[Federal Register Volume 71, Number 176 (Tuesday, September 12, 2006)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 53755-53835]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 06-7375]



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Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service



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50 CFR Part 17



Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants--Proposed Critical 
Habitat Designations; Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 176 / Tuesday, September 12, 2006 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native 
Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or 
Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual 
Description of Progress on Listing Actions

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of review.

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SUMMARY: In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and 
animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates 
or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended. Identification of candidate species can assist environmental 
planning efforts by providing advance notice of potential listings, 
allowing landowners and resource managers to alleviate threats and 
thereby possibly remove the need to list species as endangered or 
threatened. Even if we subsequently list a candidate species, the early 
notice provided here could result in more options for species 
management and recovery by prompting candidate conservation measures to 
alleviate threats to the species.
    The CNOR summarizes the status and threats that we evaluated in 
order to determine that species qualify as candidates and to assign a 
listing priority number to each species, or to remove species from 
candidate status. Additional material that we relied on is available in 
the Species Assessment and Listing Priority Assignment Forms (species 
assessment forms, previously called candidate forms) for each candidate 
species.
    Overall, this CNOR recognizes 7 new candidates, changes the listing 
priority number for 24 candidates, and removes 10 species from 
candidate status. Combined with other decisions for individual species 
that were published separately from this CNOR, the new number of 
species that are candidates for listing is 279.
    We request additional status information that may be available for 
the 279 candidate species identified in this CNOR. We will consider 
this information in preparing listing documents and future revisions to 
the notice of review, as it will help us in monitoring changes in the 
status of candidate species and in management for conserving them. We 
also request information on additional species that we should consider 
including as candidates as we prepare future updates of this notice.
    This document also includes our findings on resubmitted petitions 
and describes our progress in revising the Lists of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife and Plants during the period May 2, 2005, through 
August 23, 2006.

DATES: We will accept comments on the Candidate Notice of Review at any 
time.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments regarding a particular species to the 
Regional Director of the Region identified in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION 
as having the lead responsibility for that species. You may submit 
comments of a more general nature to the Chief, Division of 
Conservation and Classification, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 
N. Fairfax Drive, Room 420, Arlington, VA 22203 (703/358-2171). Written 
comments and materials received in response to this notice will be 
available for public inspection by appointment at the Division of 
Conservation and Classification (for comments of a general nature only) 
or at the appropriate Regional Office listed in SUPPLEMENTARY 
INFORMATION.
    Species assessment forms with information and references on a 
particular candidate species' range, status, habitat needs, and listing 
priority assignment are available for review at the appropriate 
Regional Office listed below in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION or at the 
Division of Conservation and Classification, Arlington, Virginia (see 
address above), or on our Internet Web site (http://endangered.fws.gov/candidates/index.html).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Endangered Species Coordinator(s) 
in the appropriate Regional Office(s) or Chris Nolin, Chief, Division 
of Conservation and Classification (703-358-2171).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Candidate Notice of Review

Background

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et 
seq.) (Act), requires that we identify species of wildlife and plants 
that are endangered or threatened, based on the best available 
scientific and commercial information. As defined in section 3 of the 
Act, an endangered species is any species which is in danger of 
extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and a 
threatened species is any species which is likely to become an 
endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. Through the Federal rulemaking 
process, we add species that meet these definitions to the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife at 50 CFR 17.11 or the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Plants at 50 CFR 17.12. As part of this 
program, we maintain a list of species that we regard as candidates for 
listing. A candidate species is one for which we have on file 
sufficient information on biological vulnerability and threats to 
support a proposal to list as endangered or threatened, but for which 
preparation and publication of a proposal is precluded by higher-
priority listing actions.
    We maintain this list of candidates for a variety of reasons: To 
notify the public that these species are facing threats to their 
survival; to provide advance knowledge of potential listings that could 
affect decisions of environmental planners and developers; to provide 
information that may stimulate and guide conservation efforts that will 
remove or reduce threats to these species and possibly make listing 
unnecessary; to solicit input from interested parties to help us 
identify those candidate species that may not require protection under 
the Act or additional species that may require the Act's protections; 
and to solicit necessary information for setting priorities for 
preparing listing proposals. We strongly encourage collaborative 
conservation efforts for candidate species and offer technical and 
financial assistance to facilitate such efforts. For additional 
information regarding such assistance, please contact the appropriate 
Regional Office listed in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION or visit our 
Internet Web site, http://endangered.fws.gov/candidates/index.html.

Previous Notices of Review

    The Act directed the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution to 
prepare a report on endangered and threatened plant species, which was 
published as House Document No. 94-51. We published a notice in the 
Federal Register on July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27823), in which we announced 
we would review more than 3,000 native plant species named in the 
Smithsonian's report and other species added by the 1975 notice for 
possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants, 
referring to them as species considered to be candidate endangered

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or threatened species. We published a new comprehensive notice of 
review for native plants on December 15, 1980 (45 FR 82479), which took 
into account the earlier Smithsonian report and other accumulated 
information. On November 28, 1983 (48 FR 53640), our supplemental plant 
notice of review announced changes in the status of various species. We 
published complete updates of the plant notice on September 27, 1985 
(50 FR 39526); February 21, 1990 (55 FR 6184); September 30, 1993 (58 
FR 51144); and, as part of combined animal and plant notices, on 
February 28, 1996 (61 FR 7596); September 19, 1997 (62 FR 49398); 
October 25, 1999 (64 FR 57534); October 30, 2001 (66 FR 54808); June 
13, 2002 (67 FR 40657); May 4, 2004 (69 FR 24876); and May 11, 2005 (70 
FR 24870). Additionally, on January 8, 2001 (66 FR 1295), we published 
our resubmitted petition finding for one plant species having an 
outstanding ``warranted-but-precluded finding'' on a petition to list.
    We published earlier comprehensive reviews for vertebrate animals 
in the Federal Register on December 30, 1982 (47 FR 58454), and on 
September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37958). We published an initial comprehensive 
review for invertebrate animals on May 22, 1984 (49 FR 21664). We 
published a combined (i.e. vertebrate and invertebrate) animal notice 
of review on January 6, 1989 (54 FR 554), with minor corrections on 
August 10, 1989 (54 FR 32833). We again published comprehensive animal 
notices on November 21, 1991 (56 FR 58804) and November 15, 1994 (59 FR 
58982). Beginning in 1996 we published combined animal and plant 
notices, including those published on February 28, 1996 (61 FR 7596); 
September 19, 1997 (62 FR 49398); October 25, 1999 (64 FR 57534); 
October 30, 2001 (66 FR 54808); June 13, 2002 (67 FR 40657); May 4, 
2004 (69 FR 24876); and May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24870). Additionally, on 
January 8, 2001 (66 FR 1295), we published our resubmitted petition 
findings for 25 animal species having outstanding ``warranted-but-
precluded'' petition findings as well as notice of one candidate 
removal.
    On September 21, 1983, we published guidance for assigning a 
listing priority number (LPN) for each candidate species (48 FR 43098). 
We continue to use this guidance to assign each candidate a LPN of 1 to 
12, depending on the magnitude of threats, imminence of threats, and 
taxonomic status. Such a priority ranking guidance system is required 
under section 4(h)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1533(h)(3)).
    This revised notice supersedes all previous animal, plant, and 
combined notices of review.

Summary of This CNOR

    Since publication of the 2004 CNOR on May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24870), 
we reviewed the available information on candidate species to ensure 
that a proposed listing is justified for each species and reevaluated 
the relative listing priority number assigned to each species. We also 
evaluated the need to emergency-list any of these species, particularly 
species with high priorities (i.e. species with listing priority 
numbers of 1, 2, or 3). This review and reevaluation ensures that we 
focus conservation efforts on those species at greatest risk. In 
addition to reviewing candidate species, the Service has worked on 
numerous findings in response to petitions to list species and has 
prepared proposed and final determinations for rules to list species 
under the Act; some of these findings and determinations have been 
completed and published in the Federal Register while work on others is 
still underway (see Preclusion and Expeditious Progress, below, for 
details). Since publication of the CNOR last year the Service has 
completed and published final rules listing 2 species as endangered and 
17 species as threatened; reviewed the status of and published findings 
that listing proposals are not warranted for 4 species; and published 
proposed rules for listing for 3 species for which final determinations 
are pending.
    Based on our review of the best available scientific and commercial 
information, this CNOR identifies 7 new candidate species (see New 
Candidates, below), changes the listing priority number for 24 
candidates (see Listing Priority Changes in Candidates, below) and 
determined that listing proposals are not warranted for an additional 
10 species and thus have removed them from candidate status (see 
Candidate Removals, below). Combined with the other decisions published 
separately from this CNOR for individual species that previously were 
candidates, a total of 279 species, including 140 plant and 139 animal 
species, are now candidates awaiting preparation of rules proposing 
their listing. These 279 species, along with the 3 species currently 
proposed for listing, are included in Table 1.
    Table 2 includes 33 species identified in the previous CNOR as 
either proposed for listing or classified as candidates that are no 
longer in those categories. This includes the 19 species we listed as 
threatened or endangered since the previous CNOR and the 4 species for 
which we published separate findings that listing is not warranted, 
plus the 10 species that we have determined do not warrant preparation 
of a rule to propose listing and therefore have removed from candidate 
status in this CNOR.

New Candidates

    Below we present brief summaries of seven new candidates that we 
are recognizing in this CNOR, including one species of mammal, one 
bird, two snails, two insects, and one plant. Complete information, 
including references, can be found in the species assessment forms. You 
may obtain a copy of these forms from the Regional Office having the 
lead for the species, or from our Internet Web site (http://endangered.fws.gov/candidates/index.html). For each of these seven 
species, we find that we have on file sufficient information on 
biological vulnerability and threats to support a proposal to list as 
endangered or threatened, but that preparation and publication of a 
proposal is precluded by higher-priority listing actions (i.e. these 
meet our definition of a candidate species). Two of these seven species 
were petitioned for listing, and for those two species this constitutes 
our finding, as required pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(B)(iii) of the 
Act, that the immediate issuance of a proposed rule and timely 
promulgation of a final rule for each of these species has been, for 
the preceding months, and continues to be, precluded by higher priority 
listing actions, and that expeditious progress is being made to add 
qualified species to the lists of threatened and endangered species and 
to remove from such lists species for which the protections of the Act 
are no longer necessary. (Additional information is provided in the 
sections entitled Petition Findings and Preclusion and Expeditious 
Progress, below). We also note below that one other species, a fish, 
was identified as a candidate earlier this year in a separate finding 
published in the Federal Register.

Mammals

    New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files and information 
collected during the public comment period on our 90-day petition 
finding. On August 30, 2000, we received a petition to list this 
species. We published our 90-day finding on June 30, 2004 (69 FR 
39395).
    The New England cottontail (NEC) is a medium- to large-sized 
cottontail rabbit that may reach 1,000 grams in weight, and is one of 
two species within

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the genus Sylvilagus occurring in New England. New England cottontails 
are considered habitat specialists, in so far as they are dependent 
upon early-successional habitats typically described as thickets. The 
species is the only endemic cottontail in New England.
    Historically, the NEC ranged from southeastern New York (east of 
the Hudson River) north through the Champlain Valley, southern Vermont, 
the southern half of New Hampshire, southern Maine, and south 
throughout Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. The species is 
now considered to be extirpated from Vermont, the current range 
elsewhere has declined substantially, and occurrences have become 
increasingly separated. The species' current distribution is fragmented 
into five apparently isolated metapopulations in about 14 percent of 
the species' historical range. The range has contracted from 
approximately 90,000 sq km to 12,180 sq km, and much of the suitable 
habitat within the current range is in small patches that are not 
occupied by the NEC. A multi-state, regional inventory conducted in 
2001-2004 found New England cottontails were absent from 93% of 
approximately 2,300 habitat patches within the recent historical range 
(1990 to present) that were searched for the presence of the species. 
Many of the occupied sites were quite small (3 acres or less) and are 
considered by some researchers to be population ``sinks.'' It is 
estimated that less than one-third of the occupied sites occur on lands 
in conservation status, and fewer than 10 percent of these sites in 
conservation status are being managed for early successional forest 
species such as the NEC.
    The primary threat to the New England cottontail is ongoing 
destruction and modification of its remaining habitat through natural 
succession processes and through alteration related to human 
development and other activities. Isolation of occupied patches of 
habitat by areas of unsuitable habitat, as well as predation, appears 
to be resulting in local extirpation of New England cottontails from 
small patches. Based on current land uses in the region, the loss of 
about 2 percent of its current range per year is expected to continue. 
Additional threats include competition for food and habitat with 
introduced eastern cottontails and large numbers of native white-tailed 
deer, and inadequate regulatory mechanisms in effect to protect the 
habitat. Based on threats of high magnitude that are imminent, we 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 2. (See also the 
section entitled Petition Findings, below)

Birds

    Red knot (Calidris canutus rufa)--The following summary is based on 
information from our files and information provided by petitioners. We 
received one petition on August 9, 2004, and two others were each 
received on August 5, 2005.
    The rufa subspecies is one of six recognized subspecies of red knot 
and one of three subspecies occurring in North America (hereafter all 
mention of red knot refers strictly to the rufa subspecies). This 
subspecies makes one of the longest distance migrations known in the 
animal kingdom as it travels between breeding areas in the central 
Canadian Arctic and wintering areas that are primarily in southern 
South America along the coast of Chile and Argentina. They migrate 
along the Atlantic coast of the United States (U.S.), where they may be 
found from Maine to Florida. The Delaware Bay area (in Delaware and New 
Jersey) is the largest known spring migration stopover area, with far 
fewer migrants congregating elsewhere along the Atlantic coast. The 
concentration in the Delaware Bay area occurs from the middle of May to 
early June, corresponding to the spawning season of horseshoe crabs. 
The knots feed on horseshoe crab eggs, rebuilding energy reserves 
needed to complete migration to the Arctic and arrive on the breeding 
grounds in good condition.
    Surveys at wintering areas and at Delaware Bay during spring 
migration indicate a substantial decline in recent years. At the 
Delaware Bay area, peak counts between 1982 and 1998 were as high as 
95,360 knots. Although counts may vary considerably between years, some 
of the population fluctuations can be attributed to predator-prey 
cycles in the breeding grounds, and counts show that knots rebound from 
such reductions. In the past, horseshoe crab eggs were so numerous that 
a knot could eat enough in two to three weeks to double its weight. 
Research shows that from 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of red 
knots leaving the Delaware Bay failed to achieve threshold departure 
masses needed to fly to breeding grounds and survive an initial few 
days of snow cover, and this corresponded to reduced annual survival 
rates. Recently, peak counts at the Delaware Bay area have been lower 
than in the past and do not show a rebound. The peaks were 13,315 in 
2004, 15,345 in 2005, and 13,455 in 2006. Counts in recent years at the 
principal wintering areas in South America also are substantially lower 
than in the past and do not show a rebound.
    The primary factor threatening the red knot is destruction and 
modification of its habitat, particularly the reduction in key food 
resources resulting from reductions in horseshoe crabs, which are 
harvested primarily for use as bait and secondarily to support a 
biomedical industry. Commercial harvest increased substantially in the 
1990's. Since 1999, a series of timing restrictions and substantially 
lower harvest quotas have been adopted by the Atlantic States Marine 
Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), as well as New Jersey and Delaware. In 
May 2006, the ASMFC adopted restrictions effective from October 1, 2006 
to September 30, 2008, including a prohibition on harvest and landing 
of horseshoe crabs in New Jersey and Delaware from January 1 through 
June 7, harvest of males only from June 8 through December 31, and 
harvest limited to no more than 100,000 horseshoe crabs per state per 
year. The ASMFC also adopted other restrictions applicable to Maryland 
and Virginia. New Jersey has established restrictions which supersede 
those of the ASMFC; as a result there is a moratorium on all horseshoe 
crab harvest in New Jersey from May 15, 2006 through June 7, 2008, 
after which the restrictions adopted by ASMFC apply.
    The reductions in commercial harvest since 1999 are substantial: 
726,660 horseshoe crab landings for bait were reported in 1999 in 
Delaware and New Jersey, compared to 173,777 in 2004. However, we do 
not know whether horseshoe crab populations will rebuild or how long a 
lag time there may be in increased availability of eggs, as they need 
8-10 years to reach sexual maturity and other key information for 
estimating population response is lacking. A survey in Delaware Bay 
showed spawning activity was stable or slightly declining from 1999 to 
2004. In 2004, availability of horseshoe crab eggs on principal 
shorebird foraging beaches increased over recent years. The peak number 
of migrant red knots observed at Delaware Bay increased slightly in 
2005 compared to 2004, and in 2006 the peak count was similar to that 
in 2004. Also, body weights of red knots at the time of departure from 
Delaware Bay improved in 2005 over previous years. Counts of red knots 
at key wintering areas in South America, although much reduced from the 
past, were similar in 2006 to the counts in 2005. Thus in recent years 
the number of knots has been much lower than in the past and the trend 
in the abundance is not improving despite

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a four-fold reduction in horseshoe crab landings since the late 1990's.
    Other identified threat factors include habitat destruction due to 
beach erosion and various shoreline protection and stabilization 
projects that are impacting areas used by migrating knots for foraging, 
the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms, human disturbance, 
and competition with other species for limited food resources. Also, 
the concentration of red knots in the Delaware Bay area and at a 
relatively small number of wintering areas make the species vulnerable 
to potential large-scale events in those areas such as large oil spills 
or severe weather.
    Overall, we conclude that the threats, in particular the 
modification of habitat through harvesting of horseshoe crabs to such 
an extent that it puts the viability of the knot at substantial risk, 
are of a high magnitude, but are nonimminent because of reductions and 
restrictions on harvesting horseshoe crabs. Accordingly, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 6 to this subspecies. (See also the section 
entitled Petition Findings, below)

Fish

    Headwater chub (Gila nigra)--We previously announced candidate 
status for this species in a separate warranted-but-precluded 12-month 
petition finding, published on May 3, 2006 (71 FR 26007).

Snails

    Black mudalia (Elimia melanoides)--The following summary is based 
on information in our files. The historical and current range of the 
black mudalia, an aquatic snail, is in Alabama. The historical range 
included much of the upper half of the Black Warrior River drainage, 
including the main stem Black Warrior above Tuscaloosa, as well as the 
Sipsey Fork and Locust Fork. The black mudalia is currently known from 
five localized shoals in an approximately 30-mile reach of the upper 
Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, and from two shoals in a 1-mile 
reach of the Blackburn Fork of the Little Warrior River, a tributary of 
the Locust Fork. The black mudalia requires flowing water, and the 
construction of two major dams on the main stem Black Warrior River 
above the Fall Line (Oliver Lock and Dam, 1940; Holt Dam, 1966) and 
another dam on the lower Sipsey Fork (Bankhead Dam, 1975), impounded 
much of the species' historical habitat. Dams eliminate or reduce 
currents within impounded areas, allowing sediments to accumulate on 
inundated channel habitats. Impounded waters also experience changes in 
water chemistry that can affect survival or reproduction of black 
mudalia.
    The primary threats to the black mudalia in the areas it currently 
occupies involve habitat destruction and modification, particularly in 
relation to poor water quality and habitat deterioration. Point-source 
discharges and surface runoff cause nutrification, decreased dissolved 
oxygen concentration, increased acidity and conductivity, and other 
changes in water chemistry which are likely to seriously affect aquatic 
snails. Pollution from surface runoff can originate from a wide array 
of land use activities, and may include sediments, fertilizers, 
herbicides, pesticides, animal wastes, septic tank and gray water 
leakage, and oils and greases. Land uses in the vicinity of black 
mudalia populations include pasture, row crops, timber production, and 
chicken farms. Because the threats to black mudalia are of a high 
magnitude and are imminent, we assigned a listing priority of 2 to this 
species.
    Rough hornsnail (Pleurocera foremani)--The following summary is 
based on information in our files. The rough hornsnail is an aquatic 
snail endemic to the Coosa River system in Alabama. It currently is 
known to occur at two locations: The lower Yellowleaf Creek in Shelby 
County, and the lower Coosa River below Wetumpka Shoals in Elmore 
County. Searches of historical habitats in the Coosa River and its 
tributaries have failed to locate the species at other localities. The 
two surviving populations are extremely small and localized. The 
historical habitats of the rough hornsnail have been extensively 
modified by six large dams constructed for hydropower production. Dams 
eliminate or reduce currents within impounded areas, allowing sediments 
to accumulate on inundated channel habitats. Impounded waters also 
experience changes in water chemistry that can affect survival or 
reproduction of pleurocerid snails. Currently, the primary threat to 
the rough hornsnail is habitat destruction and modification related to 
poor water quality and habitat deterioration that result from point 
source discharges and/or surface runoff. These actions cause 
nutrification, decreased dissolved oxygen concentration, increased 
acidity and conductivity, and other changes in water chemistry that can 
seriously affect aquatic snails. Both populations of the rough 
hornsnail are in areas currently experiencing high human population 
growth and development. Because the threats are ongoing and are of a 
high magnitude, we assigned the rough hornsnail a listing priority of 
2.

Insects

    Florida leafwing butterfly (Anaea troglodyta floridalis)--The 
Florida leafwing is endemic to south Florida and the Keys; it occurs 
only within pine rocklands that retain its sole hostplant, pineland 
croton (Croton linearis). Once locally common within the formerly 
widespread pine rockland habitat that occurred within Miami-Dade and 
Monroe Counties and less common and sporadic within Collier, Martin, 
Palm Beach, and Broward Counties, the leafwing now has small and 
isolated populations at only two locations: On Big Pine Key in the 
lower Florida Keys, and Long Pine Key on the Florida mainland. On Big 
Pine Key, the butterfly and its habitat occur on National Key Deer 
Refuge (NKDR) and also on other scattered private and public lands 
within the vicinity of NKDR. On the Florida mainland, the population on 
Long Pine Key is within Everglades National Park (ENP). Pine rockland 
fragments on the mainland near or adjacent to ENP may still retain the 
potential to support some small, localized, and sporadic populations of 
the butterfly, but no Florida leafwings have been documented as 
occurring in such areas outside ENP for the last several years.
    Land developments of various types have greatly reduced pinelands 
in Florida. Within the Keys, pinelands containing the pineland croton 
hostplant now occur only on Big Pine Key, with an estimated 80 hectares 
(ha) (198 acres) within NKDR and small, scattered relict sites 
elsewhere. On the mainland, an estimated 1,068 ha (2,638 acres) of 
appropriate hostplant-bearing habitat occur within ENP on Long Pine 
Key; outside that area, in Miami-Dade County, scattered fragments of 
pine rockland containing pineland croton occur in fragments that 
collectively total approximately 370 (ha) (916 acres), roughly half of 
which are in private ownership. Collectively, the Big Pine Key, Long 
Pine Key, and relict pine rocklands adjacent to ENP presently support 
an estimated total of 100-800 adult Florida leafwing butterflies at any 
given time.
    The Florida leafwing is vulnerable to impacts that probably did not 
pose significant risks to its continued existence in the past, when 
suitable habitat and the species were much more abundant and 
widespread. Habitat destruction and modification is a continuing 
problem on public and private lands. This includes habitat loss due to 
unnatural or altered fire regimes. Natural fires are important in 
maintaining the herbaceous layer of

[[Page 53760]]

pine rocklands, of which the butterfly's sole hostplant, pineland 
croton, is a part. Without these fires, succession from pinelands to 
hardwood hammocks is rapid, with loss of suitable habitat for the 
Florida leafwing. Due to the proximity of remaining pine rockland 
habitat to urban areas in southern Florida and the Keys, most natural 
fires have been and are suppressed, often replaced by inconsistent 
regimes of managed or prescribed fires that do not necessarily result 
in habitat conditions suitable for the Florida leafwing. Prescribed 
burning occurs on portions of ENP on Long Pine Key, and ENP is working 
on incorporating considerations for life histories of select butterfly 
species into their management. At NKDR, private homes and light 
commercial uses are embedded within or in close proximity to the fire-
sustained pineland habitat. Thus management of pine rocklands is 
particularly difficult due to the mixed pattern of land ownership and 
development. Fire suppression to protect residential areas results in 
the invasion and replacement of native pine rockland habitat by 
hardwood hammocks, thereby causing continued loss of habitat for the 
leafwing. Survey data collected from mid-2003 through July 2006 
indicate a substantial decline in leafwing numbers on NKDR, even within 
an area where prescribed burning occurs. Outside of NKDR and ENP, much 
of the remaining suitable habitat for the Florida leafwing on private 
land is subject to destruction or modification due to the effects of 
fire suppression or due to the nature of prescribed fire activities, 
and continued economic development that results in conversion of pine 
rocklands to other uses.
    The continued existence of the Florida leafwing also is threatened 
due to other natural and human-related factors. Pesticides used in 
mosquito control practices are a major threat on Big Pine Key, where 
nearly all occupied and suitable habitat for the Florida leafwing is 
exposed to mosquito control chemicals. Studies have shown that the 
pesticides used for mosquito control at field application rates are 
extremely toxic to non-target butterflies, skippers, and moths. 
Essentially all of the pine rocklands within NKDR except one area, 
Watson's Hammock, are sprayed and residential areas and roadsides 
across Big Pine Key are treated. Also, chemical drift of pesticides has 
been found 750 meters (2,460 feet) within the borders of the no-spray 
zone on Watson's Hammock. Mosquito control poses much less of a risk to 
the leafwings in ENP, as mosquito control on Long Pine Key is limited 
to residential areas and campgrounds. Additional natural and human-
related factors include the risk of direct mortality and habitat loss 
due to extreme weather events (e.g. hurricanes, tropical storms), and 
risk of reduced genetic diversity; both of these risks are heightened 
due to the reduction of the Florida leafwing to small, isolated 
populations.
    The established interest in specimens of the leafwing and 
information requests regarding its location from collectors, 
researchers, and others suggests that collection may be occurring and 
has the potential to occur at any time. However, we do not have 
sufficient information to conclude that overutilization for commercial, 
recreational, scientific, or educational purposes is a factor that 
threatens the Florida leafwing. The principal threats to the Florida 
leafwing at this time are the destruction, modification, or curtailment 
of its habitat or range, and other natural or manmade factors affecting 
its continued existence. Based threats of high magnitude that are 
imminent, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 to the Florida 
eafwing butterfly.
    Bartram's hairstreak butterfly (Strymon acis bartrami)--The 
following summary is based on information in our files. The Bartram's 
hairstreak is a subspecies endemic to south Florida and the Keys. Like 
the Florida leafwing butterfly (described above) it occurs only within 
pine rocklands that retain its sole hostplant, pineland croton (Croton 
linearis). Once locally common within the formerly widespread pine 
rockland habitat that occurred within Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, 
and less common and sporadic within Collier, Palm Beach, and Broward 
Counties, the Bartram's hairstreak is now largely restricted to two 
locations: Big Pine Key in the Florida Keys, and Long Pine Key on the 
Florida mainland. On Big Pine Key, the butterfly and its habitat occur 
on National Key Deer Refuge and also on other scattered private and 
public lands in the vicinity of NKDR. On Long Pine Key the species is 
within Everglades National Park. Pine rockland fragments near or 
adjacent to ENP also appear to retain some small, localized, and 
sporadic populations of the butterfly. The same factors identified as 
threats to the Florida leafwing butterfly (summarized above) also 
threaten Bartram's hairstreak. Based on threats of high magnitude that 
are imminent, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 to Bartram's 
hairstreak butterfly.

Flowering Plants

    Harrisia aboriginum (Aboriginal pricklyapple)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. This cylindrical-stemmed 
cactus currently occurs in coastal strand vegetation and tropical 
coastal hammocks on coastal islands of Sarasota, Charlotte, and Lee 
Counties, Florida, from Longboat Key south to Buck Key in the J.N. 
``Ding'' Darling National Wildlife Refuge. Populations are likely to be 
on shell mounds or sites with shelly substrates; plants may be quite 
close to the mangrove zone, but not in it. This plant always had a 
restricted distribution and is now vulnerable to extinction because 
only 10 populations are remaining. Each population occurs just above 
sea level along the coast, and is threatened by the rise in sea level 
that has occurred during the past century and is continuing. Each 
population is also threatened by nonnative plant invasions and, in at 
least one case, predation by introduced iguanas. Some populations are 
on private lands, and these are all vulnerable to habitat destruction 
and/or improper management. Additionally, the proximity to the coast, 
combined with the very small number of plants in each population, makes 
the species vulnerable to hurricanes which have the potential to 
overwash islands and extirpate populations. For these reasons, the 
magnitude of threats is high. Overall, threats are nonimminent because 
public land managers have been and are continuing to address exotic 
invasive plant issues. Therefore, we assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 5.

Listing Priority Changes in Candidates

    We reviewed the listing priority number for all candidate species 
and are changing the numbers for the following species. Some of the 
changes reflect actual changes in either the magnitude or imminence of 
the threats, and in one case, reflects a change in the taxonomy of the 
species. For some species, our changes in the listing priority number 
reflect efforts to ensure national consistency as well as closer 
adherence to the 1983 guidelines in assigning these numbers, rather 
than a change in the nature of the threats.

Birds

    Friendly ground-dove, American Samoa DPS (Gallicolumba stairi 
stairi)--The following summary is based on information contained in our 
files. The genus Gallicolumba is distributed throughout the Pacific and 
Southeast Asia. The genus is represented in the

[[Page 53761]]

oceanic Pacific by six species. Three are endemic to Micronesian 
islands or archipelagos, two are endemic to island groups in French 
Polynesia, and G. stairi is endemic to Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji. All six 
species have some level of threatened status on the International Union 
for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List. Some 
authors recognize two subspecies of the friendly ground-dove, one, 
slightly smaller, in the Samoan archipelago (G. s. stairi), and one in 
Tonga and Fiji (G. s. vitiensis), but morphological differences between 
the two are minimal.
    In American Samoa, the friendly ground-dove has been found on the 
islands of Ofu and Olosega (Manua Group). Threats to this subspecies 
have not changed over the past year. Of the primary threats to the 
subspecies (predation by nonnative species, poaching, and habitat 
loss), predation by nonnative species is thought to be occurring now, 
and predation likely has been occurring for several decades. This 
predation may be an important impediment to increasing the population. 
Predation by introduced species has played a significant role in 
reducing, limiting, and extirpating populations of island birds, 
especially ground-nesters, in the Pacific and other locations 
worldwide. Nonnative predators known or thought to occur in the range 
of the friendly ground-dove in American Samoa are feral cats (Felis 
catus), Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans), black rats (R. rattus), and 
Norway rats (R. norvegicus).
    In February of 2005, a hurricane destroyed the habitat of G. stairi 
in an area on Olosega Island where the species had been most frequently 
recorded. Although this species has coexisted with severe storms for 
millennia, this example illustrates the potential for natural 
disturbance to exacerbate the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on 
small populations. Consistent monitoring using a variety of methods 
over the last 5 years yielded few observations of this taxon in 
American Samoa. The total population size is poorly known, but is 
unlikely to number more than a few hundred pairs. The distribution of 
the friendly ground-dove is limited to forested slopes with an open 
understory and a substrate of fine scree or exposed earth; this habitat 
is not common in American Samoa. We revised the listing priority number 
from a 3 to a 6 to better reflect the fact that the threats posed to 
the friendly ground-dove (its small population size and nonnative 
predators) are nonimminent but still may occur throughout its range.
    Streaked horned lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata)--The following 
information is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received December 11, 2002. 
The streaked horned lark occurs in British Columbia (Canada), 
Washington State, and Oregon. The streaked horned lark nests on the 
ground in sparsely vegetated sites in short-grass dominated habitats, 
such as native prairies, coastal dunes, fallow agricultural fields, 
lightly to moderately grazed pastures, seasonal mudflats, airports, and 
dredged-material formed islands in the Columbia River. It is 
essentially extirpated from Canada. In Washington State, surveys show 
that there are approximately 380 remaining breeding birds (Pearson and 
Altman 2005). In Oregon, the breeding population is estimated to be 
approximately 400 birds.
    The streaked horned lark's breeding habitat is threatened by loss 
and degradation due to conversion of native grasslands to other uses 
(such as agriculture, homes, recreational areas, and industry), 
encroachment of woody vegetation, and invasion of nonnative plant 
species (e.g., Scot's broom and sod-forming grasses). Native prairies 
have been nearly eliminated throughout the range of the species. It is 
estimated that less than 1 to 3 percent of the native grassland and 
savanna remains. Those that remain have been invaded by nonnative sod-
forming grasses. Coastal nesting areas have suffered the same fate. 
Wintering habitats are seemingly few, and susceptible to unpredictable 
conversion to unsuitable overwintering habitat. Where larks inhabit 
nonnative habitats similar in structure to native prairies (such as 
airports, military reservations, agricultural fields, and dredge formed 
islands), they are subjected to a variety of unintentional human 
disturbances such as mowing, recreational and military activities, 
plowing, flooding, and dredge spoil dumping during the nesting season, 
as well as intentional disturbances such as at the McChord AFB where 
falcons and dogs are used to haze the birds in order to avoid aircraft 
collisions. In some areas, landowners have taken steps to improve 
streaked horned lark nesting habitat.
    The magnitude of threat is high due to small populations with low 
genetic diversity and patchy and isolated habitats in areas desirable 
for development. The threat of invasive plant species is high and 
constant. The numbers of individuals are low and the numbers of 
populations are few. Overwintering birds are concentrated in larger 
flocks and subject to unpredictable wintering habitat loss, potentially 
affecting a large portion of the population at one time. In Washington, 
known populations occur on airports and two military bases where 
management and training activities can negatively affect streaked 
horned lark breeding. In British Columbia, the one potentially 
remaining site with breeding birds occurs at an airport. The immediacy 
of threat is imminent, due to the continued loss of suitable lark 
habitat, risks to the wintering populations, plans for development on 
and adjacent to two of its nesting areas, use of falcons and dogs to 
haze breeding birds at McChord AFB, planned expansions of the McChord 
AFB west ramp and Olympia airport, the planned addition of 130 more 
helicopters at the Gray Army Airfield, and annual Air Force military 
training and fire bombing on top of lark nesting habitat. Because of 
the increased imminence of threats, we changed the listing priority 
number for the streaked horned lark from 6 to 3.

Reptiles

    Black pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi)-- There are 
historical records for the black pine snake from one parish in 
Louisiana, 14 counties in Mississippi, and 3 counties in Alabama west 
of the Mobile River Delta. Black pine snake surveys and trapping 
indicate that this species has been extirpated from Louisiana and from 
two counties in Mississippi. Moreover, the distribution of remaining 
populations has become highly restricted due to the destruction and 
fragmentation of the remaining longleaf pine habitat within the range 
of the species. Most of the known Mississippi populations are 
concentrated on the DeSoto National Forest. Populations occurring on 
properties managed by city and State agencies as gopher tortoise 
mitigation banks or wildlife management areas represent the best 
opportunities for long-term survival of the species in Alabama. Other 
factors affecting the black pine snake include vehicular mortality and 
low reproductive rates, which magnify other threats and increase the 
likelihood of local extinctions. Due to the imminent threat of high 
magnitude caused by the past destruction of most of the longleaf pine 
habitat of the black pine snake, and the continuing persistent 
degradation of what remains, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 
to this subspecies. Although there is no actual change in threats over 
the past year, habitat loss represents an ongoing or imminent threat to 
the black pine snake. Therefore, to help ensure consistency in

[[Page 53762]]

the application of our listing priority process, we changed the listing 
priority number from a 6 to a 3 to reflect that the threats are 
imminent.
    Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)--The Louisiana pine snake 
historically occurred in fire-maintained longleaf-pine ecosystems of 
west-central Louisiana and extreme east-central Texas. Louisiana pine 
snakes are closely associated with Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys 
breviceps) and make extensive use of their burrow systems for foraging, 
nocturnal and diurnal retreats, escape from predators and fire, and 
hibernation sites. Within some of the best remaining habitat in their 
historic range, Louisiana pine snakes have not been documented in over 
a decade. Results of Louisiana pine snake trapping and radiotelemetry 
surveys suggest that extensive population declines and local 
extirpations have occurred during the last 50 to 80 years.
    Most of the historical longleaf pine habitat of the Louisiana pine 
snake has been destroyed, and the habitat quality of that which remains 
has been degraded due to logging, fire suppression, roadways, short-
rotation silviculture, and grazing. Louisiana pine snake habitat loss 
is continuing, albeit at a slower rate than in the past. The best 
remaining Louisiana pine snake habitat occurs on lands where periodic 
burning has continued. Other factors affecting Louisiana pine snakes 
include low fecundity (reproductive output), which magnifies other 
threats and increases the likelihood of local extinctions, and 
vehicular mortality, which may significantly affect Louisiana pine 
snake population and community structure.
    The Candidate Conservation Agreement for the Louisiana pine snake, 
a comprehensive and voluntary partnership encompassing all Federal 
lands where pine snake occurrences are known, was recently completed in 
order to protect known Louisiana pine snake populations and maintain 
the ecosystem upon which it depends. Several private landowners with 
known Louisiana pine snake populations are interested in joining that 
partnership or developing a similar one. The pro-active partnerships to 
address key management concerns and research needs are growing and 
these conservation efforts have reduced the magnitude of the threats 
from high to moderate. However, the primary threat from habitat loss 
continues and is, therefore, imminent. Thus, based on threats of 
moderate to low magnitude that are imminent, we have changed the 
listing priority number from a 5 to an 8.

Amphibians

    Relict leopard frog (Rana onca)--This leopard frog was considered 
extinct since the 1950s, until it was rediscovered in two relatively 
small areas in southern Nevada and a spring in extreme northwestern 
Arizona. We estimate that the current distribution of the species is 10 
to 20 percent of its historical distribution. Habitat conversion to 
agriculture, water diversions, habitat fragmentation such as 
construction of Hoover Dam and creation of Lake Mead and Lake Mojave, 
and introduction and establishment of nonnative predators and 
competitors are believed to be the primary causes of historical 
population declines and reduction in the range and distribution of the 
frog. Currently, the primary threats are low numbers of individuals and 
populations, nonnative predators and competitors, and the potential for 
water diversion or ground water pumping. A conservation agreement and 
strategy completed in 2005 will serve as the management plan for the 
species. As prescribed in the agreement and strategy, annual work plans 
will be developed and implemented to monitor threats and the status of 
the species as well as accomplish conservation actions for the species. 
The magnitude of existing threats is moderate, which we lowered from 
the previous determination of high magnitude in 2005. This change in 
magnitude is largely based on successful captive-rearing and 
translocation efforts. These threats remain nonimminent since there are 
no known projects or actions that would adversely affect frog 
populations or threaten surface water associated with known sites 
occupied by the frog. Thus, we changed the listing priority number from 
a 5 to an 11 for this species.

Fishes

    Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae)--The following information 
is based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This fish species is 
an approximately 3-inch member of the family Percidae that is endemic 
to the upper Cumberland River system (above Cumberland Falls) in 
Kentucky and Tennessee. Currently, the species is restricted to 16 
headwater streams in Kentucky and 2 streams in Tennessee. Within these 
streams, the Cumberland darter inhabits low-velocity, shallow riffles 
and backwater areas of moderate-to low-gradient stream reaches with 
stable sand or sandy-gravel substrates. The primary threat to the 
species is siltation of instream habitats caused by coal mining 
activities, silvicultural practices, road construction, and urban 
development. Because the species is limited to only 18 known 
populations, the magnitude of threat for the species is high; these 
populations are isolated from one another by poor-quality habitat, 
impoundments, or natural barriers. The immediacy of threat is 
nonimminent because (1) Federal and State water quality laws have 
reduced water quality and habitat threats to some degree, (2) non-point 
pollution threats and modification of reach geomorphology and hydrology 
are cumulative and gradual, and (3) approximately 40 percent of 
watersheds supporting the species are provided habitat and water 
quality protection through Federal ownership (Daniel Boone National 
Forest). Consequently, we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to 
this species. This represents a change in the previous listing priority 
number, from 6 to 5, due to a change in taxonomic status for the 
species, not because of a change in threat magnitude or imminence. The 
Cumberland Johnny darter, E. nigrum susanae, was elevated to specific 
status (E. susanae, Cumberland darter) based on new molecular evidence 
showing that this subspecies has distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes 
not found in the Johnny darter, E. nigrum nigrum.
    Rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is endemic to 
upland portions of the Black Warrior River system in Alabama where it 
occurs in shallow headwater streams. This species is uncommon and 
sporadic within its range, as it favors shallow, flowing water in 
spring runs and spring-associated streams with emergent vegetation. 
Only three disjunct populations are known: One in the Clear Creek 
system in Winston County, one in spring-fed tributaries of Turkey Creek 
in Jefferson County; and one population in Little Cove Creek (Cove 
Springs) in Etowah County.
    The Jefferson County population (Turkey Creek), which is located in 
a large metropolitan area, is threatened by urbanization and 
commercialization of its habitat. Siltation from bridge, road, and 
sewer line construction has been recently documented within the Turkey 
Creek watershed by academic researchers and Service biologists. The 
major threat to the Winston County population of rush darters is 
erosion in Mill Creek, Doe Branch, and Wildcat Branch, and the 
cumulative increase of

[[Page 53763]]

sediments caused from gravel roads and roadside ditches. Within the 
past year, biologists have observed increased erosion along roads 
adjacent to Doe and Wildcat Branches which resulted in increased 
siltation within those streams. Increased urbanization, road 
maintenance and silviculture practices contribute to increased 
sedimentation in the watershed. The major threat to the Cove Springs 
population is contamination of the water with chlorine. Efforts are 
underway to improve habitat and water quality; however, at this time 
all populations are being negatively affected by declining water 
quality. The magnitude of threat is high due to the limited number of 
populations. We changed the listing priority from a 5 to a 2 based on 
the imminent threat; the threat is imminent because water quality is 
currently declining for all populations.

Clams

    Altamaha spinymussel (Elliptio spinosa)--The following summary is 
based on information in our files. The Altamaha spinymussel is a 
freshwater mussel endemic to the Altamaha River drainage of 
southeastern Georgia. The historical range was restricted to the 
Coastal Plain portion of the Altamaha River and the lower portions of 
its three major tributaries, the Ohoopee, Ocmulgee, and Oconee Rivers. 
The species is associated with stable, coarse to fine sandy sediments 
of sandbars and sloughs and appears to be restricted to swiftly flowing 
water. The species appears to be extirpated from the Ohoopee and Oconee 
Rivers, and its numbers are greatly reduced in the Ocmulgee and 
Altamaha Rivers. Altamaha spinymussels face severe habitat degradation 
from a number of sources. Primary among these are threats from 
sedimentation and contaminants within the rivers that the Altamaha 
spinymussel inhabits. A new threat of deadhead logging has recently 
emerged. These threats to the Altamaha spinymussel are further 
compounded by its limited distribution and the low population size 
identified in recent survey efforts. Efforts to identify the host fish 
and expand our understanding of the spinymussels' life cycle have not 
produced results, attempts to investigate potential impacts caused by 
heavy metals have not received funding, a survey conducted in 2004 in 
the Ocmulgee found no spinymussels, and deadhead logging presents an 
added threat. Consequently, we now consider the threats to be imminent 
and have changed the listing priority number from a 5 to a 2 for this 
species.

Insects

    Wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola)--The wekiu bug belongs to the true 
bug family, Lygaeidae, and is endemic to the island of Hawaii. This 
species only occurs on the summit of Mauna Kea and feeds upon other 
insect species which are blown to the summit of this large volcano. The 
wekiu bug is primarily threatened by the loss of its habitat from 
astronomy development. In 2004 and early 2005, surveys were conducted 
that found multiple new locations of the wekiu bug on Mauna Kea summit. 
Several of these cinder cones within the Mauna Kea Science Reserve, as 
well as two other cinder cones located in the State Ice Age Natural 
Area Reserve, are not currently undergoing development nor is 
development planned. With the discovery of these new locations, the 
threats, though ongoing, do not occur across the entire range of the 
wekiu bug. The immediacy of the threats is imminent in some part of the 
weiku bug's range because ongoing development is occurring in the Keck 
Observatory Outrigger telescope project area. This development will 
establish six new interferometry telescopes around the existing Keck 
facility. A mitigation plan is in place that will require a 3:1 
replacement of damaged habitat. However, the effectiveness of this 
mitigation is untested and unknown. Although the threats are ongoing in 
some areas of wekiu bug habitat, the recent discoveries of new 
locations of the wekiu bug in areas that are not subject to the primary 
threat of astronomy development reduces the magnitude of the threat 
from high to moderate. Therefore, we are changing the listing priority 
number for this species from a 2 to an 8.

Crustaceans

    Anchialine pool shrimp (Vetericaris chaceorum)--Vetericaris 
chaceorum is an anchialine pool-inhabiting species of shrimp belonging 
to the family, Procarididae; it is the only species in its genus. This 
species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and is only known from one 
population in a single pool on the island of Hawaii. There are two 
primary threats to this species. First, fish do not naturally occur in 
the pool inhabited by the species, and it would be highly vulnerable to 
predation by any intentionally or accidentally introduced fish. 
Anchialine pools have been used to discard or hold bait-fish and/or 
aquarium fish. Second, the species is vulnerable to habitat loss due to 
degradation by dumping or fill, or recreational activities. This 
activity has occurred in the past but this pool now lies within lands 
administered by the State of Hawaii Department of Hawaiian Home Lands. 
There are no conservation efforts underway to eliminate the potential 
for any of these threats. The magnitude of threats remains high because 
of the devastating effect that realization of these threats could have 
on the species because of its restriction to a single pool. However, we 
changed the listing priority number for this species from a 1 to a 4 
because the threats are nonimminent: Fish have not been introduced into 
the pool (nor is there any reason to believe that introduction is 
imminent) and a site visit in early 2005 showed there were no signs of 
dumping or fill.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Metabetaeus lohena)--Metabetaeus lohena is 
an anchialine pool inhabiting species of shrimp belonging to the family 
Alpheidae. This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and is 
currently known from populations on the islands of Oahu, Maui, and 
Hawaii. The primary threats to this species are predation by fish 
(which do not naturally occur in the pools inhabited by this species) 
and habitat loss from degradation. The pools where this species occurs 
on Maui and Hawaii are located within State Natural Area Reserves 
(NAR). Hawaii's State statutes prohibit the collection of the species 
and the disturbance of the pools in State NARs. However, enforcement of 
these prohibitions is difficult and the negative effects from the 
introduction of fish are extensive and happen quickly. Therefore, 
threats to this species are of a high magnitude. However, we now 
consider the threat of predation from fish to be nonimminent because no 
fish were observed during the surveys conducted in the NARs for this 
shrimp in 2004 and no recent habitat degradation has occurred. In 
addition, no nonnative fish were observed during several site visits to 
the Oahu location in 2005. Therefore, we changed the listing priority 
number of this species from a 2 to a 5.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Palaemonella burnsi)--Palaemonella burnsi 
is an anchialine pool inhabiting species of shrimp belonging to the 
family, Palaemonidae. This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands 
and is currently known from three populations on the island of Maui and 
one population on the island of Hawaii. The primary threats to this 
species are predation by fish (which do not naturally occur in the 
pools inhabited by this species) and habitat loss due to degradation. 
The pools where this species occurs on Maui are located within a State 
Natural Area Reserve

[[Page 53764]]

(NAR). Hawaii's State statutes prohibit the collection of the species 
and the disturbance of the pools in State NARs. On the island of 
Hawaii, the species occurs within a National Park and collection and 
disturbance are also prohibited. However, enforcement of these 
prohibitions is difficult, and the negative effects from the 
introduction of fish are extensive and happen quickly. Therefore, 
threats to this species are of high magnitude. However, we no longer 
consider the threats to be imminent, because during a 2004 survey no 
fish were observed in the pools where these shrimp occur on Maui or the 
island of Hawaii and there was no evidence of recent habitat 
degradation. Therefore, the threats of predation from fish and habitat 
degradation are nonimminent, and consequently we changed the listing 
priority number of this species from a 2 to a 5.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Procaris hawaiana)--Procaris hawaiana is an 
anchialine pool inhabiting species of shrimp belonging to the family, 
Procarididae. This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and is 
currently known from two populations on the island of Maui and one 
population on the island of Hawaii. The primary threats to this species 
are predation from fish (which do not naturally occur in the pools 
inhabited by this species) and habitat loss due to degradation. The 
pools where this species occurs on Maui are located within a State 
Natural Area Reserve (NAR). Hawaii's State statutes prohibit the 
collection of the species and the disturbance of the pools in State 
NARs. However, enforcement of these prohibitions is difficult and the 
negative effects from the introduction of fish are extensive and happen 
quickly. There are no conservation efforts underway to alleviate the 
potential for any of these threats in the one pool on the island of 
Hawaii. Therefore, threats to this species remain at high magnitude. 
However, we no longer consider the threats to be imminent because, 
during a 2004 survey, no fish were observed in the pools where these 
shrimp occur on Maui or the island of Hawaii. In addition, there were 
no signs of dumping or fill on a site visit to the location on the 
island of Hawaii in early 2005. Therefore, we changed the listing 
priority number of this species from a 2 to a 5.

Flowering plants

    Abronia alpina (Ramshaw Meadows sand-verbena)--Abronia alpina is a 
small perennial herb, 2.5 to 15.2 centimeters (1 to 6 inches) across 
forming compact mats with lavender-pink, trumpet-shaped, and generally 
fragment flowers. Abronia alpina is known from one main population 
center in Ramshaw Meadow on the Kern Plateau of the Sierra Nevada, 
California and from one subpopulation found in adjacent Templeton 
Meadow. The total estimated area occupied is approximately 6 hectares 
(15 acres). Population estimates from 1985-1994 range from a low of 
69,652 plants in 1986 to 132,215 plants in 1987. Surveys conducted 
since 1994 indicate that no significant changes have occurred in 
population size or location, although, the 2003 survey showed 
population numbers to be at the low end of the range. The population 
fluctuates from year to year without any clear trends.
    The major threats facing A. alpina include habitat disturbance and 
trampling from incidental livestock trailing, pack animals, and hikers; 
campsite development; and erosion associated with such disturbances. An 
additional threat is encroachment of lodgepole pine into areas occupied 
by the species. Lodgepole pine encroachment has altered the meadow and 
becoming established within A. alpina habitat. Lodgepole pine 
encroachment may alter soil characteristics by increasing organic 
matter levels, decreasing porosity, and moderating diurnal temperature 
fluctuations thus reducing the competitive ability of A. alpina to 
persist in an environment more hospitable to other plant species. The 
Ramshaw Meadow ecosystem is subject to alteration by lowering of the 
water table due to downcutting of the South Fork of the Kern River 
(SFKR). The SFKR flows through Ramshaw Meadow, at times coming within 
15 meters (50 feet) of A. alpina habitat, particularly in the vicinity 
of five subpopulations. The habitat occupied by A. alpina directly 
borders the meadow system supported by the SFKR. Drying out of the 
meadow system could affect A. alpina pollinators and/or seed dispersal 
agents. Established hiker, packstock, and cattle trails pass through A. 
alpina subpopulations. Two main hiker trails pass through Ramshaw 
Meadow, but were rerouted out of A. alpina subpopulations where 
feasible, in 1988 and 1997. Remnants of cattle trails that pass through 
subpopulations in several places receive occasional incidental use by 
horses and sometimes hikers. In 2001, the U.S. Forest Service 
discontinued grazing on the Templeton allotment, which includes Ramshaw 
Meadow, for a period of 10 years. Consequently, livestock grazing does 
not currently occur in the two meadow areas where the species is found. 
However, the Forest Service could change their decision when the 10-
year period ends and livestock grazing within A. alpina habitat may 
resume. To ensure consistency in our interpretation of the imminence of 
threats, we revised the listing priority for A. alpina from an 11 to an 
8 to reflect the fact that most of these moderate threats are imminent.
    Arabis georgiana (Georgia rockcress)--The Georgia rockcress grows 
in a variety of dry situations, including shallow soil accumulations on 
rocky bluffs, ecotones of gently sloping rock outcrops, and in sandy 
loam along eroding river banks. It is occasionally found in adjacent 
mesic woods, but it will not persist in heavily shaded conditions. 
Currently a total of 18 populations are known from the Gulf Coastal 
Plain, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces of 
Alabama and Georgia. Populations of this species typically have a 
limited number of individuals over a small area.
    Habitat degradation, more than outright habitat destruction, is the 
most serious threat to this species' continued existence. Disturbance 
associated with timber harvesting, road building, and grazing has 
created favorable conditions for the invasion of nonnative weeds, 
especially Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in this species' 
habitat. Eight populations are currently or potentially threatened by 
the presence of nonnative plants. The heritage programs in Alabama and 
Georgia have initiated plans for exotic control at several populations. 
The magnitude of threats to this species is moderate to low due to the 
number of populations (18) across multiple counties in two states and 
the insidious nature of the threats. However, since a number of the 
populations are currently being impacted by nonnative plants, we now 
consider the threats to be imminent. Thus, we changed the listing 
priority number from an 11 to an 8 for this species.
    Astralagus toritpes (Sleeping Ute milkvetch)--The following 
information is based on information contained in our files. Sleeping 
Ute milkvetch is a perennial plant that grows only on the Smokey Hills 
layer of the Mancos Shale Formation on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian 
Reservation in Montezuma County, Colorado. In 2000, 3,744 plants were 
recorded at 24 locations covering 500 acres within an overall range of 
64,000 acres. Available information from 2000 indicates that the 
species remains stable. Threats from borrow pit excavation, off-highway 
vehicles, irrigation canal construction, and a prairie dog colony have 
had minor impacts that reduced the range and

[[Page 53765]]

number of plants by small amounts in the past and are potential future 
threats. Off-highway vehicle use of the habitat is reportedly 
increasing but we do not have direct evidence of this. Oil and gas 
development is active in the general area, but we have received no 
information from the tribe to indicate whether there is development 
within the habitat for the plants on their land. Because the threats 
are nonimminent, we changed the listing priority number for Sleeping 
Ute milkvetch from 8 to 11.
    Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis (Kookoolau)--The following 
information is based on information contained in our files. Kookoolau 
is an erect, perennial found in wet Acacia-Metrosideros (koa-ohia) 
forest on Maui, Hawaii. Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis is known 
from one population of 200 individuals. It is threatened by cattle, 
which eat this plant, and degrade and destroy habitat. The area in 
which all individuals of this subspecies are currently found is fenced 
and cattle have been removed. The threats remain of high magnitude, but 
predation, and habitat degradation and destruction by feral cattle are 
no longer imminent because they are not currently occurring. Therefore, 
we have changed the listing priority number for this species from 3 to 
6.
    Castilleja christii (Christ's paintbrush)--The following 
information is based on information contained in our files. This 
species of paintbrush is found in one population on the summit of Mount 
Harrison in Cassia County, Idaho. This endemic species is considered a 
hemiparasite and it grows in association with subalpine meadow and 
sagebrush habitats. The population found on 85 ha (220 ac) may be large 
in number (greater than 10,000 individual plants), but, current 
population estimates are not available. Monitoring indicates that 
reproductive stems per plant and plant density have decreased 
significantly since 1995. Although these trends were upward between 
2004 and 2005, it is not known if that trend will continue. The habitat 
on Mount Harrison is bisected by several roads, has been until recently 
utilized by unauthorized livestock, and is subject to a high degree of 
recreational use. However, these threats occur seasonally during the 
growing season, in late-spring and summer periods, and they are 
currently being controlled by the U.S. Forest Service with fencing, 
rock barriers, and interpretative signs. The largest threat to the 
species is from nonnative invasive plants, the majority of which are 
smooth brome (Bromus inermis). The smooth brome infestation was treated 
in 2003, 2004, and 2005 by the U.S. Forest Service. The success of 
treating smooth brome that was present in 13.6 percent of the range of 
C. christii in 2005 will not be known immediately, although there is a 
commitment in a recently signed Conservation Agreement by the U.S. 
Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to continue these 
efforts until they are successful or for the next 10 years. The 
magnitude of the threats with these conservation measures appears low 
at this time. However, the smooth brome continues to threaten the 
habitat for C. christii despite control efforts. Plant monitoring 
transects still contained significant densities of smooth brome 
following the eradication efforts in 2005. This threat from smooth 
brome is imminent because this threat still persists in levels that 
affect the native plant community that provides habitat for C. 
christii. Thus, we changed the listing priority number from an 11 to an 
8 for this species since the threats are imminent.
    Chamaesyce deltoidea pinetorum (Pineland sandmat)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
largest population of the pineland sandmat, estimated at approximately 
10,000 plants, is located on Long Pine Key within Everglades National 
Park. All other populations of the pineland sandmat are smaller and 
occur on isolated pine rockland fragments in heavily urbanized Miami-
Dade County. Those populations on private lands are at risk from 
development and habitat degradation. Populations on most public and 
private lands in urban Miami-Dade County are inherently vulnerable to 
invasion by exotic plants, fire suppression or inadequate prescribed 
fire, and limited management. Overall, the magnitude of threats to this 
species is moderate since by applying regular prescribed fire, the 
National Park Service has kept Long Pine Key's pineland vegetation 
intact and relatively free of exotic pest plants. In addition, after a 
thorough review of the status and threats to the pineland sandmat, we 
determined that the threats are non-imminent. Therefore, we changed the 
listing priority number from a 9 to a 12 for this subspecies.
    Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files and the petition received in July 
of 1975. The species is known from one site in a canyon in the Fort 
Huachuca Military Reservation of southeastern Arizona. As of 1991, 
approximately 400 plants were known from this site. No formal surveys 
have been done since that time, but the population seemed stable 
throughout the 1990s. The threats to this species are from catastrophic 
wildfire in the canyon and on-going drought conditions. We do not know 
if this species has any adaptations to fire. Due to its location on 
cliffs, we suspect that fires that may have occurred at more regular 
intervals and burned at low intensities may have had little to no 
effect on this species. It is due only to lack of fire and the 
accumulated fuel load that the fire intensity and associated heat may 
be high enough to damage or kill plants on adjacent cliffs, especially 
near the ground. On the other hand, the plants that are much higher on 
the cliff face would probably not be affected. Ft. Huachuca has 
indicated a willingness to develop a conservation agreement for this 
species. We now consider the magnitude of threats to be moderate rather 
than high because we believe that not all of the population would be 
adversely affected by a wildfire or drought. The threats are still 
imminent because the likelihood of a fire is high. Therefore, we 
changed the listing priority number from a 5 to an 8 due to moderate, 
imminent threats.
    Geranium hanaense (Nohoanu)--This species is a decumbent shrub 
found in bogs on Maui, Hawaii. This species is known from one 
population with 300 to 500 individuals. Geranium hanaense is threatened 
by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. However, feral pigs have been fenced out of 
and removed from both bogs in which this species currently occurs, and 
a control program has reduced nonnative plants in all fenced areas. 
This changes the immediacy of the threats form imminent to nonimminent. 
Therefore, we have changed the listing priority number for this species 
from 2 to 5.
    Geranium kauaiense (Nohoanu)--Nohoanu is a decumbent subshrub found 
in bogs and bog margins on Kauai, Hawaii. This species is known from 
three populations totaling 100 to 200 individuals in the Alakai Swamp 
area. Geranium kauaiense is threatened by pigs that directly prey upon 
it, degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs have been fenced out of the 
three bogs where G. kauaiense currently occurs, and nonnative plants 
have been greatly reduced in all three fenced bogs, and are not found 
in the immediate vicinity of any G. kauaiense individuals. Because 
these threats are of high magnitude but no longer are imminent, we have 
changed the listing priority number from 2 to 5.

