number; and

(E) any other information, including date of birth, racial or ethnic background, or religious affiliation, that, in combination with any of subparagraphs (A) through (D), would serve to identify any individual.

(19) Prosecution

The term “prosecution” means any public agency charged with direct responsibility for prosecuting criminal offenders, including such agency's component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs).

(20) Protection order or restraining order

The term “protection order” or “restraining order” includes—

(A) any injunction, restraining order, or any other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including any temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection; and

(B) any support, child custody or visitation provisions, orders, remedies, or relief issued as part of a protection order, restraining order, or stay away injunction pursuant to State, tribal, territorial, or local law authorizing the issuance of protection orders, restraining orders, or injunctions for the protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(21) Rural area and rural community

The term “rural area” and “rural community” mean—

(A) any area or community, respectively, no part of which is within an area designated as a standard metropolitan statistical area by the Office of Management and Budget; or

(B) any area or community, respectively, that is—

(i) within an area designated as a metropolitan statistical area or considered as part of a metropolitan statistical area; and

(ii) located in a rural census tract.

(22) Rural State

The term “rural State” means a State that has a population density of 52 or fewer persons per square mile or a State in which the largest county has fewer than 150,000 people, based on the most recent decennial census.

(23) Sexual assault

The term “sexual assault” means any conduct proscribed by chapter 109A of title 18, whether or not the conduct occurs in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States or in a Federal prison and includes both assaults committed by offenders who are strangers to the victim and assaults committed by offenders who are known or related by blood or marriage to the victim.

(24) Stalking

The term “stalking” means engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to—

(A) fear for his or her safety or the safety of others; or

(B) suffer substantial emotional distress.

(25) State

The term “State” means each of the several States and the District of Columbia, and except as otherwise provided, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(26) State domestic violence coalition

The term “State domestic violence coalition” means a program determined by the Administration for Children and Families under sections 10402 and 10411 of this title.

(27) State sexual assault coalition

The term “State sexual assault coalition” means a program determined by the Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280b et seq.).

(28) Territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition

The term “territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition” means a program addressing domestic or sexual violence that is—

(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory; or

(B) a nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory that proposes to incorporate as a nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition.

(29) Tribal coalition

The term “tribal coalition” means—

(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental tribal coalition addressing domestic violence and sexual assault against American Indian or Alaskan Native women; or

(B) individuals or organizations that propose to incorporate as nonprofit, nongovernmental tribal coalitions to address domestic violence and sexual assault against American Indian or Alaska Native women.

(30) Tribal government

The term “tribal government” means—

(A) the governing body of an Indian tribe; or

(B) a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(31) Tribal nonprofit organization

The term “tribal nonprofit organization” means—

(A) a victim services provider that has as its primary purpose to assist Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(B) staff and leadership of the organization must include persons with a demonstrated history of assisting American Indian or Alaska Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(32) Tribal organization

The term “tribal organization” means—

(A) the governing body of any Indian tribe;

(B) any legally established organization of Indians which is controlled, sanctioned, or chartered by such governing body of a tribe or tribes to be served, or which is democratically elected by the adult members of the Indian community to be served by such organization and which includes the maximum participation of Indians in all phases of its activities; or

(C) any tribal nonprofit organization.

(33) Underserved populations

The term “underserved populations” includes populations underserved because of geographic location, underserved racial and ethnic populations, populations underserved because of special needs (such as language barriers, disabilities, alienage status, or age), and any other population determined to be underserved by the Attorney General or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate.

(34) Victim advocate

The term “victim advocate” means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a victim services program.

(35) Victim assistant

The term “victim assistant” means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a court or a law enforcement or prosecution agency.

(36) Victim services or victim service provider

The term “victim services” or “victim service provider” means a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that assists domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victims, including rape crisis centers, domestic violence shelters, faith-based organizations, and other organizations, with a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(37) Youth

The term “youth” means teen and young adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(b) Grant conditions

(1) Match

No matching funds shall be required for any grant or subgrant made under this Act for—

(A) any tribe, territory, or victim service provider; or

(B) any other entity, including a State, that—

(i) petitions for a waiver of any match condition imposed by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development; and

(ii) whose petition for waiver is determined by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development to have adequately demonstrated the financial need of the petitioning entity.

(2) Nondisclosure of confidential or private information

(A) In general

In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their families, grantees and subgrantees under this subchapter shall protect the confidentiality and privacy of persons receiving services.

(B) Nondisclosure

Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), grantees and subgrantees shall not—

(i) disclose any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees’ and subgrantees’ programs; or

(ii) reveal individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of persons with disabilities, the guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, person with disabilities, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor.

(C) Release

If release of information described in subparagraph (B) is compelled by statutory or court mandate—

(i) grantees and subgrantees shall make reasonable attempts to provide notice to victims affected by the disclosure of information; and

(ii) grantees and subgrantees shall take steps necessary to protect the privacy and safety of the persons affected by the release of the information.

(D) Information sharing

Grantees and subgrantees may share—

(i) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;

(ii) court-generated information and law-enforcement generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and

(iii) law enforcement- and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes.

(E) Oversight

Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Attorney General from disclosing grant activities authorized in this Act to the chairman and ranking members of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate exercising Congressional oversight authority. All disclosures shall protect confidentiality and omit personally identifying information, including location information about individuals.

(3) Approved activities

In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with and provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(4) Non-supplantation

Any Federal funds received under this subchapter shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities under this subchapter.

(5) Use of funds

Funds authorized and appropriated under this subchapter may be used only for the specific purposes described in this subchapter and shall remain available until expended.

(6) Reports

An entity receiving a grant under this subchapter shall submit to the disbursing agency a report detailing the activities undertaken with the grant funds, including and providing additional information as the agency shall require.

(7) Evaluation

Federal agencies disbursing funds under this subchapter shall set aside up to 3 percent of such funds in order to conduct—

(A) evaluations of specific programs or projects funded by the disbursing agency under this subchapter or related research; or

(B) evaluations of promising practices or problems emerging in the field or related research, in order to inform the agency or agencies as to which programs or projects are likely to be effective or responsive to needs in the field.

(8) Nonexclusivity

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit male victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking from receiving benefits and services under this subchapter.

(9) Prohibition on tort litigation

Funds appropriated for the grant program under this subchapter may not be used to fund civil representation in a lawsuit based on a tort claim. This paragraph should not be construed as a prohibition on providing assistance to obtain restitution in a protection order or criminal case.

(10) Prohibition on lobbying

Any funds appropriated for the grant program shall be subject to the prohibition in section 1913 of title 18, relating to lobbying with appropriated moneys.

(11) Technical assistance

Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities. If there is a demonstrated history that the Office on Violence Against Women has previously set aside amounts greater than 8 percent for technical assistance and training relating to grant programs authorized under this subchapter, the Office has the authority to continue setting aside amounts greater than 8 percent.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40002, as added Pub. L. 109–162, §3(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2964; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(d)–(f), 2(e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752; Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §202(d), Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3509.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”, meaning title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902, as amended, known as the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a)(12), is Pub. L. 104–330, Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4016, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 43 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4101 of Title 25 and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(13), (30)(B), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(27), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§ 201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (2)(E), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 111–320 substituted “under sections 10402 and 10411 of this title” for “under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (42 U.S.C. 10410(b))”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(1), substituted “Alaska Native” for “Alaskan”.

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(d), substituted “proscribed” for “prescribed”.

Subsec. (a)(31) to (37). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(2), (3), added par. (31) and redesignated former pars. (31) to (36) as (32) to (37), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(f), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “No matching funds shall be required for a grant or subgrant made under this subchapter for any tribe, territory, victim service provider, or any entity that the Attorney General determines has adequately demonstrated financial need.”

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(e), inserted “Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities.” before “If there is a demonstrated history”.

Findings

Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §201, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2993, provided that: “Congress finds the following:

“(1) Nearly 1/3 of American women report physical or sexual abuse by a husband or boyfriend at some point in their lives.

“(2) According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 248,000 Americans 12 years of age and older were raped or sexually assaulted in 2002.

“(3) Rape and sexual assault in the United States is estimated to cost $127,000,000,000 per year, including—

“(A) lost productivity;

“(B) medical and mental health care;

“(C) police and fire services;

“(D) social services;

“(E) loss of and damage to property; and

“(F) reduced quality of life.

“(4) Nonreporting of sexual assault in rural areas is a particular problem because of the high rate of nonstranger sexual assault.

“(5) Geographic isolation often compounds the problems facing sexual assault victims. The lack of anonymity and accessible support services can limit opportunities for justice for victims.

“(6) Domestic elder abuse is primarily family abuse. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study found that the perpetrator was a family member in 90 percent of cases.

“(7) Barriers for older victims leaving abusive relationships include—

“(A) the inability to support themselves;

“(B) poor health that increases their dependence on the abuser;

“(C) fear of being placed in a nursing home; and

“(D) ineffective responses by domestic abuse programs and law enforcement.

“(8) Disabled women comprise another vulnerable population with unmet needs. Women with disabilities are more likely to be the victims of abuse and violence than women without disabilities because of their increased physical, economic, social, or psychological dependence on others.

“(9) Many women with disabilities also fail to report the abuse, since they are dependent on their abusers and fear being abandoned or institutionalized.

“(10) Of the 598 battered women's programs surveyed—

“(A) only 35 percent of these programs offered disability awareness training for their staff; and

“(B) only 16 percent dedicated a staff member to provide services to women with disabilities.

“(11) Problems of domestic violence are exacerbated for immigrants when spouses control the immigration status of their family members, and abusers use threats of refusal to file immigration papers and threats to deport spouses and children as powerful tools to prevent battered immigrant women from seeking help, trapping battered immigrant women in violent homes because of fear of deportation.

“(12) Battered immigrant women who attempt to flee abusive relationships may not have access to bilingual shelters or bilingual professionals, and face restrictions on public or financial assistance. They may also lack assistance of a certified interpreter in court, when reporting complaints to the police or a 9–1–1 operator, or even in acquiring information about their rights and the legal system.

“(13) More than 500 men and women call the National Domestic Violence Hotline every day to get immediate, informed, and confidential assistance to help deal with family violence.

“(14) The National Domestic Violence Hotline service is available, toll-free, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, with bilingual staff, access to translators in 150 languages, and a TTY line for the hearing-impaired.

“(15) With access to over 5,000 shelters and service providers across the United States, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands, the National Domestic Violence Hotline provides crisis intervention and immediately connects callers with sources of help in their local community.

“(16) Approximately 60 percent of the callers indicate that calling the Hotline is their first attempt to address a domestic violence situation and that they have not called the police or any other support services.

“(17) Between 2000 and 2003, there was a 27 percent increase in call volume at the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

“(18) Improving technology infrastructure at the National Domestic Violence Hotline and training advocates, volunteers, and other staff on upgraded technology will drastically increase the Hotline's ability to answer more calls quickly and effectively.”

Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §301, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3003, provided that: “Congress finds the following:

“(1) Youth, under the age of 18, account for 67 percent of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement officials.

“(2) The Department of Justice consistently finds that young women between the ages of 16 and 24 experience the highest rate of non-fatal intimate partner violence.

“(3) In 1 year, over 4,000 incidents of rape or sexual assault occurred in public schools across the country.

“(4) Young people experience particular obstacles to seeking help. They often do not have access to money, transportation, or shelter services. They must overcome issues such as distrust of adults, lack of knowledge about available resources, or pressure from peers and parents.

“(5) A needs assessment on teen relationship abuse for the State of California, funded by the California Department of Health Services, identified a desire for confidentiality and confusion about the law as 2 of the most significant barriers to young victims of domestic and dating violence seeking help.

“(6) Only one State specifically allows for minors to petition the court for protection orders.

“(7) Many youth are involved in dating relationships, and these relationships can include the same kind of domestic violence and dating violence seen in the adult population. In fact, more than 40 percent of all incidents of domestic violence involve people who are not married.

“(8) 40 percent of girls ages 14 to 17 report knowing someone their age who has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend, and 13 percent of college women report being stalked.

“(9) Of college women who said they had been the victims of rape or attempted rape, 12.8 percent of completed rapes, 35 percent of attempted rapes, and 22.9 percent of threatened rapes took place on a date. Almost 60 percent of the completed rapes that occurred on campus took place in the victim's residence.

“(10) According to a 3-year study of student-athletes at 10 Division I universities, male athletes made up only 3.3 percent of the general male university population, but they accounted for 19 percent of the students reported for sexual assault and 35 percent of domestic violence perpetrators.”

Part A—Safe Streets for Women

subpart 1—safety for women in public transit

§13931. Grants for capital improvements to prevent crime in public transportation

(a) General purpose

There is authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $10,000,000, for the Secretary of Transportation (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) to make capital grants for the prevention of crime and to increase security in existing and future public transportation systems. None of the provisions of this Act may be construed to prohibit the financing of projects under this section where law enforcement responsibilities are vested in a local public body other than the grant applicant.

(b) Grants for lighting, camera surveillance, and security phones

(1) From the sums authorized for expenditure under this section for crime prevention, the Secretary is authorized to make grants and loans to States and local public bodies or agencies for the purpose of increasing the safety of public transportation by—

(A) increasing lighting within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(B) increasing camera surveillance of areas within and adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(C) providing emergency phone lines to contact law enforcement or security personnel in areas within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages; or

(D) any other project intended to increase the security and safety of existing or planned public transportation systems.


(2) From the sums authorized under this section, at least 75 percent shall be expended on projects of the type described in subsection (b)(1)(A) and (B) of this section.

(c) Reporting

All grants under this section are contingent upon the filing of a report with the Secretary and the Department of Justice, Office of Victims of Crime, showing crime rates in or adjacent to public transportation before, and for a 1-year period after, the capital improvement. Statistics shall be compiled on the basis of the type of crime, sex, race, ethnicity, language, and relationship of victim to the offender.

(d) Increased Federal share

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Federal share under this section for each capital improvement project that enhances the safety and security of public transportation systems and that is not required by law (including any other provision of this Act) shall be 90 percent of the net project cost of the project.

(e) Special grants for projects to study increasing security for women

From the sums authorized under this section, the Secretary shall provide grants and loans for the purpose of studying ways to reduce violent crimes against women in public transit through better design or operation of public transit systems.

(f) General requirements

All grants or loans provided under this section shall be subject to the same terms, conditions, requirements, and provisions applicable to grants and loans as specified in section 5321 of title 49.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40131, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1916.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

subpart 2—assistance to victims of sexual assault

§13941. Training programs

(a) In general

The Attorney General, after consultation with victim advocates and individuals who have expertise in treating sex offenders, shall establish criteria and develop training programs to assist probation and parole officers and other personnel who work with released sex offenders in the areas of—

(1) case management;

(2) supervision; and

(3) relapse prevention.

(b) Training programs

The Attorney General shall ensure, to the extent practicable, that training programs developed under subsection (a) of this section are available in geographically diverse locations throughout the country.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40152, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1920; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §108, title XI, §1167, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984, 3121; Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a), (b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(b), which directed amendment of section 1167 of the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–162, by substituting “2007 through 2011” for “2006 through 2010”, was executed to subsec. (c) of this section, which is section 40152 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, as amended by section 1167 of Pub. L. 109–162, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See below.

Pub. L. 109–162, §1167, added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

Pub. L. 109–162, §108, which directed the striking of subsec. (c) and the insertion of a new subsec. (c), authorizing appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 2007 through 2011, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a).

§13942. Confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their counselors

(a) Study and development of model legislation

The Attorney General shall—

(1) study and evaluate the manner in which the States have taken measures to protect the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their therapists or trained counselors;

(2) develop model legislation that will provide the maximum protection possible for the confidentiality of such communications, within any applicable constitutional limits, taking into account the following factors:

(A) the danger that counseling programs for victims of sexual assault and domestic violence will be unable to achieve their goal of helping victims recover from the trauma associated with these crimes if there is no assurance that the records of the counseling sessions will be kept confidential;

(B) consideration of the appropriateness of an absolute privilege for communications between victims of sexual assault or domestic violence and their therapists or trained counselors, in light of the likelihood that such an absolute privilege will provide the maximum guarantee of confidentiality but also in light of the possibility that such an absolute privilege may be held to violate the rights of criminal defendants under the Federal or State constitutions by denying them the opportunity to obtain exculpatory evidence and present it at trial; and

(C) consideration of what limitations on the disclosure of confidential communications between victims of these crimes and their counselors, short of an absolute privilege, are most likely to ensure that the counseling programs will not be undermined, and specifically whether no such disclosure should be allowed unless, at a minimum, there has been a particularized showing by a criminal defendant of a compelling need for records of such communications, and adequate procedural safeguards are in place to prevent unnecessary or damaging disclosures; and


(3) prepare and disseminate to State authorities the findings made and model legislation developed as a result of the study and evaluation.

(b) Report and recommendations

Not later than the date that is 1 year after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General shall report to the Congress—

(1) the findings of the study and the model legislation required by this section; and

(2) recommendations based on the findings on the need for and appropriateness of further action by the Federal Government.