[[Page 53766]]

    Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae (Fickeisen plains 
cactus) `` The Fickeisen plains cactus is a small cactus known from the 
Gray Mountain vicinity to the Arizona strip in Coconino and Mohave 
Counties, Arizona. The cactus grows on exposed layers of Kaibab 
limestone on canyon margins and well-drained hills in Navajoan desert 
or grassland. In 1999, the Arizona Game and Fish Department noted 23 
occurrences for the species, including historical ones. The species is 
located on BLM, Forest Service, tribal, and possibly State lands. 
Recent reports from the BLM and Navajo Nation describe populations of 
the species as being in decline. The main human-induced threats to this 
cactus are off-road vehicles and trampling associated with livestock 
grazing. Monitoring data has detected mortality associated with 
livestock grazing. Illegal collection of this species has been noted in 
the past, but we do not know if it is a continuing threat. The 
populations that have been monitored have been affected, in part, by 
the continuing drought. There has been very low recruitment and rabbits 
and rodents have consumed adult plants since there is reduced forage 
available during these dry conditions. In our prior assessments, we 
concluded that threats were not imminent. However, using a consistent 
interpretation of imminence related to whether threats are on-going, we 
are correcting our ranking to reflect that the threats are imminent. As 
a result, we changed the LPN for this plant variety from a 6 to a 3.
    Potentilla basaltica (Soldier Meadow cinquefoil or basalt 
cinquefoil)--Soldier Meadow cinquefoil is a low growing, rhizomatous, 
herbaceous perennial that is associated with alkali meadows, seeps, and 
occasionally marsh habitats bordering perennial thermal springs, 
outflows, and meadow depressions. In Humboldt County, Nevada, the 
species is known only from Soldier Meadow, which is located at the 
northern extreme of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert in the 
transition zone between the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and 
the Columbia Plateau Province. In northeastern California, the species 
is known from Ash Valley near Ash Creek in Lassen County. In Nevada, 
Soldier Meadow cinquefoil has been documented from 10 discrete 
occurrences within an area of about 70 acres that supports about 
130,000 individuals. The California population occupies less than an 
acre on private lands and supports fewer than 1,000 plants.
    The species and its habitat are threatened by increasing 
recreational use in the areas where it occurs as well as historic 
livestock grazing and activities associated with the use of authorized 
and unauthorized roads. Conservation measures implemented recently by 
the Bureau of Land Management include the installation of fencing to 
exclude livestock wild horses, burros and other large mammals; closing 
of access roads to spring, riparian, and wetland areas and the limiting 
of vehicles to designated routes; the establishment of a designated 
campground away from the habitats of sensitive species; the 
installation of educational signage and, an increased staff presence, 
including law enforcement and a volunteer site steward during the six-
month period of peak visitor use. These conservation measures have 
reduced the magnitude of threat to the species from high to moderate; 
all remaining threats are nonimminent and involve long-term changes to 
the habitat for the species resulting from past impacts. In 
consideration of these conservation measures, we lowered the listing 
priority number from 5 to 11.

Other Taxonomic Changes in Candidates

Flowering Plants

    Physaria tuplashensis, (White Bluffs bladder-pod)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is in 
the Cruciferae (Mustard family). Historically and currently, White 
Bluffs bladder-pod has only been known from a single population that 
occurs along the White Bluffs of the Columbia River in Franklin County, 
Washington. Physaria tuplashensis was originally described as 
Lesquerella tuplashensis in 1996, which is the name we have used for it 
in prior CNORs. In 2002, there was a suggestion that the Lesquerella 
and Physaria genera should be united as Physaria, and that L. 
tuplashensis should be reduced to P. douglasii subspecies tuplashensis. 
A recent study (2005) recommended accepting the new genus name of 
Physaria and, supported by metamorphic work, proposed retaining full 
species status for the taxon, and a new nomenclature: Physaria 
tuplashensis. We recognize this new nomenclature in this notice. There 
are no changes in the magnitude or imminence of threats to the taxon, 
so we continue to assign a listing priority number of 5 to this 
species.

Candidate Removals

    As summarized below, we have evaluated the threats to the following 
10 species and considered factors that, individually and in 
combination, presently or potentially could pose a risk to these 
species and their habitat. After a review of the best available 
scientific and commercial data, we conclude that listing these 10 
species under the Endangered Species Act is not warranted because the 
species are not likely to become endangered species within the 
foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their 
range. Therefore, we find that proposing a rule to list these species 
is not warranted, and we no longer consider them to be candidate 
species for listing. We will continue to monitor the status of these 
species, and to accept additional information and comments concerning 
this finding. We will reconsider this determination in the event that 
new information indicates that the threats to these species are of a 
considerably greater magnitude or imminence than identified through 
assessments of information in our files, as summarized here. The 
summary below also notes four other species for which we published 
separate findings removing them from candidate status since the most 
recent CNOR.

Birds

    Many-colored fruit-dove (Ptilinopus perousii perousii)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. P. p. 
perousii, is found in American Samoa on the four main islands of 
Tutuila, Olosega, Ofu, and Tau, and in Independent Samoa. It is 
primarily associated with mature rainforest habitat. The many-colored 
fruit-dove is highly mobile and may travel large distances, presumably 
in search of fruiting banyans (Ficus prolixa and F. obliqua). The 
American Samoa population of P. p. perousii is the only population of 
this subspecies under U.S. jurisdiction. The primary threats we 
recognized in the past are its small population size, stochastic 
natural disturbances such as hurricanes, the accidental introduction of 
new pathogens or parasites, and possibly predation by introduced 
mammalian predators. We previously assigned a listing priority number 
of 12 to this taxon, reflecting threats that we determined were of low 
magnitude and not imminent. Five years of monitoring documented an 
increase in the relative abundance of the subspecies prior to Hurricane 
Heta in January of 2004 and Hurricane Olaf in February 2005. The upward 
trend has been stalled by these severe storms, but continued monitoring 
should indicate whether (as we expect) effects of the 2004 and 2005 
hurricanes have caused a temporary, but natural,

[[Page 53767]]

interruption in the trend of increase, or whether hurricane effects 
have reversed this trend. Avian malaria, once thought to possibly pose 
a threat to this subspecies, likely is not pathogenic in Samoa. The 
stable distribution of the subspecies and recent documented increase in 
relative abundance in American Samoa suggest that the threats 
summarized above currently are not having a detrimental effect on the 
subspecies' overall population, and it is unlikely to become endangered 
within the foreseeable future. Therefore, listing is not warranted.
    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus)--See separate revised 
12-month petition finding published in the Federal Register on April 
18, 2006 (71 FR 19953).

Reptiles

    Cagle's map turtle (Graptemys caglei)--The following information is 
based on information contained in our files, including information from 
the petition received April 26, 1991. Cagle's map turtle occurs in 
scattered sites in seven counties in Texas on the Guadalupe, San 
Marcos, and Blanco Rivers. We previously identified loss and 
degradation of riverine habitat from large and small impoundments (dams 
or reservoirs) as the primary threat to the Cagle's map turtle. One 
effect of impoundment is the loss of riffle and riffle/pool transition 
areas used by males for foraging. Depending on its size, a dam itself 
may be a partial or complete barrier to Cagle's map turtle movement and 
could fragment populations. In the past, construction of smaller 
impoundments and human activities on the rivers known to be occupied by 
the Cagle's map turtle have likely eliminated or reduced foraging and 
basking habitats. Currently, there are no firm plans for reservoirs in 
the Guadalupe-San Antonio River System. Cagle's map turtle is also 
vulnerable to overcollecting and target shooting but actions taken by 
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) have increased protection of 
the species against collecting and shooting. Cagle's map turtle was 
listed as threatened by TPWD, effective November 16, 2000, and TPWD 
regulations prohibit the taking, possession, transportation, or sale of 
any of the animal species designated by state law as endangered or 
threatened without the issuance of a permit. Estimates of population 
numbers of the species in the Guadalupe and San Marcos Rivers in 1991 
and 2001 indicates an overall population increase, although estimated 
populations at some sites declined. Because of stable population size, 
increased protection, and no foreseeable threats from reservoir 
construction, we find that listing Cagle's map turtle is not warranted.

Amphibians

    Boreal toad (Southern Rocky Mountains DPS) (Bufo boreas boreas)--
see separate revised 12-month petition finding published in the Federal 
Register on September 29, 2005 (70 FR 56880).

Insects

    Lesser Adams Cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus cataryctos Krekeler) 
and Greater Adams Cave beetle (P. pholeter Krekeler)--see Federal 
Register notice published on December 8, 2005 (70 FR 72973).
    Po'olanui gall fly (Phaeogramma sp.)--Because there is no published 
name or description for this fly, this taxa is not considered valid and 
does not meet the Act's definition of a species and is not eligible for 
listing. Therefore, we find that listing is not warranted.

Crustaceans

    Anchialine pool shrimp (Antecaridina lauensis)--This species has a 
disjunct, Indo-Pacific distribution. It has been reported from the Fiji 
Islands, Mozambique Channel (Madagascar), the Red Sea-Dahlak, Ryukyu 
and Daito Islands (Japan), the Solomon Islands and the Hawaiian 
Islands. In Hawaii, A. lauensis is known from two pool groups on Maui 
(Ahihi-Kinau State Natural Area Reserve) and two pools on the southern 
end of the island of Hawaii (Lua o Palahemo, and one on private land). 
Like other anchialine pool shrimp species, it is believed that this 
species inhabits an extensive network of water-filled interstitial 
spaces (cracks and crevices) leading to and from the actual pool, and 
this trait has precluded researchers from obtaining population size 
estimates during surveys for the species. In Lua o Palahemo on the 
island of Hawaii, A. lauensis co-occurs with two other candidate 
species of anchialine pool shrimp, Procaris hawaiana and Vetericaris 
chaceorum, and with Calliasmata pholidota (see below).
    Although we have information on the threats to the population in 
Hawaii, population numbers and threats to the species where it occurs 
elsewhere in the world are unknown. We find that listing is not 
warranted because there is insufficient information on the species' 
status throughout its range to determine whether it warrants protection 
under the Act. We are unable to consider listing the Hawaii population 
as a distinct population segment since this animal is not a vertebrate.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Calliasmata pholidota) `` This species has 
a disjunct, Indo-Pacific distribution. It has been reported from the 
Red Sea-Sinai Peninsula, Funafuti Atoll (Ellice Islands), and the 
Hawaiian Islands of Maui and Hawaii. On the island of Hawaii, C. 
pholidota occurs in one pool at Ka Lae (South Point) at Lua o Palahemo 
and in one pool group in the Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR). On 
Maui, C. pholidota is found in four pool groups in the Ahihi-Kinau NAR. 
At Lua o Palahemo, C. pholidota co-occurs with two other candidate 
species of anchialine pool shrimp, Procaris hawaiana and Vetericaris 
chaceorum, and with Antecaridina lauensis (see above). Like other 
anchialine pool shrimp species, it is believed that this species 
inhabits an extensive network of water-filled interstitial spaces 
(cracks and crevices) leading to and from the actual pool, and this 
trait has precluded researchers from obtaining more accurate population 
size estimates during surveys for the species. Worldwide species status 
information, including population numbers and threats to the species 
outside the U.S. is unknown. We find that listing is not warranted 
because there is insufficient information on the species status 
throughout its range to determine whether this species warrants 
protection under the Act. We are unable to consider listing the Hawaii 
population as a distinct population segment since this animal is not a 
vertebrate.

Flowering Plants

    Aliciella cespitosa (= Gilia caespitosa) (wonderland alice-flower 
or Rabbit Valley gilia)--The wonderland alice-flower (also known as 
Rabbit Valley gilia) is a plant within the Phlox family found in Wayne 
County, Utah. The species is primarily associated with sand-filled 
pockets and crevices of Navajo Sandstone on slopes having mechanical 
weathering or erosion of rock in pinyon-juniper/mountain mahogany 
vegetation communities between 5,200 and 9,000 feet in elevation.
    This species occurs in more sites and is much more abundant than 
was initially thought. In 1996 we knew of 6 population areas with an 
estimated total of 5,000 plants. However, increased surveys from 2000 
to 2003 identified 50 known sites at the 6 population areas, with an 
estimated 25,350 individual plants. For the past several years our 
assessments of this species concluded that threats were moderate to low 
and were nonimminent, and we assigned it

[[Page 53768]]

a listing priority number of 11. We identified potential collection of 
plants and seeds as a significant threat. However, we have no evidence 
that collection is occurring, or if it is occurring that it is 
impacting the overall status of the species. We also have no 
information to suggest that collection in the future is likely to put 
populations at risk at any of the sites currently known to be occupied. 
Other threats we identified included impacts associated with 
recreational trails, off-road vehicle use, livestock trampling, and low 
natural recruitment. Although some of these threats are ongoing, they 
are localized, and appear to have little impact. The majority of sites 
are not easily accessible, and the factors that currently or potential 
could impact individuals have not been shown to affect the species 
rangewide, nor do we expect that to become the case. In addition, a 
Conservation Agreement and Strategy, signed in 1996 and currently being 
updated, promotes continued cooperation among the agencies and helps to 
direct a variety of conservation actions, including: Inventory 
remaining suitable habitats; identify research needs and conduct 
studies; refine monitoring protocols; continue monitoring; implement 
land management policies and regulations for protection of Navajo 
endemic plant species; and continue to pursue public awareness 
opportunities. Based on our updated assessment, we find that listing 
this species is not warranted.
    Astragalus equisolensis (horseshoe milkvetch)--Horseshoe milkvetch 
is a plant in the pea family and is found on the Duchesne River 
Formation in Uintah county, Utah and Mesa county, Colorado. It is 
associated with mixed desert and salt desert shrub vegetation 
communities that are generally dominated by sagebrush, shadscale and 
horsebrush. Surveys in 1992 estimated the population at 10,000 in Utah 
and there is no recent information indicating it has declined; the 
Colorado population is a recent discovery. The only potential threat of 
substance is from future energy development, but that does not threaten 
the species through most of its range. Based on available information, 
including the recent discovery of the species in Colorado and an 
apparent low level of potential threat, we do not have sufficient 
information to justify a determination that the species should be 
proposed for listing. Therefore, we find that listing this species is 
not warranted.
    Castilleja aquariensis (Aquarius paintbrush)--The Aquarius 
paintbrush is a plant in the figwort family found only on the Aquarius 
plateau of south central Utah. Habitat characteristics are meadow 
openings and open spruce-fir stands. A recent survey conducted in 2004 
and 2005 counted 74,100 individuals, a much higher number than earlier 
estimates. Factors affecting the species include off-road vehicle use; 
wildlife and livestock grazing; predation by pocket gophers, aphids, 
crickets and grasshoppers; and low precipitation. However, we do not 
have any evidence that these factors are a significant threat to 
population levels. Therefore, we find that listing the species is not 
warranted.
    Paronychia congesta (Bushy whitlow-wort)--Bushy whitlow-wort is 
endemic to Jim Hogg County, Texas, known from only two populations that 
occur within the drainage of two tributaries of the Arroyo Grande. 
Historically, this species was documented only from the type locality 
with 2,000 individual plants counted. A second small population of 100 
individuals was found two miles north-northeast of the type locality in 
1987. The two known populations occur on small areas that cover 
approximately 5 and 15 acres. Little quantitative data have been 
collected for this species, therefore we do not know whether 
populations have expanded or contracted. The sparse information that is 
available suggests the current range and distribution of the species 
has not changed from the historical description. The types of factors 
believed to potentially adversely affect this species include 
destruction, modification, and fragmentation of the habitat, as well as 
eradication of individual plants. However, conversion of rangeland to 
residential development is not considered a significant threat since 
this part of southern Texas is not undergoing rapid residential or 
industrial development. The extent of alteration of the whitlow-wort's 
habitat via conversion of native brush to nonnative forage grasses is 
unknown since all of its habitat is privately owned and not accessible. 
Other potential threats include displacement or destruction of 
individual plants by construction activities associated with highways, 
pipeline installation, oil and gas exploration, well-pad construction 
and right-of-way maintenance. However, we do not have any information 
on the likely implementation of these potential activities and no 
ongoing imminent threats have been identified for this species. We have 
determined that listing is not warranted because insufficient 
information exists on biological vulnerability and threats to support a 
proposal to list this species.
    Sidalcea hickmanii parishii (Parish's checkerbloom)--Parish's 
checkerbloom is an herbaceous perennial plant in the mallow family 
(Malvaceae), with multiple stems emerging annually from a woody root 
crown. It most commonly appears following fires, apparently having 
evolved to rapidly take advantage of unvegetated openings in forest or 
chaparral. Most historic collections, and all currently known 
populations, are known from open areas along roads, trails, firebreaks, 
small landslides, or in recently burned areas. All known populations 
are on USDA Forest Service lands. Parish's checkerbloom has been 
collected from San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo 
Counties, California. Its distribution in San Bernardino County appears 
to be particularly restricted, although the vagueness of historical 
location information and the plant's emergence primarily following fire 
make it difficult to accurately assess its distribution. The discovery 
of a new, albeit small, population found on the desert-facing slopes of 
the San Bernardino Mountains in 2000 suggests that habitat not 
previously considered suitable may in fact be so.
    Threats identified for this taxon fall into two groups--those that 
negatively affect individual or small groups of plants (the 
``expressed'' portions of what may be larger populations in seedbanks), 
and those that have the potential to substantially alter a large area 
of surrounding habitat or damage any unexpressed seedbanks that may 
occur in surrounding soils. Activities in the former group include 
livestock grazing on individual plants along roads and grading of 
existing roads. Those in the later group include altered fire regimes 
(e.g. aggressive fire suppression, prescribed burning in winter or 
spring), post-fire livestock grazing, development or expansion of roads 
and facilities (e.g. recreational, military communication facilities, 
or development of private inholdings), and invasion by nonnative 
species. The southern portion of this taxon's range, in San Bernardino 
County, is most vulnerable to these activities due to its more 
restricted distribution there, its closer proximity to human population 
centers, and the area's greater recreational use.
    Review of recent information indicates the number of populations 
located is greater and the known range of the taxon is larger than we 
previously understood. Also, our conclusion regarding the magnitude and 
the immediacy of the threats has shifted with the additional 
information we have about the species. We considered the magnitude of 
threats to individuals, as well as habitat with unexpressed seedbank, 
was greater when we only knew of 3 small extant locations for the 
species as compared to now, when we

[[Page 53769]]

are aware of 5 extant locations, including 1 with a large population. 
We also considered the immediacy of the threats to be greater when we 
only knew of 3 small extant locations for the species. For some human-
caused activities, such as road grading and construction of fire 
breaks, we have had the opportunity to observe that these activities 
most likely caused the expression of a portion of the seedbank, in a 
sense providing some of the same habitat conditions that are provided 
by wildfire (removal of litter, scarification of seed). This suggests 
that at least certain human activities can be altered (such as in 
timing of grading) so that they will not negatively impact the species. 
Although there is great uncertainty regarding how and to what extent 
future wildfires may release the seedbank of this species, we do not 
believe that the threat from lack of fires or any human-caused 
activities are imminent (as compared to a known threat from a planned 
activity with a definite timeline, such as a housing development) or 
substantial. Therefore, we find that listing is not warranted.

Petition Findings

    The Act provides two mechanisms for considering species for 
listing. One method allows the Secretary, on his own initiative, to 
identify species for listing under the standards of section 4(a)(1). We 
implement this through the candidate program, discussed above. The 
second method for listing a species provides a mechanism for the public 
to petition us to add a species to the Lists. Under section 4(b)(3)(A), 
when we receive such a petition, we must determine within 90 days, to 
the maximum extent practicable, whether the petition presents 
substantial information that listing may be warranted (a ``90-day 
finding''). If we make a positive 90-day finding, we must promptly 
commence a status review of the species under section 4(b)(3)(A); we 
must then make and publish one of three possible findings within 12 
months of the receipt of the petition (a ``12-month finding''):
    1. The petitioned action is not warranted;
    2. The petitioned action is warranted (in which case we are 
required to promptly publish a proposed regulation to implement the 
petitioned action; once we publish a proposed rule for a species, 
section 4(b)(5) and 4(b)(6) govern further procedures regardless of 
whether we issued the proposal in response to a petition); or
    3. The petitioned action is warranted but that (a) the immediate 
proposal of a regulation and final promulgation of regulation 
implementing the petitioned action is precluded by pending proposals, 
and (b) expeditious progress is being made to add qualified species to 
the lists of endangered or threatened species. (We refer to this as a 
``warranted-but-precluded finding.'')
    Section 4(b)(3)(C) of the Act requires that when we make a 
warranted-but-precluded finding on a petition, we are to treat such a 
petition as one that is resubmitted on the date of such a finding. 
Thus, we are required to publish new 12-month findings on these 
``resubmitted'' petitions on an annual basis.
    On December 5, 1996, we made a final decision to redefine 
``candidate species'' to mean those species for which the Service has 
on file sufficient information on biological vulnerability and 
threat(s) to support issuance of a proposed rule to list, but for which 
issuance of the proposed rule is precluded (61 FR 64481, December 6, 
1996). Therefore, the standard for making a species a candidate through 
our own initiative is identical to the standard for making a warranted-
but-precluded 12-month petition finding on a petition to list, and we 
add all petitioned species for which we have made a warranted-but-
precluded 12-month finding to the candidate list.
    This publication also provides notice of substantial 90-day 
findings and the warranted-but-precluded 12-month findings pursuant to 
section 4(b)(3) for candidate species listed on Table 1 that we 
identified on our own initiative, and that subsequently have been the 
subject of a petition to list. Even though all candidate species 
identified through our own initiative already have received the 
equivalent of substantial 90-day and warranted-but-precluded 12-month 
findings, we reviewed the status of the newly petitioned candidate 
species and through this CNOR are publishing specific section 4(b)(3) 
findings (i.e., substantial 90-day and warranted-but-precluded 12-month 
findings) in response to the petitions to list these candidate species. 
We publish these findings as part of the first CNOR following receipt 
of the petition.
    Pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(i) of the Act, once a petition is 
filed regarding a candidate species, we must make a 12-month petition 
finding in compliance with section 4(b)(3)(B) of the Act at least once 
a year, until we publish a proposal to list the species or make a final 
not-warranted finding. We make this annual finding for petitioned 
candidate species through the CNOR.
    Section 4(b)(3)(C)(iii) of the Act requires us to ``implement a 
system to monitor effectively the status of all species'' for which we 
have made a warranted-but-precluded 12-month finding, and to ``make 
prompt use of the [emergency listing] authority [under section 4(b)(7)] 
to prevent a significant risk to the well being of any such species.'' 
The CNOR plays a crucial role in the monitoring system that we have 
implemented for all candidate species by providing notice that we are 
actively seeking information regarding the status of those species. We 
review all new information on candidate species as it becomes 
available, prepare an annual species assessment form that reflects 
monitoring results and other new information, and identify any species 
for which emergency listing may be appropriate. If we determine that 
emergency listing is appropriate for any candidate, whether it was 
identified through our own initiative or through the petition process, 
we will make prompt use of the emergency listing authority under 
section 4(b)(7). We have been reviewing and will continue to review, at 
least annually, the status of every candidate whether or not we have 
received a petition to list it. Thus, the CNOR and accompanying species 
assessment forms also constitute the Service's annual finding on the 
status of petitioned species pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(i).
    On June 20, 2001, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth 
Circuit held that the 1999 CNOR (64 FR 57534, October 25, 1999) did not 
demonstrate that we fulfilled the second component of the warranted-
but-precluded 12-month petition findings for the Gila chub and 
Chiracahua leopard frog (Center for Biological Diversity v. Norton, 254 
F.3d 833 (9th Cir. 2001)). The court found that the one-line 
designation in the table of candidates in the 1999 CNOR, with no 
further explanation, did not satisfy section 4(b)(3)(B)(iii)'s 
requirement that the Service publish a finding ``together with a 
description and evaluation of the reasons and data on which the finding 
is based.'' The court suggested that this one-line statement of 
candidate status also precluded meaningful judicial review.
    On June 21, 2004, the United States District Court for Oregon 
agreed that we can use the CNOR as a vehicle for making petition 
findings and that our reasoning for why listing is precluded does not 
need to be based on an assessment at a regional level (as opposed to a 
national level) (Center for Biological Diversity v. Norton Civ. No. 03-
1111-AA (D. Or.)). However, this court found that our discussion on why 
listing the candidate species were precluded by other actions lacked

[[Page 53770]]

specificity; in the list of species that were the subject of listing 
actions that precluded us from proposing to list candidate species, we 
did not state the specific action at issue for each species in the list 
and we did not indicate which actions were court-ordered.
    On June 22, 2004, in a similar case, the United States District 
Court for the Eastern District of California also concluded that our 
determination of preclusion may appropriately be based on a national 
analysis (Center for Biological Diversity v. Norton No. CV S-03-1758 
GEB/DAD (E.D. Cal.)). This court also found that the Act's imperative 
that listing decisions be based solely on science applies only to the 
determination about whether listing is warranted, not the question of 
when listing is precluded.
    On March 24, 2005, the United States District Court for the 
District of Columbia held that we may not consider critical habitat 
activities in justifying our inability to list candidate species, 
requiring that we justify both our preclusion findings and our 
demonstration of expeditious progress by reference to listing 
proceedings for unlisted species (California Native Plant Society v. 
Norton, Civ. No. 03-1540 (JR) (D.D.C.)). The court further found that 
we must adequately itemize priority listings, explain why certain 
species are of high priority, and explain why actions on these high-
priority species preclude listing species of lower priority. The court 
approved our reliance on national rather than regional priorities and 
workload in establishing preclusion and approved our basic explanation 
that listing candidate species may be precluded by statutorily mandated 
deadlines, court-ordered actions, higher-priority listing activities, 
and a limited budget.
    We drafted the previous CNOR to address the concerns of these 
courts and continue to incorporate those changes that addressed the 
courts' concerns in this CNOR. We include a description of the reasons 
why the listing of every petitioned candidate species is both warranted 
and precluded at this time. We make our determinations of preclusion on 
a nationwide basis to ensure that the species most in need of listing 
will be addressed first and also because we allocate our listing budget 
on a nationwide basis (see below). Regional priorities can also be 
discerned from Table 1, which includes the lead region and the listing 
priority number for each species. Our preclusion determinations are 
further based upon our budget for listing activities for unlisted 
species and we explain the priority system and why the work we have 
accomplished does preclude action on listing candidate species.
    Pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(ii) and the Administrative Procedure 
Act (5 U.S.C. 206), any party with standing may challenge the merits of 
any not-warranted or warranted-but-precluded petition finding 
incorporated in this CNOR. The analysis included herein, together with 
the administrative record for the decision at issue (particularly the 
supporting species assessment form), will provide an adequate basis for 
a court to review the petition finding.
    Nothing in this document or any of our policies should be construed 
as in any way modifying the Act's requirement that we make a 
resubmitted 12-month petition finding for each petitioned candidate 
within one year of the date of publication of this CNOR. If we fail to 
make any such finding on a timely basis, whether through publication of 
a new CNOR or some other form of notice, any party with standing may 
seek judicial review.
    In this CNOR, we are addressing the concerns of the courts by 
adding more specific information into our discussion on preclusion (see 
below). In preparing this CNOR, we reviewed the current status of and 
threats to the 245 candidates and 5 listed species for which we have 
received a petition and for which we have found listing or 
reclassification from threatened to endangered to be warranted-but-
precluded. We find that the immediate issuance of a proposed rule and 
timely promulgation of a final rule for each of these species has been, 
for the preceding months, and continues to be, precluded by higher 
priority listing actions. Additional information that is the basis for 
this finding is found in the species assessments and our administrative 
record for each species.
    This is the first 12-month petition finding for two species, the 
New England cottontail and the red knot, that were petitioned prior to 
this CNOR but for which we have not already published a separate 
warranted-but-precluded 12-month finding. We previously published a 
separate substantial 90-day petition finding for the New England 
cottontail (69 FR 39395).
    Our review included updating the status of and threats to 
petitioned candidate or listed species for which we published findings, 
pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(B), in the previous CNOR. We have 
incorporated new information we gathered since the prior finding and, 
as a result of this review, we are making continued warranted-but-
precluded 12-month findings on the petitions for these species.
    We have identified the candidate species for which we received 
petitions by the code ``C*'' in the category column on the left side of 
Table 1. As discussed above, the immediate publication of proposed 
rules to list these species was precluded by our work on higher 
priority listing actions, listed below, during the period from May 2, 
2005, through August 23, 2006. We will continue to monitor the status 
of all candidate species, including petitioned species, as new 
information becomes available. This review will determine if a change 
in status is warranted, including the need to emergency-list a species 
under section 4(b)(7) of the Act.
    In addition to identifying petitioned candidate species in Table 1 
below, we also present brief summaries of why these particular 
candidates warrant listing. More complete information, including 
references, is found in the species assessment forms. You may obtain a 
copy of these forms from the Regional Office having the lead for the 
species, or from the Fish and Wildlife Service's Internet Web site: 
http://endangered.fws.gov/. As described above, under section 4 of the 
Act we may identify and propose species for listing based on the 
factors identified in section 4(a)(1), and section 4 also provides a 
mechanism for the public to petition us to add a species to the lists 
of species determined to be threatened species or endangered species 
under the Act. Below we describe the actions that continue to preclude 
the immediate proposal of a regulation and final promulgation of a 
regulation implementing the petitioned action, and we describe the 
expeditious progress we are making to add qualified species to the 
lists of endangered or threatened species.

Preclusion and Expeditious Progress

    Preclusion is a function of the listing priority of a species in 
relation to the resources that are available and competing demands for 
those resources. (As described above in the Summary, the listing 
priority of a species is represented by the listing priority number we 
assign to it.) Thus, in any given fiscal year (FY), multiple factors 
dictate whether it will be possible to undertake work on a proposed 
listing regulation or whether promulgation of such a proposal is 
warranted but precluded by higher priority listing actions.
    The resources available for listing actions are determined through 
the annual appropriations process, and we cannot spend more than is 
appropriated for the Listing Program without

[[Page 53771]]

violating the Anti-Deficiency Act (31 U.S.C. 1341 (a)(1)(A)). The 
number of listing actions that we can undertake in a given year also is 
influenced by the complexity of those listing actions, i.e., more 
complex actions generally are more costly. For example, for FY 2005, 
the costs (excluding publication costs) for conducting a 12-month 
finding, without a proposed rule, ranged from approximately $11,000 for 
one species with a restricted range and involving a relatively 
uncomplicated analysis, to $305,000 for another species that was wide-
ranging and involved a complex analysis.
    In FY 1998 and for each fiscal year since then, Congress placed a 
statutory cap on funds which may be expended for listing and critical 
habitat actions (i.e., the Listing Program), equal to the amount 
expressly appropriated for that purpose in that fiscal year. This cap 
was designed to prevent funds appropriated for other ESA functions, or 
for other Service programs, from being used for listing or critical 
habitat actions (see House Report 105-163, 105th Congress, 1st Session, 
July 1, 1997).
    Beginning in FY 2002, Congress also put in place the critical 
habitat ``subcap,'' which put an upper limit on the Listing Program 
funds that could be spent on work related to critical habitat 
designations for already listed species. Recognizing that designation 
of critical habitat for species already listed would consume most of 
the overall Listing Program appropriation, Congress put the subcap in 
place to ensure that some funds would be available to make other 
listing determinations: ``The critical habitat designation subcap will 
ensure that some funding is available to address other listing 
activities'' (H.R. Rep. No. 103, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. 2001 at 30, 
2001 WL 695998). Because the Service has had to use virtually the 
entire critical habitat subcap to address court-mandated designations 
of critical habitat, Congress and the Courts have in effect determined, 
through the listing cap, the critical habitat subcap, and the amount of 
funds needed to address court-mandated critical habitat designations, 
the amount available for other listing activities. It is this amount 
(i.e., the funds in the listing cap other than those needed to address 
court-mandated critical habitat for already listed species) that is 
used in the determination here of preclusion and expeditious progress.
    Congress also recognized that the availability of resources was the 
key element in deciding whether we would issue a listing proposal or 
make a ``warranted but precluded'' finding for a given species. The 
Conference Report accompanying Public Law 97-304, which established the 
current statutory deadlines and the warranted-but-precluded finding, 
states (in a discussion on 90-day petition findings that by its own 
terms also covers 12-month findings) that the deadlines were ``not 
intended to allow the Secretary to delay commencing the rulemaking 
process for any reason other than that the existence of pending or 
imminent proposals to list species subject to a greater degree of 
threat would make allocation of resources to such a petition [i.e., for 
a lower-ranking species] unwise.'' Therefore, in fiscal year 2005, the 
outer parameter within which ``expeditious progress'' must be measured 
is that amount of progress that could be achieved by spending $5.6 
million, which included $4.6 million available in the Listing Program 
appropriation not within the critical habitat subcap plus approximately 
$1.0 million from the critical habitat subcap that was not needed to 
comply with court orders or court-approved settlement agreements for 
critical habitat designations. The rest of the critical habitat subcap 
funds were used to comply with court orders or court-approved 
settlement agreements for designating critical habitat for previously 
listed species, and thus were not available for other listing 
activities.
    Our process is to make our determinations of preclusion on a 
nationwide basis to ensure that the species most in need of listing 
will be addressed first and also because we allocate our listing budget 
on a nationwide basis. However, through court orders and court-approved 
settlements, federal district courts have mandated that we must 
complete certain listing activities with respect to specified species 
and have established the schedules by which we must complete those 
activities. The species involved in these court-mandated listing 
activities are not always those that we have identified as being most 
in need of listing. A large majority of the appropriation available for 
new listings of species (i.e. $5.6 million) was consumed by such court-
mandated listing activities in FY 2005, and by ordering or sanctioning 
these actions the courts essentially determined that these were the 
highest priority actions to be undertaken with available funding. 
Copies of the court orders and settlement agreements referred to below 
are available from the Service and are part of the administrative 
record for these resubmitted petition findings.
    On December 8, 2004, the President signed the 2005 Interior and 
Related Agencies Appropriations Act (Pub. L. 108-447), which, as a 
result of the subcap and subsequent rescissions, in effect included 
$4,643,000 for listing activities not related to critical habitat 
designations for species that already are listed. However, as discussed 
above, a relatively small portion of the critical habitat subcap was 
used for listing actions resulting in a total of $5,604,178 being 
expended for listing actions. This appropriation was fully allocated to 
fund the following categories of actions in the Listing Program: 
Essential litigation-related, and administrative- and program-
management functions; compliance with court orders and court-approved 
settlement agreements requiring that petition findings or listing 
determinations be completed by a specific date; section 4 listing 
actions with absolute statutory deadlines; and a few high-priority 
listing actions. While more funds were available in FY 2005 than in 
previous years to work on listing actions that were not the subject of 
court-orders or court-approved settlement agreements, based on the 
available funds and their allocation for these purposes, only limited 
FY 2005 funds were available for work on proposed listing 
determinations for the following candidate species included in Table 1 
of this notice: Arctic grayling, Georgia pigtoe, interrupted rocksnail, 
Astelia waialealae, Cyrtandra kaulantha, and Phyllostegia hispida.

                       FY 2005 Listing Allocation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Available
                                             Allocated        balance
------------------------------------------------------------------------
FY05 Appropriation (including space           $5,604,178      $5,604,178
 reprogramming).........................
Space reprogramming (program's portion           254,749       5,349,429
 of rent for building space)............
Regional & Washington Offices (staff           1,344,660       4,004,769
 salaries & benefits)...................
Printing................................         612,405       3,392,364
90-day findings.........................         613,224       2,779,140

[[Page 53772]]

 
12-month findings.......................       1,342,159       1,436,981
Proposed Listing/CH.....................         579,370         857,611
Final Listing/CH........................         550,116         307,495
Attorney Fees/Litigation Expenses.......         307,400              95
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Specific details regarding the individual actions taken using the 
FY 2005 funding, which precluded our ability to undertake listing 
proposals for any of the candidate species, except the species noted 
above, are provided below (information on the cost of individual 
actions is part of our administrative record).
    We note here that the category of ``high-priority listing actions'' 
mentioned above refers to actions for which no timeline has been 
established by a court order or settlement agreement, and that also are 
not subject to an absolute statutory deadline. Our ability to work on 
such listing actions is quite limited. Until FY 2006, our allocation of 
Listing Program funds has included a limited amount of funding 
(100,000) to each Regional office to ensure that the office maintains 
minimal core capacity (at least one staff person) for listing actions 
(e.g., evaluating the status of species to help ensure that a emergency 
listing action can be taken if necessary, and participating in work to 
meet the statutory requirement to annually review and make findings on 
resubmitted petitions). In a Region that faces a relatively limited 
workload in the Listing Program with regard to deadlines resulting from 
court orders or settlement agreements, and a relatively limited 
workload related to meeting statutory deadlines, some of this 
``capability'' funding may be available to address high priority 
listing actions. However, in most Regions the limited amount of 
capability funding for Regional offices included in an allocation is 
used for work associated with supporting listing actions related to 
court orders or settlement agreements, and for meeting statutory 
deadlines. This work includes providing training and oversight of field 
personnel and reviewing their work and making recommendations to the 
Regional Director on listing actions. Where this is the case, there are 
no funds available for high-priority listing actions.
    The overall Listing Program situation in FY 2006 is similar to that 
in FY 2005. For FY 2006, Congress appropriated $5,131,000 (after 
rescissions) to the listing program for activities other than critical 
habitat designations for already listed species (Pub. L. 109-54, signed 
on August 2, 2005). We have fully allocated the $5,131,000 to fund the 
following listing actions: Any emergency listings; essential 
litigation-related, administrative, and program management functions; 
compliance with court orders or court-approved settlement agreements 
requiring petition findings or listing determinations; statutorily-
required petition findings; other high-priority listing actions; and 
work on proposed listing determinations for some high-priority 
candidate species. In addition, by the end of FY 2005 we had realized 
some savings, largely in printing costs, as compared to our estimated 
costs. Therefore, we were able to reallocate these remaining FY 2005 
funds to help cover some of the printing costs associated with listing 
actions in FY 2006. As a result, The FY 2006 funds needed for printing 
costs were reduced and we are able to fund more work than otherwise 
would have been possible with only our FY 2006 listing budget.

                       FY 2006 Listing Allocation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Available \
                                             Allocated        balance
------------------------------------------------------------------------
FY06 Appropriation (including space           $5,130,594      $5,130,594
 reprogramming).........................
Space reprogramming (program's portion           261,817       4,868,777
 of rent for building space)............
Regional & Washington Offices (staff           1,610,150       3,258,627
 salaries and benefits).................
Printing................................          33,000       3,225,627
90-day findings.........................         508,796       2,716,831
12-month findings.......................       1,350,653       1,366,178
Proposed Listing/CH.....................         813,460         552,718
Final Listing/CH........................         452,718         100,000
Attorney Fees/Litigation Expenses.......         100,000               0
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    For FY 2006 we have eliminated capability funding, and instead have 
allocated to the regions an amount necessary to support a regional 
office staff capable of supervising the workload of packages in the 
region. With respect to funds appropriated for designation of critical 
habitat, the majority of these funds in the critical habitat subcap 
will be spent complying with designating critical habitat under court-
order or court-approved settlement agreements. We allocated a small 
portion of the money not needed to fund these critical habitat 
designations for work on statutorily-required petition findings. While 
we have more funds in FY 2006 (than in FY 2005) available for listing 
actions that are not court-ordered or the subject of court-approved 
settlement agreements, we must use the majority of these funds to work 
on or complete statutorily-required petition findings. During the 
current fiscal year, we will issue proposed listing rules for the 
highest priority candidate species only if doing so does not jeopardize 
our ability to comply with court orders, court-approved settlement 
agreements, or unqualified statutory deadlines. Thus, as of the date of 
the publication of this CNOR, we anticipate that we will have only 
limited FY 2006 funds available to work on proposals to list any of the 
candidate species included in Table 1. Consequently we continue to find 
that proposals to list all of the petitioned candidate species included 
in Table 1

[[Page 53773]]

are warranted but precluded, except the Arctic grayling, Georgia 
pigtoe, interrupted rocksnail, Astelia waialealae, Cyrtandra kaulantha, 
and Phyllostegia hispida (which are being funded this year). We note 
also that all of the actions that demonstrate our expeditious progress 
on listing that we have completed to date or will complete in FY 2006 
(see below) contribute to the preclusion of work on listing proposals 
for these candidate species.
    In addition to being precluded by lack of available funds, work on 
proposed rules for candidates with lower priority (i.e., those that 
have listing priority numbers of 4-12) is also precluded by the need to 
issue proposed rules for higher priority species facing high-magnitude, 
imminent threats (i.e., listing priority numbers of 1-3). Table 1 shows 
the listing priority number for each candidate species. Finally, 
proposed rules for reclassification of threatened species to endangered 
are lower priority, since the listing of the species already affords 
the protection of the Act and implementing regulations.
    As explained above, part of the basis for making a warranted-but-
precluded finding is that expeditious progress is being made to add and 
remove qualified species to the Lists. Our progress in FY 2005 includes 
work in the following categories: (1) Preparation and publication of 
final listing determinations involving 6 species; (2) preparation of 
final listing determinations (not completed in FY 2005) for 13 species; 
(3) preparation of proposed listing actions (not yet completed so not 
yet published) for 8 species; and (4) listing petition findings for 303 
species (includes 10 completed, 33 not completed, and 260 resubmitted 
findings). Specific information regarding each of these categories for 
FY 2005 is provided below, followed by a description of our anticipated 
FY 2006 progress.
    FY 2005 (1) Final listing determinations--We prepared and published 
in the Federal Register final listing determinations for six species, 
all of which had absolute statutory deadlines imposed by section 
4(b)(6). These included final regulations listing the following 
species:
     Southwest Alaska distinct population segment of the 
northern sea otter (70 FR 46365; August 9, 2005; LPN=3) (This final 
listing was not the result of a deadline established by a court order 
or a court-approved settlement agreement. Rather, this was the highest 
priority listing action for the Alaska Region. The Alaska Region 
generally has not faced the relatively heavy Listing Program workload 
experienced by several other Regions, and consequently was able to use 
their limited Regional office capability funding in FY 2005 to support 
the completion of this listing regulation. We could not have utilized 
this capability funding to complete listing actions in other Regions 
without eliminating the ability of this Region to monitor the status of 
candidate species and address any emergency situations that might 
arise).
     Koster's springsnail, Roswell springsnail, Noel's 
amphipod, and Pecos assiminea (70 FR 46303; August 9, 2005, LPN=2) (The 
work on the final listing package that included these four species was 
in response to a court-approved settlement agreement as well as having 
an absolute statutory deadline).
     Salt Creek tiger beetle (70 FR 58335; October 6, 2005; 
LPN=3) (The work on this species was in response to a court-order).
    We note that the work on these species, except the northern sea 
otter and Salt Creek tiger beetle, included funding for the designation 
of critical habitat. The critical habitat subcap pertains to critical 
habitat designations for species already listed; we may use listing 
funds for critical habitat designation work conducted in conjunction 
with a listing action, as was the case with these four species. This 
work was necessary to comply with the Act's deadline for designating 
critical habitat: Concurrent with listing or within one year thereafter 
if concurrent designation is not determinable.
    (2) We funded work on final listing determinations for the Gila 
chub and 12 species of picture wing flies from Hawaii for which work 
was not completed in FY 2005. The work on these species was also in 
response to court-approved settlement agreements.
    (3) We funded work on proposed listing determinations for the 
following species for which work was not completed in FY 2005: Cowhead 
Lake tui chub (reproposal), fluvial Arctic grayling (distinct 
population segment of the Upper Missouri River) (LPN=3) (the work on 
this species was also in response to a court-approved settlement 
agreement), Georgia pigtoe (LPN=2), interrupted rocksnail (LPN=2), 
Astelia waialealae (LPN=2), Cyrtandra kaulantha (LPN=2), Penstemon 
grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) (LPN=2) (the work on this species was 
also in response to a court-approved settlement agreement), and 
Phyllostegia hispida (LPN=2).
    (4) We funded work on 300 petition findings. This involved 90-day 
findings, initial 12-month findings, and findings on resubmitted 
petitions. As explained below, in some instances, the work has been 
based on meeting deadlines established by court order or by settlement 
agreements. In other instances, the work has been done in order to meet 
statutory deadlines. All 12-month findings are subject to an 
unqualified statutory deadline. With regard to 90-day findings, the 
decision in Biodiversity Legal Foundation v. Badgley, 309 F.3d 1166 
(9th Cir. 2002), held that the Act requires that 90-day petition 
findings (i.e., the initial finding as to whether a petition contains 
substantial information, which the Act directs us to make within 90 
days of receipt of a petition, if practicable) must be made no later 
than 12 months after receipt of the petition, regardless of whether it 
is practicable to do so. Thus, all 90-day findings are arguably subject 
to an absolute statutory deadline. As a result of this ruling, which 
was contrary to our previous interpretation of section 4(b)(3) of the 
Act, we have been working to issue petition findings on most of the 
outstanding petitions for those species that we have not previously 
determined to warrant candidate status.
    Some petition findings are ``complete'' actions. This includes 12-
month petition findings in which we determine that listing was not 
warranted and 90-day petition findings in which we determine that the 
petition did not present substantial information. In these cases, our 
listing work is complete.
    In FY 2005, we funded work on and published petition findings for 
the following 10 species: Pygmy rabbit (not-substantial 90-day finding) 
(70 FR 29253; May 20, 2005), California spotted owl (substantial 90-day 
finding) (70 FR 35607; June 21, 2005), boreal toad (not-warranted 12-
month finding) (70 FR 56880; September 29, 2005), headwater chub and 
Lower Colorado River Basin population of the roundtail chub 
(substantial 90-day finding) (70 FR 39981; July 12, 2005), American eel 
(substantial 90-day finding) (70 FR 38849; July 6, 2005), 3 
springsnails (Jackson Lake, Harney Lake, and Columbia) (substantial 90-
day finding) (70 FR 20515; April 20, 2005), and Dalea tentaculoides 
(Gentry indigo bush) (not-warranted 12-month finding) (70 FR 56426; 
September 27, 2005). All 12-month findings have absolute statutory 
deadlines. Because of Badgley, all 90-day findings arguably also have 
absolute statutory deadlines. In addition, the work on all these 
species, with the following exception, was in response to court orders 
or court-approved settlement agreements. The American eel was the 
highest priority listing action for the Northeast Region.

[[Page 53774]]

The Northeast Region generally has not faced the relatively heavy 
Listing Program workload experienced by several other Regions, and 
consequently was able to use their limited Regional office capability 
funding in FY 2005 to support the completion of this petition finding. 
We could not have utilized this capability funding to complete listing 
actions in other Regions without eliminating the ability of this Region 
to monitor the status of candidate species and address any emergency 
situations that might arise.
    The allocated funds also supported work on petition findings that 
were not completed in FY 2005 for the following 34 species (we worked 
on these petition findings pursuant to a court order, a court-approved 
settlement agreement, or to meet statutory deadlines; those marked with 
a ``+'' we worked on pursuant to a court order/court-approved 
settlement agreement, the others (unmarked) we worked on to meet 
statutory deadlines): Yellowstone population of buffalo (90-day 
finding), New England cottontail (warranted but precluded 12-month 
finding--published as part of this CNOR), Douglas County subspecies of 
northern pocket gopher\+\ (90-day finding), Anacapa deer mouse (90-day 
finding), American dipper\+\ (90-day finding), long-tailed duck\+\ (90-
day finding), red knot (90-day finding), yellow-billed loon\+\ (90-day 
finding), southeastern snowy plover and wintering population of piping 
plover (90-day finding), cerulean warbler (12-month finding), Mexican 
garter snake\+\ (90-day finding), northern water snake (90-day 
finding), Berry Cave salamander (90-day finding), American eel (12-
month finding), kokanee (90-day finding), longnose sucker (90-day 
finding), California golden trout (12-month finding), Yellowstone 
cutthroat trout\+\ (12-month finding) (we published the opening of a 
comment period for a 12-month finding for this species on September 1, 
2005; 70 FR 52059), Black Hills (Cooper's Rocky) mountainsnail\+\ (90-
day finding), Uinta mountainsnail\+\ (90-day finding), Cicurina 
cueva\+\ (12-month finding) (we published two notices to reopen the 
comment period (on May 23, 2005, and August 16, 2005) (70 FR 29471 and 
70 FR 48093) in order to provide the public an opportunity to consider 
and comment on new information we received after publishing the 90-day 
finding for this species), 4 subspecies of Pseudocopacodes enus (12-
month finding), Andrew's dune scarab beetle (90-day finding), 3 
invertebrates (Stygobromus kenki, Stygobromus phreaticus, and 
Acanthocyclops columbiensis--90-day finding), Castanea ozarkensis 
(Ozark chinquapin) (90-day finding), Gilia (=Alicellia) tenuis 
(Mussentuchit gilia)\+\ (90-day finding), Sidalcea hendersonii 
(Henderson's checkermallow) (90-day finding), Usnea longissima (90-day 
finding).
    In addition, we completed some initial and some resubmitted 
petition findings required by statute for a total of 260 petitioned 
species that are candidates. We published these findings on May 11, 
2005, as part of the previous Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR) (70 FR 
24870). Since we had identified the majority of these species as 
candidates prior to receiving a petition to list them, we had already 
assessed their status using funds from our Candidate Conservation 
Program (a separate budget item within the Endangered Species Program).
    Our anticipated progress in FY 2006 includes work in the following 
categories: (1) Work toward preparation and publication of final 
listing actions for 15 species; (2) work toward preparation and 
publication of proposed listing actions for 6 species; and (3) work on 
petition findings for 72 species that are not candidate species (we 
made or are making these petition findings pursuant to a court order, a 
court-approved settlement agreement, or to meet statutory deadlines), 
initial petition findings for 2 species that are also included in this 
notice as candidate species, resubmitted petition findings for 245 
candidate and 5 listed species that were petitioned prior to the last 
CNOR, and revised 12-month petition findings for 10 candidate species 
that are we removing from candidate status through this notice. 
Specific information regarding each of these categories for FY 2006 is 
provided below. We note also that Regions will continue to monitor the 
status of candidates and prepare emergency listing packages as needed.
    FY 2006 (1) We funded work on the final listing determinations for 
the following species: Queen Charlotte goshawk (remand of our previous 
listing determination), Gila chub (70 FR 66663; November 2, 2005, 
LPN=2), 12 species of picture-wing flies from Hawaii (71 FR 26835; May 
9, 2006) (prior to publishing the final rule, we published a notice to 
reopen the comment period on the proposed listing rule; 70 FR 57851; 
October 4, 2005), and Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) (work 
not yet completed). These final listing determinations were in response 
to court orders or court-approved settlement agreements. Additionally, 
since the Gila chub, 12 species of picture-wing flies, and Graham's 
beardtongue were proposed for listing, a final listing determination is 
subject to an absolute statutory deadline.
    (2) We funded listing determinations for flat-tailed horned lizard 
(remand of our withdrawal of a proposed rule to list) (we published a 
withdrawal of the proposed rule on June 28, 2006; 71 FR 36745)(we also 
had published notices to reopen the comment period on our reinstated 
proposed rule on March 2 and again on April 21, 2006; 71 FR 10631 and 
71 FR 20637), fluvial Arctic grayling (distinct population segment of 
the Upper Missouri River) (LPN=3) (the work on this species was also in 
response to a court-approved settlement agreement), Cowhead Lake tui 
chub (reproposal), and Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) (71 FR 
3157; January 19, 2006). We also funded work on proposed listing 
proposals for the following 5 high-priority candidate species for which 
work was not completed in FY 2006 prior to the publication of this 
CNOR: Rough hornsnail (LPN=2), black mudalia (LPN=2), Georgia pigtoe 
(LPN=2), interrupted rocksnail (LPN=2), Astelia waialealae (LPN=2), 
Cyrtandra kaulantha (LPN=2), and Phyllostegia hispida (LPN=2).
    (3) We funded work on and published petition findings for the 
following species (listing actions for species marked with a ``+'' are 
per court order/court-approved settlement agreement in addition to 
having a statutory deadline): Gunnison's prairie dog\+\ (not-
substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 6241; February 7, 2006); Douglas 
County subspecies of the northern pocket gopher\+\ (not-substantial 90-
day finding (71 FR 7715; February 14, 2006); polar bear (substantial 
90-day finding) (71 FR 6745; January 9, 2006); Black Hills, South 
Dakota, population of the American dipper\+\ (not-substantial 90-day 
finding) (71 FR 4341; January 26, 2006); Florida scrub-jay\+\ (not-
substantial 90-day petition findings on 2 petitions to reclassify as 
endangered) (71 FR 4092; January 25, 2006); Gunnison sage-grouse\+\ 
(not-warranted 12-month finding) (71 FR 19953; April 18, 2006); 
California spotted owl\+\ (not warranted 12-month finding) (71 FR 
298896; May 24, 2006) (we also published a notice to reopen the comment 
period on the 90-day petition on October 14, 2005; 70 FR 60051); 
northern Mexican gartersnake\+\ (substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 
315; January 4, 2006); Siskiyou Mountains and Scotts Bar salamanders\+\ 
(not-substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 23886; April 25, 2006); 
Distinct Population Segment of the roundtail

[[Page 53775]]

chub in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Headwater chub\+\ (not-
warranted and warranted 12-month findings) (71 FR 26007; May 3, 2006), 
Yellowstone cutthroat trout\+\ (not-warranted 12-month finding) (71 FR 
8818; February 21, 2006); Black Hills (Cooper's Rocky) mountainsnail\+\ 
(not-substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 9988; February 28, 2006), Uinta 
mountainsnail\+\ (not-substantial 90-day finding) (70 FR 69303; 
November 15, 2005); Greater Adams cave beetle and Lesser Adams cave 
beetle (not-warranted 12-month finding) (70 FR 72973; December 8, 
2005); Casey's June beetle (substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 44960; 
August 8, 2006); Andrews' Dune scarab beetle (not-substantial 90-day 
finding) (71 FR 26444 May 5, 2006); island marble butterfly\+\ 
(substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 7497; February 13, 2006); Hermes 
copper butterfly (not-substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 44966; August 
8, 2006); Sand Mountain blue butterfly (substantial 90-day finding) (FR 
71 44988; August 8, 2006); Thorne's hairstreak butterfly (not-
substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 44980; August 8, 2006); Cicurina 
cueva\+\ (not-warranted 12-month finding) (70 FR 75071; December 19, 
2005); 16 insect species from Algondones Dunes (not-substantial 90-day 
finding) (71 FR 47765; August 18, 2006); Agave eggersiana and Solanum 
conocarpum\+\ (not-warranted 12-month finding) (71 FR 11367; March 7, 
2006); Gilia (=Aliciella) tenuis\+\ (Mussentuchit gilia) (not-
substantial 90-day finding) (71 FR 4337; January 26, 2006); and 
Sidalcea hendersonii (Henderson's checkermallow--not-substantial 90-day 
finding) (71 FR 8252; February 16, 2006). We funded work on 
statutorily-required petition findings for the following species (not 
yet completed so not yet published): Polar bear (12-month finding) (we 
reopened the comment period on the status review for the 12-month 
petition finding on May 17, 2006; 71 FR 28653) , Utah prairie dog (90-
day finding on reclassification to endangered), black-footed albatross 
(90-day finding), tricolored blackbird (90-day finding), long-tailed 
duck\+\ (90-day finding), southwestern population of bald eagle (90-day 
finding), Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (90-day finding), yellow-billed 
loon\+\ (90-day finding), Mono Basin population of greater sage-grouse 
(90-day finding), southeastern snowy plover and wintering population of 
piping plover (12-month finding), cerulean warbler (12-month finding), 
northern Mexican garter snake\+\ (12-month finding), northern water 
snake (12-month finding), Tucson shovel-nosed snake (90-day finding), 
Florida population of gopher tortoise (90-day finding), Berry Cave 
salamander (12-month finding), Jollyville plateau salamander (90-day 
finding), American eel (12-month finding), San Felipe gambusia (90-day 
finding), longnose sucker (12-month finding), 3 springsnails (Jackson 
Lake, Harney Lake, and Columbia) (12-month finding), 3 invertebrates 
(Stygobromus kenki, Stygobromus phreaticus, and Acanthocyclops 
columbiensis) (12-month finding), island marble butterfly\+\ (12-month 
finding), Mt. Charleston blue butterfly (90-day finding), Astragalus 
anserinus (Goose Creek milkvetch) (90-day finding), Astragalus 
debequaeus (DeBeque milkvetch) (90-day finding), Castanea ozarkensis 
(Ozark chinquapin) (90-day finding), Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette 
cactus) (90-day finding). We funded work on statutorily-required 
initial 12-month petition findings for the New England cottontail 
(substantial 90-day finding was published on June 30, 2004) and red 
knot (we also made the statutorily-required 90-day finding through this 
CNOR), which are being published as part of this CNOR (warranted but 
precluded findings). We also funded work on resubmitted petitions 
findings for 245 candidate species and 5 listed species (species 
petitioned prior to the last CNOR). Note, we have not updated our 
resubmitted petition findings for the Columbia Basin population of the 
greater sage-grouse or for the Missouri River population of fluvial 
Arctic grayling in this notice as we are considering new information 
and will update our findings at a later date. As explained above, these 
resubmitted petition findings are required by statute and findings for 
these 245 candidates and 5 listed species are being published as part 
of this CNOR. We also funded revised 12-month petition findings for 10 
candidate species that we are removing from candidate status, which are 
being published as part of this CNOR (see Summary of Candidate 
Removals). We are also funding work on the next annual review of those 
resubmitted petition findings, which will be published as part of the 
next CNOR. Because the majority of these species were already candidate 
species prior to our receipt of a petition to list them, we had already 
assessed their status using funds from our Candidate Conservation 
Program. We also continue to monitor the status of these species 
through our Candidate Conservation Program. The cost of updating the 
species assessment forms and publishing the joint publication of the 
CNOR and resubmitted petition findings is shared between the Listing 
Program and the Candidate Conservation Program.
    As with our ``precluded'' finding, ``expeditious progress'' is a 
function of the resources that are available and the competing demands 
for those funds. As discussed above, the funds in the Listing Program 
that would be otherwise available for adding other qualified species to 
the Lists in FY 2005 and FY 2006 have been spent or must be spent on 
complying with court orders and court-approved settlement agreements to 
make petition findings, court orders and court-approved settlement 
agreements to make final listing determinations for other species, 
meeting statutory deadlines for petition findings or listing 
determinations, a few high-priority Service-initiated listing 
determinations, essential litigation support, and administrative and 
management tasks. We note that we are not discussing specific actions 
we have taken on progress towards removing species from the lists of 
threatened or endangered species in this notice since that work is 
conducted with appropriations to our Recovery program, a separately-
budgeted component of the Endangered Species Program. However, we do 
note that in FY 2005 we delisted one species (Helianthus eggertii 
(Eggert's sunflower); 70 FR 48482; August 18, 2005) and, to date in 
FY2006, we have delisted two species (the Arizona Distinct Population 
Segment of the Cactus Ferruginous Pygmy-owl; 71 FR 19452; April 14, 
2006; and, Agave arizonica (Arizona agave); 71 FR 35195; June 19, 
2006).
    The majority of the money to add qualified species to the list is 
consumed in complying with court orders or court-approved settlement 
agreements requiring petition findings or listing determinations, and 
essential litigation-related, administrative, and program management 
functions related to these findings and determinations (including 
preparing and allocating budgets, responding to Congressional and 
public inquiries, public outreach, gathering and assessing the 
scientific information used as the basis for our listing decisions, 
writing the document, and reviewing those listing recommendations made 
by our Field and Regional Office staff). Therefore, we have endeavored 
to make our listing actions as efficient and timely as possible, given 
the requirements of the relevant law and regulations, and constraints 
relating to workload and personnel. We are continually considering ways 
to streamline processes or achieve economies of scale,

[[Page 53776]]

such as by batching related actions together. Given our limited budget 
for implementing section 4 of the Act, these actions described above 
collectively constitute expeditious progress.
    Although we have not been able to resolve the listing status of 
many of the candidates, several programs in the Service contribute to 
the conservation of these species. In particular, we have a separate 
budgeted program, the Candidate Conservation program, which focuses on 
providing technical expertise for developing conservation strategies 
and agreements to guide voluntary on-the-ground conservation work for 
candidate and other at-risk species. The main goal of this program is 
to address the threats facing candidate species. If sufficiently 
successful, this eliminates the need to list them, allowing us to 
remove them from the candidate list. Through this program, we work with 
our partners (other Federal agencies, State agencies, Tribes, private 
landowners, and private conservation organizations) to address the 
threats to candidate species and other species at-risk. We are actively 
engaged in the conservation of these species and have over 115 
voluntary conservation agreements that are being implemented for 190 
species covering 4.8 million acres of habitat. For example, we are 
currently implementing a Candidate Conservation Agreement for the 
Louisiana pine snake, a candidate species. This agreement between the 
Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of 
Defense, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and Louisiana Department 
of Wildlife and Fisheries was completed in 2003 and is designed to 
identify and establish management for the Louisiana pine snake on 
Federal lands in Texas and Louisiana. The agreement provides a means 
for all the partnering agencies to work cooperatively on projects that 
avoid and minimize impacts to the snake. We also have provided funds 
from the Endangered Species Private Landowner Incentive Program and 
Private Stewardship Grants to a private landowner for habitat 
restoration and prescribed burning at Louisiana pine snake sites on 
their property. Several other Service programs (e.g. Fisheries, 
Partners for Fish and Wildlife, Refuge Wildlife and Habitat Management, 
and Federal Assistance) contribute to candidate conservation.
    Through sustained implementation of strategically designed 
conservation efforts, we are actively working to conserve many 
candidate species. In some instances, this culminates in making listing 
unnecessary. In the past two years, for example, we have obviated the 
need to list six species through conservation efforts, including four 
candidate species: The Greater and Lesser Adams Cave beetles, Camp 
Shelby burrowing crayfish, and Holsinger's cave beetle.

Findings for Petitioned Candidate Species

    For our revised 12-month petition findings for species we are 
removing from candidate status, see summaries above under ``Summary of 
Candidate Removals.''
Mammals
    Pacific Sheath-tailed Bat, American Samoa DPS (Emballonura 
semicaudata semicaudata)--The following summary is based on information 
contained in our files. This small bat is a member of the 
Emballonuridae, an Old World bat family that has an extensive 
distribution, primarily in the tropics. The Pacific sheath-tailed bat 
was once common and widespread in Polynesia and Micronesia and it is 
the only insectivorous bat recorded from a large part of this area. The 
species as a whole (E. semicaudata) occurred on several of the Caroline 
Islands (Palau, Chuuk, and Pohnpei), Samoa (Independent and American), 
the Mariana Islands (Guam and the CNMI), Tonga, Fiji, and Vanuatu. 
While populations appear to be healthy in some locations, mainly in the 
Caroline Islands, they have declined drastically in other areas, 
including Independent and American Samoa, the Mariana Islands, Fiji, 
and possibly Tonga. Scientists recognize four subspecies: E. s. 
rotensis, endemic to the Mariana Islands (Guam and the Commonwealth of 
the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)); E. s. sulcata, occurring in Chuuk 
and Pohnpei; E. s. palauensis, found in Palau; and E. s. semicaudata, 
occurring in American and Independent Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, and Vanuatu. 
This candidate assessment form addresses the distinct population 
segment of E. s. semicaudata that occurs in American Samoa. E. s. 
semicaudata historically occurred in American and Independent Samoa, 
Tonga, Fiji, and Vanuatu. It is extant in Fiji and Tonga, but may be 
extirpated from Vanuatu and Independent Samoa.
    Current threats to this subspecies include habitat loss, predation 
by introduced species, small population size, and disturbance to 
roosting caves. The greatest threats at this time are likely habitat 
loss and degradation, the small numbers of bats detected in the past 
two decades, and tropical storms. Habitat loss and degradation and 
predation by nonnative species are believed to have been occurring for 
several decades. The Listing Priority Number for E. s. semicaudata 
remains at 3 because the magnitude of the threats is high, the threats 
are imminent, and the taxon in question is a population of a 
subspecies.
    Pacific Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis), Guam 
and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
small bat is a member of the Emballonuridae, an Old World bat family 
that has an extensive distribution, primarily in the tropics. The 
Pacific sheath-tailed bat was once common and widespread in Polynesia 
and Micronesia and it is the only insectivorous bat recorded from a 
large part of this area. The species as a whole (E. semicaudata) 
occurred on several of the Caroline Islands (Palau, Chuuk, and 
Pohnpei), Samoa (Independent and American), the Mariana Islands (Guam 
and the CNMI), Tonga, Fiji, and Vanuatu. While populations appear to be 
healthy in some locations, mainly in the Caroline Islands, they have 
declined drastically in other areas, including Independent and American 
Samoa, the Mariana Islands, Fiji, and possibly Tonga. Scientists 
recognize four subspecies: E. s. rotensis, endemic to the Mariana 
Islands (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 
(CNMI)); E. s. sulcata, occurring in Chuuk and Pohnpei; E. s. 
palauensis, found in Palau; and E. s. semicaudata, occurring in 
American and Independent Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, and Vanuatu. This 
candidate assessment form addresses the Mariana Islands subspecies. E. 
s. rotensis is historically known from the Mariana Islands and formerly 
occurred on Guam and in the CNMI on Rota, Aguiguan, Tinian (known from 
prehistoric records only), Saipan, and possibly Anatahan and Maug. 
Currently, E. s. rotensis appears to be extirpated from all but one 
island in the Mariana archipelago. The single remaining population of 
this subspecies occurs on Aguiguan, CNMI.
    Threats to this subspecies have not changed over the past year. The 
primary threats to the subspecies include predation by nonnative 
species, habitat loss and degradation, small population size, 
occurrence on one small island, and disturbance to roosting caves. 
Habitat loss and degradation (through various means, but mainly by 
feral ungulates at present) and predation by nonnative species are 
believed to be occurring now, and likely have been occurring for 
several decades on

[[Page 53777]]

Aguiguan and are, therefore, affecting the entire remaining population 
of E. s. rotensis. The subspecies may be near the point where 
stochastic events, such as typhoons, are increasingly likely to affect 
its continued survival. The disappearance of the remaining population 
on Aguiguan would result in the extinction of the subspecies. In 
addition, scientists believe that a more complete genetic examination 
of the subspecies may result in its elevation to a distinct species. 
The Listing Priority Number for E. s. rotensis remains at 3 because the 
magnitude of the threats is high, the threats are imminent, and the 
taxon is question is a subspecies.
    Cottontail, New England (Sylvilagus transitionalis)--See above in 
``Summary of New Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information in our file and in the petition dated August 30, 2000.
    Fisher, West Coast DPS (Martes pennanti)--The following summary is 
based on information in our files and in the Service's initial 
warranted-but-precluded finding published in the Federal Register on 
April 8, 2004 (68 FR 18770). The fisher is a carnivore in the family 
Mustelidae and is the largest member of the genus Martes. Historically 
the West Coast population of the fisher extended south from British 
Columbia into western Washington and Oregon, and in the North Coast 
Ranges, Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains and Sierra Nevada in California. The 
fisher is believed to be extirpated or reduced to scattered individuals 
from the lower mainland of British Columbia through Washington and in 
the central and northern Sierra Nevada range in California. Native 
populations of fisher currently occur in the North Coast Ranges of 
California, the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and 
southern Oregon, and in isolated populations occurring in the southern 
Sierra Nevada in California. Descendents of a fisher reintroduction 
effort also occur in the southern Cascade range in Oregon. There is a 
lack of precise empirical data on West Coast DPS fisher numbers. 
However, there is a lack of detections over much of the fisher's 
historic range, even with standardized survey and monitoring efforts in 
California, Oregon and Washington. There is also a high degree of 
genetic relatedness within some populations, and populations of native 
fisher in California are separated by four times the species' maximum 
dispersal distance. The above listed factors all indicate that the 
likely extant fisher populations are small and isolated from one 
another.
    Major threats that fragment or remove key elements of fisher 
habitat include various forest vegetation management practices such as 
timber harvest and fuels reduction treatments. Other potential major 
threats include: Stand-replacing fire, Sudden Oak Death Phytophthora, 
urban and rural development, recreation development, and highways. 
Major threats to fisher that lead to direct mortality and injury to 
fisher include; collisions with vehicles, predation, and viral borne 
diseases such as rabies, parvovirus, canine distemper and Anaplasma 
phagocytophilum. Existing regulatory mechanisms on Federal, State and 
private lands affect key elements of fisher habitat and do not provide 
sufficient certainty that conservation efforts will be effective or 
will be implemented. The magnitude of threats is high as they occur 
across the range of the DPS resulting in a negative impact on fisher 
distribution and abundance. However, the threats are non-imminent as 
the greatest long-term risks to the fisher in its west coast range are 
the subsequent ramifications of the isolation small populations, and 
the three remaining areas containing fisher populations appear to be 
stable or not rapidly declining based on recent survey and monitoring 
efforts. We assigned this DPS a listing priority number of 6 due to 
nonimminent threats of a high magnitude.
    Mazama pocket gopher (Thomomys mazama (ssp. couchi, glacialis, 
louiei, melanops, pugetensis, tacomensis, tumuli, yelmensis)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received December 11, 
2002. These eight subspecies of pocket gopher are associated with 
glacial outwash prairies in western Washington. Of these eight 
subspecies, six are likely still extant (couchi, glacialis, melanops, 
pugetensis, tumuli, and yelmensis). Few of these glacial outwash 
prairies remain in Washington today. Historically, such prairies were 
only patchily distributed. Now, residential and commercial development, 
fire regime alteration, and ingrowth of woody vegetation have further 
reduced their numbers. In addition, development in or adjacent to these 
prairies has likely increased predation on Mazama pocket gophers by 
dogs and cats.
    The magnitude of threat is high for these subspecies due to their 
patchy and isolated distribution, location in habitats desirable for 
residential and commercial development, threat of invasive plants, and 
limited dispersal capability of the species. Where human development 
occurs in proximity to Mazama pocket gophers, predation by domestic 
pets is an additional threat to the species. The immediacy of threat is 
imminent. Two of the subspecies (T. m. louiei and T. m. tacomensis) are 
likely extinct. Gravel pits threaten persistence of one of the 
remaining subspecies (Roy Prairie), and the populations of two other 
subspecies (T. m. couchi and T. m. yelmensis) are located on airports 
with planned development. Yelm pocket gophers (T. m. yelmensis) are 
also threatened by other proposed development on Fort Lewis. Thus we 
assign a listing priority number of 3 to these subspecies.
    Palm Springs round-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus 
tereticaudus chlorus)--The following summary is based on information in 
our files. No new information was provided in the petition received on 
May 11, 2004. The range for the Palm Springs round-tailed ground 
squirrel is generally described as the Coachella Valley region that 
roughly spans between San Gorgonio Pass and the Salton Sea. A recent 
study demonstrated that the primary habitat for the Palm Springs round-
tailed ground squirrel in the Coachella Valley is the mesquite sand 
dune/hummock community. They are also found in other low flat sandy 
areas or sand dunes containing various types of desert shrub 
communities, including creosote and Atriplex ssp. Squirrels are also 
occasionally found in fine sand accumulated along banks, roads, and 
among shrubs; as well as areas with more coarse, hard-packed sand and 
gravel.
    Rapid growth of desert cities such as Palm Springs and Palm Desert 
has raised concerns about the conservation of a squirrel restricted to 
the Coachella Valley. Urban development and drops in the groundwater 
table have eliminated all but approximately 10 percent of Prosopis 
glandulosa var. torreyana (mesquite) in the Valley; the plant with 
which this squirrel is strongly associated with. The mesquite sand 
dune/hummock community is also threatened by the decreasing water table 
in the Coachella Valley. Mesquite is phreatophytic, meaning that its 
roots are adapted to grow deep into the water table. Increasing water 
consumption associated with growing urbanization is lowering the water 
table below the level at which mesquite roots can reach. No formal 
protection is currently available to this species in the majority of 
its range. The California Environmental Quality Act affords some 
indirect protection to S. tereticaudus chlorus by addressing impacts to 
other protected species, most notably, the federally

[[Page 53778]]

threatened Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata). In 1993, 
the Coachella Valley Association of Governments initiated the Coachella 
Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) for the 
Coachella Valley to address rare species including S. tereticaudus 
chlorus. However, this planning effort remains in preparation and has 
not yet been approved or implemented. Further, the Coachella Valley 
MSHCP is proposing to protect only 136 ha (336 acres) of mesquite 
hummocks, which is only 35 percent of the remaining mesquite hummocks 
left within the planning area of the Coachella Valley MSHCP. Mesquite 
hummocks near faults in the Upper valley are not directly addressed by 
the Coachella Valley Water District Water Management Plan, and are 
threatened by the planned and proposed groundwater pumping for the 
rapidly growing cities of Desert Hot Springs, Cathedral City, and 
Indio.
    We assigned the Palm Springs ground squirrel subspecies a listing 
priority of 3 because the threats are ongoing and are of a high 
magnitude. This round-tailed ground squirrel has lost approximately 90 
percent of its preferred habitat, mesquite sand dune/hummocks and 
suitable habitat in the Coachella Valley has a high rate of 
development.
    Southern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus endemicus)--
The following summary is based on information in our files. The 
southern Idaho ground squirrel is endemic to four counties in southwest 
Idaho; its total known range is approximately 209,628 hectares (518,000 
acres). Threats to southern Idaho ground squirrels include habitat 
deterioration and fragmentation, direct killing from shooting, trapping 
or poisoning, predation, competition with Columbian ground squirrels, 
and inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms. Habitat deterioration 
and fragmentation appear to be the primary threats to the species. 
Nonnative annuals now dominate much of this species' range, have 
changed the species composition of vegetation, and have altered the 
fire regime in a perpetuating cycle throughout much of the range. 
Habitat deterioration, destruction, and fragmentation are thought to 
have resulted in the current patchy distribution of southern Idaho 
ground squirrels. Based on recent genetic work, southern Idaho ground 
squirrels are subject to more genetic drift and inbreeding than 
expected. Cost-effective methods of habitat restoration are currently 
unknown for southern Idaho ground squirrels. Two Candidate Conservation 
Agreements with Assurances (CCAAs) have been completed for this 
species, both of which allow agency access for population and habitat 
surveys and habitat enhancement/restoration work. The magnitude of 
threat is low to moderate for this species due to the two CCAAs that 
have been completed, and ongoing survey and habitat enhancement/
restoration efforts conducted by other agencies. The immediacy of the 
threat is imminent for this species due to the prevalence and dominance 
of nonnative vegetation and the current patchy distribution of the 
species. Thus, we assign a listing priority number of 9 to this 
species.
    Washington ground squirrel (Spermophilus washingtoni)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on March 2, 2000. The Washington ground squirrel 
is one of the smallest members of the subgenus Spermophilus and is 
found within the shrub-steppe habitat of the Columbia Basin ecosystem 
of Oregon and Washington. The soil types used by the squirrels are 
distributed sporadically within the species' range, and have been 
significantly fragmented by human development in the Columbia Basin. 
Approximately two-thirds of the Washington ground squirrel's total 
historic range has been converted to agriculture. When agriculture 
occurs, little evidence of ground squirrel use has been documented, and 
reports indicate that agriculture (along with other development) 
continues to eliminate Washington ground squirrel habitat in portions 
of its range.
    Most remaining habitat is threatened by the occurrence and spread 
of nonnative species, particularly cheatgrass. Nonnative plants 
threaten squirrels by out-competing native plants, thereby altering 
available cover, food quantity and quality, and altering fire 
intervals. The ultimate effects of cheatgrass invasion on this species 
are not fully understood. While Washington ground squirrels eat 
cheatgrass, it is not likely a viable long-term dietary option since 
cheatgrass populations are unstable during drought and contain large 
amounts of indigestible silica which may make it a poor nutrition 
source. Fire recurrence intervals typically switch from 20-100 years in 
sagebrush-grassland ecosystems to 3-5 years in cheatgrass-dominant 
sites. Increased fire occurrence reduces native bunchgrass and shrub 
cover (by competition or preventing the re-establishment of shrub 
cover) and allows exotic species to further out-compete native species.
    The most contiguous, least-disturbed expanse of suitable Washington 
ground squirrel habitat within the species' range occurs on the Boeing 
site and Naval Weapons Training Facility near Boardman, Oregon. In 
Washington, the largest expanse of known suitable habitat occurs on 
State and Federal land. In Washington, recent declines in some colonies 
have been precipitous for unknown (possibly weather-related) reasons. 
For example, in 2001 entire colonies of ground squirrels were no longer 
occupied on the Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and Seep Lakes 
Management Area near Othello, Washington, despite protection for 
species in this area. Recent surveys have located additional sites in 
Washington and Oregon. However, detections are primarily located in the 
three disjunct metapopulations, indicating fragmentation and increased 
vulnerability to natural and man-made factors is still a widespread 
threat.
    In Oregon, some threats are addressed by the State listing of this 
species, and by the recently signed Threemile Canyon Farms Multi-
Species Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances (Agreement). 
Participants in the 25-year agreement include Threemile Canyon Farms, 
The Nature Conservancy, Portland General Electric (PGE), the Oregon 
Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Service. Parties will 
implement habitat management, operational modifications, and 
conservation measures for four non-listed species, including the 
Washington ground squirrel. Under this agreement, 22,600 ac (9,145 ha) 
of the Boeing tract was placed in a permanent ODFW conservation 
easement (Boardman Conservation Area) and 888 ac (356 ha) of PGE 
property will be managed as part of the BCA for the duration of the 
Agreement.
    Current threats to the long-term persistence of this species 
include the following: Historic and current habitat loss from the 
conversion of habitat to agriculture and other development, habitat 
fragmentation, limited dispersal corridors, recreational shooting, 
genetic isolation and drift, spread of nonnative species, and 
predation. Potential threats include disease, drought, and possible 
competition with related ground squirrel species in disturbed habitat 
at the periphery of their range. While there are a variety of 
conservation actions and research activities, they do not address all 
of the threats throughout the species' range. Due to the widespread 
current and potential threats to the species we conclude the magnitude 
of threats remains high. Because the Agreement addressed the imminent 
loss of a large

[[Page 53779]]

portion of habitat to agriculture, and because there are no other 
known, large-scale efforts to convert suitable habitat to agriculture, 
overall the threats are nonimminent. We, therefore, kept the listing 
priority number at 5.
Birds
    Spotless crake, American Samoa DPS (Porzana tabuensis)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
P. tabuensis is a small, dark, cryptic rail found in wetlands and rank 
scrub or forest in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, Tonga, Society 
Islands, Marquesas, Independent Samoa, and American Samoa (Ofu, Tau). 
The genus Porzana is widespread in the Pacific, where it is represented 
by numerous island-endemic and flightless species (many of which are 
extinct as a result of anthropogenic disturbances) as well as several 
more cosmopolitan species, including P. tabuensis. No subspecies of P. 
tabuensis are recognized. The American Samoa population is the only 
population of spotless crakes under U.S. jurisdiction. The available 
information indicates that distinct populations of the spotless crake, 
a species not noted for long-distance dispersal, are definable. The 
population of spotless crakes in American Samoa is discrete in relation 
to the remainder of the species as a whole, which is distributed in 
widely separated locations. Although the spotless crake (and other 
rails) have dispersed widely in the Pacific, island rails have tended 
to reduce or lose their power of flight over evolutionary time and so 
become isolated (and vulnerable to terrestrial predators such as rats). 
The population of this species in American Samoa is therefore distinct 
based on geographic and distributional isolation from spotless crake 
populations on other islands in the oceanic Pacific, the Philippines, 
and Australia. The American Samoa population of the spotless crake 
links the Central and Eastern Pacific portions of the species' range. 
The loss of this population could cause an increase of roughly 500 
miles in the disjunction between the central and eastern Polynesian 
portions of the spotless crake's range, and could result in the 
isolation of the Marquesas and Society Islands populations by further 
limiting the potential for even rare genetic exchange. Based on the 
discreteness and significance of the American Samoa population of the 
spotless crake, we consider this population to be a distinct vertebrate 
population segment which warrants review for listing under the Act.
    Threats to this species have not changed over the past year. The 
population in American Samoa is threatened by small population size, 
limited distribution, predation by nonnative mammals, continued 
development of wetland habitat, and natural catastrophes such as 
hurricanes. The co-occurrence of a known predator of ground-nesting 
birds, the Norway rat, and the only known population of the spotless 
crake under U.S. jurisdiction, along with the extremely restricted 
observed distribution and low numbers, indicate that the American Samoa 
distinct population segment of this species continues to merit status 
as a candidate for listing. Based on our assessment of existing 
information about the imminence and high magnitude of these threats, we 
assigned the spotless crake a listing priority number of 3.
    Kauai creeper (Oreomystis bairdi)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Kauai creeper is a small, 
insectivorous forest bird that is found only on the Hawaiian island of 
Kauai. It occurs in mesic and wet montane forests at higher elevations 
on the Alakai Plateau. Surveys in 2000 showed that in the last 30 years 
the range of the Kauai creeper has decreased from 88 to 36 square 
kilometers (21,750 to 8,896 acres), that the species has disappeared 
from much of the periphery of its range, and that the estimated 
population has declined from 6,832  966 to 1,472  680 birds.
    The creeper is primarily threatened by diseases carried by 
nonnative mosquitoes that occur over most or all of its range. 
Experimental evidence has shown that the malarial parasite does not 
develop in birds below 13[deg] Celsius (C) (55[deg] Fahrenheit (F)), 
and field studies have found that maximum malaria transmission occurs 
where mean ambient summer temperature is 17 [deg]C (63 [deg]F). There 
are no forested areas on Kauai where mean ambient temperature is below 
13 [deg]C (55 [deg]F), meaning all areas are subject to malaria at 
least periodically. Mosquitoes have been found recently near the 
highest elevations on Kauai. The disappearance of the Kauai creeper 
from lowland habitats indicates the species has not evolved resistance 
to these diseases, and it is very unlikely that such evolution could 
occur rapidly enough to keep pace with expansion of mosquito 
populations. The creeper's habitat is being adversely affected by 
invasive nonnative plants and by the browsing and rooting of feral 
ungulates. Nonnative plants displace native plant species required by 
the creeper, and ungulates destroy the forest understory and spread the 
seeds of nonnative plants. Efforts are underway to control nonnative 
plants in some areas, but over most of the species range there is no 
effective control of nonnative plants or feral ungulates. Based on the 
imminent threats of a high magnitude, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 2.
    Yellow-billed cuckoo, western U.S. DPS (Coccyzus americanus)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on February 9, 1998. See also our 12-month 
petition finding published on July 25, 2001 (66 FR 38611). The yellow-
billed cuckoo is a medium-sized bird of about 12 inches (30 
centimeters) in length with a slender, long-tailed profile and a fairly 
stout and slightly down-curved bill. Plumage is grayish-brown above and 
white below, with rufous primary flight feathers with the tail feathers 
boldly patterned with black and white below. Western cuckoos breed in 
large blocks of riparian habitats (particularly woodlands with 
cottonwoods (Populus fremontii) and willows (Salix sp.). Dense 
understory foliage appears to be an important factor in nest site 
selection, while cottonwood trees are an important foraging habitat in 
areas where the species has been studied in California. We consider the 
yellow-billed cuckoos that occur in the western U.S. a distinct 
population segment (DPS). The area for this DPS is west of the crest of 
the Rocky Mountains.
    The threats currently facing the yellow-billed cuckoo include 
habitat loss, cattle grazing, and pesticide application. Principal 
causes of riparian habitat losses are conversion to agricultural and 
other uses, dams and river flow management, stream channelization and 
stabilization, and livestock grazing. Available breeding habitats for 
cuckoos have also been substantially reduced in area and quality by 
groundwater pumping and the replacement of native riparian habitats by 
invasive nonnative plants, particularly tamarisk. Overuse by livestock 
has been a major factor in the degradation and modification of riparian 
habitats in the western U.S. The effects include changes in plant 
community structure and species composition and in relative abundance 
of species and plant density. These changes are often linked to more 
widespread changes in watershed hydrology. Livestock grazing in 
riparian habitats typically results in reduction of plant species 
diversity and density, especially of palatable broadleaf plants

[[Page 53780]]

like willows and cottonwood saplings, and is one of the most common 
causes of riparian degradation. In addition to destruction and 
degradation of riparian habitats, pesticides may affect cuckoo 
populations. In areas where riparian habitat borders agricultural 
lands, e.g., in California's central valley, pesticide use may 
indirectly affect cuckoos by reducing prey numbers, or by poisoning 
nestlings if sprayed directly in areas where the birds are nesting. We 
retain a listing priority number of 3 for the yellow-billed cuckoo due 
to imminent threats of a high magnitude.
    Friendly ground-dove, American Samoa DPS (Gallicolumba stairi 
stairi)--See above in ``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in 
Candidates.'' The above summary is based on information contained in 
our files. No new information was provided in the petition received on 
May 11, 2004.
    Streaked horned lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on January 7, 2003.
    Red knot (Calidris canutus rufa)--See above in ``Summary of New 
Candidates.'' The above summary is based on information in our files 
and in the petitions dated August 6, 2004, July 28, 2005, and August 2, 
2005.
    Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on May 9, 2001. Kittlitz's murrelet is a small diving seabird 
whose entire North American population, and most of the world's 
population, inhabits Alaskan coastal waters discontinuously from Point 
Lay south to northern portions of Southeast Alaska. Most recent 
population estimates (9,500-26,700 birds) indicate that it has the 
smallest population of any seabird considered a regular breeder in 
Alaska. This species appears to have undergone significant population 
declines in four of its core population centers--Prince William Sound, 
Malaspina Forelands, Glacier Bay, and Kenai Fjords. As populations 
become smaller, they become increasingly vulnerable to events that may 
result in local extirpation. Causes for the declines in populations are 
not well known, but we believe that glacial retreat and oceanic regime 
shifts are the most likely causes. Kittlitz's murrelets seem to prefer 
areas near stable or advancing tidewater glacier faces as these areas 
have higher primary productivity compared to siltier, less saline 
fjords with receding glaciers, but the ecological mechanisms linking 
Kittlitz's murrelets to their preferred habitats remains a topic for 
further research. Other causes of decline may include: Habitat loss or 
degradation, increased adult and juvenile mortality, and low 
recruitment. Existing regulatory mechanisms appear inadequate to stop 
or reverse population declines or to reduce the threats to this 
species. Due to the nonimminent threats of high magnitude, we retained 
a listing priority number of 5 for this species.
    Xantus's murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on April 16, 2002. The Xantus's murrelet is a small seabird in 
the Alcid family that occurs along the west coast of North America in 
the U.S. and Mexico. The species has a very limited breeding 
distribution, only nesting on the Channel Islands in southern 
California and on islands off the west coast of Baja California, 
Mexico. Nesting populations in the U.S. and Mexico appear to have 
declined due to a wide variety of threats, with substantial declines 
evident at some of the largest nesting colonies and extirpations on 
three of the seven Mexican islands. Some identified threats include the 
possibility of oil spills, reductions in prey availability, introduced 
nonnative predators at several nesting colonies, chronic human 
disturbance, and artificial light pollution. A dramatic decline (up to 
70 percent) from 1977 to 1991 was detected at the largest nesting 
colony in southern California, possibly due to high levels of predation 
on eggs by the endemic deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus elusus). Data 
on population trends from other islands are scarce, particularly on the 
Mexican nesting islands. Although substantial declines in the Xantus's 
murrelet population appear to have occurred over the last century, some 
of the largest threats are being addressed, and, to some degree, 
ameliorated in the U.S.. Declines and extirpations of Xantus's 
murrelets at several nesting colonies were thought to have been caused 
by nonnative predators such as rats (Rattus sp.) and feral cats (Felis 
catus), which have been removed from many of the islands where they 
once occurred. Most notably, in 2002, rats were eradicated from Anacapa 
Island in southern California, which has resulted in immediate 
improvements in reproductive success at that island.
    The Service has been working with the State of California, National 
Park Service, and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA Fisheries) to address the threats of light pollution and human 
disturbance. Many nocturnal seabirds are attracted to bright lights on 
commercial fishing vessels. Xantus's murrelets and other seabirds 
become exhausted by their continual attraction and fluttering near 
lights or collide with lighted vessels, the impact resulting in injury 
or death. Chicks have been known to become separated from their parents 
due to vessel lights, and this would have resulted in death of the 
chicks because they are dependent on their parents for survival. High-
wattage lights on commercial market squid (Loligo opalescens) fishing 
vessels are used at night to attract squid to the surface of the water. 
These boats have been reported operating in shallow waters near 
Xantus's murrelet nesting colonies in the California Channel Islands, 
with several vessels often fishing simultaneously in the same area. 
Unusually high predation on Xantus's murrelets by Western Gulls and 
Barn Owls was reported at Santa Barbara Island in 1999, and was 
attributed to bright lights from the squid fishing that occurred 
directly offshore for much of the breeding season. To address this 
threat, the California Fish and Game Commission requires light shields 
and a limit of 30,000 watts per boat, made effective on May 31, 2000. 
The resulting effects are still unknown.
    The recent proposal to build a liquid natural gas (LNG) facility 
600 meters (1,969 feet) off Islas Los Coronados in Baja California, 
Mexico, is another threat to the species. This island contains one of 
the largest nesting populations of Xantus's murrelets in the world. The 
construction and operation of the proposed LNG facility at Islas Los 
Coronados could increase human disturbance to Xantus's murrelets. 
Potential sources of disturbance include: (1) Bright lights at night 
from the facility and visiting tanker vessels; (2) noise from the 
facility; (3) noise from helicopters visiting the facility; (4) ingress 
and egress of tanker vessels; and (5) other vessels transporting 
personnel and supplies. Due to the imminent threats of high magnitude, 
we assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.
    Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on October 5, 1995. Additional information can be found in the 
12-month finding published on June 7, 1998 (63 FR 31400). Biologists 
estimate that the occupied range has declined by 92 percent since the 
1800s. The most serious threats to the lesser prairie-chicken are loss 
of habitat from conversion of native rangelands to introduced forages 
and cultivation,

[[Page 53781]]

cumulative habitat degradation caused by severe grazing, woody plant 
invasion of open prairies, fire suppression, herbicides, and habitat 
fragmentation caused by structural and transportation developments. 
Many of these threats may exacerbate the normal effects of periodic 
drought on lesser prairie-chicken populations. In many cases, the 
remaining suitable habitat has become fragmented by the spatial 
arrangement of these individual threats. We view current and continued 
habitat fragmentation to be a serious ongoing threat that facilitates 
the extinction process through several mechanisms: Remaining habitat 
patches may become smaller than necessary to meet the yearlong 
requirements of individuals and populations, necessary habitat 
heterogeneity may be lost to large areas of monoculture vegetation and/
or homogeneous habitat structure, areas between habitat patches may 
harbor high levels of predators or brood parasites, and the probability 
of recolonization decreases as the distance between suitable habitat 
patches expands.
    The Service is currently working to quantify the ongoing level of 
habitat fragmentation throughout the range of the species. Although 
Federal lands comprise only five percent of currently occupied habitat, 
these tracts are located in areas essential to population recovery and 
dispersal. As a result, the Service views habitat management 
considerations on Federal lands within current and historic range as 
very important. Due to their potential to affect the species, current 
planning efforts for grazing and wind, oil, and gas development on 
public lands is of particular relevance to the future listing status of 
the species.
    Based on all currently available information, we find that ongoing 
threats to the lesser prairie-chicken, as outlined in the 12-month 
finding, remain unchanged and lesser prairie-chickens continue to 
warrant Federal listing as threatened. We have determined that the 
overall magnitude of threats to the lesser prairie-chicken throughout 
its range is moderate, and that the threats are ongoing and thus, 
imminent. Consequently, a listing priority number of 8 remains 
appropriate for the species.
    Greater sage-grouse, Columbia Basin DPS (Centrocercus 
urophasianus)--We have not updated our finding with regard to the 
Columbian Basin DPS of the greater sage-grouse in this notice. In the 
May 4, 2004, notice, we found that a listing proposal for this DPS was 
still warranted but precluded by higher priorities, and maintained its 
listing priority number of 6. The following summary is based on 
information in our files and a petition, dated May 14, 1999, requesting 
the listing of the Washington population of western sage grouse (C. u. 
phaios). Currently, the American Ornithologists' Union recognizes two 
subspecies of greater sage-grouse. Compared to the eastern subspecies 
(C. u. urophasianus), the western subspecies has reduced white markings 
and darker grayish-brown feathering, resulting in a more dusky overall 
appearance. Pursuant to Service policy (61 FR 4722), on May 7, 2001, we 
concluded that listing the Columbia Basin DPS of western sage grouse, 
which was historically found in northern Oregon and central Washington, 
was warranted, but precluded by higher priority listing actions (66 FR 
22984). The Service subsequently received two petitions requesting the 
listing of the entire ranges of the nominal western and eastern 
subspecies of greater sage-grouse, dated January 24 and July 3, 2002, 
respectively. However, based on communications with recognized experts, 
disagreement as to the validity of these subspecies designations 
exists. When informed taxonomic opinion is not unanimous, the Service 
must evaluate the available information with regard to our section 4 
listing responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (USFWS 1992). 
We subsequently concluded that the subspecies designations for greater 
sage-grouse are inappropriate given current taxonomic standards (68 FR 
6500 and 69 FR 933). In response to recent judicial direction 
(Institute for Wildlife Protection v. Norton (9th Cir. 2005, 
Unpublished opinion)), we are in the process of revisiting our current 
interpretation of the taxonomic status of the greater sage-grouse 
subspecies. We will publish an updated finding addressing the Columbia 
Basin DPS in the Federal Register, either in the next CNOR or in a 
separate notice, following our judicially-directed reassessment of the 
species' taxonomy.
    Band-rumped storm-petrel, Hawaii DPS (Oceanodroma castro)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on May 8, 1989. No new information was provided 
in the second petition received on May 11, 2004. The band-rumped storm-
petrel is a small seabird that is found in several areas of the 
subtropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In the Pacific, there are 
three widely separated breeding populations--one in Japan, one in 
Hawaii, and one in the Galapagos. Populations in Japan and the 
Galapagos are comparatively large and number in the thousands, while 
the Hawaiian birds represent a small, remnant population of possibly 
only a few hundred pairs. Band-rumped storm-petrels are most commonly 
found in close proximity to breeding islands. The three populations in 
the Pacific are separated by long distances across the ocean where 
birds are not found. Extensive at-sea surveys of the Pacific have 
revealed a broad gap in distribution of the band-rumped storm-petrel to 
the east and west of the Hawaiian Islands, indicating the distribution 
of birds in the central Pacific around Hawaii is disjunct from other 
nesting areas. The available information indicates that distinct 
populations of band-rumped storm-petrels are definable and that the 
Hawaiian population is distinct based on geographic and distributional 
isolation from other band-rumped storm-petrel populations in Japan, the 
Galapagos, and the Atlantic Ocean. A population also can be considered 
discrete if it is delimited by international boundaries across which 
exist differences in management control of the species. The Hawaiian 
population of the band-rumped storm-petrel is the only population 
within U.S. borders or under U.S. jurisdiction. Loss of the Hawaiian 
population would cause a significant gap in the distribution of the 
band-rumped storm-petrel in the Pacific, and could result in the 
complete isolation of the Galapagos and Japan populations without even 
occasional genetic exchanges.
    The band-rumped storm-petrel probably was common on all of the main 
Hawaiian Islands when Polynesians arrived about 1,500 years ago, based 
on storm-petrel bones found in middens on the island of Hawaii and in 
excavation sites on Oahu and Molokai. Nesting colonies of this species 
in the Hawaiian Islands currently are restricted to remote cliffs on 
Kauai and Lehua Islet and high-elevation lava fields on Hawaii. 
Vocalizations of the species were heard in Haleakala Crater on Maui in 
1992, but have not been detected there recently. The significant 
reduction in numbers and range of the band-rumped storm-petrel from 
prehistoric population levels is due primarily to predation by humans 
and nonnative predators introduced by humans, including the domestic 
cat (Felis catus), small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), 
common barn owl (Tyto alba), black rat (R. rattus), Polynesian rat 
(Rattus exulans), and Norway rat (R. norvegicus), which occur 
throughout the main Hawaiian

[[Page 53782]]

Islands, with the exception of the mongoose, which is not established 
on Kauai but may have an incipient population there. Attraction of 
fledglings to artificial lights and collisions with artificial 
structures such as communication towers and utility lines are also a 
threat. Erosion of nest sites caused by the actions of nonnative 
ungulates and feral rabbits is a threat in some locations. Efforts are 
underway in some areas to reduce light pollution and mitigate the 
threat of collisions, but there are no large-scale efforts to control 
nonnative predators in the Hawaiian Islands. Based on the imminent 
threats of a high magnitude, we assign this distinct population segment 
a listing priority number of 3.
    Elfin woods warbler (Dendroica angelae)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The elfin woods 
warbler is a small, entirely black and white warbler, endemic to Puerto 
Rico. This species was at first thought to occur only in the high-
elevation dwarf or elfin forests, but it has since been found at lower 
elevations, including shade coffee plantations and secondary forests. 
Dendroica angelae builds a compact cup nest, usually close to the trunk 
and well hidden among the epiphytes of a small tree, and its breeding 
season extends from March to June. This species forages in the middle 
part of trees, gleaning insects from leaves in the outer portion of the 
tree crown. Dendroica angelae has been documented from four locations: 
Luquillo Mountains, Sierra de Cayey, and the Commonwealth forests of 
Maricao and Toro Negro. However, it has not been recorded again in Toro 
Negro and Cayey, following Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Although there is no 
estimate of total population of D angelae, the latest estimate of 138 
pairs for the Luquillo Mountains suggests that the total population may 
be less than 300 pairs.
    Habitat destruction from expansion of public facilities within the 
forests, potential construction of additional telecommunication towers 
and their maintenance, disruption of breeding activities from 
pedestrians and high human use areas, switching from shade to sun 
coffee plantations, timber management practices, potential predators, 
and catastrophic natural events such as hurricanes and forest fires 
threaten this species. Although these threats are not imminent, because 
most of the range of D. angelae is within protected lands and there are 
no known projects or management activities planned that would result in 
mortality of this species, the magnitude of threat to D. angelae is 
high, due to its restricted distribution and low population numbers. 
Therefore, we assign a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
Reptiles
    Sand dune lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files and in the petition 
received June 6, 2002. The sand dune lizard is endemic to a small area 
in southeastern New Mexico (Chaves, Eddy, Lea, and Roosevelt Counties) 
and adjacent west Texas (Andrews, Crane, Ward, and Winkler Counties). 
Within this area, the known occupied and potentially occupied habitat 
is only 1,697 square kilometers (655 square miles) in New Mexico and an 
area of unknown size in west Texas. The sand dune lizard's distribution 
is localized and fragmented (i.e., known populations are separated by 
vast areas of unoccupied habitat), and the species is restricted to 
sand dune blowouts associated with active sand dunes and shinnery oak 
(Quercus harvardii) and scattered sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) 
vegetation. Sand dune lizards are not found at sites lacking shinnery-
oak dune habitat.
    Extensive surveys within New Mexico, conducted in conjunction with 
a 5-year study, documented sand dune lizards at only half of the sites 
surveyed. Since February 2003, a Stakeholder Group has met to create a 
conservation strategy for the conservation of shinnery-oak habitat that 
offers a range of specific actions for the recovery of the lesser 
prairie-chicken and sand dune lizard and takes into account other uses 
of the land. The group has broad representation from the oil and gas 
and livestock industries, conservation/environmental interests, local 
governments, sportsmen/recreation, State and Federal agencies (New 
Mexico State Land Office, New Mexico Department of Agriculture, Natural 
Resources Conservation Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau 
of Land Management), and independent technical advisors. The group 
completed its Conservation Strategy that outlines broad policies and 
plans for land management and a set of voluntary conservation efforts 
by stakeholders.
    It is clear that shinnery-oak removal (e.g., by treating with the 
herbicide Tebuthiuron for livestock range improvements) results in 
dramatic reductions and extirpation of sand dune lizards. Scientists 
repeatedly confirmed the extirpation of sand dune lizards from areas 
with herbicide treatment to remove shinnery oak. In 1999, biologists 
estimated that about 25 percent of the total sand-dune-lizard habitat 
in New Mexico had been eliminated in the previous 10 years. The 
population of sand dune lizards has also been affected by oil and gas 
field development. An estimated 50-percent decline in sand dune lizard 
populations can be expected in areas with approximately 25 to 30 oil 
and/or gas wells per section. The distribution of sand dune lizards is 
localized and fragmented, and this species is a habitat specialist. 
Therefore, impacts to its habitat will most likely greatly decrease 
populations. If current herbicide application continues and oil and gas 
development progresses as expected, the magnitude of threat to sand 
dune lizards will increase. Continued pressure to develop oil and gas 
resources in areas with sand dune lizards poses an imminent threat to 
the species. Therefore, we continue to assign this species a listing 
priority number of 2.
    Eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
eastern massasauga is one of three recognized subspecies of massasauga. 
It is a small, thick-bodied rattlesnake that occupies shallow wetlands 
and adjacent upland habitat in portions of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
and Ontario. Although the current range of S. c. catenatus resembles 
the subspecies' historical range, the geographic distribution has been 
restricted by the loss of the subspecies from much of the area within 
the boundaries of that range. Approximately 40 percent of the counties 
that were historically occupied by S. c. catenatus no longer support 
the subspecies. S. c. catenatus is currently considered imperiled in 
every State and province in which it occupies. Each State and Canadian 
province across the range of S. c. catenatus has lost more than 30 
percent, and for the majority more than 50 percent, of their historical 
populations. Furthermore, less than 35 percent of the remaining 
populations are considered secure. Approximately 59 percent of the 
remaining S. c. catenatus populations occur wholly or in part on public 
land, and state-wide and/or site-specific Candidate Conservation 
Agreements with Assurances (CCAAs) are currently being developed for 
many of these areas in Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and 
Wisconsin. Populations soon to be under CCAs and CCAAs have a high

[[Page 53783]]

likelihood of persisting and remaining viable. Other populations are 
likely to suffer additional losses in abundance and genetic diversity 
and some will likely be extirpated unless threats are removed in the 
near future. Therefore, the magnitude of threats from habitat 
modification, habitat succession, incompatible land management 
practices, illegal collection for the pet trade, and human persecution 
is moderate overall, with most imminent threats occurring to remaining 
populations on private lands. Due in large part to the numerous CCAAs 
currently being developed and implemented, we do not believe emergency 
listing is warranted and have kept the listing priority number at 9 for 
the eastern massasauga subspecies.
    Black pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)--See above in ``Summary 
of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based 
on information contained in our files and the petition received on July 
19, 2000.
    Sonoyta mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
The Sonoyta mud turtle occurs in a spring and pond at Quitobaquito 
Springs on Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in Arizona, and in the 
Rio Sonoyta and Quitovac Spring of Sonora, Mexico. Loss and degradation 
of stream habitat from water diversion and groundwater pumping, along 
with its very limited distribution, is the primary threat to the 
Sonoyta mud turtle. Sonoyta mud turtles are highly aquatic and depend 
on permanent water for survival. The area of southwest Arizona and 
northern Sonora where the Sonoyta mud turtle occurs is one of the 
driest regions of the southwest. Due to continuing irrigated 
agriculture and development in the region, surface water in the Rio 
Sonoyta can be expected to dwindle further. This species may also be 
vulnerable to aerial spraying of pesticides on nearby agricultural 
fields. Due to imminent threats of a high magnitude, we are keeping the 
listing priority number of 3 for this subspecies.
Amphibians
    Columbia spotted frog, Great Basin DPS (Rana luteiventris)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on May 1, 1989. Currently, Columbia spotted frogs 
appear to be widely distributed throughout southwestern Idaho, eastern 
Oregon, and northeastern and central Nevada, but local populations 
within this entire general area appear to be small and isolated from 
each other. Recent work by researchers in Idaho and Nevada has 
documented the loss of historically known sites, reduced numbers of 
individuals within local populations, and declines in the reproduction 
of those individuals. Habitat degradation and fragmentation are 
probably a combined result of past and current influences of heavy 
livestock grazing, spring alterations, agricultural development, 
urbanization, beaver control, and mining activities. Fragmentation of 
habitat may be one of the most significant barriers to Columbia spotted 
frog recovery and population persistence. Loss of vegetation and/or 
lowering of the water table as a result of the above mentioned 
activities can significantly threaten frogs moving from one area to 
another. Likewise, fragmentation and loss of habitat can prevent frogs 
from colonizing suitable sites elsewhere.
    Two conservation agreements and strategies were signed by Federal, 
State, county, and university representatives on September 30, 2003, 
for the central and northeast Nevada subpopulations. The goals of the 
conservation agreements are to reduce threats to Columbia spotted frogs 
and their habitat to the extent necessary to prevent populations from 
becoming extirpated throughout all or a portion of their historic range 
and to maintain, enhance, and restore a sufficient number of 
populations of Columbia spotted frogs and their habitat to ensure their 
continued existence throughout their historic range. Despite the 
signing of these two conservation agreements and implementation of many 
actions in one of them, population levels have not increased 
significantly over levels that were present at the time the agreements 
were signed. There are several reasons for this, including the fact 
that the agreements do not cover entire range of the species (Oregon 
and Idaho are not included); the agreements mainly focus on data 
collection and research to assess current threats and distribution and 
abundance, and important factors affecting the populations are outside 
the scope of the agreement/conservation actions. Factors outside the 
agreements are threats such as disease, winter kill, and unexpected 
habitat degradation due to impacts of unauthorized livestock use at a 
core population site of the species. Also, implementation of one of the 
agreements has been severely constrained due to funding limitations 
faced by the implementing agency. Based on imminent threats of high 
magnitude, we are continuing to assign a listing priority number of 3 
to this DPS of the Columbia spotted frog.
    Mountain yellow-legged frog, Sierra Nevada DPS (Rana muscosa)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on February 8, 2000. Also see our 12-month 
petition finding published on January 16, 2003 (68 FR 2283). The 
mountain yellow-legged frog inhabits the high elevation lakes, ponds, 
and streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, from near 
4,500 feet (1,370 meters) to 12,000 feet (3,650 meters). The 
distribution of the mountain yellow-legged frog is from Butte and 
Plumas counties in the north to Tulare and Inyo counties in the south. 
A separate population in southern California is already listed as 
endangered (67 FR 44382).
    Predation by introduced trout is the best-documented cause of the 
decline of the Sierra Nevada mountain yellow-legged frog, because it 
has been repeatedly observed that nonnative fishes and mountain yellow-
legged frogs rarely co-exist. Mountain yellow-legged frogs and trout 
(native and nonnative) do co-occur at some sites, but these co-
occurrences probably are mountain yellow-legged frog populations with 
negative population growth rates in the absence of immigration. To help 
reverse the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog, the Sequoia and 
Kings Canyon National Parks have been removing introduced trout since 
2001. Over 18,000 introduced trout have been removed from 11 lakes 
since the project started in 2001. The lakes are completely-to-mostly 
fish-free and substantial mountain yellow-legged frog population 
increases have resulted. The California Department of Fish and Game 
(CDFG) has also removed or is in the process of removing nonnative 
trout from a total of between 10 and 20 water bodies in the Inyo, 
Humboldt-Toiyabe, Sierra, and El Dorado National Forests. In the El 
Dorado National Forest, golden trout were removed from Leland Lakes, 
and attempts have been made to remove trout from two sites near 
Gertrude Lake and a tributary of Cole Creek; no data showing increase 
in mountain yellow-legged frogs at these sites were available.
    In California, chytridiomycosis, more commonly known as chytrid 
fungus, has been detected in many amphibian