(c) Review of Federal evidentiary rules

The Judicial Conference of the United States shall evaluate and report to Congress its views on whether the Federal Rules of Evidence should be amended, and if so, how they should be amended, to guarantee that the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault victims and their therapists or trained counselors will be adequately protected in Federal court proceedings.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40153, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1921.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (c), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§13943. Information programs

The Attorney General shall compile information regarding sex offender treatment programs and ensure that information regarding community treatment programs in the community into which a convicted sex offender is released is made available to each person serving a sentence of imprisonment in a Federal penal or correctional institution for a commission of an offense under chapter 109A of title 18 or for the commission of a similar offense, including halfway houses and psychiatric institutions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40154, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1922.)

Part B—Safe Homes for Women

subpart 1—confidentiality for abused persons

§13951. Confidentiality of abused person's address

(a) Regulations

Not later than 90 days after September 13, 1994, the United States Postal Service shall promulgate regulations to secure the confidentiality of domestic violence shelters and abused persons’ addresses.

(b) Requirements

The regulations under subsection (a) of this section shall require—

(1) in the case of an individual, the presentation to an appropriate postal official of a valid, outstanding protection order; and

(2) in the case of a domestic violence shelter, the presentation to an appropriate postal authority of proof from a State domestic violence coalition that meets the requirements of section 10410 1 of this title verifying that the organization is a domestic violence shelter.

(c) Disclosure for certain purposes

The regulations under subsection (a) of this section shall not prohibit the disclosure of addresses to State or Federal agencies for legitimate law enforcement or other governmental purposes.

(d) Existing compilations

Compilations of addresses existing at the time at which order is presented to an appropriate postal official shall be excluded from the scope of the regulations under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40281, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1938.)

References in Text

Section 10410 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was generally amended by Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §201, Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3497, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to grants for State domestic violence coalitions. See section 10411 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 2—data and research

§13961. Research agenda

(a) Request for contract

The Attorney General shall request the National Academy of Sciences, through its National Research Council, to enter into a contract to develop a research agenda to increase the understanding and control of violence against women, including rape and domestic violence. In furtherance of the contract, the National Academy shall convene a panel of nationally recognized experts on violence against women, in the fields of law, medicine, criminal justice, and direct services to victims and experts on domestic violence in diverse, ethnic, social, and language minority communities and the social sciences. In setting the agenda, the Academy shall focus primarily on preventive, educative, social, and legal strategies, including addressing the needs of underserved populations.

(b) Declination of request

If the National Academy of Sciences declines to conduct the study and develop a research agenda, it shall recommend a nonprofit private entity that is qualified to conduct such a study. In that case, the Attorney General shall carry out subsection (a) of this section through the nonprofit private entity recommended by the Academy. In either case, whether the study is conducted by the National Academy of Sciences or by the nonprofit group it recommends, the funds for the contract shall be made available from sums appropriated for the conduct of research by the National Institute of Justice.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) of this section is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40291, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

Development of Research Agenda Identified by the Violence Against Women Act of 1994

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1404, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1514, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall—

“(1) direct the National Institute of Justice, in consultation and coordination with the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Academy of Sciences, through its National Research Council, to develop a research agenda based on the recommendations contained in the report entitled ‘Understanding Violence Against Women’ of the National Academy of Sciences; and

“(2) not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2000], in consultation with the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, submit to Congress a report which shall include—

“(A) a description of the research agenda developed under paragraph (1) and a plan to implement that agenda; and

“(B) recommendations for priorities in carrying out that agenda to most effectively advance knowledge about and means by which to prevent or reduce violence against women.

“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.”

§13962. State databases

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall study and report to the States and to Congress on how the States may collect centralized databases on the incidence of sexual and domestic violence offenses within a State.

(b) Consultation

In conducting its study, the Attorney General shall consult persons expert in the collection of criminal justice data, State statistical administrators, law enforcement personnel, and nonprofit nongovernmental agencies that provide direct services to victims of domestic violence. The final report shall set forth the views of the persons consulted on the recommendations.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) of this section is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $200,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40292, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

§13963. Number and cost of injuries

(a) Study

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Centers for Disease Control Injury Control Division, shall conduct a study to obtain a national projection of the incidence of injuries resulting from domestic violence, the cost of injuries to health care facilities, and recommend health care strategies for reducing the incidence and cost of such injuries.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—$100,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40293, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940.)

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

subpart 3—rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement

§13971. Rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to identify, assess, and appropriately respond to child, youth, and adult victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking in rural communities, by encouraging collaboration among—

(A) domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers;

(B) law enforcement agencies;

(C) prosecutors;

(D) courts;

(E) other criminal justice service providers;

(F) human and community service providers;

(G) educational institutions; and

(H) health care providers;


(2) to establish and expand nonprofit, nongovernmental, State, tribal, territorial, and local government victim services in rural communities to child, youth, and adult victims; and

(3) to increase the safety and well-being of women and children in rural communities, by—

(A) dealing directly and immediately with domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking occurring in rural communities; and

(B) creating and implementing strategies to increase awareness and prevent domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women (referred to in this section as the “Director”), may award grants to States, Indian tribes, local governments, and nonprofit, public or private entities, including tribal nonprofit organizations, to carry out programs serving rural areas or rural communities that address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by—

(1) implementing, expanding, and establishing cooperative efforts and projects among law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim advocacy groups, and other related parties to investigate and prosecute incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(2) providing treatment, counseling, advocacy, and other long- and short-term assistance to adult and minor victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in rural communities, including assistance in immigration matters; and

(3) working in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies directed toward such issues.

(c) Use of funds

Funds appropriated pursuant to this section shall be used only for specific programs and activities expressly described in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Allotments and priorities

(1) Allotment for Indian tribes

(A) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 3796gg–10 of this title.

(B) Applicability of part 1

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Allotment for sexual assault

(A) In general

Not less than 25 percent of the total amount appropriated in a fiscal year under this section shall fund services that meaningfully address sexual assault in rural communities, however at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $45,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 30 percent of the total amount appropriated, at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $50,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 35 percent of the total amount appropriated, and at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $55,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 40 percent of the amounts appropriated.

(B) Multiple purpose applications

Nothing in this section shall prohibit any applicant from applying for funding to address sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, or dating violence in the same application.

(3) Allotment for technical assistance

Of the amounts appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this section, not more than 8 percent may be used by the Director for technical assistance costs. Of the amounts appropriated in this subsection, no less than 25 percent of such amounts shall be available to a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization or organizations whose focus and expertise is in addressing sexual assault to provide technical assistance to sexual assault grantees.

(4) Underserved populations

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall give priority to the needs of underserved populations.

(5) Allocation of funds for rural States

Not less than 75 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated to eligible entities located in rural States.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated $55,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out this section.

(2) Additional funding

In addition to funds received through a grant under subsection (b) of this section, a law enforcement agency may use funds received through a grant under part Q of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796dd et seq.) to accomplish the objectives of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40295, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §§1105, 1109(d), title V, §1512(c), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497, 1503, 1533; Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §203, title IX, §906(d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2998, 3081; Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), (2)(A), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, as amended. Part Q of title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XII–E (§3796dd et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3711 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162, §203, amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance for provisions relating to rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement assistance.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §906(d), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking par. (3) and inserting a new par. (3) which read “Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program.”, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(A).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “Not less than 10 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated for grants to Indian tribes or tribal organizations.”

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(1), inserted “and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)” after “domestic violence”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–386, §1512(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “to provide treatment and counseling to victims of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title) and child abuse; and”.

Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(2), inserted “and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)” after “domestic violence”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(1), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

“(A) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

“(B) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

“(C) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1998.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(2), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 3793 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

subpart 3a—research on effective interventions to address violence against women

Codification

This subpart was, in the original, chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, and has been designated as subpart 3a of this part for purposes of codification. Another chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 was designated subpart 4 of this part.

§13973. Research on effective interventions in the health care setting

(a) Purpose

The Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, shall award grants and contracts to fund research on effective interventions in the health care setting that prevent domestic violence, dating violence, and sexual assault across the lifespan and that prevent the health effects of such violence and improve the safety and health of individuals who are currently being victimized.

(b) Use of funds

Research conducted with amounts received under a grant or contract under this section shall include the following:

(1) With respect to the authority of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—

(A) research on the effects of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and childhood exposure to domestic, dating, or sexual violence, on health behaviors, health conditions, and the health status of individuals, families, and populations;

(B) research and testing of best messages and strategies to mobilize public and health care provider action concerning the prevention of domestic, dating, or sexual violence; and

(C) measure the comparative effectiveness and outcomes of efforts under this Act to reduce violence and increase women's safety.


(2) With respect to the authority of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality—

(A) research on the impact on the health care system, health care utilization, health care costs, and health status of domestic violence, dating violence, and childhood exposure to domestic and dating violence, sexual violence and stalking and childhood exposure; and

(B) research on effective interventions within primary care and emergency health care settings and with health care settings that include clinical partnerships within community domestic violence providers for adults and children exposed to domestic or dating violence.

(c) Use of data

Research funded under this section shall be utilized by eligible entities under section 280g–4 1 of this title.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40297, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title V, §505, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3029.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

Section 280g–4 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original “section 399O of the Public Health Service Act”, and was translated as referring to the section 399O of the Public Health Service Act added by Pub. L. 109–162, §504, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Another section 399O of the Public Health Service Act is classified to section 280g–3 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 4—transitional housing assistance grants for child victims of domestic violence, stalking, or sexual assault

Codification

This subpart was, in the original, chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, and has been designated as subpart 4 of this part for purposes of codification. Another chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 was designated subpart 3a of this part.

§13975. Transitional housing assistance grants for child victims of domestic violence, stalking, or sexual assault

(a) In general

The Attorney General, acting in consultation with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office of the Department of Justice, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants under this section to States, units of local government, Indian tribes, and other organizations, including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking (referred to in this section as the “recipient”) to carry out programs to provide assistance to minors, adults, and their dependents—

(1) who are homeless, or in need of transitional housing or other housing assistance, as a result of fleeing a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(2) for whom emergency shelter services or other crisis intervention services are unavailable or insufficient.

(b) Grants

Grants awarded under this section may be used for programs that provide—

(1) transitional housing, including funding for the operating expenses of newly developed or existing transitional housing.1

(2) short-term housing assistance, including rental or utilities payments assistance and assistance with related expenses such as payment of security deposits and other costs incidental to relocation to transitional housing for persons described in subsection (a) of this section; and

(3) support services designed to enable a minor, an adult, or a dependent of such minor or adult, who is fleeing a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking to—

(A) locate and secure permanent housing; and

(B) integrate into a community by providing that minor, adult, or dependent with services, such as transportation, counseling, child care services, case management, employment counseling, and other assistance. Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them.

(c) Duration

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a minor, an adult, or a dependent, who receives assistance under this section shall receive that assistance for not more than 24 months.

(2) Waiver

The recipient of a grant under this section may waive the restriction under paragraph (1) for not more than an additional 6 month period with respect to any minor, adult, or dependent, who—

(A) has made a good-faith effort to acquire permanent housing; and

(B) has been unable to acquire permanent housing.

(d) Application

(1) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(2) Contents

Each application submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

(A) describe the activities for which assistance under this section is sought;

(B) provide assurances that any supportive services offered to participants in programs developed under subsection (b)(3) of this section are voluntary and that refusal to receive such services shall not be grounds for termination from the program or eviction from the victim's housing; and

(C) provide such additional assurances as the Attorney General determines to be essential to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section.

(3) Application

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require—

(A) victims to participate in the criminal justice system in order to receive services; or

(B) domestic violence advocates to breach client confidentiality.

(e) Report to the Attorney General

(1) In general

A recipient of a grant under this section shall annually prepare and submit to the Attorney General a report describing—

(A) the number of minors, adults, and dependents assisted under this section; and

(B) the types of housing assistance and support services provided under this section.

(2) Contents

Each report prepared and submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include information regarding—

(A) the purpose and amount of housing assistance provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section and the reason for that assistance;

(B) the number of months each minor, adult, or dependent, received assistance under this section;

(C) the number of minors, adults, and dependents who—

(i) were eligible to receive assistance under this section; and

(ii) were not provided with assistance under this section solely due to a lack of available housing;


(D) the type of support services provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section; and

(E) the client population served and the number of individuals requesting services that the transitional housing program is unable to serve as a result of a lack of resources.

(f) Report to Congress

(1) Reporting requirement

The Attorney General, with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year.

(2) Availability of report

In order to coordinate efforts to assist the victims of domestic violence, the Attorney General, in coordination with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall transmit a copy of the report submitted under paragraph (1) to—

(A) the Office of Community Planning and Development at the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development; and

(B) the Office of Women's Health at the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $40,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(2) Limitations

Of the amount made available to carry out this section in any fiscal year, up to 5 percent may be used by the Attorney General for evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance, salaries and administrative expenses.

(3) Minimum amount

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), unless all eligible applications submitted by any States, units of local government, Indian tribes, or organizations within a State for a grant under this section have been funded, that State, together with the grantees within the State (other than Indian tribes), shall be allocated in each fiscal year, not less than 0.75 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(B) Exception

The United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall each be allocated not less than 0.25 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(C) Underserved populations

(i) Indian tribes.—

(I) In general.—Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 3796gg–10 of this title.

(II) Applicability of part.— 2 The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subclause (I).


(ii) Priority shall be given to projects developed under subsection (b) of this section that primarily serve underserved populations.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40299, as added Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §611, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 693; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), title VI, §602(a), title IX, §906(e), formerly §906(f), title XI, §1135(e), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3038, 3081, 3109, renumbered §906(e), Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 7(c)(1), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 764–766.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(A), (B), in introductory provisions, inserted “the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services,” after “Department of Justice,” and “, including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking” after “other organizations”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(C), inserted “, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking” after “domestic violence”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(C), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), (B), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and inserted “, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking” after “violence” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(D), inserted “Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them.” at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(3), substituted “24 months” for “18 months”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(4), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(A), inserted “purpose and” before “amount”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(E). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(B)–(D), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(e), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that made by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d) and 8(b).

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), substituted “shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year.” for “shall annually prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section.”

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(A)–(C), substituted “$40,000,000” for “$30,000,000”, “2007” for “2004”, and “2011” for “2008”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(D), (E), substituted “up to 5 percent” for “not more than 3 percent” and inserted “evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance,” before “salaries”.

Subsec. (g)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(F), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(3)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(A), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: “A minimum of 7 percent of the total amount appropriated in any fiscal year shall be allocated to tribal organizations serving adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their dependents.”

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(B), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program.”

Pub. L. 109–162, §906(e), formerly §906(f), as renumbered by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), added par. (4).

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Office on Women's Health of the Public Health Service exercised prior to Mar. 23, 2010, transferred to Office on Women's Health established under section 237a of this title, see section 3509(a)(2) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 237a of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by sections 602(a) and 906(e) of Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 3793 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

2 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

Part C—Civil Rights for Women

§13981. Civil rights

(a) Purpose

Pursuant to the affirmative power of Congress to enact this part under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, as well as under section 8 of Article I of the Constitution, it is the purpose of this part to protect the civil rights of victims of gender motivated violence and to promote public safety, health, and activities affecting interstate commerce by establishing a Federal civil rights cause of action for victims of crimes of violence motivated by gender.

(b) Right to be free from crimes of violence

All persons within the United States shall have the right to be free from crimes of violence motivated by gender (as defined in subsection (d) of this section).

(c) Cause of action

A person (including a person who acts under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of any State) who commits a crime of violence motivated by gender and thus deprives another of the right declared in subsection (b) of this section shall be liable to the party injured, in an action for the recovery of compensatory and punitive damages, injunctive and declaratory relief, and such other relief as a court may deem appropriate.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “crime of violence motivated by gender” means a crime of violence committed because of gender or on the basis of gender, and due, at least in part, to an animus based on the victim's gender; and

(2) the term “crime of violence” means— 1

(A) an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony against the person or that would constitute a felony against property if the conduct presents a serious risk of physical injury to another, and that would come within the meaning of State or Federal offenses described in section 16 of title 18, whether or not those acts have actually resulted in criminal charges, prosecution, or conviction and whether or not those acts were committed in the special maritime, territorial, or prison jurisdiction of the United States; and

(B) includes an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony described in subparagraph (A) but for the relationship between the person who takes such action and the individual against whom such action is taken.

(e) Limitation and procedures

(1) Limitation

Nothing in this section entitles a person to a cause of action under subsection (c) of this section for random acts of violence unrelated to gender or for acts that cannot be demonstrated, by a preponderance of the evidence, to be motivated by gender (within the meaning of subsection (d) of this section).

(2) No prior criminal action

Nothing in this section requires a prior criminal complaint, prosecution, or conviction to establish the elements of a cause of action under subsection (c) of this section.

(3) Concurrent jurisdiction

The Federal and State courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over actions brought pursuant to this part.