[[Page 53784]]

species, including the mountain yellow-legged frog within the Sierra 
Nevada. Recent research has shown that this pathogenic fungus is widely 
distributed throughout the Sierra Nevada, and that infected mountain 
yellow-legged frogs die soon after metamorphosis. Several infected and 
uninfected populations were monitored in Sequoia and Kings Canyon 
National Parks over multiple years, documenting dramatic declines and 
extirpations in infected but not in uninfected populations. In the 
summer of 2005, 39 of 43 populations assayed in Yosemite National Park 
were positive for chytrid fungus.
    The current distribution of the Sierra Nevada mountain yellow-
legged frog is restricted primarily to publicly managed lands at high 
elevations, including streams, lakes, ponds, and meadow wetlands 
located on national forests, including wilderness and non-wilderness on 
the forests, and national parks. In several areas where detailed 
studies of the effects of chytrid fungus on the mountain yellow-legged 
frog are ongoing, substantial declines have been observed over the past 
several years. For example, in 2005 surveys in Yosemite National Park 
mountain yellow-legged frogs were not detectable at 37 percent of 113 
sites where they had been observed in 2000 to 2002; in 2005 in Sequoia 
and Kings Canyon National Parks, mountain yellow-legged frogs were not 
detected at 47 percent of sites where they had been recorded 3 to 8 
years earlier. A compounding effect of disease-caused extinctions of 
mountain yellow-legged frogs is that recolonization may never occur, 
because streams connecting extirpated sites to extant populations now 
contain introduced fishes, which act as barriers to frog movement 
within metapopulations. The listing priority for the mountain yellow-
legged frog in the Sierra Nevada is highest for a population and is a 
3.
    Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files and the petition received on May 
4, 1989. Historically, the Oregon spotted frog ranged from British 
Columbia to the Pit River drainage in northeastern California. Based on 
surveys of historical sites, the Oregon spotted frog is now absent from 
at least 76 percent of its former range. The majority of the remaining 
Oregon spotted frog populations are small and isolated.
    The threats to the species' habitat include development, livestock 
grazing, introduction of nonnative plant species, changes in hydrology 
due to construction of dams and alterations to seasonal flooding, and 
poor water quality. Additional threats to the species are predation by 
nonnative fish and introduced bullfrogs; competition with bullfrogs for 
habitat; and diseases, such as oomycete water mold Saprolegnia and 
chytrid fungus infections. The magnitude of threat is high for this 
species because the small populations with patchy and isolated 
distributions are subject to a wide range of threats to both 
individuals and their habitats that could seriously reduce or eliminate 
any of these isolated populations and further reduce the range of the 
species. Habitat restoration and management actions have not prevented 
a decline in the reproductive rates in some populations. The threats 
are imminent because each population is faced with multiple ongoing and 
potential threats. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 
2 for the Oregon spotted frog.
    Relict leopard frog (Rana onca)--See above in ``Summary of Listing 
Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files and the petition received on May 9, 
2002.
    Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Since the species was elevated to candidate status in 2001 (66 FR 
54808), the known threats have increased. In particular, recreational 
pressures on Ozark hellbender rivers have increased substantially on an 
annual basis. The Missouri Department of Conservation reports that 
gigging popularity and pressure have increased, and present a 
significant threat to hellbenders during the breeding season as they 
tend to move greater distances and congregate in small groups where 
they are an easy target for giggers. Canoe, kayak, and motor/jet boat 
traffic has increased in recent years on the Jacks Fork, Current, 
Eleven Point, and North Fork Rivers. The popularity of these float 
streams has grown to the point that the National Park Service is 
considering alternatives to reducing the number of boats that can be 
launched daily by concessionaires. In 2003, the Missouri Department of 
Natural Resources added a 7-mile stretch of the Jacks Fork River to the 
list of impaired waters for organic wastes (fecal coliform).
    To date, nothing has been done to reduce or ameliorate ongoing 
threats to Ozark hellbenders. The Ozarks region continues to experience 
rapid urbanization, expansion of industrial agricultural practices such 
as concentrated animal feeding operations (chickens, turkeys, hogs, 
cattle), and logging. No laws are in place that preclude livestock from 
grazing in riparian corridors and resting in or along streams and 
rivers. Missouri is the second largest beef cattle producing state in 
the nation, with the majority of animal units produced in the Ozarks. 
Both Arkansas and Missouri are the leading States in poultry 
production. The fact that the majority of the Ozarks region in Missouri 
and Arkansas is comprised of karst topography (caves, springs, 
sinkholes, and losing streams) further complicates the containment and 
transport of potential contaminants. In short, the abundance of waste 
being generated and lack of adequate treatment facilities or practices 
for both human and livestock waste poses a significant and ever 
increasing threat to aquatic ecosystems. The decrease in Ozark 
hellbender range and population size and the shift in age structure are 
likely caused by a variety of historic and ongoing activities. The 
primary causes of these trends are habitat destruction and 
modification. Among these are impoundment, channelization, and 
siltation and water quality degradation from a variety of sources, 
including industrialization, agricultural runoff, mine waste, and 
timber harvest. Overutilization of hellbenders for commerce and 
scientific purposes is also likely contributing to their decline. The 
regulations in place that could prevent these impacts, including the 
Clean Water Act and State laws, have been inadequate in preventing 
Ozark hellbender declines to this point. Finally, most of the remaining 
Ozark hellbender populations are small and isolated, making them 
vulnerable to individual catastrophic events and reducing the 
likelihood of recolonization after localized extinctions. Due to the 
existence of ongoing, high magnitude threats, particularly the 
substantial increases in recreational pressures on Ozark hellbender 
rivers on an annual basis, we assigned a listing priority number of 3 
to the subspecies.
    Austin blind salamander (Eurycea waterlooensis)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Austin blind 
salamander is known to occur in and around three of the four spring 
sites that comprise the Barton Springs complex in the City of Austin, 
Travis County, Texas.
    Primary threats to this species are degradation of water quality 
and quantity due to expanding urbanization. The Austin blind salamander 
depends on a constant supply of clean water in the Edwards Aquifer 
discharging from

[[Page 53785]]

Barton Springs for its survival. Urbanization dramatically alters the 
normal hydrologic regime and water quality of an area. Increased 
impervious cover caused by development increases the quantity and 
velocity of runoff that leads to erosion and greater pollution 
transport. Pollutants and contaminants that enter the Edwards Acquifer 
are discharged in salamander habitat at Barton Springs and have serious 
morphological and physiological effects to the salamander. As the human 
population increases in central Texas, greater demand on groundwater 
sources occurs. Increased pumping of the Edwards Aquifer can result in 
reduced springflows that may also detrimentally impact the salamander. 
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality adopted the Edwards Rules 
in 1995 and 1997, which require a number of water quality protection 
measures for new development occurring in the recharge and contributing 
zones of the Edwards Aquifer. However, Chapter 245 of the Texas Local 
Government Code permits ``grandfathering'' of state regulations. 
Grandfathering allows developments to be exempted from any new local or 
state requirements for water quality controls and impervious cover 
limits if the developments were planned prior to the implementation of 
such regulations. As a result of the grandfathering law, very few 
developments have followed these ordinances. New developments are still 
obligated to comply with regulations that were applicable at the time 
when project applications for development were first filed. In 
addition, it is significant that even if they were followed with every 
new development, these ordinances do not span the entire watershed for 
Barton Springs. Consequently, development occurring outside these 
jurisdictions can have negative consequences on water quality and thus 
impact the species. Despite having the Edwards Rules in place and the 
existence of other local ordinances, 10 years of trend data continues 
to show that water quality at Barton Springs is declining. Because of 
the limited distribution of this species, the magnitude of the threats 
facing it is high. We also consider the threats to be imminent because 
urbanization is ongoing and continues to expand over the Barton Springs 
Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and water quality continues to degrade. 
Thus, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Georgetown salamander (Eurycea naufragia)--The following summary is 
based on information in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Georgetown salamander is 
know from spring outlets along five tributaries to the San Gabriel 
River and one cave in the City of Georgetown, Williamson County, Texas. 
The Georgetown salamander has a very limited distribution and depends 
on a constant supply of clean water from the Northern Segment of the 
Edwards Aquifer for its survival.
    Primary threats to this species are degradation of water quality 
and quantity due to expanding urbanization. Increased impervious cover 
by development increases the quantity and velocity of runoff that leads 
to erosion and greater pollution transport. Pollutants and contaminants 
that enter the Edwards Aquifer are discharged from spring outlets in 
salamander habitat and have serious morphological and physiological 
effects to the species. As the human population increases in central 
Texas, greater demand on groundwater sources occurs. Increased pumping 
of the Edwards Aquifer results in reduced springflows that may also 
detrimentally impact the salamander.
    The information regarding the Edwards Rules described above in 
relation to the Austin blind salamander also applies to the Georgetown 
salamander and is incorporated here by reference. Because of the 
limited distribution of the Georgetown salamander, the magnitude of the 
threats facing it is high. The threats are also imminent because 
urbanization is ongoing and continues to expand over the Northern 
Segment of the Edwards Aquifer. Thus, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Salado salamander (Eurycea chisolmensis)--The following summary is 
based on information in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Salado salamander is 
historically known from two spring sites, Big Boiling Springs and 
Robertson Springs, near Salado, Bell County, Texas. Salamanders have 
not been located at Robertson Springs since 1991.
    Primary threats to this species are habitat modification and 
degradation of water quality and quantity due to expanding 
urbanization. Many of the spring outlets in the City of Salado have 
been modified by dam construction. Because Big Boiling Springs is 
located near Interstate 35 and in the center of the city, increasing 
traffic and urbanization increase threats of contamination from spills, 
higher levels of impervious cover, and subsequent impacts to 
groundwater. Several groundwater contamination incidents have occurred 
within Salado salamander habitat. The Salado salamander depends on a 
constant supply of clean water from the Northern Segment of the Edwards 
Aquifer for its survival. Pollutants and contaminants that enter the 
Edwards Aquifer discharge in salamander habitat and have serious 
morphological and physiological effects to the salamander. As the human 
population increases in central Texas, greater demand on groundwater 
sources occurs. Increased pumping of the Edwards Aquifer can result in 
reduced springflows that may also detrimentally impact the salamander.
    Controls of nonpoint source pollution in the watershed are 
implemented through the Edwards Rules (water quality protection 
measures for the recharge and contributing zones of the Edwards 
Aquifer) adopted by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality 
(TCEQ) in 1995 and 1997. Although implementation of the Edwards Rules 
in other areas of the Northern Segment of the Edwards Aquifer may have 
the potential to affect conditions at spring sites occupied by the 
Salado salamander, the jurisdiction of TCEQ does not extend into Bell 
County. For this reason, compliance with the Edwards Rules is not 
required in this part of the Edwards Aquifer. There are no other local 
or regional water protection measures that have been put in place for 
areas that feed the springs known to be occupied by the Salado 
salamander. Because of the limited distribution of this species, the 
magnitude of the threats facing it is high. We also consider the 
threats to be imminent because urbanization is ongoing and 
contamination events are occurring near spring sites known to support 
Salado salamanders. Thus, we retained a listing priority number of 2 
for this species.
    Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files and the petition received on April 
3, 2000. See also our 12-month petition finding published on December 
10, 2002 (67 FR 75834). Yosemite toads are moderately sized toads with 
females having black spots edged with white or cream that are set 
against a grey, tan or brown background. Males have a nearly uniform 
coloration of yellow-green to olive drab to greenish brown. Yosemite 
toads are most likely to be found in areas with thick meadow vegetation 
or patches of low willows near or in water, and use rodent burrows for 
overwintering and temporary refuge during the summer. Breeding habitat 
includes the edges of wet meadows, slow flowing streams, shallow ponds

[[Page 53786]]

and shallow areas of lakes. The historic range of Yosemite toads in the 
Sierra Nevada occurs from the Blue Lakes region north of Ebbetts Pass 
(Alpine County) to south of Kaiser Pass in the Evolution Lake/Darwin 
Canyon area (Fresno County). The historic elevational range of Yosemite 
toads is 1,460 to 3,630 meters (4,790 to 11,910 feet).
    The threats facing the Yosemite toad include cattle grazing, timber 
harvesting, recreation, disease, and climate change. Inappropriate 
grazing has shown to cause loss in vegetative cover and destroying peat 
layers in meadows, which lowers the groundwater table and summer flows. 
This may increase the stranding and mortality of tadpoles, or make 
these areas completely unsuitable for Yosemite toads. Grazing can also 
degrade or destroy moist upland areas used as non-breeding habitat by 
Yosemite toads and collapse rodent burrows used by Yosemite toads as 
cover and hibernation sites. Timber harvesting and associated road 
development could severely alter the terrestrial environment and result 
in the reduction and occasional extirpation of amphibian populations in 
the Sierra Nevada. These habitat gaps may act as dispersal barriers and 
contribute to the fragmentation of Yosemite toad habitat and 
populations. Trails (foot, horse, bicycle, or off-highway motor 
vehicle) compact soil in riparian habitat, which increases erosion, 
displaces vegetation, and can lower the water table. Trampling or the 
collapsing of rodent burrows by recreationists, pets, and vehicles 
could lead to direct mortality of all life stages of the Yosemite toad 
and disrupt their behavior. Various diseases have been confirmed in 
Yosemite toads. Mass die-offs of amphibians have been attributed to: 
Chytrid fungal infections of metamorphs and adults; Saprolegnia fungal 
infections of eggs; iridovirus infection of larvae, metamorphs, or 
adults; and bacterial infections. Yosemite toads probably are exposed 
to a variety of pesticides and other chemicals throughout their range. 
Environmental contaminants could negatively affect the species by 
causing direct mortality; suppressing the immune system; disrupting 
breeding behavior, fertilization, growth or development of young; and 
disrupting the ability to avoid predation. We retained a listing 
priority number of 11 for the Yosemite toad since the threats are of 
moderate to low magnitude and the threats are nonimminent at this time.
    Black Warrior waterdog (Necturus alabamensis)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
Black Warrior waterdog inhabits streams above the Fall Line within the 
Black Warrior River Basin in Alabama. There is very little specific 
locality information available on the historical distribution of the 
Black Warrior waterdog since little attention was given to this species 
between its description in 1937 and the 1980's. There are a total of 
only 11 known historical records from 4 Alabama counties. Two of these 
sites have now been inundated by impoundments. Extensive survey work 
was conducted in the 1990's to look for additional populations. 
Currently, the species is known from 14 sites in 5 counties.
    Water quality degradation is the biggest threat to the continued 
existence of the Black Warrior waterdog. Most streams that have been 
surveyed for the waterdog showed evidence of pollution and many 
appeared biologically depauperate. Sources of point and nonpoint 
pollution in the Black Warrior River Basin have been numerous and 
widespread. Pollution is generated from inadequately treated effluent 
from industrial plants, sanitary landfills, sewage treatment plants, 
poultry operations, and cattle feedlots. Surface mining represents 
another threat to the biological integrity of waterdog habitat. Runoff 
from old, abandoned coal mines generates pollution through 
acidification, increased mineralization, and sediment loading. The 
North River, Locust Fork, and Mulberry Fork, all streams that this 
species inhabits are all on the Environmental Protection Agency's list 
of impaired waters. An additional threat to the Black Warrior waterdog 
is the creation of large impoundments that have flooded thousands of 
square hectares (acres) of its habitat. These impoundments are likely 
marginal or unsuitable habitat for the salamander. Due to the 
continuing, imminent, high magnitude of the pervasive water quality 
degradation in the Black Warrior Basin, we assigned a listing priority 
number of 2 to this species.
Fishes
    Arkansas darter (Etheostoma cragini)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Arkansas darter is a small 
fish in the perch family native to portions of the Arkansas River 
basin. The species' range includes sites in extreme northwestern 
Arkansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. It also 
occurs in a number of watersheds and isolated streams in eastern 
Colorado, south-central and southwestern Kansas, and in the Cimarron 
watershed in northwest Oklahoma. The species is most often found in 
small spring-fed streams with sand substrate and aquatic vegetation. It 
appears stable at most sites where spring flows persist. It has 
declined in areas where spring flows have decreased or been eliminated. 
We estimate that currently there are approximately 145 locality 
occurrences of the Arkansas darter distributed across the 5 States. 
However, status information from much of the Arkansas darter's range is 
dated, and new surveys are needed; some survey work is being conducted 
in 2006. Major threats to the species include stream dewatering 
resulting from groundwater pumping in the western portion of the 
species' range, and development pressures in portions of its eastern 
range. Spills and runoff from confined animal feeding operations also 
threaten the species locally throughout its range. We have retained a 
listing priority number of 11 for this species based on nonimminent 
threats of a moderate magnitude.
    Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae)--See above in ``Summary of 
Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Pearl darter (Percina aurora)--The following summary is based on 
information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. Little is known about the specific 
habitat requirements or natural history of the Pearl darter. Pearl 
darters have been collected from rivers and streams with a variety of 
attributes, but are mainly found over a gravel bottom substrate. This 
species is historically known only from localized sites within the 
Pascagoula and Pearl River drainages in Louisiana and Mississippi. 
Currently, the Pearl darter is considered extirpated from the Pearl 
River drainage and rare in the Pascagoula River drainage. Since 1983, 
the range of the Pearl darter has decreased by 55 percent. Pearl 
darters are vulnerable to the cumulative impacts of a variety of non-
point pollution types, such as sedimentation and chemical, and also to 
more localized and concentrated pollution events. The steady yet 
gradual change in river and tributary geomorphology and hydrology over 
time is believed to impact this species. Efforts are underway to 
improve habitat by reducing these threats and to increase

[[Page 53787]]

and augment the numbers of Pearl darters through husbandry efforts. The 
magnitude of threat to this species is high due to the species limited 
and disjunct populations and threat due to high vulnerability to 
sedimentation. However, this threat is nonimminent since no known 
projects are planned directly affecting the species and the decline of 
water quality is slow and gradual. Therefore, we assigned this species 
a listing priority number of 5.
    Rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum)--See above in ``Summary of 
Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The yellowcheek darter is 
endemic to four headwater tributaries of the Little Red River. Factors 
affecting the remaining populations include loss of suitable breeding 
habitat, habitat and water quality degradation, population isolation, 
and severe population declines exacerbated by stochastic drought 
conditions. It is vulnerable to alterations in physical habitat 
characteristics such as the impoundment of Greers Ferry Reservoir, 
channel maintenance in the Archey Fork, increased sedimentation from 
eroding stream banks and poor riparian management, and illegal gravel 
mining. A 2004-2005 threats assessment by Service personnel documented 
occurrences of eroding stream banks, poor riparian management, and 
illegal gravel mining, and found 52 sites of these activities on the 
Middle Fork, 28 sites on the South Fork, 8 sites on Archey Fork, and 1 
site in the Turkey/Beech/Devils Fork system that are potential 
contributors to the decline of the species. The Middle Fork was listed 
as an impaired waterbody by the Arkansas Department of Environmental 
Quality in 2004 due to excessive bacteria and low dissolved oxygen. 
Recent studies have documented significant declines in the numbers 
(60,000 in 1981; 10,300 in 2000) of this fish in the remaining 
populations and continuing range restriction within the tributaries 
(130.4 to 65.0 stream km). According to a 2000 status survey, 
yellowcheek darter numbers had declined over a 20-year period by 83 
percent in both the Middle Fork and South Fork, and 60 percent in the 
Archey Fork. No yellowcheek darters were found in the Turkey Fork 
between 1999 and 2005; the species has apparently been extirpated in 
that reach. Due to imminent threats of a high magnitude that are not 
currently targeted by conservation actions, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 2.
    Fluvial arctic grayling, upper Missouri River DPS (Thymallus 
arcticus)--We have not updated our finding with regard to fluvial 
arctic grayling DPS in this notice. We received a petition to list this 
species on October 2, 1992, and published our 12-month finding on July 
25, 1994 (59 FR 37738). In the 2004 CNOR (70 FR 24870), we found that a 
listing proposal for this species was still warranted but precluded by 
higher priorities, with a listing priority number of 3. We are in the 
process of considering new information and conducting additional 
evaluations regarding the fluvial arctic grayling. Upon completion, we 
intend to publish a listing determination for this DPS species in the 
Federal Register.
    Chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus)--The following summary is based 
on information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. The chucky madtom is a rare catfish 
known from only 15 specimens collected from two Tennessee streams. A 
lone individual was collected in 1940 from Dunn Creek (a Little Pigeon 
River tributary) in Sevier County and 14 specimens have been 
encountered since 1991 in Little Chucky Creek (a Nolichucky River 
tributary) in Greene County. Only 3 specimens have been encountered 
since 1994 from two riffle areas in a short reach of Little Chucky 
Creek. All Little Chucky Creek specimens have been collected from 
stream runs with slow to moderate current over pea gravel, cobble, or 
slab-rock substrates.
    Threats to the chucky madtom include both extrinsic and intrinsic 
factors. Extrinsic factors include potential degradation of water 
quality and breeding and sheltering habitat due primarily to 
agricultural landuse practices and secondarily to urban and rural 
development in the watersheds of Little Chucky and Dunn creeks. The 
Service believes that intrinsic factors including the potential 
demographic effects of inbreeding, limited species distribution, 
presumed low number of individuals, and presumed low fecundity and 
short life span characteristic of closely related madtom species pose 
imminent threats of a high magnitude to the chucky madtom in its only 
known extant and historic locations. Therefore, we assigned the chucky 
madtom a listing priority number of 2.
    Grotto sculpin (Cottus sp., sp. nov.)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Grotto sculpin is restricted 
to two karst areas (limestone regions characterized by sink holes, 
abrupt ridges, caves, and underground streams), the Central Perryville 
Karst and Mystery-Rimstone Karst in Perry County, southeast Missouri. 
Grotto sculpins have been documented in only 5 caves. The current 
overall range of the grotto sculpin has been estimated to encompass 
approximately 260 square kilometers (100 square miles).
    The small population size and endemism of the grotto sculpin make 
it vulnerable to extinction due to genetic drift, inbreeding 
depression, and random or chance changes to the environment. The 
species' karst habitat is located down-gradient of the city of 
Perryville, Missouri, which poses a potential threat if contaminants 
from this urban area enter cave streams occupied by grotto sculpins. 
Various agricultural chemicals, such as ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, 
chloride, and potassium have been detected at levels high enough to be 
detrimental to aquatic life within the Perryville Karst area. More than 
half of the sinkholes in Perry County contain anthropogenic refuse, 
ranging from household cleansers and sewage to used pesticide and 
herbicide containers. As a result, potential water contamination from 
various sources of point and non-point pollution poses a significant 
threat to the grotto sculpin. Of the 5 cave systems documented to have 
grotto sculpins, populations in one cave system were likely eliminated, 
presumably as the result of point-source pollution. When the cave was 
searched in the spring of 2000, a mass mortality of grotto sculpin was 
noted, and subsequent visits to the cave have failed to document a 
single live grotto sculpin. Thus, the species appears to have suffered 
a 20-percent decrease in the number of populations from the single 
event. Predatory fish such as common carp, fat-head minnow, yellow 
bullhead, green sunfish, bluegill, and channel catfish occur in all of 
the caves occupied by grotto sculpin. These potential predators may 
escape surface farm ponds that unexpectedly drain through sinkholes 
into the underground cave systems and enter grotto sculpin habitat. No 
regulatory mechanisms are in place that would provide protection to the 
grotto sculpin. Current threats to the habitat of the grotto sculpin 
may exacerbate potential problems

[[Page 53788]]

associated with its low population numbers and increase the likelihood 
of extinction. Due to the high magnitude of ongoing threats we assigned 
this species a listing priority number of 2.
    Sharpnose shiner (Notropis oxyrhynchus)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The sharpnose shiner is a small, 
slender minnow, endemic to the Brazos River Basin in Texas. 
Historically, the sharpnose shiner existed throughout the Brazos River 
and several of its major tributaries within the watershed. It has also 
been found in the Wichita River (within the Red River Basin), where it 
may have once naturally occurred but has since been extirpated. Current 
information indicates that the population within the Upper Brazos River 
drainage (upstream of Possum Kingdom Reservoir) is apparently stable, 
while the population within the Middle and Lower Brazos River Basins 
may only exist in remnant areas of suitable habitat, or may be 
completely extirpated, representing a reduction of approximately 68 
percent of its historical range.
    The most significant threat to the existence of the sharpnose 
shiner is potential reservoir development within its current range. 
Additional threats include irrigation and water diversion, 
sedimentation, industrial and municipal discharges, agricultural 
activities, in-stream sand and gravel mining, and the spread of 
invasive saltcedar. The current limited distribution of the sharpnose 
shiner within the Upper Brazos River Basin makes it vulnerable to 
catastrophic events such as the introduction of competitive species or 
prolonged drought. The magnitude of threat is high since the major 
threat of reservoir development within the current range of the species 
may render its remaining habitat unsuitable. The immediacy of threat is 
nonimminent due to major reservoir projects not likely occurring in the 
near future and the potential implementation of other water supply 
options that could preclude reservoir development. For these reasons, 
we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Smalleye shiner (Notropis buccula)--The following summary is based 
on information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. The smalleye shiner is a small, 
pallid minnow endemic to the Brazos River Basin in Texas. The 
population of smalleye shiners within the Upper Brazos River drainage 
(upstream of Possum Kingdom Reservoir) is apparently stable. However, 
the shiner has not been collected since 1976 downstream from the 
reservoir, and in all likelihood the species is completely extirpated 
from this area, representing a reduction of approximately 54 percent of 
its historical range.
    The most significant threat to the existence of the smalleye shiner 
is potential reservoir development within its current range. Additional 
threats include irrigation and water diversion, sedimentation, 
industrial and municipal discharges, agricultural activities, in-stream 
sand and gravel mining, and the spread of invasive saltcedar. The 
current limited distribution of the smalleye shiner within the Upper 
Brazos River Basin makes it vulnerable to catastrophic events such as 
the introduction of competitive species or prolonged drought. The 
magnitude of threat is high since the major threat of reservoir 
development within the current range of the species may render its 
remaining habitat unsuitable. The immediacy of threat is nonimminent 
due to major reservoir projects not likely occurring in the near future 
and the potential implementation of other water supply options that 
could preclude reservoir development. For these reasons, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Zuni bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus yarrowi)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
range of the Zuni bluehead sucker has been reduced by over 90 percent. 
The Zuni bluehead sucker currently occupies 9 river miles in 4 areas of 
New Mexico, and approximately 6 miles in one stream of Arizona. Zuni 
bluehead sucker range reduction and fragmentation is caused by 
discontinuous surface water flow, separation of inhabited reaches by 
reservoirs, and habitat degradation from fine sediment deposition. The 
principal uses of surface and ground water within the Zuni River 
watershed are human consumption, raising livestock, and irrigation. 
Diverting water for agricultural use is the primary purpose of at least 
five impoundments, and several other reservoirs act as flood-control 
structures. Degradation of the upper watershed has led to increased 
sedimentation, and many of the reservoirs are now only shallow, 
eutrophic (low oxygen) ponds or wetlands with little or no storage 
capacity. The impoundments have also changed the downstream channel 
morphology and substrate composition of streams. Another major impact 
to populations of Zuni bluehead sucker was the application of fish 
toxicants through at least two dozen treatments in the Nutria and 
Pescado rivers between 1960 and 1975. Large numbers of Zuni bluehead 
suckers were killed during these treatments.
    For several years, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish has 
been the lead agency to develop a conservation plan for Zuni bluehead 
sucker. A study funded through section 6 of the Act was initiated in 
2000, and continued through 2005. The grant included funding for 
development and implementation of a Zuni Bluehead Sucker Conservation 
Plan and the acquisition of additional information on distribution, 
life history, and species associations. The Zuni Bluehead Sucker 
Recovery Plan was approved by the New Mexico State Game Commission 
during a State Game Commission on December 15, 2004. The Recovery Plan 
recommends preservation and enhancement of extant populations and 
restoration of historical Zuni bluehead sucker populations. The 
recovery actions prescribed by the State Recovery Plan that we believe 
will reduce and remove threats to this subspecies, will require further 
discussions and authorizations before they can be implemented. Still, 
because of the ongoing threats of high magnitude, including loss of 
habitat, degradation of remaining habitat, and others (i.e., drought 
and fire), we maintained the current listing priority number of 3 for 
this subspecies.
Clams
    Texas hornshell (Popenaias popei)--The following summary is based 
on information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. The Texas hornshell is a freshwater 
mussel found in the Black River of New Mexico and one confirmed 
locality in the mainstem Rio Grande of Texas and Mexico. The primary 
threats are habitat alterations such as stream bank channelization, 
impoundments, and diversions for agriculture and flood control; 
contamination of water by the oil and gas industry; alterations in the 
natural riverine hydrology; and increased sedimentation from prolonged 
overgrazing and loss of native vegetation. Riverine habitats in both 
the Black River and the Rio Grande are under constant threats from 
these adverse changes. The magnitude of threats is high because of the 
existence of only one confirmed location in New Mexico and Texas each, 
which makes this species highly vulnerable to extinction. The threats 
are imminent

[[Page 53789]]

because past alterations to riverine habitats have already occurred 
that resulted in the much reduced distribution of this species and 
demands for water from the Rio Grande continue to increase and make 
future habitat degradation likely. Thus, we maintained the listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Fluted kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus subtentum)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The fluted 
kidneyshell is a freshwater mussel (Unionidae) endemic to the 
Cumberland and Tennessee River systems (Cumberlandian Region) in 
Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. It requires shoal habitats 
in free-flowing rivers to survive and successfully recruit new 
individuals into its populations. Habitat destruction and alteration 
(e.g., impoundments, sedimentation, and pollutants) are the chief 
factors contributing to its decline. This species has been extirpated 
from numerous regional streams and is no longer found in the State of 
Alabama. The fluted kidneyshell was historically known from at least 37 
streams but is currently restricted to no more than 14 isolated stream 
segments, of which only 1 (upper Clinch River) appears to be stable and 
viable. The threats are high in magnitude since all populations of this 
species are potentially threatened by impoundments, sedimentation, 
small population size, isolation of populations, gravel mining, 
municipal pollutants, agricultural run-off, nutrient enrichment, and 
coal processing pollution. However, the threats are nonimminent at this 
time, and therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 5 for 
this mussel.
    Neosho mucket (Lampsilis rafinesqueana)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Neosho mucket is a 
freshwater mussel native to Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. 
The species has been extirpated from approximately 62 percent (835 
river miles) of its range, most of which has occurred in Kansas and 
Oklahoma. The Neosho mucket survives in four river drainages, however, 
only two of these, the Spring and Illinois Rivers, currently support 
relatively large populations.
    Significant portions of the historic range have been inundated by 
the construction of at least 11 dams. Channel instability downstream of 
these dams has further reduced suitable habitat and mussel 
distribution. Range restriction and population declines have occurred 
due to habitat degradation attributed to impoundments, mining, 
sedimentation, and agricultural pollutants. Rapid development and 
urbanization in the Illinois River watershed will likely continue to 
increase sedimentation and eutrophication to this river but populations 
are currently stable in this river. The remaining extant populations 
are vulnerable to random catastrophic events (e.g., flood scour, 
drought, toxic spills), land use changes within the limited range, and 
genetic isolation and the deleterious effects of inbreeding. These 
threats have led to the species being intrinsically vulnerable to 
extirpation. Although State regulations limit harvest of this species, 
there is little protection for habitat. The threats are high in 
magnitude, as they occur throughout the range of this species. While 
some of the threats are ongoing and thus, imminent, others are 
nonimminent, but on the balance are nonimminent. Thus, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera marrianae)--The following summary 
is based on information from our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Alabama pearlshell 
inhabits shallow riffles and pool margins of small creeks and streams 
of southwest Alabama. Only three populations of Alabama pearlshell have 
been confirmed to survive during the past 15 years. One of these has 
declined significantly over the past few years, apparently due to 
increased sedimentation at this location and possibly other forms of 
non-point source (NPS) pollution. The other two populations appear to 
be small, but relatively stable and recruiting. We assigned the Alabama 
pearlshell a listing priority of 2 due to the vulnerability of small 
stream habitat to continuing NPS pollution and the decline of one of 
three known populations.
    Slabside pearlymussel (Lexingtonia dolabelloides)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The slabside 
pearlymussel is a freshwater mussel (Unionidae) endemic to the 
Cumberland and Tennessee River systems (Cumberlandian Region) in 
Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. It requires shoal habitats 
in free-flowing rivers to survive and successfully recruit new 
individuals into its populations. Habitat destruction and alteration 
(e.g., impoundments, sedimentation, and pollutants) are the chief 
factors contributing to its decline. This species has been extirpated 
from numerous regional streams and is no longer found in the State of 
Kentucky. The slabside pearlymussel was historically known from at 
least 32 streams but is currently restricted to no more than 10 
isolated stream segments. Current status information for most of the 
nine populations deemed to be extant is available from recent periodic 
sampling efforts (sometimes annually) and other field studies. 
Comprehensive surveys have taken place in the Middle and North Forks 
Holston River, Paint Rock River, and Duck River in the past several 
years. Based on recent information, the overall population of the 
slabside pearlymussel is declining rangewide and the species remains in 
good numbers and is clearly viable in just four streams. Two of the 
four largest populations have undergone recent declines (i.e., Middle 
and upper North Fork Holston Rivers) and most of the other populations 
are of doubtful viability for the long term. Since the nine remaining 
populations of the slabside pearlymussel face potential threats from 
impoundments, sedimentation, small population size, isolation of 
populations, gravel mining, municipal pollutants, agricultural run-off, 
nutrient enrichment, and coal processing pollution, the threats are 
high in magnitude but are nonimminent. Thus, we continue to assign a 
listing priority number of 5 to this mussel.
    Georgia pigtoe (Pleurobema hanleyanum)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Georgia pigtoe 
was historically found in shallow runs and riffles in large creeks and 
rivers of the Coosa River drainage of Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. 
The species is currently known from localized portions of the upper 
Conasauga River in Murray and Whitfield Counties, Georgia. In 2005, the 
Coosa River in Cherokee County, Alabama, was removed as ``Current 
Range,'' due to a lack of documentation that the species continues to 
exist at that locality. The Georgia pigtoe is very rare, with only a 
few observations of living animals over the past 15 years. Impoundment 
and pollution are implicated in the decline and disappearance of the 
species; pollution remains an ongoing threat. We assigned the Georgia 
pigtoe a listing priority of 2 due to its restricted range and 
continued lack of success in locating living animals.
    Altamaha spinymussel (Elliptio spinosa)--See above in ``Summary of 
Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.''

[[Page 53790]]

The above summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
Snails
    Ogden mountainsnail (Oreohelix peripherica wasatchensis)--The 
following summary is based on information from our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
Ogden mountain snail is known from a single population near the mouth 
of Ogden Canyon, Weber County, Utah. The total occupied habitat is an 
area approximating 100 meters (328 ft) wide by 1 kilometer (0.5 miles) 
long. The restricted range of this snail, the proximity to an expanding 
residential area, and impacts from relatively heavy recreational use, 
makes it vulnerable to extirpation from stochastic or human-caused 
events. Threats to the colony have not substantially changed or 
increased over the past year. Recent molecular phylogenic studies are 
expected to clarify the level of uniqueness of this taxon. With the 
threats continuing at a moderate to low and imminent level, we retained 
a listing priority number of 9 for this subspecies.
    Bonneville pondsnail (Stagnicola bonnevillensis)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
fat-whorled pondsnail, also known as the Bonneville pondsnail, occupies 
four spring pools north of the Great Salt Lake in Box Elder County, 
Utah. While the number of individuals is unknown, the total known 
occupied habitat is less than one hectare. As a result of the 
implementation of a Conservation Agreement and Strategy, surveys are 
being conducted to determine if other populations are present. Previous 
and ongoing threats include chemical contamination of the groundwater. 
Significant actions are underway to remediate this threat, including 
implementation of a Corrective Action Plan to characterize and 
remediate groundwater contamination, implementation of a site 
management plan, and development of a groundwater model and risk 
assessment. These efforts have not been underway for a sufficient 
period to reduce the threat from contamination, so we retained a 
listing priority number of 8 for this species, reflecting imminent 
threats of a moderate magnitude.
    Interrupted rocksnail (Leptoxis foremani (= downei)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Interrupted rocksnails historically occurred in shoals, riffles, and 
reefs of small to large rivers in the Coosa River Basin of Alabama and 
Georgia. Today, only a single surviving natural population is known 
from a short reach of the Coosawattee River, Georgia. During a 1999 
census, 10 to 45 interrupted rocksnail snails per square meter were 
found in this reach. In 2004, a 6 man-hour search was required to find 
20 individuals. We believe water quality was the cause of this decline. 
A captive colony of approximately 200 snails was established at the 
Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute (TNARI) in 2000 for study and 
propagation. During the winter of 2003, the Alabama Department of 
Conservation and Natural Resources (ADCNR) released about 3000 juvenile 
interrupted rocksnails from the TNARI colony into the Coosa River above 
Wetumpka, Elmore County, Alabama. In 2004 and 2005 approximately 1200 
and 3000 juvenile snails, respectively, from the TNARI culture were 
released at the lower Coosa River site by ADCNR. A small number of the 
2003 hatchery-cultured interrupted rocksnails were observed in the 
vicinity of the release site in 2005. The magnitude of threat is high 
for this species since it is only known from one naturally occurring 
site. Despite the ongoing conservation efforts, threats remain 
imminent, as water quality degradation of the stream is currently 
occurring and evident, in that the natural population has undergone a 
precipitous decline. Thus, we assigned a listing priority of 2 to the 
interrupted rocksnail.
    Sisi snail (Ostodes strigatus)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The sisi snail is a ground-
dwelling species in the Potaridae family and is endemic to American 
Samoa. The species is now known from a single population on the island 
of Tutuila, American Samoa.
    This species is currently threatened by habitat loss and 
modification and by predation from nonnative predatory snails. The 
decline of the sisi in American Samoa have resulted, in part, from loss 
of habitat to forestry and agriculture and loss of forest structure to 
hurricanes and alien weeds that establish after these storms. All live 
sisi snails have been found in the leaf litter beneath remaining intact 
forest canopy. No snails were found in areas bordering agricultural 
plots or in forest areas that were severely damaged by three hurricanes 
(1987, 1990, and 1991). Under natural historic conditions, loss of 
forest canopy to storms did not pose a great threat to the long-term 
survival of these snails; enough intact forest with healthy populations 
of snails would support dispersal back into newly regrown canopy 
forest. However, the presence of alien weeds such as mile-a-minute vine 
(Mikania micrantha) and weedy tree species such as Funtumia elastica 
may reduce the likelihood that native forest will re-establish in areas 
damaged by the hurricanes. This loss of habitat to storms is greatly 
exacerbated by an expanding agriculture. Agricultural plots have spread 
from low elevation up to middle and some high elevations on all the 
islands, greatly reducing the forest area and thus reducing the 
resilience of native forests and its populations of native snails. 
These reductions also increase the likelihood that future storms will 
lead to the extinction of populations or species that rely on the 
remaining canopy forest. In an effort to eradicate the giant African 
snail, Euglandia rosea and another alien predatory snail, Gonaxis 
kibweziensis, were introduced in 1980 and 1977, respectively. Euglandia 
rosea have spread throughout the main island of Tutuila and by 1984 was 
considered to be well-established on Tutuila. Gonaxis kibweziensis is 
also present on Tutuila though it seems to be in decline. Numerous 
studies show that E. rosea feeds on endemic island snails including the 
sisi, and is a major agent in their declines and extirpations. At 
present, the major threat to long-term survival of the native snail 
fauna in American Samoa is predation by nonnative predatory snails. 
There are no conservation efforts being implemented to alleviate these 
threats and all these threats are ongoing and are therefore imminent. 
Since the threats occur throughout the entire range of the species, 
they are of a high magnitude. Therefore we assigned this species an LPN 
of 2.
    Diamond Y Spring snail (Pseudotryonia adamantina) and Gonzales 
springsnail (Tryonia circumstriata)--The following summary is based on 
information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. Diamond Y Spring snail and Gonzales 
springsnail are small aquatic snails endemic to Diamond Y Spring in 
Pecos County, Texas. The spring and its outflow channel are owned and 
managed by The Nature Conservancy. These snails are primarily 
threatened with habitat loss due to springflow declines from drought 
and from

[[Page 53791]]

pumping of groundwater. Additional threats include water contamination 
from accidental releases of petroleum products, as their habitat is in 
an active oil and gas field. Also, a nonnative aquatic snail 
(Melanoides sp.) was recently introduced into the native snails' 
habitat and may compete with endemic snails for space and resources. 
The magnitude of threats is high because limited distribution of these 
narrow endemics makes any impact from increasing threats (e.g., loss of 
springflow, contaminants, nonnative species) likely to result in the 
extinction of the species. These species occur in one location in an 
arid region currently plagued by drought and ongoing aquifer 
withdrawals, making the eventual loss of spring flow an imminent threat 
of total habitat loss. Thus, we maintain the listing priority number of 
2 for both species.
    Fragile tree snail (Samoana fragilis)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling 
species, the fragile tree snail is a member of the Partulidae family of 
snails and is endemic to the islands of Guam and Rota (Mariana 
Islands). Requiring cool and shaded native forest habitat, the species 
is now known only from a single population on Rota. This species is 
currently threatened by habitat loss and modification and by predation 
from nonnative predatory snails. On Rota, large numbers of pigs, goats 
and deer, along with extensive logging, further contribute to the 
expansion of savanna grasslands and directly alter the understory plant 
community and overall forest microclimate. Savanna grassland habitat is 
unsuitable for tree snails. Predation by the alien rosy carnivore snail 
(Euglandina rosea) is a serious threat to the survival of the fragile 
tree snail. Field observations have established that the rosy carnivore 
snail will readily feed on native Pacific island tree snails, including 
the Partulidae, such as those of the Mariana Islands. The rosy 
carnivore snail has caused the extirpation of many populations and 
species of native snails throughout the Pacific islands. All of the 
threats occur rangewide and no efforts to control or eradicate the 
nonnative predatory snail species or to reduce habitat loss are being 
undertaken. The magnitude of threats is high because limited 
distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact from increasing 
threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the extinction of 
the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are imminent. 
Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.
    Guam tree snail (Partula radiolata)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling species, the 
Guam tree snail is a member of the Partulidae family of snails and is 
endemic to the island of Guam. Requiring cool and shaded native forest 
habitat, the species is now known from only 11 populations on Guam. 
This species is currently threatened by habitat loss and modification 
and by predation from nonnative predatory snails. On Guam, open 
agricultural fields and other areas prone to erosion were seeded with 
tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) by the U.S. Military. Tangantangan 
grows as a single species stand with no substantial understory. The 
microclimatic condition is dry, with little accumulation of leaf litter 
humus and is particularly unsuitable as Guam tree snail habitat. In 
addition, native forest cannot reestablish and grow where this alien 
weed has become established. Large numbers of pigs, goats, and deer, 
along with extensive logging, further contribute to the expansion of 
savanna grasslands and directly alter the understory plant community 
and overall forest microclimate. Savanna grassland habitat is 
unsuitable for tree snails. Predation by the alien rosy carnivore snail 
(Euglandina rosea) is a serious threat to the survival of the Guam tree 
snail. Field observations have established that the rosy carnivore 
snail will readily feed on native Pacific island tree snails, including 
the Partulidae, such as those of the Mariana Islands. The rosy 
carnivore snail has caused the extirpation of many populations and 
species of native snails throughout the Pacific islands. All of the 
threats occur range wide and no efforts to control or eradicate the 
nonnative predatory snail species or to reduce habitat loss are being 
undertaken. The magnitude of threats is high because limited 
distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact from increasing 
threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the extinction of 
the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are imminent. 
Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.
    Humped tree snail (Partula gibba)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling species, the 
humped tree snail is a member of the Partulidae family of snails, and 
was originally known from the island of Guam and the Commonwealth of 
the Northern Mariana Islands (islands of Rota, Aguijan, Tinian, Saipan, 
Anatahan, Sarigan, Alamagan, and Pagan). Most recent surveys revealed a 
total of 28 populations on the islands of Guam, Rota, Aguijan, Tinian, 
Anatahan, Sarigan, Alamagan, and Pagan. Although still the most widely 
distributed tree snail endemic in the Mariana Islands, remaining 
population sizes are often small.
    This species is currently threatened by habitat loss and 
modification and by predation from nonnative predatorial snails. In 
recent times, remaining populations of the snail have been threatened 
by ongoing development. For example, a road was cut within the coastal 
area containing the remaining three Guam populations of the snail, and 
it is believed that the decline in these populations may be due to the 
indirect effects of this road. Throughout the Mariana Islands, feral 
ungulates (pigs (Sus scrofa), Philippine deer (Cervus mariannus), 
cattle (Bos taurus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and goats (Capra 
hircus)) have caused severe damage to native forest vegetation by 
browsing directly on plants, causing erosion, and retarding forest 
growth and regeneration. This in turn reduces the quantity and quality 
of forested habitat for the humped tree snail. Currently, populations 
of feral ungulates are found on the islands of Guam (deer, pigs, and 
water buffalo), Rota (deer and cattle), Aguiguan (goats), Tinian 
(cattle), Saipan (deer, pigs, and cattle), Anatahan (pigs and goats), 
Alamagan (goats, pigs, and cattle), and Pagan (cattle, goats, and 
pigs). Goats were eradicated from Sarigan in 1998 and the humped tree 
snail has increased in abundance on that island, likely in response to 
the removal of all the goats. However, the population of humped tree 
snails on Anatahan is likely extirpated due to the massive volcanic 
explosions of the island beginning in 2003 and still continuing, and 
the resulting loss of up to 95 percent of the vegetation on the island. 
Predation by the alien rosy carnivore snail (Euglandina rosea) is also 
a serious threat to the survival of the Humped tree snail. Field 
observations have established that the rosy carnivore snail will 
readily feed on native Pacific island tree snails, including the 
Partulidae such as those of the Mariana Islands. The rosy carnivore 
snail has caused the extirpation of many populations and species of 
native snails throughout the

[[Page 53792]]

Pacific islands. All of the threats occur range-wide and no efforts to 
control or eradicate the nonnative predatory snail species or to reduce 
habitat loss are being undertaken. The magnitude of threats is high 
because limited distribution of this species makes any impact from 
increasing threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the 
extinction of the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are 
imminent. Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number 
of 2.
    Lanai tree snail (Partulina semicarinata)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling 
species, P. semicarinata is a member of the Achatinellidae family of 
snails. Endemic to the island of Lanai, the species is currently known 
from 3 populations totaling 29 individuals. This species is highly 
threatened throughout its limited range by habitat loss and 
modification and by predation from rats. No efforts are being 
undertaken to remove rats in areas that P. semicarinata occur. The 
threat from this predator is expected to continue or increase unless 
the rats are actively controlled or eradicated. Habitat loss also 
continues due to the trampling and browsing of native vegetation 
required by P. semicarinata by nonnative ungulates. Although the snails 
are in an area to be fenced, until the fence is constructed and the 
ungulates have been removed, the habitat will continue to be degraded. 
The small number of individuals and the small number of populations 
make this species very susceptible to the negative effects of 
stochastic events such as hurricanes and storms. There is a population 
in captivity that is protected from the effects of unexpected droughts, 
though the effects of severe storms may still affect this population as 
evidenced by the loss of snails when a severe flood interrupted the 
power supply to the University and temperatures increased within the 
environmental chambers containing the snails. In addition, these snails 
are likely subjected to the same concerns of reproductive vigor and 
loss of genetic variability. The magnitude of threats is high because 
limited distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact from 
increasing threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the 
extinction of the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are 
imminent. Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number 
of 2.
    Lanai tree snail (Partulina variabilis)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling 
species, P. variabilis is a member of the Achatinellidae family of 
snails. Endemic to the island of Lanai, the species is currently known 
from 12 populations totaling 90 individuals. This species is highly 
threatened throughout its limited range by habitat loss and 
modification and by predation from rats. No efforts are being 
undertaken to remove rats in areas that P. variabilis occur. The threat 
from this predator is expected to continue or increase unless the rats 
are actively controlled or eradicated. Habitat loss also continues due 
to the trampling and browsing of native vegetation required by P. 
variabilis by nonnative ungulates. Although the snails are in an area 
to be fenced, until the fence is constructed and the ungulates have 
been removed, the habitat will continue to be degraded. The small 
number of individuals and the small number of populations make this 
species very susceptible to the negative effects of stochastic events 
such as hurricanes and storms. There is a population in captivity that 
is protected from the effects of unexpected droughts, though the 
effects of severe storms may still affect this population as evidenced 
by the loss of snails when a severe flood interrupted the power supply 
to the University and temperatures increased within the environmental 
chambers containing the snails. In addition, these snails are likely 
subjected to the same concerns of reproductive vigor and loss of 
genetic variability as the wild population. The magnitude of threats is 
high because limited distribution of this narrow endemic makes any 
impact from increasing threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to 
result in the extinction of the species. The threats are also ongoing 
and thus are imminent. Therefore, we assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 2.
    Langford's tree snail (Partula langfordi)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling 
species, Langford's tree snail is a member of the Partulidae family of 
snails and is known from one population on the island of Aguiguan. This 
species is currently threatened by habitat loss and modification and by 
predation from nonnative predatorial snails. In the 1930s, the island 
of Aguiguan was mostly cleared of native forest to support sugar cane 
and pineapple production. The abandoned fields and airstrip are now 
overgrown with alien weeds. The remaining native forest understory has 
greatly suffered from large and uncontrolled populations of alien goats 
and the invasion of weeds. Goats (Capra hircus) have caused severe 
damage to native forest vegetation by browsing directly on plants, 
causing erosion, and retarding forest growth and regeneration. This in 
turn reduces the quantity and quality of forested habitat for 
Langford's tree snail. Predation by the alien rosy carnivore snail 
(Euglandina rosea) is also a serious threat to the survival of 
Langford's tree snail. Field observations have established that the 
rosy carnivore snail will readily feed on native Pacific island tree 
snails, including the Partulidae such as those of the Mariana Islands. 
The rosy carnivore snail has caused the extirpation of many populations 
and species of native snails throughout the Pacific islands. All of the 
threats occur rangewide and no efforts to control or eradicate the 
nonnative predatory snail species or to reduce habitat loss are being 
undertaken. The magnitude of threats is high because limited 
distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact from increasing 
threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the extinction of 
the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are imminent. 
Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.
    Phantom Cave snail (Cochliopa texana) and Phantom springsnail 
(Tryonia cheatumi)--The following summary is based on information from 
our files. No new information was provided in the petition received on 
May 11, 2004. Phantom Cave snail and Phantom springsnail are small 
aquatic snails that occur in three spring outflows in the Toyah Basin 
in Reeves and Jeff Davis Counties, Texas. The primary threat to both 
species is the loss of surface flows due to declining groundwater 
levels from drought and pumping for agricultural production. Although 
much of the land immediately surrounding their habitat is owned and 
managed by The Nature Conservancy, Bureau of Reclamation, and Texas 
Parks and Wildlife Department, the water needed to maintain their 
habitat has declined due to a reduction in spring flows, possibly as a 
result of private groundwater pumping in areas beyond that controlled 
by these landowners. As an example, Phantom Lake Spring, one of the 
sites of occurrence, has already ceased flowing and aquatic habitat is 
supported only by a pumping system. The magnitude of the threats is 
high

[[Page 53793]]

because spring flow loss would result in complete habitat destruction 
and permanent elimination of all populations of the species. The 
immediacy of the threats is imminent, as evidenced by the drastic 
decline in spring flow at Phantom Lake Spring that is happening now and 
will likely extirpate this population in the near future. Declining 
spring flows in San Solomon Spring are also becoming evident and will 
affect that spring site as well within the foreseeable future. Thus, we 
maintained the listing priority number of 2 for both species.
    Tutuila tree snail (Eua zebrina)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling species, the 
Tutuila tree snail is a member of the Partulidae family of snails and 
is endemic to American Samoa. The species is now known only from two 
populations on the island of Tutuila.
    This species is currently threatened by habitat loss and 
modification and by predation from nonnative predatory snails. All live 
Tutuila tree snails were found on understory vegetation beneath 
remaining intact forest canopy. No snails were found in areas bordering 
agricultural plots or in forest areas that were severely damaged by 
three hurricanes (1987, 1990, and 1991). Under natural historical 
conditions, loss of forest canopy to storms did not pose a great threat 
to the long-term survival of these snails; enough intact forest with 
healthy populations of snails would support dispersal back into newly 
regrown canopy forest. However, the presence of alien weeds such as 
mile-a-minute vine (Mikania micrantha) and weedy tree species such as 
Funtumia elastica, may reduce the likelihood that native forest will 
re-establish in areas damaged by the hurricanes. This loss of habitat 
to storms is greatly exacerbated by an expanding agricultural 
footprint. Agricultural plots have spread from low elevation up to 
middle and some high elevations on all the islands, greatly reducing 
the forest area and thus reducing the resilience of native forests and 
its populations of native snails. These reductions also increase the 
likelihood that future storms will lead to the extinction of 
populations or species that rely on the remaining canopy forest. In an 
effort to eradicate the giant African snail, Euglandina rosea and 
another alien predatory snail, Gonaxis kibweziensis, were introduced in 
1980 and 1977, respectively. Euglandia rosea have spread throughout the 
main island of Tutuila and by 1984, was considered to be well 
established on Tutuila. Gonaxis kibweziensis is also present on Tutuila 
though it seems to be in decline. Numerous studies show that E. rosea 
feeds on endemic island snails, including the Tutuila tree snail, and 
is a major agent in their declines and extirpations. At present, the 
major threat to the long-term survival of the native snail fauna in 
American Samoa is predation by nonnative predatory snails. There are 
currently no conservation efforts being implemented to alleviate the 
threats to this species. The magnitude of threats is high because 
limited distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact from 
increasing threats (e.g., nonnative species) likely to result in the 
extinction of the species. The threats are also ongoing and thus are 
imminent. Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority number 
of 2.
    Chupadera springsnail (Pyrgulopsis chupaderae)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on November 20, 1985. See also our 12-month petition finding 
published on October 4, 1988 (53 FR 38969). This aquatic species is 
endemic to Willow Spring on the Willow Spring Ranch (formerly Cienega 
Ranch) at the south end of the Chupadera Mountains in Socorro County, 
New Mexico. The Chupadera springsnail has been documented from two 
hillside groundwater discharges that flow through grazed areas among 
rhyolitic gravels containing sand, mud, and hydrophytic plants. 
Regional and local groundwater depletion, springrun dewatering, and 
riparian habitat degradation represent the principal threats. The 
survival and recovery of the Chupadera springsnail is contingent upon 
protection of the riparian corridor immediately adjacent to Willow 
Spring and the availability of perennial, oxygenated flowing water 
within the species' thermal range. Due to several factors, including 
the extremely localized distribution of the snail, its occurrence only 
on private property, the lack of regulatory protection of its habitat, 
and the inability of land managers to participate in its management, 
the magnitude of the threats to this species is high. There is an 
imminent threat to this species because the threats are ongoing (e.g., 
grazing of cattle, water withdrawal, and fire). Therefore, due to the 
continuing high magnitude and imminence of threats to this species, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Elongate mud meadows springsnail (Pyrgulopsis notidicola)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Pyrgulopsis notidicola is endemic to Soldier Meadow, which is located 
at the northern extreme of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert, in 
the transition zone between the Basin and Range Physiographic Province 
and the Columbia Plateau Province, Humboldt County, Nevada. The type 
locality, and the only known location of the species, occurs in a 
stretch of thermal (between 45[deg] Celsius (C) (113[deg] Fahrenheit 
(F)) and 32 [deg]C (90 [deg]F)) aquatic habitat that is approximately 
300 m (984 ft) long and 2 m (6.7 ft) wide. Pyrgulopsis notidicola 
occurs only in shallow, flowing water on gravel substrate. The species 
does not occur in deep water (i.e., impoundments) where water velocity 
is low, gravel substrate is absent, and sediment levels are high. The 
present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its 
habitat or range by recreational bathers in the thermal waters is the 
greatest threat to the species. The small size of their habitat and 
their limited range makes them highly susceptible to any factors that 
negatively affect their habitat. Regulatory mechanisms are beginning to 
be put in place, but few actions have been implemented to date. Based 
on imminent threats of high magnitude, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Gila springsnail (Pyrgulopsis gilae)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files and the petition received 
on November 20, 1985. Also see our 12-month petition finding published 
on October 4, 1988 (53 FR 38969). The Gila springsnail is an aquatic 
species known from 13 populations in New Mexico. The long-term 
persistence of the Gila springsnail is contingent upon protection of 
the riparian corridor immediately adjacent to springhead and springrun 
habitats (i.e., habitat at the springhead and along the watercourse 
running from the springhead), thereby ensuring the maintenance of 
perennial, oxygenated flowing water within the species' required 
thermal range. Sites on both private and Federal lands are subject to 
levels of recreational use and livestock grazing that negatively affect 
this species, thus placing the long-term survival of the Gila 
springsnail at risk. Natural events such as drought, forest fire, 
sedimentation, and flooding; wetland habitat degradation by 
recreational bathing in thermal springs; and poor watershed management 
practices represent the primary threats to the Gila springsnail. Fire 
suppression

[[Page 53794]]

activities and fire retardant chemicals have potentially deleterious 
effects on this species. Because several of the springs occur on U.S. 
Forest Service land, management options for the protection of the snail 
should be possible. However, randomly occurring events, especially fire 
and drought, could have a major impact on the species. Moderate use by 
recreationalists and livestock is ongoing. If these uses remain at 
current or lower levels, they will not pose an imminent threat to the 
species. Of greater concern is the current drought that could affect 
spring discharge and which increases the potential for fire. 
Significant fires have occurred in the Gila National Forest, and 
subsequent floods and ash flows have severely affected aquatic life in 
streams. If the drought continues or worsens, the imminence of threats 
from decreased discharge or fire will increase. Based on these 
nonimminent threats that are currently of a low magnitude, we retained 
a listing priority number of 11 for this species.
    Gonzales springsnail (Tryonia circumstriata)--See paragraph above 
under Diamond Y Spring snail (Pseudotryonia adamantina).
    Huachuca springsnail (Pyrgulopsis thompsoni)--The following summary 
is based on information from our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Huachuca springsnail 
inhabits 13 springs and cienegas at elevations of 4,500 to 7,200 feet 
in southeastern Arizona (11 sites) and adjacent portions of Sonora, 
Mexico (2 sites). The springsnail is typically found in the shallower 
areas of springs or cienegas, often in rocky seeps at the spring 
source. Potential threats include habitat modification, wildfire, 
cattle grazing, and groundwater pumping. Recent communication with 
personnel from Fort Huachuca indicates they are in the process of 
evaluating the status of this species on Department of Defense lands 
and developing conservation strategies; this may result in a reduction 
or elimination of threats in the future. Currently, however, due to 
nonimminent threats of a high magnitude, we retained a listing priority 
number of 5 for this species.
    New Mexico springsnail (Pyrgulopsis thermalis)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on November 20, 1985. Also see our 12-month petition finding 
published on October 4, 1988 (53 FR 38969). The New Mexico springsnail 
is an aquatic species known from only two separate populations 
associated with a series of spring-brook systems along the Gila River 
in the Gila National Forest in Grant County, New Mexico. The long-term 
persistence of the New Mexico springsnail is contingent upon protection 
of the riparian corridor immediately adjacent to springhead and 
springrun habitats (i.e., habitat at the springhead and along the 
watercourse running from the springhead), thereby ensuring the 
maintenance of perennial, oxygenated flowing water within the species' 
required thermal range. While the New Mexico springsnail populations 
may be stable, the sites inhabited by the species are subject to levels 
of recreational use and livestock grazing that can negatively affect 
this species. Wetland habitat degradation by recreational use and 
overgrazing in or near the thermal springs and/or inadequate watershed 
management practices represent the primary threats to the New Mexico 
springsnail. Moderate use by recreationalists and livestock is ongoing. 
If these uses remain at the current or lower levels, they will not pose 
an imminent threat to the species. Of greater concern is the current 
drought, which could affect spring discharge and increases the 
potential for fire. Significant fires have occurred in the Gila 
National Forest and subsequent floods and ash flows have severely 
affected aquatic life in streams. If the drought continues or worsens, 
the imminence of threats from decreased discharge and fire will 
increase. Based on these nonimminent threats of a low magnitude, we 
retained a listing priority number of 11 for this springsnail.
    Page springsnail (Pyrgulopsis morrisoni)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Page springsnail is known to 
exist only within a complex of springs located within an approximately 
1.5-kilometer (0.93-mile) stretch along the west side of Oak Creek 
around the community of Page Springs, Yavapai County, Arizona. Many of 
the springs where the springsnail occurs have been subjected to some 
level of modification for domestic, agricultural, ranching, fish 
hatchery, and recreational activities. Arizona Game and Fish Department 
management plans for the Bubbling Ponds and Page Springs fish 
hatcheries include commitments to replace lost habitat and to monitor 
remaining populations of invertebrates such as the Page springsnail. 
Based on recent survey data, it appears that the Page springsnail is 
abundant within its habitats and is more widely distributed than 
previously known. Monitoring by Arizona Game and Fish Department and 
Service biologists no longer entails snail removal, which appears to 
have had a temporary positive impact on population numbers. The threat 
of groundwater withdrawal is not imminent because recent studies 
indicate that the groundwater system of the Verde Valley has not yet 
been affected by development, and base flow in the Verde River Valley 
has remained virtually unchanged since 1915. However, the magnitude of 
threats is high because limited distribution of this narrow endemic 
makes any impact from the threat (e.g., groundwater withdrawal) likely 
to result in the extinction of the species. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 5 for this species.
    Three Forks springsnail (Pyrgulopsis trivialis)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Three Forks 
springsnail is an endemic species with distribution limited to the 
Three Forks Springs and Boneyard Springs spring complexes in the North 
Fork East Fork Black River Watershed of east-central Arizona. The 
springsnail is known from free-flowing spring heads, concrete boxed 
spring heads, spring runs, and spring seepage at these sites. The 
primary threats include habitat modification from recreational 
activities, damage from elk wallowing, and predation from nonnative 
crayfish. The Arizona Game and Fish Department currently maintains an 
active monitoring program for the Three Forks springsnail in 
cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Forest 
Service. This program includes population monitoring, habitat sampling, 
and removal of nonnative predatory crayfish. However, in the absence of 
a management strategy to effectively address the threat from both elk 
and crayfish in the long-term, the threats are ongoing and therefore, 
imminent. The magnitude of threats is high because limited distribution 
of this narrow endemic makes any impact from the threats likely to 
result in the extinction of the species. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for the Three Forks springsnail.
    Newcomb's tree snail (Newcombia cumingi)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. A tree-dwelling 
species, Newcomb's tree snail is a member of the snail family, 
Achatinellidae. The species is endemic to the island of Maui, where it 
is currently known from a single remaining population. The greatest 
threats to the Newcomb's tree

[[Page 53795]]

snail are the loss of the only known remaining population due to 
stochastic events and predation from rats and Euglandina rosea. There 
are no efforts being made to reduce the threat from the carnivorous 
snail and only minimal rat control in the area occupied by this snail. 
Our attempts to raise this species in a captive propagation facility 
have been unsuccessful. We have assigned a listing priority number of 2 
for this species because threats are occurring in the only known 
remaining population making it of high magnitude and because the 
threats are ongoing which make them imminent.
Insects
    Warm Springs Zaitzevian riffle beetle (Zaitzevia thermae)--The 
following summary is based on information from our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
warm springs riffle beetle is an aquatic flightless beetle endemic to a 
single warm spring in southwestern Montana whose surface area is 
approximately 35 square meters. Because of its naturally limited range, 
this riffle beetle is at risk of randomly occurring natural- and human-
caused events. The warm spring is under the jurisdiction of the 
Service, which built a structure that provides a considerable level of 
physical protection for the warm spring. Because of the physical and 
jurisdictional protection, we determined that the magnitude of threats 
is low and the threats are nonimminent. Based on this, we assigned this 
species a listing priority number of 11.
    Wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola)--See above in ``Summary of Listing 
Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Mariana eight spot butterfly (Hypolimnas octucula mariannensis)--
The following summary is based on information contained in our files. 
No new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 
2004. The Mariana eight spot butterfly is a nymphalid butterfly species 
that feeds upon two host plants, Procris pedunculata and Elatostema 
calcareum. Endemic to the islands of Guam and Saipan, the species is 
now known from ten populations on Guam. This species is currently 
threatened by alien predation and parasitism and impacts to its host 
plants by browsing ungulates. The Mariana eight spot butterfly has 
extremely high mortality of eggs and larvae due to predation by alien 
ants and wasps. Nonnative deer degrade the habitat by browsing, 
trampling, and uprooting the butterfly's host plants. The threats of 
habitat loss by nonnative deer, and parasitism and predation by 
nonnative insects occur range-wide. The magnitude of threats is high 
because limited distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact 
from these threats likely to result in the extinction of the species. 
Direct threats to the Mariana eight spot butterfly from alien predators 
and parasites and indirect threats from impacts to its host plants by 
browsing ungulates are all imminent because they have been occurring 
for many years and are ongoing. Therefore, we assigned a listing 
priority number of 3 for this subspecies.
    Mariana wandering butterfly (Vagrans egestina)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
Mariana wandering butterfly is a nymphalid butterfly species which 
feeds upon a single host plant species, Maytenus thompsonii. Originally 
known from and endemic to the islands of Guam and Rota, the species is 
now known only from one population on Rota. This species is currently 
threatened by alien predation and parasitism and impacts to its host 
plants by browsing ungulates. The Mariana wandering butterfly has 
extremely high mortality of eggs and larvae due to predation by alien 
ants and wasps. Nonnative deer degrade the habitat by browsing, 
trampling, and uprooting the butterfly's host plants. The threats of 
habitat loss by nonnative deer, and parasitism and predation by 
nonnative insects occur range-wide. The magnitude of threats is high 
because limited distribution of this narrow endemic makes any impact 
from these threats likely to result in the extinction of the species. 
Direct threats to the Mariana wandering butterfly from alien predators 
and parasites and indirect threats from impacts to its host plants by 
browsing ungulates are all imminent because they have been occurring 
for many years and are ongoing. Therefore, we assigned a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and in 
the petition received on June 15, 2000. The Miami blue appears to be 
endemic to south Florida. Historically, it occurred throughout the 
Florida Keys, north to Hillsborough and Volusia Counties. None were 
documented between 1996 and 1999. In 1999, an extant population was 
discovered at Bahia Honda State Park on Bahia Honda Key. It is now 
restricted to that park, other than several larvae that were documented 
on West Summerland Key, on unprotected land approximately 2.2 miles 
west of the Bahia Honda site, in November 2003. This butterfly occupies 
about 1.28 acres on Bahia Honda. The Miami blue is predominantly a 
coastal species, occurring in disturbed and early successional habitats 
such as the edges of tropical hardwood hammock, coastal berm forest, 
and along trails and other open sunny areas, and historically in pine 
rocklands. These habitats provide larval host plants and adult nectar 
sources that are required to occur in close juxtaposition, due to the 
very restricted range of movement exhibited by the butterfly. The 
magnitude of threat is high for this species, due to threats associated 
with limited population size and range, mosquito control activities, 
and hurricanes. The threats are nonimminent since the current range is 
within a state park wherein threats from mosquito control actions are 
substantially controlled, and because threats associated with small 
population size and stochastic events (like hurricanes) are long-term, 
not immediate threats. Therefore, the Miami blue is assigned a listing 
priority number of 6.
    Sequatchie caddisfly (Glyphopsyche sequatchie)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Sequatchie 
caddisfly is known from two spring runs that emerge from caves in 
Marion County, Tennessee: Owen Spring Branch (the type locality) and 
Martin Spring run in the Battle Creek system. The Owen Spring Branch 
population occurs within Sequatchie Cave Park, which is a Class II 
Natural-Scientific State Natural Area, thus providing statutory 
protection from collection for the population in Owen Spring Branch. 
Estimated population sizes are 500 to 5000 individuals for Owen Spring 
Branch and 2 to 10 times higher at Martin Spring, due to the greater 
amount of apparently suitable habitat. Threats to the species include 
siltation; agricultural, municipal, and industrial chemical runoff 
(both direct and from subsurface flows); vandalism; and pollution from 
trash thrown into the springs. This species is vulnerable to extinction 
due to its restricted distribution and small population sizes. These 
threats are gradual and/or not necessarily imminent but are of a high 
magnitude; therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 5 for 
this species.
    Beaver Cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus major)--The

[[Page 53796]]

following summary is based upon information in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Beaver Cave beetle is a small, eyeless, reddish-brown predatory insect 
that feeds upon small cave invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is 
not found outside the cave environment. The Beaver Cave beetle is only 
known from one privately owned Kentucky cave. The limestone cave in 
which this species is found provide a unique and fragile environment 
that supports a variety of species that have evolved to survive and 
reproduce under the demanding conditions found in cave ecosystems. The 
species was observed in 2005 during a survey of the cave. The limited 
distribution of the species makes it vulnerable to isolated events that 
would only have a minimal effect on more wide-ranging insects. Events 
such as toxic chemical spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted 
water or indirect impacts from off-site construction activities, 
closure of entrances, alteration of entrances, or the creation of new 
entrances could have serious adverse impacts on this species. The 
likelihood of one of the events eventually occurring combined with the 
narrow range of the species makes the magnitude of threats high. The 
immediacy of threat is nonimminent because there are no known projects 
planned that would affect the species in the next 1 to 2 years; we 
therefore have assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Clifton cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus caecus)--The following 
summary is based upon information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Clifton cave beetle 
is a small, eyeless, reddish-brown predatory insect that feeds upon 
small cave invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is not found outside 
the cave environment. Clifton cave beetle is only known from two 
privately owned Kentucky caves. Soon after the species was first 
collected in 1963 the entrance to the cave was sealed due to road 
construction. Other caves in the vicinity of this cave were surveyed 
for the species during a 1995 to 1996. Only one additional site was 
found to support the Clifton Cave beetle. It can not be determined at 
this time if the species still occurs at the original location or if 
the species has been extirpated from the site by the closure of the 
cave entrance. The limestone caves in which this species are found 
provide a unique and fragile environment that supports a variety of 
species that have evolved to survive and reproduce under the demanding 
conditions found in cave ecosystems. The limited distribution of the 
species makes it vulnerable to isolated events that would only have a 
minimal effect on the more wide-ranging insects. Events such as toxic 
chemical spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted water or 
indirect impacts from off-site construction activities, closure of 
entrances, alteration of entrances, or the creation of new entrances 
could have serious adverse impacts on this species. The likelihood of 
one of the events eventually occurring combined with the narrow range 
of the species makes the magnitude of threats high. The immediacy of 
threat is nonimminent because there are no known projects planned that 
would affect the species in the next 1 to 2 years; we therefore 
assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Icebox cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus frigidus)--The following 
summary is based upon information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Icebox cave beetle 
is a small, eyeless, reddish-brown predatory insect that feeds upon 
small cave invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is not found outside 
the cave environment. Icebox cave beetle is only known from one 
privately owned Kentucky cave. The limestone cave in which this species 
is found provides a unique and fragile environment that supports a 
variety of species that have evolved to survive and reproduce under the 
demanding conditions found in cave ecosystems. The species has not been 
observed since it was originally collected from the only site known to 
support the species, but species experts believe that it may still 
exist there in low numbers. The limited distribution of the species 
makes it vulnerable to isolated events that would only have a minimal 
effect on the more wide-ranging insects. Events such as toxic chemical 
spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted water or indirect 
impacts from off-site construction activities, closure of entrances, 
alteration of entrances, or the creation of new entrances could have 
serious adverse impacts on this species. The likelihood of one of the 
events eventually occurring combined with the narrow range of the 
species makes the magnitude of threats high. The immediacy of threat is 
nonimminent because there are no known projects planned that would 
affect the species in the next 1 to 2 years; we therefore have assigned 
a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Inquirer cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus inquisitor)--The following 
summary is based upon information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The inquirer cave 
beetle is a fairly small, eyeless, reddish-brown predatory insect that 
feeds upon small cave invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is not 
found outside the cave environment. The inquirer cave beetle is only 
known from one privately owned Tennessee cave. The limestone cave in 
which this species is found provides a unique and fragile environment 
that supports a variety of species that have evolved to survive and 
reproduce under the demanding conditions found in cave ecosystems. The 
species was last observed in 1997. The limited distribution of the 
species makes it vulnerable to isolated events that would only have a 
minimal effect on the more wide-ranging insects. The area around the 
only know site for the species is in a rapidly expanding urban area and 
indirect impacts, such as chemical or other pollution, could 
significantly affect both the cave and the species the cave supports. 
The entrance to the cave is protected by the landowner through a 
cooperative management agreement with the Service, The Nature 
Conservancy, and Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency; however, a 
sinkhole that drains into the cave system is located away from the 
protected entrance and is near a highway. Events such as toxic chemical 
spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted water or indirect 
impacts from off-site construction activities could adversely affect 
the species. The likelihood of one of the events eventually occurring 
combined with the narrow range of the species makes the magnitude of 
threats high. The immediacy of threat is nonimminent because there are 
no known projects planned that would affect the species in the next 1 
to 2 years and it receives some protection under a cooperative 
management agreement; we therefore have assigned a listing priority 
number of 5 to this species.
    Louisville cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus troglodytes)--The 
following summary is based upon information in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
Louisville cave beetle is a small, eyeless, reddish-brown predatory 
insect that feeds upon cave invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is 
not found outside the cave environment. Louisville cave beetle is only 
known from two privately

[[Page 53797]]

owned Kentucky caves. The limestone caves in which this species are 
found provide a unique and fragile environment that supports a variety 
of species that have evolved to survive and reproduce under the 
demanding conditions found in cave ecosystems. The limited distribution 
of the species makes it vulnerable to isolated events that would only 
have a minimal effect on the more wide-ranging insects. Events such as 
toxic chemical spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted water or 
indirect impacts from off-site construction activities, closure of 
entrances, alteration of entrances, or the creation of new entrances 
could have serious adverse impacts on this species. The likelihood of 
one of the events eventually occurring combined with the narrow range 
of the species makes the magnitude of threats high. The immediacy of 
threat is nonimminent because there are no known projects planned that 
would affect the species in the next 1 to 2 years; we therefore have 
assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Surprising cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus inexpectatus Barr)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Cave beetles in the genus Pseudanophthalmus are fairly small, eyeless, 
reddish-brown insects. The limestone caves in which these cave beetles 
are found provide a unique and fragile environment that supports a 
variety of species that have evolved to survive and reproduce under the 
demanding conditions found in cave ecosystems. The surprising cave 
beetle was described from specimens collected in the historic section 
of Mammoth Cave and White Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), 
Edmonston County, Kentucky. Subsequent to these original discoveries, 
the species was also found in MCNP's Great Onyx Cave. Recently, an 
additional population was discovered in a cave some distance from the 
previously known sites. Its limited distribution makes this species 
vulnerable to isolated events that would only have a minimal effect on 
the more wide-ranging members of the genus. Events such as toxic 
chemical spills, discharges of large amounts of polluted water, closure 
of entrances, alteration of entrances, or the creation of new entrances 
can have serious adverse impacts on this species and could result in 
its extinction. The magnitude and imminence of the threat to the 
surprising cave beetle is reduced because of its location on Federal 
land and the implementation of a Candidate Conservation Agreement 
between MCNP and the Service to protect the species. Therefore we have 
assigned a listing priority of 11 to this species.
    Tatum Cave beetle (Pseudanophthalmus parvus)--The following summary 
is based upon information in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Tatum Cave beetle is a small, 
eyeless, reddish-brown predatory insect that feeds upon cave 
invertebrates. It is cave dependent and is not found outside the cave 
environment. Tatum Cave beetle is only known from one privately owned 
Kentucky cave. The limestone cave in which this species is found 
provides a unique and fragile environment that supports a variety of 
species that have evolved to survive and reproduce under the demanding 
conditions found in cave ecosystems. The species has not been observed 
since 1965 but species experts believe that it still exists in low 
numbers. The limited distribution of the species makes it vulnerable to 
isolated events that would only have a minimal effect on the more wide-
ranging insects. Events such as toxic chemical spills, discharges of 
large amounts of polluted water or indirect impacts from off-site 
construction activities, closure of entrances, alteration of entrances, 
or the creation of new entrances could have serious adverse impacts on 
this species. The likelihood of one of the events eventually occurring 
combined with the narrow range of the species makes the magnitude of 
threats high. The immediacy of threat is nonimminent because there are 
no known projects planned that would affect the species in the next 1 
to 2 years; we therefore have assigned a listing priority number of 5 
to this species.
    Taylor's (Whulge, Edith's) checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha 
taylori)--The following summary is based on information from our files 
and in the petition received on December 11, 2002. Historically, the 
Taylor's checkerspot butterfly was known from 70 locations: 23 in 
British Columbia, 34 in Washington, and 13 in Oregon. Following surveys 
during the 2005 flight period, only 15 populations were confirmed, with 
a total of about 2,500 to 3,000 individuals observed. Twelve 
populations are known from Washington, two in the Willamette Valley of 
Oregon and the new location found in British Columbia, Canada. The 
species was thought to have been extirpated in Canada until this new 
population was discovered at a new location on Denman Island, British 
Columbia.
    Threats include degradation and destruction of native grasslands by 
conversion to agriculture, residential development, commercial 
purposes, encroachment by nonnative plants, and natural succession from 
grasslands to native shrubs and trees, and fire. The application of 
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki for Asian gypsy moth control 
likely contributed to extirpations of the subspecies at three locations 
in Pierce County, Washington. Magnitude of threats is high because of 
the extremely small size of remaining populations and reduction in 
distribution from the historical range and because the threats may 
occur at all or a major portion of the known butterfly locations. The 
size and location of the populations shift from year to year. Threats 
are imminent because they are currently occurring. The ecosystem on 
which this subspecies depends requires annual management to maintain 
its grassland habitat. We assigned the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly a 
listing priority number of 3.
    Blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum)--The following summary is based on information contained 
in our files. No new information was provided in the petition received 
on May 11, 2004. The blackline Hawaiian damselfly is a stream-dwelling 
damselfly species endemic to the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Once known 
from throughout Oahu, the species is now restricted to 11 populations 
within the windward Koolau Mountains. This species is threatened by 
predation from alien aquatic species such as fish and predacious 
insects and habitat loss through dewatering of streams and invasive 
nonnative plants. Nonnative fish and insects prey on the naiads of the 
damselfly and loss of water reduces the amount of suitable naiad 
habitat available. Invasive plants also contribute to loss of habitat 
by either over shading streams or by forming dense, monotypic stands 
that completely eliminate any open water (e.g. California grass 
(Brachiaria mutica)). These threats are occurring in varying degrees 
range-wide for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly. Although there are no 
efforts being done to control or eradicate nonnative fish or insects or 
to stop the loss of habitat, the 11 streams are widely dispersed on 
both sides of the mountain range and are highly unlikely to experience 
complete loss of populations at the same time. Therefore the magnitude 
of the threats is moderate. Threats to the blackline Hawaiian damselfly 
from loss of habitat and introduced nonnative fish and

[[Page 53798]]

insects are ongoing and therefore are imminent. Therefore, we assigned 
this subspecies a listing priority number of 9.
    Crimson Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Megalagrion leptodemas is a stream-dwelling damselfly species endemic 
to the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Once known from throughout Oahu, the 
species is now restricted to four populations. This species is 
threatened by predation from alien aquatic species such as fish and 
predacious insects and habitat loss through dewatering of streams and 
invasive plant species. Nonnative fish and insects prey on the naiads 
of the damselfly and loss of water reduces the amount of suitable naiad 
habitat available. Invasive plants also contribute to loss of habitat 
by either over shading streams or by forming dense, monotypic stands 
that completely eliminate any open water (e.g. California grass 
(Brachiaria mutica)). There are no conservation measures being taken to 
alleviate these threats for this species. Nonnative fish and plants are 
found in all the streams the crimson Hawaiian damselfly occurs in 
making these threats ongoing and imminent. These threats are of high 
magnitude because of their severity and because they are occurring 
throughout its limited range. We have assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 2 because the threats are of a high magnitude and 
are imminent.
    Flying earwig Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nesiotes)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Megalagrion nesiotes is a terrestrial or semi-terrestrial damselfly 
species endemic to the islands of Hawaii and Maui, Hawaii. Despite 
surveys to locate extant populations, the species is now known to be 
restricted to a single population in windward east Maui. This species 
is threatened by predation from ants and other nonnative arthropods 
that likely feed on both naiads and emerging adults, and habitat loss 
due to disturbance by feral ungulates. While foraging, pigs root and 
trample the forest floor, encouraging the establishment of nonnative 
plants in the newly disturbed soil. In moist depressions, pigs 
completely remove all vegetation by wallowing, leaving nothing but mud 
and water. The complete removal of vegetation as well as the 
establishment of nonnative plants destroy the leaf litter habitat that 
is likely used by the Flying earwig Hawaiian damselfly naiads. These 
threats are ongoing in the only known population of this species and no 
conservation efforts are being done to alleviate these serious threats 
for this species. We assigned this species a listing priority number of 
2 because the threats are of a high magnitude and are imminent.
    Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Megalagrion oceanicum is a stream-dwelling damselfly species endemic to 
the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Once known from throughout Oahu, the 
species is now restricted to seven populations within the windward 
Koolau Mountains. This species is threatened by predation from alien 
aquatic species such as fish and predacious insects and habitat loss 
through dewatering of streams and invasion by nonnative plants. 
Nonnative fish and insects prey on the naiads of the damselfly and loss 
of water reduces the amount of suitable naiad habitat available. 
Invasive plants also contribute to loss of habitat by either over 
shading streams or by forming dense, monotypic stands that completely 
eliminate any open water (e.g. California grass (Brachiaria mutica)). 
There are no conservation measures being taken to alleviate these 
threats for this species. Nonnative fish and plants are found in all 
the streams the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly occurs in making these 
threats ongoing and imminent. These threats are of high magnitude 
because of their severity and because they are occurring throughout its 
limited range. Therefore, we have assigned this species a listing 
priority number of 2.
    Orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion xanthomelas)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Megalagrion xanthomelas is a stream-dwelling damselfly species endemic 
to the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and 
Hawaii. The species is now restricted to 16 populations on the islands 
of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii. This species is threatened by 
predation from alien aquatic species such as fish and predacious 
insects and habitat loss through dewatering of streams and invasion by 
nonnative plants. Nonnative fish and insects prey on the naiads of the 
damselfly and loss of water reduces the amount of suitable naiad 
habitat available. Invasive plants also contribute to loss of habitat 
by either overshading streams or by forming dense, monotypic stands 
that completely eliminate any open water (e.g. California grass 
(Brachiaria mutica)). Nonnative fish and plants are found in all the 
streams the orangeblack damselfly occur in, except the Oahu location, 
where there are no nonnative fish, making these threats ongoing and 
imminent. Although no conservation efforts are being implemented for 
this species in particular on Molokai, Lanai, and the island of Hawaii, 
the Oahu location is located at Tripler Army Medical Center. The Army 
has consistently considered the damselfly's needs in all work done near 
or in the stream and maintains a supplemental water flow into the 
stream to maintain habitat after disrupting the original flow. We 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 8 because though the 
threats are imminent, they are of moderate magnitude given the more 
widely dispersed population and the conservation efforts at Tripler.
    Pacific Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion pacificum)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Megalagrion pacificum is a slow-moving stream, pool, and pond-dwelling 
damselfly species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and Hawaii. The species is now restricted to 
seven populations on the islands of Maui and Molokai. This species is 
threatened by predation from alien aquatic species, such as fish and 
predacious insects, and habitat loss through dewatering of streams and 
invasion by nonnative plants. Nonnative fish and insects prey on the 
naiads of the damselfly and loss of water reduces the amount of 
suitable naiad habitat available. Invasive plants also contribute to 
loss of habitat by either overshading streams or by forming dense, 
monotypic stands that completely eliminate any open water (e.g. 
California grass (Brachiaria mutica)). There are no conservation 
measures being taken to alleviate these threats for this species. 
Nonnative fish and plants are found in all the streams the Pacific 
Hawaiian damselfly occurs in making these threats ongoing and imminent. 
These threats are of high magnitude because of their severity and 
because they are occurring throughout its limited range. Therefore, we 
have assigned this species a listing priority number of 2.

[[Page 53799]]

    Picture wing fly (Drosophila attigua)-- The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This picture wing 
fly, a member of the fly family Drosophilidae, feeds and breeds upon a 
single host plant, Cheirodendron sp. The fly is endemic to the Hawaiian 
Island of Kauai, where it is currently known from two populations. This 
species is currently threatened by loss and modification of its host 
plant's habitat by browsing ungulates and through the uncontrolled 
growth of nonnative plants. While foraging, pigs root and trample the 
forest floor, encouraging the establishment of nonnative plants in the 
newly disturbed soil. Pigs also disseminate nonnative plant seeds 
through their feces and on their bodies, accelerating the spread of 
nonnative plants through native forest. These nonnative plants often 
displace native plants including the host plant this species depends 
on. Feral goats also consume native vegetation including this species' 
host plant, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate erosion, and 
promote the invasion of nonnative plants. Additionally, nonnative 
insect species prey on and parasitize both the larvae and adult phases 
of the picture wing fly. All these threats are ongoing which make them 
imminent and are severe throughout the species range which makes the 
threats of high magnitude. Therefore, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 2.
    Picture wing fly (Drosophila digressa)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This picture wing 
fly, a member of the fly family Drosophilidae, feeds and breeds upon a 
single host plant, Charpentiera sp. The fly is endemic to the island of 
Hawaii, where it is currently known from three populations. This 
species is currently threatened by loss and modification of its host 
plant's habitat by browsing ungulates and through the uncontrolled 
growth of nonnative plants. While foraging, pigs root and trample the 
forest floor, encouraging the establishment of nonnative plants in the 
newly disturbed soil. Pigs also disseminate nonnative plant seeds 
through their feces and on their bodies, accelerating the spread of 
nonnative plants through native forest. These nonnative plants often 
displace native plants including the host plant this species depends 
on. Feral goats also consume native vegetation including this species 
host plant, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate erosion, and 
promote the invasion of nonnative plants. Additionally, nonnative 
insect species prey on and parasitize both the larvae and adult phases 
of the picture wing fly. All these threats are ongoing which make them 
imminent and are sever throughout the range of this species which makes 
the threats of high magnitude. Therefore, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 2.
    Stephan's riffle beetle (Heterelmis stephani)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Stephan's riffle 
beetle is an endemic riffle beetle found in limited spring environments 
within the Santa Rita Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. The beetle is 
known from Bog Spring and Sylvester Spring in Madera Canyon, within the 
Coronado National Forest. These springs are typical isolated, mid-
elevation, permanently saturated, spring-fed aquatic climax communities 
commonly referred to as ci,negas. Threats are largely from habitat 
modification; we consider them to be of high magnitude due to the 
limited range of the species. However, because the Forest Service has 
no current plans to modify remaining habitat, the threats are not 
imminent. Due to the continued high magnitude of nonimminent threats, 
we retained a listing priority number of 5 for Stephan's riffle beetle.
    Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files, including information from the 
petition received on May 12, 2003. The Dakota skipper is a small-to 
mid-sized butterfly that inhabits high-quality tallgrass and mixed 
grass prairie in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and the 
provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada. The species is 
presumed to be extirpated from Iowa and Illinois and from many sites 
within occupied States.
    The species is threatened by conversion of its native prairie 
habitat for agricultural purposes, overgrazing, invasive species, 
gravel mining, inbreeding, population isolation, and, in some cases, 
prescribed fire. In addition, prairie succeeds to shrubland or forest 
without periodic fire, grazing, or mowing; thus, the species is also 
threatened at sites where such disturbances are not applied. Although 
the species is listed as threatened by the State of Minnesota, this 
designation lacks the habitat protections needed for long-term 
conservation. The species is also listed as endangered by the province 
of Manitoba. The Service, other agencies, and private organizations 
(e.g., The Nature Conservancy) protect and manage some Dakota skipper 
sites. Although proper management is always necessary to ensure its 
persistence, it is generally secure at these sites. The species is also 
secure at some sites where private landowners manage native prairie in 
ways that conserve Dakota skipper. The threats are such that the 
species warrants listing; the threats are moderate in magnitude and, 
although some sites are imminently threatened, overall the threats are 
nonimminent. Therefore, we assigned a listing priority number of 11 to 
the species.
    Mardon skipper (Polites mardon)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files and the petition received on 
December 24, 2002. The Mardon skipper is a rare northwestern butterfly 
with a remarkably disjunct range. Currently this species is known from 
four widely separated locations: South Puget Sound region, southern 
Washington Cascades, Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon, and coastal 
California. The Mardon skipper spends its entire life cycle in one 
location, and its dispersal ability is probably limited. Threats 
include habitat loss and degradation due to development, overgrazing, 
use of herbicides and pesticides, encroachment of nonnative and native 
vegetation, succession from grassland to forest, and fire suppression; 
and direct loss of individuals due to fire, recreational activities, 
insect collecting, and random, naturally occurring events. Limited 
dispersal ability restricts the likelihood of recolonization once a 
population is lost. The magnitude of threats is high because of the 
small population sizes and disjunct distribution of the species that 
limits its ability to disperse; just 10 of the known locations for 
Mardon Skipper have more than 50 individuals. Loss of any of the 
populations could threaten the continued existence of the species 
within each of its known separate locales. However, the number of 
documented locations for the species has increased from less than 10 in 
1998 to as many as 65 rangewide in 2005 and it would be unlikely to 
have threats that would affect all known locales simultaneously. 
Overall, we consider the threats to be nonimminent because the threats 
are not currently occurring at all known population sites. We have 
assigned a listing priority number of 5 to the Mardon skipper.
    Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle (Cicindela limbata albissima)--
The following summary is based on information contained in our files, 
including information from the petition received on April 21, 1994. The 
Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle occurs

[[Page 53800]]

only at the Coral Pink Sand Dunes, approximately seven miles west of 
Kanab, Kane County, in south-central Utah. It is restricted to a small 
part of the dune field, situated at an elevation of about 1,820 m 
(6,000 ft). The beetle's habitat is being adversely affected by ongoing 
recreational off-road vehicle use that is destroying and degrading the 
beetle's habitat, especially the interdunal swales used by the larvae. 
The continued survival of the beetle depends on the preservation of its 
habitat. The two agencies that manage the dunes field, the Utah 
Department of Parks and Recreation and the Bureau of Land Management, 
have restricted recreational off-road vehicle use in some areas, which 
reduces impacts. The beetle's population is also vulnerable to over 
collecting by professional and hobby tiger-beetle collectors. 
Quantification of this threat is difficult without continuous 
population monitoring. Climatic factors, most recently drought 
conditions, have reduced the population, but it has shown some recent 
improvement. Based on imminent threats of a low to moderate magnitude, 
we retained a listing priority of 9.
    Highlands tiger beetle (Cicindela highlandensis)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Highlands tiger 
beetle is narrowly distributed and restricted to areas of bare sand 
within upland oak scrub and longleaf pine vegetation on the ancient 
sand dunes of the Lake Wales Ridge in Polk and Highlands Counties, 
Florida. This tiger beetle has been found at 40 sites from near Haines 
City south to Josephine Creek. In the most recent survey, biologists 
found a total of 1,574 adults at 40 sites compared with 643 adults at 
31 sites in 1996, 928 adults at 31 sites in 1995, and 742 adults at 21 
sites in 1993. Of the 40 sites in the 2004-2005 surveys with one or 
more adults: Three sites were found to have large populations of over 
100 adults [Catfish Creek Preserve (493), Snell Creek South (193), and 
Flaming Arrow Scout Camp (175)]; three sites had populations of 50-99 
adults; eight sites had 20-49 adults, 13 sites had 10-19 adults, and 13 
sites had < 10 adults. Results from a limited removal study at four 
sites suggest that the actual population size at the various survey 
sites is likely to be as much as two times as high as indicated by the 
visual index counts. Lack of fire to create open sand, pesticide use, 
small population sizes at some sites, and over-collecting pose serious 
threats to this species. Because this species is narrowly distributed 
with specific habitat requirements and small populations, the magnitude 
of threats is high. Although the majority of its historic range has 
been lost, degraded, and fragmented, numerous sites are now protected, 
and land managers are implementing prescribed fire, which should 
restore habitat and help reduce threats. Overall, the threats are 
nonimminent. Therefore, the Highlands tiger beetle is assigned a 
listing priority number of 5.
Arachnids
    Warton's cave meshweaver (Cicurina wartoni)--The following summary 
is based on information from our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004, or has been received since 
the last Candidate Notice of Review published on May 11, 2005. Warton's 
Cave meshweaver is an eyeless, cave-dwelling, unpigmented, 0.25 inch 
long invertebrate known only from female specimens. This meshweaver is 
known to occur in only one cave (Pickle Pit) in Travis County, Texas. 
Primary threats to the species and its habitat are predation and 
competition from fire ants and surface and subsurface effects from 
runoff from an adjacent subdivision. The magnitude of threats is high 
because the single location for this species makes it highly vulnerable 
to extinction. The threats are imminent because fire ants are known to 
occur in the vicinity of the cave, and impacts to the cave from runoff 
and human activities are an imminent threat. Thus, we assign a listing 
priority number of 2 to this species.
Crustaceans
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Metabetaeus lohena)--See above in ``Summary 
of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Palaemonella burnsi)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Procaris hawaiana)--See above in ``Summary 
of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Anchialine pool shrimp (Vetericaris chaceorum)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Troglobitic groundwater shrimp (Typhlatya monae)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Typhlatya monae is a 
subterranean small shrimp known from Puerto Rico, Barbuda, and 
Dominican Republic. It is classified as a troglobite, or obligatory 
cave organism, of which its most extraordinary feature is the reduction 
or loss of vision and pigmentation. They feed on organic waste material 
and debris, such as bat guano. Little is known concerning the status of 
T. monae in either Barbuda or Dominican Republic. Although in Puerto 
Rico this species was previously found at Mona Island, currently T. 
monae is known from only three caves within the Gurca Commonwealth 
Forest in the municipalities of Gurca, Yauco, and Guayanilla. However, 
the species may still be found in the reef deposit aquifers in Mona 
Island that have not yet been surveyed. In 1995, the population in 
Puerto Rico was estimated to be close to 2,000 individuals; over 95% of 
these were observed in only one cave. Changes in groundwater quality, 
collection of rare animals, predation, limited distribution of the 
species, limited availability of appropriate habitat (i.e., underground 
aquifers within cave formations), potential reduction of food sources 
(e.g., mortality or reduction in bat populations), and low population 
numbers, threaten populations of T. monae. These threats are not 
imminent because the known range of T. monae is within protected lands 
and there are no known projects or management activities planned within 
the Gurca Commonwealth Forest or Mona Island that would result in 
mortality of this species. The magnitude of threat to T. monae is high 
due to its restricted distribution, low population numbers, and 
aggregation of most individuals at only one location. Therefore, we 
assign a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
Flowering Plants
    Abronia alpina (Ramshaw Meadows sand-verbena)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Arabis georgiana (Georgia rockcress)--See above in ``Summary of 
Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on

[[Page 53801]]

information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Argythamnia blodgettii (Blodgett's silverbush)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Blodgett's 
silverbush has been found in open, sunny areas in pine rockland, edges 
of rockland hammock, edges of coastal berm, and sometimes disturbed 
areas at the edges of natural areas. Plants can be found growing from 
crevices on limestone, or on sand. The pine rockland habitat where it 
occurs in Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys requires periodic 
fires to maintain habitat with a minimum amount of hardwoods. 
Approximately 10,000 plants may exist at 18 sites, with most of the 
plants on the large pinelands of Long Pine Key in Everglades National 
Park and Big Pine Key (in part on National Key Deer Refuge), as well as 
other smaller pinelands on conservation lands. If this plant's 
distribution were limited to the mainland, we would consider the 
magnitude of threat to be high due to exotic pest plant problems in the 
Miami-Dade urban and agricultural area, and the likely arrival of a 
serious new pest, Old World climbing fern. Because the Keys are drier 
and perhaps less fertile, managing vegetation is slightly easier. Fire 
return intervals are longer and Old World Climbing fern may prove to be 
less of a threat. As a result, we consider the magnitude of threats to 
be moderate to low. We are maintaining the immediacy of threat as 
nonimminent to reflect the intensive management and biological control 
efforts already aimed at Old World climbing fern, as well as the 
quality of management on conservation lands. Thus, we assigned a 
listing priority number of 11 to this species.
    Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii (Northern wormwood)--The 
following summary is based on information from our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Historically known from eight sites, northern wormwood is currently 
known from only two populations in Klickitat and Grant Counties, 
Washington. This plant is restricted to exposed basalt, cobbly-sandy 
terraces, and sand habitat along the shore and on islands in the 
Columbia River. The two sites are separated by 200 miles (322 
kilometers) of the Columbia River and three large hydroelectric dams. 
The Klickitat County population is declining; it is unclear whether the 
Grant County population is stable or declining, but it is vulnerable to 
environmental variability. Surveys of apparently suitable habitat along 
the Hanford Reach have not detected any additional plants.
    Threats to northern wormwood include direct loss of suitable 
habitat through regulation of water levels in the Columbia River and 
placement of riprap along the river bank; trampling of plants as a 
result of recreational use; competition with nonnative invasive 
species; a small population size that makes both sites susceptible to 
genetic drift and inbreeding; and the potential for hybridization with 
two other species of Artemisia. Ongoing conservation actions have 
reduced trampling, but have not eliminated or reduced the other threats 
at the Grant County site. The magnitude of threat is high for this 
variety because the only two remaining populations are widely separated 
and distributed such that one or both populations could be eliminated 
by a single disturbance. The threats are imminent because recreational 
use is ongoing, invasive nonnative species occur at both sites, erosion 
of the substrate is ongoing at the Klickitat County site, and high 
water flows are random, naturally occurring events that may occur 
unpredictably in any year. Therefore, we retained a listing priority 
number of 3 for this plant variety.
    Astelia waialealae (Pa[agrave]iniu)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Pai[agrave]niu is a perennial 
herb found in Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) dominated mixed montane 
bog on Kauai, Hawaii. Astelia waialealae is known from three 
populations in three bogs within the Alakai swamp region of Kauai. The 
total numbers have declined from 35 clumps, representing 10 to 15 
genetically distinct individuals, in 2004 to 21 clumps in 2005, 
representing 7 genetically distinct individuals. No regeneration has 
been observed from 1995 to the present. The major threats to this 
species currently are the lack of regeneration and the low numbers of 
individuals. The species is also threatened by pigs that eat and 
trample this plant and its seedlings, degrade and/or destroy habitat, 
and spread the nonnative plant species Juncus planifolius and 
Andropogon virginicus that compete with A. waialealae. Pigs have been 
fenced out of the three bogs where A. waialealae currently occurs and 
nonnative plant control is underway; however, this species is not 
recovering and continues to decline, even though the known threats of 
feral pigs and nonnative plants have been controlled over the past nine 
years. The threats continue to be of a high magnitude because of small 
population size and range make it extremely vulnerable, and efforts to 
address the threats have not halted the decline. In addition, the 
threats are imminent because they are ongoing as evidenced by the 
continuing decline of the species. Therefore, we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Astragalus tortipes (Sleeping Ute milkvetch)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Bidens amplectens (Kookooalu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is an erect 
perennial or facultatively annual herb found in mixed lowland dry 
shrubland/grassland on Oahu, Hawaii. Known from one population of 500 
to 1,000 individuals in the Waianae Mountains, the threats to this 
species are nonnative plants that increase the fuel load and fire 
threat, and compete for habitat. The magnitude of threats continues to 
be high because no conservation measures have been taken to address 
them and because of the potential for the elimination of the only known 
population by a single stochastic or naturally occurring event. Threats 
continue to be imminent because they are ongoing. We retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera (Kookooalu) `` The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
subspecies is an erect, perennial herb found in Cheirodendron-
Metrosideros polymorpha (olapa-ohia) montane wet forest on Maui, 
Hawaii. This subspecies is known from 11 populations with a total of 
approximately 500 individuals. Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera is 
threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that compete for habitat. Feral pigs have been fenced 
out of three of the 11 populations of B. campylotheca ssp. pentamera 
and nonnative plants have been greatly reduced in the three fenced 
areas. This subspecies is represented in an ex-situ collection and 
reintroduction or augmentation efforts have been attempted this year. 
However, these on-going conservation efforts benefit only three of the 
11 known populations and therefore threats continue to be of a high 
magnitude to this subspecies. In addition, threats to B. campylotheca

[[Page 53802]]

ssp. pentamera are imminent because they are ongoing in eight of the 11 
populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 3 for 
this subspecies.
    Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis (Kookooalu)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Bidens conjuncta (Kookooalu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Bidens conjuncta is an erect, 
perennial herb found in Metrosideros-Dicranopteris (ohia-uluhe) lowland 
to montane wet forest and shrubland on Maui, Hawaii. Seven populations 
are known, and the number of individuals totals approximately 2,200 
scattered throughout upper elevation drainages of west Maui. Although 
the overall range of the species has not changed, the number of 
individuals has declined over the last decade or so. This species is 
threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and eat vegetative 
parts and fruit of B. conjuncta, and by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs have been fenced out of about 
half of the populations of B. conjuncta, and nonnative plants have been 
greatly reduced in the fenced areas. The threats from feral pigs and 
nonnative plants are, therefore, of a moderate magnitude to this 
species because they impact only about half of its populations. In 
addition, these threats are imminent because they are ongoing in half 
of the populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 
8 for this species.
    Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla (Kookooalu) `` The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
subspecies is an erect, perennial herb found in open mixed shrubland to 
dry Metrosideros (ohia) forest on the island of Hawaii, Hawaii. This 
subspecies is endemic to the island of Hawaii, where it is restricted 
to an area of less than 10 square miles (26 square kilometers). Bidens 
micrantha ssp. ctenophylla is known from four populations totaling 
approximately 3,000 individuals, the majority of which occur in only 
two populations. This subspecies is threatened by fire and nonnative 
plants, such as Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) and Leucaena 
leucocephala (koa haole), and two populations are threatened by 
residential and commercial development. The threats to B. micrantha 
ssp. ctenophylla from fire and nonnative plants are of a high magnitude 
and imminent because they are occurring range-wide and no efforts for 
their control have been undertaken. In addition, two populations are 
also threatened by development. Therefore, we retained a listing 
priority number of 3 for this subspecies.
    Brickellia mosieri (Florida brickell-bush)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is 
restricted to pine rocklands of Miami-Dade County, Florida. This 
habitat requires periodic prescribed fires to maintain the low 
understory and prevent encroachment by native tropical hardwoods and 
some exotic pest plants, such as Brazilian pepper. Only one large 
population (up to 10,000 individuals) is known to exist, plus 16 other 
populations that do not each exceed 100 individuals. There is little 
likelihood of finding additional populations because less than one 
percent of the original pineland habitat still exists and this habitat 
has been mapped and surveyed for rare plants over the past two years. 
Throughout its range, this species is threatened by exotic pest plants 
and conversion of pinelands to other uses. New exotic pest plants are 
expected to invade pine rocklands, even as effective control methods 
are found for existing pests. However, 15 of the 17 sites are on 
conservation lands where control of invasive species is being 
implemented and controlled burns are being conducted. In the limited 
area of protected conservation lands it is difficult to conduct 
prescribed fires in urban areas. Nonnative plant species also pose a 
threat and are difficult to control. Thus, the overall magnitude of 
threat is moderate. The threats are ongoing and thus imminent. We 
assigned this species a listing priority number of 8.
    Calamagrostis expansa (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a 
robust, short-rhizomatous perennial found in wet forest, open bogs, and 
bog margins on the islands of Maui and Hawaii, Hawaii. Historically 
rare, C. expansa was restricted to wet forest and bogs on Maui. It is 
unknown what the historical status was on Hawaii. Currently, this 
species is known from 100 populations totaling approximately 400 
individuals on Maui, and was recently discovered in five populations 
totaling approximately 300 individuals on the island of Hawaii. 
Calamagrostis expansa is threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy 
habitat and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Feral 
pigs have been fenced out of most of the west Maui populations where C. 
expansa currently occurs and nonnative plants have been reduced in the 
fenced areas. However, the threats are not controlled and are ongoing 
in the remaining unfenced populations on Maui and in all of the 
populations on the island of Hawaii. Therefore, the threats from feral 
pigs and nonnative plants are of a high magnitude and imminent for C. 
expansa, and we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Calamagrostis hillebrandii (no common name)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii is a slender, short-rhizomatous perennial found in 
Metrosideros-Machaerina montane wet bog or Metrosideros-Rhynchospora-
Oreobolus mixed bog on Maui, Hawaii. This species is known from two 
populations of about 2,000 individuals, restricted to the bogs of west 
Maui, although it was formerly found on the island of Molokai as well. 
This species is currently threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy 
habitat and nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. An 
ungulate exclosure fence has been constructed and another one is under 
construction to protect both populations of this species, and nonnative 
plants are being reduced in the fenced area. We retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species because the threats are ongoing 
in one of the two known populations and so are imminent and of a high 
magnitude.
    Calliandra locoensis (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Calliandra locoensis is a spiny, 
leguminous shrub currently known from only two localities within the 
Sus[uacute]a Commonwealth Forest in the municipalities of Yauco and 
Sabana Grande, in southwestern Puerto Rico. Twenty-five native species 
of Calliandra have been reported for the Antilles; three are native to 
Puerto Rico, including C. locoensis. This species is endemic to Puerto 
Rico, and was discovered in 1991 during a study of the flora of the 
Sus[uacute]a Commonwealth Forest. It was described by Garca and 
Kolterman in 1992.

[[Page 53803]]

    Calliandra locoensis is found at two locations along one creek in 
semi-evergreen to deciduous forests on shallow, serpentine soils with 
low nutrients, high drainage, and low fertility. Much of the vegetation 
in the forest was cut for wood, cultivation, livestock grazing, and 
charcoal production, prior to its designation as a public forest. 
Calliandra locoensis exhibits low degree of self-compatibility in 
pollination tests. Seeds have short viability period, do not appear to 
have a biotic dispersal agent (dispersed by dehiscence), and require 
mesic conditions for germination, which may be factors in the species' 
limited distribution. The small number of individuals, restricted 
distribution (two localities), forest management practices (accidental 
trampling, brush clearing, trail maintenance), forest fires (natural or 
manmade), and catastrophic natural events (hurricanes, floods, 
mudslides), threaten this species. We assign a listing priority number 
of 5 to this species because the magnitude of threat to C. locoensis is 
high, due to its restricted distribution, apparent low dispersal 
capability, and population number (only two small populations 
relatively close to one another). The threats are nonimminent given 
that the populations are found within protected lands and there are no 
known projects or management activities planned that would destroy the 
known populations of C. locoensis.
    Calochortus persistens (Siskiyou mariposa lily)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files and the petition 
received on September 10, 2001. The Siskiyou mariposa lily is a narrow 
endemic that is restricted to two disjunct ridge tops in the Klamath-
Siskiyou Range on the California-Oregon border. In California, this 
species is currently found at nine separate sites on approximately 10 
hectares (ha) (24.7 acres (ac)) of Klamath National Forest and 
privately owned lands that stretch for 6 kilometers (km) (3.7 miles 
(mi)) along the Gunsight-Humbug Ridge. In 1998, five Siskiyou mariposa 
lily plants were discovered on Bald Mountain, west of Ashland, Jackson 
County, Oregon.
    Major threats include competition and shading by native and 
nonnative species fostered by suppression of wild fire; increased fuel 
loading and subsequent risk of wild fire; fragmentation by roads, fire 
breaks, tree plantations, and radio-tower facilities; maintenance and 
construction around radio towers and telephone relay stations located 
on Gunsight Peak and Mahogany Point; and soil disturbance and exotic 
weed and grass species introduction as a result of heavy recreational 
use and construction of fire breaks. Dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria), an 
invasive, nonnative plant that may prevent germination of Siskiyou 
mariposa lily seedlings, is now found throughout the California 
population, affecting 90 percent of the known lily habitat. Forest 
Service staff and the Klamath-Siskiyou Wildlands Center cite 
competition with dyer's woad as a significant and chronic threat to the 
survival of Siskiyou mariposa lily.
    The combination of restricted range, extremely low numbers (five 
plants) in one of two disjunct populations, poor competitive ability, 
short seed dispersal distance, slow growth rates, low seed production, 
apparently poor survival rates in some years, and competition from 
exotic plants threaten the continued existence of this species. Because 
of the restricted range and low numbers, the magnitude of threats is 
high. While some of the threats are ongoing, others are not and 
overall, the threats are nonimminent. We assigned a listing priority 
number of 5 to this species.
    Calyptranthes estremerae (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Calyptranthes estremerae is a 
small tree from the subtropical moist forest of northwestern Puerto 
Rico, in the municipalities of Camuy, Utuado, and Arecibo. 
Calyptranthes estremerae was only known from several individuals found 
near the recreation area adjacent to the Camuy Caves, but specimens 
were later found within the R[iacute]o Abajo Commonwealth Forest. 
Within the R[iacute]o Abajo Forest area, C. estremerae was known to be 
located within the protected area of the R[iacute]o Abajo Commonwealth 
Forest and at a site that was impacted by the construction of state 
road PR-10. In 1999, four small specimens of C. estremerae were 
affected by the road construction, and an additional specimen was 
transplanted to the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental 
Resources nursery in the R[iacute]o Abajo Forest. Additional specimens 
of C. estremerae, later found during plant surveys that were part of 
the mitigation for the construction of PR-10, were successfully 
transplanted within the forest boundaries, to prevent their destruction 
during construction of the road. A minimum of 100 specimens of C. 
estremerae are estimated for the R[iacute]o Abajo Commonwealth Forest. 
The magnitude of threat to C. estremerae is high, due to the small 
number of individuals in the two populations, the species' limited 
distribution, the species vulnerability to catastrophic natural events, 
and the potential destruction of specimens from expansion of 
recreational facilities. However, these threats are not imminent 
because the largest known population of C. estremerae is found within 
protected lands, there are no known projects planned that would destroy 
the sites, and the species can be transplanted successfully. Therefore, 
we assign a listing priority number of 5 to this species.
    Canavalia napaliensis (Awikiwiki)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a perennial 
climber found in open dry sites and coastal strand, diverse lowland 
dryland/mesic forest to mixed mesophytic forest on Kauai, Hawaii. 
Canavalia napaliensis is known from three populations totaling several 
hundred individuals in a small section of the Na Pali coast. This 
species is threatened by goats that degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. There are no 
conservation measures underway to alleviate these ongoing, or imminent, 
threats to C. napaliensis. These threats are of a high magnitude 
because they are occurring throughout its limited range. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species because the 
threats continue to be of a high magnitude and are imminent in all 
three populations.
    Canavalia pubescens (Awikiwiki)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Awikiwiki is a perennial climber 
found in lowland dryland forest on Maui, Lanai, Kauai, and is possibly 
on the island of Niihau, Hawaii. This species is known from at least 10 
populations totaling less than 200 individuals. This species is 
threatened by development (Maui), goats that degrade and destroy 
habitat (Kauai and Maui), and by nonnative plants that outcompete and 
displace native plants (all islands). Feral goats have been fenced out 
of three of the ten populations where C. pubescens currently occurs and 
nonnative plants have been reduced in two of the populations that are 
fenced. This species is represented in an ex situ collection. Because 
the threats are ongoing in more than half of the known populations they 
are of a high magnitude and imminent. Therefore, we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Castilleja christii (Christ's paintbrush)--See above in ``Summary 
of

[[Page 53804]]

Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files and the petition received on January 
2, 2001.
    Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Big Pine partridge pea)--The 
following summary is based on information in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
pea is endemic to the lower Florida Keys. Historically, it was known 
from Big Pine, No Name, Ramrod, and Cudjoe Keys (Monroe County, 
Florida). In recent decades, its known distribution was restricted to 
Big Pine Key, until a population was found on Lower Sugarloaf Key in 
2005. Roughly 90 percent of its current range is within the Service's 
National Key Deer Refuge. The Big Pine partridge pea is well 
distributed on Big Pine Key, with a population estimate of roughly 
10,000 individuals. It is restricted to pine rockland communities and 
hardwood hammock edges. Pine rocklands encompass approximately 582 
hectares (1,438 acres) of Big Pine Key. Pine rockland communities are 
maintained by relatively frequent fires. The most vigorous populations 
of this species are located in areas that have burned within a decade. 
In the absence of fire, woody encroachment ensues, and the pea is 
shaded out. Lack of fire poses the greatest threat to the pea. The 
Refuge has an active prescribed fire program, though with many 
constraints. We do not have new information on populations, and 
relevant recent research is pending publication. We are maintaining the 
previous assessment that a very narrow distribution, combined with sea 
level rise as well as fire management and exotic pest plant threats, 
makes for an overall high magnitude of threat. We maintain that the 
immediacy of threats is nonimminent, because a significant portion of 
the range is in conservation lands wherein threats are substantially 
controlled. Sea level rise remains uncontrolled, but is nonimminent 
regarding most of the habitat area or population on an annual basis. 
Accordingly, we assigned the Big Pine partridge pea a listing priority 
number of 6.
    Chamaesyce deltoidea pinetorum (Pineland sandmat)--See above in 
``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. serpyllum (Wedge spurge)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Wedge spurge is a 
small prostrate herb, forming patches among limestone rocks. It has 
always been restricted to Big Pine Key in Monroe County, Florida. 
Roughly 90 percent of the range falls within the National Key Deer 
Refuge. It is not widely and evenly distributed, occurring within 22 
percent of 145 sample plots in pine rockland. The total population is 
on the order of 1,001 to 10,000 plants. It is restricted to pinelands 
on limestone rock (pine rockland), at sites with extensive exposed rock 
at the surface, low total understory cover and low hardwood density. 
Pine rocklands encompass approximately 582 hectares (1,438 acres) on 
Big Pine Key. These communities are maintained by relatively frequent 
fires, without fire tropical shrubs and trees encroach and the spurge 
is eventually shaded out. Fire restrictions pose the greatest short-
term threat, although sea level rise is ultimately a threat of equal or 
greater magnitude. The National Key Deer Refuge has an active 
prescribed fire program, though with many constraints. We do not have 
new information on populations, although an abundance and distribution 
survey is under way. We maintain the previous assessment that a very 
narrow distribution composed of small sub-populations results in a high 
magnitude of threat. Specific threats include fire suppression, 
invasive exotic plants, sea level rise, and stochastic threats related 
to small population size, including hurricanes. The immediacy of 
threats is nonimminent because a significant portion of the range is on 
conservation lands wherein threats are substantially controlled. Sea 
level rise remains uncontrolled, but is nonimminent regarding most of 
the habitat area or population on an annual basis. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 6 for wedge spurge.
    Chamaesyce eleanoriae (Akoko)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a small shrub 
found in steep slopes and cliffs, in Metrosideros-Diospyros lowland 
mesic forest, and Eragrostis variabilis coastal dry cliffs on Kauai, 
Hawaii. This species has declined from 10 populations totaling 500 
individuals in 1996 to three populations totaling less than 50 
individuals, found only in and around Kalalau Valley rim, along the Na 
Pali Coast on the island of Kauai. Chamaesyce eleanoriae is threatened 
by goats that eat it, degrade and destroy habitat, by nonnative plants 
that outcompete and displace it, and by stochastic extinction due to 
naturally occurring events. Chamaesyce eleanoriae is also potentially 
threatened by rats that eat it. All of the threats occur range-wide and 
no efforts to control goats, rats, and nonnative plants have been 
undertaken. The threats are of a high magnitude because of their 
severity and because they occur range-wide. The threats are ongoing and 
therefore imminent. We retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis (Akoko)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This variety is a 
shrub found in wind-swept shrubland and adjacent forest patches 
dominated by Metrosideros (ohia) and Syzygium on Kauai, Hawaii. 
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis is known from 5 populations totaling 
800 to 1,000 individuals. This variety is found only in the Blue Hole, 
Lumahai Valley, Wainiha, and Iliiliula areas on the island of Kauai. 
Threats to C. remyi var. kauaiensis include goats and pigs that degrade 
and destroy habitat, the two-spotted leafhopper that damages leaves and 
may spread plant viruses, and nonnative plants that outcompete and 
displace it. There are no conservation measures being taken to 
alleviate these threats to C. remyi var. kauaiensis. The threats are of 
a high magnitude because of their severity and because goats and pigs, 
the two-spotted leafhopper, and nonnative plants are found throughout 
the shrubland and forest areas C. remyi var. kauaiensis occurs in. The 
threats are ongoing and therefore imminent. We retained a listing 
priority number of 3 for this variety.
    Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi (Akoko)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This variety is a perennial 
shrub found in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
montane mesic forest on Kauai, Hawaii. Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi is 
known from at least 10 populations totaling 500 to 1,000 individuals. 
Hybrids of C. remyi and C. sparsiflora have been found near the margins 
of Wahiawa Bog, Kauai. This variety is threatened by goats and pigs 
that degrade and destroy habitat and potentially eat this plant, by the 
two-spotted leafhopper that causes leaf damage and may spread viruses, 
and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs and 
goats have