(4) Supplemental jurisdiction

Neither section 1367 of title 28 nor subsection (c) of this section shall be construed, by reason of a claim arising under such subsection, to confer on the courts of the United States jurisdiction over any State law claim seeking the establishment of a divorce, alimony, equitable distribution of marital property, or child custody decree.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40302, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e)(3), was in the original “this subtitle”, meaning subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941, which enacted this part, amended section 1988 of this title and section 1445 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 13701 of this title. For complete classification of this subtitle to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (e)(5) of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 1445 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Short Title

For short title of this part as the “Civil Rights Remedies for Gender-Motivated Violence Act”, see section 40301 of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 13701 of this title.

Constitutionality

For decision holding this section unconstitutional, see United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598, 120 S. Ct. 1740, 146 L. Ed. 2d 658 (2000).

1 So in original. The word “means” probably should appear after “(A)” below.

Part D—Equal Justice for Women in Courts

subpart 1—education and training for judges and court personnel in state courts

§13991. Grants authorized

The State Justice Institute may award grants for the purpose of developing, testing, presenting, and disseminating model programs to be used by States (as defined in section 10701 of this title) in training judges and court personnel in the laws of the States and by Indian tribes in training tribal judges and court personnel in the laws of the tribes on rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and other crimes of violence motivated by the victim's gender. Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40411, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(2), (d)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–386 inserted “dating violence,” after “domestic violence,” and “Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States.” at end.

Short Title

For short title of this part as the “Equal Justice for Women in the Courts Act of 1994”, see section 40401 of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 13701 of this title.

§13992. Training provided by grants

Training provided pursuant to grants made under this part may include current information, existing studies, or current data on—

(1) the nature and incidence of rape and sexual assault by strangers and nonstrangers, marital rape, and incest;

(2) the underreporting of rape, sexual assault, and child sexual abuse;

(3) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of rape and sexual assault on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for sentencing;

(4) the psychology of sex offenders, their high rate of recidivism, and the implications for sentencing;

(5) the historical evolution of laws and attitudes on rape and sexual assault;

(6) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of rape and sexual assault, racial stereotyping of rape victims and defendants, and the impact of such stereotypes on credibility of witnesses, sentencing, and other aspects of the administration of justice;

(7) application of rape shield laws and other limits on introduction of evidence that may subject victims to improper sex stereotyping and harassment in both rape and nonrape cases, including the need for sua sponte judicial intervention in inappropriate cross-examination;

(8) the use of expert witness testimony on rape trauma syndrome, child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and similar issues;

(9) the legitimate reasons why victims of rape, sexual assault, and incest may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(10) the nature and incidence of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 1 of this title);

(11) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of domestic violence and dating violence on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for court procedures and sentencing;

(12) the psychology and self-presentation of batterers and victims and the implications for court proceedings and credibility of witnesses;

(13) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of domestic violence and dating violence, myths about presence or absence of domestic violence and dating violence in certain racial, ethnic, religious, or socioeconomic groups, and their impact on the administration of justice;

(14) historical evolution of laws and attitudes on domestic violence;

(15) proper and improper interpretations of the defenses of self-defense and provocation, and the use of expert witness testimony on battered woman syndrome;

(16) the likelihood of retaliation, recidivism, and escalation of violence by batterers, and the potential impact of incarceration and other meaningful sanctions for acts of domestic violence including violations of orders of protection;

(17) economic, psychological, social and institutional reasons for victims’ inability to leave the batterer, to report domestic violence or dating violence or to follow through on complaints, including the influence of lack of support from police, judges, and court personnel, and the legitimate reasons why victims of domestic violence or dating violence may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(18) the need for orders of protection, and the implications of mutual orders of protection, dual arrest policies, and mediation in domestic violence and dating violence cases;

(19) recognition of and response to gender-motivated crimes of violence other than rape, sexual assault and domestic violence, such as mass or serial murder motivated by the gender of the victims;

(20) the issues raised by domestic violence in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child and of a parent who is not a predominant aggressor of domestic violence, the legitimate reasons parents may report domestic violence, the ways domestic violence may relate to an abuser's desire to seek custody, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving domestic violence;

(21) the issues raised by child sexual assault in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child, the legitimate reasons parents may report child sexual assault, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving child sexual assault, including the current scientifically-accepted and empirically valid research on child sexual assault; 2

(22) the extent to which addressing domestic violence and victim safety contributes to the efficient administration of justice; 3

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40412, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1943; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(a)(1), (d)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1515, 1517.)

References in Text

Section 3796gg–2 of this title, referred to in par. (10), was subsequently repealed and a new section 3796gg–2 enacted which does not define the terms “domestic violence” or “dating violence”. However, such terms are defined in section 13925 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Par. (10). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(A), inserted “and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)” before the semicolon.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(B), inserted “and dating violence” after “domestic violence”.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(C), inserted “and dating violence” after “domestic violence” in two places.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(D), inserted “or dating violence” after “domestic violence” in two places.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(E), inserted “and dating violence” after “domestic violence”.

Pars. (20) to (22). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(a)(1), added pars. (20) to (22).

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.

3 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§13993. Cooperation in developing programs in making grants under this part

The State Justice Institute shall ensure that model programs carried out pursuant to grants made under this part are developed with the participation of law enforcement officials, public and private nonprofit victim advocates, including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions, legal experts, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and recognized experts on gender bias in the courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40413, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–386 inserted “, including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions” after “victim advocates”.

§13994. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subpart $600,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2005.

(b) Model programs

Of amounts appropriated under this section, the State Justice Institute shall expend not less than 40 percent on model programs regarding domestic violence and not less than 40 percent on model programs regarding rape and sexual assault.

(c) State Justice Institute

The State Justice Institute may use up to 5 percent of the funds appropriated under this section for annually compiling and broadly disseminating (including through electronic publication) information about the use of funds and about the projects funded under this section, including any evaluations of the projects and information to enable the replication and adoption of the projects.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40414, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(a)(2), (c)(3), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(a)(2), inserted “and $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2005” after “1996”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(c)(3), added subsec. (c).

subpart 2—education and training for judges and court personnel in federal courts

§14001. Authorization of circuit studies; education and training grants

(a) Studies

In order to gain a better understanding of the nature and the extent of gender bias in the Federal courts, the circuit judicial councils are encouraged to conduct studies of the instances, if any, of gender bias in their respective circuits and to implement recommended reforms.

(b) Matters for examination

The studies under subsection (a) of this section may include an examination of the effects of gender on—

(1) the treatment of litigants, witnesses, attorneys, jurors, and judges in the courts, including before magistrate and bankruptcy judges;

(2) the interpretation and application of the law, both civil and criminal;

(3) treatment of defendants in criminal cases;

(4) treatment of victims of violent crimes in judicial proceedings;

(5) sentencing;

(6) sentencing alternatives and the nature of supervision of probation and parole;

(7) appointments to committees of the Judicial Conference and the courts;

(8) case management and court sponsored alternative dispute resolution programs;

(9) the selection, retention, promotion, and treatment of employees;

(10) appointment of arbitrators, experts, and special masters;

(11) the admissibility of the victim's past sexual history in civil and criminal cases; and

(12) the aspects of the topics listed in section 13992 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

(c) Clearinghouse

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall act as a clearinghouse to disseminate any reports and materials issued by the gender bias task forces under subsection (a) of this section and to respond to requests for such reports and materials. The gender bias task forces shall provide the Administrative Office of the Courts of the United States 1 with their reports and related material.

(d) Continuing education and training programs

The Federal Judicial Center, in carrying out section 620(b)(3) of title 28, shall include in the educational programs it prepares, including the training programs for newly appointed judges, information on the aspects of the topics listed in section 13992 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts, and shall prepare materials necessary to implement this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40421, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–386 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally, substituting provisions relating to continuing education and training programs for provisions relating to model programs.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Administrative Office of the United States Courts”.

§14002. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) to the Salaries and Expenses Account of the Courts of Appeals, District Courts, and other Judicial Services to carry out section 14001(a) of this title $500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(2) to the Federal Judicial Center to carry out section 14001(d) of this title $100,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2005; and

(3) to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to carry out section 14001(c) of this title $100,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40422, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1945; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(b)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Amendments

2000—Par. (2). Pub. L. 106–386 inserted “and $500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2005” after “1996”.

Part E—Violence Against Women Act Improvements

§14011. Payment of cost of testing for sexually transmitted diseases

(a) Omitted

(b) Limited testing of defendants

(1) Court order

The victim of an offense of the type referred to in subsection (a) 1 of this section may obtain an order in the district court of the United States for the district in which charges are brought against the defendant charged with the offense, after notice to the defendant and an opportunity to be heard, requiring that the defendant be tested for the presence of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and that the results of the test be communicated to the victim and the defendant. Any test result of the defendant given to the victim or the defendant must be accompanied by appropriate counseling.

(2) Showing required

To obtain an order under paragraph (1), the victim must demonstrate that—

(A) the defendant has been charged with the offense in a State or Federal court, and if the defendant has been arrested without a warrant, a probable cause determination has been made;

(B) the test for the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome is requested by the victim after appropriate counseling; and

(C) the test would provide information necessary for the health of the victim of the alleged offense and the court determines that the alleged conduct of the defendant created a risk of transmission, as determined by the Centers for Disease Control, of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome to the victim.

(3) Follow-up testing

The court may order follow-up tests and counseling under paragraph (1) if the initial test was negative. Such follow-up tests and counseling shall be performed at the request of the victim on dates that occur six months and twelve months following the initial test.

(4) Termination of testing requirements

An order for follow-up testing under paragraph (3) shall be terminated if the person obtains an acquittal on, or dismissal of, all charges of the type referred to in subsection (a) 1 of this section.

(5) Confidentiality of test

The results of any test ordered under this subsection shall be disclosed only to the victim or, where the court deems appropriate, to the parent or legal guardian of the victim, and to the person tested. The victim may disclose the test results only to any medical professional, counselor, family member or sexual partner(s) the victim may have had since the attack. Any such individual to whom the test results are disclosed by the victim shall maintain the confidentiality of such information.

(6) Disclosure of test results

The court shall issue an order to prohibit the disclosure by the victim of the results of any test performed under this subsection to anyone other than those mentioned in paragraph (5). The contents of the court proceedings and test results pursuant to this section shall be sealed. The results of such test performed on the defendant under this section shall not be used as evidence in any criminal trial.

(7) Contempt for disclosure

Any person who discloses the results of a test in violation of this subsection may be held in contempt of court.

(c) Penalties for intentional transmission of HIV

Not later than 6 months after September 13, 1994, the United States Sentencing Commission shall conduct a study and prepare and submit to the committees 2 on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report concerning recommendations for the revision of sentencing guidelines that relate to offenses in which an HIV infected individual engages in sexual activity if the individual knows that he or she is infected with HIV and intends, through such sexual activity, to expose another to HIV.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40503, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1946; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3506.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (a) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 10607 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 also enacted provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “paragraph (1)” for “paragraph (b)(1)”.

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

1 See Codification note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§14012. National baseline study on campus sexual assault

(a) Study

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, shall provide for a national baseline study to examine the scope of the problem of campus sexual assaults and the effectiveness of institutional and legal policies in addressing such crimes and protecting victims. The Attorney General may utilize the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime in carrying out this section.

(b) Report

Based on the study required by subsection (a) of this section and data collected under the Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act (20 U.S.C. 1001 note; Public Law 101–542) and amendments made by that Act, the Attorney General shall prepare a report including an analysis of—

(1) the number of reported allegations and estimated number of unreported allegations of campus sexual assaults, and to whom the allegations are reported (including authorities of the educational institution, sexual assault victim service entities, and local criminal authorities);

(2) the number of campus sexual assault allegations reported to authorities of educational institutions which are reported to criminal authorities;

(3) the number of campus sexual assault allegations that result in criminal prosecution in comparison with the number of non-campus sexual assault allegations that result in criminal prosecution;

(4) Federal and State laws or regulations pertaining specifically to campus sexual assaults;

(5) the adequacy of policies and practices of educational institutions in addressing campus sexual assaults and protecting victims, including consideration of—

(A) the security measures in effect at educational institutions, such as utilization of campus police and security guards, control over access to grounds and buildings, supervision of student activities and student living arrangements, control over the consumption of alcohol by students, lighting, and the availability of escort services;

(B) the articulation and communication to students of the institution's policies concerning sexual assaults;

(C) policies and practices that may prevent or discourage the reporting of campus sexual assaults to local criminal authorities, or that may otherwise obstruct justice or interfere with the prosecution of perpetrators of campus sexual assaults;

(D) the nature and availability of victim services for victims of campus sexual assaults;

(E) the ability of educational institutions’ disciplinary processes to address allegations of sexual assault adequately and fairly;

(F) measures that are taken to ensure that victims are free of unwanted contact with alleged assailants, and disciplinary sanctions that are imposed when a sexual assault is determined to have occurred; and

(G) the grounds on which educational institutions are subject to lawsuits based on campus sexual assaults, the resolution of these cases, and measures that can be taken to avoid the likelihood of lawsuits and civil liability;


(6) in conjunction with the report produced by the Department of Education in coordination with institutions of education under the Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act (20 U.S.C. 1001 note; Public Law 101–542) and amendments made by that Act, an assessment of the policies and practices of educational institutions that are of greatest effectiveness in addressing campus sexual assaults and protecting victims, including policies and practices relating to the particular issues described in paragraph (5); and

(7) any recommendations the Attorney General may have for reforms to address campus sexual assaults and protect victims more effectively, and any other matters that the Attorney General deems relevant to the subject of the study and report required by this section.

(c) Submission of report

The report required by subsection (b) of this section shall be submitted to the Congress no later than September 1, 1996.

(d) “Campus sexual assaults” defined

For purposes of this section, “campus sexual assaults” includes sexual assaults occurring at institutions of postsecondary education and sexual assaults committed against or by students or employees of such institutions.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the study required by this section—$200,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40506, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1948.)

References in Text

The Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 101–542, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2381, as amended, which amended sections 1085, 1092, 1094, and 1232g of Title 20, Education, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1001 and 1092 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Amendments note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

§14013. Report on battered women's syndrome

(a) Report

Not less than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall transmit to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, and the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the medical and psychological basis of “battered women's syndrome” and on the extent to which evidence of the syndrome has been considered in criminal trials.

(b) Components

The report under subsection (a) of this section shall include—

(1) medical and psychological testimony on the validity of battered women's syndrome as a psychological condition;

(2) a compilation of State, tribal, and Federal court cases in which evidence of battered women's syndrome was offered in criminal trials; and

(3) an assessment by State, tribal, and Federal judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys of the effects that evidence of battered women's syndrome may have in criminal trials.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40507, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1949.)

Change of Name

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

§14014. Report on confidentiality of addresses for victims of domestic violence

(a) Report

The Attorney General shall conduct a study of the means by which abusive spouses may obtain information concerning the addresses or locations of estranged or former spouses, notwithstanding the desire of the victims to have such information withheld to avoid further exposure to abuse. Based on the study, the Attorney General shall transmit a report to Congress including—

(1) the findings of the study concerning the means by which information concerning the addresses or locations of abused spouses may be obtained by abusers; and

(2) analysis of the feasibility of creating effective means of protecting the confidentiality of information concerning the addresses and locations of abused spouses to protect such persons from exposure to further abuse while preserving access to such information for legitimate purposes.

(b) Use of components

The Attorney General may use the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Victims of Crime in carrying out this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40508, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1950.)

§14015. Report on recordkeeping relating to domestic violence

Not later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General shall complete a study of, and shall submit to Congress a report and recommendations on, problems of recordkeeping of criminal complaints involving domestic violence. The study and report shall examine—

(1) the efforts that have been made by the Department of Justice, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to collect statistics on domestic violence; and

(2) the feasibility of requiring that the relationship between an offender and victim be reported in Federal records of crimes of aggravated assault, rape, and other violent crimes.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40509, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1950.)

§14016. Enforcement of statutory rape laws

(a) Sense of Senate

It is the sense of the Senate that States and local jurisdictions should aggressively enforce statutory rape laws.

(b) Justice Department program on statutory rape

Not later than January 1, 1997, the Attorney General shall establish and implement a program that—

(1) studies the linkage between statutory rape and teenage pregnancy, particularly by predatory older men committing repeat offenses; and

(2) educates State and local criminal law enforcement officials on the prevention and prosecution of statutory rape, focusing in particular on the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses, and any links to teenage pregnancy.

(c) Violence against women initiative

The Attorney General shall ensure that the Department of Justice's Violence Against Women initiative addresses the issue of statutory rape, particularly the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses.

(Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §906, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2349.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Part F—National Stalker and Domestic Violence Reduction

§14031. Grant program

(a) In general

The Attorney General is authorized to provide grants to States and units of local government to improve and implement processes for entering data regarding stalking and domestic violence into local, State, and national crime information databases.

(b) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a) of this section, a State or unit of local government shall certify that it has or intends to establish a program that enters into the National Crime Information Center records of—

(1) warrants for the arrest of persons violating protection orders intended to protect victims from stalking or domestic violence;

(2) arrests or convictions of persons violating protection 1 or domestic violence; and

(3) protection orders for the protection of persons from stalking or domestic violence.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40602, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386 inserted “and implement” after “improve”.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “orders intended to protect victims from stalking”.

§14032. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $3,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40603, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §109, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original “this subtitle”, meaning subtitle F of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1950, which enacted this part, amended section 534 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 534 of Title 28.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162, §109(2), which directed substitution of “2011” for “2006”, was executed by substituting “2011” for “2005” to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because “2006” does not appear in text.

Pub. L. 109–162, §109(1), substituted “2007” for “2001”.

2000—Pub. L. 106–386 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part—

“(1) $1,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

“(2) $1,750,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

“(3) $2,750,000 for fiscal year 1998.”

§14033. Application requirements

An application for a grant under this part shall be submitted in such form and manner, and contain such information, as the Attorney General may prescribe. In addition, applications shall include documentation showing—

(1) the need for grant funds and that State or local funding, as the case may be, does not already cover these operations;

(2) intended use of the grant funds, including a plan of action to increase record input; and

(3) an estimate of expected results from the use of the grant funds.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40604, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951.)

§14034. Disbursement

Not later than 90 days after the receipt of an application under this part, the Attorney General shall either provide grant funds or shall inform the applicant why grant funds are not being provided.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40605, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

§14035. Technical assistance, training, and evaluations

The Attorney General may provide technical assistance and training in furtherance of the purposes of this part, and may provide for the evaluation of programs that receive funds under this part, in addition to any evaluation requirements that the Attorney General may prescribe for grantees. The technical assistance, training, and evaluations authorized by this section may be carried out directly by the Attorney General, or through contracts or other arrangements with other entities.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40606, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

§14036. Training programs for judges

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit organizations with expertise in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall conduct training programs for State (as defined in section 10701 1 of this title) and Indian tribal judges to ensure that a judge issuing an order in a stalking or domestic violence case has all available criminal history and other information, whether from State or Federal sources.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40607, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

References in Text

Section 10701 of this title, referred to in text, was in the original “section 202 of the State Justice Institute Authorization Act of 1984”, and was translated as reading “section 202 of the State Justice Institute Act of 1984”, which is section 202 of Pub. L. 98–620, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1 See References in Text note below.

§14037. Recommendations on intrastate communication

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit associations with expertise in data sharing among criminal justice agencies and familiarity with the issues raised in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall recommend proposals regarding how State courts may increase intrastate communication between civil and criminal courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40608, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

§14038. Inclusion in National Incident-Based Reporting System

Not later than 2 years after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General, in accordance with the States, shall compile data regarding domestic violence and intimidation (including stalking) as part of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40609, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

§14039. Report to Congress

Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides information concerning the incidence of stalking and domestic violence, and evaluates the effectiveness of State antistalking efforts and legislation.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40610, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), title XI, §1135(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3108; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 766.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(a), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that directed by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271.

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), which directed the substitution of “Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides” for “The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning 1 year after September 13, 1994, that provides”, was executed by making the substitution for “The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning one year after September 13, 1994, that provides”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Report Relating to Stalking Laws

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(b)(2), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467, provided that: “The Attorney General shall include in an annual report under section 40610 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 14039) information concerning existing or proposed State laws and penalties for stalking crimes against children.”

§14040. Definitions

As used in this part—

(1) the term “national crime information databases” refers to the National Crime Information Center and its incorporated criminal history databases, including the Interstate Identification Index; and

(2) the term “protection order” includes an injunction or any other order issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including temporary and final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40611, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Part G—Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, Including Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Against Older or Disabled Individuals

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle H of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 106–386, and has been redesignated as part G of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14041. Definitions

In this part:

(1) In general

The terms “elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation”, and “older individual” have the meanings given the terms in section 3002 of this title.

(2) Domestic violence

The term “domestic violence” has the meaning given such term by section 3796gg–2 1 of this title.

(3) Sexual assault

The term “sexual assault” has the meaning given the term in section 3796gg–2 1 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40801, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1209(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1508.)

References in Text

Section 3796gg–2 of this title, referred to in pars. (2) and (3), was subsequently repealed and a new section 3796gg–2 enacted which does not define the terms “domestic violence” or “sexual assault”. However, such terms are defined in section 13925 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§14041a. Enhanced training and services to end violence against and abuse of women later in life

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award grants, which may be used for—

(1) training programs to assist law enforcement, prosecutors, governmental agencies, victim assistants, and relevant officers of Federal, State, tribal, territorial, and local courts in recognizing, addressing, investigating, and prosecuting instances of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking against victims who are 50 years of age or older;

(2) providing or enhancing services for victims of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, who are 50 years of age or older;

(3) creating or supporting multidisciplinary collaborative community responses to victims of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, who are 50 years of age or older; and

(4) conducting cross-training for victim service organizations, governmental agencies, courts, law enforcement, and nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations serving victims of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, who are 50 years of age or older.

(b) Eligible entities

An entity shall be eligible to receive a grant under this section if the entity is—

(1) a State;

(2) a unit of local government;

(3) an Indian tribal government or tribal organization; or

(4) a nonprofit and nongovernmental victim services organization with demonstrated experience in assisting elderly women or demonstrated experience in addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(c) Underserved populations

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall ensure that services are culturally and linguistically relevant and that the needs of underserved populations are being addressed.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40802, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1209(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1509; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §205(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3002.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Attorney General may make grants for training programs to assist law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and relevant officers of Federal, State, tribal, and local courts in recognizing, addressing, investigating, and prosecuting instances of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation and violence against individuals with disabilities, including domestic violence and sexual assault, against older or disabled individuals.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 3793 of this title.

§14041b. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40803, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1209(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1509; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §205(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3002.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 substituted “$10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011” for “$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 3793 of this title.

Part H—Domestic Violence Task Force

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle I of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 106–386, and has been redesignated as part H of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14042. Task force

(a) Establish

The Attorney General, in consultation with national nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations whose primary expertise is in domestic violence, shall establish a task force to coordinate research on domestic violence and to report to Congress on any overlapping or duplication of efforts on domestic violence issues. The task force shall be comprised of representatives from all Federal agencies that fund such research.

(b) Uses of funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall be used to—

(1) develop a coordinated strategy to strengthen research focused on domestic violence education, prevention, and intervention strategies;

(2) track and report all Federal research and expenditures on domestic violence; and

(3) identify gaps and duplication of efforts in domestic violence research and governmental expenditures on domestic violence issues.

(c) Report

The Task Force shall report to Congress annually on its work under subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term “domestic violence” has the meaning given such term by section 3796gg–2 1 of this title.

(e) Authorization of Appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $500,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40901, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1407, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1517.)

References in Text

Section 3796gg–2 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was subsequently repealed and a new section 3796gg–2 enacted which does not define “domestic violence”. However, such term is defined in section 13925 of this title.

Study of State Laws Regarding Insurance Discrimination Against Victims of Violence Against Women

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1206, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1507, directed the Attorney General to conduct a national study to identify State laws that address insurance discrimination against victims of domestic violence and sexual assault and to submit to Congress a report and recommendations based on that study not later than 1 year after Oct. 28, 2000.

Study of Workplace Effects From Violence Against Women

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1207, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1507, directed the Attorney General to conduct a national survey of programs to assist employers and employees on appropriate responses in the workplace to victims of domestic violence, stalking, or sexual assault, and not later than 18 months after Oct. 28, 2000, to submit to Congress a report and recommendations based on that survey.

Study of Unemployment Compensation for Victims of Violence Against Women

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1208, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1508, directed the Secretary of Labor, in consultation with the Attorney General, to conduct a national study to identify the impact of State unemployment compensation laws on victims of domestic violence when the victim's separation from employment is a direct result of the domestic violence and to submit to Congress a report and recommendations based on that study not later than 1 year after Oct. 28, 2000.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part I—Violence Against Women Act Court Training and Improvements

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle J of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 109–162, and has been redesignated as part I of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14043. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to enable the Attorney General, though 1 the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, to award grants to improve court responses to adult and youth domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking to be used for—

(1) improved internal civil and criminal court functions, responses, practices, and procedures;

(2) education for court-based and court-related personnel on issues relating to victims’ needs, including safety, security, privacy, confidentiality, and economic independence, as well as information about perpetrator behavior and best practices for holding perpetrators accountable;

(3) collaboration and training with Federal, State, tribal, territorial, and local public agencies and officials and nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations to improve implementation and enforcement of relevant Federal, State, tribal, territorial, and local law;

(4) enabling courts or court-based or court-related programs to develop new or enhance current—

(A) court infrastructure (such as specialized courts, dockets, intake centers, or interpreter services);

(B) community-based initiatives within the court system (such as court watch programs, victim assistants, or community-based supplementary services);

(C) offender management, monitoring, and accountability programs;

(D) safe and confidential information-storage and -sharing databases within and between court systems;

(E) education and outreach programs to improve community access, including enhanced access for underserved populations; and

(F) other projects likely to improve court responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and


(5) providing technical assistance to Federal, State, tribal, territorial, or local courts wishing to improve their practices and procedures or to develop new programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41002, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §105(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2979.)

Short Title

For short title of this part as the “Violence Against Women Act Court Training and Improvements Act of 2005”, see section 41001 of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 13701 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “through”.

§14043a. Grant requirements

Grants awarded under this part shall be subject to the following conditions:

(1) Eligible grantees

Eligible grantees may include—

(A) Federal, State, tribal, territorial, or local courts or court-based programs; and

(B) national, State, tribal, territorial, or local private, nonprofit organizations with demonstrated expertise in developing and providing judicial education about domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(2) Conditions of eligibility

To be eligible for a grant under this section, applicants shall certify in writing that—

(A) any courts or court-based personnel working directly with or making decisions about adult or youth parties experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking have completed or will complete education about domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(B) any education program developed under section 14043 of this title has been or will be developed with significant input from and in collaboration with a national, tribal, State, territorial, or local victim services provider or coalition; and

(C) the grantee's internal organizational policies, procedures, or rules do not require mediation or counseling between offenders and victims physically together in cases where domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking is an issue.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41003, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §105(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2980.)

§14043a–1. National education curricula

(a) In general

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, shall fund efforts to develop a national education curriculum for use by State and national judicial educators to ensure that all courts and court personnel have access to information about relevant Federal, State, territorial, or local law, promising practices, procedures, and policies regarding court responses to adult and youth domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(b) Eligible entities

Any curricula developed under this section—

(1) shall be developed by an entity or entities having demonstrated expertise in developing judicial education curricula on issues relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or

(2) if the primary grantee does not have demonstrated expertise with such issues, shall be developed by the primary grantee in partnership with an organization having such expertise.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41004, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §105(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2980.)

§14043a–2. Tribal curricula

(a) In general

The Attorney General, through the Office on Violence Against Women, shall fund efforts to develop education curricula for tribal court judges to ensure that all tribal courts have relevant information about promising practices, procedures, policies, and law regarding tribal court responses to adult and youth domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(b) Eligible entities

Any curricula developed under this section—

(1) shall be developed by a tribal organization having demonstrated expertise in developing judicial education curricula on issues relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or

(2) if the primary grantee does not have such expertise, the curricula shall be developed by the primary grantee through partnership with organizations having such expertise.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41005, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §105(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2981.)

§14043a–3. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 to 2011.

(b) Availability

Funds appropriated under this section shall remain available until expended and may only be used for the specific programs and activities described in this part.

(c) Set aside

(1) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 3796gg–10 of this title.

(2) Applicability of part 1

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41006, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §105(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2981; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(2), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 765.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–271 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Of the amounts made available under this subsection in each fiscal year, not less than 10 percent shall be used for grants for tribal courts, tribal court-related programs, and tribal nonprofits.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

Part J—Privacy Protections for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle K of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 109–162, and has been redesignated as part J of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14043b. Grants to protect the privacy and confidentiality of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award grants under this part to States, Indian tribes, territories, or local agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations to ensure that personally identifying information of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, and dating violence shall not be released or disclosed to the detriment of such victimized persons.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41101, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

§14043b–1. Purpose areas

Grants made under this part may be used—

(1) to develop or improve protocols, procedures, and policies for the purpose of preventing the release of personally identifying information of victims (such as developing alternative identifiers);

(2) to defray the costs of modifying or improving existing databases, registries, and victim notification systems to ensure that personally identifying information of victims is protected from release, unauthorized information sharing and disclosure;

(3) to develop confidential opt out systems that will enable victims of violence to make a single request to keep personally identifying information out of multiple databases, victim notification systems, and registries; or

(4) to develop safe uses of technology (such as notice requirements regarding electronic surveillance by government entities), to protect against abuses of technology (such as electronic or GPS stalking), or providing training for law enforcement on high tech electronic crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41102, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

§14043b–2. Eligible entities

Entities eligible for grants under this part include—

(1) jurisdictions or agencies within jurisdictions having authority or responsibility for developing or maintaining public databases, registries or victim notification systems;

(2) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations having expertise regarding confidentiality, privacy, and information technology and how these issues are likely to impact the safety of victims;

(3) States or State agencies;

(4) local governments or agencies;

(5) Indian tribal governments or tribal organizations;

(6) territorial governments, agencies, or organizations; or

(7) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations, including statewide domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41103, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

§14043b–3. Grant conditions

Applicants described in paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6) shall demonstrate that they have entered into a significant partnership with a State, tribal, territorial, or local victim service or advocacy organization or condition in order to develop safe, confidential, and effective protocols, procedures, policies, and systems for protecting personally identifying information of victims.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41104, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

References in Text

Paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6), referred to in text, probably mean paragraphs (1) and (3) through (6) of section 14043b–2 of this title.

§14043b–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(b) Tribal allocation

Of the amount made available under this section in each fiscal year, 10 percent shall be used for grants to Indian tribes for programs that assist victims of domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, and sexual assault.

(c) Technical assistance and training

Of the amount made available under this section in each fiscal year, not less than 5 percent shall be used for grants to organizations that have expertise in confidentiality, privacy, and technology issues impacting victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking to provide technical assistance and training to grantees and non-grantees on how to improve safety, privacy, confidentiality, and technology to protect victimized persons.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41105, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

Part K—Services, Education, Protection and Justice for Young Victims of Violence

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle L of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 109–162, and has been redesignated as part K of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14043c. Services to advocate for and respond to youth

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants to eligible entities to conduct programs to serve youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Amounts appropriated under this section may only be used for programs and activities described under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Eligible grantees

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be—

(1) a nonprofit, nongovernmental entity, the primary purpose of which is to provide services to teen and young adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(2) a community-based organization specializing in intervention or violence prevention services for youth;

(3) an Indian Tribe or tribal organization providing services primarily to tribal youth or tribal victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking; or

(4) a nonprofit, nongovernmental entity providing services for runaway or homeless youth affected by domestic or sexual abuse.

(c) Use of funds

(1) In general

An entity that receives a grant under this section shall use amounts provided under the grant to design or replicate, and implement, programs and services, using domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking intervention models to respond to the needs of youth who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking.

(2) Types of programs

Such a program—

(A) shall provide direct counseling and advocacy for youth and young adults, who have experienced domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking;

(B) shall include linguistically, culturally, and community relevant services for underserved populations or linkages to existing services in the community tailored to the needs of underserved populations;

(C) may include mental health services for youth and young adults who have experienced domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(D) may include legal advocacy efforts on behalf of youth and young adults with respect to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking;

(E) may work with public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies, rules, and procedures in order to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking against youth and young adults; and

(F) may use not more than 25 percent of the grant funds to provide additional services and resources for youth, including childcare, transportation, educational support, and respite care.

(d) Awards basis

(1) Grants to Indian tribes

Not less than 7 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year shall be available for grants to Indian Tribes or tribal organizations.

(2) Administration

The Attorney General shall not use more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year for administration, monitoring, and evaluation of grants made available under this section.

(3) Technical assistance

Not less than 5 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year shall be available to provide technical assistance for programs funded under this section.

(e) Term

The Attorney General shall make the grants under this section for a period of 3 fiscal years.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41201, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3004.)

§14043c–1. Access to justice for youth

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to encourage cross training and collaboration between the courts, domestic violence and sexual assault service providers, youth organizations and service providers, violence prevention programs, and law enforcement agencies, so that communities can establish and implement policies, procedures, and practices to protect and more comprehensively and effectively serve young victims of dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking who are between the ages of 12 and 24, and to engage, where necessary, other entities addressing the safety, health, mental health, social service, housing, and economic needs of young victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including community-based supports such as schools, local health centers, community action groups, and neighborhood coalitions.

(b) Grant authority

(1) In general

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women (in this section referred to as the “Director”), shall make grants to eligible entities to carry out the purposes of this section.

(2) Grant periods

Grants shall be awarded under this section for a period of 2 fiscal years.

(3) Eligible entities

To be eligible for a grant under this section, a grant applicant shall establish a collaboration that—

(A) shall include a victim service provider that has a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and the effect that those forms of abuse have on young people;

(B) shall include a court or law enforcement agency partner; and

(C) may include—

(i) batterer intervention programs or sex offender treatment programs with specialized knowledge and experience working with youth offenders;

(ii) community-based youth organizations that deal specifically with the concerns and problems faced by youth, including programs that target teen parents and underserved communities;

(iii) schools or school-based programs designed to provide prevention or intervention services to youth experiencing problems;

(iv) faith-based entities that deal with the concerns and problems faced by youth;

(v) healthcare entities eligible for reimbursement under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.], including providers that target the special needs of youth;

(vi) education programs on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases that are designed to target teens;

(vii) Indian Health Service, tribal child protective services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, or the Federal Bureau of Investigations; 1 or

(viii) law enforcement agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs providing tribal law enforcement.