[[Page 53805]]

been fenced out of two of the ten populations of C. remyi var. remyi, 
and nonnative plants have been reduced in the two fenced areas. 
Although two of the ten populations of this variety have been fenced 
and are undergoing weed control, there are no efforts to control the 
ongoing threats to the other eight populations. The threats are of a 
high magnitude because of their severity and are imminent because they 
are ongoing in eight of the ten known populations. We retained a 
listing priority number of 3 for this variety.
    Charpentiera densiflora (Papala)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a tree found in 
Diospyros sandwicensis dominated lowland mesic forest extending into 
diverse mesic forest on Kauai, Hawaii. Charpentiera densiflora is known 
from 10 populations totaling approximately 200 individuals, restricted 
to an area of less than 10 square miles (26 square kilometers) in the 
Na Pali coast area on the island of Kauai. This species is threatened 
by goats that degrade and destroy habitat, flooding, and nonnative 
plants. Feral goats have been fenced out of one of the 10 populations 
where C. densiflora currently occurs, and nonnative plants are being 
controlled in the fenced area. This species is represented in an ex 
situ collection. The threat from flooding is of high magnitude and 
imminent because no flood control measures have been undertaken for any 
of the populations. The threats from goats and nonnative plants occur 
in nine of the ten known populations and are, therefore, imminent. The 
threats are also of a high magnitude because of their severity in the 
nine populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 
for this species.
    Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley 
spineflower)--The following summary is based on information contained 
in our files and the petition received on December 14, 1999. 
Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina is a low growing herbaceous annual 
plant in the buckwheat family. Germination occurs following the onset 
of late-fall and winter rains and typically represents different 
cohorts from the seed bank. Flowering occurs in the spring, generally 
between April and June. Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina grows up to 
30 centimeters in height and 5 to 40 centimeters across.
    The plant currently is known from two disjunct localities: The 
first is in the southeastern portion of Ventura County on a site 
formerly known as Ahmanson Ranch, and the second is in an area of 
southwestern Los Angeles County known as Newhall Ranch. Investigations 
of historical locations and seemingly suitable habitat within the range 
of the species have not revealed any other occurrences.
    The threats currently facing San Fernando Valley spineflower 
include threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its 
habitat or range, and other natural or manmade factors. The threats to 
C. parryi var. fernandina from habitat destruction or modification are 
less than they were two years ago. One of the two populations (Ahmanson 
Ranch) is in permanent, public ownership and is being managed by an 
agency that is working to conserve the plant. The other population 
(Newhall Ranch) is under threat of development; however, a Candidate 
Conservation Agreement with Assurances (CCAA) is being developed with 
the landowner, and it is possible that the remaining plants can also be 
conserved. Until such an agreement is finalized, the threat of 
development and the potential damage to the Newhall Ranch population 
still exists.
    Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina is particularly vulnerable to 
extinction due to its concentration in two isolated areas. The 
existence of only two areas of occurrence, and a relatively small 
range, makes the variety highly susceptible to extinction or 
extirpation from a significant portion of its range due to random 
events such as fire, drought, erosion, or other events. We retained a 
listing priority number of 6 for C. parryi var. fernandina due to high 
magnitude of nonimminent threats.
    Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Chromolaena frustrata is found most commonly in open sun to partial 
shade at the edges of rockland tropical hammock and in coastal rock 
barrens along the northern edges of Florida Bay in Everglades National 
Park, Monroe County, Florida. It is known from coastal berms along the 
northern edges of Florida Bay in Everglades National Park. It has not 
been observed in artificially disturbed areas, but is abundant in a 
tropical hammock that lost some of its tree canopy in a hurricane. 
Coastal rock barrens are composed of exposed Key Largo Limestone with a 
diverse assemblage of salt tolerant herbs. Due to extensive 
development, remaining areas of natural vegetation are limited. Land 
acquisition by the State has benefited this species, as has private 
land management. However, only one large population of this species is 
known and its history suggests that it will decline as the forest 
canopy recovers. With so few populations in existence (seven), it is 
not likely that the species will persist. These factors, combined with 
the threat from invasive exotic pest plants, constitute a high 
magnitude of threat. We anticipate that land managers will address 
exotic pest plant threats as funding is available. The conservation 
situation on the privately-owned site with the largest known population 
is encouraging. Local extirpations of this species, due to exotics or 
other reasons, can possibly be reversed by reintroductions. However, we 
consider the threats to this narrowly endemic plant with no really 
large populations to be imminent because exotic pest plants are 
currently present. As a result, we assigned a listing priority number 
of 2 to this species.
    Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The Florida 
semaphore cactus is endemic to the Florida Keys and was discovered on 
Big Pine Key in 1919 but has since been extirpated there as a result of 
road building and poaching. This cactus grows close to salt water on 
bare rock with a minimum of humus-soil cover in or along the edges of 
hammocks near sea level. The species is known to naturally occur only 
in two areas, Little Torch Key and Biscayne National Park. Outplanting 
has resulted in the reestablishment of a population in Dagny Johnson 
Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park in North Key Largo as well as in 
some of the lower keys. Outplanting success has been low and more 
research is needed to determine the requirements of this cacti. Only 5 
of the original 14 mature plants (as well as new recruits from fallen 
pads) remain in the population at The Nature Conservancy's Torchwood 
Hammock Preserve on Little Torch Key. Two sexual morphs (males and weak 
hermaphrodites) comprise the extant population on Little Torch Key. The 
female sex morph is absent from the population and sexual reproduction 
at this site is not possible without human intervention. Regeneration 
in this population is restricted to clonal propagation. At least 629 
plants were discovered on a key in Biscayne National Park in November 
of 2001. A recent study found no genetic diversity within the two wild 
populations. The results were consistent with previous reproductive 
biology studies that

[[Page 53806]]

suggested that the cactus does not propagate sexually and that asexual 
reproduction is the main life-history strategy of this species. The 
causes for the population decline of this species include destruction 
or modification of habitat, predation from Cactoblastis cactorum moths, 
poaching, and hurricanes and other natural disasters. According to 
scientists, intervention will be required if the species is to survive 
the next 10 years. Because of low population numbers, reproductive 
problems, and numerous ongoing threats, we assigned this species a 
listing priority number of 2.
    Cordia rupicola (no common name)--The following summary is based on 
information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. Cordia rupicola is a small shrub 
that is found in the municipalities of Penuelas and Guanica in southern 
Puerto Rico, Vieques Island, and Anegada in the British Virgin Islands. 
The status of the Anegada population is not known. Cordia rupicola is 
known only from dry forest communities on limestone substrates at low 
elevation. The currently known largest concentration of C. rupicola in 
Puerto Rico is found on privately-owned lands in Penuelas where 
extensive land clearing for residential lots continues to take place. 
We assigned a listing priority number of 2 to C. rupicola because the 
magnitude of threat to this species is high due to its restricted 
distribution, low population number (not more than 25 known specimens), 
urban expansion, maintenance of electrical facilities, and catastrophic 
natural events that threaten the Puerto Rico population, and the 
threats to C. rupicola are imminent, since only a small fraction of the 
species' known population falls within protected lands, and the largest 
concentration is found in privately-owned land subjected to urban 
expansion.
    Cyanea asplenifolia (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea asplenifolia is a shrub 
found in Acacia-Metrosideros forest on Maui, Hawaii. Currently, this 
species is known from 4 populations totaling less than 200 individuals. 
Cyanea asplenifolia is threatened by pigs and goats that degrade and 
destroy habitat and by nonnative plants, such as Australian tree fern, 
that outcompete and displace it. Potential threats to this species 
include rats and slugs that may directly prey upon and defoliate 
individuals. Pig and goat exclusion fences protect two of the four 
known populations of this species and nonnative plants have been 
reduced in the fenced areas. This species is represented in an ex-situ 
collection. The threats continue to be of a high magnitude and imminent 
because no conservation efforts are being taken to address them and 
they are ongoing in two of the four known populations. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species because the 
threats are of a high magnitude and are imminent since they are 
ongoing.
    Cyanea calycina (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is an unbranched 
shrub found in Metrosideros-Dicranopteris montane wet forest and wet 
gulches and streambanks on Oahu, Hawaii. Cyanea calycina is known from 
about 20 populations with a combined total of 200 or more individuals. 
This species is threatened by pigs and goats that degrade and destroy 
habitat, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. 
Potential threats to this species include rats and slugs that may 
directly prey upon and defoliate individuals. There are no conservation 
measures underway to alleviate these ongoing, or imminent, threats to 
C. calycina. These threats are of a high magnitude because they are 
occurring throughout its limited range. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species because the threats 
continue to be of a high magnitude and are imminent in all populations.
    Cyanea eleeleensis (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea eleeleensis is a shrub 
found in wet forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This species was discovered in 
1977, and only ever known from one population totaling less than ten 
individuals in Wainiha Valley on Kauai. In 2005, we received 
information that there are no extant wild individuals and there is no 
material in genetic storage. This species was likely highly threatened 
by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, by rats and slugs that may 
have consumed it, and by nonnative plants that likely outcompeted and 
displaced it. We are considering removing this species from candidate 
status since it appears to be extinct. However, we are seeking any new 
information that indicates this species is still extant and will re-
evaluate the status of this species in the coming year.
    Cyanea kuhihewa (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea kuhihewa is a shrub found 
in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis (ohia-uluhe) lowland 
wet forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This species was only ever known from one 
population totaling six individuals in Limahuli Valley on Kauai. In 
2003, the last known individual in the wild died, but prior to that 
time, seeds were collected for genetic storage and the species is still 
found in cultivation. Currently, C. kuhihewa is represented only in an 
ex-situ collection. This species is threatened by pigs that degrade and 
destroy habitat, by rats and slugs that that may directly prey upon and 
defoliate it, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. 
The only known location for this species has been protected by fences 
and nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced area. Currently, 
no individuals have been reintroduced into this site. In addition, no 
control measures have been implemented in this site to address the 
threats from rats and slugs. Because of these factors, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyanea kunthiana (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea kunthiana is a shrub 
found in closed Metrosideros polymorpha montane wet forest on Maui, 
Hawaii. The historic range of C. kunthiana was wet forest on the island 
of Maui. Currently, C. kunthiana is declining throughout its range and 
is known from approximately 20 populations with a combined total of 
several hundred individuals. This species is threatened by pigs that 
directly prey upon the plants and degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Potential threats to 
this species include rats and slugs that may directly prey upon and 
defoliate individuals. Feral pigs have been fenced out of three of the 
20 populations of C. kunthiana and removal of feral pigs from fenced 
areas is on-going. Control of nonnative plants in the three fenced 
areas is underway. Although three of the 20 populations of C. kunthiana 
have been fenced and are undergoing weed control, there are no efforts 
to control the ongoing and imminent threats to the other 17 
populations. Therefore, the threats continue to be of a high magnitude 
to C. kunthiana. Because the threats continue to be of a high magnitude 
and are imminent for 17 of the 20

[[Page 53807]]

populations, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Cyanea lanceolata (Haha)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea lanceolata is a shrub 
found in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha (koa-ohia) lowland mesic 
forest on Oahu, Hawaii. This species is known from 20 populations 
totaling less than 300 individuals. Cyanea lanceolata is threatened by 
pigs, that eat plants and degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative 
plants that outcompete and displace it. Potential threats to this 
species include rats and slugs that may directly prey upon and 
defoliate individuals. There are no conservation measures underway to 
alleviate these ongoing, or imminent, threats to C. lanceolata. These 
threats are of a high magnitude because they are occurring throughout 
its limited range and are imminent in all populations. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyanea obtusa (Haha)--The following summary is based on information 
contained in our files. No new information was provided in the petition 
received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea obtusa is a shrub found in 
Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) mixed mesic forest on Maui, Hawaii. This 
species is known from six populations with a combined total of 
approximately 30 individuals. Cyanea obtusa is threatened by feral 
goats, pigs, and cattle that degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Potential threats 
include rats and slugs that may directly prey upon and defoliate 
individuals of C. obtusa. Feral ungulates have been fenced out of one 
of the six populations of this species, and another fence is under 
construction to protect a second population. Nonnative plant control is 
underway in the fenced population and will be initiated in the second 
fenced population once the fence is completed. Although one of the six 
populations of C. obtusa has been fenced and is undergoing weed 
control, and fencing of a second population is underway, there are no 
efforts to control the ongoing and imminent threats to the other four 
populations. Therefore, the threats continue to be of a high magnitude 
for C. obtusa. Because the threats continue to be of a high magnitude 
and are imminent for four of the six known populations, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyanea tritomantha (Aku)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyanea tritomantha is a palm-
like tree found in closed Metrosideros-Cibotium montane wet forest on 
the island of Hawaii, Hawaii. This species is known from four to five 
populations with a total of 100 to 500 individuals in Olaa and Kau on 
the island of Hawaii. Cyanea tritomantha is threatened by pigs that 
degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that outcompete and 
displace it. Potential threats to this species include rats and slugs 
that may directly prey upon and defoliate individuals, and human 
trampling of individuals located near trails. Feral pigs have been 
fenced out of two populations of C. tritomantha and nonnative plants 
have been reduced in the fenced areas. Although two populations of C. 
tritomantha have been fenced and weeds are being controlled in these 
fenced areas, there are no efforts to control the ongoing and imminent 
threats to the other populations. Therefore, the threats continue to be 
of a high magnitude to C. tritomantha. Because the threats continue to 
be of a high magnitude and are imminent for the unmanaged populations, 
we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyrtandra filipes (Haiwale)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Haiwale is a shrub found in 
lowland wet and mesic forest on Maui and Molokai, Hawaii. Historically 
rare, C. filipes was found in southeastern Molokai and west Maui. 
Currently, this species is known from three populations, one on Molokai 
and two on Maui, totaling approximately 2,200 individuals. There is 
some question as to the true identity of the Maui populations, which do 
not fit the description of the species precisely. If, upon further 
taxonomic study, the Maui populations are determined not to be this 
species, then it is even rarer, with only the Molokai population of a 
few individuals remaining. Cyrtandra filipes is threatened by pigs and 
deer that degrade and destroy habitat, by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it and potentially by rats that directly prey 
on it. Feral pigs have been fenced out of one of the three populations 
of C. filipes but deer are able to jump over most pig exclusion fences 
so they are still considered a threat. Nonnative plants are being 
reduced in the population that is fenced but all populations are 
potentially threatened by rats. The threat from deer is of a high 
magnitude and imminent because no deer control measures have been 
undertaken for any of the populations. The threats from pigs and 
nonnative plants occur in two of the three known populations and are, 
therefore, of a high magnitude because of their severity. In addition, 
these threats are imminent because they are ongoing. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyrtandra kaulantha (Haiwale)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyrtandra kaulantha is a shrub 
found in moist wooded gulches in dense shade on Oahu, Hawaii. This 
species is known from seven populations with a total of 23 individuals 
along the Waiahole Ditch Trail. Cyrtandra kaulantha is threatened by 
pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it, genetic bottlenecks, random demographic 
fluctuations, and stochastic environmental events such as tree falls 
and hurricanes. Direct predation by slugs is a potential threat. None 
of the populations are protected by fences. Nonnative plants have been 
reduced in only one of the seven known populations. There are no other 
conservation measures being taken to alleviate these ongoing and 
imminent threats to C. kaulantha. These threats are of a high magnitude 
because of their severity and they are occurring throughout its limited 
range. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species because the threats continue to be of a high magnitude and are 
imminent in all populations.
    Cyrtandra oenobarba (Haiwale)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyrtandra oenobarba is a low, 
decumbent, fleshy, subshrub found in Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis (ohia-uluhe) lowland wet forest on Kauai, 
Hawaii. The historic range of this species was throughout the island of 
Kauai. Recent surveys show that the species is now limited to 10 or 
more populations totaling 200 to 500 individuals in only three small 
areas on the island of Kauai. Cyrtandra oenobarba is threatened by pigs 
that degrade and destroy habitat, and by and nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. There are no conservation measures being 
taken to alleviate these threats to C. oenobarba. Pigs and nonnative 
plants are found throughout the lowland wet forest habitat of this 
species, and, therefore, are ongoing and

[[Page 53808]]

imminent. In addition, the threats are of a high magnitude because of 
their severity and because they occur throughout the limited range of 
this species. Because the threats are of a high magnitude and are 
imminent in all known populations, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Cyrtandra oxybapha (Haiwale)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyrtandra oxybapha is a shrub 
found in Metrosideros polymorpha-Cheirodendron trigynum (ohia-olapa) 
montane wet forest to mesic Acacia-Metrosideros (koa-ohia) forest on 
Maui, Hawaii. Currently, this species is known only from one population 
totaling 250 to 300 individuals in the Kahikinui area of east Maui and 
one additional population of 25 individuals on west Maui. This species 
is threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs have been 
fenced out of the smaller of the two populations of C. oxybapha, and 
nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced population. However, 
the threats are not controlled and are ongoing in the remaining, larger 
unfenced population. Therefore, the threats from pigs and nonnative 
plants are of a high magnitude and imminent for C. oxybapha and we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Cyrtandra sessilis (Haiwale)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Cyrtandra sessilis is a shrub 
found in wet gulch bottoms and slopes of mesic valleys and wet forests 
on Oahu, Hawaii. This species is known from two populations totaling 
approximately 50 individuals in the Waikane area of the Koolau 
Mountains. Cyrtrandra sessilis is threatened by pigs that degrade and 
or destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and 
displace it. No on-the-ground conservation efforts have been initiated 
but this species is represented in an ex-situ collection. Pigs and 
nonnative plants are found throughout the mesic and wet forest habitat 
in which C. sessilis occurs making these threats ongoing and imminent. 
These threats are of high magnitude because of their severity and 
because they are occurring throughout its limited range. We retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Dalea carthagenensis floridana (Florida prairie-clover)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
This plant has recently been found in Big Cypress National Preserve in 
Monroe and Collier Counties, Florida. It is also known from five small 
populations in Miami-Dade County, two on small tracts of conservation 
lands. The populations in Miami-Dade County are vulnerable to invasion 
by exotic pest plants and to lack of prescribed fire. The populations 
in Big Cypress National Preserve do not appear to be large, and thus 
may be vulnerable to random events, as well as exotic pest plant 
invasions, with Old World climbing fern being the chief threat. The 
threats from invasive species are being controlled to some extent. 
Prescribed burns are being conducted on Miami-Dade conservation lands 
and biological control agents are being developed for Old World 
climbing fern, so the overall magnitude of threats is moderate. Threats 
to the three of the five Florida prairie-clover populations in Miami-
Dade County are imminent. Threats from lack of fire and invasive 
species are ongoing, and conducting prescribed fires in urban areas is 
difficult, as is controlling exotic pest plants. The urban conservation 
lands where this plant occurs require regular maintenance. Threats from 
exotic pest plants to the two populations in Big Cypress National 
Preserve may be nonimminent because Old World climbing fern has not yet 
arrived. Overall, we consider threats to be imminent, so assigned a 
listing priority number of 9 to this subspecies.
    Dichanthelium hirstii (Hirsts' panic grass)--The following summary 
is based on information from our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Dichanthelium hirstii, a 
perennial grass, produces erect leafy flowering stems from May to 
October. Dichanthelium hirstii occurs in coastal plain intermittent 
ponds, usually in wet savanna or pine barren habitats and is found at 
only two sites in New Jersey, one site in Delaware, and two sites in 
North Carolina. While all five extant D. hirstii populations are 
located on public land or privately owned conservation lands, natural 
threats to the species from encroaching vegetation and fluctuations in 
climatic conditions remain of concern and may be exacerbated by 
anthropomorphic factors occurring adjacent to the species' wetland 
habitat. Given the low numbers of plants found at each site, even minor 
changes in the species' habitat could result in local extirpation. Loss 
of any known sites could result in a serious contraction of the species 
range. However, the most immediate and severe of the threats to this 
species (i.e., ditching of the Labounsky Pond site, and encroachment of 
aggressive vegetative competitors) have been curtailed or are being 
actively managed by The Nature Conservancy at the one New Jersey site, 
the Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife, and Delaware Natural 
Heritage Program at the Assawoman Pond site, and the Marine Corps at 
the Camp Lejeune site in North Carolina. Based on continued threats of 
a high magnitude but low imminence, we retained a listing priority 
number of 5 for this species.
    Digitaria pauciflora (Florida pineland crabgrass)--The following 
summary is based on information in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This grass occurs at 
the edges of marl prairies within pine rocklands of the Long Pine Key 
area of Everglades National Park, an area of about 8,000 hectares (31 
square miles). Because this plant has a narrow distribution and habitat 
requirements and only occurs within the Long Pine Key area, threats 
from exotic pest plants or other habitat management problems are 
significant. The National Park Service has controlled exotic pest 
plants and maintains an appropriate fire regime, but threats remain, 
particularly from Old World climbing fern, which is rapidly spreading 
into southern Florida and cannot easily be controlled. Therefore the 
magnitude of threats is high. Because the Old World climbing fern and 
perhaps other new exotic pest plants are not in the immediate vicinity 
of D. pauciflora but are expected to arrive within the next decade, the 
threats are nonimminent and the listing priority number is 5.
    Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata (Naenae)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This subspecies is a 
shrub found in wet forest and bogs on Kauai, Hawaii. Dubautia imbricata 
ssp. imbricata is known from three populations totaling 1,000 or more 
individuals in the Wahiawa Mountains. This subspecies is threatened by 
pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. Nonnative plants have been reduced in a 
portion of the species' range. No other conservation measures for D. 
imbricata ssp. imbricata have been undertaken. Pigs are found 
throughout the wet forest and bog habitat of this subspecies. 
Therefore, the threat from pigs is ongoing and imminent. In addition, 
the threat from feral pigs is of a high

[[Page 53809]]

magnitude because the severity of this threat and because pigs occur 
throughout the limited range of this subspecies. Nonnative plants also 
remain a high magnitude threat to D. imbricata ssp. imbricata because 
of the severity of the threat and because they occur throughout its 
limited range. Competition by nonnative plants is an ongoing and 
imminent threat to most of the individuals of D. imbricata ssp. 
imbricata, although weed control has been undertaken in a portion of 
its range. We retained a listing priority number of 3 for this 
subspecies.
    Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia (Naenae)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia is a shrub found in bogs and wet 
forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This subspecies is known from two populations 
totaling 100 individuals near the summit of Waialeale on the island of 
Kauai. Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia is threatened by pigs that 
degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative plants that outcompete and 
displace it, and by stochastic extinction due to naturally occurring 
events. Feral pigs have been fenced out of one of the two populations 
of D. plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, and nonnative plants have been 
reduced in the fenced population. Because of the severity of the 
threats and because they are ongoing in one of the two known 
populations they are of a high magnitude and imminent. We retained a 
listing priority number of 3 for this subspecies.
    Dubautia waialealae (Naenae)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Dubautia waialealae is a shrub 
found in bogs and diverse mesic to wet forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This 
species is known from one population totaling less than 800 individuals 
near the summit of Waialeale and one individual at the opposite end of 
the Alakai Plateau. Dubautia waialealae is threatened by pigs that prey 
on it and degrade and destroy habitat, by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it, and by stochastic extinction due to 
naturally occurring events. Pigs have been fenced out of the bog where 
the one individual of D. waialealae currently occurs. In addition, 
fences protect half of the larger population, and nonnative plants are 
being controlled around these individuals. However, the threats are not 
controlled and are ongoing in half of the larger population. The 
threats from pigs and nonnative plants are of a high magnitude and 
imminent for D. waialealae, thus, we retained a listing priority number 
of 2 for this species.
    Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (Acuna cactus)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on October 30, 2002. The Acuna cactus is known 
from six sites on well-drained gravel ridges and knolls on granite 
soils in Sonoran Desert scrub association at 1300-2000 feet elevation. 
Habitat destruction has been a threat in the past and is a potential 
future threat to this species. New roads and illegal activities have 
not yet directly affected the cactus populations at Organ Pipe Cactus 
National Monument, but areas in close proximity to these known 
populations have been altered. Cactus populations located in the 
Florence area have not been monitored and these populations may be in 
danger of habitat loss due to recent urban growth in the area. Urban 
development near Ajo, Arizona, as well as that near Sonoyta, Mexico, is 
a significant threat to the Acuna cactus. Populations of the Acuna 
cactus within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument have shown a 50 
percent mortality rate in recent years. The reason(s) for the mortality 
are not known, but continuing drought conditions are thought to play a 
role. The Arizona Plant Law and the Convention on International Trade 
in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora provide some protection 
for the Acuna cactus. However, illegal collection is a primary threat 
to this cactus variety and has been documented on the Organ Pipe Cactus 
National Monument in the past. While the threats continue to be of a 
high magnitude, they are currently nonimminent. Thus, we retained a 
listing priority number of 6 for this cactus variety.
    Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane)--See above in ``Summary of 
Listing Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files and the petition received in July 
1975.
    Erigeron basalticus (Basalt daisy)--Erigeron basalticus is a 
perennial, herbaceous plant with a taproot and one to several sprawling 
stems 10 to 15 centimeters (cm) (4 to 6 inches (in)) long. Erigeron 
basalticus grows in crevices in basalt cliffs on canyon walls, at 
elevations from 380 to 460 meters (1,250 to 1,500 feet), along the 
Yakima River Canyon and Selah Creek, a tributary of the Yakima River. 
It is found in microsites that are largely devoid of other vegetation 
and undergoing primary succession. As of the most recent survey in 
2000, an estimated over 12,000 E. basalticus plants exist, with the 
population distributed among the same eight, potentially interbreeding 
subpopulations that occupy about 67 hectares (ha) (165 acres (ac)) 
within the known distribution of approximately 52 km2 (20 
mi2). The overall population size, both in number of 
individuals and total area occupied, remained relatively stable between 
1988 and 1998. However, the numbers of individuals in the four smallest 
subpopulations decreased substantially between those survey periods. 
The cause of the decline is unknown, yet the threats facing this 
species include habitat modification, overutilization from recreational 
use in the areas, and randomly occurring environmental affects. Surveys 
undertaken in 2000 by Washington Department of Natural Resources staff 
report the numbers for all eight sub-populations returning to similar 
levels as those reported in 1988. Monitoring by the University of 
Washington in 2006 will provide data on the species current status 
which will be available for our next CNOR. Based on nonimminent threats 
of moderate magnitude, we assigned a listing priority number of 11 to 
this species.
    Eriogonum codium (Umtanum Desert buckwheat)--The following summary 
is based on information from our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This is a long-lived woody 
perennial plant in the Polygonaceae (buckwheat) family that forms low 
mats. Individual plants may exceed 100 years of age. The only known 
population of the species occurs exclusively on exposed basalt from the 
Lolo Flow of the Wanapum Basalt Formation in Benton County, Washington. 
The population has a discontinuous distribution along a narrow, 1.0 mi 
(1.6 km) long mountain ridge top. It is unknown if the historical 
distribution of Umtanum desert buckwheat was different from the 
species' current distribution. There are a number of ongoing threats to 
Umtanum desert buckwheat. The species is not well adapted to fire, and 
negative impacts to the species from past fires have been significant. 
In addition, Umtanum desert buckwheat plants are easily damaged by 
trampling or crushing by off-road vehicles. Digging activities and soil 
disturbance as a result of prospecting and collecting of petrified rock 
may also threaten Umtanum desert buckwheat as a result of. Finally, the 
species appears to have a very low reproductive rate. The factors 
responsible for the lower-than-expected number of seedlings in the 
population are unknown buy may include low seed

[[Page 53810]]

production, low seed or pollen viability, low seedling vigor and 
survival, impacts to plant pollinators or dispersal mechanisms, and 
insect predation of seeds. The only known population of Umtanum desert 
buckwheat is small and limited to a single site. Based on the available 
information, the magnitude of threat to Umtanum desert buckwheat is 
high and the identified threats are imminent. Thus, we retained a 
listing priority of 2 for Umtanum desert buckwheat.
    Eriogonum kelloggii (Red Mountain buckwheat)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Red Mountain 
buckwheat is a perennial herb endemic to serpentine habitat of lower 
montane forests found between 1,900 and 4,100 feet. Its distribution is 
limited to the Red Mountain and Little Red Mountain areas of Mendocino 
County, California, where it occupies 50 acres and 900 square feet, 
respectively. Occupied habitat at Red Mountain is scattered over 4 
square miles. The total population size is estimated at between 20,000 
and 30,000 plants, which occur in 44 polygons. Intensive monitoring of 
permanent plots on three study sites in Red Mountain suggests 
considerable annual variation in plant density and reproduction, but no 
discernable population trend was evident in two of three study sites. 
One study site showed a 65 percent decline in plant density over 11 
years.
    The primary threat to this species is the potential for surface 
mining for chromium and nickel. Virtually the entire distribution of 
Red Mountain buckwheat is either owned by mining interests, or is 
covered by existing mining claims, none of which are currently active. 
Surface mining would destroy habitat suitability for this species. The 
species is also believed threatened by tree and shrub encroachment into 
its habitat, in absence of fire. Given the magnitude (high) and 
immediacy (nonimminent) of the threat to the small, scattered 
populations, and its taxonomy (species), we assigned a listing priority 
number of 5 to this species.
    Festuca hawaiiensis (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a 
cespitose (growing in dense, low tufts) annual found in dry forest on 
the islands of Hawaii and Maui, Hawaii. Festuca hawaiiensis is known 
from more than 20 populations totaling approximately 1,000 individuals 
in and around the Pohakuloa Training Area on the island of Hawaii. 
Historically, this species was also found on Hualalai and Puu Huluhulu 
on Hawaii and possibly Ulupalakua on Maui, but it no longer occurs at 
these sites. Festuca hawaiiensis is threatened by pigs, goats, and 
sheep that degrade and destroy habitat, by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it, and by fire. Feral pigs, goats, and sheep 
have been fenced out of a portion of the populations of F. hawaiiensis, 
and nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced areas. However, 
these threats are not controlled and are ongoing in the remaining, 
unfenced populations. In addition, the threat from fire is of a high 
magnitude and imminent because of the severity of this threat, it 
occurs throughout the range of the species, and no fire control 
measures have been undertaken for any of the populations of F. 
hawaiiensis. Since the threats are of a high magnitude and are imminent 
for F. hawaiiensis, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Festuca ligulata (Guadalupe fescue)--The following summary is based 
on information from our files and in the petition received in 1975. 
Guadalupe fescue is a member of the Poaceae (Grass family). This 
species is currently only known from higher elevations in the Chisos 
Mountains area in the Big Bend Area of Texas and adjacent Coahuila, 
Mexico. The population in Big Bend National Park is bisected by a trail 
and subject to occasional trampling by horses and hikers. The magnitude 
of threats for Guadalupe fescue is moderate to low because of 
population monitoring, fire management, and trail operation by the 
National Park Service. Threats to the overall population are 
nonimminent because of monitoring and other conservation actions that 
address threats to the species. Thus, we assign a listing priority 
number of 11 to this species.
    Gardenia remyi (Nanu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Nanu is a tree found in mesic to 
wet forest on islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, Hawaii. 
Gardenia remyi is known from several populations totaling a few hundred 
individuals throughout its range. This species is threatened by pigs 
and goats that eat this plant and degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. This species is 
represented in an ex situ collection. Feral pigs have been fenced out 
of the west Maui populations of G. remyi, and nonnative plants have 
been reduced in those areas. However, these threats are not controlled 
and are ongoing in the remaining, unfenced populations, and are, 
therefore, of a high magnitude and imminent. In addition, the threat 
from goats is of a high magnitude, and ongoing and imminent, because no 
goat control measures have been undertaken for any of the populations 
of G. remyi. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for 
this species.
    Geranium hanaense (Nohoanu)--See above in ``Summary of Listing 
Priority Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Geranium hillebrandii (Nohoanu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Geranium hillebrandii is a 
decumbent subshrub found in bogs on Maui, Hawaii. Previously known from 
two populations totaling approximately 500 individuals, it is currently 
known, as a result of more thorough surveys, from over 2,000 
individuals. Geranium hillebrandii is moderately threatened by pigs 
that degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that 
outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs have been fenced out of some of 
the populations of G. hillebrandii, and nonnative plants have been 
reduced in those areas. The threats from feral pigs and nonnative 
plants are, therefore, of a moderate magnitude to this species because 
they affect only about half of its populations. In addition, these 
threats are imminent because they are ongoing in half of the 
populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 8 for 
this species.
    Geranium kauaiense (Nohoanu)--See above in ``Summary of Listing 
Priority Changes in Candidates.'' No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Gonocalyx concolor (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information from our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. Gonocalyx concolor is a small 
evergreen epiphytic shrub found within the dwarf or elfin forest type 
near Cerro La Santa in the Carite Commonwealth Forest on the border of 
the municipalities of Cayey and San Lorenzo of southeastern Puerto 
Rico. The population previously reported from the Caribbean national 
Forest in Luquillo is apparently no longer extant. Approximately 172 
plants have been located at the Carite site. Gonocalyx concolor appears 
to be

[[Page 53811]]

predominantly outcrossed, and pollinated by hummingbirds. Successful 
propagation at the University of Turabo, Turabo, Puerto Rico has been 
achieved. We assign a listing priority number of 5 to G. concolor, 
because the magnitude of threat is high, due to its limited 
distribution and population numbers, prior habitat destruction from 
construction of roads and telecommunication towers, certain forest 
management practices, availability of specific pollinators, and 
potential for catastrophic natural events; the threats to G. concolor 
are nonimminent, because the known population is found within protected 
lands, initial efforts at propagation have been successful, and there 
are no known projects or management activities planned that would 
destroy the known population.
    Hazardia orcuttii (Orcutt's hazardia)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files and the petition received 
on March 8, 2001. Hazarida orcuttii is an evergreen shrubby species in 
the Asteraceae (sunflower family). The resinous shrubs are 50-100 
centimeters (20-40 inches (in)) high and the relatively few branches 
are erect. This species flowers between August and October. The only 
known extant native occurrence of this species in the U.S. is in 
coastal San Diego County, California at the Manchester Conservation 
Area, previously known as the Manchester Mitigation Bank, now managed 
by The Center for Natural Lands Management (CNLM). The area is about 50 
hectares (ha) (123 acres (ac)) and includes Diegan coastal sage scrub, 
southern maritime chaparral, and willow scrub. Within the conservation 
area, the natural population of H. orcuttii occupies only 2 ha (5 ac). 
The Manchester Conservation Area also supports populations of federally 
listed California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californica), 
Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia (Del Mar manzanita), and 
Acanthomintha ilicifolia (San Diego thornmint). The general substrate 
for the H. orcuttii is sandstone.
    The majority of the native occurrence has experienced more or less 
continuous impacts from people in the adjacent housing area who use the 
open space as a recreation area. Impacts can include pedestrian 
trampling and creation of bicycle trails near H. orcuttii plants. There 
are several other existing and potential threats to this species in the 
U.S. Introduced invasive exotic plants may pose a threat to the 
reproductive potential of this species. Translocations can pose a 
threat by removal of plants from viable habitat. Removed plants would 
no longer be a portion of the extant in-situ population, thereby 
affecting the plants genetic and demographic potential. The loss of 
about 147 of the 200 plants translocated to the Manchester site from an 
adjacent native unprotected site represents a loss of about 29 percent 
of the known native plants in the area. This likely represents a 
depletion of the genetic diversity of the species. This species is 
likely threatened by low numbers, possibly low seed set, and seed 
viability. We are aware of no reports of seedlings at the native 
occurrence. This could be of considerable consequence and represent 
lack of pollinator services and/or limitations on genetic diversity of 
an already small population. We retained a listing priority number of 5 
for H. orcuttii due to overall nonimminent threats of high magnitude.
    Hedyotis fluviatilis (Kamapuaa)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Kamapuaa is a scandent shrub 
found in mesic to wet forest on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. This species is 
known from six populations totaling 500 to 1,000 individuals throughout 
its range. Hedyotis fluviatilis is threatened by pigs that degrade and 
destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace 
it. All of the threats occur range-wide and no efforts for their 
control or eradication are being undertaken. We retained a listing 
priority number of 2 because the severity of the threats is high and 
are ongoing so are imminent.
    Helianthus verticillatus (Whorled sunflower)--The following 
information is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. The 
whorled sunflower is found in moist, prairie-like openings in woodlands 
and along adjacent creeks. Despite extensive surveys throughout its 
range, only six sites are known for this species. There are two sites 
documented for Cherokee County, Alabama; three in Floyd County, 
Georgia; and a single site in Madison County, Tennessee. This species 
appears to have restricted ecological requirements and is dependent 
upon the maintenance of prairie-like openings for its survival. Active 
management of habitat is needed to keep competition and shading under 
control. Much of its habitat has been degraded or destroyed for 
agricultural, silvicultural, and residential purposes. The majority of 
the Georgia populations are protected as they are located within a 
conservation easement area donated to The Nature Conservancy by Temple-
Inland Corporation. We assigned a listing priority number of 11 to this 
species as the magnitude of threats is moderate since the largest site 
is under permanent protection and the threats are nonimminent since the 
whorled sunflower appears to withstand some disturbance and there are 
no known immediate threats to the sites.
    Hibiscus dasycalyx (Neches River rose-mallow)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Neches River rose-
mallow is a perennial woody herb growing 3-7 feet tall with one or more 
stems per clump and white flowers 3-6 inches wide, consisting of five 
2-4 inch long white petals with deep red or purple at the base. The 
Neches River rose-mallow appears to be restricted to wetlands, or those 
portions of wetlands that are exposed to open sun and normally hold 
standing water early in the growing season, with water levels dropping 
during late summer and fall. This species appears to have community 
dominance within that narrow band between high and low water levels in 
wetlands exposed to open sun. However, historical habitat has been 
affected by drainage or filling of floodplain depressions and oxbows, 
stream channelization, road construction, timber harvesting, 
agricultural activities (primarily mowing and grazing), and herbicide 
use. Threats that continue to potentially affect the species include 
wetland alteration, herbicide use, grazing, and mowing during the 
species' growing and flowering period.
    A 1995 status survey of 10 counties resulted in confirmation or 
discovery of the species in only three sites, but in three separate 
counties and three different watersheds, suggesting a relatively wide 
historical range. These three populations, Ponta site in Cherokee 
County; Lovelady in Houston County; and Highway 94 in Trinity County, 
are within highway rights-of-way and are somewhat protected by a 
management agreement between Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and 
Texas Department of Transportation. Because these sites are still 
vulnerable to herbicides and adjacent agricultural activities, they 
support relatively low population numbers: Ponta (Highway 204) has 
ranged from 5 to 0 plants this year; Lovelady (Highway 230), 3-14 
plants; and Highway 94, 15-49 plants. Continued surveys for H. 
dasycalyx have resulted in new populations. About 300 plants were found 
on land owned by the Temple-Inland Corporation in east Trinity County. 
A Candidate Conservation Agreement now

[[Page 53812]]

covers this site, but smaller numbers have been seen in recent years, 
possibly due to changes in the wetland's hydrology. Another site 
discovered on land previously owned by Champion International 
Corporation (near White Rock Creek in west Trinity County) once 
supported 300-400 plants. However, the status of this population is 
currently unknown due to a recent change in ownership.
    In west Houston County, a population of 300 to 400 plants 
discovered on private land has been purchased by the Natural Area 
Preservation Association, a land trust organization, in order to 
protect this land in perpetuity. In east Houston County, a population 
was discovered in Compartment 55 in Davy Crockett National Forest at 
the south end of Forest Road 503. This population is large (at least 
400), but has not yet been fully surveyed. Davy Crockett National 
Forest represents the only public land within the range of H. 
dasycalyx. In 2000, nearly 800 plants were introduced into Compartments 
16 and 20 of the forest as part of a reintroduction effort. One 
population has retained high numbers (about 200), but the second has 
been affected by a change in hydrology. In 2004, another 200 plants 
were placed in a third location, in Compartment 11 of Davy Crockett 
National Forest. This site will be monitored for success in 2006. Two 
more sites in Davy Crockett National Forest have been identified as 
potential sites for reintroduction efforts and will be investigated.
    Some populations of this species are at risk of genetic swamping by 
other Hibiscus species. Hybridization has occurred at both the Ponta 
and Highway 94 sites. Stephen F. Austin State University has completed 
a genetic analysis of H. dasycalyx, confirming it as a separate 
species. Stephen F. Austin State University is continuing a habitat 
study of H. dasycalyx and is developing a high number of plants for 
reintroduction purposes. The threats to the species continue to be of a 
high magnitude because of their severity, but overall are nonimminent. 
Thus, we retained a listing priority number of 5 for the Neches River 
rose-mallow.
    Indigofera mucronata keyensis (Florida indigo)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
is a rare plant, inherently vulnerable to extinction because of its 
limited numbers. Of the eight populations that exist, the largest known 
population is on private land and comprises up to 1,000 individuals. 
Seven much smaller populations are on conservation lands in the Florida 
Keys, Monroe County. The species' habitat of coastal rock barrens, 
coastal berms, and edges of tropical hammocks is being invaded by 
exotic pest plants. On public conservation lands, invasive exotic 
species are being controlled in some areas and populations of this 
species, although small, have appeared stable in recent years. 
Populations on both private and public lands are subject to hurricanes, 
with their subsequent storm surges. Overall, the threats to this plant 
are moderate in magnitude. Because exotic pest plants, particularly 
Brazilian pepper and latherleaf are a chronic problem, with Brazilian 
pepper occupying coastal areas that are not regularly managed and 
latherleaf possibly still increasing, and because existing populations 
of this plant are small, especially on conservation lands, this species 
is highly vulnerable to lapses in habitat management. Therefore, 
threats are imminent and the listing priority number is 9.
    Ivesia webberi (Webber ivesia)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Ivesia webberi is a low, 
spreading, perennial herb that occurs very infrequently in Lassen, 
Plumas, and Sierra counties in California, and in Douglas and Washoe 
counties, Nevada. The species is restricted to sites with sparse 
vegetation and shallow, rocky soils composed of volcanic ash or derived 
from andesitic rock. Occupied sites generally occur on mid-elevation 
flats, benches, or terraces on mountain slopes above large valleys 
along the transition zone between the eastern edge of the northern 
Sierra Nevada and the northwestern edge of the Great Basin Desert. 
Currently, the global population is estimated at approximately 4.8 
million individuals at 15 known sites. The Nevada sites support nearly 
98 percent of the total number of individuals (4.7 million) on about 30 
acres of occupied habitat. The California sites are larger in area, 
totaling about 156 acres, but support fewer individuals (approximately 
115,000).
    The primary threats to Webber ivesia include urban development, 
authorized and unauthorized roads, off-road vehicle activities and 
other dispersed recreation, livestock grazing and trampling, fire and 
fire suppression activities including fuels reduction and prescribed 
fires, and displacement by noxious weeds. Despite the high numbers of 
individuals, observations in 2002 and 2004 confirmed that direct and 
indirect impacts to the species and its habitat, specifically from 
urban development and off-highway vehicle activity remain high and are 
likely to increase. However, the U.S. Forest Service has committed to 
develop a conservation strategy and monitoring program to protect this 
species on National Forest lands, and the State of Nevada has listed 
the species as critically endangered, which provides a mechanism to 
track future impacts on private lands. In addition, both the Forest 
Service and State of Nevada have agreed to coordinate closely on all 
activities that may affect this species. For these reasons, we have 
determined that the threats to Webber ivesia are nonimminent and 
maintained a LPN of 5.
    Joinvillea ascendens ssp. ascendens (Ohe)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Ohe is an erect herb 
found in wet Metrosideros polymorpha forest on the islands of Kauai, 
Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, Hawaii. Joinvillea ascendens ssp. 
ascendens is known from 50 to 100 populations totaling 100 to 200 
individuals throughout its range. Plants are typically found as only 
one or two individuals, with miles between populations. This subspecies 
is threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, by an unknown 
fungus, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace native 
plants. Feral pigs have been fenced out of some of the populations of 
J. ascendens ssp. ascendens, and nonnative plants have been reduced in 
a few populations that are fenced. However, these threats are not 
controlled and are ongoing in the remaining, unfenced populations. In 
addition, an unknown fungus attacks the seedlings of this subspecies, 
limiting regeneration. Most known plants do not appear healthy. There 
is no effectively known control method for this fungus and no efforts 
to alleviate its effects are being implemented for any of the 
populations of J. ascendens ssp. ascendens. The threats to this species 
are of high magnitude and are on-going, and thus are imminent. 
Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 3 for this 
subspecies.
    Keysseria erici (no common name)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a short, 
rhizomatous perennial herb found in montane bogs on Kauai, Hawaii. 
Keysseria erici is known from several populations in bogs within the 
Alakai swamp region of Kauai, totaling approximately 1,000

[[Page 53813]]

individuals. This species is threatened by pigs that degrade and 
destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace 
it. Feral pigs have been fenced out of three of the bogs where K. erici 
currently occurs and nonnative plants have been greatly reduced in all 
three fenced bogs. However, these on-going conservation efforts benefit 
only a few of the populations of K. erici. The majority of the 
populations of K. erici are in unfenced areas and have no protection 
from the impacts of pigs and nonnative plants. Even the three fenced 
populations are not secure, due to funding limitations to support fence 
maintenance and weeding that is needed to prevent incursions of pigs 
and nonnative plants. Thus the threats to this species occur throughout 
its range and are particularly significant in the unfenced areas where 
a majority of the populations are located, and are expected to continue 
or increase without control or eradication. Because the threats are of 
high magnitude and ongoing, and therefore imminent, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Keysseria helenae (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a rhizomatous 
perennial herb found in montane bogs on Kauai, Hawaii. Keysseria 
helenae is known from three or four populations in bogs within the 
Alakai swamp region of Kauai, totaling approximately 300 individuals. 
This species is threatened by pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, 
and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. Feral pigs 
have been fenced out of three of the four bogs where K. helenae 
currently occurs, and nonnative plants have been greatly reduced in all 
three fenced bogs. However, without continued monitoring and 
maintenance of the fences, pigs from surrounding areas can easily 
access fenced areas. Funding limitations restrict the extent of such 
monitoring and maintenance, and as a result the fenced populations 
continue to face threats. In addition, the threats from feral pigs and 
nonnative plants are ongoing in the unfenced bog. In light of the low 
number of individuals of this species, the threats are of high 
magnitude. The threats also are ongoing, and therefore imminent. For 
these reasons, we have retained a listing number of 2 for this species.
    Korthalsella degeneri (Hulumoa)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Hulumoa is a parasitic subshrub 
found on two species of native trees, Sapindus oahuensis and Nestegis 
sandwicensis, only in diverse mesic forests on Oahu, Hawaii. Recent 
surveys indicate that the species is known only from one population of 
1,000 individuals in Makua Valley. Korthalsella degeneri is threatened 
by goats that eat this plant and degrade and destroy habitat, fire, and 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace native plants. Goats have 
been partially fenced out of the area in Makua Valley where K. degeneri 
currently occurs but some goats are still present. Fires resulting from 
military activities have been minimized but not completely eliminated. 
Threats continue to be of a high magnitude and imminent because they 
are ongoing and because of the potential for the elimination of the 
only known population by a single fire event. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Labordia helleri (Kamakahala)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Labordia helleri is a shrub 
found in diverse mesic forest and mesic valleys on Kauai, Hawaii. This 
species is known from eight or more populations totaling 500 
individuals from Makaha to Honopu. Labordia helleri is threatened by 
goats and deer that eat it and degrade and destroy habitat, and by 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. No efforts have been 
taken to control the threats to L. helleri from goats, deer, and 
nonnative plants. The threats are of a high magnitude and imminent, and 
therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Labordia pumila (Kamakahala)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Labordia pumila is a sparingly 
branched shrub found in hummocks in bogs and in bog margins on Kauai, 
Hawaii. This species is known from three populations totaling 500 to 
700 individuals in the Alakai and Waialeale areas. Labordia pumila is 
threatened by pigs that eat it and degrade and destroy habitat, 
nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it, and by stochastic 
extinction due to naturally occurring events such as hurricanes. Feral 
pigs have been fenced out of two of the three bogs where L. pumila 
occurs. Nonnative plants have been greatly reduced in the two fenced 
bogs, and are not found in the immediate vicinity of any L. pumila 
individuals in the fenced areas. Reproduction has not been observed 
over nine years of monitoring, even within the fenced areas. Also, with 
only three known populations, reduced reproductive vigor and threats 
from hurricanes and other stochastic events, the threats to this 
species are of a high magnitude, and are ongoing and therefore 
imminent. Consequently, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for 
this species.
    Leavenworthia crassa (Gladecress)--The following information is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species of 
gladecress is a component of glade flora, occurring in association with 
limestone outcroppings. Leavenworthia crassa is endemic to a 13-mile 
radius area in north central Alabama in Lawrence and Morgan Counties, 
Alabama where only six populations of this species are documented. 
Glade habitats today have been reduced to remnants fragmented by 
agriculture and development. Populations of this species are now 
located in glade-like areas exhibiting various degrees of disturbance 
including pastureland, roadside rights-of-way, and cultivated or plowed 
fields. The most vigorous populations of this species are located in 
areas which receive full, or near full sunlight with limited herbaceous 
competition. The magnitude of threat is high for this species, with the 
limited number of populations, and the immediacy of threat is 
nonimminent since there are no known projects planned that would 
destroy any sites and the species is able to withstand some 
disturbance. Thus, we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this 
species.
    Leavenworthia texana (Texas golden gladecress)--The following 
summary is based on information from our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Texas golden 
gladecress is a small annual member of the mustard family, with deep, 
yellow petals only 7-10 millimeters long; flowering is February through 
March. The gladecress occurs only on the Weches outcrops of east Texas 
in San Augustine and Sabine counties. The Weches geologic formation 
consists of a layer of calcareous sediment that sits above a layer of 
glauconite clay. These layers were deposited up to 50 million years ago 
and erosion of the fossil-rich complex has produced a rugged topography 
of steep, flat-topped hills and escarpments along Highway 21 through 
north San Augustine and Sabine Counties. It has also created the unique 
ecology of Weches glades: Islands of thin, loamy, seepy, alkaline

[[Page 53814]]

soils that support open-sun, herbaceous, and highly diverse and 
specialized plant communities.
    More than 100 species representing at least 39 plant families, 
including the federally endangered white bladderpod (Lesquerella 
pallida), have been documented on Weches glades. One of those species 
is the Texas golden gladecress which was historically recorded at eight 
sites, all in a narrow line along north San Augustine and Sabine 
counties, following the Weches formation. All sites are on private 
land. Habitat of the species at two of these locations has since been 
eliminated due to glauconite mining. Two more sites are currently 
closed to visitors, and the status of the gladecress at these sites is 
unknown. However, a large glauconite mine was created adjacent to these 
sites 6 years ago, and may have altered the area's hydrology. One 
historic site in Sabine County was rediscovered in 1998 and found to 
support over 300 plants. Only two known populations remain in San 
Augustine County. The Tiger Creek (Chapel Hill) site is less than 0.1 
hectares (less than 0.25 acres) in size and supports population numbers 
of 40-100. The Kardell site is less than 9 square meters (100 square 
feet) in size and supports 96-490 plants. An introduced population in 
Nacogdoches County has numbered about 300 within an area of about 18 
square meters (200 square feet).
    Historic gladecress habitat has been affected by highway 
construction, residential development, conversion to pasture and 
cropland, widespread use of herbicide, overgrazing, and glauconite 
mining. However, the primary threat to existing gladecress populations 
is the invasion of nonnative and weedy shrubs and vines (primarily 
Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata) and Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera 
japonica). All known sites are undergoing severe degradation by the 
incursion of nonnative shrubs and vines, which restrict both growth and 
reproduction of the gladecress. Special funding allowed brush clearing 
to be carried out in 1995 at several white bladderpod sites (where 
gladecress is also located). The project resulted in large increases in 
white bladderpod numbers, and also resulted in the reappearance of 
gladecress after a 10-year absence at one historic site, and a possible 
discovery at a second site. However, nonnative shrubs have again 
invaded these areas. More effective control measures, such as burning 
and selective herbicide use, need to be tested and monitored.
    The small number of known sites also makes the gladecress 
vulnerable to extreme natural disturbance events. A severe drought in 
1999 and 2000 had a pronounced adverse effect on gladecress 
reproduction. Prelisting efforts for the gladecress include: The 
collection of seeds and placement in three State horticultural labs for 
possible reintroduction efforts, a Cooperative Agreement (now final and 
in effect) with The Nature Conservancy of Texas, and development of a 
``Conservation Area Plan for the San Augustine Glades,'' which 
identifies the size and configuration of conservation units that will 
restore and maintain longterm viability of Weches communities. The next 
step is to secure adequate funding to initiate protection measures. 
Landowners of the Tiger Creek and Kardell sites are aware of the 
gladecress and are maintaining current land-use conditions. Efforts to 
find additional sites, and management of known sites, should be the 
focus for this species. Due to the continuing overall high magnitude 
and immediacy of the threats, we retained a listing priority number of 
2 for the Texas golden gladecress.
    Lesquerella globosa (Desvaux) Watson (Short's bladderpod)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Lesquerella globosa is a perennial member of the mustard family that 
occurs in Indiana (1 location), Kentucky (6 locations), and Tennessee 
(18 locations). It grows on steep, rocky, wooded slopes, talus areas, 
along cliff tops and bases, and on cliff ledges. It is usually 
associated with south to west facing calcareous outcrops adjacent to 
rivers or streams. Road construction and road maintenance have played a 
significant role in the decline of L. globosa. Specific activities that 
have impacted the species in the past and continue to threaten it 
include bank stabilization, herbicide use, mowing during the growing 
season, grading of road shoulders, and road widening or repaving. 
Sediment deposition during road maintenance or from other activities 
also potentially threatens the species. Interruption of natural 
processes that maintained habitat suitability and competition from 
invasive nonnative vegetation necessitates active habitat management at 
many locations. Because the threats would be fatal for populations of 
this species, the magnitude of threats is high. However, based upon the 
number of populations and the anticipation that most of these threats 
will not be realized in the several years, the threats are nonimminent 
and, therefore, we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to this 
species.
    Linum arenicola (Sand flax)--The following summary is based on 
information in our files. No new information was provided in the 
petition received on May 11, 2004. This herb inhabits seven pine 
rockland sites on limestone in Miami-Dade County and two in the lower 
Florida Keys (at National Key Deer Refuge and a Nature Conservancy 
preserve on Big Pine Key). During the twentieth century, most of this 
plant's geographic range was converted to farmland or was urbanized. As 
a result, remaining populations have suffered from fragmentation and 
small population size; only small populations of this plant remain. 
Those on relatively small tracts of conservation land in urban Miami-
Dade County are vulnerable to invasion by exotic pest plants and lack 
of prescribed fire and such threats could severely affect those 
populations. A further problem in Miami-Dade is that one population is 
located in an artificial environment, which makes its management 
difficult. Therefore, the magnitude of threats is high. The two sites 
in the Keys seem less vulnerable to rapid invasions by exotic pest 
plants and may require less frequent prescribed fire because vegetation 
grows more slowly there. Therefore, the threats to the 4 very small 
populations are of slightly lesser magnitude, but they are present. 
Threats to four of the seven sand flax populations in Miami-Dade County 
are imminent because they are ongoing. For the remaining populations, 
the threats are less imminent. Overall, the threats are imminent, and 
we assigned a listing priority number of 2 to this species.
    Linum carteri var. carteri (Carter's small-flowered flax)--The 
following summary is based on information in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
plant occupies open, sunny sites in pinelands of Miami-Dade County, 
Florida. Populations with probably fewer than 100 total individuals are 
located on three County-owned preserves. A population with more than 
100 plants is on a non-conservation site owned by the U.S. government. 
The existing populations are small and vulnerable to exotic pest plant 
invasions, hot wildfires, and in some cases, to development. This 
species exists in such small numbers at so few sites, that it may be 
difficult to develop viable populations on the available conservation 
lands. Although no population viability analysis has been conducted for 
this plant, indications are that existing populations are at best 
marginal, and none are truly