(c) Uses of funds

An entity that receives a grant under this section shall use the funds made available through the grant for cross-training and collaborative efforts—

(1) addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, assessing and analyzing currently available services for youth and young adult victims, determining relevant barriers to such services in a particular locality, and developing a community protocol to address such problems collaboratively;

(2) to establish and enhance linkages and collaboration between—

(A) domestic violence and sexual assault service providers; and

(B) where applicable, law enforcement agencies, courts, Federal agencies, and other entities addressing the safety, health, mental health, social service, housing, and economic needs of young victims of abuse, including community-based supports such as schools, local health centers, community action groups, and neighborhood coalitions—

(i) to respond effectively and comprehensively to the varying needs of young victims of abuse;

(ii) to include linguistically, culturally, and community relevant services for underserved populations or linkages to existing services in the community tailored to the needs of underserved populations; and

(iii) to include where appropriate legal assistance, referral services, and parental support;


(3) to educate the staff of courts, domestic violence and sexual assault service providers, and, as applicable, the staff of law enforcement agencies, Indian child welfare agencies, youth organizations, schools, healthcare providers, and other community prevention and intervention programs to responsibly address youth victims and perpetrators of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(4) to identify, assess, and respond appropriately to dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking against teens and young adults and meet the needs of young victims of violence; and

(5) to provide appropriate resources in juvenile court matters to respond to dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking and ensure necessary services dealing with the health and mental health of victims are available.

(d) Grant applications

To be eligible for a grant under this section, the entities that are members of the applicant collaboration described in subsection (b)(3) of this section shall jointly submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.

(e) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall give priority to entities that have submitted applications in partnership with community organizations and service providers that work primarily with youth, especially teens, and who have demonstrated a commitment to coalition building and cooperative problem solving in dealing with problems of dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking in teen populations.

(f) Distribution

In awarding grants under this section—

(1) not less than 10 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year shall be available to Indian tribal governments to establish and maintain collaborations involving the appropriate tribal justice and social services departments or domestic violence or sexual assault service providers, the purpose of which is to provide culturally appropriate services to American Indian women or youth;

(2) the Director shall not use more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year for monitoring and evaluation of grants made available under this section;

(3) the Attorney General of the United States shall not use more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year for administration of grants made available under this section; and

(4) up to 8 percent of funds appropriated under this section in any year shall be available to provide technical assistance for programs funded under this section.

(g) Dissemination of information

Not later than 12 months after the end of the grant period under this section, the Director shall prepare, submit to Congress, and make widely available, including through electronic means, summaries that contain information on—

(1) the activities implemented by the recipients of the grants awarded under this section; and

(2) related initiatives undertaken by the Director to promote attention to dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking and their impact on young victims by—

(A) the staffs of courts;

(B) domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers; and

(C) law enforcement agencies and community organizations.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $5,000,000 in each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41202, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3005.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C)(v), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVIII (§1395 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Investigation;”.

§14043c–2. Grants for training and collaboration on the intersection between domestic violence and child maltreatment

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to support efforts by child welfare agencies, domestic violence or dating violence victim services providers, courts, law enforcement, and other related professionals and community organizations to develop collaborative responses and services and provide cross-training to enhance community responses to families where there is both child maltreatment and domestic violence.

(b) Grants authorized

The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (in this section referred to as the “Secretary”), through the Family and Youth Services Bureau, and in consultation with the Office on Violence Against Women, shall award grants on a competitive basis to eligible entities for the purposes and in the manner described in this section.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011. Funds appropriated under this section shall remain available until expended. Of the amounts appropriated to carry out this section for each fiscal year, the Secretary shall—

(1) use not more than 3 percent for evaluation, monitoring, site visits, grantee conferences, and other administrative costs associated with conducting activities under this section;

(2) set aside not more than 7 percent for grants to Indian tribes to develop programs addressing child maltreatment and domestic violence or dating violence that are operated by, or in partnership with, a tribal organization; and

(3) set aside up to 8 percent for technical assistance and training to be provided by organizations having demonstrated expertise in developing collaborative community and system responses to families in which there is both child maltreatment and domestic violence or dating violence, which technical assistance and training may be offered to jurisdictions in the process of developing community responses to families in which children are exposed to child maltreatment and domestic violence or dating violence, whether or not they are receiving funds under this section.

(d) Underserved populations

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall consider the needs of underserved populations.

(e) Grant awards

The Secretary shall award grants under this section for periods of not more than 2 fiscal years.

(f) Uses of funds

Entities receiving grants under this section shall use amounts provided to develop collaborative responses and services and provide cross-training to enhance community responses to families where there is both child maltreatment and domestic violence or dating violence. Amounts distributed under this section may only be used for programs and activities described in subsection (g) of this section.

(g) Programs and activities

The programs and activities developed under this section shall—

(1) encourage cross training, education, service development, and collaboration among child welfare agencies, domestic violence victim service providers, and courts, law enforcement agencies, community-based programs, and other entities, in order to ensure that such entities have the capacity to and will identify, assess, and respond appropriately to—

(A) domestic violence or dating violence in homes where children are present and may be exposed to the violence;

(B) domestic violence or dating violence in child protection cases; and

(C) the needs of both the child and nonabusing parent;


(2) establish and implement policies, procedures, programs, and practices for child welfare agencies, domestic violence victim service providers, courts, law enforcement agencies, and other entities, that are consistent with the principles of protecting and increasing the immediate and long-term safety and well being of children and non-abusing parents and caretakers;

(3) increase cooperation and enhance linkages between child welfare agencies, domestic violence victim service providers, courts, law enforcement agencies, and other entities to provide more comprehensive community-based services (including health, mental health, social service, housing, and neighborhood resources) to protect and to serve both child and adult victims;

(4) identify, assess, and respond appropriately to domestic violence or dating violence in child protection cases and to child maltreatment when it co-occurs with domestic violence or dating violence;

(5) analyze and change policies, procedures, and protocols that contribute to overrepresentation of certain populations in the court and child welfare system; and

(6) provide appropriate referrals to community-based programs and resources, such as health and mental health services, shelter and housing assistance for adult and youth victims and their children, legal assistance and advocacy for adult and youth victims, assistance for parents to help their children cope with the impact of exposure to domestic violence or dating violence and child maltreatment, appropriate intervention and treatment for adult perpetrators of domestic violence or dating violence whose children are the subjects of child protection cases, programs providing support and assistance to underserved populations, and other necessary supportive services.

(h) Grantee requirements

(1) Applications

Under this section, an entity shall prepare and submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, consistent with the requirements described herein. The application shall—

(A) ensure that communities impacted by these systems or organizations are adequately represented in the development of the application, the programs and activities to be undertaken, and that they have a significant role in evaluating the success of the project;

(B) describe how the training and collaboration activities will enhance or ensure the safety and economic security of families where both child maltreatment and domestic violence or dating violence occurs by providing appropriate resources, protection, and support to the victimized parents of such children and to the children themselves; and

(C) outline methods and means participating entities will use to ensure that all services are provided in a developmentally, linguistically and culturally competent manner and will utilize community-based supports and resources.

(2) Eligible entities

To be eligible for a grant under this section, an entity shall be a collaboration that—

(A) shall include a State or local child welfare agency or Indian Tribe;

(B) shall include a domestic violence or dating violence victim service provider;

(C) shall include a law enforcement agency or Bureau of Indian Affairs providing tribal law enforcement;

(D) may include a court; and

(E) may include any other such agencies or private nonprofit organizations and faith-based organizations, including community-based organizations, with the capacity to provide effective help to the child and adult victims served by the collaboration.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41203, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3008.)

§14043c–3. Grants to combat domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in middle and high schools

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the “Supporting Teens through Education and Protection Act of 2005” or the “STEP Act”.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, is authorized to award grants to middle schools and high schools that work with domestic violence and sexual assault experts to enable the schools—

(1) to provide training to school administrators, faculty, counselors, coaches, healthcare providers, security personnel, and other staff on the needs and concerns of students who experience domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and the impact of such violence on students;

(2) to develop and implement policies in middle and high schools regarding appropriate, safe responses to, and identification and referral procedures for, students who are experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including procedures for handling the requirements of court protective orders issued to or against students or school personnel, in a manner that ensures the safety of the victim and holds the perpetrator accountable;

(3) to provide support services for students and school personnel, such as a resource person who is either on-site or on-call, and who is an expert described in subsections (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section, for the purpose of developing and strengthening effective prevention and intervention strategies for students and school personnel experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking;

(4) to provide developmentally appropriate educational programming to students regarding domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, and the impact of experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on children and youth by adapting existing curricula activities to the relevant student population;

(5) to work with existing mentoring programs and develop strong mentoring programs for students, including student athletes, to help them understand and recognize violence and violent behavior, how to prevent it and how to appropriately address their feelings; and

(6) to conduct evaluations to assess the impact of programs and policies assisted under this section in order to enhance the development of the programs.

(c) Award basis

The Director shall award grants and contracts under this section on a competitive basis.

(d) Policy dissemination

The Director shall disseminate to middle and high schools any existing Department of Justice, Department of Health and Human Services, and Department of Education policy guidance and curricula regarding the prevention of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, and the impact of the violence on children and youth.

(e) Nondisclosure of confidential or private information

In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and minor victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and their families, grantees and subgrantees shall protect the confidentiality and privacy of persons receiving services. Grantees and subgrantees pursuant to this section shall not disclose any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees’ and subgrantees’ programs. Grantees and subgrantees shall not reveal individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor or of the other parent of the minor) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Tribal, Federal, State or Territorial grant program. If release of such information is compelled by statutory or court mandate, grantees and subgrantees shall make reasonable attempts to provide notice to victims affected by the disclosure of information. If such personally identifying information is or will be revealed, grantees and subgrantees shall take steps necessary to protect the privacy and safety of the persons affected by the release of the information. Grantees may share non-personally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and non-personally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Tribal, Federal, State or Territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements. Grantees and subgrantees may share court-generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes.

(f) Grant term and allocation

(1) Term

The Director shall make the grants under this section for a period of 3 fiscal years.

(2) Allocation

Not more than 15 percent of the funds available to a grantee in a given year shall be used for the purposes described in subsection (b)(4), (b)(5), and (b)(6) of this section.

(g) Distribution

(1) In general

Not less than 5 percent of funds appropriated under subsection (l) of this section in any year shall be available for grants to tribal schools, schools on tribal lands or schools whose student population is more than 25 percent Native American.

(2) Administration

The Director shall not use more than 5 percent of funds appropriated under subsection (l) of this section in any year for administration, monitoring and evaluation of grants made available under this section.

(3) Training, technical assistance, and data collection

Not less than 5 percent of funds appropriated under subsection (l) of this section in any year shall be available to provide training, technical assistance, and data collection for programs funded under this section.

(h) Application

To be eligible to be awarded a grant or contract under this section for any fiscal year, a middle or secondary school, in consultation with an expert as described in subsections (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section, shall submit an application to the Director at such time and in such manner as the Director shall prescribe.

(i) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be a partnership that—

(1) shall include a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under 10 U.S.C. 2164 or 20 U.S.C. 921, a group of schools, or a school district;

(2) shall include a domestic violence victim service provider that has a history of working on domestic violence and the impact that domestic violence and dating violence have on children and youth;

(3) shall include a sexual assault victim service provider, such as a rape crisis center, program serving tribal victims of sexual assault, or coalition or other nonprofit nongovernmental organization carrying out a community-based sexual assault program, that has a history of effective work concerning sexual assault and the impact that sexual assault has on children and youth; and

(4) may include a law enforcement agency, the State, Tribal, Territorial or local court, nonprofit nongovernmental organizations and service providers addressing sexual harassment, bullying or gang-related violence in schools, and any other such agencies or nonprofit nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide effective assistance to the adult, youth, and minor victims served by the partnership.

(j) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall give priority to entities that have submitted applications in partnership with relevant courts or law enforcement agencies.

(k) Reporting and dissemination of information

(1) Reporting

Each of the entities that are members of the applicant partnership described in subsection (i) of this section, that receive a grant under this section shall jointly prepare and submit to the Director every 18 months a report detailing the activities that the entities have undertaken under the grant and such additional information as the Director shall require.

(2) Dissemination of information

Within 9 months of the completion of the first full grant cycle, the Director shall publicly disseminate, including through electronic means, model policies and procedures developed and implemented in middle and high schools by the grantees, including information on the impact the policies have had on their respective schools and communities.

(l) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(2) Availability

Funds appropriated under paragraph (1) shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41204, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3010; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §4(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 758.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 109–271 substituted “(b)(4)” for “(b)(4)(D)”.

Part L—Strengthening America's Families by Preventing Violence Against Women and Children

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle M of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 109–162, and has been redesignated as part L of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14043d. Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) the former United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse suggests that domestic violence may be the single major precursor to child abuse and neglect fatalities in this country;

(2) studies suggest that as many as 10,000,000 children witness domestic violence every year;

(3) studies suggest that among children and teenagers, recent exposure to violence in the home was a significant factor in predicting a child's violent behavior;

(4) a study by the Nurse-Family Partnership found that children whose parents did not participate in home visitation programs that provided coaching in parenting skills, advice and support, were almost 5 times more likely to be abused in their first 2 years of life;

(5) a child's exposure to domestic violence seems to pose the greatest independent risk for being the victim of any act of partner violence as an adult;

(6) children exposed to domestic violence are more likely to believe that using violence is an effective means of getting one's needs met and managing conflict in close relationships;

(7) children exposed to abusive parenting, harsh or erratic discipline, or domestic violence are at increased risk for juvenile crime; and

(8) in a national survey of more than 6,000 American families, 50 percent of men who frequently assaulted their wives also frequently abused their children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41301, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3017.)

§14043d–1. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to—

(1) prevent crimes involving violence against women, children, and youth;

(2) increase the resources and services available to prevent violence against women, children, and youth;

(3) reduce the impact of exposure to violence in the lives of children and youth so that the intergenerational cycle of violence is interrupted;

(4) develop and implement education and services programs to prevent children in vulnerable families from becoming victims or perpetrators of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(5) promote programs to ensure that children and youth receive the assistance they need to end the cycle of violence and develop mutually respectful, nonviolent relationships; and

(6) encourage collaboration among community-based organizations and governmental agencies serving children and youth, providers of health and mental health services and providers of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim services to prevent violence against women and children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41302, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018.)

§14043d–2. Grants to assist children and youth exposed to violence

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, and in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services, is authorized to award grants on a competitive basis to eligible entities for the purpose of mitigating the effects of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on children exposed to such violence, and reducing the risk of future victimization or perpetration of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(2) Term

The Director shall make grants under this section for a period of 2 fiscal years.

(3) Award basis

The Director shall award grants—

(A) considering the needs of underserved populations;

(B) awarding not less than 10 percent of such amounts to Indian tribes for the funding of tribal projects from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year;

(C) awarding up to 8 percent for the funding of technical assistance programs from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year; and

(D) awarding not less than 66 percent to programs described in subsection (c)(1) of this section from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(c) Use of funds

The funds appropriated under this section shall be used for—

(1) programs that provide services for children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, which may include direct counseling, advocacy, or mentoring, and must include support for the nonabusing parent or the child's caretaker; or

(2) training, coordination, and advocacy for programs that serve children and youth (such as Head Start, child care, and after-school programs) on how to safely and confidentially identify children and families experiencing domestic violence and properly refer them to programs that can provide direct services to the family and children, and coordination with other domestic violence or other programs serving children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking that can provide the training and direct services referenced in this subsection.

(d) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be a— 1

(1) a victim service provider, tribal nonprofit organization or community-based organization that has a documented history of effective work concerning children or youth exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including programs that provide culturally specific services, Head Start, childcare, faith-based organizations, after school programs, and health and mental health providers; or

(2) a State, territorial, or tribal, or local unit of government agency that is partnered with an organization described in paragraph (1).

(e) Grantee requirements

Under this section, an entity shall—

(1) prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require; and

(2) at a minimum, describe in the application the policies and procedures that the entity has or will adopt to—

(A) enhance or ensure the safety and security of children who have been or are being exposed to violence and their nonabusing parent, enhance or ensure the safety and security of children and their nonabusing parent in homes already experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(B) ensure linguistically, culturally, and community relevant services for underserved communities.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41303, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018.)

1 So in original. The article probably should not appear.

§14043d–3. Development of curricula and pilot programs for home visitation projects

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, and in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants on a competitive basis to home visitation programs, in collaboration with victim service providers, for the purposes of developing and implementing model policies and procedures to train home visitation service providers on addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in families experiencing violence, or at risk of violence, to reduce the impact of that violence on children, maintain safety, improve parenting skills, and break intergenerational cycles of violence.

(2) Term

The Director shall make the grants under this section for a period of 2 fiscal years.

(3) Award basis

The Director shall—

(A) consider the needs of underserved populations;

(B) award not less than 7 percent of such amounts for the funding of tribal projects from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year; and

(C) award up to 8 percent for the funding of technical assistance programs from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $7,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(c) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be a national, Federal, State, local, territorial, or tribal—

(1) home visitation program that provides services to pregnant women and to young children and their parent or primary caregiver that are provided in the permanent or temporary residence or in other familiar surroundings of the individual or family receiving such services; or

(2) victim services organization or agency in collaboration with an organization or organizations listed in paragraph (1).

(d) Grantee requirements

Under this section, an entity shall—

(1) prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require; and

(2) describe in the application the policies and procedures that the entity has or will adopt to—

(A) enhance or ensure the safety and security of children and their nonabusing parent in homes already experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) ensure linguistically, culturally, and community relevant services for underserved communities;

(C) ensure the adequate training by domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking victim service providers of home visitation grantee program staff to—

(i) safely screen for and/or recognize domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(ii) understand the impact of domestic violence or sexual assault on children and protective actions taken by a nonabusing parent or caretaker in response to violence against anyone in the household; and

(iii) link new parents with existing community resources in communities where resources exist; and


(D) ensure that relevant State and local domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers and coalitions are aware of the efforts of organizations receiving grants under this section, and are included as training partners, where possible.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41304, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3020.)

§14043d–4. Engaging men and youth in preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, and in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants on a competitive basis to eligible entities for the purpose of developing or enhancing programs related to engaging men and youth in preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by helping them to develop mutually respectful, nonviolent relationships.

(2) Term

The Director shall make grants under this section for a period of 2 fiscal years.

(3) Award basis

The Director shall award grants—

(A) considering the needs of underserved populations;

(B) awarding not less than 10 percent of such amounts for the funding of Indian tribes from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year; and

(C) awarding up to 8 percent for the funding of technical assistance for grantees and non-grantees working in this area from the amounts made available under this section for a fiscal year.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(c) Use of funds

(1) Programs

The funds appropriated under this section shall be used by eligible entities—

(A) to develop or enhance community-based programs, including gender-specific programs in accordance with applicable laws that—

(i) encourage children and youth to pursue nonviolent relationships and reduce their risk of becoming victims or perpetrators of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(ii) that 1 include at a minimum—

(I) information on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or child sexual abuse and how they affect children and youth; and

(II) strategies to help participants be as safe as possible; or


(B) to create public education campaigns and community organizing to encourage men and boys to work as allies with women and girls to prevent violence against women and girls conducted by entities that have experience in conducting public education campaigns that address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(2) Media limits

No more than 40 percent of funds received by a grantee under this section may be used to create and distribute media materials.

(d) Eligible entities

(1) Relationships

Eligible entities under subsection (c)(1)(A) of this section are—

(A) nonprofit, nongovernmental domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victim service providers or coalitions;

(B) community-based child or youth services organizations with demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the needs and concerns of young people;

(C) a State, territorial, tribal, or unit of local governmental entity that is partnered with an organization described in subparagraph (A) or (B); or

(D) a program that provides culturally specific services.

(2) Awareness campaign

Eligible entities under subsection (c)(1)(B) of this section are—

(A) nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations or coalitions that have a documented history of creating and administering effective public education campaigns addressing the prevention of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking; or

(B) a State, territorial, tribal, or unit of local governmental entity that is partnered with an organization described in subparagraph (A).

(e) Grantee requirements

Under this section, an entity shall—

(1) prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require; and

(2) eligible entities pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A) of this section shall describe in the application the policies and procedures that the entity has or will adopt to—

(A) enhance or ensure the safety and security of children and youth already experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking in their lives;

(B) ensure linguistically, culturally, and community relevant services for underserved communities;

(C) inform participants about laws, services, and resources in the community, and make referrals as appropriate; and

(D) ensure that State and local domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers and coalitions are aware of the efforts of organizations receiving grants under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41305, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3021.)

1 So in original. The word “that” probably should not appear.

Part M—Addressing the Housing Needs of Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, and Stalking

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle N of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 109–162, and has been redesignated as part M of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

§14043e. Findings

Congress finds that:

(1) There is a strong link between domestic violence and homelessness. Among cities surveyed, 44 percent identified domestic violence as a primary cause of homelessness.

(2) Ninety-two percent of homeless women have experienced severe physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lives. Of all homeless women and children, 60 percent had been abused by age 12, and 63 percent have been victims of intimate partner violence as adults.

(3) Women and families across the country are being discriminated against, denied access to, and even evicted from public and subsidized housing because of their status as victims of domestic violence.

(4) A recent survey of legal service providers around the country found that these providers have responded to almost 150 documented eviction cases in the last year alone where the tenant was evicted because of the domestic violence crimes committed against her. In addition, nearly 100 clients were denied housing because of their status as victims of domestic violence.

(5) Women who leave their abusers frequently lack adequate emergency shelter options. The lack of adequate emergency options for victims presents a serious threat to their safety and the safety of their children. Requests for emergency shelter by homeless women with children increased by 78 percent of United States cities surveyed in 2004. In the same year, 32 percent of the requests for shelter by homeless families went unmet due to the lack of available emergency shelter beds.

(6) The average stay at an emergency shelter is 60 days, while the average length of time it takes a homeless family to secure housing is 6 to 10 months.

(7) Victims of domestic violence often return to abusive partners because they cannot find long-term housing.

(8) There are not enough Federal housing rent vouchers available to accommodate the number of people in need of long-term housing. Some people remain on the waiting list for Federal housing rent vouchers for years, while some lists are closed.

(9) Transitional housing resources and services provide an essential continuum between emergency shelter provision and independent living. A majority of women in transitional housing programs stated that had these programs not existed, they would have likely gone back to abusive partners.

(10) Because abusers frequently manipulate finances in an effort to control their partners, victims often lack steady income, credit history, landlord references, and a current address, all of which are necessary to obtain long-term permanent housing.

(11) Victims of domestic violence in rural areas face additional barriers, challenges, and unique circumstances, such as geographical isolation, poverty, lack of public transportation systems, shortages of health care providers, under-insurance or lack of health insurance, difficulty ensuring confidentiality in small communities, and decreased access to many resources (such as advanced education, job opportunities, and adequate childcare).

(12) Congress and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development have recognized in recent years that families experiencing domestic violence have unique needs that should be addressed by those administering the Federal housing programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41401, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3030.)

§14043e–1. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to reduce domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, and to prevent homelessness by—

(1) protecting the safety of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who reside in homeless shelters, public housing, assisted housing, tribally designated housing, or other emergency, transitional, permanent, or affordable housing, and ensuring that such victims have meaningful access to the criminal justice system without jeopardizing such housing;

(2) creating long-term housing solutions that develop communities and provide sustainable living solutions for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(3) building collaborations among victim service providers, homeless service providers, housing providers, and housing agencies to provide appropriate services, interventions, and training to address the housing needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(4) enabling public and assisted housing agencies, tribally designated housing entities, private landlords, property management companies, and other housing providers and agencies to respond appropriately to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, while maintaining a safe environment for all housing residents.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41402, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3031.)

§14043e–2. Definitions

For purposes of this part—

(1) the term “assisted housing” means housing assisted—

(A) under sections 1 1715e, 1715k, 1715l(d)(3), 1715l(d)(4), 1715n(e), 1715v, or 1715z–1 of title 12;

(B) under section 1701s of title 12;

(C) under section 1701q of title 12;

(D) under section 811 of the Cranston-Gonzales 2 National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 8013);

(E) under title II of the Cranston-Gonzales 2 National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.];

(F) under subtitle D of title VIII of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 12901 et seq.);

(G) under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.); or

(H) under section 1437f of this title;


(2) the term “continuum of care” means a community plan developed to organize and deliver housing and services to meet the specific needs of people who are homeless as they move to stable housing and achieve maximum self-sufficiency;

(3) the term “low-income housing assistance voucher” means housing assistance described in section 1437f of this title;

(4) the term “public housing” means housing described in section 1437a(b)(1) of this title;

(5) the term “public housing agency” means an agency described in section 1437a(b)(6) of this title;

(6) the terms “homeless”, “homeless individual”, and “homeless person”—

(A) mean an individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and

(B) includes—

(i) an individual who—

(I) is sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason;

(II) is living in a motel, hotel, trailer park, or campground due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations;

(III) is living in an emergency or transitional shelter;

(IV) is abandoned in a hospital; or

(V) is awaiting foster care placement;


(ii) an individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; or

(iii) migratory children (as defined in section 6399 of title 20) who qualify as homeless under this section because the children are living in circumstances described in this paragraph;


(7) the term “homeless service provider” means a nonprofit, nongovernmental homeless service provider, such as a homeless shelter, a homeless service or advocacy program, a tribal organization serving homeless individuals, or coalition or other nonprofit, nongovernmental organization carrying out a community-based homeless or housing program that has a documented history of effective work concerning homelessness;

(8) the term “tribally designated housing” means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.); and

(9) the term “tribally designated housing entity” means a housing entity described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4103(21)); 3

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41403, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3031.)

References in Text

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in par. (1)(E), (F), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079, as amended. Title II of the Act, known as the HOME Investment Partnerships Act, is classified principally to subchapter II (§12721 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. Subtitle D of title VIII of the Act, known as the AIDS Housing Opportunity Act, is classified generally to chapter 131 (§12901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in par. (1)(G), is Pub. L. 93–383, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 633, as amended. Title I of the Act is classified principally to chapter 69 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, referred to in pars. (8) and (9), is Pub. L. 104–330, Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4016, which is classified principally to chapter 43 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. Par. (21) of section 4103 of Title 25 was redesignated par. (22) by Pub. L. 110–411, §3(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4320. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4101 of Title 25 and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “Cranston-Gonzalez”.

3 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§14043e–3. Collaborative grants to increase the long-term stability of victims

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Administration for Children and Families, in partnership with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, shall award grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements for a period of not less than 2 years to eligible entities to develop long-term sustainability and self-sufficiency options for adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who are currently homeless or at risk for becoming homeless.

(2) Amount

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall award funds in amounts—

(A) not less than $25,000 per year; and

(B) not more than $1,000,000 per year.

(b) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive funds under this section, an entity shall demonstrate that it is a coalition or partnership, applying jointly, that—

(1) shall include a domestic violence victim service provider;

(2) shall include—

(A) a homeless service provider;

(B) a nonprofit, nongovernmental community housing development organization or a Department of Agriculture rural housing service program; or

(C) in the absence of a homeless service provider on tribal lands or nonprofit, nongovernmental community housing development organization on tribal lands, a tribally designated housing entity or tribal housing consortium;


(3) may include a dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victim service provider;

(4) may include housing developers, housing corporations, State housing finance agencies, other housing agencies, and associations representing landlords;

(5) may include a public housing agency or tribally designated housing entity;

(6) may include tenant organizations in public or tribally designated housing, as well as nonprofit, nongovernmental tenant organizations;

(7) may include other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations participating in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Continuum of Care process;

(8) may include a State, tribal, territorial, or local government or government agency; and

(9) may include any other agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide effective help to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(c) Application

Each eligible entity seeking funds under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Health and Human Services at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may require.

(d) Use of funds

Funds awarded to eligible entities under subsection (a) of this section shall be used to design or replicate and implement new activities, services, and programs to increase the stability and self-sufficiency of, and create partnerships to develop long-term housing options for adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their dependents, who are currently homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Such activities, services, or programs—

(1) shall develop sustainable long-term living solutions in the community by—

(A) coordinating efforts and resources among the various groups and organizations comprised in the entity to access existing private and public funding;

(B) assisting with the placement of individuals and families in long-term housing; and

(C) providing services to help individuals or families find and maintain long-term housing, including financial assistance and support services;


(2) may develop partnerships with individuals, organizations, corporations, or other entities that provide capital costs for the purchase, preconstruction, construction, renovation, repair, or conversion of affordable housing units;

(3) may use funds for the administrative expenses related to the continuing operation, upkeep, maintenance, and use of housing described in paragraph (2); and

(4) may provide to the community information about housing and housing programs, and the process to locate and obtain long-term housing.

(e) Limitation

Funds provided under paragraph 1 (a) shall not be used for construction, modernization or renovation.

(f) Underserved populations and priorities

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall—

(1) give priority to linguistically and culturally specific services;

(2) give priority to applications from entities that include a sexual assault service provider as described in subsection (b)(3) of this section; and

(3) award a minimum of 15 percent of the funds appropriated under this section in any fiscal year to tribal organizations.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Affordable housing

The term “affordable housing” means housing that complies with the conditions set forth in section 12745 of this title.

(2) Long-term housing

The term “long-term housing” means housing that is sustainable, accessible, affordable, and safe for the foreseeable future and is—

(A) rented or owned by the individual;

(B) subsidized by a voucher or other program which is not time-limited and is available for as long as the individual meets the eligibility requirements for the voucher or program; or

(C) provided directly by a program, agency, or organization and is not time-limited and is available for as long as the individual meets the eligibility requirements for the program, agency, or organization.

(h) Evaluation, monitoring, administration, and technical assistance

For purposes of this section—

(1) up to 5 percent of the funds appropriated under subsection (i) of this section for each fiscal year may be used by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for evaluation, monitoring, and administration costs under this section; and

(2) up to 8 percent of the funds appropriated under subsection (i) of this section for each fiscal year may be used to provide technical assistance to grantees under this section.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41404, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3033; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 759.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a)(1), substituted “for Children” for “of Children”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a)(2), struck out “(1) In general.—” before “Funds awarded to”, inserted “Such activities, services, or programs—” after “becoming homeless.”, substituted “(1)” for “(2) Activities, services, programs.—Such activities, services, or programs described in paragraph (1)”, redesignated pars. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and substituted “paragraph (2)” for “paragraph (3)” in par. (3), as so redesignated.

1 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

§14043e–4. Grants to combat violence against women in public and assisted housing

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to assist eligible grantees in responding appropriately to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking so that the status of being a victim of such a crime is not a reason for the denial or loss of housing. Such assistance shall be accomplished through—

(1) education and training of eligible entities;

(2) development and implementation of appropriate housing policies and practices;

(3) enhancement of collaboration with victim service providers and tenant organizations; and

(4) reduction of the number of victims of such crimes who are evicted or denied housing because of crimes and lease violations committed or directly caused by the perpetrators of such crimes.

(b) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Violence Against Women Office of the Department of Justice (“Director”), and in consultation with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (“Secretary”), and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Administration for Children, Youth and Families (“ACYF”), shall award grants and contracts for not less than 2 years to eligible grantees to promote the full and equal access to and use of housing by adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(2) Amounts

Not less than 15 percent of the funds appropriated to carry out this section shall be available for grants to tribally designated housing entities.

(3) Award basis

The Attorney General shall award grants and contracts under this section on a competitive basis.

(4) Limitation

Appropriated funds may only be used for the purposes described in subsection (f) of this section.

(c) Eligible grantees

(1) In general

Eligible grantees are—

(A) public housing agencies;

(B) principally managed public housing resident management corporations, as determined by the Secretary;

(C) public housing projects owned by public housing agencies;

(D) tribally designated housing entities; and

(E) private, for-profit, and nonprofit owners or managers of assisted housing.

(2) Submission required for all grantees

To receive assistance under this section, an eligible grantee shall certify that—

(A) its policies and practices do not prohibit or limit a resident's right to summon police or other emergency assistance in response to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) programs and services are developed that give a preference in admission to adult and youth victims of such violence, consistent with local housing needs, and applicable law and the Secretary's instructions;

(C) it does not discriminate against any person—

(i) because that person is or is perceived to be, or has a family or household member who is or is perceived to be, a victim of such violence; or

(ii) because of the actions or threatened actions of the individual who the victim, as certified in subsection (e) of this section, states has committed or threatened to commit acts of such violence against the victim, or against the victim's family or household member;


(D) plans are developed that establish meaningful consultation and coordination with local victim service providers, tenant organizations, linguistically and culturally specific service providers, State domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, and, where they exist, tribal domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions; and

(E) its policies and practices will be in compliance with those described in this paragraph within the later of 1 year or a period selected by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary and ACYF.

(d) Application

Each eligible entity seeking a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such a time, in such a manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General may require.

(e) Certification

(1) In general

A public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider receiving funds under this section may request that an individual claiming relief under this section certify that the individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The individual shall provide a copy of such certification to the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider within a reasonable period of time after the agency or authority requests such certification.

(2) Contents

An individual may satisfy the certification requirement of paragraph (1) by—

(A) providing the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider with documentation, signed by an employee, agent, or volunteer of a victim service provider, an attorney, a member of the clergy, a medical professional, or any other professional from whom the victim has sought assistance in addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or the effects of abuse; or

(B) producing a Federal, State, tribal, territorial, or local police or court record.

(3) Limitation

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require any housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager to demand that an individual produce official documentation or physical proof of the individual's status as a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, in order to receive any of the benefits provided in this section. A housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager may provide benefits to an individual based solely on the individual's statement or other corroborating evidence.