[[Page 53815]]

viable. As a result, the magnitude of threats is high. Because no 
viable populations of this plant exist, the imminence of threats is 
imminent, so we assigned a listing priority number of 3 to this plant 
variety.
    Lysimachia daphnoides (Lehua makanoe)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is 
known from nine populations totaling 180 to 300 individuals in the 
Alakai area. Lysimachia daphnoides is threatened by feral pigs that 
degrade and destroy habitat, by hikers that may trample individuals, 
and by nonnative plants that outcompete and displace it. In addition, 
regeneration is not occurring due to an unknown invertebrate that eats 
most, if not all, of the seeds in the fruit and for which no control is 
currently known. Feral pigs have been fenced out of three of the nine 
populations of L. daphnoides and nonnative plants have been reduced in 
the three populations that are fenced. However, these on-going 
conservation efforts benefit only three of the nine known populations. 
In addition, no viable seeds have been observed in recent years due to 
damage to fruits from a boring insect. This insect has not yet been 
identified, In monitoring of populations of L. daphnoides in the three 
fenced bogs over the last four years, no recruitment has been observed. 
The threats continue to be of a high magnitude to the species as a 
whole and they are on-going, and therefore imminent. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Melicope christophersenii (Alani)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope christophersenii is 
a long-lived perennial shrub or tree found in wet forest in the Waianae 
Mountains on Oahu, Hawaii. Currently, this species is known from 
several populations totaling less than 300 individuals. Melicope 
christophersenii is threatened by feral pigs and goats that degrade and 
destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for light and 
nutrients. The black twig borer may pose a threat to M. 
christophersenii because it is known to infest other species of 
Melicope on Oahu and it occurs throughout the Waianae Mountains. The 
threats to M. christophersenii from feral pigs, goats, nonnative 
plants, and the black twig borer are imminent and of a high magnitude 
because of their severity, they occur range-wide, they are ongoing, and 
no efforts for their control have been undertaken. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Melicope degeneri (Alani)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope degeneri is a small, 
long-lived perennial shrub found in mesic to wet forest on Kauai, 
Hawaii. Currently this species is known from three populations with a 
total of 15 individuals. Melicope degeneri is threatened by feral goats 
that directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative 
plants that compete for light and nutrients, reduced reproductive 
vigor, and stochastic extinction due to naturally occurring events. The 
black twig borer may pose a threat to M. degeneri because it is known 
to infest other species of Melicope and it occurs on the island of 
Kauai. No known conservation measures have been taken to date to 
address these threats. These threats are of a high magnitude because of 
their severity and are occurring throughout the limited range of this 
species.The threats are imminent because they are ongoing in all three 
populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for 
M. degeneri.
    Melicope hiiakae (Alani)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope hiiakae is a small tree 
found in mesic to wet forest and shrubland on Oahu, Hawaii. Currently, 
M. hiiakae is known from four or five populations of about 20 
individuals in the Koolau Mountains. This species is threatened by 
feral pigs that directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy habitat, 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients, and stochastic 
extinction due to naturally occurring events. The black twig borer may 
pose a threat to M. hiiakae because it is known to infest other species 
of Melicope on Oahu and it occurs throughout the Koolau Mountains. The 
threats are high in magnitude and imminent because of their severity, 
they all occurring range-wide, and no efforts for their control or 
eradication are being undertaken. We retained a listing priority number 
of 2 for this species.
    Melicope makahae (Alani)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope makahae is a shrub or 
shrubby tree found in mesic forest in the Waianae Mountains on Oahu, 
Hawaii. Currently M. makahae is known from three populations on three 
discrete ridges, totaling approximately 200 individuals. This species 
is threatened by goats that degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative 
plants that compete for light and nutrients. The black twig borer may 
pose a threat to M. makahae because it is known to infest other species 
of Melicope on Oahu and it occurs throughout the Waianae Mountains. The 
threats to M. makahae from goats, nonnative plants, and the black twig 
borer are of a high magnitude because of their severity, they are 
occurring range-wide, and no efforts for their control have been 
undertaken. The threats are imminent since they are ongoing. Therefore, 
we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Melicope paniculata (Alani)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope paniculata is a small 
tree found in wet forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) on 
Kauai, Hawaii. Melicope paniculata is currently known from four 
populations totaling 110 individuals. This species is threatened by 
feral pigs that directly prey upon it, degrade and/or destroy habitat, 
and nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. The black 
twig borer may pose a threat to M. paniculata because it is known to 
infest other species of Melicope and it occurs on Kauai. All of the 
threats are occurring range-wide and no efforts for their control or 
eradication are being undertaken. We retained a listing priority number 
of 2 due to imminent threats of a high magnitude.
    Melicope puberula (Alani)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Melicope puberula is a shrub or 
small tree found in mesic and wet forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This species 
is known from 1,000 individuals in the Kalalau area to Wainiha Pali on 
the island of Kauai. Melicope puberula is threatened by feral pigs and 
goats that degrade and/or destroy habitat, nonnative plants that 
compete for light and nutrients, and stochastic extinction due to 
naturally occurring events such as hurricanes. The black twig borer may 
pose a threat to M. puberula because it is known to infest other 
species of Melicope and it occurs on Kauai. These threats are of a high 
magnitude because of their severity and they are occurring throughout 
its limited range. The threats are imminent because they are ongoing. 
Therefore, we

[[Page 53816]]

retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Myrsine fosbergii (Kolea)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Myrsine fosbergii is a branched 
shrub or small tree found in cloud swept ridges and wet forest on Kauai 
and Oahu, Hawaii. This species is known from at least five populations 
totaling 150 to 175 individuals from Kauai and the southeastern end of 
Castle Trail on Oahu. Myrsine fosbergii is threatened by feral pigs 
that directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy habitat, and 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. There are no 
conservation measures being taken to alleviate these threats for this 
species. Feral pigs are found throughout the known range of M. 
fosbergii making this threat ongoing and imminent. The threats from 
feral pigs and nonnative plants are of high magnitude because of their 
severity and they are occurring throughout its limited range. The 
threats are on-going and therefore are imminent. We retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Myrsine mezii (Kolea)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Myrsine mezii is a small many-
branched tree found in mesic forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This species is 
known from two populations of only five individuals in Koaie Canyon. 
Myrsine mezii is threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy 
habitat, reduced reproductive vigor, and stochastic extinction due to 
naturally occurring events. No known conservation measures have been 
taken to date for these threats. The threats are of a high magnitude 
and imminent because of their severity, they are occurring throughout 
the limited range of M. mezii, and are ongoing. Thus, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Myrsine vaccinioides (Kolea)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Myrsine vaccinioides is a small 
branched shrub found in shrubby bogs on Maui, Hawaii. This species is 
found scattered throughout the bogs of west Maui, totaling 
approximately 500 individuals. Myrsine vaccinioides is threatened by 
feral pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that 
compete for light and nutrients. Pig exclusion fences protect some 
individuals of this species, and nonnative plants have been reduced 
around some individuals that are fenced. However, these on-going 
conservation efforts benefit only a small number of the known 
individuals. Further, nonnative plants will probably never be 
completely eradicated because new propagules are constantly being 
dispersed into the fenced areas from surrounding, unmanaged lands. The 
species as a whole is impacted by threats of high magnitude that are 
ongoing, and thus imminent. Therefore, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Narthecium americanum (Bog asphodel)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Bog asphodel is a perennial herb 
that is found in savannah areas, usually with water moving through the 
substrate, as well as in sandy bogs along streams and rivers. The 
historic range of bog asphodel included New York, New Jersey, Delaware, 
North Carolina, and South Carolina, but is now only found within the 
Pine Barrens region of New Jersey.
    As an obligate wetland species, N. americanum is threatened by 
changes in hydrology, loss of habitat due to filling or draining of 
wetlands, flooding as a result of reservoir construction, and 
conversion of natural wetlands to commercial cranberry bogs. This 
species occurs in the Pine Barrens region, and the Pinelands Commission 
issues the State-assumed Clean Water Act Section 404 permits. The 
Pinelands Commission grants wetland exemptions to cranberry production 
and other agricultural uses. In some instances, illegal wetland filling 
is occurring. For example, a cranberry producer recently expanded its 
operation without a State permit. In addition, activities not needing 
State or federal permits are occurring in uplands that are indirectly 
affecting the wetlands. Natural succession of vegetation in wetlands 
that support bog asphodel from emergent (herbaceous) to forested 
wetlands may also be contributing to the species' decline. Suppression 
of natural wildfires that would retard succession or create open 
wetland savannahs may be a factor in the decline of the species.
    Other factors adversely affecting N. americanum include trampling, 
erosion, and siltation caused by recreationists on foot or using off-
road vehicles. Approximately 70 percent of known extant populations 
occur on State-owned lands. We are working with the New Jersey 
Department of Environmental Protection to abate known threats at these 
sites from recreational use and erosion, thus the severity of these 
threats has been reduced on State-owned land. Approximately 30 percent 
of the known extant sites are on privately owned lands, many of which 
are threatened by habitat degradation from on-site or adjacent 
residential or commercial development. Overall, based on these 
imminent, moderate threats, we retained a listing priority number of 8 
for this species.
    Nothocestrum latifolium (Aiea)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Aiea is a small tree found in 
dry to mesic forest and diverse mesic forests on Kauai, Oahu, Maui, 
Molokai, and Lanai, Hawaii. Nothocestrum latifolium is known from 
approximately a dozen populations totaling less than 300 individuals. 
This species is threatened by feral pigs, goats and cattle that may eat 
it and degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients, and the loss of pollinators that negatively affect 
the reproductive viability of the species. Ungulates have been fenced 
out of some areas where N. latifolium currently occurs, and nonnative 
plants have been reduced in some populations that are fenced. However, 
these on-going conservation efforts for this species benefit only a few 
of the known populations. The threats are not controlled and are 
ongoing in the remaining unfenced populations. In addition, little 
regeneration is observed in this species. Therefore, the threats are of 
a high magnitude and imminent and we retained a listing priority number 
of 2 for this species.
    Ochrosia haleakalae (Holei)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Holei is a tree found often on 
lava in dry to mesic forest on the islands of Hawaii and Maui, Hawaii. 
This species is currently known from three populations totaling 500 
individuals on east Maui and the island of Hawaii. Ochrosia haleakalae 
is threatened by feral pigs and goats that may directly prey upon it 
and degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients, and fire. Feral pigs and goats have been fenced 
out of the Maui population of O. haleakalae, and fences protect the 
reintroduction site in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of 
Hawaii. Nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced area on Maui. 
No known conservation measures have been taken to date for the other

[[Page 53817]]

populations on the island of Hawaii. The threat from fire is of a high 
magnitude and imminent because no control measures have been undertaken 
to address this threat to all of the populations. The threats from 
feral pigs and goats are of a high magnitude and ongoing to the 
unfenced populations of O. haleakalae. The threat from nonnative plants 
is ongoing and imminent, and of a high magnitude to the wild 
populations on the island of Hawaii. Therefore, we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae (Fickeisen plains 
cactus)--See above in ``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in 
Candidates.'' The above summary is based on information contained in 
our files. No new information was provided in the petition received on 
May 11, 2004.
    Penstemon debilis (Parachute beardtongue)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Parachute 
beardtongue is an extremely rare plant endemic to oil shale outcrops on 
the Roan Plateau escarpment in Garfield County, Colorado. The estimated 
number of plants is 1130 to 1730. Approximately 53 to 69 percent of the 
plants are on private land owned by an oil and gas company. Most of the 
remaining 31 to 47 percent occur in one population on Bureau of Land 
Management land that will soon be open to leasing under a new Resource 
Management Plan. Pressure to develop energy reserves in this area is 
intense. Threats include habitat destruction caused by heavy equipment 
as it traverses access roads through plant populations. These threats 
are high magnitude because of the high number of populations affected 
by these threats and the severity of the impact. Therefore, we retained 
a listing priority number of 2 for this species based on the high 
magnitude of the threats and the increase in the intensity of energy 
exploration and development in the last three years along the Roan 
Plateau escarpment.
    Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis (White River beardtongue)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files and 
the petition received on October 27, 1983. The White River beardtongue 
is restricted to calcareous soils derived from oil shale barrens of the 
Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah and 
adjacent Colorado. There are 14 occurrences known in Utah and one in 
Colorado. Most of the occupied habitat of the White River beardtongue 
is within developed and expanding oil and gas fields. The location of 
the species' habitat exposes it to destruction from road, pipeline, and 
well-site construction in connection with oil and gas development. 
Recreational off-road vehicle use, heavy grazing by livestock and 
wildlife and livestock trampling are additional threats. Current 
information indicates that threats are nonimminent since that are not 
ongoing at this time but of a high magnitude because of their potential 
to affect the majority of the populations. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 6 for this plant variety.
    Peperomia subpetiolata (Ala ala wai nui)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Ala ala wai nui is a 
short-lived perennial herb found in mesic forest on Maui, Hawaii. This 
species is known from a few scattered, declining, populations on 
windward east Maui, totaling 100 individuals. Further study of the 
population indicates that the 100 individuals may actually represent 
clones of only 6 genetically distinct individuals. Peperomia 
subpetiolata is threatened by feral pigs that may eat this plant and 
degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients. All of the threats occur range-wide and no efforts 
for their control or eradication are being undertaken. We retained a 
listing priority number of 2 because the threats are of a high 
magnitude and are ongoing so are imminent.
    Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. DeBeque phacelia is 
an annual flowering plant endemic to clay soils derived from the Atwell 
Gulch and Shire members of the Wasatch Formation in Mesa and Garfield 
Counties, Colorado. There are approximately 40 populations, all less 
than five acres. The number of plants varies from none to thousands 
each year, depending on precipitation. The habitat coincides with high 
quality oil and gas reserves of the Piceance Basin, mostly on federal 
lands. The primary threats are gas field development and associated 
construction and transportation activities, as well as increased access 
for all-terrain vehicles. Substantial surface disturbance alters the 
unique soil structure that supports this plant, and also destroys seed 
banks that are critical to the survival of this species. The threats 
are of a high magnitude because they have the potential to affect the 
majority of the populations and because the populations cover such 
small areas of land. The threats are nonimminent since they are not 
expected to affect this species in the next few years. Based on 
nonimminent threats of a high magnitude, we retained a listing priority 
number of 8 for this species.
    Phyllostegia bracteata (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Phyllostegia 
bracteata is a scandent perennial herb. Currently this species is known 
from three populations totaling no more than 100 individuals in wet 
forest habitat of east Maui. Phyllostegia bracteata is threatened by 
feral pigs that may directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy 
habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. The 
threats to P. bracteata from pigs and nonnative plants are of a high 
magnitude and imminent because of their severity, they are occurring 
range-wide, are ongoing, and no efforts for their control have been 
undertaken. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for 
this species.
    Phyllostegia floribunda (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is an 
erect subshrub found in mesic to wet forest on the island of Hawaii, 
Hawaii. This species is known from 13 locations totaling fewer than 100 
individuals on State, private, and Federal lands (Hawaii Volcanoes 
National Park). Only one individual is reported at each of 
approximately half of the locations. Phyllostegia floribunda is 
threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. Fences protect 
approximately five populations on private and Park Service lands. 
Nonnative plants have been reduced in these fenced areas. However, no 
conservation efforts have been implemented for the unfenced 
populations. For the species as a whole, the threats are ongoing and 
imminent, and of a high magnitude. Consequently, we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Phyllostegia hispida (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a 
loosely spreading many-branched vine found in wet forest on Molokai, 
Hawaii. The historic range

[[Page 53818]]

of this species was eastern Molokai. Currently, P. hispida is known 
from only one plant in the State of Hawaii's Puu Alii Natural Area 
Reserve. This species is threatened by the lack of regeneration, feral 
pigs that eat this plant and degrade and/or destroy habitat, erosion, 
reduced reproductive vigor and stochastic extinction due to naturally 
occurring events. No efforts for the control of feral pigs have been 
undertaken in the habitat occupied by this species. Phyllostegia 
hispida is represented in an ex-situ collection (micropropagation) and 
it is unknown whether the material will transfer to the nursery for 
normal propagation methods needed for reintroduction. The threats are 
of a high magnitude and imminent because of their severity, and they 
are currently occurring throughout the limited range of P. hispida. 
Thus, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Physaria tuplashensis, (White Bluffs bladder-pod)--See above in 
``Other Taxonomic Changes in Candidates.'' The above summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004.
    Pittosporum napaliense (Hoawa)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Hoawa species is a small tree 
found in Pandanus forest and mesic valleys on Kauai, Hawaii. This 
species is known from about six populations totaling several hundred 
individuals on the eastern portion of the Na Pali coast. Pittosporum 
napaliense is threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy 
habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. The 
threats to P. napaliense from pigs and nonnative plants are of a high 
magnitude and imminent because of their severity, they currently occur 
range-wide, and no efforts for their control have been undertaken. 
Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Platanthera integrilabia (Correll) Leur (White fringeless orchid) 
`` The following summary is based on information contained in our 
files. No new information was provided in the petition received on May 
11, 2004. Platanthera integrilabia is a perennial herb that grows in 
partially, but not fully, shaded, wet, boggy areas at the head of 
streams and on seepage slopes in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky and 
Tennessee. Historically, there were at least 90 populations of P. 
integrilabia.
    Currently there are only 53 extant sites supporting the species. 
Several populations have been lost to road, residential and commercial 
construction, and to projects that altered soil and site hydrology, and 
reduced site suitability for the species. Several of the known 
populations are in or adjacent to powerline rights-of-way. Mechanical 
clearing of these areas may benefit the species by maintaining adequate 
light levels; however, the use of herbicides could pose a significant 
threat to the species. All-terrain vehicles have damaged several sites 
and pose a threat to most sites. Most of the known sites for the 
species occur in areas that are managed specifically for timber 
production. Timber management is not necessarily incompatible with the 
protection and management of the species. However, care must be taken 
during timber management to ensure that the hydrology of the bogs that 
support the species is not altered. Natural succession can result in 
decreased light levels. Because of the species dependence upon moderate 
to high light levels, some type of active management to prevent 
complete canopy closure is required at most locations. Collecting for 
commercial and other purposes is a threat. Herbivory (primarily deer) 
threatens the species at several sites. Protection and recovery of this 
species is dependent upon active management rather than just 
preservation of its habitat. Invasive, nonnative plants such as 
Japanese honeysuckle and kudzu threaten several sites. Given the 
current threats to this species, the magnitude of threat is high. Based 
upon the number of populations and the anticipation that most of these 
threats will not be realized in the next several years, the threats are 
nonimminent and, therefore, we have assigned a listing priority number 
of 5 to this species.
    Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta (no common name)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
variety is an erect palmoid shrub found in mesic forest on Oahu, 
Hawaii. This variety is known from three to four populations with a 
combined total of approximately 100 individuals in the Koolau Mountains 
on the island of Oahu. Limited monitoring has shown that this 
population is declining. The threats to P. cornuta var. cornuta include 
feral pigs that directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy habitat, 
and nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. All of the 
threats occur range-wide and no efforts for their control or 
eradication are being undertaken. We retained a listing priority number 
of 3 for this variety because of the high magnitude of threats and 
because they are ongoing, so are imminent.
    Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens (no common name)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This 
variety is an erect palmoid shrub found in mesic forest on Oahu, 
Hawaii. This variety is known from a few populations totaling a few 
hundred individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens is threatened by feral pigs and goats that directly prey upon 
it and degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that compete 
for light and nutrients. All of the threats occur range-wide and no 
efforts for their control or eradication are being undertaken. We 
retained a listing priority number of 3 for this variety because the 
threats are high in magnitude and are ongoing, so are imminent.
    Platydesma remyi (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Platydesma remyi is a shrub 
or shrubby tree found scattered in wet, low stature forest on the 
island of Hawaii, Hawaii. This species is known from two populations 
(one each in the Kohala Mountains and Hamakua) totaling less than 100 
individuals. Platydesma remyi is threatened by feral pigs and cattle 
that degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients, reduced reproductive vigor, and stochastic 
extinction due to naturally occurring events. There are no conservation 
efforts being implemented to alleviate the threats to P. remyi. These 
threats are ongoing and therefore, imminent, and of a high magnitude 
because of their severity and because they are occurring throughout its 
limited range. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 
for this species.
    Platydesma rostrata (Pilo kea lau lii)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Pilo kea lau lii is 
an erect palmoid shrub found in diverse mesic forest and valleys on 
Kauai, Hawaii. This species is known from about 20 populations totaling 
several hundred individuals in Kokee and Kuia. Platydesma rostrata is 
threatened by feral goats that degrade and destroy habitat, and 
nonnative plants that compete for light and

[[Page 53819]]

nutrients. Feral goats have been fenced out of 1 of the 20 populations 
of P. rostrata, and nonnative plants have been reduced in the 
population that is fenced. However, these on-going conservation efforts 
benefit only 1 of the 20 known populations and, therefore, continue to 
be of a high magnitude to this species. In addition, threats to P. 
rostrata are imminent because they are ongoing in 19 of the 20 
populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for 
this species.
    Pleomele forbesii (Hala pepe)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Pleomele forbesii is a tree 
found in diverse mesic and dry forests on Oahu, Hawaii. This species is 
currently known from 16 populations totaling 500 individuals. Pleomele 
forbesii is threatened by predation by rats, habitat degradation and 
destruction by feral pigs and goats, fire, and nonnative plants that 
compete for light and nutrients. There are no conservation efforts 
being implemented to alleviate these threats to P. forbesii. The 
threats are of a high magnitude because of their severity and they are 
occurring throughout the range of this plant in all 16 populations. The 
threats are ongoing and therefore, imminent. Thus, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Potentilla basaltica (Soldier Meadow cinquefoil or basalt 
cinquefoil)--See above in ``Summary of Listing Priority Changes in 
Candidates.'' No new information was provided in the petition received 
on May 11, 2004.
    Pritchardia hardyi (Loulu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Pritchardia hardyi is a medium-
sized palm tree found in open wet forest on Kauai, Hawaii. This species 
is known from three populations with a combined total of 300 
individuals in the Power Line Road area. Pritchardia hardyi is 
threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, and 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. Other potential 
threats include direct predation of fruit by rats, and human collection 
and vandalism. No conservation efforts have been initiated to date to 
alleviate these threats to P. hardyi. The threats are of a high 
magnitude because of their severity and they are occurring throughout 
the range of this plant in all three populations. The threats are 
ongoing and therefore, imminent. Thus, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Pseudognaphalium (Gnaphalium) sandwicensium var. molokaiense 
(Enaena)--The following summary is based on information contained in 
our files. No new information was provided in the petition received on 
May 11, 2004. Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense is a 
perennial herb found in strand vegetation in dry consolidated dunes on 
Molokai, Hawaii. This variety is known from two populations totaling a 
few hundred individuals in the Moomomi area and 25 individuals at Puu 
Kahulianapa on west Maui. Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. 
molokaiense is threatened by axis deer (Maui and Molokai) and feral 
cattle (Molokai) that degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative plants 
that compete for light and nutrients. Potential threats include 
collection for lei and off-road vehicles that directly damage plants 
and degrade habitat. While ungulate exclusion fences protect one 
population of P. sandwicensium var. molokaiense on Molokai and 
nonnative plant control has been implemented in this population, no 
conservation efforts have been initiated to date for the other 
individuals on Molokai and Maui. The threats from axis deer, goats, 
nonnative plants, collection, and off-road vehicles are of a high 
magnitude, ongoing and imminent, because no control measures have been 
undertaken for four of the five Molokai populations or for the two Maui 
populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 3 for 
this variety.
    Psychotria grandiflora (Kopiko)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Psychotria grandiflora is a 
small tree or shrub found in mesic to sometimes wet forest on Kauai, 
Hawaii. This species is found only in the Kokee area on the island of 
Kauai. Recent surveys determined that the species is now limited to 
four populations with a total of 18 individuals. Psychotria grandiflora 
is threatened by feral pigs and goats that directly prey upon it and 
degrade and destroy habitat, nonnative plants that compete for light 
and nutrients, reduced reproductive vigor, and stochastic extinction 
due to naturally occurring events. The threats to P. grandiflora are of 
a high magnitude because of their severity, they are occurring 
throughout the plant's limited range in all four populations, and there 
are no conservation efforts being implemented to alleviate the threats. 
The threats are also ongoing and therefore, imminent. Therefore, we 
retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis var. oahuensis (Kopiko)--The 
following summary is based on information contained in our files. No 
new information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis var. oahuensis is a tree or shrub 
found in mesic and wet forests on Oahu, Hawaii. This variety is known 
from three populations of less than 20 individuals. The other varieties 
of this subspecies, hosakana and rockii, are extinct. Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis var. oahuensis is threatened by feral pigs and 
rats that consume this plant and degrade and destroy habitat, rats that 
consume its fruit, and nonnative plants that compete for light and 
nutrients. All of the threats occur range-wide, and no efforts for 
their control or eradication are being undertaken. We retained a 
listing priority number of 3 because the threats are of a high 
magnitude and are ongoing, so are imminent.
    Psychotria hobdyi (Kopiko)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Psychotria hobdyi is a tree 
found in mesic forest habitat on Kauai, Hawaii. This species is known 
from three populations totaling approximately 85 individuals. 
Psychotria hobdyi is threatened by feral goats that degrade and destroy 
habitat, nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients, and 
reduced reproductive vigor and stochastic extinction due to naturally 
occurring events. There are no conservation measures being taken to 
alleviate these threats to this species. The threats to P. hobdyi from 
goats and nonnative plants are of a high magnitude because of their 
severity and they are occurring range-wide. The threats are imminent 
because they are ongoing. Therefore, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Pteralyxia macrocarpa (Kaulu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Kaulu is a tree found in valleys 
and slopes in diverse mesic forest on Oahu, Hawaii. This species is 
known from 20 populations totaling less than 500 individuals. 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa is threatened by feral pigs, rats, and the two-
spotted leafhopper that consume this plant; by feral pigs that degrade 
and destroy habitat; and, nonnative plants that compete for light and 
nutrients. These threats are of a high magnitude because of their 
severity, they are

[[Page 53820]]

occurring throughout its limited range, and no efforts for their 
control or eradication have been implemented. The threats are also 
imminent because they are ongoing. We retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Ranunculus hawaiensis (Makou)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Ranunculus hawaiiensis is an 
erect or ascending perennial herb found in mesic to wet forest 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha and Acacia koa with scree 
substrate on Maui and the island of Hawaii, Hawaii. Populations 
formerly within Haleakala National Park have been extirpated. This 
species is known from less than 300 individuals in five populations. 
However, the majority of these individuals are seedlings, less than 1 
inch (2.5 centimeters) tall, and the rate of survival is expected to be 
very low. Ranunculus hawaiiensis is threatened by direct predation by 
slugs, by feral pigs, goats, cattle, and sheep that consume this plant 
and degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that compete 
for light and nutrients. Feral ungulates have been fenced out of some 
of the populations of R. hawaiiensis, and nonnative plants have been 
reduced in some of the fenced areas. However, feral ungulates and 
nonnative plants are not controlled in the remaining, unfenced 
populations. In addition, the threat from slugs is of a high magnitude 
because slugs occur throughout the limited range of this species and no 
effective measures have been undertaken for their control. Therefore, 
the threats from pigs, goats, cattle, sheep, slugs, and nonnative 
plants are of a high magnitude and ongoing and imminent for R. 
hawaiiensis. We retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Ranunculus mauiensis (Makou)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Ranunculus mauiensis is an erect 
to weakly ascending perennial herb found in open sites in mesic to wet 
forest and along streams on Maui and Kauai, Hawaii. This species is 
currently known from less than 30 individuals on Maui and 30 
individuals on Kauai. Ranunculus mauiensis is threatened by feral pigs 
and slugs that consume it, by habitat degradation and destruction by 
feral pigs, and by nonnative plants that compete for light and 
nutrients. Feral pigs have been fenced out of the Maui populations of 
R. mauiensis, and nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced 
areas. However, these on-going conservation efforts benefit only the 
Maui individuals and, therefore, the threats continue to be of a high 
magnitude to this species on Kauai. Threats to the species overall are 
also of a high magnitude since half of the individuals are found on 
Kauai and this represents a significant portion of the range of R. 
mauiensis. In addition, threats to R. mauiensis are imminent because 
they are ongoing in the Kauai populations. Therefore, we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Rorippa subumbellata (Tahoe yellow cress)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files and the petition received 
on December 27, 2000. Tahoe yellow cress is a small perennial herb 
known only from the shores of Lake Tahoe in California and Nevada. Data 
collected over the last 25 years suggest a relationship between lake 
level and site occupancy by Tahoe yellow cress. The data generally 
indicate that species occurrence fluctuates yearly as a function of 
both lake level and the amount of exposed habitat. Records kept since 
1900 indicate preponderance of years with high lake levels that would 
isolate and reduce Tahoe yellow cress occurrences at higher beach 
elevations. From the standpoint of the species, less favorable peak 
years have occurred almost twice as often as more favorable low-level 
years. In addition, there has been widespread and intensive use of the 
shorezone since European settlement. Today, shorezone conditions are 
influenced by heavy recreational use, boating, construction of piers 
and boat launches, and dam operations that control lake elevation. 
Annual surveys are conducted to determine population numbers, site 
occupancy, and general disturbance regime. During the 2003 and 2004 
annual survey period, the lake level was approximately 6,224 feet 
(1,898 meters). 2003 was the third consecutive year of low water. The 
survey located Tahoe yellow cress at 45 of the 72 sites surveyed (65 
percent occupied), up from 15 sites (19 percent occupied) in 2000 when 
the lake level was high at 6,228 feet. Approximately 25,200 stems were 
counted or estimated in 2003, whereas during the 2000 annual survey, 
the estimated number of stems was 4,590. A methodology change in 2004 
resulted in fewer numbers; the new methodology proved unworkable and 
was abandoned in 2005. Lake levels were higher in 2005, and less 
habitat was available; a summary of survey results is not yet 
available, but total numbers of sites and individuals are expected to 
be lower than in the period 2001-2003.
    Many Tahoe yellow cress sites are intensively used for commercial 
and public purposes, and are subject to various activities such as 
erosion control, marina developments, pier construction, and 
recreation. The U.S. Forest Service, California Tahoe Conservancy, and 
California Department of Parks and Recreation protect Tahoe yellow 
cress with management programs that include monitoring, fenced 
enclosures, and transplanting efforts when funds and staff are 
available. Public agencies (including the Service), private landowners, 
and environmental groups collaborated to develop a conservation 
strategy coupled with a Memorandum of Understanding/Conservation 
Agreement. The conservation strategy, which was completed in 2003 and 
contains goals and objectives for recovery and survival, a research and 
monitoring agenda, and will serve as the foundation for an adaptive 
management program. Because of the continued commitments to 
conservation demonstrated by regulatory and land management agencies 
participating in the conservation strategy, we have determined the 
threats to Tahoe yellow cress from various land uses have been reduced 
to a moderate magnitude. In high lake level years such as 2005, 
however, recreational use is concentrated within Tahoe yellow cress 
habitat, and we consider this threat in particular to be ongoing and 
imminent. Therefore, we are maintaining an LPN of 8 for this species.
    Schiedea attenuata (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Schiedea attenuata is an 
erect, sparingly branched shrub found on cliffs in diverse mesic forest 
habitat on Kauai, Hawaii. This species is known from one population of 
less than 20 individuals on the cliffs of Kalalau Valley. Schiedea 
attenuata is threatened by feral goats that directly prey upon it and 
degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients. These threats are of a high magnitude because they 
are occurring throughout its limited range. Threats continue to be 
imminent because they are ongoing and because of the potential for the 
elimination of the only known population by a single stochastic or 
naturally occurring event. Therefore, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Schiedea pubescens (Maolioli)--The following summary is based on

[[Page 53821]]

information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Schiedea pubescens is a 
reclining or weakly climbing vine found in diverse mesic to wet forest 
on Maui and Molokai, Hawaii. Currently, this species is known from six 
populations totaling approximately 100 individuals on Maui and Molokai. 
Schiedea pubescens is threatened by feral goats that consume it and 
degrade and destroy habitat, and by nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients. Feral ungulates have been fenced out of the 
population of S. pubescens on Hawaii and feral goats have been fenced 
out of a few of the west Maui populations of S. pubescens. Nonnative 
plants have been reduced in the populations that are fenced on Maui. 
However, the threats are not controlled and are ongoing in the 
remaining unfenced populations on Maui and the three populations on 
Molokai. In light of the extremely low number of individuals of this 
species, the threats from goats and nonnative plants are of a high 
magnitude and imminent for S. pubescens and we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Schiedea salicaria (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Schiedea salicaria is an 
erect subshrub or shrub found on ridges and steep slopes in dry 
shrubland on Maui, Hawaii. Currently, this species is declining 
throughout its range, and is known from several populations totaling 
100 to 300 individuals, typically of 25 individuals per population. 
This species is threatened by cattle that may directly prey upon it and 
degrade and destroy habitat, fire, and nonnative plants that compete 
for light and nutrients. This species is represented in an ex-situ 
collection. All of the threats occur range-wide, and no efforts for 
their control or eradication are being undertaken. We retained a 
listing priority number of 2 because the threats are of a high 
magnitude because of their severity and are ongoing, so are imminent.
    Sedum eastwoodiae (Red Mountain stonecrop)--The following summary 
is based on information contained in our files and information provided 
by the California Department of Fish and Game. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Red Mountain 
stonecrop is a perennial succulent which occupies relatively barren, 
rocky openings and cliffs in lower montane coniferous forests, between 
1,900 and 4,000 feet elevation. Its distribution is limited to Red 
Mountain, Mendocino County, California, where it occupies 30 acres 
scattered over 4 square miles. Total population size is estimated at 
between 5,300 and 23,000 plants, contained within 27 habitat polygons. 
Intensive monitoring suggests considerable annual variation in plant 
seedling success and inflorescence production; stonecrop density varied 
from year-to-year.
    The primary threat to the species is the potential for surface 
mining for chromium and nickel. The entire distribution Red Mountain 
stonecrop is either owned by mining interests, or is covered by mining 
claims, none of which are currently active. Surface mining would 
destroy habitat suitability for this species. The species is also 
believed to be threatened by tree and shrub encroachment into its 
habitat, in absence of fire. Given the magnitude (high) and immediacy 
(nonimminent) of the threat to the small, scattered populations, and 
its taxonomy (species), we assigned a listing priority number of 5 to 
this species.
    Sicyos macrophyllus (Anunu)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Sicyos macrophyllus is a 
perennial vine found in wet Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) forest and 
subalpine Sophora chrysophylla-Myoporum sandwicense (mamane-naio) on 
the island of Hawaii, Hawaii. This species is known from several 
populations with a combined total of a few hundred individuals in the 
Kohala and Mauna Kea areas and in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Puna 
area) on the island of Hawaii. It appears that a naturally occurring 
population at Kipuka Ki in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is 
reproducing on its own by seeds, but seeds have not been successfully 
germinated under nursery conditions. This species is threatened by 
feral pigs and sheep that degrade and destroy habitat, and nonnative 
plants that compete for light and nutrients. Feral pigs have been 
fenced out of some of the areas where S. macrophyllus currently occurs, 
but the fences do not exclude sheep. Nonnative plants have been reduced 
in the populations that are fenced. However, the threats are not 
controlled and are ongoing in the remaining, unfenced populations, and 
are, therefore, of a high magnitude and are imminent. In addition, the 
threat from sheep is of a high magnitude, and ongoing and imminent, in 
all populations because the current fences do not exclude sheep. 
Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Solanum nelsonii (Popolo)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Solanum nelsonii is a sprawling 
or trailing shrub found in coral rubble or sand in coastal sites on the 
islands of Hawaii, Molokai, Maui, Niihau, Nihoa, and Pearl and Hermes, 
Hawaii. This species is known from ten populations totaling fewer than 
300 individuals, and is declining rapidly on all islands. On Maui and 
the island of Hawaii, S. nelsonii is threatened by development, off-
road vehicles, and trampling that degrades and/or destroys habitat, and 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. On Molokai, the 
major threats to S. nelsonii are wild cattle and axis deer that 
adversely modify habitat, and nonnative plants. On Nihoa, and Pearl and 
Hermes Atoll this species is threatened by nonnative plants. Threats to 
this species on Niihau are unknown. There are no conservation measures 
being taken to alleviate the threats to S. nelsonii on Maui and the 
island of Hawaii. On Molokai, conservation measures for this species 
include ungulate exclusion fences and weed control. On the island of 
Nihoa, and Pearl and Hermes Atoll, there is no public or recreational 
use allowed as these islands are within the Hawaiian Islands National 
Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). Limited nonnative plant control is conducted 
in the refuge. Solanum nelsonii is represented in ex-situ collections 
and in seed storage. Currently, conservation measures have been 
implemented to the benefit of the individuals on Molokai and within the 
Refuge. However, there are no efforts to control the ongoing threats to 
this species on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. Therefore, the threats 
continue to be of a high magnitude to S. nelsonii, and we retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species because the threats are 
of a high magnitude and are imminent.
    Stenogyne cranwelliae (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Stenogyne 
cranwelliae is a creeping vine found in wet forest dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha on the island of Hawaii, Hawaii. Stenogyne 
cranwelliae is known from six populations with a total of 100 
individuals. This species is threatened by feral pigs that degrade and 
destroy habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for light and 
nutrients. In addition, this species is potentially

[[Page 53822]]

threatened by rats that may directly prey upon it. All of the threats 
occur range-wide and no efforts for their control or eradication are 
being undertaken. We retained a listing priority number of 2 because 
the threats are of a high magnitude and are ongoing, so are imminent.
    Stenogyne kealiae (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Stenogyne kealiae is a 
trailing or scandent vine found in wet forest habitat on Kauai, Hawaii. 
This species is known from five populations totaling 100 to 200 
individuals in the northwestern section of the island of Kauai. 
Stenogyne kealiae is threatened by feral pigs and goats, and deer that 
degrade and destroy habitat and may directly prey upon it, and by 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients. The threats to 
S. kealiae from pigs, goats, deer, and nonnative plants are of a high 
magnitude because of their severity, they are occurring range-wide, and 
no efforts for their control have been undertaken. The threats are also 
imminent because they are ongoing. Therefore, we retained a listing 
priority number of 2 for this species.
    Symphyotrichum georgianum (Georgia aster)--The following summary is 
based on information from our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Historically, 97 populations of 
Georgia aster were known to exist; 34 of these have apparently been 
destroyed. The species appears to have been eliminated from one of the 
five states in which it originally occurred. In most cases the exact 
cause of extirpation was not documented, but herbicides, highway 
construction, fire suppression, and residential and industrial 
development have all altered the historic landscape in which Georgia 
aster once flourished. Georgia aster has apparently been eliminated 
from 4 counties in Alabama, 1 county in Florida, 11 counties in 
Georgia, 1 county in North Carolina, and 5 counties in South Carolina; 
it remains in 31 counties in 4 states (NC, SC, AL, & GA). Most 
remaining populations of this species survive adjacent to roads, 
railroads, utility rights-of-way and other openings where land 
management occasionally mimics natural disturbance regimes, but where 
they are vulnerable to accidental destruction from herbicide 
application, road shoulder grading, and other maintenance activities. 
Many populations are now threatened also by development (several are 
within planned residential subdivisions), highway expansion/
improvement, and by woody succession due to fire suppression. The 
severity of threats faced by this species is high and the threats are 
operating throughout its range. We are not aware of ongoing efforts to 
abate these threats or otherwise protect existing populations. 
Therefore, the magnitude of threats is assessed to be high, but because 
the species appears to tolerate some level of disturbance, we regard 
the threats as nonimminent and thus, we retained a listing priority of 
5 for this species.
    Zanthoxylum oahuense (Ae)--The following summary is based on 
information contained in our files. No new information was provided in 
the petition received on May 11, 2004. Zanthoxylum oahuense is small 
tree found in mesic to wet forest habitat on Oahu, Hawaii. Currently 
this species is known from several populations totaling approximately 
500 individuals on Oahu. Zanthoxylum oahuense is threatened by feral 
pigs that directly prey upon it and degrade and destroy habitat, 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients, and the black 
twig borer. All of the threats occur range-wide and no efforts for 
their control or eradication are being undertaken. We retained a 
listing priority number of 2 for this species because the threats are 
rangewide and, therefore, of a high magnitude and are ongoing, so are 
imminent.
Ferns and Allies
    Botrychium lineare (Slender moonwort)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files and the petition received 
on July 28, 1999. See also the 12-month petition finding published on 
June 6, 2002 (67 FR 39035). Fourteen populations are currently known to 
exist: One in Alaska (Wrangell County), two in Colorado (El Paso 
County), four in Montana (Glacier County), three in Oregon (Wallowa 
County), one in Washington (Ferry County), one in Wyoming (Crook 
County), one in Alberta, Canada, and one in the Yukon Territory, 
Canada. Collectively, these 14 sites occur over a large area of western 
North America. Three additional populations, two in Nevada and one in 
Idaho, were discovered in surveys conducted in 2001; however, genetic 
analysis indicated that the plants contain B. lineare alleles but they 
are not pure B. lineare individuals. No extant populations are known 
east of the Rocky Mountains. Most sites occupied by B. lineare are 
generally small, with most less than 465 square meters (5,000 square 
feet) in area. Botrychium lineare populations range in size from 2 to 
162 plants, with 6 populations supporting more than 15 individuals. The 
total number of individuals observed at the 14 extant population sites 
varies, with observations ranging from 2 to 100 individuals. Eleven of 
the 12 B. lineare populations in the U.S. occur on Federal or Tribal 
land.
    Most B. lineare sites are impacted by disturbances including 
grazing by native and nonnative animals, trampling from hikers, 
avalanches, and impacts from vehicles. The effects of these various 
disturbances and their relative level of impact in maintaining or 
eliminating habitat have not been investigated for the species. Six of 
the Botrychium lineare sites, one in Alaska, four in Montana, and one 
in Wyoming, are located adjacent to disturbed roadsides or all-terrain 
vehicle trails and may be affected by roadside traffic or by road 
maintenance activities, such as herbicide spraying or mowing. The 
largest known site of B. lineare located along a roadside was sprayed 
in 2000, although impacts on the population are unknown. Toadflax, an 
aggressive, difficult-to-control, nonnative plant, was introduced from 
the Pikes Peak roadway into two B. lineare sites in Colorado. Other 
nonnative plants are associated with B. lineare sites throughout the 
species' range and should be regarded as potential threats to the 
species. Grazing by livestock or wildlife is a potential threat if it 
occurs prior to the maturation and release of spores thus compromising 
the capacity for sexual reproduction of affected plants. Regulatory 
mechanisms may be inadequate to protect this species in Forest Service 
Regions 1 and 4, which include sites found in Montana, Nevada, Utah, 
and Idaho, because in those Regions B. lineare is not included on their 
regional sensitive species lists. Botrychium lineare is not on Canada's 
list of threatened or vulnerable species, so there is no special 
protection for this species in Canada.
    The generally small size of most existing B. lineare populations 
(less than 465 square meters (5,000 square feet)) makes this species 
not only difficult to locate, but also vulnerable to extirpation due to 
random naturally occurring events. A single random environmental event 
could extirpate a portion or all of the individuals at a given site. 
Conversely, the disjunct nature of existing population sites over a 
wide geographic range covering at least six western states and two 
Canadian provinces indicates a high likelihood that additional, 
undetected B. lineare population sites exist. This is especially true 
of the more northern latitudes where the species was until last year, 
not previously located.

[[Page 53823]]

    Because the plant is distributed over a wide range and because the 
species is more difficult to locate than most other plant species, we 
expect that more populations will continue to be discovered in the 
future. Because the species is adapted to some level of disturbance and 
seems to persist in disturbed environments, the threats are not high in 
magnitude. In addition, since most populations (10 of 14) occur on 
Federal lands and are afforded some level of protection, threats are 
currently nonimminent. For these reasons, we assigned a listing 
priority number of 11 to this species.
    Christella boydiae (no common name)--The following summary is based 
on information contained in our files. No new information was provided 
in the petition received on May 11, 2004. This species is a small to 
medium sized fern found in mesic to wet forest along streambanks on 
Oahu and Maui, Hawaii. Historically, this species was also found on the 
island of Hawaii; however, the species has been extirpated from that 
island. Currently, this species is known from three populations with a 
combined total of 362 to 422 individuals. The three populations are 
found in Kipahulu Valley and Waihoi Valley on Maui, and the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu. Current populations survive only at the extreme 
upper elevations of streambanks.
    This species is threatened by feral pigs and goats that degrade 
and/or destroy habitat and that may eat this plant, nonnative plants 
that compete for light and nutrients, man-made stream diversion, and 
erosion. Feral pigs and goats have been fenced out of one of the three 
populations of C. boydiae and nonnative plants have been reduced in the 
fenced area. Although one of the three populations of this species has 
been fenced and weeds are being controlled in the fenced area, no 
conservation efforts are underway to alleviate these threats to the 
other two populations. In addition, no conservation measures have been 
taken to address the threats from stream diversions and erosion 
throughout the range of C. boydiae. The threats to C. boydiae are 
imminent and of a high magnitude because they are ongoing in two of 
only three known populations. Therefore, we retained a listing priority 
number of 2 for this species.
    Doryopteris takeuchii (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Doryopteris 
takeuchii is a small fern found in dry shrubland and grassland on Oahu, 
Hawaii. This newly described species is found only on the island of 
Oahu on the slopes of Diamond Head Crater in one population totaling 
hundreds of individuals. This species is threatened by fire that 
degrades and/or destroys habitat, and nonnative plants that compete for 
light and nutrients. Potential threats to D. takeuchii include human 
trampling and erosion of its steep hillside habitat. The magnitude of 
threats continues to be high because no conservation measures have been 
taken to address them. Threats continue to be imminent because they are 
ongoing and because of the potential for the elimination of the only 
known population by a single stochastic or naturally occurring event. 
We retained a listing priority number of 2 for this species.
    Huperzia stemmermanniae (no common name)--The following summary is 
based on information contained in our files. No new information was 
provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. Waewaeiole is found 
in mesic Metrosideros polymorpha-Acacia koa (ohia-koa) forests on the 
islands of Maui and Hawaii, Hawaii. Only four populations are known, 
totaling less than 20 individuals on Hawaii and Maui. Huperzia 
stemmermanniae is threatened by feral pigs, goats, and cattle that 
degrade and/or destroy habitat, fire, and nonnative plants that compete 
for light, space, and nutrients. The threats to H. stemmermanniae from 
pigs, goats, cattle, fire, and nonnative plants are of a high magnitude 
and imminent because of their severity, they are occurring range-wide, 
no efforts for their control have been undertaken, and they are 
ongoing. Therefore, we retained a listing priority number of 2 for this 
species.
    Microlepia strigosa var. mauiensis (Palapalai)--The following 
summary is based on information contained in our files. No new 
information was provided in the petition received on May 11, 2004. 
Palapalai is a fern found in mesic to wet forests. It is currently 
found only on the island of Maui, where it is known from three 
populations totaling 100 to 200 individuals. Microlepia strigosa var. 
mauiensis is threatened by feral pigs that degrade and destroy habitat, 
nonnative plants that compete for light and nutrients, reduced 
reproductive vigor, and stochastic extinction due to naturally 
occurring events. Feral pigs have been fenced out of at least one area 
on Maui where M. strigosa var. mauiensis currently occurs, and 
nonnative plants have been reduced in the fenced area. However, the 
threats are not controlled and are ongoing in the remaining unfenced 
populations on Maui and all three of the populations on the island of 
Hawaii. Therefore, the threats from feral pigs and nonnative plants are 
of a high magnitude and imminent and we retained a listing priority 
number of 3 for M. strigosa var. mauiensis.

Petitions To Reclassify Species Already Listed

    We previously made warranted-but-precluded findings on five 
petitions seeking to reclassify threatened species to endangered 
status. Because these species are already listed, they are not 
technically candidates for listing and are not included in Table 1. 
However, this notice and associated species assessment forms also 
constitute the resubmitted petition findings for these species. We find 
that reclassification to endangered status for the five species (which 
are listed below) is currently warranted but precluded by work 
identified above (see ``Petition Findings for Candidate Species'' 
above). One of the primary reasons that the work identified above is 
higher priority is that these species are currently listed as 
threatened under the Act, and therefore they already receive certain 
protections under the Act. The Service promulgated regulations 
extending take prohibitions for endangered species under section 9 to 
threatened species (50 CFR 17.31). Prohibited actions under section 9 
include, but are not limited to, take (i.e., harass, harm, pursue, 
hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to 
engage in such activity). Other protections include those under section 
7(a)(2) of the Act whereby Federal agencies must insure that any action 
they authorize, fund, or carry out is not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of any endangered or threatened species.
    (1) North Cascades ecosystem population of the grizzly bear (Ursus 
arctos horribilis) (Region 6) (also see 63 FR 30453, June 4, 1998, and 
the species assessment form (see ADDRESSES) for additional information 
on why reclassification to endangered is warranted-but-precluded)--
Current grizzly bear distribution has been reduced to 5 areas in the 
western U.S., including the North Cascades in north central Washington. 
Populations are estimated to be fewer than 20 animals within the 9,500-
square-mile (sq-mi) (25,000-square-kilometer (sq-km)) North Cascades 
recovery zone. Threats to the species in this recovery zone include 
incomplete habitat protection measures (motorized access management) 
and small population size and population fragmentation that produce 
genetic isolation. We assigned a listing priority

[[Page 53824]]

number of 3 for uplisting to this population because of very low 
population numbers as evidenced by continuing lack of credible 
sightings and little success identifying animals through hair snagging 
and genetic analysis. Information indicating isolation of the 
population in British Columbia and the U.S. limits the chance of 
natural recovery given the small population size. Population 
augmentation may be the only way to recover this population.
    (2) Cabinet-Yaak population of the grizzly bear (Region 6) (see 
also 64 FR 26725, May 17, 1999, and the species assessment form (see 
ADDRESSES) for additional information on why reclassification to 
endangered is warranted-but-precluded) `` Current grizzly bear 
distribution has been reduced to 5 areas in the western U.S., including 
the Cabinet-Yaak in northern Idaho and northwest Montana. Populations 
are estimated to be 30-40 animals within the 2,600-sq-mi (6,700-sq-km) 
Cabinet-Yaak recovery zone. Threats to the species in this recovery 
zone include incomplete habitat protection measures in the form of 
motorized access management, overutilization by human-caused mortality, 
and small population size and population fragmentation that produce 
genetic isolation. We assigned a listing priority number of 3 for 
uplisting to this population due to continuing high levels of human-
caused mortality, new threats to habitat in the form of large-scale 
mine development proposals in the Cabinet Mountains, and the high 
potential for further fragmentation of populations within the recovery 
zone.
    (3) Selkirk grizzly population of the grizzly bear (Region 6) (see 
also 64 FR 26725, May 17, 1999, and the species assessment form (see 
ADDRESSES) for additional information on why reclassification is 
warranted-but-precluded) `` Current grizzly bear distribution has been 
reduced to 5 areas in the western U.S., including the Selkirk Mountains 
in northern Idaho, northeast Washington, and Southeast British 
Columbia. Populations are estimated to be 40-50 animals within the 
2,200 square mile (5,700 square kilometer) Selkirk Mountains recovery 
zone. Threats to the species in this recovery zone include incomplete 
habitat protection measures in the form of motorized access management, 
overutilization in the form of human-caused mortality, and small 
population size and population fragmentation that produce genetic 
isolation. We assigned a listing priority number of 3 for uplisting to 
this population because of continuing high levels of human-caused 
mortality in British Columbia and new genetic information indicating 
the population is isolated and has declined in genetic diversity 
relative to both adjacent populations.
    (4) Spikedace (Meda fulgida) (Region 2) (see 59 FR 35303, July 11, 
1994, and the species assessment form (see ADDRESSES) for additional 
information on why reclassification to endangered is warranted-but-
precluded) `` The spikedace, a small fish species in a monotypic genus, 
is found in moderate-to-large perennial waters, where it inhabits 
shallow riffles with sand, gravel, and rubble substrates, and moderate-
to-swift currents and swift pools over sand or gravel substrates. 
Specific habitat for this species consists of shear zones where rapid 
flow borders slower flow; areas of sheet flow at the upper ends of mid-
channel sand/gravel bars; and eddies at downstream riffle edges. 
Recurrent flooding and a natural hydrograph are very important in 
maintaining the habitat of spikedace and in helping maintain a 
competitive edge over invading nonnative aquatic species.
    The spikedace was once common throughout much of the Gila River 
basin, but it is now restricted to approximately 466 kilometers (289 
miles) of stream in portions of the upper Gila River (Grant, Catron, 
and Hidalgo Counties, New Mexico); middle Gila River (Pinal County, 
Arizona); lower San Pedro River (Pinal County, Arizona); Aravaipa Creek 
(Graham and Pinal Counties, Arizona); Eagle Creek (Graham and Greenlee 
Counties, Arizona); and the Verde River (Yavaipai County, Arizona). Its 
present range is only about 10 to 15 percent of the historic range, and 
the status of the species within occupied areas ranges from common to 
very rare. The species is now common only in Aravaipa Creek in Arizona 
and some parts of the upper Gila River in New Mexico. The reduction in 
the historical distribution of spikedace is largely attributable to the 
continued modification of its habitat and continued interactions with 
nonnative species. These threats occur over the majority of their 
range, to varying degrees. Each of the individual spikedace complexes 
may face unique threats as well. For example, the San Pedro River area 
is experiencing groundwater depletion which is affecting surface flows 
within the river channel, whereas Tonto Creek faces continued grazing 
pressure, recreational use, and dewatering due to diversions. Proposals 
have been made for water exchanges affecting the Verde River in order 
to provide water for growing urban areas. Currently, threats are 
exacerbated by the ongoing drought. While some areas are subjected to 
fewer disturbances or pressures, there are no known habitat areas that 
are completely free of disturbance. Effects from nonnative species 
introductions are permanent, unless streams are actively renovated and/
or barriers installed to preclude further recolonization by nonnatives. 
Federal agencies have reduced grazing pressures by removing cattle from 
the mainstem of most rivers; however, grazing in the uplands continues 
to affect watershed condition. Groundwater withdrawals or exchanges 
that affect streamflow are not reversible. The threats are high in 
magnitude because effects from nonnative species introductions are 
permanent, unless streams are actively renovated and/or barriers 
installed to preclude further recolonization by nonnatives and 
groundwater withdrawals or exchanges that affect streamflow are not 
reversible. Because these high magnitude threats have gone on for many 
years in the past, and are ongoing, the threats are imminent. 
Therefore, we assigned this species a listing priority of 1 for 
uplisting to endangered. Note on December 20, 2005, we published a 
proposed critical habitat rule (70 FR 75545) for this species.
    (5) Loach minnow (Tiaroga cobitis) (Region 2) (see 59 FR 35303, 
July 11, 1994, and the species assessment form (see ADDRESSES) for 
additional information on why reclassification to endangered is 
warranted-but-precluded)--This small fish, the only species within the 
genus, is found in small-to-large perennial streams and uses shallow, 
turbulent riffles with primarily cobble substrate and swift currents. 
The loach minnow uses the spaces between, and in the lee of, larger 
substrate for resting and spawning. It is rare or absent from habitats 
where fine sediments fill the interstitial spaces. Recurrent flooding 
and a natural hydrograph are very important in maintaining the habitat 
of loach minnow and in helping the species maintain a competitive edge 
over invading nonnative aquatic species.
    The loach minnow was once locally common throughout much of the 
Gila River basin, including the mainstem Gila River upstream of 
Phoenix, and the Verde, Salt, San Pedro, and San Francisco subbasins. 
The present range is only 15 to 20 percent of its historic range, and 
the status of the species within occupied areas ranges from common to 
rare. The species is now common only in Aravaipa Creek and the Blue 
River in Arizona, and limited portions of the San Francisco, upper 
Gila, and Tularosa rivers in New

[[Page 53825]]

Mexico. The reduction in the historical distribution of loach minnow is 
largely attributable to the continued modification of its habitat and 
continued interactions with nonnative species. These threats occur over 
the majority of the range, to varying degrees. Each of the individual 
loach minnow complexes may face unique threats as well. For example, 
the San Pedro River area is experiencing groundwater depletion which is 
affecting surface flows within the river channel, whereas Tonto Creek 
faces continued grazing pressure, recreational use, and dewatering due 
to diversions. Proposals have been made for water exchanges affecting 
the Verde River in order to provide water for growing urban areas. 
Currently, threats are exacerbated by the ongoing drought. While some 
areas are subjected to fewer disturbances or pressures, there are no 
known habitat areas that are completely free of disturbance. Effects 
from nonnative species introductions are permanent unless streams are 
actively renovated and/or barriers installed to preclude further 
recolonization by nonnatives. Federal agencies have reduced grazing 
pressures by removing cattle from the mainstem of most rivers; however, 
grazing in the uplands continues to affect watershed condition. 
Groundwater withdrawals or exchanges that affect streamflow are not 
reversible. Most of these high-magnitude threats to the loach minnow 
are already ongoing, in particular grazing, water withdrawals, 
nonnative stocking programs, recreational use, and drought. Because 
threats have gone on for many years in the past, are associated with 
irreversible commitments (e.g., water exchanges), or are not easily 
reversed (e.g., nonnative stocking and impacts from grazing), the 
threats are high in magnitude and imminent. Therefore, we assigned this 
species a listing priority number of 1 for uplisting to endangered. 
Note on December 20, 2005, we published a proposed critical habitat 
rule (70 FR 75545) for this species.