(4) Confidentiality

(A) In general

All information provided to any housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager pursuant to paragraph (1), including the fact that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, shall be retained in confidence by such agency, and shall neither be entered into any shared database, nor provided to any related housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager, except to the extent that disclosure is—

(i) requested or consented to by the individual in writing; or

(ii) otherwise required by applicable law.

(B) Notification

Public housing agencies must provide notice to tenants of their rights under this section, including their right to confidentiality and the limits thereof, and to owners and managers of their rights and obligations under this section.

(f) Use of funds

Grants and contracts awarded pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall provide to eligible entities personnel, training, and technical assistance to develop and implement policies, practices, and procedures, making physical improvements or changes, and developing or enhancing collaborations for the purposes of—

(1) enabling victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking with otherwise disqualifying rental, credit, or criminal histories to be eligible to obtain housing or housing assistance, if such victims would otherwise qualify for housing or housing assistance and can provide documented evidence that demonstrates the causal connection between such violence or abuse and the victims’ negative histories;

(2) permitting applicants for housing or housing assistance to provide incomplete rental and employment histories, otherwise required as a condition of admission or assistance, if the victim believes that providing such rental and employment history would endanger the victim's or the victim children's safety;

(3) protecting victims’ confidentiality, including protection of victims’ personally identifying information, address, or rental history;

(4) assisting victims who need to leave a public housing, tribally designated housing, or assisted housing unit quickly to protect their safety, including those who are seeking transfer to a new public housing unit, tribally designated housing unit, or assisted housing unit, whether in the same or a different neighborhood or jurisdiction;

(5) enabling the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider, or the victim, to remove, consistent with applicable State law, the perpetrator of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking without evicting, removing, or otherwise penalizing the victim;

(6) enabling the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up;

(7) developing and implementing more effective security policies, protocols, and services;

(8) allotting not more than 15 percent of funds awarded under the grant to make modest physical improvements to enhance safety;

(9) training personnel to more effectively identify and respond to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(10) effectively providing notice to applicants and residents of the above housing policies, practices, and procedures.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(h) Technical assistance

Up to 12 percent of the amount appropriated under subsection (g) of this section for each fiscal year shall be used by the Attorney General for technical assistance costs under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41405, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3035.)

Part N—National Resource Center

Codification

Pub. L. 109–162, title VII, §701, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3052, which directed that subtitle N of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (part M of this subchapter) be amended by adding at the end a subtitle O consisting of section 41501 (42 U.S.C. 14043f), is reflected in the Code by setting out subtitle O as a separate part N (this part) and not as included in part M, as the probable intent of Congress.

§14043f. Grant for national resource center on workplace responses to assist victims of domestic and sexual violence

(a) Authority

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award a grant to an eligible nonprofit nongovernmental entity or tribal organization, in order to provide for the establishment and operation of a national resource center on workplace responses to assist victims of domestic and sexual violence. The resource center shall provide information and assistance to employers and labor organizations to aid in their efforts to develop and implement responses to such violence.

(b) Applications

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity or organization shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General may require, including—

(1) information that demonstrates that the entity or organization has nationally recognized expertise in the area of domestic or sexual violence;

(2) a plan to maximize, to the extent practicable, outreach to employers (including private companies and public entities such as public institutions of higher education and State and local governments) and labor organizations described in subsection (a) of this section concerning developing and implementing workplace responses to assist victims of domestic or sexual violence; and

(3) a plan for developing materials and training for materials for employers that address the needs of employees in cases of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking impacting the workplace, including the needs of underserved communities.

(c) Use of grant amount

(1) In general

An entity or organization that receives a grant under this section may use the funds made available through the grant for staff salaries, travel expenses, equipment, printing, and other reasonable expenses necessary to develop, maintain, and disseminate to employers and labor organizations described in subsection (a) of this section, information and assistance concerning workplace responses to assist victims of domestic or sexual violence.

(2) Responses

Responses referred to in paragraph (1) may include—

(A) providing training to promote a better understanding of workplace assistance to victims of domestic or sexual violence;

(B) providing conferences and other educational opportunities; and

(C) developing protocols and model workplace policies.

(d) Liability

The compliance or noncompliance of any employer or labor organization with any protocol or policy developed by an entity or organization under this section shall not serve as a basis for liability in tort, express or implied contract, or by any other means. No protocol or policy developed by an entity or organization under this section shall be referenced or enforced as a workplace safety standard by any Federal, State, or other governmental agency.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(f) Availability of grant funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41501, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VII, §701, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3052.)

Part N–1—Sexual Assault Services

§14043g. Sexual assault services program

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to assist States, Indian tribes, and territories in providing intervention, advocacy, accompaniment, support services, and related assistance for—

(A) adult, youth, and child victims of sexual assault;

(B) family and household members of such victims; and

(C) those collaterally affected by the victimization, except for the perpetrator of such victimization; and


(2) to provide for technical assistance and training relating to sexual assault to—

(A) Federal, State, tribal, territorial and local governments, law enforcement agencies, and courts;

(B) professionals working in legal, social service, and health care settings;

(C) nonprofit organizations;

(D) faith-based organizations; and

(E) other individuals and organizations seeking such assistance.

(b) Grants to States and territories

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General shall award grants to States and territories to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of rape crisis centers and other programs and projects to assist those victimized by sexual assault.

(2) Allocation and use of funds

(A) Administrative costs

Not more than 5 percent of the grant funds received by a State or territory governmental agency under this subsection for any fiscal year may be used for administrative costs.

(B) Grant funds

Any funds received by a State or territory under this subsection that are not used for administrative costs shall be used to provide grants to rape crisis centers and other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations for programs and activities within such State or territory that provide direct intervention and related assistance.

(C) Intervention and related assistance

Intervention and related assistance under subparagraph (B) may include—

(i) 24-hour hotline services providing crisis intervention services and referral;

(ii) accompaniment and advocacy through medical, criminal justice, and social support systems, including medical facilities, police, and court proceedings;

(iii) crisis intervention, short-term individual and group support services, and comprehensive service coordination and supervision to assist sexual assault victims and family or household members;

(iv) information and referral to assist the sexual assault victim and family or household members;

(v) community-based, linguistically and culturally specific services and support mechanisms, including outreach activities for underserved communities; and

(vi) the development and distribution of materials on issues related to the services described in clauses (i) through (v).

(3) Application

(A) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time and in such manner as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(B) Contents

Each application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) set forth procedures designed to ensure meaningful involvement of the State or territorial sexual assault coalition and representatives from underserved communities in the development of the application and the implementation of the plans;

(ii) set forth procedures designed to ensure an equitable distribution of grants and grant funds within the State or territory and between urban and rural areas within such State or territory;

(iii) identify the State or territorial agency that is responsible for the administration of programs and activities; and

(iv) meet other such requirements as the Attorney General reasonably determines are necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this section.

(4) Minimum amount

The Attorney General shall allocate to each State not less than 1.50 percent of the total amount appropriated in a fiscal year for grants under this section, except that the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall each be allocated 0.125 percent of the total appropriations. The remaining funds shall be allotted to each State and each territory in an amount that bears the same ratio to such remaining funds as the population of such State and such territory bears to the population of all the States and the territories. The District of Columbia shall be treated as a territory for purposes of calculating its allocation under the preceding formula.

(c) Grants for culturally specific programs addressing sexual assault

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General shall award grants to eligible entities to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of culturally specific intervention and related assistance for victims of sexual assault.

(2) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall—

(A) be a private nonprofit organization that focuses primarily on culturally specific communities;

(B) must have documented organizational experience in the area of sexual assault intervention or have entered into a partnership with an organization having such expertise;

(C) have expertise in the development of community-based, linguistically and culturally specific outreach and intervention services relevant for the specific communities to whom assistance would be provided or have the capacity to link to existing services in the community tailored to the needs of culturally specific populations; and

(D) have an advisory board or steering committee and staffing which is reflective of the targeted culturally specific community.

(3) Award basis

The Attorney General shall award grants under this section on a competitive basis.

(4) Distribution

(A) The Attorney General shall not use more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under this subsection in any year for administration, monitoring, and evaluation of grants made available under this subsection.

(B) Up to 5 percent of funds appropriated under this subsection in any year shall be available for technical assistance by a national, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization or organizations whose primary focus and expertise is in addressing sexual assault within underserved culturally specific populations.

(5) Term

The Attorney General shall make grants under this section for a period of no less than 2 fiscal years.

(6) Reporting

Each entity receiving a grant under this subsection shall submit a report to the Attorney General that describes the activities carried out with such grant funds.

(d) Grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions

(1) Grants authorized

(A) In general

The Attorney General shall award grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions to assist in supporting the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of such coalitions.

(B) Minimum amount

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount appropriated to carry out this section shall be used for grants under subparagraph (A).

(C) Eligible applicants

Each of the State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions.

(2) Use of funds

Grant funds received under this subsection may be used to—

(A) work with local sexual assault programs and other providers of direct services to encourage appropriate responses to sexual assault within the State, territory, or tribe;

(B) work with judicial and law enforcement agencies to encourage appropriate responses to sexual assault cases;

(C) work with courts, child protective services agencies, and children's advocates to develop appropriate responses to child custody and visitation issues when sexual assault has been determined to be a factor;

(D) design and conduct public education campaigns;

(E) plan and monitor the distribution of grants and grant funds to their State, territory, or tribe; or

(F) collaborate with and inform Federal, State, or local public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate sexual assault.

(3) Allocation and use of funds

From amounts appropriated for grants under this subsection for each fiscal year—

(A) not less than 10 percent of the funds shall be available for grants to tribal sexual assault coalitions; and

(B) the remaining funds shall be available for grants to State and territorial coalitions, and the Attorney General shall allocate an amount equal to 1/56 of the amounts so appropriated to each of those State and territorial coalitions.

(4) Application

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General determines to be essential to carry out the purposes of this section.

(5) First-time applicants

No entity shall be prohibited from submitting an application under this subsection during any fiscal year for which funds are available under this subsection because such entity has not previously applied or received funding under this subsection.

(e) Grants to tribes

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may award grants to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and nonprofit tribal organizations for the operation of sexual assault programs or projects in Indian tribal lands and Alaska Native villages to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of programs and projects to assist those victimized by sexual assault.

(2) Allocation and use of funds

(A) Administrative costs

Not more than 5 percent of the grant funds received by an Indian tribe, tribal organization, and nonprofit tribal organization under this subsection for any fiscal year may be used for administrative costs.

(B) Grant funds

Any funds received under this subsection that are not used for administrative costs shall be used to provide grants to tribal organizations and nonprofit tribal organizations for programs and activities within Indian country and Alaskan native villages that provide direct intervention and related assistance.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 to remain available until expended for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(2) Allocations

Of the total amounts appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this section—

(A) not more than 2.5 percent shall be used by the Attorney General for evaluation, monitoring, and other administrative costs under this section;

(B) not more than 2.5 percent shall be used for the provision of technical assistance to grantees and subgrantees under this section;

(C) not less than 65 percent shall be used for grants to States and territories under subsection (b);

(D) not less than 10 percent shall be used for making grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions under subsection (d);

(E) not less than 10 percent shall be used for grants to tribes under subsection (e); and

(F) not less than 10 percent shall be used for grants for culturally specific programs addressing sexual assault under subsection (c).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41601, as added Pub. L. 109–271, §3(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 754.)

Part O—Combatting Domestic Trafficking in Persons

§14044. Prevention of domestic trafficking in persons

(a) Program to reduce trafficking in persons and demand for commercial sex acts in the United States

(1) Comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of incidents of trafficking in persons and commercial sex acts

(A) In general

The Attorney General shall use available data from State and local authorities as well as research data to carry out a biennial comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of severe forms of trafficking in persons, and a biennial comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts in the United States, and shall submit to Congress separate biennial reports on the findings.

(B) Contents

The research and statistical review and analysis under this paragraph shall consist of two separate studies, utilizing the same statistical data where appropriate, as follows:

(i) The first study shall address severe forms of trafficking in persons in the United States and shall include, but need not be limited to—

(I) the estimated number and demographic characteristics of persons engaged in acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons; and

(II) the number of investigations, arrests, prosecutions, and incarcerations of persons engaged in acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons by States and their political subdivisions.


(ii) The second study shall address sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts in the United States and shall include, but need not be limited to—

(I) the estimated number and demographic characteristics of persons engaged in sex trafficking and commercial sex acts, including purchasers of commercial sex acts;

(II) the estimated value in dollars of the commercial sex economy, including the estimated average annual personal income derived from acts of sex trafficking;

(III) the number of investigations, arrests, prosecutions, and incarcerations of persons engaged in sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts, including purchasers of commercial sex acts, by States and their political subdivisions; and

(IV) a description of the differences in the enforcement of laws relating to unlawful commercial sex acts across the United States.

(2) Trafficking conference

(A) In general

The Attorney General, in consultation and cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall conduct an annual conference in each of the fiscal years 2006, 2007, and 2008, and thereafter conduct a biennial conference, addressing severe forms of trafficking in persons and commercial sex acts that occur, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States. At each such conference, the Attorney General, or his designee, shall—

(i) announce and evaluate the findings contained in the research and statistical reviews carried out under paragraph (1);

(ii) disseminate best methods and practices for enforcement of laws prohibiting acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons and other laws related to acts of trafficking in persons, including, but not limited to, best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on the enforcement of such laws;

(iii) disseminate best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on the enforcement of laws prohibiting sex trafficking and commercial sex acts, including, but not limited to, best methods for investigating and prosecuting exploiters and persons who solicit or purchase an unlawful commercial sex act; and

(iv) disseminate best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on collaborating with social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations and establishing trust of persons subjected to commercial sex acts or severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(B) Participation

Each annual conference conducted under this paragraph shall involve the participation of persons with expertise or professional responsibilities with relevance to trafficking in persons, including, but not limited to—

(i) Federal Government officials, including law enforcement and prosecutorial officials;

(ii) State and local government officials, including law enforcement and prosecutorial officials;

(iii) persons who have been subjected to severe forms of trafficking in persons or commercial sex acts;

(iv) medical personnel;

(v) social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations; and

(vi) academic experts.

(C) Reports

The Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare and post on the respective Internet Web sites of the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services reports on the findings and best practices identified and disseminated at the conference described in this paragraph.

(b) Omitted

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) of this section and $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) of this section; and

(2) $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §201, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3567; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 201 of Pub. L. 109–164. Subsec. (b) of section 201 of Pub. L. 109–164 amended section 7104 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–457, §302(2)(A), substituted “$1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011” for “$2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–457, §302(2)(B), which directed substitution of “2008 through 2011” for “2006 and 2007”, was executed by making the substitution for “2006 through 2007”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Recommendations To Prevent Sex Trafficking of Indian Women

Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §264, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2300, provided that: “Any report of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to Congress on the development of Indian victim services and victim advocate training programs shall include any recommendations that the Secretary determines to be necessary to prevent the sex trafficking of Indian women.”

§14044a. Establishment of grant program to develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for certain persons subject to trafficking

(a) Grant program

The Secretary of Health and Human Services may make grants to States, Indian tribes, units of local government, and nonprofit, nongovernmental victims’ service organizations to establish, develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for United States citizens or aliens admitted for permanent residence who are the subject of sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in persons that occurs, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Selection factor

In selecting among applicants for grants under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall give priority to applicants with experience in the delivery of services to persons who have been subjected to sexual abuse or commercial sexual exploitation and to applicants who would employ survivors of sexual abuse or commercial sexual exploitation as a part of their proposed project.

(c) Limitation on Federal share

The Federal share of a grant made under this section may not exceed 75 percent of the total costs of the projects described in the application submitted.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in this section.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §202, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3569; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(3), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted “$8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011” for “$10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007”.

§14044b. Protection of juvenile victims of trafficking in persons

(a) Establishment of pilot program

Not later than 180 days after January 10, 2006, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall establish and carry out a pilot program to establish residential treatment facilities in the United States for juveniles subjected to trafficking.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of the pilot program established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section are to—

(1) provide benefits and services to juveniles subjected to trafficking, including shelter, psychological counseling, and assistance in developing independent living skills;

(2) assess the benefits of providing residential treatment facilities for juveniles subjected to trafficking, as well as the most efficient and cost-effective means of providing such facilities; and

(3) assess the need for and feasibility of establishing additional residential treatment facilities for juveniles subjected to trafficking.

(c) Selection of sites

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall select three sites at which to operate the pilot program established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Form of assistance

In order to carry out the responsibilities of this section, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into contracts with, or make grants to, organizations that—

(1) have relevant expertise in the delivery of services to juveniles who have been subjected to sexual abuse or commercial sexual exploitation; or

(2) have entered into partnerships with organizations that have expertise as described in paragraph (1) for the purpose of implementing the contracts or grants.

(e) Report

Not later than one year after the date on which the first pilot program is established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall submit to Congress a report on the implementation of this section.

(f) Definition

In this section, the term “juvenile subjected to trafficking” means a United States citizen, or alien admitted for permanent residence, who is the subject of sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in persons that occurs, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States and who has not attained 18 years of age at the time the person is identified as having been the subject of sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §203, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3570; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(4), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted “2008 through 2011” for “2006 and 2007”.