Current Notice of Review

    We gather data on plants and animals native to the U.S. that appear 
to merit consideration for addition to the Lists of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife and Plants. This notice identifies those species 
that we currently regard as candidates for addition to the Lists. These 
candidates include species and subspecies of fish, wildlife, or plants 
and DPSs of vertebrate animals. This compilation relies on information 
from status surveys conducted for candidate assessment and on 
information from State Natural Heritage Programs, other State and 
Federal agencies, knowledgeable scientists, public and private natural 
resource interests, and comments received in response to previous 
notices of review.
    Tables 1 and 2 list animals arranged alphabetically by common names 
under the major group headings and list plants alphabetically by names 
of genera, species, and relevant subspecies and varieties. Animals are 
grouped by class or order. Plants are subdivided into two groups: (1) 
Flowering plants and (2) ferns and their allies. Useful synonyms and 
subgeneric scientific names appear in parentheses with the synonyms 
preceded by an ``equals'' sign. Several species that have not yet been 
formally described in the scientific literature are included; such 
species are identified by a generic or specific name (in italics), 
followed by ``sp.'' or ``ssp.'' We incorporate standardized common 
names in these notices as they become available. We sorted plants by 
scientific name due to the inconsistencies in common names, the 
inclusion of vernacular and composite subspecific names, and the fact 
that many plants still lack a standardized common name.
    Table 1 lists all candidate species and all species proposed for 
listing under the Act. We emphasize that we are not proposing these 
candidate species for listing by this notice, but we anticipate 
developing and publishing proposed listing rules for these species in 
the future. We encourage State agencies, other Federal agencies, and 
other parties to give consideration to these species in environmental 
planning.
    In Table 1, the ``category'' column on the left side of the table 
identifies the status of each species according to the following codes:
    PE--Species proposed for listing as endangered. Proposed species 
are those species for which we have published a proposed rule to list 
as endangered or threatened in the Federal Register. This category does 
not include species for which we have withdrawn or finalized the 
proposed rule.
    PT--Species proposed for listing as threatened.
    PSAT--Species proposed for listing as threatened due to similarity 
of appearance.
    C--Candidates: Species for which we have on file sufficient 
information on biological vulnerability and threats to support 
proposals to list them as endangered or threatened. Issuance of 
proposed rules for these species is precluded at present by other 
higher-priority listing actions. This category includes species for 
which we made a 12-month warranted-but-precluded finding on a petition 
to list. We made new findings on all petitions for which we previously 
made ``warranted-but-precluded'' findings. We identify the species for 
which we made a continued warranted-but-precluded finding on a 
resubmitted petition by the code ``C*'' in the category column (see 
``Findings on Resubmitted Petitions'' section for additional 
information).
    The ``Priority'' column indicates the listing priority number (LPN) 
for each candidate species which we use to determine the most 
appropriate use of our available resources. The lowest numbers have the 
highest priority. We assign LPNs based on the immediacy and magnitude 
of threats as well as on taxonomic status. We published a complete 
description of our listing priority system in the Federal Register (48 
FR 43098, September 21, 1983).
    The third column, ``Lead Region,'' identifies the Regional Office 
to which you should direct comments or questions (see addresses at the 
end of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section).
    Following the scientific name (fourth column) and the family 
designation (fifth column) is the common name (sixth column). The 
seventh column provides the known historical range for the species or 
vertebrate population (for vertebrate populations, this is the 
historical range for the entire species or subspecies and not just the 
historical range for the distinct population segment), indicated by 
postal code abbreviations for States and U.S. territories. Many species 
no longer occur in all of the areas listed.
    Species in Table 2 of this notice are species we included either as 
proposed species or as candidates in the previous CNOR (published May 
11, 2005) that are no longer proposed species or candidates for 
listing. Since May 11, 2005, we added 19 of these species to the Lists 
of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants and removed 14 species 
from candidate status for the reasons indicated by the codes. The first 
column indicates the present status of the species, using the following 
codes (not all of these codes may have been used in this CNOR):
    E--Species we listed as endangered.
    T--Species we listed as threatened.
    Rc--Species we removed from the candidate list because currently 
available information does not support a proposed listing.
    Rp--Species we removed from the candidate list because we have 
withdrawn the proposed listing.
    The second column indicates why we no longer regard the species as 
a candidate or proposed species using the

[[Page 53826]]

following codes (not all of these codes may have been used in this 
CNOR):
    A--Species that are more abundant or widespread than previously 
believed and species that are not subject to the degree of threats 
sufficient to warrant continuing candidate status, or issuing a 
proposed or final listing.
    F--Species whose range no longer includes a U.S. territory.
    I--Species for which we have insufficient information on biological 
vulnerability and threats to support issuance of a proposed rule to 
list.
    L--Species we added to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife and Plants.
    M--Species we mistakenly included as candidates or proposed species 
in the last notice of review.
    N--Species that are not listable entities based on the Act's 
definition of ``species'' and current taxonomic understanding.
    U--Species not subject to the degree of threats sufficient to 
warrant issuance of a proposed listing or continuance of candidate 
status due, in part or totally, to conservation efforts that remove or 
reduce the threats to the species.
    X--Species we believe to be extinct.
    The columns describing lead region, scientific name, family, common 
name, and historical range include information as previously described 
for Table 1.

Request for Information

    We request you submit any further information on the species named 
in this notice as soon as possible or whenever it becomes available. We 
are particularly interested in any information:
    (1) Indicating that we should add a species to the list of 
candidate species;
    (2) indicating that we should remove a species from candidate 
status;
    (3) recommending areas that we should designate as critical habitat 
for a species, or indicating that designation of critical habitat would 
not be prudent for a species;
    (4) documenting threats to any of the included species;
    (5) describing the immediacy or magnitude of threats facing 
candidate species;
    (6) pointing out taxonomic or nomenclature changes for any of the 
species;
    (7) suggesting appropriate common names; and
    (8) noting any mistakes, such as errors in the indicated historical 
ranges.
    Submit your comments regarding a particular species to the Regional 
Director of the Region identified as having the lead responsibility for 
that species. The regional addresses follow:

Region 1. Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, Guam, and 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Regional Director (TE), 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 11th 
Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232-4181 (503/231-6158).
California/Nevada Operations Office (CNO). California and Nevada. 
Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2800 Cottage 
Way, Suite W2606, Sacramento, California 95825.
Region 2. Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Regional Director 
(TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 500 Gold Avenue SW., Room 4012, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102 (505/248-6920).
Region 3. Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, 
and Wisconsin. Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Bishop Henry Whipple Federal Building, One Federal Drive, Fort 
Snelling, Minnesota 55111-4056 (612/713-5334).
Region 4. Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico, 
and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 1875 Century Boulevard, Suite 200, Atlanta, Georgia 
30345 (404/679-4156).
Region 5. Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Regional Director (TE), 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Westgate Center Drive, Hadley, 
Massachusetts 01035-9589 (413/253-8615).
Region 6. Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal Center, Denver, 
Colorado 80225-0486 (303/236-7400).
Region 7. Alaska. Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503-6199 (907/786-
3505).

    We provided comments received in response to the previous CNOR to 
the Region having lead responsibility for each candidate species 
mentioned in the comment. We will likewise consider all information 
provided in response to this CNOR in deciding whether to propose 
species for listing and when to undertake necessary listing actions 
(including whether emergency listing pursuant to section 4(b)(7) of the 
Act is appropriate). Comments we receive will become part of the 
administrative record for the species, which we maintain at the 
appropriate Regional Office.
    Our practice is to make comments, including names and home 
addresses of respondents, available for public review during regular 
business hours. Individual respondents may request that we withhold 
their home addresses from the rulemaking record, which we will honor to 
the extent allowable by law. There also may be circumstances in which 
we would withhold from the record a respondent's identity, as allowable 
by law. If you wish us to withhold your name and/or address, you must 
state this prominently at the beginning of your comment, but you should 
be aware that the Service may be required to disclose your name and 
address pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act. However, we will 
not consider anonymous comments. We will make all submissions from 
organizations or businesses, and from individuals identifying 
themselves as representatives or officials of organizations or 
businesses, available for public inspection in their entirety.

    Authority: This notice is published under the authority of the 
Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

    Dated: August 23, 2006.
Marshall Jones,
Director, Fish and Wildlife Service.

[[Page 53827]]



                            Table 1.--Candidate Notice of Review (Animals and Plants)
         [Note: See end of SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for an explanation of symbols used in this table.]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Status
--------------------------  Lead  region    Scientific name       Family          Common name     Historic range
   Category      Priority
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     MAMMALS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          3  R1............  Emballonura       Emballonuridae..  Bat, Pacific      U.S.A. (GU,
                                            semicaudata                         sheath-tailed     CNMI).
                                            rotensis.                           (Mariana
                                                                                Islands
                                                                                subspecies).
C*............          3  R1............  Emballonura       Emballonuridae..  Bat, Pacific      U.S.A. (AS),
                                            semicaudata                         sheath-tailed     Fiji,
                                            semicaudata.                        (American Samoa   Independent
                                                                                DPS).             Samoa, Tonga,
                                                                                                  Vanuatu.
C*............          2  R5............  Sylvilagus        Leporidae.......  Cottontail, New   U.S.A. (CT, MA,
                                            transitionalis.                     England.          ME, NH, NY,
                                                                                                  RI, VT).
C*............          6  CNO...........  Martes pennanti.  Mustelidae......  Fisher (west      U.S.A. (CA, CT,
                                                                                coast DPS).       IA, ID, IL,
                                                                                                  IN, KY, MA,
                                                                                                  MD, ME, MI,
                                                                                                  MN, MT, ND,
                                                                                                  NH, NJ, NY,
                                                                                                  OH, OR, PA,
                                                                                                  RI, TN, UT,
                                                                                                  VA, VT, WA,
                                                                                                  WI, WV, WY),
                                                                                                  Canada.
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,     U.S.A. (WA).
                                            couchi.                             Mazama
                                                                                (Shelton).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            glacialis.                          Mazama (Roy
                                                                                Prairie).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            louiei.                             Mazama
                                                                                (Cathlamet).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            melanops.                           Mazama
                                                                                (Olympic).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            pugetensis.                         Mazama
                                                                                (Olympia).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            tacomensis.                         Mazama (Tacoma).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            tumuli.                             Mazama (Tenino).
C*............          3  R1............  Thomomys mazama   Geomyidae.......  Pocket gopher,    U.S.A. (WA).
                                            yelmensis.                          Mazama (Yelm).
C*............          3  CNO...........  Spermophilus      Sciuridae.......  Squirrel, Palm     U.S.A. (CA).
                                            tereticaudus                        Springs (=
                                            chlorus.                            Coachella
                                                                                Valley) round-
                                                                                tailed ground.
C*............          9  R1............  Spermophilus      Sciuridae.......  Squirrel,         U.S.A. (ID).
                                            brunneus                            Southern Idaho
                                            endemicus.                          ground.
C*............          5  R1............  Spermophilus      Sciuridae.......  Squirrel,         U.S.A. (WA,
                                            washingtoni.                        Washington        OR).
                                                                                ground.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      BIRDS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          3  R1............  Porzana           Rallidae........  Crake, spotless   U.S.A. (AS),
                                            tabuensis.                          (American Samoa   Australia,
                                                                                DPS).             Fiji,
                                                                                                  Independent
                                                                                                  Samoa,
                                                                                                  Marquesas,
                                                                                                  Philippines,
                                                                                                  Society
                                                                                                  Islands,
                                                                                                  Tonga.
C*............          2  R1............  Oreomystis        Fringillidae....  Creeper, Kauai..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            bairdi.
C*............          3  CNO...........  Coccyzus          Cuculidae.......  Cuckoo, yellow-   U.S.A. (Lower
                                            americanus.                         billed (Western   48 States),
                                                                                U.S. DPS).        Canada,
                                                                                                  Mexico,
                                                                                                  Central and
                                                                                                  South America.
C*............          6  R1............  Gallicolumba      Columbidae......  Ground-dove,      U.S.A. (AS),
                                            stairi.                             friendly          Independent
                                                                                (American Samoa   Samoa.
                                                                                DPS).
C*............          3  R1............  Eremophila        Alaudidae.......  Horned lark,      U.S.A. (OR,
                                            alpestris                           streaked.         WA), Canada
                                            strigata.                                             (BC).
C*............          6  R5............  Calidris canutus  Scolopacidae....  Knot, red.......  U.S.A.
                                            rufa.                                                 (Atlantic
                                                                                                  coast),
                                                                                                  Canada, South
                                                                                                  America.
C*............          5  R7............  Brachyramphus     Alcidae.........  Murrelet,         U.S.A. (AK),
                                            brevirostris.                       Kittlitz's.       Russia.
C*............          2  CNO...........  Synthliboramphus  Alcidae.........  Murrelet,         U.S.A. (CA),
                                            hypoleucus.                         Xantus's.         Mexico.
C*............          8  R2............  Tympanuchus       Phasianidae.....  Prairie-chicken,  U.S.A. (CO, KA,
                                            pallidicinctus.                     lesser.           NM, OK, TX).
C*............          6  R1............  Centrocercus      Phasianidae.....  Sage-grouse,      U.S.A. (AZ, CA,
                                            urophasianus.                       greater           CO, ID, MT,
                                                                                (Columbia Basin   ND, NE, NV,
                                                                                DPS).             OR, SD, UT,
                                                                                                  WA, WY),
                                                                                                  Canada (AB,
                                                                                                  BC, SK).

[[Page 53828]]

 
C*............          3  R1............  Oceanodroma       Hydrobatidae....  Storm-petrel,     U.S.A. (HI),
                                            castro.                             band-rumped       Atlantic
                                                                                (Hawaii DPS).     Ocean, Ecuador
                                                                                                  (Galapagos
                                                                                                  Islands),
                                                                                                  Japan.
C*............          5  R4............  Dendroica         Emberizidae.....  Warbler, elfin    U.S.A. (PR).
                                            angelae.                            woods.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    REPTILES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          2  R2............  Sceloporus        Iguanidae.......  Lizard, sand      U.S.A. (TX,
                                            arenicolus.                         dune.             NM).
C*............          9  R3............  Sistrurus         Viperidae.......  Massasauga        U.S.A. (IA, IL,
                                            catenatus                           (=rattlesnake),   IN, MI, MO,
                                            catenatus.                          eastern.          MN, NY, OH,
                                                                                                  PA, WI),
                                                                                                  Canada.
C*............          3  R4............  Pituophis         Colubridae......  Snake, black      U.S.A. (AL, LA,
                                            melanoleucus                        pine.             MS).
                                            lodingi.
C*............          8  R4............  Pituophis         Colubridae......  Snake, Louisiana  U.S.A. (LA,
                                            ruthveni.                           pine.             TX).
C*............          3  R2............  Kinosternon       Kinosternidae...  Turtle, Sonoyta   U.S.A. (AZ),
                                            sonoriense                          mud.              Mexico.
                                            longifemorale.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   AMPHIBIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          3  CNO...........  Rana              Ranidae.........  Frog, Columbia    U.S.A. (AK, ID,
                                            luteiventris.                       spotted (Great    MT, NV, OR,
                                                                                Basin DPS).       UT, WA, WY),
                                                                                                  Canada (BC).
C*............          3  CNO...........  Rana muscosa....  Ranidae.........  Frog, mountain    U.S.A. (CA,
                                                                                yellow-legged     NV).
                                                                                (Sierra Nevada
                                                                                DPS).
C*............          2  R1............  Rana pretiosa...  Ranidae.........  Frog, Oregon      U.S.A. (CA, OR,
                                                                                spotted.          WA), Canada
                                                                                                  (BC).
C*............         11  CNO...........  Rana onca.......  Ranidae.........  Frog, relict      U.S.A. (AZ, NV,
                                                                                leopard.          UT).
C*............          3  R3............  Cryptobranchus    Crytobranchidae.  Hellbender,       U.S.A. (AR,
                                            alleganiensis                       Ozark.            MO).
                                            bishopi.
C*............          2  R2............  Eurycea           Plethodontidae..  Salamander,       U.S.A. (TX).
                                            waterlooensis.                      Austin blind.
C*............          2  R2............  Eurycea           Plethodontidae..  Salamander,       U.S.A. (TX).
                                            naufragia.                          Georgetown.
C*............          2  R2............  Eurycea           Plethodontidae..  Salamander,       U.S.A. (TX).
                                            chisholmensis.                      Salado.
C*............         11  CNO...........  Bufo canorus....  Bufonidae.......  Toad, Yosemite..  U.S.A. (CA).
C*............          2  R4............  Necturus          Proteidae.......  Waterdog, black   U.S.A. (AL).
                                            alabamensis.                        warrior
                                                                                (=Sipsey Fork).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     FISHES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PE............          3  CNO...........  Gila bicolor      Cyprinidae......  Chub, Cowhead     U.S.A. (CA).
                                            vaccaceps.                          Lake tui.
C*............          2  R2............  Gila nigra......  Cyprinidae......  Chub, headwater.  U.S.A. (AZ,
                                                                                                  NM).
C*............         11  R6............  Etheostoma        Percidae........  Darter, Arkansas  U.S.A. (AR, CO,
                                            cragini.                                              KS, MO, OK).
C*............          5  R4............  Etheostoma        Percidae........  Darter,           U.S.A. (KY,
                                            susanae.                            Cumberland.       TN).
C*............          5  R4............  Percina aurora..  Percidae........  Darter, Pearl...  U.S.A. (LA,
                                                                                                  MS).
C*............          2  R4............  Etheostoma        Percidae........  Darter, rush....  U.S.A. (AL).
                                            phytophilum.
C*............          2  R4............  Etheostoma        Percidae........  Darter,           U.S.A. (AR).
                                            moorei.                             yellowcheek.
C*............          3  R6............  Thymallus         Salmonidae......  Grayling,         U.S.A. (MT,
                                            arcticus.                           Fluvial arctic    WY).
                                                                                (upper Missouri
                                                                                River DPS).
C*............          2  R4............  Noturus           Ictaluridae.....  Madtom, chucky..  U.S.A. (TN).
                                            crypticus.
C.............          5  R4............  Moxostoma sp....  Catostomidae....  Redhorse,         U.S.A. (GA, NC,
                                                                                sicklefin.        TN).
C*............          2  R3............  Cottus sp.......  Cottidae........  Sculpin, grotto.  U.S.A. (MO).
C*............          5  R2............  Notropis          Cyprinidae......  Shiner,           U.S.A. (TX).
                                            oxyrhynchus.                        sharpnose.
C*............          5  R2............  Notropis buccula  Cyprinidae......  Shiner, smalleye  U.S.A. (TX).
C*............          3  R2............  Catostomus        Catostomidae....  Sucker, Zuni      U.S.A. (AZ,
                                            discobolus                          bluehead.         NM).
                                            yarrowi.
PSAT..........        N/A  R1............  Salvelinus malma  Salmonidae......  Trout, Dolly      U.S.A. (AK,
                                                                                Varden.           WA), Canada,
                                                                                                  East Asia.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      CLAMS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          5  R4............  Villosa           Unionidae.......  Bean, Choctaw...  U.S.A. (AL,
                                            choctawensis.                                         FL).
C.............          2  R3............  Villosa fabalis.  Unionidae.......  Bean, rayed.....  U.S.A. (IL, IN,
                                                                                                  KY, MI, NY,
                                                                                                  OH, TN, PA,
                                                                                                  VA, WV),
                                                                                                  Canada (ON).
C.............          2  R4............  Fusconaia         Unionidae.......  Ebonyshell,       U.S.A. (AL,
                                            (=Obovaria)                         round.            FL).
                                            rotulata.
C*............          2  R2............  Popenaias popei.  Unionidae.......  Hornshell, Texas  U.S.A. (NM,
                                                                                                  TX), Mexico.

[[Page 53829]]

 
C*............          5  R4............  Ptychobranchus    Unionidae.......  Kidneyshell,      U.S.A. (AL, KY,
                                            subtentum.                          fluted.           TN, VA).
C.............          2  R4............  Ptychobranchus    Unionidae.......  Kidneyshell,      U.S.A. (AL,
                                            jonesi.                             southern.         FL).
C*............          5  R4............  Lampsilis         Unionidae.......  Mucket, Neosho..  U.S.A. (AR, KS,
                                            rafinesqueana.                                        MO, OK).
C.............          2  R3............  Plethobasus       Unionidae.......  Mussel,           U.S.A. (AL, IA,
                                            cyphyus.                            sheepnose.        IL, IN, KY,
                                                                                                  MN, MO, MS,
                                                                                                  OH, PA, TN,
                                                                                                  VA, WI, WV).
C*............          2  R4............  Margaritifera     Margaritiferidae  Pearlshell,       U.S.A. (AL).
                                            marrianae.                          Alabama.
C*............          5  R4............  Lexingtonia       Unionidae.......  Pearlymussel,     U.S.A. (AL, KY,
                                            dolabelloides.                      slabside.         TN, VA).
C.............          5  R4............  Pleurobema        Unionidae.......  Pigtoe, fuzzy...  U.S.A. (AL,
                                            strodeanum.                                           FL).
C*............          2  R4............  Pleurobema        Unionidae.......  Pigtoe, Georgia.  U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                            hanleyanum.                                           TN).
C.............          5  R4............  Fusconaia         Unionidae.......  Pigtoe, narrow..  U.S.A. (AL,
                                            escambia.                                             FL).
C.............         11  R4............  Quincuncina       Unionidae.......  Pigtoe, tapered.  U.S.A. (AL,
                                            burkei.                                               FL).
C.............          5  R4............  Hamiota           Unionidae.......  Sandshell,        U.S.A. (AL,
                                            (=Lampsilis)                        southern.         FL).
                                            australis.
C.............          4  R3............  Cumberlandia      Margaritiferidae  Spectaclecase...  U.S.A. (AL, AR,
                                            monodonta.                                            IA, IN, IL,
                                                                                                  KS, KY, MO,
                                                                                                  MN, NE, OH,
                                                                                                  TN, VA, WI,
                                                                                                  WV).
C*............          2  R4............  Elliptio spinosa  Unionidae.......  Spinymussel,      U.S.A. (GA).
                                                                                Altamaha.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     SNAILS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C.............          2  R4............  Pleurocera        Pleuroceridae...  Hornsnail, rough  U.S.A. (AL).
                                            foremani.
C.............          2  R4............  Elimia            Pleuroceridae...  Mudalia, black..  U.S.A. (AL).
                                            melanoides.
C*............          9  R6............  Oreohelix         Oreohelicidae...  Mountainsnail,    U.S.A. (UT).
                                            peripherica                         Ogden.
                                            wasatchensis.
C*............          8  R6............  Stagnicola        Lymnaeidae......  Pondsnail,        U.S.A. (UT).
                                            bonnevillensis.                     Bonneville.
C*............          2  R4............  Leptoxis          Pleuroceridae...  Rocksnail,        U.S.A. (GA,
                                            foremani                            Interrupted       AL).
                                            (=downei).                          (=Georgia).
C*............          2  R1............  Ostodes           Potaridae.......  Sisi snail......  U.S.A. (AS).
                                            strigatus.
C*............          2  R2............  Pseudotryonia     Hydrobiidae.....  Snail, Diamond Y  U.S.A. (TX).
                                            adamantina.                         Spring.
C*............          2  R1............  Samoana fragilis  Partulidae......  Snail, fragile    U.S.A. (GU,
                                                                                tree.             MP).
C*............          2  R1............  Partula           Partulidae......  Snail, Guam tree  U.S.A. (GU).
                                            radiolata.
C*............          2  R1............  Partula gibba...  Partulidae......  Snail, Humped     U.S.A. (GU,
                                                                                tree.             MP).
C*............          2  R1............  Partulina         Achatinellidae..  Snail, Lanai      U.S.A. (HI).
                                            semicarinata.                       tree.
C*............          2  R1............  Partulina         Achatinellidae..  Snail, Lanai      U.S.A. (HI).
                                            variabilis.                         tree.
C*............          2  R1............  Partula           Partulidae......  Snail,            U.S.A. (MP).
                                            langfordi.                          Langford's tree.
C*............          2  R2............  Cochliopa texana  Hydrobiidae.....  Snail, Phantom    U.S.A. (TX).
                                                                                cave.
C*............          2  R1............  Eua zebrina.....  Partulidae......  Snail, Tutuila    U.S.A. (AS).
                                                                                tree.
C*............          2  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (NM).
                                            chupaderae.                         Chupadera.
C*............          2  CNO...........  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (NV).
                                            notidicola.                         elongate mud
                                                                                meadows.
C*............         11  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (NM).
                                            gilae.                              Gila.
C*............          2  R2............  Tryonia           Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (TX).
                                            circumstriata                       Gonzales.
                                            (=stocktonensis
                                            ).
C*............          5  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (AZ),
                                            thompsoni.                          Huachuca.         Mexico.
C*............         11  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail, New  U.S.A. (NM).
                                            thermalis.                          Mexico.
C*............          5  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (AZ).
                                            morrisoni.                          Page.
C*............          2  R2............  Tryonia cheatumi  Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail       U.S.A. (TX).
                                                                                (=Tryonia),
                                                                                Phantom.
C*............          2  R2............  Pyrgulopsis       Hydrobiidae.....  Springsnail,      U.S.A. (AZ).
                                            trivialis.                          Three Forks.
C*............          2  R1............  Newcombia         Achatinellidae..  Tree snail,       U.S.A. (HI)
                                            cumingi.                            Newcomb's.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     INSECTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............         11  R6............  Zaitzevia         Elmidae.........  Beetle, Warm      U.S.A. (MT).
                                            thermae.                            Springs
                                                                                Zaitzevian
                                                                                riffle.
C*............          8  R1............  Nysius            Lygaeidae.......  Bug, Wekiu......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            wekiuicola.
C.............          3  R4............  Anaea troglodyta  Nymphalidae.....  Butterfly,        U.S.A. (FL).
                                            floridalis.                         Florida
                                                                                leafwing.
C*............          3  R1............  Hypolimnas        Nymphalidae.....  Butterfly,        U.S.A. (GU,
                                            octucula                            Mariana eight-    MP).
                                            mariannensis.                       spot.
C*............          2  R1............  Vagrans egestina  Nymphalidae.....  Butterfly,        U.S.A. (GU,
                                                                                Mariana           MP).
                                                                                wandering.
C*............          6  R4............  Cyclargus         Lycaenidae......  Butterfly, Miami  U.S.A. (FL),
                                            thomasi                             blue.             Bahamas.
                                            bethunebakeri.
C*............          5  R4............  Glyphopsyche      Limnephilidae...  Caddisfly,        U.S.A. (TN).
                                            sequatchie.                         Sequatchie.
C.............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s insularis.                        Baker Station
                                                                                (=insular).

[[Page 53830]]

 
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s major.                            beaver.
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s caecus.                           Clifton.
C.............         11  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s colemanensis.                     Coleman.
C.............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s fowlerae.                         Fowler's.
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s frigidus.                         icebox.
C.............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s tiresias.                         Indian Grave
                                                                                Point
                                                                                (=Soothsayer).
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s inquisitor.                       inquirer.
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s troglodytes.                      Louisville.
C.............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (TN).
                                            s paulus.                           Noblett's.
C*............         11  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s inexpectatus.                     surprising.
C*............          5  R4............  Pseudanophthalmu  Carabidae.......  Cave beetle,      U.S.A. (KY).
                                            s parvus.                           Tatum.
C*............          3  R1............  Euphydryas        Nymphalidae.....  Checkerspot,      U.S.A. (OR,
                                            editha taylori.                     Taylor's          WA), Canada
                                                                                (=Whulge).        (BC).
C*............          9  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            nigrohamatum                        blackline
                                            nigro- lineatum.                    Hawaiian.
C*............          2  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            leptodemas.                         crimson
                                                                                Hawaiian.
C*............          2  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            nesiotes.                           flying earwig
                                                                                Hawaiian.
C*............          2  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            oceanicum.                          oceanic
                                                                                Hawaiian.
C*............          8  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            xanthomelas.                        orangeblack
                                                                                Hawaiian.
C*............          2  R1............  Megalagrion       Coenagrionidae..  Damselfly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                            pacificum.                          Pacific
                                                                                Hawaiian.
C.............          3  R4............  Strymon acis      Lycaenidae......  Hairstreak,       U.S.A. (FL).
                                            bartrami.                           Bartram's.
C.............          5  CNO...........  Ambrysus          Naucoridae......  Naucorid bug      U.S.A. (CA).
                                            funebris.                           (=Furnace
                                                                                Creek), Nevares
                                                                                Spring.
C*............          2  R1............  Drosophila        Drosophilidae...  fly, Picture-     U.S.A. (HI).
                                            attigua.                            wing.
C*............          2  R1............  Drosophila        Drosophilidae...  fly, Picture-     U.S.A. (HI).
                                            digressa.                           wing [unnamed].
C*............          5  R2............  Heterelmis        Elmidae.........  Riffle beetle,    U.S.A. (AZ).
                                            stephani.                           Stephan's.
C*............         11  R3............  Hesperia dacotae  Hesperiidae.....  Skipper, Dakota.  U.S.A. (MN, IA,
                                                                                                  SD, ND, IL),
                                                                                                  Canada.
C*............          5  R1............  Polites mardon..  Hesperiidae.....  Skipper, Mardon.  U.S.A. (CA, OR,
                                                                                                  WA).
C*............          9  R6............  Cicindela         Cicindelidae....  Tiger beetle,     U.S.A. (UT).
                                            limbata                             Coral Pink Sand
                                            albissima.                          Dunes.
C*............          5  R4............  Cicindela         Cicindelidae....  Tiger beetle,     U.S.A. (FL).
                                            highlandensis.                      highlands.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    ARACHNIDS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          2  R2............  Cicurina wartoni  Dictynidae......  Meshweaver,       U.S.A. (TX).
                                                                                Warton's cave.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   CRUSTACEANS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C.............          2  R2............  Gammarus          Gammaridae......  Amphipod,         U.S.A. (TX).
                                            hyalleloides.                       diminutive.
C*............          5  R1............  Metabetaeus       Alpheidae.......  Shrimp,           U.S.A. (HI).
                                            lohena.                             anchialine pool.
C*............          5  R1............  Palaemonella      Palaemonidae....  Shrimp,           U.S.A. (HI).
                                            burnsi.                             anchialine pool.
C*............          5  R1............  Procaris          Procarididae....  Shrimp,           U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hawaiana.                           anchialine pool.
C*............          4  R1............  Vetericaris       Procaridae......  Shrimp,           U.S.A. (HI).
                                            chaceorum.                          anchialine pool.
C*............          5  R4............  Typhlatya monae.  Atyidae.........  Shrimp,           U.S.A. (PR),
                                                                                troglobitic       Barbuda,
                                                                                groundwater.      Dominican
                                                                                                  Republic.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 53831]]

 
                                                FLOWERING PLANTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............          8  CNO...........  Abronia alpina..  Nyctaginaceae...  Sand-verbena,     U.S.A. (CA).
                                                                                Ramshaw Meadows.
C*............          8  R4............  Arabis georgiana  Brassicaceae....  Rockcress,        U.S.A. (AL,
                                                                                Georgia.          GA).
C*............         11  R4............  Argythamnia       Euphorbiaceae...  Silverbush,       U.S.A. (FL).
                                            blodgettii.                         Blodgett's.
C*............          3  R1............  Artemisia         Asteraceae......  Wormwood,         U.S.A. (OR,
                                            campestris var.                     northern.         WA).
                                            wormskioldii.
C*............          2  R1............  Astelia           Liliaceae.......  Pa[revaps]iniu..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            waialealae.
C*............         11  R6............  Astragalus        Fabaceae........  Milk-vetch,       U.S.A. (CO).
                                            tortipes.                           Sleeping Ute.
C*............          2  R1............  Bidens            Asteraceae......  Ko[revaps]oko[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            amplectens.                         vaps]olau.
C*............          3  R1............  Bidens            Asteraceae......  Ko[revaps]oko[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            campylotheca                        vaps]olau.
                                            pentamera.
C*............          6  R1............  Bidens            Asteraceae......  Ko[revaps]oko[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            campylotheca                        vaps]olau.
                                            waihoiensis.
C*............          8  R1............  Bidens conjuncta  Asteraceae......  Ko[revaps]oko[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                                                                vaps]olau.
C*............          3  R1............  Bidens micrantha  Asteraceae......  Ko[revaps]oko[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            ctenophylla.                        vaps]olau.
C*............          8  R4............  Brickellia        Asteraceae......  Brickell-bush,    U.S.A. (FL).
                                            mosieri.                            Florida.
C*............          2  R1............  Calamagrostis     Poaceae.........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            expansa.
C*............          2  R1............  Calamagrostis     Poaceae.........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hillebrandii.
C*............          5  R4............  Calliandra        Mimosaceae......  No common name..  U.S.A. (PR).
                                            locoensis.
C*............          5  CNO...........  Calochortus       Liliaceae.......  Mariposa lily,    U.S.A. (CA,
                                            persistens.                         Siskiyou.         OR).
C*............          5  R4............  Calyptranthes     Myrtaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (PR).
                                            estremerae.
C*............          2  R1............  Canavalia         Fabaceae........  [revaps]Awikiwik  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            napaliensis.                        i.
C*............          2  R1............  Canavalia         Fabaceae........  [revaps]Awikiwik  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            pubescens.                          i.
C*............          8  R1............  Castilleja        Scrophulariaceae  Paintbrush,       U.S.A. (ID).
                                            christii.                           Christ's.
C*............          6  R4............  Chamaecrista      Fabaceae........  Pea, Big Pine     U.S.A. (FL).
                                            lineata var.                        partridge.
                                            keyensis.
C*............         12  R4............  Chamaesyce        Euphorbiaceae...  Sandmat,          U.S.A. (FL).
                                            deltoidea                           pineland.
                                            pinetorum.
C*............          6  R4............  Chamaesyce        Euphorbiaceae...  Spurge, wedge...  U.S.A. (FL).
                                            deltoidea
                                            serpyllum.
C*............          2  R1............  Chamaesyce        Euphorbiaceae...  [revaps]Akoko...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            eleanoriae.
C*............          3  R1............  Chamaesyce remyi  Euphorbiaceae...  [revaps]Akoko...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            var. kauaiensis.
C*............          3  R1............  Chamaesyce remyi  Euphorbiaceae...  [revaps]Akoko...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            var. remyi.
C*............          2  R1............  Charpentiera      Amaranthaceae...  Papala..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            densiflora.
C*............          6  CNO...........  Chorizanthe       Polygonaceae....  Spineflower, San  U.S.A. (CA).
                                            parryi var.                         Fernando Valley.
                                            fernandina.
C*............          2  R4............  Chromolaena       Asteraceae......  Thoroughwort,     U.S.A. (FL).
                                            frustrata.                          Cape Sable.
C*............          2  R4............  Consolea          Cactaceae.......  Cactus, Florida   U.S.A. (FL).
                                            corallicola.                        semaphore.
C*............          2  R4............  Cordia rupicola.  Boraginaceae....  No common name..  U.S.A. (PR),
                                                                                                  Anegada.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea            Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            asplenifolia.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea calycina.  Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea            Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            eleeleensis.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea kuhihewa.  Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea kunthiana  Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea            Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            lanceolata.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea obtusa...  Campanulaceae...  Haha............  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Cyanea            Campanulaceae...  Aku.............  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            tritomantha.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyrtandra         Gesneriaceae....  Ha[revaps]iwale.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            filipes.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyrtandra         Gesneriaceae....  Ha[revaps]iwale.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            kaulantha.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyrtandra         Gesneriaceae....  Ha[revaps]iwale.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            oenobarba.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyrtandra         Gesneriaceae....  Ha[revaps]iwale.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            oxybapha.
C*............          2  R1............  Cyrtandra         Gesneriaceae....  Ha[revaps]iwale.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            sessilis.
C*............          9  R4............  Dalea             Fabaceae........  Prairie-clover,   U.S.A. (FL).
                                            carthagenensis                      Florida.
                                            floridana.
C*............          5  R5............  Dichanthelium     Poaceae.........  Panic grass,      U.S.A. (DE, GA,
                                            hirstii.                            Hirsts'.          NC, NJ).
C*............          5  R4............  Digitaria         Poaceae.........  Crabgrass,        U.S.A. (FL).
                                            pauciflora.                         Florida
                                                                                pineland.
C*............          3  R1............  Dubautia          Asteraceae......  Na[revaps]ena[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            imbricata                           vaps]e.
                                            imbricata.
C*............          3  R1............  Dubautia          Asteraceae......  Na[revaps]ena[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            plantaginea                         vaps]e.
                                            magnifolia.
C*............          2  R1............  Dubautia          Asteraceae......  Na[revaps]ena[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            waialealae.                         vaps]e.

[[Page 53832]]

 
C*............          6  R2............  Echinomastus      Cactaceae.......  Cactus, Acuna...  U.S.A. (AZ),
                                            erectocentrus                                         Mexico.
                                            var. acunensis.
C*............          8  R2............  Erigeron          Asteraceae......  Fleabane, Lemmon  U.S.A. (AZ).
                                            lemmonii.
C*............         11  R1............  Erigeron          Asteraceae......  Daisy, basalt...  U.S.A. (WA).
                                            basalticus.
C*............          2  R1............  Eriogonum codium  Polygonaceae....  Buckwheat,        U.S.A. (WA).
                                                                                Umtanum Desert.
C.............          2  CNO...........  Eriogonum         Polygonaceae....  Buckwheat,        U.S.A (NV).
                                            diatomaceum.                        Churchill
                                                                                Narrows.
C*............          5  CNO...........  Eriogonum         Polygonaceae....  Buckwheat, Red    U.S.A. (CA).
                                            kelloggii.                          Mountain.
C*............          2  R1............  Festuca           Poaceae.........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hawaiiensis.
C*............         11  R2............  Festuca ligulata  Poaceae.........  Guadalupe fescue  U.S.A. (TX),
                                                                                                  Mexico.
C*............          2  R1............  Gardenia remyi..  Rubiaceae.......  Nanu............  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          5  R1............  Geranium          Geraniaceae.....  Nohoanu.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hanaense.
C*............          8  R1............  Geranium          Geraniaceae.....  Nohoanu.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hillebrandii.
C*............          5  R1............  Geranium          Geraniaceae.....  Nohoanu.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            kauaiense.
C*............          5  R4............  Gonocalyx         Ericaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (PR).
                                            concolor.
C.............          5  R4............  Harrisia          Cactaceae.......  Pricklyapple,     U.S.A. (FL)
                                            aboriginum.                         aboriginal
                                                                                (shell mound
                                                                                applecactus).
C*............          5  CNO...........  Hazardia          Asteraceae......  Orcutt's          U.S.A. (CA),
                                            orcuttii.                           hazardia.         Mexico.
C*............          2  R1............  Hedyotis          Rubiaceae.......  Kampua[revaps]a.  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            fluviatilis.
C*............         11  R4............  Helianthus        Asteraceae......  Sunflower,        U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                            verticillatus.                      whorled.          TN).
C*............          5  R2............  Hibiscus          Malvaceae.......  Rose-mallow,      U.S.A. (TX).
                                            dasycalyx.                          Neches River.
C*............          9  R4............  Indigofera        Fabaceae........  Indigo, Florida.  U.S.A. (FL).
                                            mucronata
                                            keyensis.
C.............          2  R6............  Ipomopsis         Polemoniaceae...  Skyrocket,        U.S.A. (CO).
                                            polyantha.                          Pagosa.
C*............          5  CNO...........  Ivesia webberi..  Rosaceae........  Ivesia, Webber..  U.S.A. (CA,
                                                                                                  NV).
C*............          3  R1............  Joinvillea        Joinvilleaceae..  [revaps]Ohe.....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            ascendens
                                            ascendens.
C*............          2  R1............  Keysseria         Asteraceae......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            (=Lagenifera)
                                            erici.
C*............          2  R1............  Keysseria         Asteraceae......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            (=Lagenifera)
                                            helenae.
C*............          2  R1............  Korthalsella      Viscaceae.......  Hulumoa.........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            degeneri.
C*............          2  R1............  Labordia helleri  Loganiaceae.....  Kamakahala......  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Labordia pumila.  Loganiaceae.....  Kamakahala......  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          5  R4............  Leavenworthia     Brassicaceae....  Gladecress,       U.S.A. (AL).
                                            crassa.                             unnamed.
C*............          2  R2............  Leavenworthia     Brassicaceae....  Gladecress,       U.S.A. (TX).
                                            texana.                             Texas golden.
C*............          5  R4............  Lesquerella       Brassicaceae....  Bladderpod,       U.S.A. (IN, KY,
                                            globosa.                            Short's.          TN).
C*............          2  R4............  Linum arenicola.  Linaceae........  Flax, sand......  U.S.A. (FL).
C*............          3  R4............  Linum carteri     Linaceae........  Flax, Carter's    U.S.A. (FL).
                                            var. carteri.                       small-flowered.
C*............          2  R1............  Lysimachia        Primulaceae.....  Lehua makanoe...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            daphnoides.
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope          Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            christopherseni
                                            i.
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope          Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            degeneri.
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope hiiakae  Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope makahae  Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope          Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            paniculata.
C*............          2  R1............  Melicope          Rutaceae........  Alani...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            puberula.
C*............          2  R1............  Myrsine           Myrsinaceae.....  Kolea...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            fosbergii.
C*............          2  R1............  Myrsine mezii...  Myrsinaceae.....  Kolea...........  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Myrsine           Myrsinaceae.....  Kolea...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            vaccinioides.
C*............          8  R5............  Narthecium        Liliaceae.......  Asphodel, bog...  U.S.A. (DE, NC,
                                            americanum.                                           NJ, NY, SC).
C*............          2  R1............  Nothocestrum      Solanaceae......  [revaps]Aiea....  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            latifolium.
C*............          2  R1............  Ochrosia          Apocynaceae.....  Holei...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            haleakalae.
C*............          3  R2............  Pediocactus       Cactaceae.......  Cactus,           U.S.A. (AZ).
                                            peeblesianus                        Fickeisen
                                            fickeiseniae.                       plains.
C*............          2  R6............  Penstemon         Scrophulariaceae  Beardtongue,      U.S.A. (CO).
                                            debilis.                            Parachute.
PT............          2  R6............  Penstemon         Scrophulariaceae  Beardtongue,      U.S.A. (CO,
                                            grahamii.                           Graham.           UT).
C*............          6  R6............  Penstemon         Scrophulariaceae  Beardtongue,      U.S.A. (CO,
                                            scariosus var.                      White River.      UT).
                                            albifluvis.
C*............          2  R1............  Peperomia         Piperaceae......  [revaps]Ala       U.S.A. (HI).
                                            subpetiolata.                       [revaps]ala wai
                                                                                nui.
C.............          2  CNO...........  Phacelia          Hydrophyllaceae.  Brand's phacelia  U.S.A. (CA),
                                            stellaris.                                            Mexico.
C*............          8  R6............  Phacelia          Hydrophyllaceae.  Phacelia,         U.S.A. (CO).
                                            submutica.                          DeBeque.
C*............          2  R1............  Phyllostegia      Lamiaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            bracteata.
C*............          2  R1............  Phyllostegia      Lamiaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            floribunda.

[[Page 53833]]

 
C*............          2  R1............  Phyllostegia      Lamiaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hispida.
C*............          5  R1............  Physaria          Brassicaceae....  Bladderpod,       U.S.A. (WA).
                                            (=Lesquerella)                      White Bluffs.
                                            tuplashensis.
C*............          2  R1............  Pittosporum       Pittosporaceae..  Ho[revaps]awa...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            napaliense.
C*............          5  R4............  Platanthera       Orchidaceae.....  Orchid, white     U.S.A. (AL, GA,
                                            integrilabia.                       fringeless.       KY, MS, NC,
                                                                                                  SC, TN, VA).
C*............          3  R1............  Platydesma        Rutaceae........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            cornuta var.
                                            cornuta.
C*............          3  R1............  Platydesma        Rutaceae........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            cornuta var.
                                            decurrens.
C*............          2  R1............  Platydesma remyi  Rutaceae........  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
C*............          2  R1............  Platydesma        Rutaceae........  Pilo kea lau      U.S.A. (HI).
                                            rostrata.                           li[revaps]i.
C.............          2  R1............  Pleomele          Agavaceae.......  Hala pepe.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            fernaldii.
C*............          2  R1............  Pleomele          Agavaceae.......  Hala pepe.......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            forbesii.
C*............         11  CNO...........  Potentilla        Rosaceae........  Cinquefoil,       U.S.A. (NV).
                                            basaltica.                          Soldier Meadow.
C*............          2  R1............  Pritchardia       Asteraceae......  Lo[revaps]ulu...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hardyi.
C*............          3  R1............  Pseudognaphalium  Asteraceae......  [revaps]Ena[reva  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            (=Gnaphalium)                       ps]ena.
                                            sandwicensium
                                            var.
                                            molokaiense.
C*............          2  R1............  Psychotria        Rubiaceae.......  Kopiko..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            grandiflora.
C*............          3  R1............  Psychotria        Rubiaceae.......  Kopiko..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hexandra ssp.
                                            oahuensis var.
                                            oahuensis.
C*............          2  R1............  Psychotria        Rubiaceae.......  Kopiko..........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hobdyi.
C*............          2  R1............  Pteralyxia        Apocynaceae.....  Kaulu...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            macrocarpa.
C*............          2  R1............  Ranunculus        Ranunculaceae...  Makou...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            hawaiensis.
C*............          2  R1............  Ranunculus        Ranunculaceae...  Makou...........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            mauiensis.
C*............          8  CNO...........  Rorippa           Brassicaceae....  Cress, Tahoe      U.S.A. (CA,
                                            subumbellata.                       yellow.           NV).
C*............          2  R1............  Schiedea          Caryophyllaceae.  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            attenuata.
C*............          2  R1............  Schiedea          Caryophyllaceae.  Ma[revaps]oli[re  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            pubescens.                          vaps]oli.
C*............          2  R1............  Schiedea          Caryophyllaceae.  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            salicaria.
C*............          5  CNO...........  Sedum             Crassulaceae....  Stonecrop, Red    U.S.A. (CA).
                                            eastwoodiae.                        Mountain.
C*............          2  R1............  Sicyos            Cucurbitaceae...  [revaps]Anunu...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            macrophyllus.
C.............          9  R4............  Sideroxylon       Sapotaceae......  Bully,            U.S.A. (FL).
                                            reclinatum ssp.                     Everglades.
                                            austrofloridens
                                            e.
C*............          2  R1............  Solanum nelsonii  Solanaceae......  Popolo..........  U.S.A. (HI).
C.............          8  R4............  Solidago plumosa  Asteraceae......  Goldenrod,        U.S.A. (NC).
                                                                                Yadkin River.
C*............          2  R1............  Stenogyne         Lamiaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            cranwelliae.
C*............          2  R1............  Stenogyne         Lamiaceae.......  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            kealiae.
C*............          5  R4............  Symphyotrichum    Asteraceae......  Aster, Georgia..  U.S.A. (AL, FL,
                                            georgianum.                                           GA, NC, SC).
C*............          2  R1............  Zanthoxylum       Rutaceae........  A[revaps]e......  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            oahuense.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                FERNS AND ALLIES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C*............         11  R1............  Botrychium        Ophioglossaceae.  Moonwort,         U.S.A. (CA, CO,
                                            lineare.                            slender.          ID, MT, OR,
                                                                                                  WA), Canada
                                                                                                  (AB, BC, NB,
                                                                                                  QC).
C*............          2  R1............  Christella        Thelypteridaceae  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            boydiae (=
                                            Cyclosorus
                                            boydiae var.
                                            boydiae +
                                            Cyclosorus
                                            boydiae
                                            kipahuluensis).
C*............          2  R1............  Doryopteris       Pteridaceae.....  No common name..  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            takeuchii.
C*............          2  R1............  Huperzia          Lycopodiaceae...  Wawae[revaps]iol  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            (=Phlegmariurus                     e.
                                            )
                                            stemmermanniae.
C*............          3  R1............  Microlepia        Dennstaedtiaceae  Palapali........  U.S.A. (HI).
                                            strigosa var.
                                            mauiensis
                                            (=Microlepia
                                            mauiensis).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 53834]]


                Table 2.--Animals and Plants Formerly Candidates or Formerly Proposed for Listing
         [Note: See end of SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for an explanation of symbols used in this table.]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Status
------------------------------  Lead  region  Scientific name       Family        Common name       Historical
     Code           Expl.                                                                             range
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     MAMMALS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
T.............  L............  R7...........  Enhydra lutris   Mustelidae.....  Otter, Northern  U.S.A. (AK,
                                               kenyoni.                          Sea (southwest   WA).
                                                                                 Alaska DPS).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      BIRDS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc............  A............  R6...........  Centrocercus     Phasianidae....  Sage-grouse,     U.S.A. (AZ, CO,
                                               minimus.                          Gunnison.        KS, OK, NM,
                                                                                                  UT).
Rc............  A............  R1...........  Ptilinopus       Columbidae.....  Fruit-dove,      U.S.A. (AS),
                                               perousii                          many-colored.    Independent
                                               perousii.                                          Samoa.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    REPTILES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc............  A............  R2...........  Graptemys        Emydidae.......  Turtle, Cagle's  U.S.A. (TX).
                                               caglei.                           map.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    AMPHIBIANS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc............  N............  R6...........  Bufo boreas      Bufonidae......  Toad, boreal     U.S.A. (AK, CA,
                                               boreas.                           (Southern        CO, ID, MT,
                                                                                 Rocky            NM, OR, UT,
                                                                                 Mountains DPS).  WA, WY),
                                                                                                  Canada (BC).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     FISHES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.............  L............  R2...........  Gila intermedia  Cyprinidae.....  Chub, Gila.....  U.S.A. (AZ,
                                                                                                  NM), Mexico.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     SNAILS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.............  L............  R2...........  Tryonia kosteri  Hydrobiidae....  Snail, Koster's  U.S.A. (NM).
                                                                                 tryonia.
E.............  L............  R2...........  Assiminea pecos  Assimineidae...  Snail, Pecos     U.S.A. (NM,
                                                                                 assiminea.       TX), Mexico.
E.............  L............  R2...........  Pyrgulopsis      Hydrobiidae....  Springsnail,     U.S.A. (NM).
                                               roswellensis.                     Roswell.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     INSECTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rc...........  U............  R4...........  Pseudanophthalm  Carabidae......  Cave beetle,     U.S.A. (KY).
                                               us pholete.                       greater Adams.
Rc............  U............  R4...........  Pseudanophthalm  Carabidae......  Cave beetle,     U.S.A. (KY).
                                               us cataryctos.                    lesser Adams.
Rc............  I............  R1...........  Phaeogramma sp.  Tephritidae....  Gall fly,        U.S.A. (HI).
                                                                                 Po`olanui.
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture...  U.S.A. (HI).
                                               aglaia.                                            wing [unnamed]
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               differens.                        wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               hemipeza.                         wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               heteroneura.                      wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               montgomeryi.                      wing [unnamed].
T.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               mulli.                            wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               musaphila.                        wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               neoclavisetae.                    wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               obatai.                           wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               ochrobasis.                       wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               substenoptera.                    wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R1...........  Drosophila       Drosophilidae..  fly, Picture     U.S.A. (HI).
                                               tarphytrichia.                    wing [unnamed].
E.............  L............  R6...........  Cicindela        Cicindelidae...  Tiger beetle,    U.S.A. (NE).
                                               nevadica                          Salt Creek.
                                               lincolniana.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   CRUSTACEANS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.............  L............  R2...........  Gammarus         Gammaridae.....  Amphipod,        U.S.A. (NM).
                                               desperatus.                       Noel's.
Rc............  I............  R1...........  Antecaridina     Atyidae........  Shrimp,          U.S.A. (HI),
                                               lauensis.                         anchialine       Mozambique,
                                                                                 pool.            Saudi Arabia,
                                                                                                  Japan.
Rc............  I............  R1...........  Calliasmata      Alpheidae......  Shrimp,          U.S.A. (HI),
                                               pholidota.                        anchialine       Funafuti
                                                                                 pool.            Atoll, Saudi
                                                                                                  Arabia, Sinai
                                                                                                  Peninsula,
                                                                                                  Tuvalu.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                FLOWERING PLANTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rc............  A............  R6...........  Aliciella        Polemoniaceae..  Alice-flower,    U.S.A. (UT).
                                               cespitosa.                        wonderland.
Rc............  A............  R6...........  Astragalus       Fabaceae.......  Milk-vetch,      U.S.A. (UT).
                                               equisolensis.                     horseshoe.

[[Page 53835]]

 
Rc............  A............  R6...........  Castilleja       Scrophulariacea  Paintbrush,      U.S.A. (UT).
                                               aquariensis.     e.               Aquarius.
Rc............  I............  R2...........  Paronychia       Caryophyllaceae  Whitlow-wort,    U.S.A. (TX).
                                               congesta.                         bushy.
Rc............  A............  CNO..........  Sidalcea         Malvaceae......  Checkerbloom,    U.S.A. (CA).
                                               hickmanii                         Parish's.
                                               parishii.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 06-7375 Filed 9-11-06; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P