§14044c. Enhancing State and local efforts to combat trafficking in persons

(a) Establishment of grant program for law enforcement

(1) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to States and local law enforcement agencies to establish, develop, expand, or strengthen programs—

(A) to investigate and prosecute acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons, and related offenses, which involve United States citizens, or aliens admitted for permanent residence, and that occur, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States;

(B) to investigate and prosecute persons who engage in the purchase of commercial sex acts;

(C) to educate persons charged with, or convicted of, purchasing or attempting to purchase commercial sex acts; and

(D) to educate and train law enforcement personnel in how to establish trust of persons subjected to trafficking and encourage cooperation with prosecution efforts.

(2) Definition

In this subsection, the term “related offenses” includes violations of tax laws, transacting in illegally derived proceeds, money laundering, racketeering, and other violations of criminal laws committed in connection with an act of sex trafficking or a severe form of trafficking in persons.

(b) Multi-disciplinary approach required

Grants under subsection (a) of this section may be made only for programs in which the State or local law enforcement agency works collaboratively with social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations, including organizations with experience in the delivery of services to persons who are the subject of trafficking in persons.

(c) Limitation on Federal share

The Federal share of a grant made under this section may not exceed 75 percent of the total costs of the projects described in the application submitted.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Attorney General to carry out this section $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §204, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3571; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(5), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted “$20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011” for “$25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007”.

§14044d. Senior Policy Operating Group

Each Federal department or agency involved in grant activities related to combatting trafficking or providing services to persons subjected to trafficking inside the United States shall apprise the Senior Policy Operating Group established by section 105(f) of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7103(f)), under the procedures established by the Senior Policy Operating Group, of such activities of the department or agency to ensure that the activities are consistent with the purposes of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §206, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3571; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §233, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5074.)

References in Text

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, referred to in text, is div. A of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1466, which is classified principally to chapter 78 (§7101 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7101 of Title 22 and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–457 struck out “, as the department or agency determines appropriate,” before “apprise the Senior Policy Operating Group”.

§14044e. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Severe forms of trafficking in persons

The term “severe forms of trafficking in persons” has the meaning given the term in section 7102(8) of title 22.

(2) Sex trafficking

The term “sex trafficking” has the meaning given the term in section 7102(9) of title 22.

(3) Commercial sex act

The term “commercial sex act” has the meaning given the term in section 7102(3) of title 22.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §207, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3572.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 109–164, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3567, which enacted sections 14044 to 14044e of this title and amended sections 7103 and 7104 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

§14044f. Grants for law enforcement training programs

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Act of trafficking

The term “act of trafficking” means an act or practice described in paragraph (8) of section 7102 of title 22.

(2) Eligible entity

The term “eligible entity” means a State or a local government.

(3) State

The term “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(4) Victim of trafficking

The term “victim of trafficking” means a person subjected to an act of trafficking.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may award grants to eligible entities to provide training to State and local law enforcement personnel to identify and protect victims of trafficking.

(c) Use of funds

A grant awarded under this section shall be used to—

(1) train law enforcement personnel to identify and protect victims of trafficking, including training such personnel to utilize Federal, State, or local resources to assist victims of trafficking;

(2) train law enforcement or State or local prosecutors to identify, investigate, or prosecute acts of trafficking; or

(3) train law enforcement or State or local prosecutors to utilize laws that prohibit acts of trafficking and to assist in the development of State and local laws to prohibit acts of trafficking.

(d) Restrictions

(1) Administrative expenses

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section may use not more than 5 percent of the total amount of such grant for administrative expenses.

(2) Nonexclusivity

Nothing in this section may be construed to restrict the ability of an eligible entity to apply for or obtain funding from any other source to carry out the training described in subsection (c) of this section.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §111, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Part P—Miscellaneous Authorities

§14045. Grants for outreach to underserved populations

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

From amounts made available to carry out this section, the Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, shall award grants to eligible entities described in subsection (b) of this section to carry out local, regional, or national public information campaigns focused on addressing adult, youth, or minor domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or trafficking within tribal and underserved populations and immigrant communities, including information on services available to victims and ways to prevent or reduce domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(2) Term

The Attorney General shall award grants under this section for a period of 1 fiscal year.

(b) Eligible entities

Eligible entities under this section are—

(1) nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations or coalitions that represent the targeted tribal and underserved populations or immigrant community that—

(A) have a documented history of creating and administering effective public awareness campaigns addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or

(B) work in partnership with an organization that has a documented history of creating and administering effective public awareness campaigns addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or


(2) a governmental entity that demonstrates a partnership with organizations described in paragraph (1).

(c) Allocation of funds

Of the amounts appropriated for grants under this section—

(1) not more than 20 percent shall be used for national model campaign materials targeted to specific tribal and underserved populations or immigrant community, including American Indian tribes and Alaskan native villages for the purposes of research, testing, message development, and preparation of materials; and

(2) the balance shall be used for not less than 10 State, regional, territorial, tribal, or local campaigns targeting specific communities with information and materials developed through the national campaign or, if appropriate, new materials to reach an underserved population or a particularly isolated community.

(d) Use of funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall be used to conduct a public information campaign and build the capacity and develop leadership of racial, ethnic populations, or immigrant community members to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(e) Application

An eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women at such time, in such form, and in such manner as the Director may prescribe.

(f) Criteria

In awarding grants under this section, the Attorney General shall ensure—

(1) reasonable distribution among eligible grantees representing various underserved and immigrant communities;

(2) reasonable distribution among State, regional, territorial, tribal, and local campaigns; and

(3) that not more than 8 percent of the total amount appropriated under this section for each fiscal year is set aside for training, technical assistance, and data collection.

(g) Reports

Each eligible entity receiving a grant under this section shall submit to the Director of the Office of Violence Against Women a report that describes the activities carried out with grant funds.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011.

(i) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section the definitions and grant conditions in section 13925 of this title shall apply.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §120, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(c)(2), 2(h), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 750, 752.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(h), struck out “, every 18 months,” after “Office of Violence Against Women”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(c)(2), added subsec. (i).

§14045a. Enhancing culturally and linguistically specific services for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

Of the amounts appropriated under certain grant programs identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this Section,1 the Attorney General, through the Director of the Violence Against Women Office (referred to in this section as the “Director”), shall take 5 percent of such appropriated amounts and combine them to establish a new grant program to enhance culturally and linguistically specific services for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Grants made under this new program shall be administered by the Director. The requirements of the grant programs identified in paragraph (2) shall not apply to this new grant program.

(2) Programs covered

The programs covered by paragraph (1) are the programs carried out under the following provisions:

(A) Section 3796hh 2 of this title, Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies.

(B) Section 3796gg–6 of this title, Legal Assistance for Victims.

(C) Section 13971 of this title, Rural Domestic Violence and Child Abuser Enforcement Assistance.

(D) Section XXX 3 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. XXX 3), Older Battered Women.

(E) Section XXX 3 of the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. XXX 3), Disabled Women Program.3

(b) Purpose of program and grants

(1) General program purpose

The purpose of the program required by this section is to promote:

(A) The maintenance and replication of existing successful services in domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking community-based programs providing culturally and linguistically specific services and other resources.

(B) The development of innovative culturally and linguistically specific strategies and projects to enhance access to services and resources for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who face obstacles to using more traditional services and resources.

(2) Purposes for which grants may be used

The Director shall make grants to community-based programs for the purpose of enhancing culturally and linguistically specific services for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Grants under the program shall support community-based efforts to address distinctive cultural and linguistic responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including—

(A) working with State and local governments and social service agencies to develop and enhance effective strategies to provide culturally and linguistically specific services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(B) increasing communities’ capacity to provide culturally and linguistically specific resources and support for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking crimes and their families;

(C) strengthening criminal justice interventions, by providing training for law enforcement, prosecution, courts, probation, and correctional facilities on culturally and linguistically specific responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(D) enhancing traditional services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking through the leadership of culturally and linguistically specific programs offering services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(E) working in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies highlighting culturally and linguistically specific issues and resources regarding victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(F) providing culturally and linguistically specific programs for children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(G) providing culturally and linguistically specific resources and services that address the safety, economic, housing, and workplace needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including emergency assistance; or

(H) examining the dynamics of culture and its impact on victimization and healing.

(3) Technical assistance and training

The Director shall provide technical assistance and training to grantees of this and other programs under this Act regarding the development and provision of effective culturally and linguistically specific community-based services by entering into cooperative agreements or contracts with an organization or organizations having a demonstrated expertise in and whose primary purpose is addressing the development and provision of culturally and linguistically specific community-based services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(c) Eligible entities

Eligible entities for grants under this Section 1 include—

(1) community-based programs whose primary purpose is providing culturally and linguistically specific services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(2) community-based programs whose primary purpose is providing culturally and linguistically specific services who can partner with a program having demonstrated expertise in serving victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(d) Reporting

The Director shall issue a biennial report on the distribution of funding under this section, the progress made in replicating and supporting increased services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who face obstacles to using more traditional services and resources, and the types of culturally and linguistically accessible programs, strategies, technical assistance, and training developed or enhanced through this program.

(e) Grant period

The Director shall award grants for a 2-year period, with a possible extension of another 2 years to implement projects under the grant.

(f) Evaluation

The Director shall award a contract or cooperative agreement to evaluate programs under this section to an entity with the demonstrated expertise in and primary goal of providing enhanced cultural and linguistic access to services and resources for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who face obstacles to using more traditional services and resources.

(g) Non-exclusivity

Nothing in this Section 1 shall be interpreted to exclude linguistic and culturally specific community-based programs from applying to other grant programs authorized under this Act.

(h) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section the definitions and grant conditions in section 13925 of this title shall apply.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §121, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2991; Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(c)(3), 2(k), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 753.)

References in Text

Section 3796hh of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), was in the original “Section 2101 (42 U.S.C. 3796hh)”, which was translated as meaning “Section 2101 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (g), is Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960, known as the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(k)(1), inserted “The requirements of the grant programs identified in paragraph (2) shall not apply to this new grant program.” at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(k)(2), which directed substituting “, including—” and subpars. (A) to (H) for the period, was executed by making the substitution for the period at the end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(c)(3), added subsec. (h).

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 3793 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original.

§14045b. Grants to combat violent crimes on campuses

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General is authorized to make grants to institutions of higher education, for use by such institutions or consortia consisting of campus personnel, student organizations, campus administrators, security personnel, and regional crisis centers affiliated with the institution, to develop and strengthen effective security and investigation strategies to combat domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on campuses, and to develop and strengthen victim services in cases involving such crimes against women on campuses, which may include partnerships with local criminal justice authorities and community-based victim services agencies.

(2) Award basis

The Attorney General shall award grants and contracts under this section on a competitive basis for a period of 3 years. The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, shall award the grants in amounts of not more than $500,000 for individual institutions of higher education and not more than $1,000,000 for consortia of such institutions.

(3) Equitable participation

The Attorney General shall make every effort to ensure—

(A) the equitable participation of private and public institutions of higher education in the activities assisted under this section;

(B) the equitable geographic distribution of grants under this section among the various regions of the United States; and

(C) the equitable distribution of grants under this section to tribal colleges and universities and traditionally black colleges and universities.

(b) Use of grant funds

Grant funds awarded under this section may be used for the following purposes:

(1) To provide personnel, training, technical assistance, data collection, and other equipment with respect to the increased apprehension, investigation, and adjudication of persons committing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on campus.

(2) To develop and implement campus policies, protocols, and services that more effectively identify and respond to the crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault and stalking, and to train campus administrators, campus security personnel, and personnel serving on campus disciplinary or judicial boards on such policies, protocols, and services. Within 90 days after January 5, 2006, the Attorney General shall issue and make available minimum standards of training relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on campus, for all campus security personnel and personnel serving on campus disciplinary or judicial boards.

(3) To implement and operate education programs for the prevention of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(4) To develop, enlarge, or strengthen victim services programs on the campuses of the institutions involved, including programs providing legal, medical, or psychological counseling, for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, and to improve delivery of victim assistance on campus. To the extent practicable, such an institution shall collaborate with any entities carrying out nonprofit and other victim services programs, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim services programs in the community in which the institution is located. If appropriate victim services programs are not available in the community or are not accessible to students, the institution shall, to the extent practicable, provide a victim services program on campus or create a victim services program in collaboration with a community-based organization. The institution shall use not less than 20 percent of the funds made available through the grant for a victim services program provided in accordance with this paragraph.

(5) To create, disseminate, or otherwise provide assistance and information about victims’ options on and off campus to bring disciplinary or other legal action, including assistance to victims in immigration matters.

(6) To develop, install, or expand data collection and communication systems, including computerized systems, linking campus security to the local law enforcement for the purpose of identifying and tracking arrests, protection orders, violations of protection orders, prosecutions, and convictions with respect to the crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on campus.

(7) To provide capital improvements (including improved lighting and communications facilities but not including the construction of buildings) on campuses to address the crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(8) To support improved coordination among campus administrators, campus security personnel, and local law enforcement to reduce domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking on campus.

(c) Applications

(1) In general

In order to be eligible to be awarded a grant under this section for any fiscal year, an institution of higher education shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time and in such manner as the Attorney General shall prescribe.

(2) Contents

Each application submitted under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) describe the need for grant funds and the plan for implementation for any of the purposes described in subsection (b) of this section;

(B) include proof that the institution of higher education collaborated with any non-profit, nongovernmental entities carrying out other victim services programs, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim services programs in the community in which the institution is located;

(C) describe the characteristics of the population being served, including type of campus, demographics of the population, and number of students;

(D) provide measurable goals and expected results from the use of the grant funds;

(E) provide assurances that the Federal funds made available under this section shall be used to supplement and, to the extent practical, increase the level of funds that would, in the absence of Federal funds, be made available by the institution for the purposes described in subsection (b) of this section; and

(F) include such other information and assurances as the Attorney General reasonably determines to be necessary.

(3) Compliance with campus crime reporting required

No institution of higher education shall be eligible for a grant under this section unless such institution is in compliance with the requirements of section 1092(f) of title 20. Up to $200,000 of the total amount of grant funds appropriated under this section for fiscal years 2007 through 2011 may be used to provide technical assistance in complying with the mandatory reporting requirements of section 1092(f) of title 20.

(d) General terms and conditions

(1) Nonmonetary assistance

In addition to the assistance provided under this section, the Attorney General may request any Federal agency to use the agency's authorities and the resources granted to the agency under Federal law (including personnel, equipment, supplies, facilities, and managerial, technical, and advisory services) in support of campus security, and investigation and victim service efforts.

(2) Grantee reporting

(A) Annual report

Each institution of higher education receiving a grant under this section shall submit a performance report to the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall suspend funding under this section for an institution of higher education if the institution fails to submit such a report.

(B) Final report

Upon completion of the grant period under this section, the institution shall file a performance report with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Education explaining the activities carried out under this section together with an assessment of the effectiveness of those activities in achieving the purposes described in subsection (b) of this section.

(3) Report to Congress

Not later than 180 days after the end of the fiscal year for which grants are awarded under this section, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report that includes—

(A) the number of grants, and the amount of funds, distributed under this section;

(B) a summary of the purposes for which the grants were provided and an evaluation of the progress made under the grant;

(C) a statistical summary of the persons served, detailing the nature of victimization, and providing data on age, sex, race, ethnicity, language, disability, relationship to offender, geographic distribution, and type of campus; and

(D) an evaluation of the effectiveness of programs funded under this part.1

(e) Authorization of appropriations

For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 and $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2011.

(f) Omitted

(g) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section the definitions and grant conditions in section 13925 of this title shall apply.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §304, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3013; Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(c)(1), 4(b), (d), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 750, 758.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(D), appearing in the original is unidentifiable because title III of Pub. L. 109–162 does not contain parts.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 304 of Pub. L. 109–162. Subsec. (f) of section 304 of Pub. L. 109–162 repealed section 1152 of Title 20, Education.

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–271, §4(b), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as follows: “To train campus administrators, campus security personnel, and personnel serving on campus disciplinary or judicial boards to develop and implement campus policies, protocols, and services that more effectively identify and respond to the crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, §4(d), struck out “biennial” before “performance report”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(c)(1), added subsec. (g).

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 3793 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§14045c. Public awareness campaign

(a) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Office on Violence Against Women],1 shall make grants to States for carrying out a campaign to increase public awareness of issues regarding domestic violence against pregnant women.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §403, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3023.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

1 So in original. Bracket probably should not appear.

§14045d. Consultation

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall conduct annual consultations with Indian tribal governments concerning the Federal administration of tribal funds and programs established under this Act, the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (title IV of Public Law 103–322; 108 Stat. 1902) and the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (division B of Public Law 106–386; 114 Stat. 1491).

(b) Recommendations

During consultations under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General shall solicit recommendations from Indian tribes concerning—

(1) administering tribal funds and programs;

(2) enhancing the safety of Indian women from domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(3) strengthening the Federal response to such violent crimes.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title IX, §903, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3078.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960, known as the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (a), is title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (a), is div. B of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 13701 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.